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Sample records for field double ionization

  1. Nonsequential double ionization with mid-infrared laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Bin; Wang, Xu; Yu, Ben-Hai; Tang, Qing-Bin; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-11-01

    Using a full-dimensional Monte Carlo classical ensemble method, we present a theoretical study of atomic nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) with mid-infrared laser fields, and compare with results from near-infrared laser fields. Unlike single-electron strong-field processes, double ionization shows complex and unexpected interplays between the returning electron and its parent ion core. As a result of these interplays, NSDI for mid-IR fields is dominated by second-returning electron trajectories, instead of first-returning trajectories for near-IR fields. Some complex NSDI channels commonly happen with near-IR fields, such as the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization (RESI) channel, are virtually shut down by mid-IR fields. Besides, the final energies of the two electrons can be extremely unequal, leading to novel e-e momentum correlation spectra that can be measured experimentally.

  2. Nonsequential double ionization with mid-infrared laser fields

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Bin; Wang, Xu; Yu, Ben-Hai; Tang, Qing-Bin; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Using a full-dimensional Monte Carlo classical ensemble method, we present a theoretical study of atomic nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) with mid-infrared laser fields, and compare with results from near-infrared laser fields. Unlike single-electron strong-field processes, double ionization shows complex and unexpected interplays between the returning electron and its parent ion core. As a result of these interplays, NSDI for mid-IR fields is dominated by second-returning electron trajectories, instead of first-returning trajectories for near-IR fields. Some complex NSDI channels commonly happen with near-IR fields, such as the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization (RESI) channel, are virtually shut down by mid-IR fields. Besides, the final energies of the two electrons can be extremely unequal, leading to novel e-e momentum correlation spectra that can be measured experimentally. PMID:27857182

  3. Nonsequential double ionization with mid-infrared laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying -Bin; Wang, Xu; Yu, Ben -Hai; Tang, Qing -Bin; Wang, Guang -Hou; Wan, Jian -Guo

    2016-11-18

    Using a full-dimensional Monte Carlo classical ensemble method, we present a theoretical study of atomic nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) with mid-infrared laser fields, and compare with results from near-infrared laser fields. Unlike single-electron strong-field processes, double ionization shows complex and unexpected interplays between the returning electron and its parent ion core. As a result of these interplays, NSDI for mid-IR fields is dominated by second-returning electron trajectories, instead of first-returning trajectories for near-IR fields. Here, some complex NSDI channels commonly happen with near-IR fields, such as the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization (RESI) channel, are virtually shut down by mid-IR fields. Besides, the final energies of the two electrons can be extremely unequal, leading to novel e-e momentum correlation spectra that can be measured experimentally.

  4. Nonsequential double ionization with mid-infrared laser fields

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ying -Bin; Wang, Xu; Yu, Ben -Hai; ...

    2016-11-18

    Using a full-dimensional Monte Carlo classical ensemble method, we present a theoretical study of atomic nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) with mid-infrared laser fields, and compare with results from near-infrared laser fields. Unlike single-electron strong-field processes, double ionization shows complex and unexpected interplays between the returning electron and its parent ion core. As a result of these interplays, NSDI for mid-IR fields is dominated by second-returning electron trajectories, instead of first-returning trajectories for near-IR fields. Here, some complex NSDI channels commonly happen with near-IR fields, such as the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization (RESI) channel, are virtually shut down by mid-IR fields. Besides, the finalmore » energies of the two electrons can be extremely unequal, leading to novel e-e momentum correlation spectra that can be measured experimentally.« less

  5. Mechanisms of Strong-Field Double Ionization of Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xufei; Li, Min; Ye, Difa; Xin, Guoguo; Fu, Libin; Xie, Xiguo; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Liu, Jie; Gong, Qihuang; Liu, Yunquan

    2014-09-01

    We perform a fully differential measurement on strong-field double ionization of Xe by 25 fs, 790 nm laser pulses in intensity region (0.4-3)×1014 W/cm2. We observe that the two-dimensional correlation momentum spectra along the laser polarization direction show a nonstructured distribution for double ionization of Xe when decreasing the laser intensity from 3×1014 to 4×1013 W /cm2. The electron correlation behavior is remarkably different with the low-Z rare gases, i.e., He, Ne, and Ar. We find that the electron energy cutoffs increase from 2.9Up to 7.8Up when decreasing the laser intensities from the sequential double ionization to the nonsequential double ionization regime. The experimental observation indicates that multiple rescatterings play an important role for the generation of high energy photoelectrons. We have further studied the shielding effect on the strong-field double ionization of high-Z atoms.

  6. Speed-up collisions in strong-field double ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haan, Stanley L.; Cully, J. C.; Hoekema, K.

    2004-10-01

    We compare quantum and classical models of double ionization (DI) for aligned-electron helium in strong laser fields, considering specifically the role of recollision processes in which the returning electron travels in the direction of the laser force. Quantum studies show that for the knee region in our model a small but persistent portion of the total DI occurs through these speed-up collisions.We show that classical modeling displays similar collisions and reveals that with-the-force doubly ionizing collisions typically involve two-particle trajectories in which both electrons can be said to have been bound or very nearly bound at the zero of the laser field just before the collision. Trajectories leading to the with-the-force doubly ionizing collisions can be classified into two categories-direct excitation, in which there is no unambiguous single ionization before the doubly ionizing collision, and recapture, in which an ionized electron returns to the core and is recaptured prior to the speed-up collision. Comparison of the classical and quantum situations for our laser parameters yields evidence that for our parameters the quantum system favors the direct-excitation pathway over the reattachment pathway.

  7. Strong Field Double Ionization: The Phase Space Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mauger, F.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

    2009-05-01

    We identify the phase-space structures that regulate atomic double ionization in strong ultrashort laser pulses. The emerging dynamical picture complements the recollision scenario by clarifying the distinct roles played by the recolliding and core electrons, and leads to verifiable predictions on the characteristic features of the 'knee', a hallmark of the nonsequential process.

  8. The contribution of the delayed ionization in strong-field nonsequential double ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yinbo; Zhou, Yueming Li, Yang; Li, Min; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-01-14

    With the classical ensemble model, we have investigated the pulse-duration dependence of nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) over a wide range of laser intensity. The correlated electron momentum distributions are distinctly different for the few-cycle and multiple cycle pulses, which agree well with the previous experiments. Based on this agreement, we analyzed the underlying process for the pulse-duration dependence of the electron correlation by tracing the classical trajectories. Counterintuitively, our analysis shows that the recollision-induced excited states of NSDI could resist ionization in the strong laser field for a time much longer than one optical cycle even at very high intensities. For the multiple-cycle pulses, NSDI events with such a long time delay have significant contribution to the total NSDI yields, which is responsible for the pulse-duration dependence of the observed correlated patterns in the electron momentum distributions.

  9. Knee structure in double ionization of noble atoms in circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Nonsequential double ionization is characterized by a knee structure in the plot of double-ionization probability versus laser intensity. In circularly polarized (CP) laser fields, this structure has only been observed for Mg atoms. By choosing laser fields according to a scaling law, we exhibit the knee structure in CP laser fields for Ar and He atoms. The collision of the ionized electron with the core enhances the ionization of the second electron and forms the knee structure. The electron recollision is universal in CP laser fields, but the ionization probability in the knee region decreases as the wavelength of the driven field increases. For experimental observations, it is beneficial to use target atoms with small ionization potentials and laser fields with short wavelengths.

  10. Dissociative double ionization of CO in orthogonal two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiying; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally investigate dissociative double ionization of CO by a phase-controlled orthogonal two-color (OTC) laser pulse. Directional breaking of doubly ionized CO as a function of both kinetic energy and emission direction of the nuclear fragments is observed in the polarization plane steered by the laser phase. It is attributed to the dominating sequential double ionization at the maximum strength and nonsequential double ionization at a relatively weak strength of the spatiotemporally shaped oscillating laser field pointing to various directions. Our results are interesting not only for two-dimensional control of directional bond breaking, but also strengthen our understanding of strong-field sequential and nonsequential double ionization of molecules which are spatiotemporally streaked to various directions and kinetic energies by an OTC laser pulse.

  11. Controlling Nonsequential Double Ionization in Two-Color Circularly Polarized Femtosecond Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Christopher A.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Chaloupka, Jan L.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dollar, Franklin J.; Knut, Ronny; Grychtol, Patrik; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2016-09-01

    Atoms undergoing strong-field ionization in two-color circularly polarized femtosecond laser fields exhibit unique two-dimensional photoelectron trajectories and can emit bright circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet and soft-x-ray beams. In this Letter, we present the first experimental observation of nonsequential double ionization in these tailored laser fields. Moreover, we can enhance or suppress nonsequential double ionization by changing the intensity ratio and helicity of the two driving laser fields to maximize or minimize high-energy electron-ion rescattering. Our experimental results are explained through classical simulations, which also provide insight into how to optimize the generation of circularly polarized high harmonic beams.

  12. Exploration of strong-field double ionization of CS2 molecule in bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, Shuai; Zuo, Wanlong; Song, Kaili; Xu, Tongtong; Guo, Jing; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2016-12-01

    By using classical ensemble method, we investigate the double ionization of CS2 molecule in linearly, the bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields and the combination of bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields and static field, respectively. The numerical results show that the ionization probability in the bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields is about 2 order magnitude higher than that in linearly polarized laser field. When a static field is added, the ionization probability is the largest. Besides, the "knee" structure occurs at about 0.05 PW/cm2 in linearly polarized laser field; whereas "knee" structure is disappeared in the bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields and combined laser field. The corresponding momentum distribution of CS2 molecule presents a "finger-like" structure at about 0.05 PW/cm2 in linearly polarized field. By analysing the energy distributions of double-ionized electrons versus time and corresponding trajectories, we find that, for linearly polarized case non-sequential double ionization (NSDI) is predominant at about 0.05 PW/cm2, for bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields, one electron ionizes after another which indicate sequential ionization process (SDI). When the static field is added, the two electrons undergoes a long pre-ionization process first and then ionizes one after another, and the pre-ionization process lasts longer than other two cases.

  13. From Recollisions to the Knee: A Road Map for Double Ionization in Intense Laser Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mauger, F.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

    2010-01-29

    We examine the nature and statistical properties of electron-electron collisions in the recollision process in a strong laser field. The separation of the double ionization yield into sequential and nonsequential components leads to a bell-shaped curve for the nonsequential probability and a monotonically rising one for the sequential process. We identify key features of the nonsequential process and connect our findings in a simplified model which reproduces the knee shape for the probability of double ionization with laser intensity and associated trends.

  14. Quantum theory of recollisional (e, 2e) process in strong field nonsequential double ionization of helium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangjin; Liang, Yaqiu; Lin, C D

    2010-06-25

    Based on the full quantal recollision model and field-free electron impact ionization theory, we calculate the correlated momentum spectra of the two outgoing electrons in strong field nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of helium to compare with recent experiments. By analyzing the relative strength of binary versus recoil collisions exhibited in the photoelectron spectra, we confirm that the observed fingerlike structure in the experiment is a consequence of the Coulomb interaction between the two emitted electrons. Our result supports the recollision mechanism of strong field NSDI at the most fundamental level.

  15. Quantum Theory of Recollisional (e, 2e) Process in Strong Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhangjin; Lin, C. D.; Liang Yaqiu

    2010-06-25

    Based on the full quantal recollision model and field-free electron impact ionization theory, we calculate the correlated momentum spectra of the two outgoing electrons in strong field nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of helium to compare with recent experiments. By analyzing the relative strength of binary versus recoil collisions exhibited in the photoelectron spectra, we confirm that the observed fingerlike structure in the experiment is a consequence of the Coulomb interaction between the two emitted electrons. Our result supports the recollision mechanism of strong field NSDI at the most fundamental level.

  16. Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Yang, S. P.; Chen, J.; Liu, J.

    2007-08-15

    Using a semiclassical rescattering model, we investigate the nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) process of diatomic molecules aligned parallel and perpendicular to the intense linearly polarized field. It is shown that a simple hydrogen-molecule-like model can simulate a nitrogen molecule effectively by giving the alignment dependence of the ratio of double to single ionization and the momentum distribution qualitatively consistent with the experimental result of N{sub 2}. However, the alignment dependence of the momentum correlation of two ejected electrons does not agree with the experimental result, which indicates that the quantum effect needs to be included in the rescattering and the field-ionization process to explain the experimental observation.

  17. Wavelength scaling of atomic nonsequential double ionization in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YanLan; Xu, SongPo; Chen, YongJu; Kang, HuiPeng; Lai, XuanYang; Quan, Wei; Liu, XiaoJun; Hao, XiaoLei; Li, WeiDong; Hu, ShiLin; Chen, Jing; Becker, Wilhelm; Chu, Wei; Yao, Jinping; Zeng, Bin; Cheng, Ya; Xu, ZhiZhan

    2017-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of the wavelength dependence of the nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) process of the xenon atom in intense laser fields are reported. The observed wavelength dependence of the ratio Xe2 +/Xe+ deviates significantly from the prediction of the three-step model of ionization (sometimes called the "simple-man" model), both in the slope of the overall decrease with increasing wavelength and in the existence of some pronounced humps. A semiclassical model calculation reproduces the changing slope of the overall decrease, which is due to the interplay of wave-packet diffusion, Coulomb focusing, and a closely related Coulomb defocusing effect of the liberated electron. The hump is beyond the scope of the semiclassical model.

  18. Footprints of electron correlation in strong-field double ionization of Kr close to the sequential-ionization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaokai; Wang, Chuncheng; Yuan, Zongqiang; Ye, Difa; Ma, Pan; Hu, Wenhui; Luo, Sizuo; Fu, Libin; Ding, Dajun

    2017-09-01

    By combining kinematically complete measurements and a semiclassical Monte Carlo simulation we study the correlated-electron dynamics in the strong-field double ionization of Kr. Interestingly, we find that, as we step into the sequential-ionization regime, there are still signatures of correlation in the two-electron joint momentum spectrum and, more intriguingly, the scaling law of the high-energy tail is completely different from early predictions on the low-Z atom (He). These experimental observations are well reproduced by our generalized semiclassical model adapting a Green-Sellin-Zachor potential. It is revealed that the competition between the screening effect of inner-shell electrons and the Coulomb focusing of nuclei leads to a non-inverse-square central force, which twists the returned electron trajectory at the vicinity of the parent core and thus significantly increases the probability of hard recollisions between two electrons. Our results might have promising applications ranging from accurately retrieving atomic structures to simulating celestial phenomena in the laboratory.

  19. Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qing; Lu, Peixiang; Zhang, Qingbin; Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Xinbing

    2008-10-13

    We present quantum mechanical calculations of double ionization of HeH(+) molecules by intense laser pulses at various intensities. The resulting two-electron momentum distributions exhibit a clear asymmetry, which depends on the laser intensity. The asymmetric charge configuration of HeH(+) is responsible for the asymmetric two-electron momentum distributions. An approach to control the dynamics of double ionization of heteronuclear molecules is proposed.

  20. Experimental and theoretical study on nonsequential double ionization of carbon disulfide in strong near-IR laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Wanlong; Ben, Shuai; Lv, Hang; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen; Xu, Haifeng; Jin, Mingxing; Ding, Dajun

    2016-05-01

    Nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of carbon disulfide CS2 in strong 800-nm laser fields is studied experimentally and theoretically. A knee structure is observed in the intensity-dependent double ionization (DI) yield in linearly polarized laser fields, which exhibits a strong dependence on the laser ellipticity. The electron momentum distributions and energy trajectories after DI in both linearly and circularly polarized laser fields are investigated by employing the two-dimensional classical ensemble method. The results clearly show the evidence of NSDI in the strong-field DI of CS2 molecules. It is demonstrated that, similar to that of atoms, NSDI of CS2 molecules is produced via laser-driven electron recollision with the ion core and presents electron-electron correlations in the process. Analysis indicates that both mechanisms in atomic strong-field NSDI, i.e., recollision impact ionization and recollision excitation with subsequent ionization, may also be contributed to NSDI of CS2 in strong laser fields. Further studies are no doubt necessary for a full understanding of the underlying physical mechanism of molecular strong-field NSDI, due to the multicenter character of the molecular structure and the complex molecular excited states that could be involved in the ionization.

  1. Double-ionization mechanisms of the argon dimer in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, B.; Vredenborg, A.; Malakzadeh, A.; Meckel, M.; Cole, K.; Jahnke, T.; Doerner, R.; Smolarski, M.; Chang, Z.

    2010-07-15

    We have measured the two-site double ionization of argon dimers by ultrashort laser pulses leading to fragmentation into two singly charged argon ions. Contrary to the expectations from a pure Coulomb explosion following rapid removal of one electron from each of the atoms, we find three distinct peaks in the kinetic energy release (KER) distribution. By measuring the angular distribution of the fragment ions and the vector momentum of one of the emitted electrons for circular and linear laser polarization, we are able to unravel the ionization mechanisms leading to the three features in the KER. The most abundant one results from tunnel ionization at one site followed by charge-enhanced tunnel ionization of the second atom. The second mechanism, which leads to a higher KER we identify as sequential tunnel ionization of both atoms accompanied by excitation. The third mechanism is present with linearly polarized light only. It is most likely a frustrated triple ionization, where the third electron does not escape but is trapped in a Rydberg state.

  2. Influence of magnetic field strength on potential well in the ionization stage of a double stage Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Daren; Song Maojiang; Liu Hui; Zhang Xu; Li Hong

    2012-07-15

    Similar to a single stage Hall thruster, the magnetic field, which controls electron trajectory and electric field distribution, is the most important factor determining the performance of a double stage Hall thruster. Especially, a potential well, which is helpful to reduce the ion loss on the thruster walls, is shaped in the ionization stage due to the existence of an annular magnetic field topology there. In this paper, the influence of magnetic field strength in the ionization stage on the potential well is researched with both experiments and particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the depth of potential well increases with the magnetic field strength as a result of enhanced magnetic confinement and lowered electron conductivity. Consequently, the plasma density as well as the ion current entering the acceleration stage increases. However, an excessive magnetic field strength leads to an excess of ion loss on the walls of the acceleration stage. Therefore, there is an appropriate magnetic field strength in the ionization stage that results in a proper potential well and consequently an optimal performance of a double stage Hall thruster.

  3. Numerical simulation of the double-to-single ionization ratio for the helium atom in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhangjin; Zheng, Yanyan; Yang, Weifeng; Song, Xiaohong; Xu, Junliang; DiMauro, L. F.; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Morishita, Toru; Zhao, Song-Feng; Lin, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present calculations on the ratio between double and single ionization of helium by a strong laser pulse at a wavelength of 780 nm using the quantitative rescattering (QRS) model. According to this model, the yield for the doubly charged ion He+2 can be obtained by multiplying the returning electron wave packet (RWP) with the total cross sections (TCSs) for electron impact ionization and electron impact excitation of +He in the singlet spin channel. The singlet constraint was imposed since the interaction of the helium atom with the laser and the recollision processes both preserve the total spin of the system. An R -matrix (close-coupling) code is used to obtain accurate TCSs, while the RWPs, according to the QRS, are calculated by the strong-field approximation for high-energy photoelectrons. The laser field, which lowers the required energy for the electron to escape from the nucleus at the time of recollision, is also taken into account. The simulated results are in good agreement with the measured He+2/+He ratio over a broad range of laser intensities. The result demonstrates that the QRS approach based on the rescattering model is fully capable of quantitatively interpreting nonsequential double ionization processes.

  4. Nonsequential Double Ionization of Atoms in Strong Laser Field: Identifying the Mechanisms behind the Correlated-Electron Momentum Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Difa; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie

    Within the strong-field physics community, there has been increasing interest on nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) induced by electron-electron (e-e) correlation. A large variety of novel phenomena has been revealed in experiments during the past decades. However, the theoretical understanding and interpretation of this process is still far from being complete. The most accurate simulation, i.e. the exact solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) for two electrons in a laser field is computationally expensive. In order to overcome the difficulty, we proposed a feasible semiclassical model, in which we treat the tunneling ionization of the outmost electron quantum mechanically according to the ADK theory, sample the inner electron from microcanonical distribution and then evolve the two electrons with Newton's equations. With this model, we have successfully explained various NSDI phenomena, including the excessive DI yield, the energy spectra and angular distribution of photoelectrons. Very recently, it is adopted to reveal the physical mechanisms behind the fingerlike structure in the correlated electron momentum spectra, the unexpected correlation-anticorrelation transition close to the recollision threshold, and the anomalous NSDI of alkaline-earth-metal atoms in circularly polarized field. The obvious advantage of our model is that it gives time-resolved insights into the complex dynamics of NSDI, from the turn-on of the laser field to the final escape of the electrons, thus allowing us to disentangle and thoroughly analyze the underlying physical mechanisms.

  5. Scaling Laws of the Two-Electron Sum-Energy Spectrum in Strong-Field Double Ionization.

    PubMed

    Ye, Difa; Li, Min; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Gong, Qihuang; Liu, Yunquan; Ullrich, J

    2015-09-18

    The sum-energy spectrum of two correlated electrons emitted in nonsequential strong-field double ionization (SFDI) of Ar was studied for intensities of 0.3 to 2×10^{14} W/cm^{2}. We find the mean sum energy, the maximum of the distributions as well as the high-energy tail of the scaled (to the ponderomotive energy) spectra increase with decreasing intensity below the recollision threshold (BRT). At higher intensities the spectra collapse into a single distribution. This behavior can be well explained within a semiclassical model providing clear evidence of the importance of multiple recollisions in the BRT regime. Here, ultrafast thermalization between both electrons is found occurring within three optical cycles only and leaving its clear footprint in the sum-energy spectra.

  6. Numerical investigation of the sequential-double-ionization dynamics of helium in different few-cycle-laser-field shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wustelt, Philipp; Möller, Max; Schöffler, Markus S.; Xie, Xinhua; Hanus, Vaclav; Sayler, A. Max; Baltuska, Andrius; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Kitzler, Markus

    2017-02-01

    We investigate sequential double ionization of helium by intense near-circularly polarized few-cycle laser pulses using a semiclassical ionization model with two independent electrons. Simulated He2 + ion momentum distributions are compared to those obtained in recent benchmark experiments [M. S. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. M. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G. G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler, Phys. Rev. A 93, 063421 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.063421]. We study the influence of a number of pulse parameters such as peak intensity, carrier-envelope phase, pulse duration, and second- and third-order spectral phase on the shape of the ion momentum distributions. Good agreement is found in the main features of these distributions and of their dependence on the laser pulse duration, peak intensity, and carrier-envelope phase. Furthermore, we find that for explaining certain fine-scale features observed in the experiments, it becomes important to consider subtle timing variations in the two-electron emissions introduced by small values of chirp. This result highlights the possibility of measuring and controlling multielectron dynamics on the attosecond time scale by fine tuning the field evolution of intense close-to-single-cycle laser pulses.

  7. The influence of magnetic field strength in ionization stage on ion transport between two stages of a double stage Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Daren; Song Maojiang; Li Hong; Liu Hui; Han Ke

    2012-11-15

    It is futile for a double stage Hall thruster to design a special ionization stage if the ionized ions cannot enter the acceleration stage. Based on this viewpoint, the ion transport under different magnetic field strengths in the ionization stage is investigated, and the physical mechanisms affecting the ion transport are analyzed in this paper. With a combined experimental and particle-in-cell simulation study, it is found that the ion transport between two stages is chiefly affected by the potential well, the potential barrier, and the potential drop at the bottom of potential well. With the increase of magnetic field strength in the ionization stage, there is larger plasma density caused by larger potential well. Furthermore, the potential barrier near the intermediate electrode declines first and then rises up while the potential drop at the bottom of potential well rises up first and then declines as the magnetic field strength increases in the ionization stage. Consequently, both the ion current entering the acceleration stage and the total ion current ejected from the thruster rise up first and then decline as the magnetic field strength increases in the ionization stage. Therefore, there is an optimal magnetic field strength in the ionization stage to guide the ion transport between two stages.

  8. Experimental observation of the elusive double-peak structure in R-dependent strong-field ionization rate of H2(+).

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; He, Feng; Kielpinski, D; Sang, R T; Litvinyuk, I V

    2015-08-28

    When a diatomic molecule is ionized by an intense laser field, the ionization rate depends very strongly on the inter-nuclear separation. That dependence exhibits a pronounced maximum at the inter-nuclear separation known as the "critical distance". This phenomenon was first demonstrated theoretically in H2(+) and became known as "charge-resonance enhanced ionization" (CREI, in reference to a proposed physical mechanism) or simply "enhanced ionization"(EI). All theoretical models of this phenomenon predict a double-peak structure in the R-dependent ionization rate of H2(+). However, such double-peak structure has never been observed experimentally. It was even suggested that it is impossible to observe due to fast motion of the nuclear wavepackets. Here we report a few-cycle pump-probe experiment which clearly resolves that elusive double-peak structure. In the experiment, an expanding H2(+) ion produced by an intense pump pulse is probed by a much weaker probe pulse. The predicted double-peak structure is clearly seen in delay-dependent kinetic energy spectra of protons when pump and probe pulses are polarized parallel to each other. No structure is seen when the probe is polarized perpendicular to the pump.

  9. Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, A.; Ergler, Th.; Zrost, K.; Feuerstein, B.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; Jesus, V. L. B. de

    2007-12-31

    We report on a kinematically complete experiment on nonsequential double ionization of He by 25 fs 800 nm laser pulses at 1.5 PW/cm{sup 2}. The suppression of the recollision-induced excitation at this high intensity allows us to address in a clean way direct (e,2e) ionization by the recolliding electron. In contrast with earlier experimental results, but in agreement with various theoretical predictions, the two-electron momentum distributions along the laser polarization axis exhibit a pronounced V-shaped structure, which can be explained by the role of Coulomb repulsion and typical (e,2e) kinematics.

  10. Theory of multiphoton single and double ionization of two-electron atomic systems driven by short-wavelength electric fields: An ab initio treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Foumouo, Emmanuel; Piraux, Bernard; Kamta, Gerard Lagmago; Edah, Gaston

    2006-12-15

    We give a detailed account of an ab initio computational treatment of multiphoton single ionization (with or without excitation) as well as double ionization of two-electron atoms exposed to short-wavelength electric fields. This treatment is time dependent and based on a spectral method of configuration interaction type combined with Jacobi or J-matrix calculations. It involves a complete treatment of electron-electron correlation in the initial and final states as well as during the time propagation. The atom eigenvalue problem is first solved by means of the spectral method. It consists of expanding the atom wave function in a basis of products of complex Coulomb-Sturmian functions of the electron radial coordinates and bipolar harmonics of the angular coordinates. This method allows a high-resolution study of many atomic states, in particular high-lying singly excited states as well as many doubly excited states. Results for He are presented and discussed in detail. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is then solved by means of an explicit scheme of Runge-Kutta type. An accurate calculation of the probability of single and double ionization is carried out by projecting the ionizing wave packet on fully correlated multichannel scattering wave functions generated by means of the J-matrix method. After a detailed analysis of the accuracy of this method, we show that our results for the total cross section of one-photon single and double ionization of He and H{sup -} are in very good agreement with those obtained by the most sophisticated approaches. Two-photon double ionization of He is then considered, and results are presented in a frequency regime where substantial discrepancies subsist between all existing calculations. Our results demonstrate that electron correlations in the final state play a significant role.

  11. Recollisions and Correlated Double Ionization with Circularly Polarized Light

    SciTech Connect

    Mauger, F.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

    2010-08-20

    It is generally believed that the recollision mechanism of atomic nonsequential double ionization is suppressed in circularly polarized laser fields because the returning electron is unlikely to encounter the core. On the contrary, we find that recollision can and does significantly enhance double ionization, even to the extent of forming a ''knee,'' the signature of the nonsequential process. Using a classical model, we explain two apparently contradictory experiments, the absence of a knee for helium and its presence for magnesium.

  12. Probing Angular Correlations in Sequential Double Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A.; Woerner, H. J.; Arissian, L.; Liu, L. R.; Meckel, M.; Rippert, A.; Doerner, R.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Staudte, A.

    2011-09-09

    We study electron correlation in sequential double ionization of noble gas atoms and HCl in intense, femtosecond laser pulses. We measure the photoelectron angular distributions of Ne{sup +} relative to the first electron in a pump-probe experiment with 8 fs, 800 nm, circularly polarized laser pulses at a peak intensity of a few 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Using a linear-linear pump-probe setup, we further study He, Ar, and HCl. We find a clear angular correlation between the two ionization steps in the sequential double ionization intensity regime.

  13. Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Nora G.; Herrwerth, O.; Wirth, A.; De, S.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Lezius, M.; Bergues, B.; Kling, M. F.; Senftleben, A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; Betsch, K. J.; Jones, R. R.; Sayler, A. M.; Rathje, T.; Ruehle, K.; Mueller, W.; Paulus, G. G.

    2011-01-15

    Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) tagging is combined with a reaction mircoscope (REMI) to investigate CEP-dependent processes in atoms. Excellent experimental stability and data acquisition longevity are achieved. Using this approach, we study the CEP effects for nonsequential double ionization of argon in 4-fs laser fields at 750 nm and an intensity of 1.6x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The Ar{sup 2+} ionization yield shows a pronounced CEP dependence which compares well with recent theoretical predictions employing quantitative rescattering theory [S. Micheau et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 013417 (2009)]. Furthermore, we find strong CEP influences on the Ar{sup 2+} momentum spectra along the laser polarization axis.

  14. Plasma Production via Field Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, C.L.; Barnes, C.D.; Decker, F.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.R.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Zhou, M.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

    2007-01-02

    Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming particle beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes a neutral vapor or gas. Experiments conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization by an electron beam in a neutral lithium vapor. By independently varying the transverse beam size, number of electrons per bunch or bunch length, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. Additional experiments ionized neutral xenon and neutral nitric oxide by varying the incoming beam's bunch length. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments.

  15. Precision treatment of single and double multiphoton ionization of He atoms by strong laser fields: Time-dependent generalized pseudospectral method in internal coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Heslar, John; Chu, Shih-I.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a new computational method for accurate and efficient numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for two-electron atoms. Our approach is full-dimensional and makes use of the internal coordinates of the electrons in the plane defined by the electrons and the nucleus (r1, r2, and θ12) as well as Euler angles which determine the orientation of the plane in space. The internal coordinates can be optimally discretized by means of the generalized pseudospectral method while the Euler angles appear through the basis set functions with the definite total angular momentum and its projections. The results of the single and double ionization of the helium atom by strong 800 nm laser fields will be presented. The accurate time-dependent electron density obtained can be used for testing and improvement of various approximate exchange-correlation functionals of the time-dependent density functional theory.

  16. Double ionization of helium by particle impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Finn M.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results are reviewed of the ratio, R sq., of double to single ionization of He by proton, antiproton, electron and positron impact in the energy range from 0.15 to about 10 MeV/amu. At high velocities (greater than 1 to 2 MeV/amu) values of R sq. caused by electron impact merge with those for the proton with the antiproton, electron values being up to a factor of 2 greater than that for the p, positron. At these velocities the single ionization cross sections caused by impact of any of these four particles are indistinguishable.

  17. Electron-impact double ionization of magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.J.; El-Marji, B.; Doering, J.P.; Moore, J.H.; Coplan, M.A.; Cooper, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Electron-impact double-ionization cross sections differential in the angles of the two ejected electrons have been measured at impact energies of 422 and 1052 eV. The energies of the ejected electrons were fixed at 100 eV each. The cross sections are very different at the two incident energies. At 1052 eV the ejected electrons are preferentially found in the forward direction with respect to the incident beam. At 422 eV they are found in the forward and backward directions with approximately equal probability. The 422-eV cross sections are largest when the incident-electron and ejected-electron momentum vectors lie in a common plane. The observations are discussed in the context of several models for double ionization. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Exploration of strong-field multiphoton double ionization, rescattering, and electron angular distribution of He atoms in intense long-wavelength laser fields: The coupled coherent-state approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Jing; Liu Xueshen; Chu, Shih-I

    2010-08-15

    We extend the coupled coherent-state (CCS) approach to simulate the strong-field ionization of helium atoms at long wavelengths. This approach uses a basis of trajectories guided by frozen Gaussian coherent states, sampled from a Monte Carlo distribution, as the initial states of the quantum time-dependent Schroedinger equations. The CCS trajectories move over averaged potentials, which can remove the Columbic singularities exactly. The low-energy structure is predicted by our CCS calculation and a ''rescattering'' event is clearly identified in the higher-energy regime. In addition, the nonsequential double ionization is also explored and the rescattering event can be identified as the major mechanism. Finally, we also study the electron angular distribution of helium. It is found that the maximum angle between the electron and electric field directions becomes smaller with increase in the laser intensity and wavelength.

  19. Equivalent electron correlations in nonsequential double ionization of noble atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shansi; Han, Qiujing; Zhang, Jingtao

    2017-02-01

    Electron correlation is encoded directly in the distribution of the energetic electrons produced in a recollision-impact double ionization process, and varies with the laser field and the target atoms. In order to get equivalent electron correlation effects, one should enlarge the laser intensity cubically and the laser frequency linearly in proportion to the second ionization potentials of the target atoms. The physical mechanism behind the transform is to keep the ponderomotive parameter unchanged when the laser frequency is enlarged. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61475168 and 11674231) and sponsored by Shanghai Gaofeng & Gaoyuan Project for University Academic Program Development (Zhang).

  20. Frustrated double ionization in two-electron triatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Price, H.; Staudte, A.; Emmanouilidou, A.

    2016-10-01

    Using a semiclassical model, we investigate frustrated double ionization (FDI) in D3+ , a two-electron triatomic molecule, when driven by an intense, linearly polarized, near-infrared (800 nm) laser field. We compute the kinetic energy release of the nuclei and find a good agreement between experiment and our model. We explore the two pathways of FDI and show that, with increasing field strength, over-the-barrier ionization overtakes tunnel ionization as the underlying mechanism of FDI. Moreover, we compute the angular distribution of the ion fragments for FDI and identify a feature that can potentially be observed experimentally and is a signature of only one of the two pathways of FDI.

  1. Multiphoton double ionization of the He atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    Time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) calculations are made for the multiphoton double ionization of the He atom under the influence of a fast pulse XUV laser. One set of TDCC calculations employs l1m1l2m2 coupling on a 2D (r1 ,r2) numerical lattice, a second set of TDCC calculations employs m1m2 coupling on a 4D (r1 ,θ1 ,r2 ,θ2) numerical lattice, and a third set of TDCC calculations employs m1m2 coupling on a 4D (ρ1 ,z1 ,ρ2 ,z2) numerical lattice. Studies are made to see which TDCC method is the most efficient at explaining measurements as the number of photons absorbed is increased. Work supported in part by Grants from NASA, NSF, and DOE.

  2. Two- and three-photon double ionization of lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, G.; Schuricke, M.; Veeravalli, G.; Dornes, Ch.; Zhu, G.; Joachimsmeyer, K.; Treusch, R.; Dorn, A.; Colgan, J.

    2012-06-01

    Motivated by current FEL experiments at FLASH, we present triple differential cross sections and recoil ion momentum distributions for two- and three-photon double ionization of the 1s^22s ^2S ground state of lithium at a photon energy of 50 eV. The time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) method is used to solve the two-electron time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in full dimensionality. The double ionization process is treated as a two-active-electron process, where the ``active'' 1s and 2s electrons move in the field of the ``frozen-core'' Li^2+ 1s state. Recent experimental measurements of recoil ion momentum distributions have observed features associated with the absorption of both two and three photons. This work provides the first TDCC calculations to date of such two- and three-photon double ionization processes in lithium. The accurate treatment of these processes requires a detailed description of the final continuum containing both singlet and triplet S, P, D and F waves. We examine triple differential cross sections as a function of electron energy sharing for a variety of angular configurations. We also compare our calculated recoil ion momentum distributions with experimental measurements, providing the first such comparison for two- and three-photon processes.

  3. Double gate impact ionization MOS transistor: Proposal and investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaonian; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Yuan; Yu, Ningmei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a double gate impact ionization MOS (DG-IMOS) transistor with improved performance is proposed and investigated by TCAD simulation. In the proposed design, a second gate is introduced in a conventional impact ionization MOS (IMOS) transistor that lengthens the equivalent channel length and suppresses the band-to-band tunneling. The OFF-state leakage current is reduced by over four orders of magnitude. At the ON-state, the second gate is negatively biased in order to enhance the electric field in the intrinsic region. As a result, the operating voltage does not increase with the increase in the channel length. The simulation result verifies that the proposed DG-IMOS achieves a better switching characteristic than the conventional is achieved. Lastly, the application of the DG-IMOS is discussed theoretically.

  4. Cross sections for short pulse single and double ionization ofhelium

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, Alicia; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2007-11-27

    In a previous publication, procedures were proposed for unambiguously extracting amplitudes for single and double ionization from a time-dependent wavepacket by effectively propagating for an infinite time following a radiation pulse. Here we demonstrate the accuracy and utility of those methods for describing two-photon single and one-photon double ionization of helium. In particular it is shown how narrow features corresponding to autoionizing states are easily resolved with these methods.

  5. Transition from nonsequential to sequential double ionization in many-electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, Michael G.; Wolter, Benjamin; Wang, Xu; Tong, Xiao-Min; Sclafani, Michele; Baudisch, Matthias; Pires, Hugo; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Ullrich, Joachim; Pfeifer, Thomas; Moshammer, Robert; Eberly, J. H.; Biegert, Jens

    2017-09-01

    Understanding strong-field double ionization of many-electron systems is an important fundamental problem with potential implications for molecular imaging within this regime. Using mid-IR radiation, we unambiguously identify the transition from nonsequential (e , 2 e ) to sequential double ionization in Xe at an intensity below 1014W /c m2 . Ionization from excited orbitals is found to be decisive at low intensities, but we demonstrate that such mechanisms are unimportant in the sequential regime. We utilize these facts to successfully image a molecular dication using laser-induced electron diffraction. This methodology can be used to study molecular dynamics on unprecedented few-femtosecond time scales.

  6. Signatures of bound-state-assisted nonsequential double ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Sukiasyan, Suren; McDonald, Chris; Van Vlack, Cole; Destefani, Carlos; Fennel, Thomas; Brabec, Thomas; Ivanov, Misha

    2009-07-15

    The time-dependent multiconfiguration Hartree method is optimized for intense laser dynamics and applied to nonsequential double ionization in a two-electron diatomic model molecule with two dimensions per electron. The efficiency of our method brings these calculations from the realm of large scale computation facilities to single processor machines. The resulting two-electron spectrum exhibits pronounced signatures from which the ionic bound states involved in nonsequential double ionization are retrieved with the help of a semiclassical model. A mechanism for the ionization dynamics is suggested.

  7. Electron impact double ionization cross sections of light elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, M. R.; Haque, A. K. F.; Uddin, M. A.

    2009-06-01

    A simple user-friendly semiempirical model is proposed to calculate electron impact double ionization cross sections of He, Li, Li+, B+, C+, C3+, O, O2+, O3+, Ne, Ne+, Ne2+, Na, Mg, Al3+, S, and Arq+ (q=0-7) targets for the incident electron energies from threshold to 106 eV. The contributions in the total double ionization cross sections from the direct double ionization and inner-shell ionization processes are taken into account on the basis of experimental data considered. The results of the present analysis are compared with the available experimental data and theoretical calculations. The model is found successful for the description of experimental cross sections. Since, this model may be a prudent selection to meet the demand level in plasma modeling due to its simple inherent structure.

  8. Triple ionization spectra by coincidence measurements of double Auger decay: The case of OCS.

    PubMed

    Eland, J H D; Hochlaf, M; Linusson, P; Andersson, E; Hedin, L; Feifel, R

    2010-01-07

    By combining multiple electron coincidence detection with ionization by synchrotron radiation, we have obtained resolved spectra of the OCS(3+) ion created through the double Auger effect. The form of the spectra depends critically on the identity of the atom bearing the initial hole. High and intermediate level electron structure calculations lead to an assignment of the resolved spectrum from ionization via the S 2p hole. From the analysis it appears that the double Auger effect from closed shell molecules favors formation of doublet states over quartet states. Molecular field effects in the double Auger effect are similar to those in the single Auger effect in linear molecules.

  9. Ionization and dissociation dynamics of molecules in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei

    The fast advancement of ultrashort-pulsed high-intensity laser technology allows for generating an electric field equivalent to the Coulomb field inside an atom or a molecule (e.g., EC=5.14x109 V/cm at the 1s orbit radius a0=0.0529 nm of the hydrogen atom, which corresponds to an intensity of 3.54x1016 W/cm2). Atoms and molecules exposed in such a field will easily be ionized, as the external field is strong enough to remove the electrons from the core. This is usually referred to "strong field". Strong fields provide a new tool for studying the interaction of atoms and molecules with light in the nonlinear nonperturbative regime. During the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the strong field science. Today, most phenomena involving atoms in strong fields have been relatively well understood by the single-active-electron (SAE) approximation. However, the interpretation of these responses in molecules has encountered great difficulties. Not like atoms that only undergo excitation and ionization, various dissociation channels accompanying excitation and ionization can occur in molecules during the laser pulse interaction, which imparts further complexity to the study of molecules in strong fields. Previous studies have shown that molecules can behave significantly different from rare gas atoms in phenomena as simple as single and double ionization. Molecular dissociation following ionization also presents challenges in strong fields compared to what we have learned in the weak-field regime. This dissertation focuses on experimental studies on ionization and dissociation of some commonly-seen small molecules in strong laser fields. Previous work of molecules in strong fields will be briefly reviewed, particularly on some open questions about multiple dissociation channels, nonsequential double ionization, enhanced ionization and molecular alignment. The identification of various molecular dissociation channels by recent experimental technical

  10. Attosecond Electron Correlation Dynamics in Double Ionization of Benzene Probed with Two-Electron Angular Streaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winney, Alexander H.; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Liao, Qing; Adhikari, Pradip; Basnayake, Gihan; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Li, Wen

    2017-09-01

    With a novel three-dimensional electron-electron coincidence imaging technique and two-electron angular streaking method, we show that the emission time delay between two electrons can be measured from tens of attoseconds to more than 1 fs. Surprisingly, in benzene, the double ionization rate decays as the time delay between the first and second electron emission increases during the first 500 as. This is further supported by the decay of the Coulomb repulsion in the direction perpendicular to the laser polarization. This result reveals that laser-induced electron correlation plays a major role in strong field double ionization of benzene driven by a nearly circularly polarized field.

  11. Inner-shell and double ionization potentials of aminophenol isomers.

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhevoi, N. V.; Santra, R.; Cederbaum, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study of single and double core ionization potentials of the aminophenol molecule is reported. The role of relaxation, correlation, relativistic, and basis set effects in these potentials is clarified. Special attention is paid to the isomer dependence of the single and double core ionization potentials. Some of them are also compared with the respective values of the phenol and aniline molecules. It is shown that the core level single ionization potentials of the para-, meta-, and ortho-aminophenol molecules differ only slightly from each other, rendering these structural isomers challenging to distinguish for conventional x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In contrast, the energy needed to remove two core electrons from different atoms depends noticeably on the mutual arrangement and even on the relative orientations of the hydroxyl and amine groups. Together with the electrostatic repulsion between the two core holes, relaxation effects accompanying double core ionization play a crucial role here. The pronounced sensitivity of the double ionization potentials, therefore, enables a spectroscopic characterization of the electronic structure of aminophenol isomers by means of x-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy.

  12. Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect.

    PubMed

    Ho, Phay J; Panfili, R; Haan, S L; Eberly, J H

    2005-03-11

    We introduce a unified and simplified theory of atomic double ionization. Our results show that at high laser intensities (I>/=10(14) W/cm(2)) purely classical correlation is strong enough to account for all of the main features observed in experiments to date.

  13. Elucidating the mechanisms of double ionization using intense half-cycle, single-cycle, and double half-cycle pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kamta, G. Lagmago; Starace, Anthony F.

    2003-10-01

    We investigate the interaction of a two-active electron system (Li{sup -}) with intense single-cycle and double half-cycle pulses. The 'intensity' and 'frequency' considered correspond to the 'multiphoton above-barrier regime'. For the single-cycle pulse (SCP), the electric field changes sign once, allowing electron wave packets created during the first half cycle to recollide with the parent ion when driven back by the field. For the double half-cycle pulse (DHP), however, the electric field does not change sign, and electron wave packets created during the first half cycle are not driven back to the parent ion. We find that both single and double ionization are significantly larger for the SCP than for the DHP, thereby elucidating the role of the rescattering mechanism. On the other hand, doubly ionized electrons produced by a half-cycle pulse and a DHP are found to have angular distributions in which one electron is ejected in the direction of the pulse field, and the other in the opposite direction. This clear signature of electron correlations suggests that 'shake-off', 'knockout', and, possibly, 'multiphoton-sharing' processes are alternative contributing mechanisms for double ionization in this regime.

  14. Recollision induced excitation-ionization with counter-rotating two-color circularly polarized laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, Shuai; Guo, Pei-Ying; Pan, Xue-Fei; Xu, Tong-Tong; Song, Kai-Li; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2017-07-01

    Nonsequential double ionization of Ar by a counter-rotating two-color circularly polarized laser field is theoretically investigated. At the combined intensity in the ;knee; structure range, the double ionization occurs mainly through recollision induced excitation followed by subsequent ionization of Ar+∗ . By tracing the history of the recollision trajectories, we explain how the relative intensity ratio of the two colors controls the correlated electron dynamics and optimizes the ionization yields. The major channels contributing to enhancing the double ionization are through the elliptical trajectories with smaller travel time but not through the triangle shape or the other long cycle trajectories. Furthermore, the correlated electron dynamics could be limited to the attosecond time scale by adjusting the relative intensity ratio. Finally, the double ionization from doubly excited complex at low laser intensity is qualitatively discussed.

  15. Field ionizing elements and applications thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A field ionizing element formed of a membrane that houses electrodes therein that are located closer to one another than the mean free path of the gas being ionized. The membrane includes a supporting portion, and a non supporting portion where the ions are formed. The membrane may be used as the front end for a number of different applications including a mass spectrometer, a thruster, an ion mobility element, or an electrochemical device such as a fuel cell.

  16. Field-dressed orbitals in strong-field molecular ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemering, Robert; Njoya, Oumarou; Weinacht, Thomas; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate the importance of considering the shape of field-dressed molecular orbitals in interpreting angle-dependent measures of strong-field ionization from excited states. Our calculations of angle-dependent ionization for three homologous polyatomic molecules with very similar valence orbitals show that one has to take into account the shape of the field-dressed orbitals rather than the field-free orbitals in order to rationalize the experimental measurements.

  17. Field ionization of free helium atoms: Correlation between the kinetic energy of ionized atoms and probability of their field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskur, J.; Borg, L.; Stupnik, A.; Leisch, M.; Ernst, W. E.; Holst, B.

    2008-05-01

    In this paper the correlation between the kinetic energy of helium atoms and the probability of field ionization is investigated by exploiting the narrow velocity distribution of supersonic molecular beams. Field ionization measurements were carried out on supersonic helium beams at 298 K and 95 K corresponding to energies of about 65 meV and 20 meV, respectively, for the individual atoms. The field ionization was performed with a tungsten tip, radius of curvature 12 nm, kept at room temperature. The ionization probability was found to increase by about a factor 10 when the beam was cooled from 298 K to 95 K. The results presented in this paper are of importance for improving the understanding of field ionization and for the development of a new detector for helium and other molecular beams.

  18. Frustrated double and single ionization in a two-electron triatomic molecule H+ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Lazarou, C.; Price, H.; Emmanouilidou, A.

    2016-12-01

    Using a semi-classical model, we study the formation of highly excited neutral fragments during the fragmentation of {{{H}}}3+, a two-electron triatomic molecule, driven by an intense near-IR laser field. To do so, we first formulate a microcanonical distribution for arbitrary one-electron triatomic molecules. We then study frustrated double and single ionization in strongly driven {{{H}}}3+ and compute the kinetic energy release of the nuclei for these two processes. Moreover, we investigate the dependence of frustrated ionization on the strength of the laser field as well as on the geometry of the initial molecular state.

  19. Electron-induced double ionization of oriented methane molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oubaziz, Dahbia; Aitelhadjali, Zakia; Quinto, Michele Arcangelo; Boulifa, Rachida; Champion, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    We report here a theoretical study of the target orientation effect on the total cross sections for the double ionization of methane molecules impacted by electrons. The theoretical description is performed within the first Born approximation. The initial state of the collisional system is composed of an electron projectile modeled by a plane wave and a molecular target described by a one-center wave function while the final state is constituted by a scattered electron described by a plane wave and two ejected electrons both represented by a Coulomb wave and coupled with a Gamow factor. Secondary electron energetic distributions and total cross sections are reported for particular target configurations. Strong orientation effects on the double-ionization process are pointed out in particular when scrutinized orbital by orbital.

  20. Relativistic effects in double ionization of helium via Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliman, Zoran; Pisk, Krunoslav

    2017-08-01

    In this article we present the relativistic calculations, based on the QED theory, for double ionization of helium by the Compton scattering. In particular, we calculate the contribution of the spin-flip amplitude to the total cross section. Due to this amplitude the final triplet spin state of the ejected electrons is possible. In the calculations based on the non-relativistic A2 term of the electron-photon interaction only the singlet spin state for the final electrons is allowed. We further assume the shake-off mechanism for process of double ionization. For the ground state of helium we use both the non-correlated and highly correlated wave function. We also discuss a degree of the scattered photon polarization in correlation with the formation of spin triplet state. Our calculations cover the photon impact energy range from 150 to 1000 keV.

  1. Double differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun-fei, Yao; Zhang-jin, Chen

    1999-03-01

    The double differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of helium at incident energies of 200 eV, 100 eV and 64.6 eV have been calculated in the BBK model. The present results are found to be in generally good agreement with the latest measurements of Röder et al. and the theoretical results of the convergent close-coupling method although some quantitative discrepancy remains.

  2. Fully differential single-photon double ionization of magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Frank L.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2016-05-01

    The valence-shell double ionization of atomic magnesium is calculated using a grid-based representation of the 3s2 electron configuration in the presence of a fully-occupied frozen-core configuration. Atomic orbitals are constructed from an underlying finite element discrete variable representation (FEM-DVR) that facilitate accurate representation of the interaction between the inner shell electrons with those entering the continuum. Comparison between the similar processes of double ionization of the ns2 atoms helium, beryllium and magnesium are presented to further illuminate the role of valence-shell electron correlation in atomic targets with analogous configurations and symmetries. Both a time-independent and time-dependent formalism for evaluating double ionization amplitudes is applied to these many-electron targets. Results are compared with recent theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Work supported by the US Dept. of Energy, Division of Chemical Sciences Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the National Science Foundation, No. PHY-1509971.

  3. Nonsequential double ionization with time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brics, M.; Rapp, J.; Bauer, D.

    2014-11-01

    Recently introduced time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory (TDRNOT) is tested on nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of a numerically exactly solvable one-dimensional model He atom subject to few-cycle, 800-nm laser pulses. NSDI of atoms in strong laser fields is a prime example of nonperturbative, highly correlated electron dynamics. As such, NSDI is an important "worst-case" benchmark for any time-dependent few and many-body technique beyond linear response. It is found that TDRNOT reproduces the celebrated NSDI "knee," i.e., a many-order-of-magnitude enhancement of the double-ionization yield (as compared to purely sequential ionization) with only the ten most significant natural orbitals (NOs) per spin. Correlated photoelectron spectra—as "more differential" observables—require more NOs.

  4. Double field theory inspired cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang E-mail: hyanga@scu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We construct solutions for vanishing and non-vanishing symmetry preserving dilaton potentials. The solutions assemble the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. Our results show a smooth evolution from an anisotropic early stage to an isotropic phase without any special initial conditions in contrast to previous models. In addition, we demonstrate that the contraction of the dual space automatically leads to both an inflation phase and a decelerated expansion of the ordinary space during different evolution stages.

  5. Electron-nuclear correlation in above-threshold double ionization of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peifen; Zhang, Wenbin; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Lin, Kang; Ji, Qinying; Ma, Junyang; He, Feng; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2017-03-01

    We report on the experimental observation of photon energy sharing among two electrons and two ions ejected from a doubly ionized molecule exposed to an intense ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulse. Although two electrons are successively released one after the other, bridged by the nuclear motion via their interactions, photon energy sharing among four particles is observed as multiple energy conservation lines in their joint energy spectrum. For sequential double ionization of H2, the electron-nuclear joint energy spectrum allows us to identify three pathways towards the charge-resonance enhanced ionization of the stretching H2+ in strong laser fields. By counting the photon number absorbed by the molecule, we trace the accessibility, enhancement, and suppression of various pathways. The correlated electron-nuclear motion provides profound insights of the complicated strong-field dynamics of molecules.

  6. Photo Double Ionization of Fixed in Space Deuterium Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Thorsten; Dörner, Reinhard; Czasch, Achim; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Böcking, Horst Schmidt; Müller, Alkis; Mergel, Volker; Prior, Mike; Osipov, Timur; Daveau, Sebastian; Rotenberg, Eli; Meigs, George; Cocke, Lew; Landers, Allen; Kheifets, Anatoli; Feagin, Jim; Muino, Ricardo Diez

    2006-11-01

    In the following we present the kinematically complete study of the four-body fragmentation of the D2 molecule following absorption of a single photon. For equal energy sharing of the two electrons and a photon energy of 75.5 eV, we observed the relaxation of one of the selection rules valid for He photo double ionization and a strong dependence of the electron angular distribution on the orientation of the molecular axis in the coplanar geometry. This effect is reproduced by a model in which a pair of photo ionization amplitudes is introduced for the light polarization parallel and perpendicular to the molecular axis. The results in a non-coplanar geometry reveal that the correlated motion of the electrons is strongly dependent on the inter-nuclear separation in the molecular ground state at the instant of photon absorption.

  7. The ionization rate inversion of H? induced by the single and double UV photon(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pei-Lun; He, Feng

    2013-11-01

    The ionization of H? in the strong UV laser pulse is studied by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. In analogy to Young's double-slit interference, the ionized electron originating from two nuclei will constructively, or destructively interfere, depending on the UV frequencies. The fluctuation of the ionization rate as a function of the laser frequency is observed. The destructive interference suppresses the single-photon ionization rate, so that the double-photon ionization rate can be larger than the single-photon ionization rate. When such an ionization-rate inversion happens, the electron momentum spectra splits into several peaks.

  8. Importance of electric fields from ionized nanoparticles for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatov, M. L.

    2017-05-01

    A model is presented in which electric fields from ionized particles in a biological tissue enhance the biological effect of ionizing radiation. The model is based on the data on enhancing the gamma radiation effect on biological cells by static electric fields and on estimates of the typical intensities of electric fields from ionized nanoparticles in a biological tissue.

  9. Simulation of double stage hall thruster with double-peaked magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yongjie; Li, Peng; Sun, Hezhi; Wei, Liqiu; Xu, Yu; Peng, Wuji; Su, Hongbo; Li, Hong; Yu, Daren

    2017-07-01

    This study adopts double permanent magnetic rings and four permanent magnetic rings to form two symmetrical magnetic peaks and two asymmetrical magnetic peaks in the channel of a Hall thruster, and uses a 2D-3V PIC-MCC model to analyze the influence of magnetic strength on the discharge characteristic and performance of Hall thrusters with an intermediate electrode and double-peaked magnetic field. As opposed to the two symmetrical magnetic peaks formed by double permanent magnetic rings, increasing the magnetic peak value deep within the channel can cause propellant ionization to occur; with the increase in the magnetic peak deep in the channel, the propellant utilization, thrust, and anode efficiency of the thruster are significantly improved. Double-peaked magnetic field can realize separate control of ionization and acceleration in a Hall thruster, and provide technical means for further improving thruster performance. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ion Beam Sources", edited by Holger Kersten and Horst Neumann.

  10. Strong-field ionization of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Schuricke, Michael; Zhu Ganjun; Steinmann, Jochen; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Dorn, Alexander; Ullrich, Joachim; Ivanov, Igor; Kheifets, Anatoli; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N.; Bartschat, Klaus

    2011-02-15

    We report photoelectron energy spectra, momentum, and angular distributions for the strong-field single ionization of lithium by 30-fs laser pulses. For peak intensities between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} at a central wavelength of 785 nm, the classical over-the-barrier intensity was reached well inside the multiphoton regime. The complete vector momenta of the ionization fragments were recorded by a reaction microscope with a magneto-optically trapped target (MOTREMI). On the theoretical side, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation was solved by two independent methods seeking the solution directly on a radial grid. Distinct differences between the results of both calculations and also in comparison with experiment point to a high sensitivity of this reaction with respect to small details, particularly in the description of the Li{sup +} core.

  11. Valence double ionization electron spectra of CH3F, CH3Cl and CH3I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult Roos, A.; Eland, J. H. D.; Koulentianos, D.; Squibb, R. J.; Karlsson, L.; Feifel, R.

    2017-07-01

    Valence double ionization electron spectra of the methyl fluoride, methyl chloride, and methyl iodide molecules have been recorded using a time-of-flight photoelectron-photoelectron coincidence technique. The spectra are interpreted by comparison with existing ionization data, Auger spectra, and theoretical calculations. The lowest double ionization energies have been found to be around 35.0 eV, 30.6 eV, and 26.67 eV for CH3F, CH3Cl and CH3I, respectively. These energies are also compared with the predictions and implications of an empirical rule for the lowest double ionization energy in molecules.

  12. Relativistic effects on giant resonances in electron-impact double ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Pindzola, M.S.

    1987-06-01

    The electron-impact double-ionization cross section for Fr/sup +/ is calculated in the distorted-wave Born approximation. A giant resonance in the 5d subshell ionization-autoionization contribution to the cross section is found to be quite sensitive to changes in the double-well potential caused by relativistic effects on bound-state wave functions.

  13. Exit point in the strong field ionization process

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, I. A.; Nam, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyung Taec

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the process of strong field ionization using the Bohmian approach. This allows retention of the concept of electron trajectories. We consider the tunnelling regime of ionization. We show that, in this regime, the coordinate distribution for the ionized electron has peaks near the points in space that can be interpreted as exit points. The interval of time during which ionization occurs is marked by a quick broadening of the coordinate distribution. The concept of the exit point in the tunneling regime, which has long been assumed for the description of strong field ionization, is justified by our analysis. PMID:28057938

  14. Exit point in the strong field ionization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Nam, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyung Taec

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the process of strong field ionization using the Bohmian approach. This allows retention of the concept of electron trajectories. We consider the tunnelling regime of ionization. We show that, in this regime, the coordinate distribution for the ionized electron has peaks near the points in space that can be interpreted as exit points. The interval of time during which ionization occurs is marked by a quick broadening of the coordinate distribution. The concept of the exit point in the tunneling regime, which has long been assumed for the description of strong field ionization, is justified by our analysis.

  15. Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yueming; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Aihong; Liao, Qing; Lu, Peixiang

    2011-01-31

    We have investigated the correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of helium by the orthogonally polarized two-color pulses that consisted of an 800-nm and a 400-nm laser fields using the classical ensemble model. Depending on the relative phase of the two-color field, the electron momentum distributions along the polarization direction of the 800-nm field exhibit a surprisingly strong anticorrelated or correlated behavior. Back analysis reveals that recollisions eventually leading to NSDI are concentrated in a time window as short as several hundreds attoseconds with this scheme. By changing the relative phase of the two-color field, the revisit time of recolliding electron wave packet has been controlled with attosecond precision, which is responsible for the various correlated behaviors of the two electrons. Our results reveal that the orthogonally polarized two-color field can serve as a powerful tool to control the correlated electron dynamics in NSDI.

  16. Dynamics of the helium atom close to the full fragmentation threshold: Double ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Bouri, C.; Selles, P.; Malegat, L.; Kwato Njock, M. G.

    2006-02-15

    A complete set of cross sections is presented for photodouble ionization of He at 0.1 eV above the threshold. Special care is taken to clear the asymmetry parameter and the energy differential cross section of any ionization-excitation contribution. As a result, their limiting behaviors for the fully asymmetric partitionings of the excess energy are elucidated, thus shedding light on pending discussions in the field. A reliable scheme follows for computing the fully integrated cross section. Very good agreement is observed between the calculated and measured fully differential cross sections after a detailed reassessment of the experimental normalization procedure. The present findings are compared with the assumptions underlying the Wannier picture of near-threshold double escape.

  17. Ionization Time and Exit Momentum in Strong-Field Tunnel Ionization.

    PubMed

    Teeny, Nicolas; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H

    2016-02-12

    Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. The so-called two-step model, which describes the ionization as instantaneous tunneling at the electric field maximum and classical motion afterwards with zero exit momentum, is commonly employed to describe tunnel ionization in adiabatic regimes. In this contribution, we show by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in one dimension and employing a virtual detector at the tunnel exit that there is a nonvanishing positive time delay between the electric field maximum and the instant of ionization. Moreover, we find a nonzero exit momentum in the direction of the electric field. To extract proper tunneling times from asymptotic momentum distributions of ionized electrons, it is essential to incorporate the electron's initial momentum in the direction of the external electric field.

  18. Two-electron cusp in the double ionization of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyas, L.; Sarkadi, L.; Igarashi, A.; Kirchner, T.

    2010-09-15

    We analyze the double ionization of He under the impact of 100 keV He{sup 2+} projectiles. The process is described within the framework of the impact parameter and frozen-correlation approximations where the one-electron events are treated by the continuum distorted wave method. Correlation between the emitted electrons, which plays an important role in forming the shape of the differential distribution of the electron emission, is described by the Coulomb density of states approximation (CDS). Special attention is paid to the region of the two-electron cusp that has been observed in a recent experiment for 100 keV He{sup 0}+He collisions [L. Sarkadi and A. Orban, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133201 (2008)]. In the cusp region the correlated motion of the two electrons is influenced dominantly by the outgoing projectile, that is, the correlation function of the CDS treatment is expected to depend on the electron momenta measured relative to the projectile rather than to the target nucleus. A qualitative agreement with the experiment is achieved with a CDS model based on the use of such a projectile-centered correlation function that applies effective charges as given in the dynamically screened three-Coulomb wave function.

  19. Two-electron cusp in the double ionization of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, L.; Sarkadi, L.; Igarashi, A.; Kirchner, T.

    2010-09-01

    We analyze the double ionization of He under the impact of 100 keV He2+ projectiles. The process is described within the framework of the impact parameter and frozen-correlation approximations where the one-electron events are treated by the continuum distorted wave method. Correlation between the emitted electrons, which plays an important role in forming the shape of the differential distribution of the electron emission, is described by the Coulomb density of states approximation (CDS). Special attention is paid to the region of the two-electron cusp that has been observed in a recent experiment for 100 keV He0+He collisions [L. Sarkadi and A. Orbán, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.133201 100, 133201 (2008)]. In the cusp region the correlated motion of the two electrons is influenced dominantly by the outgoing projectile, that is, the correlation function of the CDS treatment is expected to depend on the electron momenta measured relative to the projectile rather than to the target nucleus. A qualitative agreement with the experiment is achieved with a CDS model based on the use of such a projectile-centered correlation function that applies effective charges as given in the dynamically screened three-Coulomb wave function.

  20. Ellipticity-dependent ionization/dissociation of carbon dioxide in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun-Feng; Ma, Ri; Zuo, Wan-Long; Lv, Hang; Huang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Hai-Feng; Jin, Ming-Xing; Ding, Da-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Ionization and dissociation of linear triatomic molecules, carbon dioxide, are studied in 50-fs 800-nm strong laser fields using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The yields of double charged ions and various fragment ions (CO+, On+, and Cn+ (n = 1, 2)) are measured as a function of ellipticity of laser polarization in the intensity range from 5.0 × 1013 W/cm2 to 6.0 × 1014 W/cm2. The results demonstrate that non-sequential double ionization, which is induced by laser-driven electron recollision, dominates double ionization of CO2 in the strong IR laser field with intensity lower than 2.0 × 1014 W/cm2. The electron recollision could also have contribution in strong-field multiple ionization and formation of fragments of CO2 molecules. The present study indicates that the intensity and ellipticity dependence of ions yields can be used to probe the complex dynamics of strong-field ionization/dissociation of polyatomic molecules. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11034003 and 11274140).

  1. Single and double ionization of magnesium by electron impact: A classical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, J.; Berman, S. A.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

    2017-02-01

    We consider electron impact-driven single and double ionization of magnesium in the energy range of 10 to 100 eV. Our classical Hamiltonian model of these (e ,2 e ) and (e ,3 e ) processes sheds light on their total cross sections and reveals the underlying ionization mechanisms. Two pathways are at play in single ionization: delayed and direct. In contrast, only the direct process is observed in double ionization, ruling out the excitation-autoionization channel. We also provide evidence that the so-called Two-Step 2 mechanism predominates over the Two-Step 1 mechanism, in agreement with experiments.

  2. Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by elliptically polarized few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai-Hong, Tong; Guo-Qiang, Feng; Dan, Liu

    2015-03-01

    Using the classical ensemble method, we have investigated double ionization (DI) of diatomic molecules driven by elliptically polarized few-cycle laser pulses. The results show that DI channel depends strongly on internuclear distances (R), which is dominated by nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) for small and large R, while sequential double ionization (SDI) for mediate R. By tracing NSDI trajectories, we find that NSDI mainly originates from recollision process for small R and collision process for large R. Moreover, the correlated momentum distributions along the long axis strongly depend on the carrier-envelope-phase (CEP), and this phase dependence is affected by R.

  3. Slow-down collisions and nonsequential double ionization in classical simulations.

    PubMed

    Panfili, R; Haan, S L; Eberly, J H

    2002-09-09

    We use classical simulations to analyze the dynamics of nonsequential double-electron short-pulse photoionization. We utilize a microcanonical ensemble of 10(5) two-electron "trajectories," a number large enough to provide large subensembles and even sub-subensembles associated with double ionization. We focus on key events in the final doubly ionized subensemble and back-analyze the subensemble's history, revealing a classical slow-down scenario for nonsequential double ionization. We analyze the dynamics of these slow-down collisions and find that a good phase match between the motions of the electrons can lead to very effective energy transfer, followed by escape over a suppressed barrier.

  4. Integrated atom detector based on field ionization near carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gruener, B.; Jag, M.; Stibor, A.; Visanescu, G.; Haeffner, M.; Kern, D.; Guenther, A.; Fortagh, J.

    2009-12-15

    We demonstrate an atom detector based on field ionization and subsequent ion counting. We make use of field enhancement near tips of carbon nanotubes to reach extreme electrostatic field values of up to 9x10{sup 9} V/m, which ionize ground-state rubidium atoms. The detector is based on a carpet of multiwall carbon nanotubes grown on a substrate and used for field ionization, and a channel electron multiplier used for ion counting. We measure the field enhancement at the tips of carbon nanotubes by field emission of electrons. We demonstrate the operation of the field ionization detector by counting atoms from a thermal beam of a rubidium dispenser source. By measuring the ionization rate of rubidium as a function of the applied detector voltage we identify the field ionization distance, which is below a few tens of nanometers in front of nanotube tips. We deduce from the experimental data that field ionization of rubidium near nanotube tips takes place on a time scale faster than 10{sup -10} s. This property is particularly interesting for the development of fast atom detectors suitable for measuring correlations in ultracold quantum gases. We also describe an application of the detector as partial pressure gauge.

  5. Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by circularly polarized laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Aihong; Zhou, Yueming; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Peixiang

    2013-08-21

    Using the classical ensemble method, we have investigated double ionization (DI) of diatomic molecules driven by circularly polarized laser pulses with different internuclear distances (R). The results show that the DI mechanism changes from sequential double ionization (SDI) to nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) as the internuclear distance increases. In SDI range, the structure of the electron momentum distribution changes seriously as R increases, which indicates the sensitive dependence of the release times of the two electrons on R. For NSDI, because of the circular polarization, the ionization of the second electron is not through the well-known recollision process but through a process where the first electron ionizes over the inner potential barrier of the molecule, moves directly towards the other nucleus, and kicks out the second electron.

  6. Pulse duration dependence of atomic sequential double ionization by circular laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Aihong; Chen, Liangyuan; Li, Yingbin

    2016-09-01

    Using classical ensemble method, we have investigated the pulse duration dependence of sequential double ionization (SDI) of Ar atoms driven by circularly polarized laser pulses. The results show that the ion momentum distribution of Ar atoms depends strongly on the pulse duration. As the pulse duration increases, the ion momentum distribution changes from single-ring to double-ring structure, and finally to the single-ring structure. Back analysis of double ionization trajectories shows that the variation of the ring structure originates from the dependence of the ionization time of the second electron on the pulse duration. Moreover, our calculations clearly manifest the subcycle electron emission in sequential double ionization by circularly polarized laser pulses.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet pulsed field ionization-photoelectron and infrared-photoinduced Rydberg ionization study of trans-1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y; Woo, H-K; Wang, P; Xing, X; Ng, C Y; Lau, K-C

    2008-09-21

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectrum of trans-1,3-butadiene (trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2)) has been measured in the region of 0-1700 cm(-1) above its ionization energy (IE) to probe the vibrational modes nu(i) (+) (i=1-18) of trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2) (+). The high-frequency vibrational modes nu(i) (+) (i=19, 22, and 23) of trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2) (+) have also been probed by the VUV-infrared-photoinduced Rydberg ionization (VUV-IR-PIRI) measurement. On the basis of the semiempirical simulation of the origin VUV-PFI-PE band, the IE(trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2)) is determined to be 73 150.1+/-1.5 cm(-1) (9.06946+/-0.00019 eV). This value has been used to benchmark the state-of-the-art theoretical IE prediction based on the CCSD(T,Full)/CBS procedures, the calculation of which is reported in the present study. The vibrational bands observed in the VUV-PFI-PE and VUV-IR-PIRI spectra were assigned based on ab initio anharmonic vibrational frequencies and Franck-Condon factor calculations for the photoionization transitions. Combining the VUV-PFI-PE and VUV-IR-PIRI measurements, 17 fundamental vibrational frequencies of trans-CH(2)[Double Bond]CHCH[Double Bond]CH(2) (+) have been determined, including nu(1) (+)=182+/-3, nu(2) (+)=300+/-3, nu(3) (+)=428+/-3, nu(4) (+)=514+/-3, nu(5) (+)=554+/-5, nu(6) (+)=901+/-3, nu(7) (+)=928+/-5, nu(8) (+)=994+/-3, nu(9) (+)=1008+/-5, nu(10) (+)=1094+/-5, nu(13) (+)=1258+/-3, nu(14) (+)=1293+/-3, nu(16) (+)=1479+/-3, nu(18) (+)=1620+/-3, nu(19) (+)=2985+/-10, nu(22) (+)=3030+/-10, and nu(23) (+)=3105+/-10 cm(-1).

  8. Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.; Liu, X.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2004-10-01

    We address nonsequential double ionization induced by strong, linearly polarized laser fields of only a few cycles, considering a physical mechanism in which the second electron is dislodged by the inelastic collision of the first electron with its parent ion. The problem is treated classically, using an ensemble model, and quantum mechanically, within the strong-field and uniform saddle-point approximations. In the latter case, the results are interpreted in terms of “quantum orbits,” which can be related to the trajectories of a classical electron in an electric field. We obtain highly asymmetric electron momentum distributions, which strongly depend on the absolute phase, i.e., on the phase difference between the pulse envelope and its carrier frequency. Around a particular value of this parameter, the distributions shift from the region of positive to that of negative momenta, or vice versa, in a radical fashion. This behavior is investigated in detail for several driving-field parameters, and provides a very efficient method for measuring the absolute phase. Both models yield very similar distributions, which share the same physical explanation. There exist, however, minor discrepancies due to the fact that, beyond the region for which electron-impact ionization is classically allowed, the yields from the quantum-mechanical computation decay exponentially, whereas their classical counterparts vanish.

  9. Observation of Self-Sustaining Relativistic Ionization Wave Launched by a Sheath Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M.; Arefiev, A. V.; Quevedo, H. J.; Bengtson, R. D.; Ditmire, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental evidence supported by simulations of a relativistic ionization wave launched into a surrounding gas by the sheath field of a plasma filament with high energy electrons. Such a filament is created by irradiating a clustering gas jet with a short pulse laser (115 fs) at a peak intensity of 5×1017 W/cm2. We observe an ionization wave propagating radially through the gas for about 2 ps at 0.2-0.5 c after the laser has passed, doubling the initial radius of the filament. The gas is ionized by the sheath field, while the longevity of the wave is explained by a moving field structure that traps the high energy electrons near the boundary, maintaining a strong sheath field despite the significant expansion of the plasma.

  10. Double metric, generalized metric, and α' -deformed double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton

    2016-03-01

    We relate the unconstrained "double metric" of the "α' -geometry" formulation of double field theory to the constrained generalized metric encoding the spacetime metric and b -field. This is achieved by integrating out auxiliary field components of the double metric in an iterative procedure that induces an infinite number of higher-derivative corrections. As an application, we prove that, to first order in α' and to all orders in fields, the deformed gauge transformations are Green-Schwarz-deformed diffeomorphisms. We also prove that to first order in α' the spacetime action encodes precisely the Green-Schwarz deformation with Chern-Simons forms based on the torsionless gravitational connection. This seems to be in tension with suggestions in the literature that T-duality requires a torsionful connection, but we explain that these assertions are ambiguous since actions that use different connections are related by field redefinitions.

  11. Electron impact double ionization of krypton ions (q = 14-17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouilid, M.; Cherkani-Hassani, S.; Adimi, N.; Rachafi, S.; Defrance, P.

    2001-08-01

    Absolute cross sections for electron impact double ionization of krypton ions Krq + (q = 14-17) have been measured from threshold to 5 keV. The animated crossed beam method has been employed. Direct double ionization is seen to reduce strongly along the isonuclear sequence. Ionization-autoionization from the inner L-shell is seen to be the dominant process. It is roughly approximated by the semi-empirical Lotz formula assuming total autoionization of the ionic intermediate states. Resonant capture and excitation processes implying the L-shell are also obtained for charge states 14-16.

  12. Pulse-duration dependent sequential double ionization by elliptically polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Aihong; Deng, Yongju; Liu, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Using a fully classical model, we have studied sequential double ionization of argon driven by elliptically polarized laser pulses at intensities well in the over-barrier ionization region. The results show that the joint electron momentum distributions in the minor elliptical direction depend strongly on the pulse duration. From pulse number N = 4 to 10, the clustering regions of the joint electron momentum increase with the pulse duration. For even larger pulse durations, the clustering region does not increase further but the population of the joint electron momentum in these regions changes with the pulse duration. Back analysis of double ionization trajectories shows the phenomenon of multiple ionization bursts and the pulse duration-dependent multiple ionization bursts of the second electron is responsible for the evolution of the joint electron momentum distribution with the pulse duration.

  13. Relativistic contributions to single and double core electron ionization energies of noble gases.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, J; Norman, P; Aksela, H; Agren, H

    2011-08-07

    We have performed relativistic calculations of single and double core 1s hole states of the noble gas atoms in order to explore the relativistic corrections and their additivity to the ionization potentials. Our study unravels the interplay of progression of relaxation, dominating in the single and double ionization potentials of the light elements, versus relativistic one-electron effects and quantum electrodynamic effects, which dominate toward the heavy end. The degree of direct relative additivity of the relativistic corrections for the single electron ionization potentials to the double electron ionization potentials is found to gradually improve toward the heavy elements. The Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian is found to predict a scaling ratio of ∼4 for the relaxation induced relativistic energies between double and single ionization. Z-scaling of the computed quantities were obtained by fitting to power law. The effects of nuclear size and form were also investigated and found to be small. The results indicate that accurate predictions of double core hole ionization potentials can now be made for elements across the full periodic table.

  14. Relativistic contributions to single and double core electron ionization energies of noble gases

    SciTech Connect

    Niskanen, J.; Norman, P.; Aksela, H.; Aagren, H.

    2011-08-07

    We have performed relativistic calculations of single and double core 1s hole states of the noble gas atoms in order to explore the relativistic corrections and their additivity to the ionization potentials. Our study unravels the interplay of progression of relaxation, dominating in the single and double ionization potentials of the light elements, versus relativistic one-electron effects and quantum electrodynamic effects, which dominate toward the heavy end. The degree of direct relative additivity of the relativistic corrections for the single electron ionization potentials to the double electron ionization potentials is found to gradually improve toward the heavy elements. The Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian is found to predict a scaling ratio of {approx}4 for the relaxation induced relativistic energies between double and single ionization. Z-scaling of the computed quantities were obtained by fitting to power law. The effects of nuclear size and form were also investigated and found to be small. The results indicate that accurate predictions of double core hole ionization potentials can now be made for elements across the full periodic table.

  15. Dynamical core polarization in strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zengxiu; Zhang, Bin; Yuan, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    Core polarization plays an important role in both ionization and high harmonic generation processes of molecules driven by strong laser fields. With our recently developed three-dimensional time-dependent Hartree-Fock method, we investigate the orientation-dependent ionization of CO molecules. It is found that the full ionization results are in good agreement with the recent experiment. The comparisons between the full method and the single-active-orbital method show that although the core electrons are generally more tightly bound and contribute little to the total ionization yields, their dynamics cannot be ignored, which effectively modifies the behavior of electrons in the HOMO. By incorporating it into the SAO method, we identify that the dynamic core polarization plays an important role in the tunneling ionization of CO molecules, which is helpful for the future development of the tunneling ionization theory beyond the single active electron approximation. In order to further verify the role of core polarization, exact calculations are performed for the ionization of two-electron model systems by strong laser fields. The limitations of HF and the SAE are quantified and the tunneling ionization rate is shown improved with the core-polarization induced correction.

  16. A compact neutron generator using a field ionization source.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Arun; Waldmann, Ole; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali; Schenkel, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Field ionization as a means to create ions for compact and rugged neutron sources is pursued. Arrays of carbon nano-fibers promise the high field-enhancement factors required for efficient field ionization. We report on the fabrication of arrays of field emitters with a density up to 10(6) tips∕cm(2) and measure their performance characteristics using electron field emission. The critical issue of uniformity is discussed, as are efforts towards coating the nano-fibers to enhance their lifetime and surface properties.

  17. A compact neutron generator using a field ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Waldmann, Ole; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali; Schenkel, Thomas

    2012-02-15

    We study field ionization as a means to create ions for compact and rugged neutron source. Arrays of carbon nano-fibers promise the high field-enhancement factors required for efficient field ionization. We report on the fabrication of arrays of field emitters with a density up to 106 tips/cm2 and measure their performance characteristics using electron field emission. Lastly, the critical issue of uniformity is discussed, as are efforts towards coating the nano-fibers to enhance their lifetime and surface properties.

  18. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.

  19. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-05-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers in plasmas are briefly described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Some dynamical features of the double layers are discussed. These features, as seen in simulations, laboratory experiments, and theory, indicate that double layers and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations which are determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which double layers form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a double layer, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion, whenever the ion flux into the double is disrupted. The generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials is also discussed. Two different situations were considered; in one, a low-density hot plasma is sandwiched between high-density cold plasmas, while in the other a high-density current sheet permeates a low-density background plasma. Perpendicular electric fields develop near the contact surfaces. In the case of the current sheet, the creation of parallel electric fields and the formation of double layers are also discussed when the current sheet thickness is varied. Finally, the generation of electric fields and double layers in an expanding plasma is discussed.

  20. Optical Field Ionization of Atoms and Ions Using Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittinghoff, David Neal

    This dissertation research is an investigation of the strong optical field ionization of atoms and ions by 120-fs, 614-nm laser pulses and 130-fs, 800-nm laser pulses. The experiments have shown ionization that is enhanced above the predictions of sequential tunneling models for He^{+2}, Ne ^{+2} and Ar^ {+2}. The ion yields for He^ {+1}, Ne^{+1} and Ar^{+1} agree well with the theoretical predictions of optical tunneling models. Investigation of the polarization dependence of the ionization indicates that the enhancements are consistent with a nonsequential ionization mechanism in which the linearly polarized field drives the electron wavefunction back toward the ion core and causes double ionization through inelastic e-2e scattering. These investigations have initiated a number of other studies by other groups and are of current scientific interest in the fields of high-irradiance laser -matter interactions and production of high-density plasmas. This work involved: (1) Understanding the characteristic nature of the ion yields produced by tunneling ionization through investigation of analytic solutions for tunneling at optical frequencies. (2) Extensive characterization of the pulses produced by 614-nm and 800-nm ultrashort pulse lasers. Absolute calibration of the irradiance scale produced shows the practicality of the inverse problem--measuring peak laser irradiance using ion yields. (3) Measuring the ion yields (number of ions produced versus irradiance) for three noble gases using linear, circular and elliptical polarizations of laser pulses.

  1. Ionization of atoms in strong low-frequency electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Krainov, V. P.

    2010-08-15

    The ionization of atoms in a low-frequency linearly polarized electromagnetic field (the photon energy is much lower than the ionization potential of an atom) is considered under new conditions, in which the Coulomb interaction of an electron with the atomic core in the final state of the continuum cannot be considered in perturbation theory in the interaction of the electron with the electromagnetic field. The field is assumed to be much weaker that the atomic field. In these conditions, the classical motion of the electron in the final state of the continuum becomes chaotic (so-called dynamic chaos). Using the well-known Chirikov method of averaging over chaotic variations of the phase of motion, the problem can be reduced to non-linear diffusion on the energy scale. We calculate the classical electron energy in the final state, which is averaged over fast chaotic oscillations and takes into account both the Coulomb field and the electromagnetic field. This energy is used to calculate the probability of ionization from the ground state of the atom to a lower-lying state in the continuum using the Landau-Dykhne approximation (to exponential accuracy). This ionization probability noticeably depends on the field frequency. Upon a decrease in frequency, a transition to the well-known tunnel ionization limit with a probability independent of the field frequency is considered.

  2. Attosecond double-ionization dynamics of aligned H2: Two-dimensional quantum simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Chen, Yanjun

    2015-08-01

    A fully quantum procedure, based on the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) with two spatial dimensions for every electron, is developed to study the attosecond double-ionization (DI) dynamics from aligned H2 molecules in strong laser fields. Our simulations are able to reproduce the orientation dependence of DI, as observed for N2 in experiments [D. Zeidler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.203003. Our TDSE analyses reveal the important roles of the lateral motion of the electron and two-center interference in the orientation-dependent DI. Our results give suggestions on the ultrafast probing of the dynamics of DI from aligned molecules.

  3. Double Gamers: Academics between Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The field of academia is frequently associated with traditional norms that aim to regulate scholarly activity, especially research. The social web, as another field, is often viewed as challenging long-established conventions with novel knowledge production practices. Hence, the two fields seem to oppose rather than complement each other. Using a…

  4. Double Gamers: Academics between Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The field of academia is frequently associated with traditional norms that aim to regulate scholarly activity, especially research. The social web, as another field, is often viewed as challenging long-established conventions with novel knowledge production practices. Hence, the two fields seem to oppose rather than complement each other. Using a…

  5. Double K-shell ionization probability in 54Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindi, M.; White, C.; Kozub, R.

    2003-07-01

    We have measured the probability of double K-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of 54Mn to the 835-keV level of 54Cr. The probability was deduced from the number of triple coincidences among the Cr hypersatellite and satellite x rays emitted in filling the double vacancy and the 835-keV γ ray. The probability of double K-shell vacancy production per K-shell electron capture (PKK) was found to be (2.3+0.8-0.5)×10-4. Comparisons to previous experimental results and theoretical calculations are discussed.

  6. Subcycle electron emission in sequential double ionization by elliptical laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ai-Hong; Li, Ying-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Using a classical ensemble method, we have investigated sequential double ionization (SDI) of Ar atoms driven by elliptical laser pulses. The results show that the ion momentum distribution of the Ar atoms depends strongly on the pulse duration. As the pulse duration increases, the ion momentum distribution changes from two bands to four bands and then to six bands and finally to an eight-band structure. Back analysis of double ionization trajectories shows that the variation of the band structure originates from pulse duration dependent multiple ionization bursts of the second electron. Our calculations indicate that the subcycle electron emission in the SDI could be more easily accessed by using elliptical laser pulses with a longer wavelength. Moreover, we show that there is good correspondence between the scaled radial momentum and the ionization time.

  7. Double layers on auroral field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Lotko, W.; Witt, E.

    1982-01-01

    Time-stationary solutions to the Vlasov-Poisson equation for ion holes and double layers were examined along with particle simulations which pertain to recent observations of small amplitude (e phi)/t sub e approx. 1 electric field structures on auroral field lines. Both the time-stationary analysis and the simulations suggest that double layers evolve from holes in ion phase space when their amplitude reaches (e phi)/t sub e approx. 1. Multiple small amplitude double layers which are seen in long simulation systems and are seen to propagate past spacecraft may account for the acceleration of plasma sheet electrons to produce the discrete aurora.

  8. Low pressure microplasmas enabled by field ionization: Kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Macheret, Sergey O. Tholeti, Siva Sashank; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2016-05-09

    A principle of microplasma generation that utilizes field emission of electrons at the cathode and field ionization producing ions at the anode, both processes relying on nanorods or nanotubes, is explored theoretically. In this plasma generation concept, collisional ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact would play a negligible role. Analytical estimates as well as plasma kinetic modeling by particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions in argon confirm that this principle can enable substantial plasma densities at near-collisionless microgaps, while requiring relatively low voltages, less than 100 V. An order of magnitude increase in electron number density can be achieved due to enhancement of field emission at the cathode by positive space charge at high field ionization ion current densities.

  9. Ionization of highly excited helium atoms in an electric field

    SciTech Connect

    van de Water, W.; Mariani, D.R.; Koch, P.M.

    1984-11-01

    We present detailed measurements of ionization of highly excited triplet helium atoms in a static electric field. The atoms were prepared in states with energy E close to the saddle-point threshold E = -2(F(a.u.))/sup 1/2/. The electric field F was sufficiently strong for the states to be characterized by total spin S and absolute value of the magnetic quantum number M/sub L/. For M/sub L/ = 0 states the experiments measured ionization properties of adiabatic states. In another case, Vertical BarM/sub L/Vertical Bar = 2, they predominantly measured those of diabatic states. In both cases the ionization rate was found to be a highly nonmonotonic function of the field strength. The observations are analyzed in terms of a theory of the helium density of states in an electric field. A companion paper (D. A. Harmin, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2413 (1984)) develops in detail the general theory, which uses quantum defects to parametrize the effect of the core interaction. The agreement between measured and calculated ionization curves is good, indicating that the field ionization of a nonhydrogenic atom can now be understood in a detailed, quantitative, and predictive sense.

  10. Auger spectrum of a water molecule after single and double core ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Inhester, L.; Burmeister, C. F.; Groenhof, G.; Grubmueller, H.

    2012-04-14

    The high intensity of free electron lasers opens up the possibility to perform single-shot molecule scattering experiments. However, even for small molecules, radiation damage induced by absorption of high intense x-ray radiation is not yet fully understood. One of the striking effects which occurs under intense x-ray illumination is the creation of double core ionized molecules in considerable quantity. To provide insight into this process, we have studied the dynamics of water molecules in single and double core ionized states by means of electronic transition rate calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From the MD trajectories, photoionization and Auger transition rates were computed based on electronic continuum wavefunctions obtained by explicit integration of the coupled radial Schroedinger equations. These rates served to solve the master equations for the populations of the relevant electronic states. To account for the nuclear dynamics during the core hole lifetime, the calculated electron emission spectra for different molecular geometries were incoherently accumulated according to the obtained time-dependent populations, thus neglecting possible interference effects between different decay pathways. We find that, in contrast to the single core ionized water molecule, the nuclear dynamics for the double core ionized water molecule during the core hole lifetime leaves a clear fingerprint in the resulting electron emission spectra. The lifetime of the double core ionized water was found to be significantly shorter than half of the single core hole lifetime.

  11. Double and single ionization of He and H{sub 2} by slow protons and antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Mineo |; Shimamura, Isao; Inokuti, Mitio

    1994-12-31

    Double and single ionization of He and H{sub 2} by proton (p) and antiproton ({bar p})impact in the energy region below 50 keV was studied theoretically by using the semiclassical molecular picture. As the energy decreased, the ratio of the double- to the single-ionization cross section increased for impact and decreased for p impact for both He and H{sub 2}. These trends are consistent with recent measurements for He. Ionization mechanisms differ distinctly for p impact and {bar p} impact. For p impact, the dominant mechanism for double ionization at the lower energies is sequential ladder climbing by the two electrons through various excited channels and finally into the continuum. For {bar p} impact, in contrast, the approaching negative charge distorts both the He and H{sub 2} electron clouds toward the other side of the nucleus and decreases the electron binding energies. These effects enhance electron-electron interactions, increasing double ionization. For the H{sub 2}, an effect of molecular orientation is an additional complication in determining the dynamics.

  12. Auger spectrum of a water molecule after single and double core ionization.

    PubMed

    Inhester, L; Burmeister, C F; Groenhof, G; Grubmüller, H

    2012-04-14

    The high intensity of free electron lasers opens up the possibility to perform single-shot molecule scattering experiments. However, even for small molecules, radiation damage induced by absorption of high intense x-ray radiation is not yet fully understood. One of the striking effects which occurs under intense x-ray illumination is the creation of double core ionized molecules in considerable quantity. To provide insight into this process, we have studied the dynamics of water molecules in single and double core ionized states by means of electronic transition rate calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From the MD trajectories, photoionization and Auger transition rates were computed based on electronic continuum wavefunctions obtained by explicit integration of the coupled radial Schrödinger equations. These rates served to solve the master equations for the populations of the relevant electronic states. To account for the nuclear dynamics during the core hole lifetime, the calculated electron emission spectra for different molecular geometries were incoherently accumulated according to the obtained time-dependent populations, thus neglecting possible interference effects between different decay pathways. We find that, in contrast to the single core ionized water molecule, the nuclear dynamics for the double core ionized water molecule during the core hole lifetime leaves a clear fingerprint in the resulting electron emission spectra. The lifetime of the double core ionized water was found to be significantly shorter than half of the single core hole lifetime.

  13. Collision-induced dissociation reactions and pulsed field ionization photoelectron

    SciTech Connect

    Stimson, Stephanie

    1999-02-12

    This report summarized the four parts of the research study and describes the general conclusions. Individual chapters have been removed for separate processing. The chapter titles are: A study of the dissociation of CH3SH+ by collisional activation: Observation of non-statistical behavior; High resolution vacuum ultraviolet pulsed field ionization photoelectron band for OCS+(X2π): An experimental and theoretical study; Rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization photoelectron bands of H2+2Σ+g, v+ = 0--18); and Rotationally resolved pulsed field ionization photoelectron bands of HD+2Σ+, v+ = 0--21).

  14. Low-Pressure, Field-Ionizing Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A small mass spectrometer utilizing a miniature field ionization source is now undergoing development. It is designed for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements for a lightweight, low-power-consumption instrument that can analyze the masses of a wide variety of molecules and ions. The device can operate without need for a high-vacuum, carrier-gas feed radioactive ionizing source, or thermal ionizer. This mass spectrometer can operate either in the natural vacuum of outer space or on Earth at any ambient pressure below 50 torr (below about 6.7 kPa) - a partial vacuum that can easily be reached by use of a small sampling pump. This mass spectrometer also has a large dynamic range - from singly charged small gas ions to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments larger than 104 atomic mass units - with sensitivity adequate for detecting some molecules and ions at relative abundances of less than one part per billion. This instrument (see figure) includes a field ionizer integrated with a rotating-field mass spectrometer (RFMS). The field ionizer effects ionization of a type characterized as "soft" in the art because it does not fragment molecules or initiate avalanche arcing. What makes the "soft" ionization mode possible is that the distance between the ionizing electrodes is less than mean free path for ions at the maximum anticipated operating pressure, so that the ionizer always operates on the non-breakdown side of the applicable Paschen curve (a standard plot of breakdown potential on the ordinate and pressure electrode separation on the abscissa). The field ionizer in this instrument is fabricated by micromachining a submicron-thick membrane out of an electrically nonconductive substrate, coating the membrane on both sides to form electrodes, then micromachining small holes through the electrodes and membrane. Because of the submicron electrode separation, even a potential of only 1 V applied between the electrodes gives rise to an electric

  15. Momentum spectra for single and double electron ionization of He in relativistic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. J.; Olson, R. E.; Schmitt, W.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.

    1997-11-01

    The complete momentum spectra for single and double ionization of He by 1-GeV/u (β=0.88) U92+ have been investigated using a classical trajectory Monte Carlo method corrected for the relativistic projectile. The 1/r12 electron-electron interaction has been included in the post-collision region for double ionization to incorporate the effects of both the nuclear-electron and electron-electron ionizing interactions, and to access the effects of electron correlation in the electron spectra. Experimental measurements were able to determine the longitudinal momentum spectra for single ionization; these observations are in accordance with the theoretical predictions for the three-body momentum balance between projectile, recoil ion, and ionized electron. In particular, the Lorentz contraction of the Coulomb interaction of the projectile manifests itself in the decrease of the post-collision interaction of the projectile with the electron and recoil ion, causing them to recoil back-to-back as in the case for a short electromagnetic pulse. This feature is clearly displayed in both the theoretical and experimental longitudinal momentum spectra, and by comparing to calculations that are performed at the same collision speed but do not include the relativistic potentials. Moreover, collision plane spectra of the three particles demonstrate that the momenta of the recoil ion and ionized electron are preferentially equal, and opposite, to each other. The electron spectra for double ionization show that the inclusion of the electron-electron interaction in the post-collision regime partitions the combined ionization momentum of the electrons so that the electrons are preferentially emitted in opposite azimuthal angles to one another. This is in contrast to calculations made assuming independent electrons.

  16. Quantum interference in the field ionization of Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feynman, Rachel; Hollingsworth, Jacob; Vennettilli, Michael; Budner, Tamas; Zmiewski, Ryan; Fahey, Donald P.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2015-10-01

    We excite ultracold rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap to a coherent superposition of the three | mj| sublevels of the 37 d5 /2 Rydberg state. After some delay, during which the relative phases of the superposition components can evolve, we apply an electric field pulse to ionize the Rydberg electron and send it to a detector. The electron traverses many avoided crossings in the Stark levels as it ionizes. The net effect of the transitions at these crossings is to mix the amplitudes of the initial superposition into the same final states at ionization. Similar to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the three initial superposition components have multiple paths by which they can arrive at ionization and, since the phases of those paths differ, we observe quantum beats as a function of the delay time between excitation and initiation of the ionization pulse. We present a fully quantum-mechanical calculation of the electron's path to ionization and the resulting interference pattern.

  17. Coherent Dynamics Following Strong Field Ionization of Polyatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Arkaprabha; Shu, Yinan; Lozovoy, Vadim; Jackson, James; Levine, Benjamin; Dantus, Marcos

    2015-03-01

    Molecules, as opposed to atoms, present confounding possibilities of nuclear and electronic motion upon strong field ionization. The dynamics and fragmentation patterns in response to the laser field are structure sensitive; therefore, a molecule cannot simply be treated as a ``bag of atoms'' during field induced ionization. We consider here to what extent molecules retain their molecular identity and properties under strong laser fields. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with pump-probe techniques we study the dynamical behavior of these molecules, monitoring ion yield modulation caused by intramolecular motions post ionization. The delay scans show that among positional isomers the variations in relative energies, amounting to only a few hundred meVs, influence the dynamical behavior of the molecules despite their having experienced such high fields (V/Å). Ab initio calculations were performed to predict dynamics along with single and multiphoton resonances in the neutral and ionic states. We propose that single electron ionization occurs within an optical cycle with the electron carrying away essentially all of the energy, leaving behind little internal energy in the cation. Evidence for this observation comes from coherent vibrational motion governed by the potential energy surface of the ground state of the cation. Subsequent fragmentation of the cation takes place as a result of further photon absorption modulated by one- and two-photon resonances, which provide sufficient energy to overcome the dissociation energy.

  18. Two-photon double ionization of the helium atom by ultrashort pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, Alicia; Horner, Daniel A; Rescigno, Thomas N; McCurdy, C William

    2010-05-14

    Two-photon double ionization of the helium atom was the subject of early experiments at FLASH and will be the subject of future benchmark measurements of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. As the photon energy of a single femtosecond pulse is raised from the threshold for two-photon double ionization at 39.5 eV to beyond the sequential ionization threshold at 54.4 eV, the electron ejection dynamics change from the highly correlated motion associated with nonsequential absorption to the much less correlated sequential ionization process. The signatures of both processes have been predicted in accurate \\textit{ab initio} calculations of the joint angular and energy distributions of the electrons, and those predictions contain some surprises. The dominant terms that contribute to sequential ionization make their presence apparent several eV below that threshold. In two-color pump probe experiments with short pulses whose central frequencies require that the sequential ionization process necessarily dominates, a two-electron interference pattern emerges that depends on the pulse delay and the spin state of the atom.

  19. Multiphoton double ionization of helium using ultraviolet and infrared laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Laurent, G. M.; Colgan, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    A time-dependent close-coupling method is used to calculate the multiphoton double ionization of He using a combination of ultraviolet and infrared laser pulses. Total probabilities for the two photon double ionization of He using a laser pulse at 42 eV and 1014 W cm-2 are compared with those in the presence of an additional laser pulse at 1.5 eV and a variety of intensities. Momentum space wavefunction densities calculated for the multiphoton double ionization of He at 42 eV and 1014 W cm-2 are compared with those in the presence of additional laser pulse at 1.5 eV and 1012 W cm-2. Single and triple differential probabilities for the two and three photon double ionization of He using a laser pulse at 42 eV and 1014 W cm-2 are compared with those in the presence of an additional laser pulse at 1.5 eV and 1012 W cm-2.

  20. Comment on Double K -shell ionization in the electron capture decay of sup 55 Fe''

    SciTech Connect

    Hindi, M.M.; Kozub, R.L. ); Nagy, H.J. ); Schupp, G. )

    1991-11-01

    The corrections made in a recent paper to the published values for double {ital K}-shell ionization in the electron capture decays of {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn are not applicable to the data from which these values were derived. Attention is called to a recent article that is relevant to the topic of the paper.

  1. Two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense attosecond pulse train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manschwetus, B.; Rading, L.; Campi, F.; Maclot, S.; Coudert-Alteirac, H.; Lahl, J.; Wikmark, H.; Rudawski, P.; Heyl, C. M.; Farkas, B.; Mohamed, T.; L'Huillier, A.; Johnsson, P.

    2016-06-01

    We present a demonstration of two-photon double ionization of neon using an intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse train (APT) in a photon energy regime where both direct and sequential mechanisms are allowed. For an APT generated through high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in argon we achieve a total pulse energy close to 1 μ J , a central energy of 35 eV, and a total bandwidth of ˜30 eV. The APT is focused by broadband optics in a neon gas target to an intensity of 3 ×1012W cm-2 . By tuning the photon energy across the threshold for the sequential process the double ionization signal can be turned on and off, indicating that the two-photon double ionization predominantly occurs through a sequential process. The demonstrated performance opens up possibilities for future XUV-XUV pump-probe experiments with attosecond temporal resolution in a photon energy range where it is possible to unravel the dynamics behind direct versus sequential double ionization and the associated electron correlation effects.

  2. Interference effects in double ionization of spatially aligned hydrogen molecules by fast highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, A.L.; Alnaser, A.S.; Tanis, J.A.; Wells, E.; Osipov, T.; Carnes, K.D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C.L.; McGuire, J.H.

    2004-10-01

    Cross sections differential in target orientation angle were measured for 19 MeV F{sup 8+}+D{sub 2} collisions. Multihit position-sensitive detectors were used to isolate the double-ionization channel and determine a posteriori the full momentum vectors of both ejected D{sup +} fragments. A strong dependence of the double ionization cross section on the angle between the incident ion direction and the target molecular axis is observed with a {approx_equal}3.5:1 enhancement for molecules aligned perpendicular to the projectile axis. This clear asymmetry is attributed to interference effects, analogous to Young's two-slit experiment, arising from coherent contributions to the ionization from both atomic centers. The data are compared to a simple scattering model based on two center interference.

  3. Multiphoton double ionization of H2 using circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Li, Y.; Colgan, J.

    2017-02-01

    A time-dependent close-coupling method is used to calculate the multiphoton double ionization of H2 using circularly polarized laser pulses. Total double ionization probabilities are calculated for 2, 3, and 4 photon absorption in the energy range from 10 to 50 eV. Single and triple differential probabilities are calculated at photon energies where the total ionization probability is near a maximum. For one electron emitted along the internuclear axis, the angular distribution for the other electron is similar for 2, 3, and 4 photon absorption. As one electron is emitted further away from the internuclear axis, the angular distribution for the other electron is similar for 2 and 4 photon absorption, but quite different for 3 photon absorption.

  4. Uniformly spaced field-aligned ionization ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S. H.; Muldrew, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    A number of interesting cases of combination mode ducted echoes for mid- and low-latitude regions are presented that show nearly uniformly spaced multiple combination mode traces on the ionograms in the frequency range above 1 MHz. These traces suggest that a parallel system of field-aligned ducts is present. Ray tracing studies are made to determine the structure that would explain the observations using the electron density profile derivable from the vertical trace and assuming field-aligned ducts. Spacing perpendicular to the ducts is found to be as much as 70 km. Some of these parallel duct structures are found to extend to the conjugate hemisphere, possibly to the F peak.

  5. Quantification of static magnetic field effects on radiotherapy ionization chambers.

    PubMed

    Agnew, J; O'Grady, F; Young, R; Duane, S; Budgell, G J

    2017-03-07

    Integrated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and radiotherapy (RT) delivery machines are currently being developed, with some already in clinical use. It is anticipated that the strong magnetic field used in some MR-RT designs will have a significant impact on routine measurements of dose in the MR-linac performed using ionization chambers, which provide traceability back to a primary standard definition of dose. In particular, the presence of small air gaps around ionization chambers may introduce unacceptably high uncertainty into these measurements. In this study, we investigate and quantify the variation attributable to air gaps for several routinely-used cylindrical ionization chambers in a magnetic field, as well as the effect of the magnetic field alone on the response of the chambers. The measurements were performed in a Co-60 beam, while the ionization chambers were positioned in custom-made Perspex phantoms between the poles of an electromagnet, which was capable of generating magnetic fields of up to 2 T field strength, although measurements were focused around 1.5 T. When an asymmetric air gap was rotated at cardinal angles around the ionization chambers investigated here, variation of up to 8.5  ±  0.2 percentage points (PTW 31006 chamber) was observed in an applied magnetic field of 1.5 T. The minimum peak-to-peak variation was 1.1  ±  0.1% (Exradin A1SL). When the same experiment was performed with a well-defined air gap of known position using the PTW 30013 chamber, a variation of 3.8  ±  0.2% was observed. When water was added to the phantom cavity to eliminate all air gaps, the variation for the PTW 30013 was reduced to 0.2  ±  0.01%.

  6. Quantification of static magnetic field effects on radiotherapy ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, J.; O’Grady, F.; Young, R.; Duane, S.; Budgell, G. J.

    2017-03-01

    Integrated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and radiotherapy (RT) delivery machines are currently being developed, with some already in clinical use. It is anticipated that the strong magnetic field used in some MR-RT designs will have a significant impact on routine measurements of dose in the MR-linac performed using ionization chambers, which provide traceability back to a primary standard definition of dose. In particular, the presence of small air gaps around ionization chambers may introduce unacceptably high uncertainty into these measurements. In this study, we investigate and quantify the variation attributable to air gaps for several routinely-used cylindrical ionization chambers in a magnetic field, as well as the effect of the magnetic field alone on the response of the chambers. The measurements were performed in a Co-60 beam, while the ionization chambers were positioned in custom-made Perspex phantoms between the poles of an electromagnet, which was capable of generating magnetic fields of up to 2 T field strength, although measurements were focused around 1.5 T. When an asymmetric air gap was rotated at cardinal angles around the ionization chambers investigated here, variation of up to 8.5  ±  0.2 percentage points (PTW 31006 chamber) was observed in an applied magnetic field of 1.5 T. The minimum peak-to-peak variation was 1.1  ±  0.1% (Exradin A1SL). When the same experiment was performed with a well-defined air gap of known position using the PTW 30013 chamber, a variation of 3.8  ±  0.2% was observed. When water was added to the phantom cavity to eliminate all air gaps, the variation for the PTW 30013 was reduced to 0.2  ±  0.01%.

  7. Above-threshold ionization in two electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardfield, Rina Shoshana

    1997-11-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) is a process in which a target atom absorbs more than the minimum number of photons from an applied electromagnetic field than are required for ionization, and is characterized by several peaks in the photoelectron spectrum which are separated from each other by the energy of a single photon (Agostini et al. 1979). The experiments of interest in this work involve ATI at microwave frequencies (Gallagher 1988, Gallagher and Scholz 1989), where the frequency of the field is too low to be able to see individual peaks in the spectrum. What is seen is that, in the presence of a weak assisting field, a very large number of microwave photons are absorbed. This problem cannot be treated using standard methods, due both to the intensity of the microwave field and to the large numbers of photons absorbed. The focus of this work is on the development of new analytical techniques to examine the interaction of an atomic system with two simultaneous electromagnetic fields. Specifically, the work focuses on above-threshold ionization in combined microwave and laser fields, where the microwave field is a very strong, very low frequency field, so that standard techniques, such as perturbation theory, do not apply. The work is based on two theoretical methods especially designed for use in intense field problems. These are the Strong Field Approximation (SFA) (Reiss 1980, 1992, 1996), which describes the ionization of an atom by an intense field in which the detached electron remains free in the field after ionization occurs, and the Momentum Translation Approximation (MTA) (Reiss 1970a, 1970b, 1989), which describes the dressing of a bound atomic state by a strong field in which the field can alter the state of the electron without necessarily causing transitions. The laser field, which is much weaker, is treated by traditional techniques. The theory is developed in general terms using S-matrix methods, with particular cases being modeled using

  8. Higher spin double field theory: a proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Xavier; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2016-07-01

    We construct a double field theory coupled to the fields present in Vasiliev's equations. Employing the "semi-covariant" differential geometry, we spell a functional in which each term is completely covariant with respect to O(4, 4) T-duality, doubled diffeomorphisms, Spin(1, 3) local Lorentz symmetry and, separately, HS(4) higher spin gauge symmetry. We identify a minimal set of BPS-like conditions whose solutions automatically satisfy the full Euler-Lagrange equations. As such a solution, we derive a linear dilaton vacuum. With extra algebraic constraints further supplemented, the BPS-like conditions reduce to the bosonic Vasiliev equations.

  9. Orbital alignment in photodissociation probed using strong field ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Yunfei; Yan Lu; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Herath, Thushani; Li Wen

    2011-12-21

    The photodissociation of molecules often produces atomic fragments with polarized electronic angular momentum, and the atomic alignment, for example, can provide valuable information on the dynamical pathways of chemical reactions unavailable by other means. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time that orbital polarization in chemical reactions can be measured with great sensitivity using strong field ionization by exploiting its extreme nonlinearity.

  10. Strong-field atomic ionization in an elliptically polarized laser field and a constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rylyuk, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of the quasistationary quasienergy state (QQES) formalism, the tunneling and multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions subjected to a perturbation by a high intense laser radiation field of an arbitrary polarization and a constant magnetic field are considered. On the basis of the exact solution of the Schrödinger equation and the Green's function for the electron moving in an arbitrary laser field and crossed constant electric and magnetic fields, the integral equation for the complex quasienergy and the energy spectrum of the ejected electron are derived. Using the "imaginary-time" method, the extremal subbarrier trajectory of the photoelectron moving in a nonstationary laser field and a constant magnetic field are considered. Within the framework of the QQES formalism and the quasiclassical perturbation theory, ionization rates when the Coulomb interaction of the photoelectron with the parent ion is taken into account at arbitrary values of the Keldysh parameter are derived. The high accuracy of rates is confirmed by comparison with the results of numerical calculations. Simple analytical expressions for the ionization rate with the Coulomb correction in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes in the case of an elliptically polarized laser beam propagating at an arbitrary angle to the constant magnetic field are derived and discussed. The limits of small and large magnetic fields and low and high frequency of a laser field are considered in details. It is shown that in the presence of a nonstationary laser field perturbation, the constant magnetic field may either decrease or increase the ionization rate. The analytical consideration and numerical calculations also showed that the difference between the ionization rates for an s electron in the case of right- and left-elliptically polarized laser fields is especially significant in the multiphoton regime for not-too-high magnetic fields and decreases as the magnetic field increases. The paper

  11. Interatomic relaxation effects in double core ionization of chain molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V.; Tashiro, Motomichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2012-10-01

    Core vacancies created on opposite sides of a molecule operate against each other in polarizing the environment between them. Consequently, the relaxation energy associated with the simultaneous creation of these two core holes turns out to be smaller than the sum of the relaxation energies associated with each individual single core vacancy created independently. The corresponding residual, termed interatomic relaxation energy, is sensitive to the environment. In the present paper we explore how the interatomic relaxation energy depends on the length and type of carbon chains bridging two core ionized nitrile groups (-C≡N). We have uncovered several trends and discuss them with the help of simple electrostatic and quantum mechanical models. Namely, the absolute value of the interatomic relaxation energy depends strongly on the orbital hybridization in carbons being noticeably larger in conjugated chains (sp and sp2 hybridizations) possessing highly mobile electrons in delocalized π-type orbitals than in saturated chains (sp3 hybridization) where only σ bonds are available. The interatomic relaxation energy decreases monotonically with increasing chain length. The corresponding descent is determined by the energetics of the molecular bridge, in particular, by the HOMO-LUMO gap. The smallest HOMO-LUMO gap is found in molecules with the sp2-hybridized backbone. Here, the interatomic relaxation energy decreases slowest with the chain length.

  12. Enhancement of strong-field multiple ionization in the vicinity of the conical intersection in 1,3-cyclohexadiene ring opening

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, Vladimir S. Kim, Jaehee; Schorb, Sebastian; White, James; Cryan, James P.; Zipp, Lucas; Glownia, J. Michael; Broege, Douglas; Miyabe, Shungo; Tao, Hongli; Martinez, Todd; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2013-11-14

    Nonradiative energy dissipation in electronically excited polyatomic molecules proceeds through conical intersections, loci of degeneracy between electronic states. We observe a marked enhancement of laser-induced double ionization in the vicinity of a conical intersection during a non-radiative transition. We measured double ionization by detecting the kinetic energy of ions released by laser-induced strong-field fragmentation during the ring-opening transition between 1,3-cyclohexadiene and 1,3,5-hexatriene. The enhancement of the double ionization correlates with the conical intersection between the HOMO and LUMO orbitals.

  13. Ionization and recombination in attosecond electric field pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Solov'ev, Eugene A.; Briggs, John S.

    2005-10-15

    Based on the results of a previous communication [Dimitrovski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083003 (2004)], we study ionization and excitation of a hydrogenic atom from the ground and first excited states in short electric field pulses of several cycles. A process of ionization and recombination which occurs periodically in time is identified, for both small and extremely large peak electric field strengths. In the limit of large electric peak fields closed-form analytic expressions for the population of the initial state after single- and few-cycle pulses are derived. These formulas, strictly valid for asymptotically large momentum transfer from the field, give excellent agreement with fully numerical calculations for all momentum transfers.

  14. Intense Field-Matter Interactions: Multiple Ionization of Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, E.M.; Buzza, S.A.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    We report the results for the production of highly charged atomic species (e.g., Xe{sup 20+}, Kr{sup 18+}, O{sup 5+}, and C{sup 4+}) resulting from the interaction of intense laser fields (up to {approximately}10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}) with atomic and multicenter molecular clusters. The processes are also investigated using ultrafast pump-probe techniques, showing distinct beating patterns for the ionization structure in the molecular system. A comparison of our results with predictions of several different theoretical models provides strong support for the ionization ignition mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Molecular Strong Field Ionization viewed with Photoelectron Velocity Map Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandor, Peter

    In this thesis, work is presented on molecular strong-field ionization, during which an electron is removed from polyatomic molecules in the presence of strong laser fields. This is a process which is the basis of a number of experimental techniques to uncover electronic dynamics in atoms and molecules on the femtosecond and attosecond timescale. 'Strong' refers to an electric field strength which leads to a response from the system which can not be modeled perturbatively. These fields can be easily produced in the focus of femtosecond laser radiation, as is done in this work. With the use of velocity map imaging of the photoelectron in coincidence with the fragment ion, multiple ionization--dissociation pathways can be distinguished. It is shown that as opposed to early attempts to model the process, multiple low-lying states are populated in the ion, and also the signatures of multielectron dynamics are revealed. By changing the laser pulse duration from 30 fs to below 10 fs, control is demonstrated over which quantum states of the ion are populated. It is also shown that for pulses shorter than 10 fs (which is a timescale below the shortest vibrational period in molecules), ionization pathways that involve motion of the nuclei are almost completely shut off. Finally, the origin of electrons with <1 meV kinetic energy is discussed. A two-step model is proposed for creating the electrons: the first step is population transfer to high-lying excited states of the neutral molecule by the laser field; the second step is ionization. Different ionization mechanisms are examined and their viability is checked against available data.

  16. Low-energy structures in strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Nam, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyung Taec

    2016-04-01

    We show that the Gabor transform provides a convenient tool allowing one to study the origin of the low-energy structures (LES) in the process of the strong-field ionization. The classical trajectories associated with the stationary points of the Gabor transform enable us to explicate the role of the forward scattering process in forming LES. Our approach offers a fully quantum mechanical description of LES, which can also be applied for other strong-field processes.

  17. Laser fields in dynamically ionized plasma structures for coherent acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu-Thanh, Ph.; Tückmantel, T.; Pukhov, A.; Kostyukov, I.

    2015-10-01

    With the emergence of the CAN (Coherent Amplification Network) laser technology, a new scheme for direct particle acceleration in periodic plasma structures has been proposed. By using our full electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code equipped with ionisation module, we simulate the laser fields dynamics in the periodic structures of different materials. We study how the dynamic ionization influences the field structure.

  18. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  19. Field Ionization detection of supersonic helium atom beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, R. B.

    2003-10-01

    Field ionization detectors (FID) may offer near-unity detection efficiency and nanoscale spatial resolution. To date, FID detection of molecular beams has been limited to effusive beams of broad Maxwellian velocity distributions. We report FID measurements on monoenergetic helium beams, including intensity measurements and time-of-flight measurements. The FID tips were carefully prepared and characterized in a field ionization microscope prior to use. With the supersonic helium beam we find a much smaller effective detection area ( 50 sq. nm) than was reported in the effusive helium beam experiments ( 200,000 sq. nm). This suggests that the FID ionization yield depends strongly on energy loss by the impinging atom during its initial collision with the FID surface: Our thermal energy, monoenergetic helium beam atoms likely lose little or no energy upon scattering from the clean tungsten FID surface, allowing the scattered atoms to escape the FID polarization field and therby reducing the ionization yield. To improve signal levels, inelastic scattering might be enhanced by use of lower beam velocities (present in the tails of a Maxwellian) or by adsorbing an overlayer on the FID tip (present at cryogenic tip temperatures). These factors likely explain the higher detection yields measured in the effusive beam experiments.

  20. The role of molecular electron distribution in strong-field ionization and dissociation of heteronuclear molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei; Guo, Chunlei

    2016-11-01

    A comparison study of double-ionization induced dissociation in strong laser fields between a homonuclear diatomic molecule, O2, and a heteronuclear diatomic molecule, NO, shows that two electrons can easily be removed from one O atom of O2 to form a O2++O, however, two electrons can hardly be removed from the O atom of NO to form a N+O2+. Instead, for NO, two electrons are preferentially removed from the N atom to form a N2++O, even though the N atom requires higher ionization energy than the O atom. This indicates that atomic ionization energy does not play a significant role here. Our further study on the formation dynamics of the N2++O channel shows that the initial electron distribution of the NO molecule plays an important role in influencing the strong-field ionization and dissociation of NO and this effect seems to commonly exist in heteronuclear molecules when interacting with strong laser fields.

  1. Auger spectrum of a water molecule after single and double core ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inhester, Ludger; Burmeister, Carl F.; Groenhof, Gerrit; Grubmueller, Helmut

    2012-06-01

    The high intensity of Free Electron Lasers (FEL) opens up the possibility to perform single-shot molecule scattering experiments. However, even for small molecules radiation damage induced by absorption of intense x-ray radiation is not yet fully understood. To provide insight into this process, we have studied the dynamics of water molecules in single and double core ionized states by means of electronic transition rate calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From MD trajectories photoionization and Auger transition rates were computed based on electronic continuum wavefunctions obtained by explicit integration of the coupled radial Schr"odinger equations. To account for the nuclear dynamics during the core hole lifetime, the calculated electron emission spectra for different molecular geometries were accumulated according to the obtained time-dependent populations. We find that, in contrast to the single core ionized water molecule, the nuclear dynamics for the double core ionized water molecule during the core hole lifetime leaves a clear fingerprint on the electron emission spectra. In addition, the lifetime of the double core ionized water was found to be significantly shorter than half of the single core hole lifetime.

  2. Fragmentation of Small Molecules by Photo-Double Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Timur

    2008-05-01

    Molecular structure, formation, breakup pathways and recombination formed the subject of many theoretical and experimental studies. Among molecular species like H2, CO, N2, O2 recently great attention has been paid to the dynamics of the fragmentations and rearrangements of C2H2 molecule. Nature's smallest stable hydrocarbon, the symmetric linear acetylene molecule, C2H2, is an important polyatomic system for the study of photo initiated processes. Important features of the intramolecular dynamics in neutral acetylene have been revealed over many years through numerous spectroscopic studies. More recently, the availability of synchrotron radiation and intense laser sources has lead to intriguing studies of the ionization, isomerization and breakup dynamics of acetylene ions. Of particular interest are the yields into the symmetric (CH^+/CH^+), deprotonation (HCC^+/H^+) and quasi-symmetric (HHC^+/C^+) channels, the latter involving isomerization from the neutral acetylene structure into the vinylidene configuration prior to breakup. One expects that the products of dissociation, their kinetic energy releases (KER) and the isomerization times will depend on the particular initial electronic states of the dication involved, but such detailed information has heretofore not been available. We will present the results of the experiment where the dication of acetylene is prepared by Auger decay following core-level X-ray photoionization. Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy technique was used to measure the corresponding 3d momentum vectors of Auger electrons and recoil ions in coincidence. We will show that this experimental approach, in combination with ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, can yield a comprehensive map of the two-body dissociation pathways including transition through different electronic energy surfaces, barriers to direct dissociation and the associated rearrangement channels. Work done in collaboration with T. Rescigno, T. Weber, S

  3. Optical field ionization of atoms and ions using ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, David Neal

    1993-12-01

    This dissertation research is an investigation of the strong optical field ionization of atoms and ions by 120-fs, 614-run laser pulses and 130-fs, 800-nm laser pulses. The experiments have shown ionization that is enhanced above the predictions of sequential tunneling models for He+2, Ne+2 and Ar+2. The ion yields for He+1, Ne+1 and Ar+1 agree well with the theoretical predictions of optical tunneling models. Investigation of the polarization dependence of the ionization indicates that the enhancements are consistent with a nonsequential ionization mechanism in which the linearly polarized field drives the electron wavefunction back toward the ion core and causes double ionization through inelastic e-2e scattering. These investigations have initiated a number of other studies by other groups and are of current scientific interest in the fields of high-irradiance laser-matter interactions and production of high-density plasmas. This work involved: (1) Understanding the characteristic nature of the ion yields produced by tunneling ionization through investigation of analytic solutions for tunneling at optical frequencies. (2) Extensive characterization of the pulses produced by 614-nm and 800-ran ultrashort pulse lasers. Absolute calibration of the irradiance scale produced shows the practicality of the inverse problem--measuring peak laser irradiance using ion yields. (3) Measuring the ion yields for three noble gases using linear, circular and elliptical polarizations of laser pulses at 614-nm and 800-nm. The measurements are some of the first measurements for pulse widths as low as 120-fs.

  4. Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sagisaka, A.; Nabekawa, Y.; Watanabe, S.

    1996-02-01

    Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields were studied with a fundamental beam ( omega ) and its harmonics (2 omega ,3 omega ) , which were generated by a 100-fs Ti:sapphire laser. Ion yields of atoms and molecules were successfully controlled by means of a change in the relative phase between omega and 3 omega pulses. Two-color interference was clearly observed in photoelectron spectra and harmonic spectra. In the omega - 2 omega field even-order harmonics were observed in which the intensity was almost equal to that of the odd harmonics because of an asymmetric optical field. These results were compared with the quasi-static model for ionization and with the quantum theory for harmonic generation.

  5. The strong-field ionization mechanisms of molecules and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayres, Scott Grayson

    Advances in laser technology continually push the interaction of light and matter to higher energies, reaching unexplored intensities in which new science is emerging. The work detailed in this thesis pertains to the ionization mechanisms that occur in atoms, molecules, and clusters for a wide range of laser intensities. Presented in Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to ionization, discussing the mechanisms in which it proceeds in different mediums including atoms, molecules, and clusters. At low laser intensities, the responsible ionization mechanism for atoms and molecules is the sequential absorption of photons by the molecule until the energy is high enough to kick off an electron, known as multiphoton ionization. However, at higher intensities the electric field (ponderomotive energy) of the laser becomes comparable to the attractive forces of the nuclei and ionization proceeds through the phenomena known as quantum tunneling. Tunneling ionization relies on the small probability that the electron exists outside a barrier. Chapter 2 provides an in depth explanation to the experimental apparatus and technique used to measure the ionization dynamics. The experiments conducted herein required use of a femtosecond laser system coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer uniquely coupled to allow for the intensity to be selected. In the experiments conducted here, an ultra-intense femtosecond laser is focused onto a molecular/cluster beam, instantly heating the electrons to roughly a million kelvin causing ionization. A variety of theoretical simulations used for comparison to the experimental results are explained in Chapter 3. This involves the precise determination of the electronic wavefunction through electronic structural software. Additionally, a series of tunneling models are detailed and used for the experiments. The ionization and fragmentation dynamics of a simple molecule, silane, are discussed in Chapter 4. The ionization potential of silane is found

  6. Correlation-driven charge migration following double ionization and attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollstein, Maximilian; Santra, Robin; Pfannkuche, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically investigate charge migration following prompt double ionization. Thereby, we extend the concept of correlation-driven charge migration, which was introduced by Cederbaum and coworkers for single ionization [Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 205 (1999), 10.1016/S0009-2614(99)00508-4], to doubly ionized molecules. This allows us to demonstrate that compared to singly ionized molecules, in multiply ionized molecules, electron dynamics originating from electronic relaxation and correlation are particularly prominent. In addition, we also discuss how these correlation-driven electron dynamics might be evidenced and traced experimentally using attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. For this purpose, we determine the time-resolved absorption cross section and find that the correlated electron dynamics discussed are reflected in it with exceptionally great detail. Strikingly, we find that features in the cross section can be traced back to electron hole populations and time-dependent partial charges and hence, can be interpreted with surprising ease. By taking advantage of element-specific core-to-valence transitions even atomic spatial resolution can be achieved. Thus, with the theoretical considerations presented, not only do we predict particularly diverse and correlated electron dynamics in molecules to follow prompt multiple ionization but we also identify a promising route towards their experimental investigation.

  7. Isotopic ratio of evaporated ions, critical ionization distances, and ionization regions in the process of the field evaporation of molybdenum at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, O. L.; Blashenkov, N. M.

    2017-08-01

    A magnetic mass spectrometer with a field ion source has been used to study the steady-state field evaporation of molybdenum at a temperature of 1000-2000 K. Ions of all seven molybdenum isotopes have been observed in the process of evaporation; only low-charge ions Mo+2 and Mo+ have been detected. The critical ionization distances and ionization regions for single- and double-charge Mo ions have been identified based on the measured ion energies and the experimentally determined intensity of the evaporation field. It has been demonstrated that ions are produced in the process of field evaporation of surface atoms at certain distances from the emitter surface in a very narrow spatial region.

  8. The second Born approximation for the double ionization of N2 by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P.; Dal Cappello, C.; Charpentier, I.; Ruiz-Lopez, M. F.; Hervieux, P. A.

    2016-07-01

    In their (e,3e) and (e,3-1e) experiments of the double ionization (DI) of the outermost orbital of N2, Li et al (2012 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 135201) recently showed that the process is largely dominated by a two-step-2 mechanism, which is a double interaction of the incident electron with the target. From a theoretical point of view, this should entail the use of the second Born approximation. In the past, very few theoretical calculations had been carried out this way because it requires a difficult numerical triple integration. We propose here to take into account the second Born approximation for the DI of N2 by using the closure approximation. The initial state is described by a single-center wave function derived from the usual multi-center wave function obtained in the self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock method using the linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) approximation. The final state describes the interaction between each of the ejected electrons and the target by a Coulomb wave and the interaction between the two ejected electrons with the use of the Gamow factor. We calculate differential cross sections using the same kinematic conditions as Li et al (intermediate incident energy about 600 eV) for (e,3e) and (e,3-1e) DI of N2. The results show that the model does not allow a shift of the variation of the four-fold differential cross section near the momentum transfer to be obtained nor its opposite when we include the contribution given by the second Born approximation, as in (e,3-1e) experiments.

  9. Double-differential cross sections for single ionization of helium by bare ion impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, S.; Samanta, R.; Purkait, M.

    2013-11-01

    Double-differential cross sections (DDCS) for single ionization of helium by impact of proton and highly charged carbon ion have been calculated in the framework of four-body formalism using the three-Coulomb wave model (3C-4B) and first Born approximation (FBA-4B), respectively. The correlated motion of the particles interacting through long-range Coulomb potential is properly taken into account in the final state. In this paper, the energy and angular distributions of DDCS of low- and high-energy electron emission for ground-state helium atoms have been investigated. The ejected electrons are affected by the two-center field of the target and the projectile ion. The two-center effects are confined to comparison with other theoretical results. The results obtained, both from the 3C-4B and FBA-4B models, are compared with other theoretical and experimental findings. The present results are found to reproduce the peak structure of the experimental observations. Large discrepancy occurs between the present two theories at forward and backward angles except about the emission angle 90°. The present computed results obtained by the 3C-4B model are in good agreement with the available experimental findings.

  10. Perturbative quantum gravity in double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Horst, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    We study perturbative general relativity with a two-form and a dilaton using the double field theory formulation which features explicit index factorisation at the Lagrangian level. Explicit checks to known tree level results are performed. In a natural covariant gauge a ghost-like scalar which contributes even at tree level is shown to decouple consistently as required by perturbative unitarity. In addition, a lightcone gauge is explored which bypasses the problem altogether. Using this gauge to study BCFW on-shell recursion, we can show that most of the D-dimensional tree level S-matrix of the theory, including all pure graviton scattering amplitudes, is reproduced by the double field theory. More generally, we argue that the integrand may be reconstructed from its single cuts and provide limited evidence for off-shell cancellations in the Feynman graphs. As a straightforward application of the developed technology double field theory-like expressions for four field string corrections are derived.

  11. Double-core ionization and excitation above the sulphur K-edge in ?, ? and ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Cécile; Gaveau, Marc-André; Bisson, Kristel; Millié, Philippe; Nenner, Irène; Bodeur, Suzanne; Archirel, Pierre; Lévy, Bernard

    1996-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are reported on double-core excitation and ionization processes in some sulphur containing molecules. X-ray absorption spectra have been recorded at the sulphur K-edge using synchrotron radiation delivered by the DCI ring at LURE (Orsay, France). Absolute x-ray absorption cross sections have been determined for gas phase 0953-4075/29/22/017/img12, 0953-4075/29/22/017/img13 and 0953-4075/29/22/017/img14 molecules in the 2400 - 2800 eV region. Several narrow features are observed far from the edge and assigned to 0953-4075/29/22/017/img15 double-core excited states. Two series of states are present corresponding to the triplet and singlet configurations, due to the core 1s - 2p exchange term. The energy, width and intensity of the features are strongly molecule dependent. In the case of 0953-4075/29/22/017/img12, a theoretical determination of all the single- and double-core vacancy ionization potentials has been performed using a new theoretical approach which makes it possible to solve the convergence problem inherent in a simple SCF calculation. Results compare favourably with available experimental values. In particular, the singlet - triplet separation is correctly predicted for all the double-core ionized states. The relation between the double-core relaxation energies and the associated single-core relaxation values is discussed. Finally, the double-core excited state energies are determined within a Z + 2 core equivalent model, allowing a full assignment of the 0953-4075/29/22/017/img15 experimental spectra of 0953-4075/29/22/017/img12.

  12. Extended virtual detector theory for strong-field atomic ionization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Tian, Justin; Eberly, J H

    2013-06-14

    For time-dependent strong-field atomic ionization a new theoretical approach is described that combines the numerical time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) and the numerical time-dependent Newtonian equation (TDNE). This approach keeps both the accuracy of quantum calculations and the speed of classical calculations. It does not use approximate tunneling formulas. It is applied to a recent experimental result, and we show its successful comparison to extensive TDSE calculations made under exactly the same conditions.

  13. Single-photon double K-shell ionization of low-Z atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoszowska, J.; Kheifets, A. S.; Dousse, J.-Cl; Bray, I.; Cao, W.; Fennane, K.; Kayser, Y.; Kavčič, M.; Szlachetko, J.; Szlachetko, M.

    2010-02-01

    The photon energy dependence of the double K-shell ionization of light atoms is reported. Experimental double-to-single photoionization cross section ratios for Mg, Al, Si and Ca were obtained from measurements of high-resolution x-ray emission spectra. The double photoionization (DPI) cross-sections for K-shell hollow atom production are compared to convergent close-coupling calculations (CCC) for neutral atoms and He-like ions. The relative importance of the initial-state and final-state electron-electron interactions to the K-shell DPI in many-electron atoms and two-electron ions is addressed. Physical mechanisms and scaling laws of the K-shell double photoionization are examined. A semiempirical universal scaling of the DPI cross sections with the effective nuclear charge for neutral atoms 2<=Z<=47 is established.

  14. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry studies of nonequilibrium surface ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, Nikolai M.; Lavrent'ev, Gennadii Ya

    2007-01-01

    The ionization of polyatomic molecules on tungsten and tungsten oxide surfaces is considered for quasiequilibrium or essentially nonequilibrium conditions (in the latter case, the term nonequilibrium surface ionization is used for adsorbate ionization). Heterogeneous reactions are supposed to proceed through monomolecular decay of polyatomic molecules or fragments of multimolecular complexes. The nonequilibrium nature of these reactions is established. The dependences of the current density of disordered ions on the surface temperature, electric field strength, and ionized particle energy distribution are obtained in analytical form. Heterogeneous dissociation energies, the ionization potentials of radicals, and the magnitude of reaction departure from equilibrium are determined from experimental data, as are energy exchange times between reaction products and surfaces, the number of molecules in molecular complexes, and the number of effective degrees of freedom in molecules and complexes. In collecting the data a new technique relying on surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry was applied.

  15. Angular distributions in the double ionization of DNA bases by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelladi, M. F.; Mansouri, A.; Dal Cappello, C.; Charpentier, I.; Hervieux, P. A.; Ruiz-Lopez, M. F.; Roy, A. C.

    2016-11-01

    Ab initio calculations of the five-fold differential cross sections for electron-impact double ionization of thymine, cytosine, adenine and guanine are performed in the first Born approximation for an incident energy close to 5500 eV. The wavefunctions of the DNA bases are constructed using the multi-center wave functions from the Gaussian 03 program. These multi-center wave functions are converted into single-center expansions of Slater-type functions. For the final state, the two ejected electrons are described by two Coulomb wave functions. The electron-electron repulsion between the two ejected electrons is also taken into account. Mechanisms of the double ionization are discussed for each case and the best choices of the kinematical parameters are determined for next experiments.

  16. Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James P; Pindzola, M S; Robicheaux, F

    2008-01-01

    Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium are calculated using a non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling method. Collision probabilities are found by projection of a time evolved nine dimensional coordinate space wave function onto fully antisymmetric products of spatial and spin functions representing three outgoing Coulomb waves. At an incident energy of 106 eV, we present double energy differential cross sections and pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections. The pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections are found to be in relative agreement with the shapes observed in recent (e,3e) reaction microscope experiments. Integration of the differential cross sections over all energies and angles yields a total ionization cross section that is also in reasonable agreement with absolute crossed-beams experiments.

  17. DNA Damage by Ionizing Radiation: Tandem Double Lesions by Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Wang, Dunyou; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation are the source of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, damage to the central nervous system, lowering of the immune response, as well as other radiation-induced damages to human health. Monte Carlo track simulations and kinetic modeling of radiation damages to the DNA employ available molecular and cellular data to simulate the biological effect of high and low LET radiation io the DNA. While the simulations predict single and double strand breaks and base damages, so far all complex lesions are the result of stochastic coincidence from independent processes. Tandem double lesions have not yet been taken into account. Unlike the standard double lesions that are produced by two separate attacks by charged particles or radicals, tandem double lesions are produced by one single attack. The standard double lesions dominate at the high dosage regime. On the other hand, tandem double lesions do not depend on stochastic coincidences and become important at the low dosage regime of particular interest to NASA. Tandem double lesions by hydroxyl radical attack of guanine in isolated DNA have been reported at a dosage of radiation as low as 10 Gy. The formation of two tandem base lesions was found to be linear with the applied doses, a characteristic of tandem lesions. However, tandem double lesions from attack by a charged particle have not been reported.

  18. Performance of electret ionization chambers in magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Kotrappa, P; Stieff, L R; Mengers, T F; Shull, R D

    2006-04-01

    Electret ionization chambers are widely used for measuring radon and radiation. The radiation measured includes alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These detectors do not have any electronics and as such can be introduced into magnetic field regions. It is of interest to study the effect of magnetic fields on the performance of these detectors. Relative responses are measured with and without magnetic fields present. Quantitative responses are measured as the magnetic field is varied from 8 kA/m to 716 kA/m (100 to 9,000 gauss). No significant effect is observed for measuring alpha radiation and gamma radiation. However, a significant systematic effect is observed while measuring beta radiation from a 90Sr-Y source. Depending upon the field orientation, the relative response increased from 1.0 to 2.7 (vertical position) and decreased from 1.0 to 0.60 (horizontal position). This is explained as due to the setting up of a circular motion for the electrons by the magnetic field, which may increase or decrease the path length in air depending upon the experimental configuration. It is concluded that these ionization chambers can be used for measuring alpha (and hence radon) and gamma radiation in the range of magnetic fields studied. However, caution must be exercised if measuring beta radiation.

  19. Multielectron effects in strong field ionization of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Xia, Yuqing

    2014-05-01

    Multielectron effects are studied for strong field ionization of di- and polyatomic molecules at their equilibrium geometries, using time dependent density functional theory. Strong field ionization of molecules have been previously often analyzed using ``single active electron'' (SAE) approximation based theories such as for example Intense Field Many Body S-matrix Theory and typically the contributions from inner valence orbitals and multielectron effects were concluded to be of less importance. For several di- and polyatomic molecules we show that ionization rate from inner valence orbitals can increase dramatically due to a novel resonant coupling which influences the molecular dynamics. We discuss the dependence of the results on the orientation of the molecules and laser parameters. Moreover we show how such a mechanism can lead to localization of electron depending on the symmetry of the orbitals involved. Finally, we propose how the novel mechanism can be observed experimentally and show how the multi-electron effects can help explain several experimental results which have shown disagreement with SAE approximation based theories. Supported by NSF (Grants No. PHY-1068706 and PHY-1125844).

  20. Properties of Hollow Molecules Probed by Single-Photon Double Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F.; Palaudoux, J.; Selles, P.; Carniato, S.; Andric, L.; Bucar, K.; Zitnik, M.; Huttula, M.; Eland, J. H. D.; Shigemasa, E.; Soejima, K.; Hikosaka, Y.; Suzuki, I. H.; Nakano, M.; Ito, K.

    2011-02-11

    The formation of hollow molecules (with a completely empty K shell in one constituent atom) through single-photon core double ionization has been demonstrated using a sensitive magnetic bottle experimental technique combined with synchrotron radiation. Detailed properties are presented such as the spectroscopy, formation, and decay dynamics of the N{sub 2}{sup 2+} K{sup -2} main and satellite states and the strong chemical shifts of double K holes on an oxygen atom in CO, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} molecules.

  1. Double ionization of single oriented water molecules by electron impact: Second-order Born description

    SciTech Connect

    Dal Cappello, C.; Champion, C.; Kada, I.; Mansouri, A.

    2011-06-15

    The double ionization of isolated water molecules fixed in space is investigated within a theoretical approach based on the second-order Born approximation. Electron angular distributions have been studied for specific kinematical conditions. The three usual mechanisms, the shake-off and the two two-step mechanisms, have been identified. A significant contribution of the two-step mechanism is clearly visible for some particular kinematics.

  2. Perturbative calculation of two-photon double electron ionization of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2008-05-01

    We report the total integrated cross-section (TICS) of two-photon double ionization of helium in the photon energy range from 40 to 54 eV. We compute the TICS in the lowest order perturbation theory (LOPT) using the length and Kramers-Henneberger gauges of the electromagnetic interaction. Our findings indicate that the LOPT gives results for the TICS in agreement with our earlier non-perturbative calculations.

  3. Kinetic correlation in the final-state wave function in photo-double-ionization of He

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Garibotti, C. R.

    2003-06-01

    We evaluate the triply differential cross section (TDCS) for photo-double-ionization of helium. We use a final continuum wave function which correlates the motion of the three particles, through an expansion in products of two-body Coulomb functions. This function satisfies a set of appropriate physical conditions in the coalescence points, in addition to the correct asymptotic behavior condition. We analyze the effect of this correlation in the TDCS and compare our results with experimental data.

  4. Core hole screening and decay rates of double core ionized first row hydrides.

    PubMed

    Inhester, L; Groenhof, G; Grubmüller, H

    2013-04-28

    Because of the high intensity, X-ray free electron lasers allow one to create and probe double core ionized states in molecules. The decay of these multiple core ionized states crucially determines the evolution of radiation damage in single molecule diffractive imaging experiments. Here we have studied the Auger decay in hydrides of first row elements after single and double core ionization by quantum mechanical ab initio calculations. In our approach the continuum wave function of the emitted Auger electron is expanded into spherical harmonics on a radial grid. The obtained decay rates of double K-shell vacancies were found to be systematically larger than those for the respective single K-shell vacancies, markedly exceeding the expected factor of two. This enhancement is attributed to the screening effects induced by the core hole. We propose a simple model, which is able to predict core hole decay rates in molecules with low Z elements based on the electron density in the vicinity of the core hole.

  5. Empirical formulas for direct double ionization by bare ions: Z = - 1 to 92

    DOE PAGES

    DuBois, R. D.; Santos, A. C. F.; Manson, S. T.

    2014-11-25

    Experimental cross sections and cross-section ratios reported in the literature for direct double ionization of the outer shells of helium, neon, and argon atoms resulting from bare ions ranging from protons to uranium and for antiprotons are analyzed in terms of a first- and second-order interference model originally proposed by McGuire [J. H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1153 (1982)]. Empirical formulas for the various contributions to double ionization plus information about the phase difference between the first- and second-order mechanisms are extracted from the data. Projectile and target scalings are also extracted. Total cross sections and their ratios determinedmore » using these formulas and scalings are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data for lower-Z projectiles and impact velocities larger than 1 a.u. For very-high-Z projectiles, the amount of double ionization is overestimated, probably due to saturation of probabilities that is not accounted for in scaling formulas.« less

  6. Orientation effect on the secondary-electron distributions for the HCl double ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrani, S.; Aouchiche, H.; Champion, C.

    2017-07-01

    Multiple differential cross sections of the double ionization of hydrogen chloride molecule impacted by electrons are here provided within the first Born approximation. The incident and scattered electrons are represented by plane wave functions, whereas the target is described by means of a single-center molecular wave function. The two ejected electrons are modeled by Coulomb wave functions and a Gamow factor is introduced to take into account the Coulomb repulsion between the two outgoing particles. In this work, we study the relative contributions of the four outermost orbitals of the HCl molecule to the double ionization process in the particular case of two electrons ejected from different subshells. The multiple differential cross sections are analyzed for specific target orientations and compared in terms of magnitude and shape. We report a strong dependence of the cross sections versus the target orientation by pointing out the signature of the well-known double ionizing processes, namely, the shake-off and the two-step 1 mechanisms.

  7. Characterization of a CT ionization chamber for radiation field mapping.

    PubMed

    Perini, Ana P; Neves, Lucio P; Vivolo, Vitor; Xavier, Marcos; Khoury, Helen J; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    A pencil-type ionization chamber, developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), was characterized with the objective to verify the possibility of its application in radiation field mapping procedures. The characterization tests were evaluated, and the results were satisfactory. The results obtained for the X radiation field mapping with the homemade chamber were compared with those of a PTW Farmer-type chamber (TN 30011-1). The maximum difference observed in this comparison was only 1.25%, showing good agreement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Semiclassical two-step model for strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov-Shilovski, N. I.; Lein, M.; Madsen, L. B.; Räsänen, E.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.; Arbó, D. G.; Tőkési, K.

    2016-07-01

    We present a semiclassical two-step model for strong-field ionization that accounts for path interferences of tunnel-ionized electrons in the ionic potential beyond perturbation theory. Within the framework of a classical trajectory Monte Carlo representation of the phase-space dynamics, the model employs the semiclassical approximation to the phase of the full quantum propagator in the exit channel. By comparison with the exact numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for strong-field ionization of hydrogen, we show that for suitable choices of the momentum distribution after the first tunneling step, the model yields good quantitative agreement with the full quantum simulation. The two-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions, the energy spectra, and the angular distributions are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding quantum results. Specifically, the model quantitatively reproduces the fanlike interference patterns in the low-energy part of the two-dimensional momentum distributions, as well as the modulations in the photoelectron angular distributions.

  9. Preparing attosecond coherences by strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabst, Stefan; Lein, Manfred; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-02-01

    Strong-field ionization (SFI) has been shown to prepare wave packets with few-femtosecond periods. Here, we explore whether this technique can be extended to the attosecond time scale. We introduce an intuitive model, which is based on the Fourier transform of the subcycle SFI rate, for predicting the bandwidth of ionic states that can be coherently prepared by SFI. The coherent bandwidth decreases considerably with increasing central wavelength of the ionizing pulse but it is much less sensitive to its intensity. Many-body calculations based on time-dependent configuration-interaction singles support these results. The influence of channel interactions and laser-induced dynamics within the ion is discussed. Our results further predict that multicycle femtosecond pulses can coherently prepare subfemtosecond wave packets with higher selectivity and versatility compared to single-cycle pulses with an additional sensitivity to the mutual parity of the prepared states.

  10. N1s and O1s double ionization of the NO and N{sub 2}O molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, L.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Karlsson, L.; Pernestål, K.; Feifel, R.; Tashiro, M.; Ehara, M.; Linusson, P.; Eland, J. H. D.; Ueda, K.

    2014-01-28

    Single-site N1s and O1s double core ionisation of the NO and N{sub 2}O molecules has been studied using a magnetic bottle many-electron coincidence time-of-flight spectrometer at photon energies of 1100 eV and 1300 eV. The double core hole energies obtained for NO are 904.8 eV (N1s{sup −2}) and 1179.4 eV (O1s{sup −2}). The corresponding energies obtained for N{sub 2}O are 896.9 eV (terminal N1s{sup −2}), 906.5 eV (central N1s{sup −2}), and 1174.1 eV (O1s{sup −2}). The ratio between the double and single ionisation energies are in all cases close or equal to 2.20. Large chemical shifts are observed in some cases which suggest that reorganisation of the electrons upon the double ionization is significant. Δ-self-consistent field and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations were performed for both molecules and they are in good agreement with these results. Auger spectra of N{sub 2}O, associated with the decay of the terminal and central N1s{sup −2} as well as with the O1s{sup −2} dicationic states, were extracted showing the two electrons emitted as a result of filling the double core holes. The spectra, which are interpreted using CASSCF and complete active space configuration interaction calculations, show atomic-like character. The cross section ratio between double and single core hole creation was estimated as 1.6 × 10{sup −3} for nitrogen at 1100 eV and as 1.3 × 10{sup −3} for oxygen at 1300 eV.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Ion Dynamics in a Carbon Nanotube Field-Ionized Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    ION SOURCES Ions may be produced by several methods: photo-ionization, electron bombardment, field ionization, surface ionization, and thermionic ...OF ION DYNAMICS IN A CARBON NANOTUBE FIELD -IONIZED ION THRUSTER by Sarah F. Michael December 2011 Thesis Advisors: Dragoslav Grbovic...December 2011 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Numerical Modeling of Ion Dynamics in a Carbon Nanotube Field

  12. Nuclear Recoil Cross Sections from Time-dependent Studies of Two-Photon Double Ionization of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Daniel A.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2009-12-21

    We examine the sensitivity of nuclear recoil cross sections produced by two-photon double ionization of helium to the underlying triple differential cross sections (TDCS) used in their computation. We show that this sensitivity is greatest in the energy region just below the threshold for sequential double ionization. Accurate TDCS, extracted from non-perturbative solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, are used here in new computations of the nuclear recoil cross section.

  13. Quantum control via a genetic algorithm of the field ionization pathway of a Rydberg electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoric, Vincent C.; Kang, Xinyue; Liu, Zhimin Cheryl; Rowley, Zoe A.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum control of the pathway along which a Rydberg electron field ionizes is experimentally and computationally demonstrated. Selective field ionization is typically done with a slowly rising electric field pulse. The (1/n*)4 scaling of the classical ionization threshold leads to a rough mapping between arrival time of the electron signal and principal quantum number of the Rydberg electron. This is complicated by the many avoided level crossings that the electron must traverse on the way to ionization, which in general leads to broadening of the time-resolved field ionization signal. In order to control the ionization pathway, thus directing the signal to the desired arrival time, a perturbing electric field produced by an arbitrary wave-form generator is added to a slowly rising electric field. A genetic algorithm evolves the perturbing field in an effort to achieve the target time-resolved field ionization signal.

  14. High field – low energy muon ionization cooling channel

    DOE PAGES

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal; Palmer, Robert B.; Neuffer, David

    2015-09-04

    Muon beams are generated with large transverse and longitudinal emittances. In order to achieve the low emittances required by a muon collider, within the short lifetime of the muons, ionization cooling is required. Cooling schemes have been developed to reduce the muon beam 6D emittances to ≈ 300 μm–rad in transverse and ≈ 1–1.5 mm in longitudinal dimensions. The transverse emittance has to be further reduced to ≈ 50–25 μm–rad with an upper limit on the longitudinal emittance of ≈ 76 mm in order to meet the high-energy muon collider luminosity requirements. Earlier studies of the transverse cooling of lowmore » energy muon beams in high field magnets showed a promising performance, but did not include transverse or longitudinal matching between the stages. In this study we present the first complete design of the high field-low energy ionization cooling channel with transverse and longitudinal matching. The channel design was based on strong focusing solenoids with fields of 25–30 T and low momentum muon beam starting at 135 MeV/c and gradually decreasing. The cooling channel design presented here is the first to reach ≈ 50 micron scale emittance beam. As a result, we present the channel’s optimized design parameters including the focusing solenoid fields, absorber parameters and the transverse and longitudinal matching.« less

  15. Ionization of CO in radio-frequency electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoneas, M. M.; Vojnović, M. M.; Ristić, M. M.; Vićić, M. D.; Poparić, G. B.

    2017-02-01

    The rate coefficients for the electron impact ionization of the CO molecule have been calculated in the presence of the radio-frequency (RF) electric field. The non-equilibrium electron energy distribution functions, used for the rate coefficient calculations, were generated by using a Monte Carlo simulation. The rate coefficients were obtained, time resolved within one period, in the frequency range from 13.56 up to 500 MHz, at effective reduced electric field values up to 700 Td. A temporal behavior of the rate coefficients under the influence of magnitude and frequency of the fields has been studied. The total ionization rate coefficients and the rate coefficients for the production of different ion fragments have been period averaged and presented in the order to be of use for practical implementation in the RF discharges in CO. Also, the temporal characteristics of the electron energy distribution functions and the diffusion coefficients have been studied separately revealing some interesting features in their time dependence within the period of electric field oscillations.

  16. Tunneling site of electrons in strong-field-enhanced ionization of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng; Lan, Pengfei; Zhou, Yueming; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Kunlong; Lu, Peixiang

    2014-10-01

    We investigated electron emissions in strong-field-enhanced ionization of asymmetric diatomic molecules by quantum calculations. It is demonstrated that the widely used intuitive physical picture, i.e., electron wave-packet direct ionization from the up-field site (DIU), is incomplete. Besides DIU, we find another two ionization channels: the field-induced excitation with subsequent ionization from the down-field site and that from the up-field site. The contributions from these channels depend on the molecular asymmetry and internuclear distance. Our work provides a more comprehensive physical picture for the long-standing issue about enhanced ionization of diatomic molecules.

  17. Multielectron coincidence study of the double Auger decay of 3d-ionized krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, E.; Hedin, L.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Karlsson, L.; Feifel, R.; Fritzsche, S.; Linusson, P.; Eland, J. H. D.

    2010-10-15

    Multielectron coincidence data for triple ionization of krypton have been recorded above the 3d ionization threshold at two photon energies (140 and 150 eV). Three principal transition pathways have been observed, two involving double Auger transitions from Kr{sup +}, and one involving single Auger transitions from Kr{sup 2+} created by direct single-photon double ionization. The decay of the 3d{sup 9} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2,3/2} states in Kr{sup +} has been analyzed in some detail and is found to be strongly dominated by cascade processes where two electrons with well-defined energies are emitted. The decay paths leading to the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 3} {sup 4}S, {sup 2}D, and {sup 2}P states of Kr{sup 3+} are analyzed and energies of seven intermediate states in Kr{sup 2+} are given. A preliminary investigation of the decay paths from Kr{sup +} 3d{sup 9}4p{sup 5}nl shake-up states has also been carried out.

  18. Transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma in magnetic field taking into account the internal degrees of freedom and electronic excitation of plasma particles are derived. As a starting point of analysis the kinetic equation with a binary collision operator written in the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck form and with a reactive collision integral allowing for arbitrary chemical reactions is used. The linearized variant of Grad's moment method is applied to deduce the systems of moment equations for plasma and also full and reduced transport equations for plasma species nonequilibrium parameters.

  19. Transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-06-08

    Transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma in magnetic field taking into account the internal degrees of freedom and electronic excitation of plasma particles are derived. As a starting point of analysis the kinetic equation with a binary collision operator written in the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck form and with a reactive collision integral allowing for arbitrary chemical reactions is used. The linearized variant of Grad’s moment method is applied to deduce the systems of moment equations for plasma and also full and reduced transport equations for plasma species nonequilibrium parameters.

  20. Transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma in magnetic field taking into account the internal degrees of freedom and electronic excitation of plasma particles are derived. As a starting point of analysis the kinetic equation with a binary collision operator written in the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck form and with a reactive collision integral allowing for arbitrary chemical reactions is used. The linearized variant of Grad's moment method is applied to deduce the systems of moment equations for plasma and also full and reduced transport equations for plasma species nonequilibrium parameters.

  1. XUV Transient Absorption of Strong-Field Ionized Ferrocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterley, Adam S.; Lackner, Florian; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.; Gessner, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    Femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption experiments are underway to study the dynamics of ferrocene following strong field ionization. Ferrocene is a textbook organometallic compound, composed of an iron atom sandwiched between two aromatic organic rings. An intense infrared (IR, 790 nm) pump pulse is used to ionize the ferrocene molecules. Femtosecond XUV pulses, created by high harmonic generation (HHG) are used to probe the induced dynamics. Iron 3p inner-shell to valence transitions (M edge, 50 eV field induced molecular dynamics from the perspective of the metal center. We will induce dissociation dynamics at high field intensities and use lower IR intensities to study dynamics of electronically and/or vibrationally excited ferrocene cations. Preliminary results will be presented, demonstrating current progress of XUV transient absorption experiments on moderately large molecular systems.

  2. Estimates of the Electric Field in Fast Ionization Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Benjamin; Weatherford, Brandon; Barnat, Edward; Foster, John

    2012-10-01

    The non-equilibrium nature of fast ionization waves (FIWs) makes an assessment of energy transport difficult. Their high fields and short-lived nature complicate even the most simple diagnostics and tends to preclude the application of any physical probe. On the other hand, optical probes generally require the excitation, equilibration, and decay of atomic or molecular states, each of which takes a finite amount of time. In the case of an FIW, measurement of optical transitions will necessarily take place in the afterglow of the plasma. Fortunately, the electron and excited state densities produced by the wavefront are essentially fixed for a few hundred nanoseconds after the pulse. We propose a technique which uses measurements of the absolute metastable and electron densities to determine an effective electric field in the wavefront. The approach is evaluated for self-consistency and is in compared with other estimates of the electric field in similar discharges.

  3. Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Tong, Xiao-Min; Dollar, Franklin; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Gentry, Christian; Turgut, Emrah; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2015-03-01

    Strong-field ionization provides fundamental insight into light-matter interactions, encoding the structure of atoms and molecules on the subångström and subfemtosecond scales. In this Rapid Communication, we explore an important regime: strong-field ionization by two-color circularly polarized laser fields. In contrast to past work using linearly polarized drivers, we probe electron trajectories that are driven in a two-dimensional plane, thus separating the tunneling angle from the rescattering angle. This allows us to make several findings. First, we observe a single-lobed electron distribution for co-rotating fields, and a three-lobed distribution for counter-rotating fields, providing experimental validation of the theoretical model explaining the generation of circularly polarized high harmonic light. Second, we discover that there is significant electron-ion rescattering using counter-rotating fields, but not with co-rotating fields. Finally, we show that the rescattered electrons are well separated from the directly ionized electrons, in striking contrast to similar low-energy structures seen with linearly polarized fields. These findings help overcome the long-standing problem of how to decouple the tunneling and rescattering steps in strong-field ionization, which will enable new dynamic probes of atomic and molecular structure.

  4. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of Short Pulse Laser Xenon Double Ionization between 500 and 2300 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingras, G.; Tripathi, A.; Witzel, B.

    2009-10-01

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent’ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent’ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.ZETFA70044-4510 50, 1393 (1966) PerelomovPopovTerent’ev[Sov. Phys. JETPSPHJAR0038-5646 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1×1013 and 1×1015W/cm2. The Xe+-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p6 S2 state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  5. Wavelength and intensity dependence of short pulse laser xenon double ionization between 500 and 2300 nm.

    PubMed

    Gingras, G; Tripathi, A; Witzel, B

    2009-10-23

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 50, 1393 (1966) [Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1 x 10(13) and 1 x 10(15) W/cm2. The Xe+-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p6 2S state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  6. Electron correlation in two-photon double ionization of helium from attosecond to FEL pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Lee

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the role of electron correlation in the two-photon double ionization of helium for ultrashort pulses in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) regime with durations ranging from a hundred attoseconds to a few femtoseconds. We perform time-dependent ab initio calculations for pulses with mean frequencies in the so-called 'sequential' regime ({Dirac_h}{omega} > 54.4 eV). Electron correlation induced by the time correlation between emission events manifests itself in the angular distribution of the ejected electrons, which strongly depends on the energy sharing between them. We show that for ultrashort pulses two-photon double ionization probabilities scale non-uniformly with pulse duration depending on the energy sharing between the electrons. Most interestingly we find evidence for an interference between direct ('nonsequential') and indirect ('sequential') double photoionization with intermediate shake-up states, the strength of which is controlled by the pulse duration. This observation may provide a route towards measuring the pulse duration of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses.

  7. Optimal control of the strong-field ionization of silver clusters in helium droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, N. X.; Goede, S.; Przystawik, A.; Fennel, Th.; Bornath, Th.; Tiggesbaeumker, J.; Meiwes-Broer, K. H.; Hilse, P.; Schlanges, M.; Doeppner, T.; Gerber, G.

    2010-01-15

    Optimal control techniques combined with femtosecond laser pulse shaping are applied to steer and enhance the strong-field induced emission of highly charged atomic ions from silver clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets. With light fields shaped in amplitude and phase we observe a substantial increase of the Ag{sup q+} yield for q>10 when compared to bandwidth-limited and optimally stretched pulses. A remarkably simple double-pulse structure, containing a low-intensity prepulse and a stronger main pulse, turns out to produce the highest atomic charge states up to Ag{sup 20+}. A negative chirp during the main pulse hints at dynamic frequency locking to the cluster plasmon. A numerical optimal control study on pure silver clusters with a nanoplasma model converges to a similar pulse structure and corroborates that the optimal light field adapts to the resonant excitation of cluster surface plasmons for efficient ionization.

  8. Double field theory at SL(2) angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, Franz; Dibitetto, Giuseppe; Fernandez-Melgarejo, J. J.; Guarino, Adolfo; Inverso, Gianluca

    2017-05-01

    An extended field theory is presented that captures the full SL(2) × O(6, 6 + n) duality group of four-dimensional half-maximal supergravities. The theory has section constraints whose two inequivalent solutions correspond to minimal D = 10 supergravity and chiral half-maximal D = 6 supergravity, respectively coupled to vector and tensor multiplets. The relation with O(6, 6 + n) (heterotic) double field theory is thoroughly discussed. Non-Abelian interactions as well as background fluxes are captured by a deformation of the generalised diffeomorphisms. Finally, making use of the SL(2) duality structure, it is shown how to generate gaugings with non-trivial de Roo-Wagemans angles via generalised Scherk-Schwarz ansätze. Such gaugings allow for moduli stabilisation including the SL(2) dilaton.

  9. Electric fields and double layers in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1987-05-01

    Various mechanisms for driving double layers (DLs) in plasmas are described, including applied potential drops, currents, contact potentials, and plasma expansions. Somne dynamic features of the DLs are discussed; and it is demonstrated that DLs and the currents through them undergo slow oscillations, determined by the ion transit time across an effective length of the system in which the DLs form. It is shown that a localized potential dip forms at the low potential end of a DL, which interrupts the electron current through it according to the Langmuir criterion whenever the ion flux into the DL is disrupted. Also considered is the generation of electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field by contact potentials.

  10. Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R.; Gordon, Daniel F.; Landsman, Alexandra S.

    2016-06-01

    Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process.

  11. Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R; Gordon, Daniel F; Landsman, Alexandra S

    2016-06-10

    Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process.

  12. STORAGE RING CROSS-SECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR ELECTRON IMPACT SINGLE AND DOUBLE IONIZATION OF Fe{sup 9+} AND SINGLE IONIZATION OF Fe{sup 10+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Novotny, O.; Savin, D. W.; Becker, A.; Grieser, M.; Krantz, C.; Wolf, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Repnow, R.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Spruck, K.

    2012-11-20

    We have measured electron impact ionization from the ground state of Fe{sup 9+} and Fe{sup 10+} over the relative electron-ion collision energy ranges 200-1900 eV and 250-1800 eV, respectively. The ions were confined in an ion storage ring long enough for essentially all metastable levels to radiatively relax to the ground state. For single ionization, we find a number of discrepancies between the existing theoretical cross sections and our results. The calculations appear to neglect some excitation-autoionization (EA) channels, particularly from n = 3 to n' excitations, which are important near threshold, and those from n = 2 {yields} 3 excitations, which contribute at about 650 eV. Conversely, at higher energies the calculations appear to overestimate the importance of EA channels due to excitation into levels where n {>=} 4. The resulting experimental rate coefficients agree with the most recent theory for Fe{sup 9+} to within 16% and for Fe{sup 10+} to within 19% at temperatures where these ions are predicted to form in collisional ionization equilibrium. We have also measured double ionization of Fe{sup 9+} forming Fe{sup 11+} in the energy range 450-3000 eV and found that although there is an appreciable cross section for direct double ionization, the dominant mechanism appears to be through direct ionization of an inner shell electron producing an excited state that subsequently stabilizes through autoionization.

  13. Mechanisms of photo double ionization of helium by 530 eV photons.

    PubMed

    Knapp, A; Kheifets, A; Bray, I; Weber, Th; Landers, A L; Schössler, S; Jahnke, T; Nickles, J; Kammer, S; Jagutzki, O; Schmidt, L Ph H; Osipov, T; Rösch, J; Prior, M H; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Cocke, C L; Dörner, R

    2002-07-15

    We have measured fully differential cross sections for photo double ionization of helium 450 eV above the threshold. We have found an extremely asymmetric energy sharing between the photoelectrons and an angular asymmetry parameter beta approximately 2 and beta approximately 0 for the fast and slow electrons, respectively. The electron angular distributions show a dominance of the shakeoff for 2 eV electrons and clear evidence of an inelastic electron-electron scattering at an electron energy of 30 eV. The data are in excellent agreement with convergent close-coupling calculations.

  14. Double K-shell ionization in the electron capture decay of 55Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Maxwell, J. A.; Teesdale, W. J.

    1991-04-01

    The probability per K capture for double K-shell ionization in the electron capture decay of 55Fe was obtained by fitting a model spectrum to the x-ray spectrum recorded to very high statistics in a high-resolution Si(Li) detector. The result, PKK=(1.3+/-0.2)×10-4, confirms the trend wherein experimental data decrease smoothly with Z, and are intermediate between the theoretical predictions of Intemann and of Suzuki and Law. Corrections to some recently published PKK values reconcile them with this trend.

  15. Double ionization of neon by electron impact: use of correlated wave functions*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, Imene; Cappello, Claude Dal; Mansouri, Abdelaziz

    2017-02-01

    A model including correlation both in the initial state and in the final state is applied to the case of the double ionization of neon. The results of our model are compared to the available experimental data performed at high incident energy. Fully (fivefold) differential cross sections (FDCS) have been studied by applying the first Born approximation. Four ion states of Ne++, which are not resolved in the experiments, have been included in our calculation. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces", edited by A.N. Grum-Grzhimailo, E.V. Gryzlova, Yu V. Popov, and A.V. Solov'yov.

  16. Fully Differential Cross Sections for Photo-Double-Ionization of D2_

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Th.; Czasch, A.; Jagutzki, O.; Müller, A.; Mergel, V.; Kheifets, A.; Feagin, J.; Rotenberg, E.; Meigs, G.; Prior, M. H.; Daveau, S.; Landers, A. L.; Cocke, C. L.; Osipov, T.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Dörner, R.

    2004-04-01

    We report the first kinematically complete study of the four-body fragmentation of the D2 molecule following absorption of a single photon. For equal energy sharing of the two electrons and a photon energy of 75.5eV, we observed the relaxation of one of the selection rules valid for He photo-double-ionization and a strong dependence of the electron angular distribution on the orientation of the molecular axis. This effect is reproduced by a model in which a pair of photoionization amplitudes is introduced for the light polarization parallel and perpendicular to the molecular axis.

  17. Kinetic Correlation In Photo-Double-Ionization Processes: The He-Isoelectronic Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Garibotti, C. R.

    2006-01-09

    Analytical models proposed to represent the two-electron continuum are revisited. Main results obtained with these models are summarized. Recent studies of the photo-double-ionization (PDI) of the He-isoelectronic sequence by means of the recently introduced SC3 model are shown and compared with the results predicted by classical and semi-classical Wannier approaches. By fitting the triply differential cross sections (TDCSs) with the usual dipolar Gaussian form we find that the width has a power dependence on excess energy with exponent 0.25 in the near threshold region and departs from this law with increasing energy.

  18. Connecting field ionization to photoionization via 17- and 36-GHz microwave fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gurian, J. H.; Overstreet, K. R.; Gallagher, T. F.; Maeda, H.

    2010-10-15

    Here we present experimental results connecting field ionization to photoionization in Li Rydberg atoms obtained with 17- and 36-GHz microwave fields. At a low principal quantum number n, where the microwave frequency {omega} is much lower than the classical, or Kepler frequency, {omega}{sub K}=1/n{sup 3}, microwave ionization occurs by field ionization, at E=1/9n{sup 4}. When the microwave frequency exceeds the Kepler frequency, {omega}>1/n{sup 3}, the field required for ionization is independent of n and given by E=2.4{omega}{sup 5/3}, in agreement with dynamic localization models, which cross over to a Fermi's Golden Rule approach at the photoionization limit. A surprising aspect of our results is that when {omega}{approx_equal}1/2n{sup 2}, the one- and multiphoton ionization rates are similar, and even at the lowest microwave powers, all are 10 times lower than the perturbation theory rate calculated for single-photon ionization. Further, we show that when the Rydberg atoms are excited in the presence of the microwave field, the probability of an atom's being bound at the end of the microwave pulse passes smoothly across the limit. This microwave stimulated recombination to bound Rydberg states can be well described by a simple classical model. More generally, these results suggest that the problem of a Rydberg atom coupled to a high-frequency microwave field is similar to the problem of interchannel internal coupling in multilimit atoms, a problem well described by quantum defect theory.

  19. Cross sections for non-sequential two-photon double ionization of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Johannes; Nagele, Stefan; Pazourek, Renate; Persson, Emil; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Schneider, Barry; Collins, Lee

    2008-05-01

    The generalized cross sections for non-sequential two-photon double ionization of helium at photon energies from 39.5,V to 54.4,V have been the subject of several recent theoretical studies. Quantitative agreement between the different approaches has not yet been reached. In this contribution, we present converged results for the total integrated and triply differential cross sections for the above process, which are based on the direct integration of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation. We compare our data with calculations from other authors and investigate to what extent electronic correlation in the representation of the double continuum affects the cross sections. We also study the influence of the pulse shape on the value of the cross sections extracted from time-dependent approaches.

  20. Double and single ionization of He and other targets studied using cold target recoil momentum spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Doerner, R.; Feagin, J. M.; Brauning, H.; Jagutzki, O.; Jung, M.; Kanter, E. P.; Khemliche, H.; Kravis, S.; Mergel, V.; Prior, M. H.; Schmidt-Boeking, H.; Spielberger, L.; Ullrich, J.; Unverzagt, M.; Vogt, T.

    1997-04-01

    Double ionization of an atom by a single photon is the simplest and most fundamental many-electron process. The ejection of two electrons following the absorption of one photon is strictly prohibited in an independent electron approximation. Thus determining the probability of double photoionization alone is already a challenging test of the understanding of electron-electron correlation. Furthermore, in the slow breakup of a bound system into three charged particles, the final state wave function must represent a high degree of few-body Coulomb correlation involving the simultaneous interaction of all three particles. The case of double photoionization is again particularly well suited to study this problem as the energy and the angular momentum delivered to the system can be very well controlled. Helium, as the most basic three body system, has been the target of extensive studies over the past decades. The purpose of this project has been to study double and single ionization using cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS). This technique has been widely applied within the area of ion-atom collisions to study the dynamics of energy and momentum transfer in collisions between few-electron systems, and the entire technical machinery has been transferred to photon-atom collisions. The technique uses space- and time-imaging of He{sup +} and He{sup ++} recoil ions created in photon-He collisions to measure the full momentum vector of each ion produced. Event-mode recording is used and a solid angle of nearly 4{pi} is realized, allowing an extremely high data-collection efficiency. In order to reduce the initial momentum spread of the He target a precooled supersonic He jet is used.

  1. Two-photon double ionization of helium in the region of photon energies 42-50eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    We report the total integrated cross section (TICS) of two-photon double ionization of helium in the photon energy range from 42to50eV . Our computational procedure relies on a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation on a square-integrable basis and subsequent projection of this solution on a set of final field-free states describing correlation in the two-electron continuum. Our results suggest that the TICS grows monotonically as a function of photon energy in the region of 42-50eV , possibly reaching a maximum in the vicinity of 50eV . We also present fully resolved triple-differential cross sections for selected photon energies.

  2. Two-photon double ionization of helium in the region of photon energies 42-50 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2007-03-15

    We report the total integrated cross section (TICS) of two-photon double ionization of helium in the photon energy range from 42 to 50 eV. Our computational procedure relies on a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation on a square-integrable basis and subsequent projection of this solution on a set of final field-free states describing correlation in the two-electron continuum. Our results suggest that the TICS grows monotonically as a function of photon energy in the region of 42-50 eV, possibly reaching a maximum in the vicinity of 50 eV. We also present fully resolved triple-differential cross sections for selected photon energies.

  3. Emergence of a Higher Energy Structure in Strong Field Ionization with Inhomogeneous Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, L; Pérez-Hernández, J A; Ciappina, M F; Schötz, J; Chacón, A; Zeraouli, G; Kling, M F; Roso, L; Lewenstein, M; Landsman, A S

    2017-08-04

    Studies of strong field ionization have historically relied on the strong field approximation, which neglects all spatial dependence in the forces experienced by the electron after ionization. More recently, the small spatial inhomogeneity introduced by the long-range Coulomb potential has been linked to a number of important features in the photoelectron spectrum, such as Coulomb asymmetry, Coulomb focusing, and the low energy structure. Here, we demonstrate using midinfrared laser wavelength that a time-varying spatial dependence in the laser electric field, such as that produced in the vicinity of a nanostructure, creates a prominent higher energy peak. This higher energy structure (HES) originates from direct electrons ionized near the peak of a single half-cycle of the laser pulse. The HES is separated from all other ionization events, with its location and width highly dependent on the strength of spatial inhomogeneity. Hence, the HES can be used as a sensitive tool for near-field characterization in the "intermediate regime," where the electron's quiver amplitude is comparable to the field decay length. Moreover, the large accumulation of electrons with tuneable energy suggests a promising method for creating a localized source of electron pulses of attosecond duration using tabletop laser technology.

  4. Emergence of a Higher Energy Structure in Strong Field Ionization with Inhomogeneous Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmann, L.; Pérez-Hernández, J. A.; Ciappina, M. F.; Schötz, J.; Chacón, A.; Zeraouli, G.; Kling, M. F.; Roso, L.; Lewenstein, M.; Landsman, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    Studies of strong field ionization have historically relied on the strong field approximation, which neglects all spatial dependence in the forces experienced by the electron after ionization. More recently, the small spatial inhomogeneity introduced by the long-range Coulomb potential has been linked to a number of important features in the photoelectron spectrum, such as Coulomb asymmetry, Coulomb focusing, and the low energy structure. Here, we demonstrate using midinfrared laser wavelength that a time-varying spatial dependence in the laser electric field, such as that produced in the vicinity of a nanostructure, creates a prominent higher energy peak. This higher energy structure (HES) originates from direct electrons ionized near the peak of a single half-cycle of the laser pulse. The HES is separated from all other ionization events, with its location and width highly dependent on the strength of spatial inhomogeneity. Hence, the HES can be used as a sensitive tool for near-field characterization in the "intermediate regime," where the electron's quiver amplitude is comparable to the field decay length. Moreover, the large accumulation of electrons with tuneable energy suggests a promising method for creating a localized source of electron pulses of attosecond duration using tabletop laser technology.

  5. Field ionization of Rydberg atoms for high-brightness electron and ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, A. J.; Speirs, R. W.; Grimmel, J.; Sparkes, B. M.; Comparat, D.; Scholten, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    We present an ionization mechanism for use in a cold atom electron source with the goal of producing highly monochromatic electron beams. We experimentally produce a map of the Stark states of 85Rb below the ionization threshold and identify states that undergo selective field ionization. The properties of an electron beam produced by field-assisted ionization of such states are quantified. A theoretical framework is established to predict the improvement to beam quality when ionization is conducted above the ionization threshold, where ionization conditions are typically more favorable than below the threshold. Calculations suggest that selective ionization of Rydberg states may offer a pathway to the production of high-brightness, highly monochromatic ion and electron beams.

  6. Pulse-shape-dependent strong-field ionization viewed with velocity-map imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, Dominik; Weinacht, Thomas C.; Rozgonyi, Tamas; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Jesus

    2011-11-15

    We explore strong field molecular ionization with velocity map imaging of fragment ions produced by dissociation following ionization. Our measurements and ab initio electronic structure calculations allow us to identify various electronic states of the molecular cation populated during ionization, with multiple pathways to individual states highlighted by the pulse shape dependence. In addition, we show that relative populations can be reconstructed from our measurements. The results illustrate how strong field molecular ionization can be complicated by the presence and interaction of multiple cationic states during ionization.

  7. Single-photon double and triple ionization of acetaldehyde (ethanal) studied by multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodskikh, S.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Mucke, M.; Eland, J. H. D.; Squibb, R. J.; Karlsson, L.; Linusson, P.; Feifel, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-photon multiple ionization processes of acetaldehyde (ethanal) have been experimentally investigated by utilizing a multi-particle coincidence technique based on the time-of-flight magnetic bottle principle, in combination with either a synchrotron radiation source or a pulsed helium discharge lamp. The processes investigated include double and triple ionization in the valence region as well as single and double Auger decay of core-ionized acetaldehyde. The latter are studied site-selectively for chemically different carbon core vacancies, scrutinizing early theoretical predictions specifically made for the case of acetaldehyde. Moreover, Auger processes in shake-up and core-valence ionized states are investigated. In the cases where the processes involve simultaneous emission of two electrons, the distributions of the energy sharing are presented, emphasizing either the knock-out or shake-off mechanism.

  8. Double ionization effect in electron accelerations by high-intensity laser pulse interaction with a neutral gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan Gupta, Devki

    2013-11-01

    We study the effect of laser-induced double-ionization of a helium gas (with inhomogeneous density profile) on vacuum electron acceleration. For enough laser intensity, helium gas can be found doubly ionized and it strengthens the divergence of the pulse. The double ionization of helium gas can defocus the laser pulse significantly, and electrons are accelerated by the front of the laser pulse in vacuum and then decelerated by the defocused trail part of the laser pulse. It is observed that the electrons experience a very low laser-intensity at the trailing part of the laser pulse. Hence, there is not much electron deceleration at the trailing part of the pulse. We found that the inhomogeneity of the neutral gas reduced the rate of tunnel ionization causing less defocusing of the laser pulse and thus the electron energy gain is reduced.

  9. Integrated reservoir management doubles Nigerian field reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Akinlawon, Y.; Nwosu, T.; Satter, A.; Jespersen, R.

    1996-10-01

    An integrated alliance across disciplines, companies and countries enabled Texaco to conduct a comprehensive reservoir analysis of the North Apoi/Funiwa field in Nigeria. Recommendations implemented in 3 months doubled the book reserves of this mature field. The paper discusses the objectives, the integration of organizations, reservoir analysis, and conclusions. The conclusions made from the integrated study are: (1) 3-D seismic data dramatically improved reservoir description. (2) OOIP is considerably more than the booked values and reserves additions are substantial. (3) Significant value has been added to TOPCON`s assets as a result of teamwork and a multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the reservoirs and optimizing the scenarios for reservoir management. (4) Teamwork and integration of professionals, data, technology and tools was critical to the projects success. (5) The study set an example for effective and expeditious technology transfer and applications. (6) Partnering of TOPCON, DPR, NAPIMS, EPTD and SSI resulted in a quick cycle time and set an excellent example of integration and alliance.

  10. Recoil Momentum Spectroscopy of Double and Single Ionization of He by 80-400 eV Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörner, R.; Kravis, S.; Cocke, C. L.; Vogt, T.; Mergel, V.; Unverzagt, M.; Spielberger, L.; Damrau, M.; Jagutzki, O.; Ali, I.; Weaver, B.; Ullmann, K.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Khemliche, H.; Prior, M. H.; Warwick, T.; Ullrich, J.; Jung, M.; Kanter, E. P.; Hsu, C. C.; Sonntag, B.; Rotenberg, E.; Denlinger, J.; Manson, S. T.; Feagin, J.

    1996-05-01

    We have measured the ratio (R) between double and single ionization of He by photons between 85 eV and 400 eV using COLTRIMS.(J. Ullrich et al., Comm. At. Mol. Phys. \\underline30), 285 (1994). The experiment, performed at the Berkeley ALS, eliminates many systematic errors which have plagued previous attempts to measure R. The values of R obtained are about 25% below those previously reported but are in good agreement with several recent theoretical calculations. We also report preliminary results of triply differential cross sections for double ionization of He measured near threshold.

  11. Ionization signals from diamond detectors in fast-neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, C.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Kavrigin, P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel analysis technique for measurements with single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (sCVD) diamond detectors in fast-neutron fields. This method exploits the unique electronic property of sCVD diamond sensors that the signal shape of the detector current is directly proportional to the initial ionization profile. In fast-neutron fields the diamond sensor acts simultaneously as target and sensor. The interaction of neutrons with the stable isotopes 12 C and 13 C is of interest for fast-neutron diagnostics. The measured signal shapes of detector current pulses are used to identify individual types of interactions in the diamond with the goal to select neutron-induced reactions in the diamond and to suppress neutron-induced background reactions as well as γ-background. The method is verified with experimental data from a measurement in a 14.3 MeV neutron beam at JRC-IRMM, Geel/Belgium, where the 13C(n, α)10Be reaction was successfully extracted from the dominating background of recoil protons and γ-rays and the energy resolution of the 12C(n, α)9Be reaction was substantially improved. The presented analysis technique is especially relevant for diagnostics in harsh radiation environments, like fission and fusion reactors. It allows to extract the neutron spectrum from the background, and is particularly applicable to neutron flux monitoring and neutron spectroscopy.

  12. Ionization Study of Isomeric Molecules in Strong-field Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigo, Stefan; Le, Anh-Thu; Timilsina, Pratap; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A.

    2017-02-01

    Through the use of the technique of time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, we obtain strong-field ionization yields for randomly oriented 1,2-dichloroethylene (1,2-DCE) (C2H2Cl2) and 2-butene (C4H8). We are interested in studying the effect of conformal structure in strong-field ionization and, in particular, the role of molecular polarity. That is, we can perform strong-field ionization studies in polar vs non-polar molecules that have the same chemical composition. We report our findings through the ionization yields and the ratio (trans/cis) of each stereoisomer pair as a function of intensity.

  13. Interferometer-free Fourier-synthesized laser field generator estimated by molecular tunnelling ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, H.; Saito, N.

    2017-07-01

    Intense nanosecond four-colour Fourier-synthesized laser fields induce orientation-selective ionization based on directionally asymmetric molecular tunneling ionization. The interferometer-free laser field generator ensures high stability and high reproducibility. Phase-sensitive, orientation-selective molecular tunneling ionization provides a simple way to estimate the relative phase differences between the fundamental light and each harmonic by data-fitting analysis.

  14. Three-body neutral dissociations of a multiply excited water molecule around the double ionization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odagiri, Takeshi; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Tanabe, Takehiko; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Isao H.; Kitajima, Masashi; Kouchi, Noriyuki

    2012-11-01

    The cross sections for emission of two fluorescence photons from a pair of excited fragments in photoexcitation of H2O have been measured as a function of the incident photon energy using the photon-photon coincidence technique. The cross section increased in the range 30-45 eV, i.e. in the vicinity of the double ionization potential of H2O. The increase of the cross section was attributed to three-body neutral dissociations of a water molecule via multiply excited states: H2O** → H(2p) + OH** → H(2p) + H(2p) + O(3P). Some multiply excited states of H2O were also found in the cross section curve around 65 eV.

  15. Charge Dependent Effects in Double-Photo-Ionization of Helium-Like Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Matt; Colgan, James

    2006-10-01

    A study is made of triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for double-photo-ionization (DPI) of helium-like ions. The angular distribution between the equal energy outgoing electrons is examined as a function of the nuclear target charge. Time-dependent close-coupling theory (TDCC) will be used to solve the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for both outgoing electrons. The TDCC method treats the correlation between the electrons without approximation. Previous theoretical models that have calculated the TDCS for helium-like ions have only included the electron-electron interaction through approximate perturbative methods. We will analyze the effects of the electron correlation and its dependence relative to the nuclear charge. We will compare our calculations with previous experimental and theoretical work, where available.

  16. Double ionization of helium by bare ions: Theoretical study of the fully differential cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, S. D.; Garibotti, C. R.; Otranto, S.

    2011-06-15

    This work presents a theoretical study of fully differential cross sections (FDCSs) for the double ionization of an He target by ion impact within a distorted wave model. The initial atomic system is described by two approximated wave functions of different accuracy proposed by Bonham and Kohl. For the final channel several models are considered based upon improvements and simplifications of the well-known three-body Coulomb (3C) model. The influence of the receding projectile on the resulting fragments is also studied by implementing a model with effective charges that depend on the momenta of the four particles. The FDCSs resulting for different electron energy sharing are discussed. The sensitivity of the FDCSs to the projectile charge sign and magnitude is explored over the energy range 700 keV/amu through 6 MeV/amu.

  17. Strong field ionization rates simulated with time-dependent configuration interaction and an absorbing potential

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Pascal; Sonk, Jason A.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2014-05-07

    Ionization rates of molecules have been modeled with time-dependent configuration interaction simulations using atom centered basis sets and a complex absorbing potential. The simulations agree with accurate grid-based calculations for the ionization of hydrogen atom as a function of field strength and for charge resonance enhanced ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +} as the bond is elongated. Unlike grid-based methods, the present approach can be applied to simulate electron dynamics and ionization in multi-electron polyatomic molecules. Calculations on HCl{sup +} and HCO{sup +} demonstrate that these systems also show charge resonance enhanced ionization as the bonds are stretched.

  18. Investigation of electric field distribution on FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, S. M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H. Z.

    2016-07-01

    One of the important parameters for establishing charge particle equilibrium (CPE) conditions of free-air ionization chamber is an electric field distribution. In this paper, electric field distribution inside the ionization chamber was investigated by finite element method. For this purpose, the effects of adding guard plate and guard strips on the electric field distribution in the ionization chamber were studied. it is necessary to apply a lead box around the ionization chamber body to avoid of scattered radiation effects on the ionization chamber operation, but the lead box changes the electric field distribution. In the following, the effect of lead box on the electric field distribution was studied. Finally, electric field distribution factor (kfield) was calculated by the simulation. The results of the simulation showed that presence of the guard plate and guard strips, and applying a suitable potential to lead box, a convergence of kfield to 1 was achieved.

  19. Double-differential cross sections for single ionization of simple polyatomic molecules by proton impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, A.; Halder, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Mandal, C. R.; Purkait, M.

    2017-09-01

    A theoretical study of double-differential cross sections (DDCSs) for single ionization of CH4andNH3 molecules by collision with proton is presented at 0.25, 1, and 2 MeV, respectively. For the final state, we use a continuum distorted wave that contains the product of three-Coulomb distortion due to pairwise Coulombic interactions for which it is called the three-Coulomb wave model. In the entrance channel, the Coulomb distortion between the incoming projectile and the target is taken. In this model, the ground state of the polyatomic molecule is described by means of an accurate one-center molecular wave function, which is a linear combination of atomic orbitals. The contributions of DDCSs for different molecular orbitals of the polyatomic molecules to the spectrum of angular distributions at different electron emission energies have also been analyzed. Generally the preference for ionization depends on the binding energy of the active electron in molecular orbital in the ascending order of loosely bound electrons to more tightly bound electrons. At large ejected electron and projectile energy, the lesser bound electrons in the molecules dominate the DDCS at extreme forward emission angles. The present DDCS results are compared with available experimental and the theoretical findings. In case of ammonia molecules, good agreement is observed at all projectile energies, showing that the present model is sufficient to explain all the experimental data for double-differential cross sections. However, some degree of discrepancy is observed at 2 MeV proton impact for small electron emission angles when CH4 molecular target is considered.

  20. Double ionization of helium by proton impact: from intermediate to high momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, Marcelo J.; Ancarani, Lorenzo U.; Gómez, Antonio I.; Gaggioli, Enzo L.; Mitnik, Darío M.; Gasaneo, Gustavo

    2017-05-01

    We study theoretically the double ionization of helium by 6 MeV proton impact. For such fast projectiles, when considering the projectile-target interaction to first order, the four-body Schrödinger equation reduces to solving a three-body driven equation. We solve it with a generalized Sturmian functions approach and, without evaluating a transition matrix element, we extract the transition amplitude directly from the asymptotic limit of the first order scattering solution. Fivefold differential cross sections (FDCS) are calculated for the double ionization process for a number of coplanar kinematical situations. We present a detailed theory-experiment comparison for intermediate momentum transfers (from 0.8 to 1.2 a.u. and from 1.4 to 2.0 a.u.). In spite of some experimental restrictions (energy and momentum ranges) and the low count rates, we found that our theoretical description provides a very satisfactory reproduction of the measured data on relative scale. We then explore how the binary, recoil and back-to-back structures change with increasing momentum transfers (0.853 to 1.656, to 3.0 a.u.). Within the impulsive regime, with a momentum transfer of 3.0 a.u., we also analyze the FDCS for different excess energies. Finally, in analogy to an experimentalist gathering electrons with different excess energies to obtain enough counts, we provide a collective FDCS prediction that hopefully will stimulate further measurements. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces", edited by A.N. Grum-Grzhimailo, E.V. Gryzlova, Yu.V. Popov, and A.V. Solov'yov.

  1. Detection of internal fields in double-metal terahertz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Han, Zhanghua; Ding, Fei; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Brener, Igal; Reno, John L.

    2017-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) double-metal plasmonic resonators enable enhanced light-matter coupling by exploiting strong field confinement. The double-metal design however restricts access to the internal fields. We propose and demonstrate a method for spatial mapping and spectroscopic analysis of the internal electromagnetic fields in double-metal plasmonic resonators. We use the concept of image charges and aperture-type scanning near-field THz time-domain microscopy to probe the fields confined within the closed resonator. The experimental method opens doors to studies of light-matter coupling in deeply sub-wavelength volumes at THz frequencies.

  2. Single, double and triple ionization of tetraphenyl iron(III) porphyrin chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feil, S.; Winkler, M.; Sulzer, P.; Ptasinska, S.; Denifl, S.; Zappa, F.; Krautler, B.; Mark, T. D.; Scheier, P.

    2006-09-01

    Tetraphenyl iron(III) porphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) cations are generated in the gas phase by electron impact ionization. The ionization is accompanied by extensive fragmentation as well as formation of doubly and triply charged ions. The most prominent fragments are analyzed and identified by fitting with calculated natural isotope patterns. Appearance energies of the most abundant singly and doubly charged product ions are determined. For the singly charged parent ions FeTPPCl+, CuTPP+ and the fragment ion FeTPP+ we obtain a value of 9.7 +/- 0.5 eV which is about 3 eV higher than the value published for photo ionization of FeTPPCl. The appearance energy of the doubly charged ion FeTPP2+ is obtained to be 18 eV. The additional loss of one or two phenyl groups requires between 10 and 14 eV more for singly and doubly charged ions. Also, the metastable decay of singly and doubly charged ions is investigated with the mass analyzed ion kinetic energy (MIKE) scan technique, performed on a three sector field mass spectrometer (BEE-geometry). In the mass spectrum and the MIKE scans a strongly reduced stability of the porphyrin ions is observed with increasing charge state.

  3. The Contribution of Field OB Stars to the Ionization of the Diffuse Ionized Gas in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopes, Charles G.; Walterbos, René A. M.

    2000-10-01

    We present a study of the ionizing stars associated with the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) and H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. We compare our Schmidt Hα image to the far-ultraviolet (FUV, 1520 Å) image from the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). The Hα/FUV ratio is higher in H II regions than in the DIG, suggesting an older population of ionizing stars in the DIG. Assuming ionization equilibrium, we convert the Hα flux to the number of Lyman continuum photons NLyc. When compared to models of evolving stellar populations, the NLyc/FUV ratio in H II regions is consistent with a young burst, while the DIG ratio resembles an older burst population, or a steady state population built up by constant star formation, which is probably a more accurate description of the stellar population in the field. The UIT data is complemented with archival FUV and optical images of a small portion of the disk of M33 obtained with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These images overlap low- and mid-luminosity H II regions as well as DIG, so we can investigate the stellar population in these environments. Using the HST FUV and optical photometry, we assign spectral types to the stars observed in DIG and H II regions. The photometry indicates that ionizing stars are present in the DIG. We compare the predicted ionizing flux with the amount required to produce the observed Hα emission, and we find that field OB stars in the HST images can account for 40%+/-12% of the ionization of the DIG, while the stars in H II regions can provide 107%+/-26% of the Hα luminosity of the H II regions. Due to the limited coverage of the HST data, we cannot determine if stars outside the HST fields ionize some of the DIG located in the HST fields, nor can we determine if photons from stars inside the HST fields leak out of the area covered by the HST fields. We do not find any correlation between leakage of ionizing photons and Hα luminosity for the H II regions in our HST

  4. Double L{sub 3}M ionization of Pd induced by impact with medium-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kayser, Y.; Schenker, J.-L.; Kavcic, M.; Zitnik, M.

    2011-02-15

    The electron-induced L{sub 3}M two-step double ionization cross sections of metallic Pd were determined experimentally for incident electron beam energies ranging from the double ionization threshold up to 18 keV. The double L{sub 3}M ionization cross sections were derived from the intensity ratios (I{sub L{alpha}M}:I{sub L{alpha}}) of the resolved M satellites to the parent diagram lines. The sample was bombarded with monoenergetic electrons from an energy-tunable 20-kV electron gun. The diagram and M-satellite x-ray lines were measured by means of high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy, using a reflection-type von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer. The two-step partial cross sections were determined by subtracting from the measured total double ionization cross sections the contributions due to the shake process and L{sub 1}-L{sub 3}M{sub 4,5} Coster-Kronig transitions. Despite the thick target employed in the present study, the dependence of the two-step cross sections on the incoming electron energy could be derived using a target slice decomposition method. It is shown that the obtained energy dependence can be well reproduced by the semiempirical parametrization model of Pattard and Rost.

  5. Ionizing Radiation Effects on Graphene Based Field Effects Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrou, Konstantinos

    Graphene, first isolated in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, is an atomically thin two-dimensional layer of hexagonal carbon that has been extensively studied due to its unique electronic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties. Its vast potential has led to the development of a wide variety of novel devices such as, transistors, solar cells, batteries and sensors that offer significant advantages over the conventional microelectronic ones. Although graphene-based devices show very promising performance characteristics, limited has been done in order to evaluate how these devices operate in a radiation harsh environment. Undesirable phenomena such as total dose effects, single event upsets, displacement damage and soft errors that silicon-based devices are prone to, can have a detrimental impact on performance and reliability. Similarly, the significant effects of irradiation on carbon nanotubes indicate the potential for related radiation induced defects in carbon-based materials, such as graphene. In this work, we fabricate graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) and systematically study the various effects of ionizing radiation on the material and device level. Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) along with standard lithographic and shadow masking techniques, was used for the transistor fabrication. GFETs were subjected to different radiation sources, such as, beta particles (electron radiation), gamma (photons) and ions (alpha, protons and Fe particles) under various radiation doses and energies. The effects on graphene's crystal structure, transport properties and doping profile were examined by using a variety of characterization tools and techniques. We demonstrate not only the mechanisms of ionized charge build up in the substrate and displacement damage effects on GFET performance, but also that atmospheric adsorbents from the surrounding environment can have a significant impact on the radiation hardness of graphene. We

  6. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  7. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-15

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  8. scid mutation in mice confers hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and a deficiency in DNA double-strand break repair

    SciTech Connect

    Biedermann, K.A.; Sun, J.R.; Giaccia, A.J.; Tosto, L.M.; Brown, J.M. )

    1991-02-15

    C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice carry the scid mutation and are severely deficient in both T cell- and B cell-mediated immunity, apparently as a result of defective V(D)J joining of the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene elements. In the present studies, we have defined the tissue, cellular, and molecular basis of another characteristic of these mice: their hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Bone marrow stem cells, intestinal crypt cells, and epithelial skin cells from scid mice are 2- to 3-fold more sensitive when irradiated in situ than are congenic BALB/c or C.B-17 controls. Two independently isolated embryo fibroblastic scid mouse cell lines display similar hypersensitivities to gamma-rays. In addition, these cell lines are sensitive to cell killing by bleomycin, which also produces DNA strand breaks, but not by the DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C or UV irradiation. Measurement of the rejoining of gamma-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicates that these animals are defective in this repair system. This suggests that the gamma-ray sensitivity of the scid mouse fibroblasts could be the result of reduced repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Therefore, a common factor may participate in both the repair of DNA double-strand breaks as well as V(D)J rejoining during lymphocyte development. This murine autosomal recessive mutation should prove extremely useful in fundamental studies of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair.

  9. Double K-shell ionization accompanying internal conversion of the 0.662-MeV transition in 137Bam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, H. J.; Brady, K. E.; Schupp, G.

    1988-12-01

    Double ionization of the atomic K shell accompanying K-shell internal conversion of the 0.662-MeV transition of 137Bam has been studied by recording coincidences between Kα hypersatellite x rays and Kα satellite x rays emitted when the double vacancies are filled. The probability per K-shell internal conversion that a double vacancy is formed, PKK(IC), was found to be (10.0+/-0.9)×10-5 which is in general agreement with less precise earlier experiments, but is a factor of 2.7+/-0.3 larger than the relativistic, one-step theory of Mukoyama and Shimizu.

  10. Canonical formulation and conserved charges of double field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Naseer, Usman

    2015-10-26

    We provide the canonical formulation of double field theory. It is shown that this dynamics is subject to primary and secondary constraints. The Poisson bracket algebra of secondary constraints is shown to close on-shell according to the C-bracket. We also give a systematic way of writing boundary integrals in doubled geometry. Finally, by including appropriate boundary terms in the double field theory Hamiltonian, expressions for conserved energy and momentum of an asymptotically flat doubled space-time are obtained and applied to a number of solutions.

  11. Evaluation of volcano-style field ionization source and field emitting cathodes for mass spectrometry and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, S. E., Jr.; Spindt, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    A volcano-style field ionization source was tested with eight different gases: hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane, argon, neon, water vapor, and hydrogen sulfide. For ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and water, the ionization efficiency of the field ionization source was determined as a function of the electrical potential difference between the ionizer and its counterelectrode. The ionization efficiencies for the other gases were too low to be measured in the present apparatus. The operating characteristics of a field emission cathode, were studied, in the presence of the same eight gases at pressures up to 0.00001 torr. The presence of the gases caused little or no significant change in the electron emission from the cathodes. Results indicate that the field emission cathode has advantages over electrically heated cathodes as a source of an electron beam in spacecraft mass spectrometers.

  12. Alignment- and orientation-dependent strong-field ionization of molecules: Field-induced orbital distortion effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiewanowski, Maciej Dominik; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2015-05-01

    Strong-field ionization (SFI) is a starting point for many strong-field phenomena, e.g., high-order harmonic generation, as well as a source of fundamental information about the ionized target. Therefore, investigation of SFI of atoms and molecules has been the aim for research since the first strong laser pulses became available. We present a recently developed method, adiabatic strong-field approximation, to study ionization yields as a function of alignment angle for CO2, CO, and OCS molecules. We show that orbital distortion plays an important role in explaining the position and relative strength of maxima in the yields for both polar and nonpolar molecules, even for targets with low polarizabilities at low laser intensities. In particular, we report that for ionization of CO2 the maximum in ionization yield shifts towards the experimentally-measured maximum with respect to the strong-field approximation. For ionization of the CO molecule, not only does the theory predict the preferred direction of ionization correctly, but also the ratio between yields for the two molecular orientations where the electric field points either towards the C or towards the O end. Finally, we find that ionization of OCS is more probable for the laser pointing from the O end towards the S end. Work supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the ERC-StG (Project No. 277767-TDMET), and the VKR center of excellence, QUS- COPE.

  13. Low Field Laser Ionization of Argon Clusters: The Remarkable Fragmentation Dynamics of Doubly Ionized Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Lionel; Raffael, Kevin D.; Gaveau, Marc-André; Soep, Benoît; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Caillat, Jérémie; Taïeb, Richard; Maquet, Alfred

    2007-09-01

    We have investigated the fission following a Coulomb explosion in argon clusters (up to Ar800) irradiated by a femtosecond infrared laser with moderate intensity IL≈1013Wcm-2. We report the a priori surprising observation of well-defined velocity distributions of the ionized fragments Arn<50+. This is interpreted by the formation of a valence shell excited charged ion, followed by relaxation, charge transfer by autoionizing collision at very short distance, and asymmetric fission.

  14. Low field laser ionization of argon clusters: the remarkable fragmentation dynamics of doubly ionized clusters.

    PubMed

    Poisson, Lionel; Raffael, Kevin D; Gaveau, Marc-André; Soep, Benoît; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Caillat, Jérémie; Taïeb, Richard; Maquet, Alfred

    2007-09-07

    We have investigated the fission following a Coulomb explosion in argon clusters (up to Ar800) irradiated by a femtosecond infrared laser with moderate intensity IL approximately 10(13) W cm(-2). We report the a priori surprising observation of well-defined velocity distributions of the ionized fragments Ar+n<50. This is interpreted by the formation of a valence shell excited charged ion, followed by relaxation, charge transfer by autoionizing collision at very short distance, and asymmetric fission.

  15. One- and two-photon ionization of DNA single and double helices studied by laser flash photolysis at 266 nm.

    PubMed

    Marguet, Sylvie; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Talbot, Francis

    2006-06-15

    The ionization of the DNA single and double helices (dA)20, (dT)20, (dAdT)10(dAdT)10 and (dA)20(dT)20, induced by nanosecond pulses at 266 nm, is studied by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The variation of the hydrated electron concentration with the absorbed laser intensity shows that, in addition to two-photon ionization, one-photon ionization takes place for (dAdT)10(dAdT)10, (dA)20(dT)20 and (dA)20 but not for (dT)20. The spectra of all adenine-containing oligomers at the microsecond time-scale correspond to the adenine deprotonated radical formed in concentrations comparable to that of the hydrated electron. The quantum yield for one-photon ionization of the oligomers (ca. 10(-3)) is higher by at least 1 order of magnitude than that of dAMP, showing clearly that organization of the bases in single and double helices leads to an important lowering of the ionization potential. The propensity of (dAdT)10(dAdT)10, containing alternating adenine-thymine sequences, to undergo one-photon ionization is lower than that of (dA)20(dT)20 and (dA)20, containing adenine runs. Pairing of the (dA)20 with the complementary strand leads to a decrease of quantum yield for one photon ionization by about a factor of 2.

  16. Investigating two-photon double ionization of D{sub 2} by XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Toppin, M.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Perez-Torres, J. F.; Plesiat, E.; Morales, F.; Martin, F.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Jahnke, T.; Doerner, R.; Sanz-Vicario, J. L.; Tilborg, J. van; Belkacem, A.

    2010-05-15

    We used a split-mirror setup attached to a reaction microscope at the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) to perform an XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiment by tracing the ultrafast nuclear wave-packet motion in the D{sub 2}{sup +}(1s{sigma}{sub g}) with <10 fs time resolution. Comparison with time-dependent calculations shows excellent agreement with the measured vibrational period of 22{+-}4 fs in D{sub 2}{sup +}, points to the importance of accurately knowing the internuclear distance-dependent ionization probability, and paves the way to control sequential and nonsequential two-photon double-ionization contributions.

  17. Strong field ionization tomography with two-color circularly polarized femtosecond laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Mancuso, Chris; Hickstein, Daniel; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Dollar, Franklin; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Turgut, Emrah; Ellis, Jennifer; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Kfir, Ofer; Cohen, Oren; Fleischer, Avner; Tong, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ming-Chang

    2015-03-01

    Recent experiments using two-color circularly polarized laser fields have demonstrated that high-harmonic generation (HHG), a versatile tabletop source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, can be now extended to from linear to circular polarization. Here we present the first experiments using these uniquely polarized light fields to study strong field ionization (SFI), which is the complementary process to HHG. Using a velocity map imaging photoelectron spectroscopy and tomographic reconstruction techniques, we identify low-energy structures in the 3D photoelectron angular distributions that correspond to the rescattering of electrons with the ion. The observation of rescattering structures confirms the proposed explanation for HHG under two-color fields and paves the way for next-generation spectroscopies to investigate molecular structure.

  18. Application of hollow anodes in a Hall thruster with double-peak magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yongjie; Sun, Hezhi; Li, Peng; Wei, Liqiu; Su, Hongbo; Peng, Wuji; Li, Hong; Yu, Daren

    2017-08-01

    A low-power Hall thruster was designed with two permanent magnet rings. Unlike conventional Hall thrusters, this one has a symmetrical double-peak magnetic field with a larger gradient. Moreover, the highest magnetic field strength appears in the plume region; hence, the distance from the zero-magnetic region to the channel outlet is shorter than that of other Hall thrusters. This paper presents the law and mechanism of the effect of a U-shaped hollow anode with the front end in the zero-magnetic region and anodes at the first magnetic peak and zero-magnetic point (corresponding to the front and rear end faces of the U-shaped anode, respectively) on the discharge characteristics of the thruster. The study shows that the overall performance of the hollow anode under the same operating conditions is the highest. For the anode at the magnetic peak, although the ionization rate is the highest, most of the ions generated by ionization collide with the walls, causing greater energy loss and minimizing its performance. For the anode at the zero-magnetic point, although its maximum ionization rate is higher than that of the hollow anode, and the power deposition on the walls is slightly smaller, its propellant utilization and voltage utilization are lower than those of the hollow anode; furthermore, its overall performance is poorer than that of the hollow anode because of the short channel and shorter ionization region.

  19. Homologous recombination repairs secondary replication induced DNA double-strand breaks after ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Petra; Orta, Manuel Luís; Elvers, Ingegerd; Majumder, Muntasir Mamun; Lagerqvist, Anne; Helleday, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) produces direct two-ended DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) primarily repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). It is, however, well established that homologous recombination (HR) is induced and required for repair of a subset of DSBs formed following IR. Here, we find that HR induced by IR is drastically reduced when post-DNA damage replication is inhibited in mammalian cells. Both IR-induced RAD51 foci and HR events in the hprt gene are reduced in the presence of replication polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin (APH). Interestingly, we also detect reduced IR-induced toxicity in HR deficient cells when inhibiting post-DNA damage replication. When studying DSB formation following IR exposure, we find that apart from the direct DSBs the treatment also triggers formation of secondary DSBs peaking at 7–9 h after exposure. These secondary DSBs are restricted to newly replicated DNA and abolished by inhibiting post-DNA damage replication. Further, we find that IR-induced RAD51 foci are decreased by APH only in cells replicating at the time of IR exposure, suggesting distinct differences between IR-induced HR in S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle. Altogether, our data indicate that secondary replication-associated DSBs formed following exposure to IR are major substrates for IR-induced HR repair. PMID:22505579

  20. Homologous recombination repairs secondary replication induced DNA double-strand breaks after ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Groth, Petra; Orta, Manuel Luís; Elvers, Ingegerd; Majumder, Muntasir Mamun; Lagerqvist, Anne; Helleday, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) produces direct two-ended DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) primarily repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). It is, however, well established that homologous recombination (HR) is induced and required for repair of a subset of DSBs formed following IR. Here, we find that HR induced by IR is drastically reduced when post-DNA damage replication is inhibited in mammalian cells. Both IR-induced RAD51 foci and HR events in the hprt gene are reduced in the presence of replication polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin (APH). Interestingly, we also detect reduced IR-induced toxicity in HR deficient cells when inhibiting post-DNA damage replication. When studying DSB formation following IR exposure, we find that apart from the direct DSBs the treatment also triggers formation of secondary DSBs peaking at 7-9 h after exposure. These secondary DSBs are restricted to newly replicated DNA and abolished by inhibiting post-DNA damage replication. Further, we find that IR-induced RAD51 foci are decreased by APH only in cells replicating at the time of IR exposure, suggesting distinct differences between IR-induced HR in S- and G2-phases of the cell cycle. Altogether, our data indicate that secondary replication-associated DSBs formed following exposure to IR are major substrates for IR-induced HR repair.

  1. Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yueming; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Peixiang

    2011-08-01

    With the classical ensemble model, we investigate the manifestations of the Coulomb tail of electron-electron interaction in nonsequential double ionization by comparing the results from the short-range electron-electron interaction with those from the Coulombic electron-electron interaction. At the intensity below the recollision threshold, the two-electron momentum distributions in the direction parallel to the laser polarization show an anticorrelated behavior for the Coulombic electron-electron interaction while a correlated behavior for the short-range interaction, which indicates the responsibility of the Coulomb tail of the electron-electron interaction for the experimentally observed anticorrelated emission [Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.053001 101, 053001 (2008)]. In the transverse direction, for the Coulombic electron-electron interaction, the two electrons exhibit no effect of repulsion at an intensity below the recollision threshold while a strong repulsion effect at an intensity above the threshold, which becomes weaker as the laser intensity further increases. Back analysis shows that the role of the Coulomb tail of electron-electron interaction leads asymmetric energy sharing (AES) to be prevalent at recollision. This AES results in the two electrons leaving the ion at different times or with different initial momenta, which is responsible for the anticorrelated behavior in the parallel direction and the intensity-dependent repulsion effect in the transverse direction.

  2. Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yueming; Huang Cheng; Lu Peixiang

    2011-08-15

    With the classical ensemble model, we investigate the manifestations of the Coulomb tail of electron-electron interaction in nonsequential double ionization by comparing the results from the short-range electron-electron interaction with those from the Coulombic electron-electron interaction. At the intensity below the recollision threshold, the two-electron momentum distributions in the direction parallel to the laser polarization show an anticorrelated behavior for the Coulombic electron-electron interaction while a correlated behavior for the short-range interaction, which indicates the responsibility of the Coulomb tail of the electron-electron interaction for the experimentally observed anticorrelated emission [Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008)]. In the transverse direction, for the Coulombic electron-electron interaction, the two electrons exhibit no effect of repulsion at an intensity below the recollision threshold while a strong repulsion effect at an intensity above the threshold, which becomes weaker as the laser intensity further increases. Back analysis shows that the role of the Coulomb tail of electron-electron interaction leads asymmetric energy sharing (AES) to be prevalent at recollision. This AES results in the two electrons leaving the ion at different times or with different initial momenta, which is responsible for the anticorrelated behavior in the parallel direction and the intensity-dependent repulsion effect in the transverse direction.

  3. Double-ionization satellites in the x-ray emission spectrum of Ni metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, Ryan A.; Jahrman, Evan P.; Kas, Joshua J.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2017-09-01

    We report measurements of the nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) from Ni metal in an energy range spanning the K β diagram line, valence-to-core emission, and double-ionization (DI) satellites that appear beyond the single-particle Fermi level. We make special use of a laboratory-based x-ray spectrometer capable of both x-ray emission and x-ray absorption measurements to accurately align the XES and x-ray absorption spectra to a common energy scale. The careful alignment of energy scales is requisite for correction of the strong sample absorption of DI fluorescence above the Ni K -edge energy. The successful correction of absorption effects allows a determination of the branching ratios for the [1 s 3 d ], [1 s 3 p ], [1 s 2 p ] and [1 s 2 s ] satellites with respect to their corresponding diagram lines. We compare our results with other work, finding good agreement with prior experiments and with theoretical calculations in the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock framework.

  4. Directional deprotonation ionization of acetylene in asymmetric two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiying; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Pan, Haifeng; Ding, Jingxin; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally investigate the deprotonation dissociative double ionization of an acetylene molecule by an asymmetric two-color laser pulse. We find that the ejection direction of the proton, and hence the directional C-H bond breaking of a polyatomic hydrocarbon molecule, can be controlled by finely tuning the phase of a two-color laser pulse.

  5. Ionization in an intense field considering Coulomb correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Huo, Yi-Ning; Tang, Zeng-Hua; Ma, Feng-Cai

    2017-01-01

    We derive a simple ionization rate formula for the ground state of a hydrogen atom in the velocity gauge under the conditions: ω \\ll 1 a.u. (a.u. is short for atomic unit) and γ \\ll 1 (ω is the laser frequency and γ is the Keldysh parameter). Comparisons are made among the different versions of the Keldysh–Faisal–Reiss (KFR) theory. The numerical study shows that with considering the quasi-classical (WKB) Coulomb correction in the final state of the ionized electron, the photoionization rate is enhanced compared with without considering the Coulomb correction, and the Reiss theory with the WKB Coulomb correction gives the correct result in the tunneling regime. Our concise formula of the ionization rate may provide an insight into the ionization mechanism for the ground state of a hydrogen atom. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274149 and 11304185) and the Program of Shenyang Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, China (Grant No. F12-254-1-00).

  6. Ionization of a lithium ion by electron impact in a strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh Deb, S.; Sinha, C.; Chattopadhyay, A.

    2011-12-15

    The modification in the dynamics of the electron-impact ionization process of a Li{sup +} ion due to an intense linearly polarized monochromatic laser field (n{gamma}e,2e) is studied theoretically using coplanar geometry. Significant laser modifications are noted due to multiphoton effects both in the shape and magnitude of the triple-differential cross sections (TDCSs) with respect to the field-free (FF) situation. The net effect of the laser field is to suppress the FF cross sections in the zeroth-order approximation [Coulomb-Volkov (CV)] of the ejected electron wave function, while in the first order [modified Coulomb-Volkov (MCV)], the TDCSs are found to be enhanced or suppressed depending on the kinematics of the process. The strong FF recoil dominance for the (e,2e) process of an ionic target at low incident energy is destroyed in the presence of the laser field. The FF binary-to-recoil ratio changes remarkably in the presence of the laser field, particularly at low incident energies. The difference between the multiphoton CV and the FF results indicates that for the ionic target, the Kroll-Watson sum rule does not hold well at the present energy range in contrast to the neutral atom (He) case. The TDCSs are found to be quite sensitive with respect to the initial phase of the laser field, particularly at higher incident energies. A significant qualitative difference is noted in the multiphoton ejected energy distribution (double-differential cross sections) between the CV and the MCV models. Variation of the TDCSs with respect to the laser phase is also studied.

  7. Phase singularity in the diffracted field from Fresnel's double mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalipour, Rasoul; Taghi Tavassoly, M.

    2013-05-01

    It is shown that when a coherent beam of light illuminates a Fresnel's double mirror, Fresnel diffraction becomes appreciable. The subject fundamentally differs from interference. We calculate the diffracted field by applying Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral. We modified the common Fresnel's double mirror by imposing an initial height between the mirrors, as the height is chosen small enough so that the application of Fresnel's double mirror is maintained. We show by simulation and experiment that a phase singularity causes from the initial height and modifies the diffracted field from the Fresnel's double mirror. One can adjust the location of the line singularity by changing the angle between the mirrors. Also, the anomalous behavior of a polychromatic beam diffracted from the modified Fresnel's double mirror at the neighborhood of the line singularity, is investigated by simulation.

  8. Low Field Laser Ionization of Argon Clusters: The Remarkable Fragmentation Dynamics of Doubly Ionized Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Poisson, Lionel; Raffael, Kevin D.; Gaveau, Marc-Andre; Soep, Benoit; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel; Caillat, Jeremie; Taieeb, Richard; Maquet, Alfred

    2007-09-07

    We have investigated the fission following a Coulomb explosion in argon clusters (up to Ar{sub 800}) irradiated by a femtosecond infrared laser with moderate intensity I{sub L}{approx_equal}10{sup 13} W cm{sup -2}. We report the a priori surprising observation of well-defined velocity distributions of the ionized fragments Ar{sub n<50}{sup +}. This is interpreted by the formation of a valence shell excited charged ion, followed by relaxation, charge transfer by autoionizing collision at very short distance, and asymmetric fission.

  9. Hole dynamics and spin currents after ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga

    2014-10-01

    We apply the time-dependent analytical R-matrix theory to develop a movie of hole motion in a Kr atom upon ionization by strong circularly polarized field. We find rich hole dynamics, ranging from rotation to swinging motion. The motion of the hole depends on the final energy and the spin of the photoelectron and can be controlled by the laser frequency and intensity. Crucially, hole rotation is a purely non-adiabatic effect, completely missing in the framework of quasistatic (adiabatic) tunneling theories. We explore the possibility to use hole rotation as a clock for measuring ionization time. Analyzing the relationship between the relative phases in different ionization channels we show that in the case of short-range electron-core interaction the hole is always initially aligned along the instantaneous direction of the laser field, signifying zero delays in ionization. Finally, we show that strong-field ionization in circular fields creates spin currents (i.e. different flow of spin-up and spin-down density in space) in the ions. This phenomenon is intimately related to the production of spin-polarized electrons in strong laser fields Barth and Smirnova (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 013401). We demonstrate that rich spin dynamics of electrons and holes produced during strong field ionization can occur in typical experimental conditions and does not require relativistic intensities or strong magnetic fields.

  10. Ultralow-voltage field-ionization discharge on whiskered silicon nanowires for gas-sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Banan Sadeghian, Ramin; Islam, M Saif; Saif Islam, M

    2011-02-01

    Several hundred million volts per centimetre of electric-field strength are required to field-ionize gas species. Such fields are produced on sharp metallic tips under a bias of a few kilovolts. Here, we show that field ionization is possible at dramatically lower fields on semiconductor nanomaterials containing surface states, particularly with metal-catalysed whiskers grown on silicon nanowires. The low-voltage field-ionization phenomena observed here cannot be explained solely on the basis of the large field-amplification effect of suspended gold nanoparticles present on the whisker tips. We postulate that field penetration causes upward band-bending at the surface of exposed silicon containing surface states in the vicinity of the catalyst. Band-bending enables the valence electron to tunnel into the surface states at reduced fields. This work provides a basis for development of low-voltage ionization sensors. Although demonstrated on silicon, low-voltage field ionization can be detected on any sharp semiconductor tip containing proper surface states.

  11. Detection of internal fields in double-metal terahertz resonators

    DOE PAGES

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Han, Zhanghua; Ding, Fei; ...

    2017-02-06

    (THz) plasmonic double-metal resonators enable enhanced light-matter coupling by utilizing strong localization of the resonant field. The closed resonator design however restricts investigations of the light-matter interaction effects. We propose and demonstrate a method for spatial mapping and spectroscopic analysis of the internal resonant THz fields in plasmonic double-metal THz resonators. We use the aperture-type scanning near-field THz time-domain microscopy and the concept of image charges to probe the THz fields confined within the resonator. The experimental method opens doors to studies of light-matter coupling in deeply sub-wavelength volumes at THz frequencies.

  12. Selective strong-field enhancement and suppression of ionization with short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, N. A.; Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Paulus, G. G.; Bauer, D.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate robust selective excitation and attenuation of atomic Rydberg level populations in sodium vapor (Na i) using intense laser pulses in the strong-field limit (>1012W /c m2 ). Coherent control of the atomic population and related ionization channels is realized for intensities above the over-the-barrier ionization intensity. Moreover, atomic excitation selectivity and high ionization yield are simultaneously achieved without the need to tailor the spectral phase of the laser. A qualitative model confirms that this strong-field coherent control arises through the manifestation of a Freeman resonance.

  13. Breakdown of the Strong-Field Approximation for Transverse Electron Momentum Distributions in Strong-Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Robert; Calvert, J. E.; Goodall, S.; Wang, X.; Xu, H.; Palmer, A. J.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.; Kielpinski, D.; Litvinyuk, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the transverse electron momentum distributions for the strong field ionization of atoms by laser pulses with varying ellipticity. We investigated two ionization regimes; tunelling and over the barrier ionization regimes. The over the barrier regime was accessed by using neon atoms in excited atomic metastable states and is the first such strong-field experiment to use such an atomic species. We will show that the transverse momentum distributions evolve in qualitatively different when the ellipticity of the driving laser pulses is varied. email: R.Sang@griffith.edu.au

  14. Double-differential cross sections for the ionization-excitation of the helium by fast proton and antiproton impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osváth, Z.; Nagy, L.

    2000-07-01

    Calculated double differential cross sections are presented for the simultaneous ionization and excitation into the 2p state of the helium atom by fast proton and antiproton impact. We have used the semiclassical impact parameter method and the transition amplitude was calculated in second-order perturbation approximation. We have investigated the dependence of the cross sections on the sign of the projectile charge, and have analyzed the influence on the results of the inclusion of electron correlation in the initial state.

  15. Ionization Study of Isomeric Molecules in Strong-field Laser Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Zigo, Stefan; Le, Anh-Thu; Timilsina, Pratap; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Through the use of the technique of time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, we obtain strong-field ionization yields for randomly oriented 1,2-dichloroethylene (1,2-DCE) (C2H2Cl2) and 2-butene (C4H8). We are interested in studying the effect of conformal structure in strong-field ionization and, in particular, the role of molecular polarity. That is, we can perform strong-field ionization studies in polar vs non-polar molecules that have the same chemical composition. We report our findings through the ionization yields and the ratio (trans/cis) of each stereoisomer pair as a function of intensity. PMID:28186110

  16. Ionization Study of Isomeric Molecules in Strong-field Laser Pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Zigo, Stefan; Le, Anh-Thu; Timilsina, Pratap; ...

    2017-02-10

    Through the use of the technique of time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, we obtain strong-field ionization yields for randomly oriented 1,2-dichloroethylene (1,2-DCE) (C2H2Cl2) and 2-butene (C4H8). Here, we are interested in studying the effect of conformal structure in strong-field ionization and, in particular, the role of molecular polarity. That is, we can perform strong-field ionization studies in polar vs non-polar molecules that have the same chemical composition. Here, we report our findings through the ionization yields and the ratio (trans/cis) of each stereoisomer pair as a function of intensity.

  17. Effect of "ionized" wrist bracelets on musculoskeletal pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bratton, Robert L; Montero, Daniel P; Adams, Kevin S; Novas, Mark A; McKay, Tracy C; Hall, Linda J; Foust, Joseph G; Mueller, Michael B; O'Brien, Peter C; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Maurer, Megan S

    2002-11-01

    To assess objectively the perceived benefits of wearing an "ionized" wrist bracelet to treat muscle or joint pain. This study was performed at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla, in 2000 and 2001. In a randomized, double-blind design, 305 participants wore an ionized bracelet and 305 wore a placebo bracelet for 4 weeks. For each location where pain was present at baseline, participants rated the intensity of pain. Follow-up ratings were made after 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of wearing the bracelet. Two primary end points were defined for evaluating efficacy. The first was the change at 4-week follow-up (day 28) in the pain score at the location with the highest baseline value (maximum pain score). The second was the change at 4-week follow-up in the sum of the pain scores for all locations. Analysis of the data showed significant improvement in pain scores in both groups, but no differences were observed between the group wearing the placebo bracelet and the group wearing the ionized bracelet. The finding that subjective improvement in pain scores was equivalent with ionized and placebo bracelet use questions the benefit of using an ionized bracelet. New treatments in alternative medical therapy must be shown to be effective through vigorous, unbiased, objective testing before physicians acknowledge potential benefits or recommend these treatments to patients.

  18. Multiphoton and tunneling ionization probability of atoms and molecules in an intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Song-Feng; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Xin

    2014-02-01

    We theoretically studied ionization of atoms exposed to an intense laser field by using three different methods, i.e., the numerical solution of the single-active-electron approximation based time-dependent Schrödinger equation (SAE-TDSE), the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) model, and the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) model. The ionization of several linear molecules in a strong laser field is also investigated with the molecular ADK (MO-ADK) and the molecular PPT (MO-PPT) model. We show that the ionization probability from the PPT and the MO-PPT model agrees well with the corresponding SAE-TDSE result in both the multiphoton and tunneling ionization regimes. By considering the volume effect of the laser field, the ionization signal obtained from the PPT and the MO-PPT model fits well the experimental data in the whole range of the multiphoton and tunneling ionization regimes. However, both the ADK and MO-ADK models seriously underestimate the ionization probabilities (or signals) in the multiphoton regime.

  19. Interpretation of the electric fields measured in an ionospheric critical ionization velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenning, N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Marklund, G.; Haerendel, G.; Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R.

    1991-01-01

    The quasi-dc electric fields measured in the CRIT I ionospheric release experiment are studied. In the experiment, two identical barium shaped charges were fired toward a main payload, and three-dimensional measurements of the electric field inside the streams were made. The relevance of proposed mechanisms for electron heating in the critical ionization velocity (CIV) mechanism is addressed. It is concluded that both the 'homogeneous' and the 'ionizing front' models probably are valid, but in different parts of the streams. It is also possible that electrons are directly accelerated by a magnetic field-aligned component of the electric field. The coupling between the ambient ionosphere and the ionized barium stream is more complicated that is usually assumed in CIV theories, with strong magnetic-field-aligned electric fields and probably current limitation as important processes.

  20. Calculations of photoelectron momentum distributions and energy spectra at strong-field multiphoton ionization of sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunjac, Andrej; Popović, Duška B.; Simonović, Nenad S.

    2017-08-01

    Multiphoton ionization of sodium by a femtosecond laser pulse of 760 nm wavelength and different peak intensities is studied by inspecting the photoelectron angular and momentum distributions and the energy spectra. For this purpose a single-electron model of the atom interacting with the electromagnetic field is used, and the distributions are determined by calculating the evolution of the electron wave function. Beside the most prominent distribution maxima related to the four-photon ionization, the five-photon (above-threshold) ionization peaks are observed. Substructures in the main (nonresonant) maximum in the photoelectron spectra at the four-photon ionization are related to the resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization via intermediate 4 s, 4 f, 5 p, 5 f and 6 p states.

  1. The Influence of Stray Fields on the Ionization of Rydberg atoms at Metallic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Dennis; Pu, Yu; Dunning, F. Barry

    2010-03-01

    The effect of local surface electric (``patch'') fields on the ionization of xenon Rydberg atoms at metallic surfaces is examined. The patch fields are determined from measurements of the potential variations across the target surfaces using Kelvin probe force microscopy. These measurements are used in conjunction with a simple over-the-barrier model of ionization to predict the surface ionization characteristics for Rydberg atoms with a range of different n and angles of incidence. These predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements demonstrating the important role that patch fields play during Rydberg atom-surface interactions and suggesting that such interactions can provide a sensitive probe of stray fields at surfaces. These techniques are extended to lithographically patterned structures comprising two sets of interleaved ``comb-like'' electrodes to which different potentials can be applied. This allows control of the surface patch fields and direct study of their effects.

  2. Strong Field Molecular Ionization in the Impulsive Limit: Freezing Vibrations with Short Pulses.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Péter; Tagliamonti, Vincent; Zhao, Arthur; Rozgonyi, Tamás; Ruckenbauer, Matthias; Marquetand, Philipp; Weinacht, Thomas

    2016-02-12

    We study strong-field molecular ionization as a function of pulse duration. Experimental measurements of the photoelectron yield for a number of molecules reveal competition between different ionization continua (cationic states) which depends strongly on pulse duration. Surprisingly, in the limit of short pulse duration, we find that a single ionic continuum dominates the yield, whereas multiple continua are produced for longer pulses. Using calculations which take vibrational dynamics into account, we interpret our results in terms of nuclear motion and nonadiabatic dynamics during the ionization process.

  3. Integral-equation approach to the weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dnestryan, Andrey I.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.

    2016-03-01

    An integral equation approach to the weak-field asymptotic theory (WFAT) of tunneling ionization is developed. An integral representation for the exact partial amplitudes of ionization into parabolic channels is derived. The WFAT expansion for the ionization rate follows immediately from this relation. Integral representations for the coefficients in the expansion are obtained. The integrals accumulate where the ionizing orbital has large amplitude and are not sensitive to its behavior in the asymptotic region. Hence, these formulas enable one to reliably calculate the WFAT coefficients even if the orbital is represented by an expansion in Gaussian basis, as is usually the case in standard software packages for electronic structure calculations. This development is expected to greatly simplify the implementation of the WFAT for polyatomic molecules, and thus facilitate its growing applications in strong-field physics.

  4. Influence of resonant charge exchange on the viscosity of partially ionized plasma in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhdanov, V. M. Stepanenko, A. A.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of resonant charge exchange for ion-atom interaction on the viscosity of partially ionized plasma embedded in the magnetic field is investigated. The general system of equations used to derive the viscosity coefficients for an arbitrary plasma component in the 21-moment approximation of Grad’s method is presented. The expressions for the coefficients of total and partial viscosities of a multicomponent partially ionized plasma in the magnetic field are obtained. As an example, the coefficients of the parallel and transverse viscosities for the ionic and neutral components of the partially ionized hydrogen plasma are calculated. It is shown that the account for resonant charge exchange can lead to a substantial change of the parallel and transverse viscosity of the plasma components in the region of low degrees of ionization on the order of 0.1.

  5. Effect of an improved molecular potential on strong-field tunneling ionization of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Songfeng; Jin Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.

    2010-09-15

    We study the effect of one-electron model potentials on the tunneling ionization rates of molecules in strong fields. By including electron correlation using the modified Leeuwen-Baerends (LB {alpha}) model, the binding energies of outer shells of molecules are significantly improved. However, we show that the tunneling ionization rates from the LB {alpha} do not differ much from the earlier calculations [Phys. Rev. A 81, 033423 (2010)], in which the local correlation potential was neglected.

  6. Slowing the probe field in the second window of double-double electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, Hessa M. M.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2015-04-01

    For Doppler-broadened media operating under double-double electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions, we devise a scheme to control and reduce the probe-field group velocity at the center of the second transparency window. We derive numerical and approximate analytical solutions for the width of EIT windows and for the group velocities of the probe field at the two distinct transparency windows, and we show that the group velocities of the probe field can be lowered by judiciously choosing the physical parameters of the system. Our modeling enables us to identify three signal-field strength regimes (with a signal-field strength always higher than the probe-field strength), quantified by the Rabi frequency, for slowing the probe field. These three regimes correspond to a weak signal field, with the probe-field group velocity and transparency-window width both smaller for the second window compared to the first window, a medium-strength signal field, with a probe-field group velocity smaller in the second window than in the first window but with larger transparency-window width for the second window, and the strong signal field, with both group velocity and transparency-window width larger for the second window. Our scheme exploits the fact that the second transparency window is sensitive to a temperature-controlled signal-field nonlinearity, whereas the first transparency window is insensitive to this nonlinearity.

  7. Carrier-envelope-phase effects and V-like structure in nonsequential double ionization by elliptical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingbin; Yu, Benhai; Tang, Qingbin; Hua, Duanyang; Tong, Aihong; Jiang, Chenghuan; Shen, Naifeng; Li, Yongchao; Ge, Guixian; Wan, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    The nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of atom is revisited by elliptically polarized few-cycle laser pulse with the classical ensemble method. We focus on the events that both electrons emit into the same direction along the long and short axis of the laser polarization plane, and how do the correlated electron momentum spectra of these two events depends on the carrier-envelope-phase (CEP). We first exhibit that the double-ionization probability has a negligible dependence on CEP. Back analysis shows that the ionization dynamics of the second electron are strongly depend on the CEP, which is significantly responsible for the CEP-dependent correlated electron momentum spectra. Besides, the correlated electron momentum spectrum along the long axis of the laser polarization plane reproduces the so-called V-like structure (also called the figurelike structure) observed in experiments [A. Staudte, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007); A. Rudenko, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007)]. We sort the V-like shape into two regions and find that the different regions exhibit significantly different dynamics behaviors. Simultaneously, we demonstrate that the electron pairs emitted into the same direction along the short axis of the laser polarization plane is a result of the nuclear-electron attraction, and both the nuclear-electron attraction and e-e repulsion significantly contribute to the V-like structure.

  8. Wave-packet analysis of strong-field ionization of sodium in the quasistatic regime*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunjac, Andrej; Popović, Duška B.; Simonović, Nenad S.

    2016-05-01

    Strong field ionization of the sodium atom in the tunnelling and over-the-barrier regimes is studied by examining the valence electron wave-packet dynamics in the static electric field. The lowest state energy and the ionization rate determined by this method for different strengths of the applied field agree well with the results obtained using other methods. The initial period of the nonstationary decay after switching the field on is analyzed and discussed. It is demonstrated that, if the Keldysh parameter is significantly lower than one (quasistatic regime), the probability of ionization by a laser pulse can be obtained from the static rates. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  9. Correlated electron dynamics of nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses with different time durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Benhai; Li, Yingbin; Tang, Qingbin; Hua, Duanyang; Jia, Shasha

    2015-10-01

    With the fully classical ensemble model, we investigate the correlated electron dynamics of nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) by few-cycle laser pulses at 3T (T is the laser cycle) and compared it with the 6T case. For the 6T laser pulse, the momentum distribution of correlated electron in the direction parallel to the laser polarization exhibits a V-like structure which has been observed in the experiment. [Camus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 073003 (2012)]. However, for the 3T laser pulse, the momentum distribution shows a surprising arc-like structure. Meanwhile, the correlated electron momentum spectrum in the direction perpendicular to the laser polarization shows a more stronger anticorrelated behavior for the 3T laser pulse than that of the 6T laser pulse. By analyzing all the classical trajectories of NSDI, for the 3T laser pulse, the contribution to NSDI only comes from the first return and the latter returns are completely supressed, which is different from the case of the 6T laser pulse where not only the first return but also the latter returns contribute to the NSDI events. Moreover, the recolliding energies are often higher for the 3T laser pulse than that of the 6T laser pulse due to a more rapid turn on of laser field for the 3T laser pulse which plays a key role for the arc-like structure. The more energetic recollisions that occur in the 3T laser pulse lead to greater anticorrelation in the transverse momenta than is observed in the 6T laser pulse with less energetic recollisions.

  10. High-precision measurements of seawater Pb isotope compositions by double spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paul, Maxence; Bridgestock, Luke; Rehkämper, Mark; van DeFlierdt, Tina; Weiss, Dominik

    2015-03-10

    A new method for the determination of seawater Pb isotope compositions and concentrations was developed, which combines and optimizes previously published protocols for the separation and isotopic analysis of this element. For isotopic analysis, the procedure involves initial separation of Pb from 1 to 2L of seawater by co-precipitation with Mg hydroxide and further purification by a two stage anion exchange procedure. The Pb isotope measurements are subsequently carried out by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using a (207)Pb-(204)Pb double spike for correction of instrumental mass fractionation. These methods are associated with a total procedural Pb blank of 28±21 pg (1sd) and typical Pb recoveries of 40-60%. The Pb concentrations are determined by isotope dilution (ID) on 50 mL of seawater, using a simplified version of above methods. Analyses of multiple aliquots of six seawater samples yield a reproducibility of about ±1 to ±10% (1sd) for Pb concentrations of between 7 and 50 pmol/kg, where precision was primarily limited by the uncertainty of the blank correction (12±4 pg; 1sd). For the Pb isotope analyses, typical reproducibilities (±2sd) of 700-1500 ppm and 1000-2000 ppm were achieved for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb, respectively. These results are superior to literature data that were obtained using plasma source mass spectrometry and they are at least a factor of five more precise for ratios involving the minor (204)Pb isotope. Both Pb concentration and isotope data, furthermore, show good agreement with published results for two seawater intercomparison samples of the GEOTRACES program. Finally, the new methods were applied to a seawater depth profile from the eastern South Atlantic. Both Pb contents and isotope compositions display a smooth evolution with depth, and no obvious outliers. Compared to previous Pb isotope data for seawater, the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios are well correlated

  11. Adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna; Zeni, Olga; Romeo, Stefania; Massa, Rita; Gialanella, Giancarlo; Grossi, Gianfranco; Manti, Lorenzo; Vijayalaxmi; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to assess whether human peripheral blood lymphocytes which have been pre-exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields exhibit an adaptive response (AR) by resisting the induction of genetic damage from subsequent exposure to ionizing radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from four healthy donors were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 24 h and then exposed for 20 h to 1950 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF, adaptive dose, AD) at an average specific absorption rate of 0.3 W/kg. At 48 h, the cells were subjected to a challenge dose (CD) of 1.0 or 1.5 Gy X-irradiation (XR, challenge dose, CD). After a 72 h total culture period, cells were collected to examine the incidence of micronuclei (MN). There was a significant decrease in the number of MN in lymphocytes exposed to RF + XR (AD + CD) as compared with those subjected to XR alone (CD). These observations thus suggested a RF-induced AR and induction of resistance to subsequent damage from XR. There was variability between the donors in RF-induced AR. The data reported in our earlier investigations also indicated a similar induction of AR in human blood lymphocytes that had been pre-exposed to RF (AD) and subsequently treated with a chemical mutagen, mitomycin C (CD). Since XR and mitomycin-C induce different kinds of lesions in cellular DNA, further studies are required to understand the mechanism(s) involved in the RF-induced adaptive response.

  12. Field ionization of high-Rydberg fragments produced after inner-shell photoexcitation and photoionization of the methane molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Kivimäki, A.; Sankari, A.; Kettunen, J. A.; Stråhlman, C.; Álvarez Ruiz, J.; Richter, R.

    2015-09-21

    We have studied the production of neutral high-Rydberg (HR) fragments from the CH{sub 4} molecule at the C 1s → 3p excitation and at the C 1s ionization threshold. Neutral fragments in HR states were ionized using a pulsed electric field and the resulting ions were mass-analyzed using an ion time-of-flight spectrometer. The atomic fragments C(HR) and H(HR) dominated the spectra, but molecular fragments CH{sub x}(HR), x = 1-3, and H{sub 2}(HR) were also observed. The production of HR fragments is attributed to dissociation of CH{sub 4}{sup +} and CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} ions in HR states. Just above the C 1s ionization threshold, such molecular ionic states are created when the C 1s photoelectron is recaptured after single or double Auger decay. Similar HR states may be reached directly following resonant Auger decay at the C 1s → 3p resonance. The energies and geometries of the parent and fragment ions have been calculated in order to gain insight into relevant dissociation pathways.

  13. Field ionization of high-Rydberg fragments produced after inner-shell photoexcitation and photoionization of the methane molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivimäki, A.; Sankari, A.; Kettunen, J. A.; Strâhlman, C.; Álvarez Ruiz, J.; Richter, R.

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the production of neutral high-Rydberg (HR) fragments from the CH4 molecule at the C 1s → 3p excitation and at the C 1s ionization threshold. Neutral fragments in HR states were ionized using a pulsed electric field and the resulting ions were mass-analyzed using an ion time-of-flight spectrometer. The atomic fragments C(HR) and H(HR) dominated the spectra, but molecular fragments CHx(HR), x = 1-3, and H2(HR) were also observed. The production of HR fragments is attributed to dissociation of CH4+ and CH42+ ions in HR states. Just above the C 1s ionization threshold, such molecular ionic states are created when the C 1s photoelectron is recaptured after single or double Auger decay. Similar HR states may be reached directly following resonant Auger decay at the C 1s → 3p resonance. The energies and geometries of the parent and fragment ions have been calculated in order to gain insight into relevant dissociation pathways.

  14. Field ionization of high-Rydberg fragments produced after inner-shell photoexcitation and photoionization of the methane molecule.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, A; Sankari, A; Kettunen, J A; Stråhlman, C; Álvarez Ruiz, J; Richter, R

    2015-09-21

    We have studied the production of neutral high-Rydberg (HR) fragments from the CH4 molecule at the C 1s → 3p excitation and at the C 1s ionization threshold. Neutral fragments in HR states were ionized using a pulsed electric field and the resulting ions were mass-analyzed using an ion time-of-flight spectrometer. The atomic fragments C(HR) and H(HR) dominated the spectra, but molecular fragments CH(x)(HR), x = 1-3, and H2(HR) were also observed. The production of HR fragments is attributed to dissociation of CH4(+) and CH4(2+) ions in HR states. Just above the C 1s ionization threshold, such molecular ionic states are created when the C 1s photoelectron is recaptured after single or double Auger decay. Similar HR states may be reached directly following resonant Auger decay at the C 1s → 3p resonance. The energies and geometries of the parent and fragment ions have been calculated in order to gain insight into relevant dissociation pathways.

  15. Total ionizing dose and single-event effect in vertical channel double-gate nMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Fei; An, Xia; Xue, Shoubin; Huang, Liangxi; Wu, Weikang; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Ru

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the total ionizing dose (TID) and single-event effect (SEE) in vertical channel double-gate (DG) nMOSFETs are comprehensively investigated. Due to the vertical channel structure and the excellent gate control capability, the vertical channel DG transistor is relatively resistant to TID and transient ionization effect. However, the dc characteristics of vertical channel DG device are very sensitive to permanent damage induced by a few ions hitting the device. The on-state current and transconductance of the vertical channel DG MOSFETs show significant degradation after exposure to heavy ions, which is attributed to the formation of displacement damage in the channel. As the device feature size scales down to the deca-nanometer regime, the influence of permanent damage induced by a few ions striking the device static performance cannot be ignored and should be seriously considered in radiation-hardened technologies.

  16. Investigating two-photon double ionization of D2 by XUV-Pump -- XUV-Probe experiments at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    FLASH Collaboration; Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, A.; Perez-Torres, J.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Toppin, M.; Plesiat, E.; Morales, F.; Martin, F.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M.; Jahnke, T.; Dorner, R.; Sanz-Vicario, J.; van Tilborg, J.; Belkacem, A.; Schulz, M.; Ueda, K.; Zouros, T.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, C.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.

    2010-08-02

    Using a novel split-mirror set-up attached to a Reaction Microscope at the Free electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) we demonstrate an XUV-pump -- XUV-probe ((hbar omega = 38 eV) experiment by tracing the ultra-fast nuclear wave-packet motion in the D2+ (1s sigma g-state) with<10 fs time resolution. Comparison with time-dependent calculations yields excellent agreement with the measured vibrational period of 22+-4 fs in D2+, points to the importance of the inter-nuclear distance dependent ionization probability and paves the way to control sequential and non-sequential two-photon double ionization contributions.

  17. Determination of structure parameters in strong-field tunneling ionization theory of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Songfeng; Jin Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.; Jiang, T. F.

    2010-03-15

    In the strong field molecular tunneling ionization theory of Tong et al. [Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002)], the ionization rate depends on the asymptotic wave function of the molecular orbital from which the electron is removed. The orbital wave functions obtained from standard quantum chemistry packages in general are not good enough in the asymptotic region. Here we construct a one-electron model potential for several linear molecules using density functional theory. We show that the asymptotic wave function can be improved with an iteration method and after one iteration accurate asymptotic wave functions and structure parameters are determined. With the new parameters we examine the alignment-dependent tunneling ionization probabilities for several molecules and compare with other calculations and with recent measurements, including ionization from inner molecular orbitals.

  18. Ionization Suppression of Diatomic Molecules in an Intense Midinfrared Laser Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, ZhiYang; Jia, XinYan; Wang, ChuanLiang; Hu, ZiLong; Kang, HuiPeng; Quan, Wei; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Yao, JinPing; Cheng, Ya; Xu, ZhiZhan

    2012-06-01

    Diatomic molecules (e.g., O2) in an intense laser field exhibit a peculiar suppressed ionization behavior compared to their companion atoms. Several physical models have been proposed to account for this suppression, while no consensus has been achieved. In this Letter, we aim to clarify the underlying mechanisms behind this molecular ionization suppression. Experimental data recorded at midinfrared laser wavelength and its comparison with that at near-infrared wavelength revealed a peculiar wavelength and intensity dependence of the suppressed ionization of O2 with respect to its companion atom of Xe, while N2 behaves like a structureless atom. It is found that the S-matrix theory calculation can reproduce well the experimental observations and unambiguously identifies the significant role of two-center interference effect in the ionization suppression of O2.

  19. Quantum control of a molecular ionization process by using Fourier-synthesized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Hideki; Saito, Naoaki

    2015-11-01

    In photoexcitation processes, if the motion of excited electrons can be precisely steered by the instantaneous electric field of an arbitrary waveform of a Fourier-synthesized laser field, the resultant matter response can be achieved within one optical cycle, usually within the attosecond (1 as =10-18s) regime. Fourier synthesis of laser fields has been achieved in various ways. However, the general use of Fourier-synthesized laser fields for the control of matter is extremely limited. Here, we report the quantum control of a nonlinear response of a molecular ionization process by using Fourier-synthesized laser fields. The directionally asymmetric molecular tunneling ionization induced by intense (5.0 ×1012W /c m2) Fourier-synthesized laser fields consisting of fundamental, second-, third-, and fourth-harmonic light achieves the orientation-selective ionization; we utilized the orientation-selective ionization for measurement of the relative phase differences between the fundamental and each harmonic light. Our findings impact not only light-wave engineering but also the control of matter, possibly triggering the creation and establishment of a new methodology that uses Fourier-synthesized laser fields.

  20. Controlling and Reading Interference Structures Created by Strong Field Ionizing Attosecond Electron Wave Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Roither, S.; Kartashov, D.; Zhang, L.; Persson, E.; Gräfe, S.; Schöffler, M.; Burgdörfer, J.; Baltuška, A.; Kitzler, M.

    We use cycle-sculpted two-color waveforms to drive electronic wavepackets generated by strong-field ionization from helium gas atoms and analyse their momentum spectra measured by electron-ion coincidence momentum spectroscopy. Varying the relative phase of the two colors allows to sculpt the ionizing field and hence to control the emission times and motion of the wavepackets on an attosecond timescale. We show that the measured electron momentum spectra contain interference patterns created by pairs of electron wavepackets that are released within a single laser-field-cycle. We experimentally distinguish these sub-cycle interference structures from above-threshold ionization (ATI) peaks and argue that they can be used to extract the sub-cycle phase-evolution of the laser-driven complex bound-state wavefunction.

  1. Dissociative ionization of CH2Br2 in 800 and 400 nm femtosecond laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Yan; Li, Zhipeng; Sun, Zhenrong

    2017-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the dissociative ionization of CH2Br2 molecules irritated by 800 and 400 nm femtosecond laser fields using time-of-flight mass spectra and dc-sliced ion imaging technology. Our results show that in both laser fields, CH2Br2 can ionize to CH2Br2+, then CH2Br2+ break one Csbnd Br bond to produce fragments CH2Br(+) and Br(+). The charge assignment is determined by the ionization energy of the fragments. Additionally, in 400 nm laser fields, the CH2Br2+ can overpass a transition state to form an intermediate CH2Brsbnd Br+, then the intermediate break Csbnd Br bond to produce Br2 or Br2+ via elimination channel.

  2. Time-resolved measurement of internal conversion dynamics in strong-field molecular ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliamonti, Vincent; Kaufman, Brian; Zhao, Arthur; Rozgonyi, Tamás; Marquetand, Philipp; Weinacht, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    We time-resolve coupled electronic and nuclear dynamics during strong-field molecular ionization by measuring the momentum-resolved photoelectron yield as a function of pump-probe delay for a pair of strong-field laser pulses. The sub-10-fs pulses are generated using a specially designed ultrafast optical pulse shaper and the electrons are measured using velocity map imaging. Our measurements, in conjunction with calculations that solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, allow us to time-resolve resonance-enhanced strong-field ionization and break it down into three basic steps: (1) Stark-shifted resonant excitation of a high-lying neutral state of the molecule, (2) nonadiabatic dynamics (internal conversion) in which multiple electronic states are coupled, and (3) coupling to the continuum (ionization).

  3. Above-threshold ionization with highly charged ions in superstrong laser fields. I. Coulomb-corrected strong-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.

    2013-02-01

    Aiming at the investigation of above-threshold ionization in superstrong laser fields with highly charged ions, we develop a Coulomb-corrected strong-field approximation (SFA). The influence of the Coulomb potential of the atomic core on the ionized electron dynamics in the continuum is taken into account via the eikonal approximation, treating the Coulomb potential perturbatively in the phase of the quasiclassical wave function of the continuum electron. In this paper the formalism of the Coulomb-corrected SFA for the nonrelativistic regime is discussed, employing velocity and length gauge. Direct ionization of a hydrogenlike system in a strong linearly polarized laser field is considered. The relation of the results in the different gauges to the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev imaginary-time method is discussed.

  4. A note on large gauge transformations in double field theory

    DOE PAGES

    Naseer, Usman

    2015-06-01

    We give a detailed proof of the conjecture by Hohm and Zwiebach in double field theory. This result implies that their proposal for large gauge transformations in terms of the Jacobian matrix for coordinate transformations is, as required, equivalent to the standard exponential map associated with the generalized Lie derivative along a suitable parameter.

  5. TD-CI simulation of the strong-field ionization of polyenes.

    PubMed

    Sonk, Jason A; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2012-07-05

    Ionization of ethylene, butadiene, hexatriene, and octatetraene by short, intense laser pulses was simulated using the time-dependent single-excitation configuration-interaction (TD-CIS) method and Klamroth's heuristic model for ionization (J. Chem. Phys.2009, 131, 114304). The calculations used the 6-31G(d,p) basis set augmented with up to three sets of diffuse sp functions on each heavy atom as well as the 6-311++G(2df,2pd) basis set. The simulations employed a seven-cycle cosine pulse (ω = 0.06 au, 760 nm) with intensities up to 3.5 × 10(14) W cm(-2) (E(max) = 0.10 au) directed along the vector connecting the end carbons of the linear polyenes. TD-CIS simulations for ionization were carried out as a function of the escape distance parameter, the field strength, the number of states, and the basis set size. With a distance parameter of 1 bohr, calculations with Klamroth's heuristic model reproduce the expected trend that the ionization rate increases as the molecular length increases. While the ionization rates are too high at low intensities, the ratios of ionization rates for ethylene, butadiene, hexatriene, and octatetraene are in good agreement with the ratios obtained from the ADK model. As compared to earlier work on the optical response of polyenes to intense laser pulses, ionization using Klamroth's model is less sensitive to the number of diffuse functions in the basis set, and only a fraction of the total possible CIS states are needed to model the strong field ionizations.

  6. Detection and repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks: new developments in nonhomologous end joining.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2013-07-01

    DNA damage can occur as a result of endogenous metabolic reactions and replication stress or from exogenous sources such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. DNA double strand breaks are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage, and defects in their repair can result in genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. The major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DSBs in human cells is nonhomologous end joining. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism of nonhomologous end joining, as well as new findings on its component proteins and regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection and Repair of Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Double Strand Breaks: New Developments in Nonhomologous End Joining

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chen; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2013-07-01

    DNA damage can occur as a result of endogenous metabolic reactions and replication stress or from exogenous sources such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. DNA double strand breaks are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage, and defects in their repair can result in genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. The major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DSBs in human cells is nonhomologous end joining. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism of nonhomologous end joining, as well as new findings on its component proteins and regulation.

  8. Letter Report on 500 nA Pulsed Current from Field Ionization Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, Jennifer L.

    2013-12-12

    We recently produced a milestone 500 nA of pulsed current using 40 Ir field ionizer electrodes in our ion source. In conclusion, we have produced the milestone pulsed current of 500 nA using 40 electrochemically etched iridium tips in a field ionization source. The pulsed current output is repeatable and scales as expected with gas fill pressure and bias voltage. We expect these current will be sufficient to produce neutral yields of 1∙107 DT n/s.

  9. Keldysh theory of strong field ionization: history, applications, difficulties and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popruzhenko, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    The history and current status of the Keldysh theory of strong field ionization are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamentals of the theory, its most important applications and those aspects which still raise difficulties and remain under discussion. The Keldysh theory is compared with other nonperturbative analytic methods of strong field atomic physics and its important generalizations are discussed. Among the difficulties, the gauge invariance problem, the tunneling time concept, the conditions of applicability and the application of the theory to ionization of systems more complex than atoms, including molecules and dielectrics, are considered. Possible prospects for the future development of the theory are also discussed.

  10. Classical Monte-Carlo simulation for Rydberg states ionization in strong field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrat, Vincent; Magnuson, Eric; Gallagher, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The resilience of Rydberg states against ionization has fascinated physicists for a long time. One might expect that the loosely bound electron would be ionized by modest electromagnetic field. However, experiments show that a notable fraction of neutral atoms survive in Rydberg states when exposed to strong microwave or laser fields. Energy transfer between the field and the photoelectron occurs when the electron is close to the ionic core and depends on the phase of the field. Since those states have orbital times that can be larger than the field pulse duration, these energy exchanges will only occur a few times. While we can experimentally control the initial time when we create the Rydberg states and as a consequence the initial energy transfer from the field, our classical calculation suggests that the phase when the electron is returning to the ionic core on the next orbit is chaotic. Statistically the electron only has a 50% chance to gain energy which may lead to ionization. Additionally the population tends to accumulate in very high n states where ionization is less likely due to fewer rescattering events. Though incomplete, this classical Monte­-Carlo simulation provides useful insights for understanding the experimental observations. This work has been entirely performed at University of Virginia and is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic energy Sciences.

  11. Observation of ionization enhancement in two-color circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Christopher A.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Chaloupka, Jan L.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2017-08-01

    When atoms are irradiated by two-color circularly polarized laser fields the resulting strong-field processes are dramatically different than when the same atoms are irradiated by a single-color ultrafast laser. For example, electrons can be driven in complex two-dimensional trajectories before rescattering or circularly polarized high harmonics can be generated, which was once thought impossible. Here, we show that two-color circularly polarized lasers also enable control over the ionization process itself and make a surprising finding: the ionization rate can be enhanced by up to 700 % simply by switching the relative helicity of the two-color circularly polarized laser field. This enhancement is experimentally observed in helium, argon, and krypton over a wide range of intensity ratios of the two-color field. We use a combination of advanced quantum and fully classical calculations to explain this ionization enhancement as resulting in part due to the increased density of excited states available for resonance-enhanced ionization in counter-rotating fields compared with co-rotating fields. In the future, this effect could be used to probe the excited state manifold of complex molecules.

  12. Double-sensor method for detection of oscillating electric field.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, Yasunori; Ikeyama, Taeko; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2011-04-01

    An electric-field sensor consisting of thin copper plates is designed to measure an oscillating electric field produced by charge separations on a plasma column. The sensor installed in a vacuum region around plasma detects charges induced by the electric field on the copper plates. The value of the induced charges depends not only on the strength of the electric field, but also on the design of the sensor. To obtain the correct strength of the electric field, a correction factor arising from the design of the sensor must be known. The factor is calculated numerically using Laplace's equation and compared with a value measured using a uniform electric field in the frequency range of 10-500 kHz. When an external circuit is connected to the sensor to measure the induced charges, the electric field around the sensor is disturbed. Therefore, a double-sensor method for excluding a disturbed component in the measured electric field is proposed. The reliability of the double-sensor method is confirmed by measuring dipole-like and quadrupole-like electric fields. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  13. Single-photon double ionization of H2 away from equilibrium: A showcase of two-center electron interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Vladislav V.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2012-08-01

    We demonstrate the effect of two-center interference on single-photon double ionization [double photoionization (DPI)] of the aligned H2 molecule when it shrinks or expands from the equilibrium internuclear distance. This interference affects the first stage of the DPI process in which the primary photoelectron is ejected predominantly along the polarization axis of light and its geometrical interference factor is most sensitive to the internuclear distance in the parallel (Σ) orientation of the internuclear and polarization axes. This effect is responsible for strong modification of the DPI amplitude in the parallel orientation while the corresponding amplitude for the perpendicular (Π) orientation is rather insensitive to the internuclear distance. The combination of these two factors explains the profound kinetic energy release effect on the fully differential cross sections of DPI of H2.

  14. Black hole thermodynamics, stringy dualities and double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Blair, Chris D. A.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss black hole thermodynamics in the manifestly duality invariant formalism of double field theory (DFT). We reformulate and prove the first law of black hole thermodynamics in DFT, using the covariant phase space approach. After splitting the full O(D, D) invariant DFT into a Kaluza–Klein-inspired form where only n coordinates are doubled, our results provide explicit duality invariant mass and entropy formulas. We illustrate how this works by discussing the black string solution and its T-duals.

  15. Photo-Double Ionization: Threshold Law and Low-Energy Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    The threshold law for photoejection of two electrons from atoms (PDI) is derived from a modification of the Coulomb-dipole (C-D) theory. The C-D theory applies to two-electron ejection from negative ions (photo-double detachment:PDD). The modification consists of correctly accounting for the fact that in PDI that the two escaping electrons see a Coulomb field, asymptotically no matter what their relative distances from the residual ion are. We find in the contralinear spherically symmetric model that the analytic threshold law Q(E), i.e. the yield of residual ions, to be Q Integral of (E) varies as E + (C(sub w) E(sup gamma W)) +CE(sup 5/4) sin [1/2 ln E + phi]/ln(E). The first and third terms are beyond the Wannier law. Our threshold law can only be rigorously justified for residual energies <= 10(exp -3) eV. Nevertheless in the present experimental range (0.1 - 4 eV), the form, even without the second term, can be fitted to experimental results of PDI for He, Li, and Be, in contrast to the Wannier law which has a larger deviation from the data for Li and Be.

  16. Photo-Double Ionization: Threshold Law and Low-Energy Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand

    2008-01-01

    The threshold law for photoejection of two electrons from atoms (PDI) is derived from a modification of the Coulomb-dipole (C-D) theory. The C-D theory applies to two-electron ejection from negative ions (photo-double detachment:PDD). The modification consists of correctly accounting for the fact that in PDI that the two escaping electrons see a Coulomb field, asymptotically no matter what their relative distances from the residual ion are. We find in the contralinear spherically symmetric model that the analytic threshold law Q(E),i. e. the yield of residual ions, to be Qf(E)approaches E + CwE(sup gamma(w)) + CE(sup 5/4)sin[1/2 ln(E + theta)]/ln(E). The first and third terms are beyond the Wannier law. Our threshold law can only be rigorously justified for residual energies less than or equal to 10(exp -3) eV. Nevertheless in the present experimental range (0.1 - 4 eV), the form, even without the second term, can be fitted to experimental results of PDI for He, Li, and Be, in contrast to the Wannier law which has a larger deviation from the data for Li and Be, for both of which the data show signs of modulation.

  17. Photo-Double Ionization: Threshold Law and Low-Energy Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand

    2008-01-01

    The threshold law for photoejection of two electrons from atoms (PDI) is derived from a modification of the Coulomb-dipole (C-D) theory. The C-D theory applies to two-electron ejection from negative ions (photo-double detachment:PDD). The modification consists of correctly accounting for the fact that in PDI that the two escaping electrons see a Coulomb field, asymptotically no matter what their relative distances from the residual ion are. We find in the contralinear spherically symmetric model that the analytic threshold law Q(E),i. e. the yield of residual ions, to be Qf(E)approaches E + CwE(sup gamma(w)) + CE(sup 5/4)sin[1/2 ln(E + theta)]/ln(E). The first and third terms are beyond the Wannier law. Our threshold law can only be rigorously justified for residual energies less than or equal to 10(exp -3) eV. Nevertheless in the present experimental range (0.1 - 4 eV), the form, even without the second term, can be fitted to experimental results of PDI for He, Li, and Be, in contrast to the Wannier law which has a larger deviation from the data for Li and Be, for both of which the data show signs of modulation.

  18. Photo-Double Ionization: Threshold Law and Low-Energy Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    The threshold law for photoejection of two electrons from atoms (PDI) is derived from a modification of the Coulomb-dipole (C-D) theory. The C-D theory applies to two-electron ejection from negative ions (photo-double detachment:PDD). The modification consists of correctly accounting for the fact that in PDI that the two escaping electrons see a Coulomb field, asymptotically no matter what their relative distances from the residual ion are. We find in the contralinear spherically symmetric model that the analytic threshold law Q(E), i.e. the yield of residual ions, to be Q Integral of (E) varies as E + (C(sub w) E(sup gamma W)) +CE(sup 5/4) sin [1/2 ln E + phi]/ln(E). The first and third terms are beyond the Wannier law. Our threshold law can only be rigorously justified for residual energies <= 10(exp -3) eV. Nevertheless in the present experimental range (0.1 - 4 eV), the form, even without the second term, can be fitted to experimental results of PDI for He, Li, and Be, in contrast to the Wannier law which has a larger deviation from the data for Li and Be.

  19. Comparison of quasi-classical and quasi-static quantum approaches to the ionization of helium by a circularly polarized laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, P.B.; LaGattuta, K.; Cohen, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Employing the quasi-classical Fermi molecular dynamics (FMD) method, we find no evidence for the existence of a nonsequential double-ionization mechanism for helium interacting with a pulse of circularly polarized, high-intensity laser radiation. This contrasts with our earlier research, for linearly polarized laser light [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49,} R12 (1994)], in which effects of the nonsequential double ionization of helium were noted. We also compute emitted-electron kinetic energy spectra by FMD and compare these with spectra derived from a quasi-static tunneling model calculation. In this context we discuss the applicability of the FMD approach to simulations of the photoionization of multielectron systems by intense pulsed laser fields. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  20. Comparison of quasi-classical and quasi-static quantum approaches to the ionization of helium by a circularly polarized laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, P. B.; Lagattuta, K.; Cohen, James S.

    1996-01-01

    Employing the quasi-classical Fermi molecular dynamics (FMD) method, we find no evidence for the existence of a nonsequential double-ionization mechanism for helium interacting with a pulse of circularly polarized, high-intensity laser radiation. This contrasts with our earlier research, for linearly polarized laser light [Phys.Rev.A 49, R12 (1994)], in which effects of the nonsequential double ionization of helium were noted. We also compute emitted-electron kinetic energy spectra by FMD and compare these with spectra derived from a quasi-static tunneling model calculation. In this context we discuss the applicability of the FMD approach to simulations of the photoionization of multielectron systems by intense pulsed laser fields.

  1. Direct Analysis of Oil Additives by High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry Combined with Electrospray Ionization and Desorption Electrospray Ionization.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Turner, Matthew; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2016-02-16

    The analysis of corrosion inhibitors in the presence and absence of an oil matrix is reported using electrospray ionization (ESI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), hyphenated with miniaturized high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and mass spectrometry (MS). The target analytes were successfully ionized in solution by ESI and directly from steel surfaces using DESI ambient ionization at levels ≥0.0004% w/w (4 ppm) in oil. Differences in the mass spectral profiles observed for the additive/oil mixture are attributed to differences between the ESI and DESI ionization processes. The use of FAIMS improved selectivity for ESI generated analyte ions through reduction in the chemical noise resulting from the oil matrix. DESI enabled the direct, rapid, native state interrogation of oil samples on steel surfaces without sample pretreatment, and the hyphenation of DESI with the miniaturized FAIMS enhanced the relative analyte responses of the surface-active corrosion inhibitors.

  2. Effects of inner electrons on atomic strong-field-ionization dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J.; Bauer, D.

    2014-03-01

    The influence of inner electrons on the ionization dynamics in strong laser fields is investigated in a wavelength regime where the inner electron dynamics is usually assumed to be negligible. The role of inner electrons is of particular interest for the application of frozen-core approximations and pseudopotentials in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and the single-active-electron (SAE) approximation in strong-field laser physics. Results of TDDFT and SAE calculations are compared with exact ones obtained by the numerical ab initio solution of the three-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a lithium model atom. It is found that dynamical antiscreening, i.e., a particular form of dynamical core polarization, may substantially alter the ionization rate in the single-photon regime. Requirements for the validity of the approximations in the single and multiphoton ionization domain are identified.

  3. Photon Energy Deposition in Strong-Field Single Ionization of Multielectron Molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Zhichao; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Ma, Junyang; He, Feng; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2016-09-02

    Molecules exposed to strong laser fields may coherently absorb multiple photons and deposit the energy into electrons and nuclei, triggering the succeeding dynamics as the primary stage of the light-molecule interaction. We experimentally explore the electron-nuclear sharing of the absorbed photon energy in above-threshold multiphoton single ionization of multielectron molecules. Using CO as a prototype, vibrational and orbital resolved electron-nuclear sharing of the photon energy is observed. Different from the simplest one- or two-electron systems, the participation of the multiple orbitals and the coupling of various electronic states in the strong-field ionization and dissociation processes alter the photon energy deposition dynamics of the multielectron molecule. The population of numerous vibrational states of the molecular cation as the energy reservoir in the ionization process plays an important role in photon energy sharing between the emitted electron and the nuclear fragments.

  4. Bond-rearrangement and ionization mechanisms in the photo-double-ionization of simple hydrocarbons (C2H4 , C2H3F , and 1 ,1 -C2H2F2 ) near and above threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaire, B.; Gatton, A.; Wiegandt, F.; Neff, J.; Janke, C.; Zeller, S.; Reedy, D.; Rajput, J.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Landers, A. L.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate bond-rearrangement driven by photo-double-ionization (PDI) near and above the double-ionization threshold in a sequence of carbon-carbon double-bonded hydrocarbon molecules: ethylene, fluoroethylene, and 1,1-difluoroethylene. We employ the kinematically complete cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy method to resolve all photo-double-ionization events leading to two-ion fragments. We observe changes in the branching ratios of different dissociative ionization channels depending on the presence of no, one, or two fluorine atoms. The role of the fluorine atom in the bond-rearrangement channels is intriguing, as evident by the reordering of the threshold energies of the PDI in the fluorinated molecules. These effects offer a compelling argument that the electronegativity of the fluorine (or the polarity of the molecule) strongly influences the potential energy surfaces of the molecules and drives bond rearrangement during the dissociation process. The energy sharing and the relative angle between the three-dimensional momentum vectors of the two electrons enable us to distinguish between knockout and other ionization mechanisms of the PDI processes.

  5. Adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage

    PubMed Central

    Sannino, Anna; Zeni, Olga; Romeo, Stefania; Massa, Rita; Gialanella, Giancarlo; Grossi, Gianfranco; Manti, Lorenzo; Vijayalaxmi; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to assess whether human peripheral blood lymphocytes which have been pre-exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields exhibit an adaptive response (AR) by resisting the induction of genetic damage from subsequent exposure to ionizing radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from four healthy donors were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 24 h and then exposed for 20 h to 1950 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF, adaptive dose, AD) at an average specific absorption rate of 0.3 W/kg. At 48 h, the cells were subjected to a challenge dose (CD) of 1.0 or 1.5 Gy X-irradiation (XR, challenge dose, CD). After a 72 h total culture period, cells were collected to examine the incidence of micronuclei (MN). There was a significant decrease in the number of MN in lymphocytes exposed to RF + XR (AD + CD) as compared with those subjected to XR alone (CD). These observations thus suggested a RF-induced AR and induction of resistance to subsequent damage from XR. There was variability between the donors in RF-induced AR. The data reported in our earlier investigations also indicated a similar induction of AR in human blood lymphocytes that had been pre-exposed to RF (AD) and subsequently treated with a chemical mutagen, mitomycin C (CD). Since XR and mitomycin-C induce different kinds of lesions in cellular DNA, further studies are required to understand the mechanism(s) involved in the RF-induced adaptive response. PMID:23979077

  6. Field ionization characteristics of an ion source array for neutron generators

    SciTech Connect

    Bargsten Johnson, B.; Schwoebel, P. R.; Resnick, P. J.; Holland, C. E.; Hertz, K. L.; Chichester, D. L.

    2013-11-07

    A new deuterium ion source is being developed to improve the performance of existing compact neutron generators. The ion source is a microfabricated array of metal tips with an integrated gate (i.e., grid) and produces deuterium ions by field ionizing (or field desorbing) a supply of deuterium gas. Deuterium field ion currents from arrays at source temperatures of 77 K and 293 K are studied. Ion currents from single etched-wire tips operating under the same conditions are used to help understand array results. I-F characteristics of the arrays were found to follow trends similar to those of the better understood single etched-wire tip results; however, the fields achieved by the arrays are limited by electrical breakdown of the structure. Neutron production by field ionization at 293 K was demonstrated for the first time from microfabricated array structures with integrated gates.

  7. The design of double electrostatic-lens optics for resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization and photoelectron imaging experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Zehua; Li, Chunsheng; Qin, Zhengbo E-mail: xfzheng@mail.ahnu.edu.cn; Zheng, Xianfeng E-mail: xfzheng@mail.ahnu.edu.cn; Yao, Guanxin; Zhang, Xianyi; Cui, Zhifeng

    2015-06-15

    Compared to single ion/electron-optics for velocity-map imaging, a double-focusing lens assembly designed not only allows for mapping velocity imaging of photoelectrons but also allows for investigating the vibrational structure of the intermediate states of neutral species in resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra. In this presentation, in order to record REMPI and photoelectron spectra separately, we have constructed a compact photoelectron velocity-map imaging (VMI) apparatus combined with an opposite linear Wiley-Mclaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A mass resolution (m/Δm) of ∼1300 for TOFMS and electron energy resolution (ΔE/E) of 2.4% for VMI have been achieved upon three-photon ionization of Xe atom at 258.00 nm laser wavelength. As a benchmark, in combination of one-color (1 + 1) REMPI and photoelectron imaging of benzene via 6{sup 1} and 6{sup 1}1{sup 1} vibronic levels in the S{sub 1} state, the vibrational structures of the cation and photoelectron angular anisotropy are unraveled. In addition, two-color (1 + 1′) REMPI and photoelectron imaging of aniline was used to complete the accurate measurement of ionization potential (62 271 ± 3 cm{sup −1}). The results suggest that the apparatus is a powerful tool for studying photoionization dynamics in the photoelectron imaging using vibrational-state selected excitation to the intermediate states of neutrals based on REMPI technique.

  8. The design of double electrostatic-lens optics for resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization and photoelectron imaging experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zehua; Li, Chunsheng; Qin, Zhengbo; Zheng, Xianfeng; Yao, Guanxin; Zhang, Xianyi; Cui, Zhifeng

    2015-06-01

    Compared to single ion/electron-optics for velocity-map imaging, a double-focusing lens assembly designed not only allows for mapping velocity imaging of photoelectrons but also allows for investigating the vibrational structure of the intermediate states of neutral species in resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra. In this presentation, in order to record REMPI and photoelectron spectra separately, we have constructed a compact photoelectron velocity-map imaging (VMI) apparatus combined with an opposite linear Wiley-Mclaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A mass resolution (m/Δm) of ˜1300 for TOFMS and electron energy resolution (ΔE/E) of 2.4% for VMI have been achieved upon three-photon ionization of Xe atom at 258.00 nm laser wavelength. As a benchmark, in combination of one-color (1 + 1) REMPI and photoelectron imaging of benzene via 61 and 6111 vibronic levels in the S1 state, the vibrational structures of the cation and photoelectron angular anisotropy are unraveled. In addition, two-color (1 + 1') REMPI and photoelectron imaging of aniline was used to complete the accurate measurement of ionization potential (62 271 ± 3 cm-1). The results suggest that the apparatus is a powerful tool for studying photoionization dynamics in the photoelectron imaging using vibrational-state selected excitation to the intermediate states of neutrals based on REMPI technique.

  9. Applicability of post-ionization theory to laser-assisted field evaporation of magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Gordon, Lyle M.; Kruska, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Analysis of the mean Fe ion charge state from laser-assisted field evaporation of magnetite (Fe3O4) reveals unexpected trends as a function of laser pulse energy that break from conventional post-ionization theory for metals. For Fe ions evaporated from magnetite, the effects of post-ionization are partially offset by the increased prevalence of direct evaporation into higher charge states with increasing laser pulse energy. Therefore the final charge state is related to both the field strength and the laser pulse energy, despite those variables themselves being intertwined when analyzing at a constant detection rate. Comparison of data collected at different base temperatures also show that the increased prevalence of Fe2+ at higher laser energies is possibly not a direct thermal effect. Conversely, the ratio of 16O+:16O2+ is well-correlated with field strength and unaffected by laser pulse energy on its own, making it a better overall indicator of the field evaporation conditions than the mean Fe charge state. Plotting the normalized field strength versus laser pulse energy also elucidates a non-linear dependence, in agreement with previous observations on semiconductors, that suggests a field-dependent laser absorption efficiency. Together these observations demonstrate that the field evaporation process for laser-pulsed oxides exhibits fundamental differences from metallic specimens that cannot be completely explained by post-ionization theory. Further theoretical studies, combined with detailed analytical observations, are required to understand fully the field evaporation process of non-metallic samples.

  10. Double Ionization Gauge for Atmosphere Density/Pressure Measurements On Board the Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, V.; Shturkov, O.; Balugin, N.; Zhurin, S.; Kusov, A.

    2015-09-01

    A description of the ionization gauge for atmospheric density/pressure measurements on board a Russian meteorological rocket is presented. Its operation is based on the principle employed in an ionization gauge. The measuring density/pressure range is 1 06 102 kg/m3 / 10 ~ - 10 mm Hg. There are two output channels for ion and electron current measurements, respectively. The calibration curves are in a fairly good agreement with the classical electron impact ionization theory. The calibration error is less than 7%, that has been definitely confirmed through laboratory bench calibration. This rocket-borne device does not require pre-flight sealing. It greatly simplifies the design of the flight device. The ionization source is an electron flux emitted from the surface of a semi-impermeable metal plate under the influence of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. The vUv radiation source is a portable glow-discharge krypton lamp. The flight instrument has been tested for shock loads up to 200 g for rocket measurement applications.

  11. Strong-field ionization via a high-order Coulomb-corrected strong-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiber, Michael; Daněk, Jiří; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2017-02-01

    Signatures of the Coulomb corrections in the photoelectron momentum distribution during laser-induced ionization of atoms or ions in tunneling and multiphoton regimes are investigated analytically in the case of a one-dimensional problem. A high-order Coulomb-corrected strong-field approximation is applied, where the exact continuum state in the S matrix is approximated by the eikonal Coulomb-Volkov state including the second-order corrections to the eikonal. Although without high-order corrections our theory coincides with the known analytical R -matrix (ARM) theory, we propose a simplified procedure for the matrix element derivation. Rather than matching the eikonal Coulomb-Volkov wave function with the bound state as in the ARM theory to remove the Coulomb singularity, we calculate the matrix element via the saddle-point integration method by time as well as by coordinate, and in this way avoiding the Coulomb singularity. The momentum shift in the photoelectron momentum distribution with respect to the ARM theory due to high-order corrections is analyzed for tunneling and multiphoton regimes. The relation of the quantum corrections to the tunneling delay time is discussed.

  12. From exceptional field theory to heterotic double field theory via K3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Emanuel

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we show how to obtain heterotic double field theory from exceptional field theory by breaking half of the supersymmetry. We focus on the SL(5) exceptional field theory and show that when the extended space contains a generalised SU(2)-structure manifold one can define a reduction to obtain the heterotic SO(3 , n) double field theory. In this picture, the reduction on the SU(2)-structure breaks half of the supersymmetry of the exceptional field theory and the gauge group of the heterotic double field theory is given by the embedding tensor of the reduction used. Finally, we study the example of a consistent truncation of M-theory on K3 and recover the duality with the heterotic string on T 3. This suggests that the extended space can be made sense of even in the case of non-toroidal compactifications.

  13. Studying interfacial reactions of cholesterol sulfate in an unsaturated phosphatidylglycerol layer with ozone using field induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jae Yoon; Choi, Sun Mi; Rhee, Young Min; Beauchamp, J L; Kim, Hugh I

    2012-01-01

    Field-induced droplet ionization (FIDI) is a recently developed ionization technique that can transfer ions from the surface of microliter droplets to the gas phase intact. The air-liquid interfacial reactions of cholesterol sulfate (CholSO(4)) in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) surfactant layer with ozone (O(3)) are investigated using field-induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry (FIDI-MS). Time-resolved studies of interfacial ozonolysis of CholSO(4) reveal that water plays an important role in forming oxygenated products. An epoxide derivative is observed as a major product of CholSO(4) oxidation in the FIDI-MS spectrum after exposure of the droplet to O(3) for 5 s. The abundance of the epoxide product then decreases with continued O(3) exposure as the finite number of water molecules at the air-liquid interface becomes exhausted. Competitive oxidation of CholSO(4) and POPG is observed when they are present together in a lipid surfactant layer at the air-liquid interface. Competitive reactions of CholSO(4) and POPG with O(3) suggest that CholSO(4) is present with POPG as a well-mixed interfacial layer. Compared with CholSO(4) and POPG alone, the overall ozonolysis rates of both CholSO(4) and POPG are reduced in a mixed layer, suggesting the double bonds of both molecules are shielded by additional hydrocarbons from one another. Molecular dynamics simulations of a monolayer comprising POPG and CholSO(4) correlate well with experimental observations and provide a detailed picture of the interactions between CholSO(4), lipids, and water molecules in the interfacial region. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011

  14. Fully differential study on dissociative ionization dynamics of deuteron molecules in strong elliptical laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yun; He, Peilun; Liu, Ming-Ming; Sun, Xufei; Li, Min; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; He, Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Liu, Yunquan

    2017-03-01

    Deuteron momentum distributions from the dissociative ionization of D2 in intense elliptically polarized laser fields have been explored in a joint experimental and numerical study. The asymmetrical charge localization in the dissociative D2 + offers a large torque, and thus an elliptically polarized laser field efficiently rotates the molecular ion during its dissociation, resulting in the emission of deuterons finally deviating from the bond direction at the instant of tunneling ionization of D2. The rotating torque of the molecular ions increases with the field ellipticity, leading to an ellipticity-dependent tilt angle for the deuteron momentum distribution. Due to the notable rotation of D2 + during its dissociation, the photoelectron angular distributions in the laboratory frame and the molecular frame are distinct, which illustrates that the axial recoil approximation is broken for discussing the photoelectron angular distributions of molecules in elliptically polarized laser fields.

  15. Second order higher-derivative corrections in Double Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lescano, Eric; Marqués, Diego

    2017-06-01

    HSZ Double Field Theory is a higher-derivative theory of gravity with exact and manifest T-duality symmetry. The first order corrections in the massless sector were shown to be governed solely by Chern-Simons deformations of the three-form field strength. We compute the full action with up to six derivatives O({α}^' 2}) for the universal sector containing the metric, two-form and dilaton fields. The Green-Schwarz transformation of the two-form field remains uncorrected to second order. In addition to the expected Chern-Simons-squared and Riemann-cubed terms the theory contains a cubic Gauss-Bonnet interaction, plus other six-derivative unambiguous terms involving the three-form field strength whose presence indicates that the theory must contain further higher-derivative corrections.

  16. Strong field dissociative ionization of the D2+: Nuclear wave packet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, A.; Borbély, S.; Halász, G. J.; Vibók, Á.

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical ab initio investigation of strong field dissociative ionization of the D2+ molecule in the multiphoton regime is reported. The dynamics is initiated by ultrashort laser pulses for fixed molecular axis orientations. Nuclear wave packet calculations are performed to provide the joint energy spectra (JES): ionization-dissociation probability density via electron (Ee) and nuclear (En) kinetic energy. Analyzing the time-dependent nuclear wave packet densities we have successfully identified the exact path followed by the D2+ target for each multiphoton peak.

  17. Total ionizing dose effects in multiple-gate field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardin, Marc; Marcandella, Claude; Martinez, Martial; Raine, Mélanie; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Richard, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on total ionizing dose (TID) effects induced in multiple-gate field-effect transistors. The impact of device architecture, geometry and scaling on the TID response of multiple-gate transistors is reviewed in both bulk and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. These innovating devices exhibit specific ionizing dose responses which strongly depend on their three-dimensional nature. Their TID responses may look like the one usually observed in planar two-dimensional bulk or SOI transistors, but multiple-gate devices can also behave like any other CMOS device.

  18. Ionization with low-frequency fields in the tunneling regime.

    PubMed

    Dura, J; Camus, N; Thai, A; Britz, A; Hemmer, M; Baudisch, M; Senftleben, A; Schröter, C D; Ullrich, J; Moshammer, R; Biegert, J

    2013-01-01

    Strong-field ionisation surprises with richness beyond current understanding despite decade long investigations. Ionisation with mid-IR light has promptly revealed unexpected kinetic energy structures that seem related to unanticipated quantum trajectories of the electrons. We measure first 3D momentum distributions in the deep tunneling regime (γ = 0.3) and observe surprising new electron dynamics of near-zero momentum electrons and extremely low momentum structures, below the eV, despite very high quiver energies of 95 eV. Such level of high-precision measurements at only 1 meV above the threshold, despite 5 orders higher ponderomotive energies, has now become possible with a specifically developed ultrafast mid-IR light source in combination with a reaction microscope, thereby permitting a new level of investigations into mid-IR recollision physics.

  19. Control of the yield of surviving Rydberg atoms in strong-field ionization with two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Peipei; Liu, Yunquan

    2017-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the controllable yield of neutral excited atoms surviving in the tunneling ionization process using two-color fields with parallel and orthogonal polarizations. Using the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo model, we show that the yield of the surviving Rydberg atoms after tunneling ionization can be modulated by varying the relative phase of the two frequency components. Tracing back to the initial tunneling coordinates at the tunnel exit of the electrons that contribute to the surviving atoms, we find the distribution of these coordinates shifts with the relative phase and the polarization configuration of the two-color fields. The orthogonally polarized two-color field counterintuitively tends to recapture more electrons than the two-color field with parallel polarizations.

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet lamp based magnetic field enhanced photoelectron ionization and single photon ionization source for online time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinghao; Hua, Lei; Hou, Keyong; Cui, Huapeng; Chen, Wendong; Chen, Ping; Wang, Weiguo; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2011-12-01

    A magnetic field enhanced photoelectron ionization (MEPEI) source combined with single photon ionization (SPI) was developed for an orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer (oaTOFMS). A commercial radio frequency (rf) powered vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp was used as SPI light source, and the photoelectrons generated by photoelectric effect were accelerated to induce electron ionization (EI). The MEPEI was obtained by applying a magnetic field of about 800 G with a permanent annular magnet. Compared to a nonmagnetic field photoelectron ionization source, the signal intensities for SO(2), SF(6), O(2), and N(2) in MEPEI were improved more than 2 orders with the photoelectron energy around 20 eV, while most of the characteristics of soft ionization still remained. Simulation with SIMION showed that the sensitivity enhancement in MEPEI was ascribed to the increase of the electron moving path and the improvement of the electrons transmission. The limits of detection for SO(2) and benzene were 750 and 80 ppbv within a detection time of 4 s, respectively. The advantages of the source, including broad range of ionizable compounds, reduced fragments, and good sensitivity with low energy MEPEI, were demonstrated by monitoring pyrolysis products of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the intermediate products in discharging of the SF(6) gas inpurity.

  1. Photo-double-ionization of the ns shell of rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, L.; Bolognesi, P.; Colle, R.; Feyer, V.; Avaldi, L.

    2009-06-01

    The triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the photodouble ionization of He, Ne, Ar, and Xe leading to the He2+(1s0S1e) , Ne2+(2s02p6S1e) , Ar2+(3s03p6S1e) , and Xe2+(5s05p6S1e) states have been measured at about 20 eV above their respective thresholds with the two photoelectrons equally sharing the excess energy. The experimental data are analyzed using a parametrization recently proposed [J. Phys. B 41, 245205 (2008)] which takes into account experimental uncertainties. The parametrization provides a satisfactory representation of the shape of the measured TDCS. The study of the behavior of the gerade amplitude of the TDCS in the different targets gives hints on the dependence of the electron correlation with the principal quantum number n of the ionized ns orbital.

  2. Hartree simulations of multi-electron atoms ionization in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinski, Matt

    2007-05-01

    The recent success of classical simulations of the ionization process of few electron atom is an argument that normal electron exchange and correlations effects are negligible for certain conditions of strong field ionization and only the Coulomb effects are essential [1]. The numerical convenience of solving the Schr"odinger equation with nonlinearity instead of classical equations of the motion has been recently proved by us in case of so-called Trojan electrons in strong CP fields with Shay logarithmic quantum mechanics [2]. We present Hartree simulations of the ultra-strong field time-dependent ionization of model one dimensional atoms with up to 10 active electrons involved (10 dimensional configuration space). N coupled Schr"odinger equations is solved simultaneously on the Cartesian grid with our new nonlinear split-operator method. The continuum states are taken into account with delta grid representation of the multi electron wavefunction and the Coulomb interaction integral is calculated as the direct solution of the Poisson equation with the ultra-fast Fast Fourier convolution method developed by us to treat the supersolid formation in Bose-Einstein condensate. We calculate n-electron ionization rates for ultra-strong ultra-short few cycle pulses. [1] P. J. Ho and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 193002 (2005). [2] M. Kalinski, contributed paper, APS DAMOP meeting, Lincoln, Nebraska, May, 2005 To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.E3.2

  3. Optimal use of double pin ionization gauges for shock wave detection.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the response of the gauges to ionization in the gas and to discover, if possible, how the circuitry could be modified to make the system operable over a wider range of operating conditions. Shock wave velocities in the range from 3.5 to 27 km/sec were used in the studies. The electronic circuit developed is capable of producing a trigger pulse at a given voltage level across the gauge pins.

  4. VUV excitation of a vibrational wavepacket in D2 measured through strong-field dissociative ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, A. R.; Harrington, J.; Kirrander, A.; Cacho, C.; Springate, E.; Bryan, W. A.; Minns, R. S.

    2015-10-01

    Femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses from a monochromated high harmonic generation source excite vibrational wavepackets in the {B}1{{{Σ }}}{{g}}+ state of D2. The wavepacket motion is measured through strong field ionization into bound and dissociative ion states yielding {{{D}}}2+ and D+ products. The time dependence of the {{{D}}}2+ and D+ ion signals provides a sensitive fingerprint of the quantum nuclear wavepacket, due to the different ionization rates for the two channels. The experiments are modelled with excitation and ionization processes included explicitly, with the results of the model showing a very good agreement with the experimental observations. The experiment demonstrates the level of detail attainable when studying ultrafast quantum nuclear dynamics using high harmonic sources.

  5. Direct evidence of a strong isomer effect in electron-impact double ionization of C{sub 3}H{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, S.W.J.; Senthil, V.; Wyer, J.A.; Shah, M.B.; Montenegro, E.C.; Kimura, M.; Tawara, H.

    2005-09-15

    The electron-impact double ionization of two isomers of C{sub 3}H{sub 4} (allene and propyne) between 25 and 1000 eV has been investigated using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Unambiguous differences in the partial double-ionization spectra of these isomers are observed over the entire energy range. These isomer effects have been observed in C{sub 3}H{sub 4} through the recording of target product channels and, in particular, when hard collisions involving the transfer of a large amount of energy is involved. Measurements of double-ionization events which fragment through Coulomb explosion are also reported. Coincidences between the charged fragment ions and protons were measured and shown to only exhibit isomer effects in the channel involving production of H{sup +}+CH{sub 2}{sup +}.

  6. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial of Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate for Foscarnet-Induced Ionized Hypocalcemia and Hypomagnesemia in Patients with AIDS and Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huycke, Mark M.; Naguib, M. Tarek; Stroemmel, Mathias M.; Blick, Kenneth; Monti, Katherine; Martin-Munley, Sarah; Kaufman, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Foscarnet (trisodium phosphonoformate hexahydrate) is an antiviral agent used to treat cytomegalovirus disease in immunocompromised patients. One common side effect is acute ionized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia following intravenous administration. Foscarnet-induced ionized hypomagnesemia might contribute to ionized hypocalcemia by impairing excretion of preformed parathyroid hormone (PTH) or by producing target organ resistance. Prevention of ionized hypomagnesemia following foscarnet administration could blunt the development of ionized hypocalcemia. To determine whether intravenous magnesium ameliorates the decline in ionized calcium and/or magnesium following foscarnet infusions, MgSO4 at doses of 1, 2, and 3 g was administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover trial to 12 patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus disease. Overall, increasing doses of MgSO4 reduced or eliminated foscarnet-induced acute ionized hypomagnesemia. Supplementation, however, had no discernible effect on foscarnet-induced ionized hypocalcemia despite significant increases in serum PTH levels. No dose-related, clinically significant adverse events were found, suggesting that intravenous supplementation with up to 3 g of MgSO4 was safe in this chronically ill population. Since parenteral MgSO4 did not alter foscarnet-induced ionized hypocalcemia or symptoms associated with foscarnet, routine intravenous supplementation for patients with normal serum magnesium levels is not recommended during treatment with foscarnet. PMID:10898688

  7. Analysis of Double Ring Resonators using Method of Equating Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaf, Shahana

    Optical ring resonators have the potential to be integral parts of large scale photonic circuits. My thesis theoretically analyzes parallel coupled double ring resonators (DRRs) in detail. The analysis is performed using the method of equating fields (MEF) which provides an in depth understanding about the transmitted and reflected light paths in the structure. Equations for the transmitted and reflected fields are derived; these equations allow for unequal ring lengths and coupling coefficients. Sanity checks including comparison with previously studied structures are performed in the final chapter in order to prove the correctness of the obtained results.

  8. Ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +} in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mies, F.H.; Giusti-Suzor, A.; Kulander, K.C.; Schafer, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation for the present ionization calculations is to test the reliability of a recent study of H{sub 2}{sup +} photodissociation which employed such a two electronic state model and neglected any competition with ionization. The photodissociation calculations indicate that in intense short pulsed laser fields appreciable populations of stable vibrational states can survive the pulse. This survival effect can be attributed to the trapping of portions of the initial vibrational wavepacket in transient laser-induced potential wells at intermediate R{approx}3--4au distances. Since the calculated ionization rates exhibit a marked decrease at short R, they already lend some credence to the vibrational trapping effect. Having accurate R-dependent rates enables us to estimate the competitive influence of the ionization on the stabilized population, and may ultimately allow us to predict the contribution of the Coulomb ``explosion`` channel to observed proton kinetic energy distributions. In this paper we will demonstrate the effectiveness of the two-state length gauge model in interpreting the ionization rates that we extract from the numerically exact solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger Equation. A more elaborate presentation of the theory and the results for the full range of distances and wavelengths will be presented elsewhere.

  9. Transition from SAMO to Rydberg State Ionization in C60 in Femtosecond Laser Fields

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The transition between two distinct ionization mechanisms in femtosecond laser fields at 785 nm is observed for C60 molecules. The transition occurs in the investigated intensity range from 3 to 20 TW/cm2 and is visualized in electron kinetic energy spectra below the one-photon energy (1.5 eV) obtained via velocity map imaging. Assignment of several observed broad spectral peaks to ionization from superatom molecular orbitals (SAMOs) and Rydberg states is based on time-dependent density functional theory simulations. We find that ionization from SAMOs dominates the spectra for intensities below 5 TW/cm2. As the intensity increases, Rydberg state ionization exceeds the prominence of SAMOs. Using short laser pulses (20 fs) allowed uncovering of distinct six-lobe photoelectron angular distributions with kinetic energies just above the threshold (below 0.2 eV), which we interpret as over-the-barrier ionization of shallow f-Rydberg states in C60. PMID:27934203

  10. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  11. Improved strong-field approximation and quantum-orbit theory: Application to ionization by a bicircular laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, D. B.; Becker, W.

    2016-06-01

    A theory of above-threshold ionization of atoms by a strong laser field is formulated. Two versions of the strong-field approximation (SFA) are considered, the direct SFA and the improved SFA, which do not and do, respectively, take into account rescattering of the freed electron off the parent ion. The atomic bound state is included in two different ways: as an expansion in terms of Slater-type orbitals or as an asymptotic wave function. Even though we are using the single-active-electron approximation, multielectron effects are taken into account in two ways: by a proper choice of the ground state and by an adequate definition of the ionization rate. For the case of the asymptotic bound-state wave functions, using the saddle-point method, a simple expression for the T -matrix element is derived for both the direct and the improved SFA. The theory is applied to ionization by a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counterrotating circularly polarized components with frequencies that are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency ω . Special emphasis is on the ω -2 ω case. In this case, the threefold rotational symmetry of the field carries over to the velocity map of the liberated electrons, for both the direct and the improved SFA. The results obtained are analyzed in detail using the quantum-orbit formalism, which gives good physical insight into the above-threshold ionization process. For this purpose, a specific classification of the saddle-point solutions is introduced for both the backward-scattered and the forward-scattered electrons. The high-energy backward-scattering quantum orbits are similar to those discovered for high-order harmonic generation. The short forward-scattering quantum orbits for a bicircular field are similar to those of a linearly polarized field. The conclusion is that these orbits are universal, i.e., they do not depend much on the shape of the laser field.

  12. Tracing direct and sequential two-photon double ionization of D{sub 2} in femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Ergler, Th.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Plesiat, E.; Perez-Torres, J. F.; Martin, F.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Titze, J.; Jahnke, T.; Doerner, R.; Sanz-Vicario, J. L.; Schoeffler, M.; Tilborg, J. van

    2010-02-15

    Two-photon double ionization (TPDI) of D{sub 2} is studied for 38-eV photons at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). Based on model calculations, instantaneous and sequential absorption pathways are identified as separated peaks in the measured D{sup +}+D{sup +} fragment kinetic energy release (KER) spectra. The instantaneous process appears at high KER, corresponding to ionization at the molecule's equilibrium distance, in contrast to sequential ionization mainly leading to low-KER contributions. Measured fragment angular distributions are in good agreement with theory.

  13. Exotic dual of type II double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Riccioni, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    We perform an exotic dualization of the Ramond-Ramond fields in type II double field theory, in which they are encoded in a Majorana-Weyl spinor of O (D , D). Starting from a first-order master action, the dual theory in terms of a tensor-spinor of O (D , D) is determined. This tensor-spinor is subject to an exotic version of the (self-)duality constraint needed for a democratic formulation. We show that in components, reducing O (D , D) to GL (D), one obtains the expected exotically dual theory in terms of mixed Young tableaux fields. To this end, we generalize exotic dualizations to self-dual fields, such as the 4-form in type IIB string theory.

  14. Low-field topological threshold in Majorana double nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrade, Constantin; Thakurathi, Manisha; Reeg, Christopher; Hoffman, Silas; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    A hard proximity-induced superconducting gap has recently been observed in semiconductor nanowire systems at low magnetic fields. However, in the topological regime at high magnetic fields, a soft gap emerges and represents a fundamental obstacle to topologically protected quantum information processing with Majorana bound states. Here we show that in a setup of double Rashba nanowires that are coupled to an s -wave superconductor and subjected to an external magnetic field along the wires, the topological threshold can be significantly reduced by the destructive interference of direct and crossed-Andreev pairing in this setup, precisely down to the magnetic field regime in which current experimental technology allows for a hard superconducting gap. We also show that the resulting Majorana bound states exhibit sufficiently short localization lengths, which makes them ideal candidates for future braiding experiments.

  15. Bond-rearrangement and ionization mechanisms in the photo-double-ionization of simple hydrocarbons (C2H4, C2H3F, and 1,1-C2H2F2) near and above threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Gaire, B.; Gatton, A. S.; Wiegandt, F.; Neff, J.; Janke, C.; Zeller, S.; Reedy, D.; Rajput, J.; Ben-Itzahk, I.; Landers, A. L.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th.

    2016-09-14

    We have investigated bond-rearrangement driven by photo-double-ionization (PDI) near and above the double ionization threshold in a sequence of carbon-carbon double bonded hydrocarbon molecules: ethylene, fluoroethylene, and 1,1-difluoroethylene. We employ the kinematically complete cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) method to resolve all photo-double-ionization events leading to two-ionic fragments. We observe changes in the branching ratios of different dissociative ionization channels depending on the presence of none, one, or two fluorine atoms. The role of the fluorine atom in the bond-rearrangement channels is intriguing as evident by the re-ordering of the threshold energies of the PDI in the fluorinated molecules. These effects offer a compelling argument that the electronegativity of the fluorine (or the polarity of the molecule) strongly influences the potential energy surfaces of the molcules and drives bond-rearrangement during the dissociation process. The energy sharing and the relative angle between the 3D-momentum vectors of the two electrons provide clear evidence of direct and indirect PDI processes.

  16. Bond-rearrangement and ionization mechanisms in the photo-double-ionization of simple hydrocarbons (C2H4, C2H3F, and 1,1-C2H2F2) near and above threshold

    DOE PAGES

    Gaire, B.; Gatton, A. S.; Wiegandt, F.; ...

    2016-09-14

    We have investigated bond-rearrangement driven by photo-double-ionization (PDI) near and above the double ionization threshold in a sequence of carbon-carbon double bonded hydrocarbon molecules: ethylene, fluoroethylene, and 1,1-difluoroethylene. We employ the kinematically complete cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) method to resolve all photo-double-ionization events leading to two-ionic fragments. We observe changes in the branching ratios of different dissociative ionization channels depending on the presence of none, one, or two fluorine atoms. The role of the fluorine atom in the bond-rearrangement channels is intriguing as evident by the re-ordering of the threshold energies of the PDI in the fluorinatedmore » molecules. These effects offer a compelling argument that the electronegativity of the fluorine (or the polarity of the molecule) strongly influences the potential energy surfaces of the molcules and drives bond-rearrangement during the dissociation process. The energy sharing and the relative angle between the 3D-momentum vectors of the two electrons provide clear evidence of direct and indirect PDI processes.« less

  17. Compact deuterium-tritium neutron generator using a novel field ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, J. L. Falabella, S.; Sanchez, J.; Tang, V.; Wang, H.

    2014-11-21

    Active interrogation using neutrons is an effective method for detecting shielded nuclear material. A lightweight, lunch-box-sized, battery-operated neutron source would enable new concepts of operation in the field. We have developed at-scale components for a highly portable, completely self-contained, pulsed Deuterium-Tritium (DT) neutron source producing 14 MeV neutrons with average yields of 10{sup 7} n/s. A gated, field ionization ion source using etched electrodes has been developed that produces pulsed ion currents up to 500 nA. A compact Cockcroft-Walton high voltage source is used to accelerate deuterons into a metal hydride target for neutron production. The results of full scale DT tests using the field ionization source are presented.

  18. Computer study of convection of weakly ionized plasma in a nonuniform magnetic field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiau, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    A weakly ionized plasma in a strong and nonuniform magnetic field exhibits an instability analogous to the flute instability in a fully ionized plasma. The instability sets in at a critical magnetic field. To study the final state of the plasma after the onset of the instability, the plasma equations are integrated numerically assuming a certain initial spectrum of small disturbances. In the regime studied, numerical results indicate a final steadily oscillating state consisting of a single finite amplitude mode together with a time-independent modification of the original equilibrium. These results agree with the analytic results obtained by Simon in the slightly supercritical regime. As the magnetic field is increased further, the wavelength of the final oscillation becomes nonunique. There exists a subinterval in the unstable wave band. Final stable oscillation with a wavelength in this subinterval can be established if the initial disturbance has a sufficiently strong component at the particular wavelength.

  19. Producing spin-polarized photoelectrons by using the momentum gate in strong-field ionization experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kunlong; Renziehausen, Klaus; Barth, Ingo

    2017-06-01

    The ionization of the prealigned nitric oxide molecule by strong circularly polarized laser fields is studied via theoretical simulations of the spin-resolved photoelectron momentum distributions by solving numerically the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Due to the spin-orbit entanglement in the ground state of nitric oxide and the sensitivity of the tunnel ionization of its doubly degenerate valence 2 π± orbitals carrying opposite electron ring currents to the sense of the laser-field rotation, the momentum-resolved spin-polarized photoelectrons are produced. We show that the spin polarization exhibits strong dependence on the kinetic energy as well as the emitting angle of the photoelectron. In addition to the laser control, the momentum gate in strong-field experiments would enable full control of the spin polarization.

  20. Current-voltage relation for a field ionizing He beam detector

    SciTech Connect

    DePonte, D. P.; Elliott, Greg S.; Kevan, S. D.

    2009-02-15

    Emerging interest in utilizing the transverse coherence properties of thermal energy atomic and molecular beams motivates the development of ionization detectors with near unit detection efficiency and adequate spatial resolution to resolve interference fringes of submicron dimension. We demonstrate that a field ionization tip coupled to a charged particle detector meets these requirements. We have systematically studied the current-voltage relationship for field ionization of helium using tungsten tips in diffuse gas and in a supersonic helium beam. For all 16 tips used in this study, the dependence of ion current on voltage for tips of fixed radius was found to differ from that for tips held at constant surface electric field. A scaling analysis is presented to explain this difference. Ion current increased on average to the 2.8 power of voltage for a tip at fixed field and approximately fifth power of voltage for fixed radius for a liquid nitrogen cooled tip in room temperature helium gas. For the helium beam, ion current increased as 2.2 power of voltage with constant surface field. The capture region of the tips was found to be up to 0.1 {mu}m{sup 2} for diffuse gas and 0.02 {mu}m{sup 2} in the beam. Velocity dependence and orientation of tip to beam were also studied.

  1. Effect of focal geometry on radiation from atomic ionization in an ultrastrong and ultrafast laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Walker, Barry C.

    2007-08-15

    We use a tunneling-Monte Carlo model to calculate the dynamics and emitted Larmor radiation from electrons ionized in an ultrashort and ultrastrong pulsed laser focus over the intensity range from 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. We find the spatial variation of a laser field affects the radiation and can no longer be neglected at laser intensities leading to relativistic effects. We identify three regimes for the interaction as a function of the ratio of the single cycle quiver amplitude of the photoelectron to the laser focus waist. Adopting a one-dimensional or plane wave approximation when the laser driven excursion of the photoelectron exceeds the focus waist overestimates the total radiated energy by as much as an order of magnitude. Despite this, the spectral amplitude of the highest-energy photons from ionization in a laser focus is comparable to the plane wave case for excursions up to the beam waist since the laser focus imparts an extra boost of speed for electrons exiting the focus. Full spatial and temporal integration that includes the ionization of charge states before the peak of the pulse do not differ significantly from results that include only the radiation from ionization of the charge state at the peak of the laser field.

  2. Geometric dependence of strong field enhanced ionization in D2O.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Gregory A; Kaldun, Andreas; Liekhus-Schmaltz, Chelsea; Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2017-09-28

    We have studied strong-field enhanced dissociative ionization of D2O in 40 fs, 800 nm laser pulses with focused intensities of <1-3 × 10(15)W/cm(2) by resolving the charged fragment momenta with respect to the laser polarization. We that observe dication dissociation into OD(+)/D(+) dominates when the polarization is out of the plane of the molecule, whereas trication dissociation into O(+)/D(+)/D(+) is strongly dominant when the polarization is aligned along the D-D axis. Dication dissociation into O/D(+)/D(+) and O(+)/D2(+) is not seen nor is there any significant fragmentation into multiple ions when the laser is polarized along the C2v symmetry axis of the molecule. Even below the saturation intensity for OD(+)/D(+), the O(+)/D(+)/D(+) channel has higher yield. By analyzing how the laser field is oriented within the molecular frame for both channels, we show that enhanced ionization is driving the triply charged three body breakup but is not active for the doubly charged two body breakup. We conclude that laser-induced distortion of the molecular potential suppresses multiple ionization along the C2v axis but enhances ionization along the D-D direction.

  3. Unraveling nonadiabatic ionization and Coulomb potential effect in strong-field photoelectron holography

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Xiaohong; Lin, Cheng; Sheng, Zhihao; ...

    2016-06-22

    Strong field photoelectron holography has been proposed as a means for interrogating the spatial and temporal information of electrons and ions in a dynamic system. After ionization, part of the electron wave packet may directly go to the detector (the reference wave), while another part may be driven back and scatters off the ion(the signal wave). The interference hologram of the two waves may be used to extract target information embedded in the collision process. Unlike conventional optical holography, however, propagation of the electron wave packet is affected by the Coulomb potential as well as by the laser field. Inmore » addition, electrons are emitted over the whole laser pulse duration, thus multiple interferences may occur. In this work, we used a generalized quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo method to investigate the effect of Coulomb potential and the nonadiabatic subcycle ionization on the photoelectron hologram. Here, we showed that photoelectron hologram can be well described only when the effect of nonadiabatic ionization is accounted for, and Coulomb potential can be neglected only in the tunnel ionization regime. Our results help paving the way for establishing photoelectron holography for probing spatial and dynamic properties of atoms and molecules.« less

  4. Unraveling nonadiabatic ionization and Coulomb potential effect in strong-field photoelectron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaohong; Lin, Cheng; Sheng, Zhihao; Liu, Peng; Chen, Zhangjin; Yang, Weifeng; Hu, Shilin; Lin, C. D.; Chen, Jing

    2016-06-22

    Strong field photoelectron holography has been proposed as a means for interrogating the spatial and temporal information of electrons and ions in a dynamic system. After ionization, part of the electron wave packet may directly go to the detector (the reference wave), while another part may be driven back and scatters off the ion(the signal wave). The interference hologram of the two waves may be used to extract target information embedded in the collision process. Unlike conventional optical holography, however, propagation of the electron wave packet is affected by the Coulomb potential as well as by the laser field. In addition, electrons are emitted over the whole laser pulse duration, thus multiple interferences may occur. In this work, we used a generalized quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo method to investigate the effect of Coulomb potential and the nonadiabatic subcycle ionization on the photoelectron hologram. Here, we showed that photoelectron hologram can be well described only when the effect of nonadiabatic ionization is accounted for, and Coulomb potential can be neglected only in the tunnel ionization regime. Our results help paving the way for establishing photoelectron holography for probing spatial and dynamic properties of atoms and molecules.

  5. Unraveling nonadiabatic ionization and Coulomb potential effect in strong-field photoelectron holography

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaohong; Lin, Cheng; Sheng, Zhihao; Liu, Peng; Chen, Zhangjin; Yang, Weifeng; Hu, Shilin; Lin, C. D.; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Strong field photoelectron holography has been proposed as a means for interrogating the spatial and temporal information of electrons and ions in a dynamic system. After ionization, part of the electron wave packet may directly go to the detector (the reference wave), while another part may be driven back and scatters off the ion(the signal wave). The interference hologram of the two waves may be used to extract target information embedded in the collision process. Unlike conventional optical holography, however, propagation of the electron wave packet is affected by the Coulomb potential as well as by the laser field. In addition, electrons are emitted over the whole laser pulse duration, thus multiple interferences may occur. In this work, we used a generalized quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo method to investigate the effect of Coulomb potential and the nonadiabatic subcycle ionization on the photoelectron hologram. We showed that photoelectron hologram can be well described only when the effect of nonadiabatic ionization is accounted for, and Coulomb potential can be neglected only in the tunnel ionization regime. Our results help paving the way for establishing photoelectron holography for probing spatial and dynamic properties of atoms and molecules. PMID:27329071

  6. COMMENT: Comment on `Asymptotic behaviour of the total cross section for double ionization of helium-like ions by electrons'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, B. G.; Rejoub, R.; Stebbings, R. F.

    2002-04-01

    Defrance et al (Defrance P, Kereselidze T M, Noselidze I L and Tzulukidze M F 2001b J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34 4957-68; Defrance P, Kereselidze T, Noselidze I and Tzulukidze M 2001a 22nd Int. Conf. on Photonic, Electronic, and Atomic Collisions (Santa Fe, CA) (abstracts of contributed papers) p 315) have reported calculations of the electron-impact double-ionization cross section for helium that display a markedly different high-energy behaviour than do most of the published experimental data and they contend that new precise measurements are needed. The results presented here confirm the correctness of the more recent experimental data and indicate that revision of the theory is required.

  7. Mass-loss rates, ionization fractions, shock velocities, and magnetic fields of stellar jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartigan, Patrick; Morse, Jon A.; Raymond, John

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we calculate emission-line ratios from a series of planar radiative shock models that cover a wide range of shock velocities, preshock densities, and magnetic fields. The models cover the initial conditions relevant to stellar jets, and we show how to estimate the ionization fractions and shock velocities in jets directly from observations of the strong emission lines in these flows. The ionization fractions in the HH 34, HH 47, and HH 111 jets are approximately 2%, considerably smaller than previous estimates, and the shock velocities are approximately 30 km/s. For each jet the ionization fractions were found from five different line ratios, and the estimates agree to within a factor of approximately 2. The scatter in the estimates of the shock velocities is also small (+/- 4 km/s). The low ionization fractions of stellar jets imply that the observed electron densities are much lower than the total densities, so the mass-loss rates in these flows are correspondingly higher (approximately greater than 2 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr). The mass-loss rates in jets are a significant fraction (1%-10%) of the disk accretion rates onto young stellar objects that drive the outflows. The momentum and energy supplied by the visible portion of a typical stellar jet are sufficient to drive a weak molecular outflow. Magnetic fields in stellar jets are difficult to measure because the line ratios from a radiative shock with a magnetic field resemble those of a lower velocity shock without a field. The observed line fluxes can in principle indicate the strength of the field if the geometry of the shocks in the jet is well known.

  8. Single and double ionization of helium by the impact of fast charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Madison, D. H.; Macek, Joseph H.

    2005-12-01

    A survey of the recent literature shows that paradoxes abound in electron- and ion-impact ionization of helium. For example, Schulz et al. [M. Schulz, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, H. Kollmus, D.H. Madison, S. Jones, J. Ullrich, Nature 422 (2003) 48] found that first-Born and three-body distorted-wave (3DW) theories reproduced their data for single ionization of helium by very fast fully stripped carbon ions in the scattering plane, but not outside the scattering plane. For much slower impacting carbon ions, however, Madison et al. [D.H. Madison, D. Fischer, M. Foster, M. Schulz, R. Moshammer, S. Jones, J. Ullrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 253201] found good agreement between 3DW theory and experiment, even outside the scattering plane. This creates a dilemma, since distorted-wave perturbation theories are generally thought to improve with increasing, not decreasing, projectile speed! In this contribution, we will address these and other issues, and suggest possible ways of proceeding.

  9. Alignment effects in two-photon double ionization of H{sub 2} in femtosecond xuv laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Guan Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I.

    2011-09-15

    Triple-differential cross sections for two-photon double ionization of the aligned hydrogen molecule at the equilibrium distance are presented for a central photon energy of 30 eV. The temporal response of the laser-driven molecule is investigated by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in full dimensionality using two-center elliptical coordinates and a finite-element discrete-variable-representation approach. The molecular orientation is found to have a strong effect on the emission modes of the two correlated photoelectrons. This molecular effect is most noticeable when the molecular axis and the laser polarization vector are oriented parallel to each other. For intermediate cases between the parallel and perpendicular geometries, the dominant emission modes for two-electron ejection oscillate between those for the two extreme cases. The contributions from different ionization channels are also analyzed in detail. Depending on the emission direction of the reference electron, the interference contributions from the various channels can be constructive or destructive at small alignment angles, while they always contribute constructively to the triple-differential cross sections near the perpendicular geometry.

  10. QED effects in 1s and 2s single and double ionization potentials of the noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niskanen, J.; Jänkälä, K.; Huttula, M.; Föhlisch, A.

    2017-04-01

    We present calculations on the quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in 1s and 2s single and double ionization potentials of noble gases from Ne to Rn as perturbations on relativistic four-component Dirac-Fock wavefunctions. The most dominant effect originates from the self-energy of the core-electron that yields corrections of similar order as the transverse interaction. For 1s ionization potentials, a match within few eV against the known experimental values is obtained, and our work reveals considerable QED effects in the photoelectron binding energies across the periodic table—most strikingly even for Ne. We perform power-law fits for the corrections as a function of Z and interpolate the QED correction of ˜-0.55 eV for S1s. Due to this, the K-edge electron spectra of the third row and below need QED for a match in the absolute energy when using state-of-the-art instrumentation.

  11. Double-resonance spectroscopy of the high Rydberg states of HCO. I. A precise determination of the adiabatic ionization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Eric; Grant, Edward R.

    1995-12-01

    We report the first spectroscopic observation of the high Rydberg states of HCO. Individual lines in a system of vibrationally autoionizing Rydberg series converging to the (010) state of HCO+ are rotationally labeled in a double-resonance excitation scheme that uses resolved levels in the (010) A' vibronic component of the 3pπ 2Π Rydberg state as intermediates. Observed high-Rydberg structure extends from the adiabatic ionization threshold—which falls just below the principal quantum number of 12 in the vibrationally excited series—to the (010) vertical threshold. Elements of a single series extending from n=12 to 50, for which the total angular momentumless spin can be assigned as N=1, are extrapolated to obtain a vertical convergence limit with respect to the 3pπ 2Π(010)A' N'=0 intermediate state of 20 296.9±0.3 cm-1. Referring this transition energy to the ground state, and subtracting the precisely known fundamental bending frequency of the cation, establishes the adiabatic ionization potential corresponding to the transition from HCO 2A'(000) J″=0, K″=0 to HCO+ J+=0 1Σ+(000). The result is 65 735.9±0.5 cm-1 or 8.150 22±0.000 06 eV.

  12. QED effects in 1s and 2s single and double ionization potentials of the noble gases.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, J; Jänkälä, K; Huttula, M; Föhlisch, A

    2017-04-14

    We present calculations on the quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in 1s and 2s single and double ionization potentials of noble gases from Ne to Rn as perturbations on relativistic four-component Dirac-Fock wavefunctions. The most dominant effect originates from the self-energy of the core-electron that yields corrections of similar order as the transverse interaction. For 1s ionization potentials, a match within few eV against the known experimental values is obtained, and our work reveals considerable QED effects in the photoelectron binding energies across the periodic table-most strikingly even for Ne. We perform power-law fits for the corrections as a function of Z and interpolate the QED correction of ∼-0.55 eV for S1s. Due to this, the K-edge electron spectra of the third row and below need QED for a match in the absolute energy when using state-of-the-art instrumentation.

  13. Double differential distribution of electron emission in the ionization of water molecules by fast bare oxygen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Shamik; Biswas, Shubhadeep; Bagdia, Chandan; Roychowdhury, Madhusree; Nandi, Saikat; Misra, Deepankar; Monti, J. M.; Tachino, C. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Champion, C.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2016-03-01

    The doubly differential distributions of low-energy electron emission in the ionization of water molecules under the impact of fast bare oxygen ions with energy of 48 MeV are measured. The measured data are compared with two quantum-mechanical models, i.e. the post and prior versions of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, and the first-order Born approximation with initial and final wavefunctions verifying correct boundary conditions (CB1). An overall excellent qualitative agreement is found between the data and the CDW-EIS models whereas the CB1 model showed substantial deviation. However, the detailed angular distributions display some discrepancies with both CDW-EIS models. The single differential and total cross-sections exhibit good agreement with the CDW-EIS models. The present detailed data set could also be used as an input for modeling highly charged ion induced radiation damage in living tissues, whose most abundant component is water. Similar measurements are also carried out for a projectile energy of 60 MeV. However, since the double differential cross-section data show similar results the details are not provided here, except for the total ionization cross-sections results.

  14. Using the charge-stabilization technique in the double ionization potential equation-of-motion calculations with dianion references.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Tomasz; Krylov, Anna I

    2011-08-28

    The charge-stabilization method is applied to double ionization potential equation-of-motion (EOM-DIP) calculations to stabilize unstable dianion reference functions. The auto-ionizing character of the dianionic reference states spoils the numeric performance of EOM-DIP limiting applications of this method. We demonstrate that reliable excitation energies can be computed by EOM-DIP using a stabilized resonance wave function instead of the lowest energy solution corresponding to the neutral + free electron(s) state of the system. The details of charge-stabilization procedure are discussed and illustrated by examples. The choice of optimal stabilizing Coulomb potential, which is strong enough to stabilize the dianion reference, yet, minimally perturbs the target states of the neutral, is the crux of the approach. Two algorithms of choosing optimal parameters of the stabilization potential are presented. One is based on the orbital energies, and another--on the basis set dependence of the total Hartree-Fock energy of the reference. Our benchmark calculations of the singlet-triplet energy gaps in several diradicals show a remarkable improvement of the EOM-DIP accuracy in problematic cases. Overall, the excitation energies in diradicals computed using the stabilized EOM-DIP are within 0.2 eV from the reference EOM spin-flip values.

  15. p53 binding protein 1 foci as a biomarker of DNA double strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. K. M.; Wong, M. Y. P.; Lam, R. K. K.; Ho, J. P. Y.; Chiu, S. K.; Yu, K. N.

    2011-12-01

    Foci of p53 binding protein 1 (53 BP1) have been used as a biomarker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells induced by ionizing radiations. 53 BP1 was shown to relocalize into foci shortly after irradiation, with the number of foci closely paralleling the number of DNA DSBs. However, consensus on criteria in terms of the numbers of 53 BP1 foci to define cells damaged by direct irradiation or by bystander signals has not been reached, which is partly due to the presence of 53 BP1 also in normal cells. The objective of the present work was to study the changes in the distribution of cells with different numbers of 53 BP1 foci in a cell population after low-dose ionizing irradiation (<0.1 Gy) provided by alpha particles, with a view to propose feasible criteria for defining cells damaged by direct irradiation or by bystander signals. It was proposed that the change in the percentage of cells with 1-3 foci should be used for such purposes. The underlying reasons were discussed.

  16. Weak-field versus Born-Oppenheimer asymptotics in the theory of tunneling ionization of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru

    2017-03-01

    The weak-field asymptotic theory (WFAT) and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) provide two general approaches to the theory of tunneling ionization of molecules enabling one to treat the internuclear motion quantum mechanically on an equal footing with the electronic motion. The approaches are based on the asymptotic expansions in field strength and electron-to-nuclear mass ratio, respectively. The problem is that they yield quite different formulas for the ionization rate, which causes an ambiguity for applications in strong-field physics. A recent experimental observation of the isotope effect in tunneling ionization of hydrogen molecules [X. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 083003 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.083003 motivates us to address this theoretical ambiguity. The WFAT and BOA have different but overlapping regions of applicability in the field strength—nuclear mass plane. We link the approaches analytically, in particular showing that the rate formulas in fact coincide in the overlap region where they both apply, and compare their predictions quantitatively.

  17. Micromachined mold-type double-gated metal field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yongjae; Kang, Seokho; Chun, Kukjin

    1997-12-01

    Electron field emitters with double gates were fabricated using micromachining technology and the effect of the electric potential of the focusing gate (or second gate) was experimentally evaluated. The molybdenum field emission tip was made by filling a cusplike mold formed when a conformal film was deposited on the hole-trench that had been patterned on stacked metals and dielectric layers. The hole-trench was patterned by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Each field emitter has a 0960-1317/7/4/009/img1 diameter extraction gate (or first gate) and a 0960-1317/7/4/009/img2 diameter focusing gate (or second gate). To make a path for the emitted electrons, silicon bulk was etched anisotropically in KOH and EDP (ethylene-diamine pyrocatechol) solution successively. The I - V characteristics and anode current change due to the focusing gate potential were measured.

  18. Residual energy in optical-field-ionized plasmas with the longitudinal motion of electrons included.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Chang, Tie-Qiang

    2005-06-01

    The space-charge effect on the residual energy of electrons in optical-field-ionized plasmas is studied in detail by an extended simplified model and the cloud-in-cell simulation, with the longitudinal motion of electrons included. It is found that in moderate conditions the space-charge field can influence the residual energy of electrons effectively by matching the space-charge field with laser pulse. The effect of stimulated Raman scattering on electron temperature is also investigated in detail. Finally, a comparison is made between the results and experimental data.

  19. Field-Induced Superconductivity in Electric Double Layer Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Kazunori; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Yuan, Hongtao; Ye, Jianting; Kawasaki, Masashi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-01

    Electric field tuning of superconductivity has been a long-standing issue in solid state physics since the invention of the field-effect transistor (FET) in 1960. Owing to limited available carrier density in conventional FET devices, electric-field-induced superconductivity was believed to be possible in principle but impossible in practice. However, in the past several years, this limitation has been overcome by the introduction of an electrochemical concept, and electric-field-induced superconductivity has been realized. In the electric double layer (EDL) formed at the electrochemical interfaces, an extremely high electric field is generated and hence high-density charge carriers sufficient to induce superconductivity exist and are collectively used as a charge accumulation device known as an EDL capacitor. Field-induced superconductivity has been used to establish the relationship between Tc and carrier density and can now be used to search for new superconductors. Here, we review electric-field-induced superconductivity using an FET device, with a particular focus on the latest advances in EDL transistors.

  20. Towards reference dosimetry for the MR-linac: magnetic field correction of the ionization chamber reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, K.; van Asselen, B.; Kok, J. G. M.; Aalbers, A. H. L.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2013-09-01

    In the UMC Utrecht a prototype MR-linac has been installed. The system consists of a 6 MV Elekta (Crawley, UK) linear accelerator and a 1.5 T Philips (Best, The Netherlands) Achieva MRI system. This paper investigates the feasibility to correct the ionization chamber reading for the magnetic field within the dosimetry calibration method described by Almond et al (1999 Med. Phys. 26 1847-70). Firstly, the feasibility of using an ionization chamber in an MR-linac was assessed by investigating possible influences of the magnetic field on NE2571 Farmer-type ionization chamber characteristics: linearity, repeatability, orientation in the magnetic field; and AAPM TG51 correction factor for voltage polarity and ion recombination. We found that these AAPM correction factors for the NE2571 chamber were not influenced by the magnetic field. Secondly, the influence of the permanent 1.5 T magnetic field on the NE2571 chamber reading was quantified. The reading is influenced by the magnetic field; therefore, a correction factor has been added. For the standardized setup used in this paper, the NE2571 chamber reading increases by 4.9% (± 0.2%) due to the transverse 1.5 T magnetic field. Dosimetry measurements in an MR-linac are feasible, if a setup-specific magnetic field correction factor (P1.5 T) for the charge reading is introduced. For the setup investigated in this paper, the P1.5 T has a value of 0.953.

  1. Towards reference dosimetry for the MR-linac: magnetic field correction of the ionization chamber reading.

    PubMed

    Smit, K; van Asselen, B; Kok, J G M; Aalbers, A H L; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2013-09-07

    In the UMC Utrecht a prototype MR-linac has been installed. The system consists of a 6 MV Elekta (Crawley, UK) linear accelerator and a 1.5 T Philips (Best, The Netherlands) Achieva MRI system. This paper investigates the feasibility to correct the ionization chamber reading for the magnetic field within the dosimetry calibration method described by Almond et al (1999 Med. Phys. 26 1847-70). Firstly, the feasibility of using an ionization chamber in an MR-linac was assessed by investigating possible influences of the magnetic field on NE2571 Farmer-type ionization chamber characteristics: linearity, repeatability, orientation in the magnetic field; and AAPM TG51 correction factor for voltage polarity and ion recombination. We found that these AAPM correction factors for the NE2571 chamber were not influenced by the magnetic field. Secondly, the influence of the permanent 1.5 T magnetic field on the NE2571 chamber reading was quantified. The reading is influenced by the magnetic field; therefore, a correction factor has been added. For the standardized setup used in this paper, the NE2571 chamber reading increases by 4.9% (± 0.2%) due to the transverse 1.5 T magnetic field. Dosimetry measurements in an MR-linac are feasible, if a setup-specific magnetic field correction factor (P1.5 T) for the charge reading is introduced. For the setup investigated in this paper, the P1.5 T has a value of 0.953.

  2. Static field ionization rates for multi-electron atoms and small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod Majety, Vinay; Scrinzi, Armin

    2015-12-01

    We present an application of the hybrid anti-symmetrized coupled channels approach to compute static field ionization rates for multi-electron atoms (He, Ne, Ar) and small molecules (H2, N2, CO). While inert gas atoms behave as effective single electron systems, molecules exhibit multi-electron effects in the form of core polarization. It is shown that at moderate field strengths, these effects can be modeled to about 10% accuracy using a few (5-6) channel ansatz. In the case of the CO molecule, description of core polarization is essential for the correct prediction of the maximum ionization direction and our converged results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  3. Molecular ionization of cyclohexanone in femtosecond laser fields: An application of ADK theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Q.; Mineo, H.; Wu, D.; Jin, M. X.; Chin, C. H.; Teranishi, Y.; Chao, S. D.; Ding, D.; Lin, S. H.

    2009-08-01

    The mechanisms of ionization and dissociation of cyclohexanone (C6H10O) in a 90 fs, 788 nm linearly polarized laser field ranging from 1013 to 1014 W/cm2 by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) have been investigated. The ion yields as a function of laser intensity have been measured experimentally. By comparison with the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) theory based on a hydrogen-like model, the ionization mechanism of cyclohexanone in this intense femtosecond laser field has been understood. Considering the importance of molecular nuclear motions, we propose that the Franck-Condon (F-C) factor can provide the excess vibrational energy in the molecular ion. This energy is required for the decomposition of the molecular ion which finally results in the observed mass spectrum.

  4. Excited state wavepacket dynamics in NO2 probed by strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Ruaridh; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Wilkinson, Iain; Underwood, Jonathan G.; Stolow, Albert

    2017-08-01

    We present an experimental femtosecond time-resolved study of the 399 nm excited state dynamics of nitrogen dioxide using channel-resolved above threshold ionization (CRATI) as the probe process. This method relies on photoelectron-photoion coincidence and covariance to correlate the strong-field photoelectron spectrum with ionic fragments, which label the channel. In all ionization channels observed, we report apparent oscillations in the ion and photoelectron yields as a function of pump-probe delay. Further, we observe the presence of a persistent, time-invariant above threshold ionization comb in the photoelectron spectra associated with most ionization channels at long time delays. These observations are interpreted in terms of single-pump-photon excitation to the first excited electronic X ˜2A1 state and multi-pump-photon excitations to higher-lying states. The short time delay (<100 fs) dynamics in the fragment channels show multi-photon pump signatures of higher-lying neutral state dynamics, in data sets recorded with higher pump intensities. As expected for pumping NO2 at 399 nm, non-adiabatic coupling was seen to rapidly re-populate the ground state following excitation to the first excited electronic state, within 200 fs. Subsequent intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution results in the spreading of the ground state vibrational wavepacket into the asymmetric stretch coordinate, allowing the wavepacket to explore nuclear geometries in the asymptotic region of the ground state potential energy surface. Signatures of the vibrationally "hot" ground state wavepacket were observed in the CRATI spectra at longer time delays. This study highlights the complex and sometimes competing phenomena that can arise in strong-field ionization probing of excited state molecular dynamics.

  5. Magnetic field induced minigap in double quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.A.; Lyo, S.K.; Klem, J.F.; Harff, N.E. |

    1994-07-01

    We report discovery of a partial energy gap, or minigap, in strongly coupled double quantum wells (QWs), due to an anticrossing of the two QW dispersion curves. The anticrossing and minigap are induced by an in-plane magnetic field B{sub {parallel}}, and give rise to large distortions in the Fermi surface and density of states, including a Van Hove singularity. Sweeping B{sub {parallel}} moves the minigap through the Fermi level, with the upper and lower gap edges producing a sharp maximum and minimum in the low-temperature in-plane conductance, in agreement with theoretical calculations. The gap energy may be directly determined from the data.

  6. Simulation of the radiation fields from ionizing radiation sources inside the containment in an accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kalugin, M. A.

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, a set of codes used for simulations of the radiation fields from ionizing radiation sources inside the containment in an accident is described. A method of evaluating the gamma dose rate from a space and energy distributed source is given. The dose rate is calculated by means of the design point kernel method and using buildup factors. The code MCU-REA with the ORIMCU module is used for the burnup calculations.

  7. Design and Installation of a Field Ionization Test Chamber for Ion Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    2011 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Design and Installation of a Field Ionization Test Chamber for Ion...Meter MS Mass Spectrometry MWNT Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube MUF Mass Utilization Factor NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NPS...has a mass range of 1–10kg [1]. In comparison, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ) Solar Electric Propulsion Technology

  8. Time-dependent density functional theory for strong-field ionization by circularly polarized pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirilă, Ciprian C.; Lein, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    By applying time-dependent density functional theory to a two-dimensional multielectron atom subject to strong circularly polarized light pulses, we confirm that the ionization of p orbitals with defined angular momentum depends on the sense of rotation of the applied field. A simple ad-hoc modification of the adiabatic local-density exchange-correlation functional is proposed to remedy its unphysical behavior under orbital depletion.

  9. Pulsed-field ionization photoelectron and IR-UV resonant photoionization spectroscopy of Al-thymine.

    PubMed

    Krasnokutski, Serge A; Lei, Yuxiu; Lee, Jung Sup; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2008-09-28

    Al-thymine (Al-C(4)H(3)N(2)O(2)CH(3)) is produced by laser vaporization of a rod made of Al and thymine powders in a molecular beam and studied by single-photon pulsed-field ionization-zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron and IR-UV resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The ZEKE experiment determines the adiabatic ionization energy of the neutral complex and 22 vibrational modes for the corresponding ion with frequencies below 2000 cm(-1). The IR-UV photoionization experiment measures two N-H and three C-H stretches for the neutral species. The theoretical calculations predict a number of low-energy isomers with Al binding to single oxygen or adjacent oxygen and nitrogen atoms of thymine. Among these isomers, the structure with Al binding to the O4 atom of the diketo tautomer is predicted to be the most stable one by the theory and is probed by both ZEKE and IR-UV measurements. This work presents the first application of the IR-UV resonant ionization to metal-organic molecule systems. Like ZEKE spectroscopy, the IR-UV photoionization technique is sensitive for identifying isomeric structures of metal association complexes.

  10. Gauging Metallicity of Diffuse Gas under an Uncertain Ionizing Radiation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Johnson, Sean D.; Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Rauch, Michael; Mulchaey, John S.

    2017-06-01

    Gas metallicity is a key quantity used to determine the physical conditions of gaseous clouds in a wide range of astronomical environments, including interstellar and intergalactic space. In particular, considerable effort in circumgalactic medium (CGM) studies focuses on metallicity measurements because gas metallicity serves as a critical discriminator for whether the observed heavy ions in the CGM originate in chemically enriched outflows or in more chemically pristine gas accreted from the intergalactic medium. However, because the gas is ionized, a necessary first step in determining CGM metallicity is to constrain the ionization state of the gas which, in addition to gas density, depends on the ultraviolet background radiation field (UVB). While it is generally acknowledged that both the intensity and spectral slope of the UVB are uncertain, the impact of an uncertain spectral slope has not been properly addressed in the literature. This Letter shows that adopting a different spectral slope can result in an order of magnitude difference in the inferred CGM metallicity. Specifically, a harder UVB spectrum leads to a higher estimated gas metallicity for a given set of observed ionic column densities. Therefore, such systematic uncertainties must be folded into the error budget for metallicity estimates of ionized gas. An initial study shows that empirical diagnostics are available for discriminating between hard and soft ionizing spectra. Applying these diagnostics helps reduce the systematic uncertainties in CGM metallicity estimates.

  11. NON-EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY OF DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING PRESTELLAR CORES. II. IONIZATION AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Willacy, Karen; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J.

    2012-07-20

    We study the effect that non-equilibrium chemistry in dynamical models of collapsing molecular cloud cores has on measurements of the magnetic field in these cores, the degree of ionization, and the mean molecular weight of ions. We find that OH and CN, usually used in Zeeman observations of the line-of-sight magnetic field, have an abundance that decreases toward the center of the core much faster than the density increases. As a result, Zeeman observations tend to sample the outer layers of the core and consistently underestimate the core magnetic field. The degree of ionization follows a complicated dependence on the number density at central densities up to 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} for magnetic models and 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} in non-magnetic models. At higher central densities, the scaling approaches a power law with a slope of -0.6 and a normalization which depends on the cosmic-ray ionization rate {zeta} and the temperature T as ({zeta}T){sup 1/2}. The mean molecular weight of ions is systematically lower than the usually assumed value of 20-30, and, at high densities, approaches a value of 3 due to the asymptotic dominance of the H{sup +}{sub 3} ion. This significantly lower value implies that ambipolar diffusion operates faster.

  12. Experimental verification of the nonadiabatic effect in strong-field ionization with elliptical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Liu, Ming-Ming; Geng, Ji-Wei; Han, Meng; Sun, Xufei; Shao, Yun; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang; Liu, Yunquan

    2017-05-01

    We perform high-resolution measurement of ellipticity-resolved momentum distributions from tunneling ionization of atoms along the major and minor axes in strong elliptically polarized fields, respectively. With developing a subcycle nonadiabatic strong-field tunneling theory for arbitrary laser polarization, we show that the electron initial conditions for positions and momenta after the tunneling are nonadiabatically intertwined with the instantaneous laser field. We extract the transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions at the tunnel exit with respect to the field ellipticity. We calibrate the laser intensity with ab initio calculation by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The nonadiabatic effects are confirmed experimentally and theoretically. Disentangling the effect of the long-range Coulomb potential from the laser field, we have further demonstrated that the momentum-time structure of the tunneling wave packet in strong laser fields can be approximatively imaged when treating the Coulomb effect perturbatively.

  13. Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (rempi) and Double Resonance Uv-Uv and Ir-Uv Spectroscopic Investigation Isocytosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Min, Ahreum; Ahn, Ahreum; Moon, Cheol Joo; Choi, Myong Yong; Ishiuchi, Shun-Ichi; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki

    2013-06-01

    Isocytosine(iC), 2-aminouracil, is a non-natural nucleobase and its functional group's positions resemble those of guanine; therefore, its spectroscopic investigation is worthy of attention especially for the natural/unnatural base pairs with guanine and isoguanine. In this study, resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and UV/IR-UV double resonance spectra of iC in the gas phase are presented. The collaboration work between Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan and Gyeongsang National University, Korea using laser ablation and thermal evaporation, respectively, for producing jet-cooled iC is presented and discussed. The REMPI spectrum of iC monomers is recorded in the spectral range of 35000 to 36400cm-1, showing very congested π-π* vibronic bands. UV-UV hole burning spectroscopy is further conducted to investigate the conformational landscapes of iC monomers. Moreover, the presence of free OH band from IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations convinces that the iC monomer in free-jet expansion experiment is an enol tautomer. However, a possible presence of a keto tautomer of iC may be provided by employing a pico-second experiment on iC.

  14. Generation of a pair of photons through the three-body dissociation of a multiply excited water molecule around the double ionization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odagiri, Takeshi; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Tanabe, Takehiko; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Isao H.; Kouchi, Noriyuki

    2009-11-01

    The cross sections for the generation of a photon-pair from excited fragments in photoexcitation of H2O have been measured as a function of incident photon energy. The multiply excited states of H2O have been observed even above the adiabatic double ionization potential.

  15. Above-threshold ionization with highly charged ions in superstrong laser fields. II. Relativistic Coulomb-corrected strong-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.

    2013-02-01

    We develop a relativistic Coulomb-corrected strong-field approximation (SFA) for the investigation of spin effects at above-threshold ionization in relativistically strong laser fields with highly charged hydrogenlike ions. The Coulomb-corrected SFA is based on the relativistic eikonal-Volkov wave function describing the ionized electron laser-driven continuum dynamics disturbed by the Coulomb field of the ionic core. The SFA in different partitions of the total Hamiltonian is considered. The formalism is applied for direct ionization of a hydrogenlike system in a strong linearly polarized laser field. The differential and total ionization rates are calculated analytically. The relativistic analog of the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev ionization rate is retrieved within the SFA technique. The physical relevance of the SFA in different partitions is discussed.

  16. High-resolution pulsed-field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy using multi-bunch synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.; Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y.; Heimann, P.

    1997-04-01

    BL9.0.2.2 is the newly constructed experimental End Station 2 at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). It is dedicated to the high resolution photoionization study of molecules of interest to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. This End Station is equipped with a high resolution scanning monochromator, which has been demonstrated to have a world record resolution of E/{delta}E=70,000. Taking the advantage of the high resolution ALS light, the authors have improved the energy resolution in threshold photoelectron spectroscopy (TPES) to 0.8 meV. The TPES is a popular technique for photoionization experiments at all synchrotron radiation facilities due to its high energy resolution as compared to that of traditional photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). TPES achieves higher energy resolution by preferentially detecting near zero kinetic energy photoelectrons resulting from threshold photoionization. However, the spectra obtained from the TPES technique generally are complicated by the simultaneous detection of electrons with nonzero kinetic energy, which are not fully discriminated against. On the other hand, the spectra obtained from pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy (PFI-PES) are completely free of the contamination from kinetic electrons. The PFI-PE technique basically involves the detection of the photoelectrons from field ionization of the very high-n Rydberg states, a few cm{sup {minus}1} below the ionization energy (IE), by applying a delayed pulsed electric field. Within a delay of a few microseconds, all the prompt electrons formed from direct ionization will escape from the photoionization region and will not be collected. The authors have recently overcome problems with energy resolution of an electron time-of-flight technique, and incorporated the PFI-PE technique with multi-bunch VUV synchrotron radiation.

  17. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR′) were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS3 (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: 1) [RCOOH2]+ for saturated wax esters, 2) [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and 3) [RCOOH2]+ and [RCO]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R′]+ and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2]+ ions for all types of wax esters and [R′ – 2H]+ ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions. PMID:26178197

  18. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-08-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR') were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS(3) (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: (1) [RCOOH2](+) for saturated wax esters, (2) [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and (3) [RCOOH2](+) and [RCO](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R'](+) and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2](+) ions for all types of wax esters and [R'-2H](+) ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions.

  19. Nonlinear evolution of double tearing mode with guiding magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C. L.; Ma, Z. W.

    2011-05-15

    Nonlinear dynamic evolution of the double tearing mode (DTM) with a guiding magnetic field (B{sub y0}) is investigated by magnetohydrodynamical numerical simulation. The dynamic process of DTM depends weakly on the guiding field in the weak guiding field regime (B{sub y0{<=}}1), but is suppressed by a strong guiding field (B{sub y0}>2). During the explosive nonlinear phase, the maximum reconnection rate ({gamma}{sub max}) increases weakly with the increase of the resistivity as {gamma}{sub max{approx}{eta}}{sup 0.06} for B{sub y0{<=}}1, but for B{sub y0}>2, {gamma}{sub max} is nearly independent of the resistivity. The maximum reconnection rate in the explosive growth phase increases with increase of the initial current sheet separation. A secondary tearing instability is observed at moderate current sheet separation. A strong guiding field suppresses the formation of a secondary island. Based on the simulation results, it is found that the secondary tearing instability occurs only when the length-to-thickness aspect ratio of the reconnection region exceeds about 20.

  20. Electric Field Double Probe Measurements for Ionospheric Space Plasma Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    Double probes represent a well-proven technique for gathering high quality DC and AC electric field measurements in a variety of space plasma regimes including the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere. Such experiments have been successfully flown on a variety of spacecraft including sounding rockets and satellites. Typical instrument designs involve a series of trades, depending on the science objectives, type of platform (e.g., spinning or 3-axis stabilized), expected plasma regime where the measurements will be made, available telemetry, budget, etc. In general, ionospheric DC electric field instruments that achieve accuracies of 0.1 mV/m or better, place spherical sensors at large distances (10m or more) from the spacecraft body in order to extend well beyond the spacecraft wake and sheath and to achieve large signal-to-noise ratios for DC and long wavelength measurements. Additional sets of sensors inboard of the primary, outermost sensors provide useful additional information, both for diagnostics of the plasma contact potentials, which particularly enhance the DC electric field measurements on non-spinning spacecraft, and for wavelength and phase velocity measurements that use the spaced receiver or "interferometer" technique. Accurate attitude knowledge enables B times V contributions to be subtracted from the measured potentials, and permits the measured components to be rotated into meaningful geophysical reference frames. We review the measurement technique for both DC and wave electric field measurements in the ionosphere discussing recent advances involving high resolution burst memories, multiple baseline double probes, new sensor surface materials, biasing techniques, and other considerations.

  1. Effect of the ionizing radiation on the rain-time atmospheric electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Takeda, Masahiko; Makino, Masahiko; Owada, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    The atmospheric electric field, or potential gradient (PG) at Kakioka, 150 southwest of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) shows peculiar behaviors after the accident, March 2012 due to the conductivity enhancement in the air by the ionizing radiation. This means that the PG provides significant information on the dynamics of the radioactive materials. During last EGU assembly 2012, we showed that the fine-weather PG decreased by one-two orders of magnitudes at the arrival of the radioactive plume, and that the PG recovered in various way depending on various types of re-suspension processes in addition to the physical decay of the deposited radioactive materials. We extended this work to the rain-time PG, which is very simple because of high variability of the PG depending on the cloud types and distribution. We yet found a statistical difference between rain-time PGs before and after the Fukushima NPP Accident: one-hour averaged rain-time PG during the first 45 days after the accident is not as much scattered to the negative side as those during the same period of different years or during 40 days before accident. Further examination of one-minute averaged data (1 Hz sampling) during the second half March for 2006-2012 revealed that this difference comes from short time-spans of negative peaks rather than the peak value after the accident compared to those before the accident. On the other hand, characteristics of positive peaks (cloud without rain) are unchanged. The results suggest either (1) the effect on the local charges in the rain cloud is narrowed under high dose of ionized radiation, making positive charges in the cloud less shielded by the negative charges, or (2) negative charge of ionized aerosol decays much faster under higher dose of ionized radiation due to the shortened time constant of the ionized aerosol (? 1-?, where ? is the atmospheric electric conductivity).

  2. Strong Field Ionization Rate Depends on the Sign of the Magnetic Quantum Number

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    xenon and krypton . It was found that spin-orbital coupling does not suppress the dependency of strong field ionization on atomic orientation. These...both   xenon  and   krypton .  It  was  found  that  spin-­‐orbital  coupling  does  not  suppress  the   dependency  of...spin-­‐orbital   coupling   in   krypton   and   xenon  does   not   suppress   the   dependency  of  strong  field

  3. Development of a compact neutron source based on field ionization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Allen, Ian; Dickinson, Michael R.; Schenkel, Thomas; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2010-11-25

    The authors report on the use of carbon nanofiber nanoemitters to ionize deuterium atoms for the generation of neutrons in a deuterium-deuterium reaction in a preloaded target. Acceleration voltages in the range of 50-80 kV are used. Field emission of electrons is investigated to characterize the emitters. The experimental setup and sample preparation are described and first data of neutron production are presented. Ongoing experiments to increase neutron production yields by optimizing the field emitter geometry and surface conditions are discussed.

  4. Threshold for thermal ionization of an aluminum surface by pulsed megagauss magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Awe, T J; Bauer, B S; Fuelling, S; Siemon, R E

    2010-01-22

    The first measurement of the threshold for thermal ionization of the surface of thick metal by pulsed magnetic field (B) is reported. Thick aluminum-with depth greater than the magnetic skin layer-was pulsed with partial differential B/ partial differential t from 30-80 MG/micros. Novel loads avoided nonthermal plasma (from electron avalanche, or energetic particles or photons from arcs). Thermal plasma forms from 6061-alloy aluminum when the surface magnetic field reaches 2.2 MG, in qualitative agreement with numerical simulation results by Garanin et al. [J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 46, 153 (2005)].

  5. Signatures of Molecular Orbital Structure in Lateral Electron Momentum Distributions from Strong-Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Ingo; Henkel, Jost; Lein, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Strong-field ionization of aligned diatomic and polyatomic molecules such as O2, N2, C2H4, and others in circularly polarized laser fields is investigated theoretically. By calculating the emission-angle-resolved lateral width of the momentum distribution perpendicular to the polarization plane, we show that nodal planes in molecular orbitals are directly imprinted on the angular dependence of the width. We demonstrate that orbital symmetries can be distinguished with the information obtained by observing the lateral width in addition to the angular distributions.

  6. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  7. Electron residual energy due to stochastic heating in field-ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khalilzadeh, Elnaz; Yazdanpanah, Jam Chakhmachi, Amir; Jahanpanah, Jafar; Yazdani, Elnaz

    2015-11-15

    The electron residual energy originated from the stochastic heating in under-dense field-ionized plasma is investigated here. Initially, the optical response of plasma is modeled by using two counter-propagating electromagnetic waves. In this case, the solution of motion equation of a single electron indicates that by including the ionization, the electron with higher residual energy compared with that without ionization could be obtained. In agreement with chaotic nature of the motion, it is found that the electron residual energy will be significantly changed by applying a minor change in the initial conditions. Extensive kinetic 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulations have been performed in order to resolve full plasma reactions. In this way, two different regimes of plasma behavior are observed by varying the pulse length. The results indicate that the amplitude of scattered fields in a proper long pulse length is high enough to act as a second counter-propagating wave and trigger the stochastic electron motion. On the contrary, the analyses of intensity spectrum reveal the fact that the dominant scattering mechanism tends to Thomson rather than Raman scattering by increasing the pulse length. A covariant formalism is used to describe the plasma heating so that it enables us to measure electron temperature inside and outside of the pulse region.

  8. Electron residual energy due to stochastic heating in field-ionized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilzadeh, Elnaz; Yazdanpanah, Jam; Jahanpanah, Jafar; Chakhmachi, Amir; Yazdani, Elnaz

    2015-11-01

    The electron residual energy originated from the stochastic heating in under-dense field-ionized plasma is investigated here. Initially, the optical response of plasma is modeled by using two counter-propagating electromagnetic waves. In this case, the solution of motion equation of a single electron indicates that by including the ionization, the electron with higher residual energy compared with that without ionization could be obtained. In agreement with chaotic nature of the motion, it is found that the electron residual energy will be significantly changed by applying a minor change in the initial conditions. Extensive kinetic 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulations have been performed in order to resolve full plasma reactions. In this way, two different regimes of plasma behavior are observed by varying the pulse length. The results indicate that the amplitude of scattered fields in a proper long pulse length is high enough to act as a second counter-propagating wave and trigger the stochastic electron motion. On the contrary, the analyses of intensity spectrum reveal the fact that the dominant scattering mechanism tends to Thomson rather than Raman scattering by increasing the pulse length. A covariant formalism is used to describe the plasma heating so that it enables us to measure electron temperature inside and outside of the pulse region.

  9. Evolution of the initial ionizing discontinuity in a transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, M. A.; Synakh, V. S.; Zakajdakhov, V. V.; Velikovich, A. L.

    1980-04-01

    The problem of the nonstationary evolution of the magnetic structure of transverse ionizing shock wave, arising from a gasdynamic shock wave ahead of a piston moving into an initially neutral gas, is solved. Photoionization of the cold gas ahead of the shock front by the radiation of the shock-heated gas is taken into account. When the stationary regime is achieved, the structure and boundary conditions are those obtained previously for a stationary ionizing shock wave (Liberman and Velikovich, 1978). The time of achieving the stationary regime depends on the magnitude of the electric field ahead of the initial gasdynamic discontinuity and the intensity of the precursor photoionization. The results of computation for shock waves in hydrogen are in good agreement with the measurements of Stebbins and Vlases (1968).

  10. Time evolution of the lateral-velocity distribution for a strong-field-ionization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.

    2016-05-01

    We study time development of a cusp in the lateral-velocity distribution for the process of strong-field ionization. The lateral-velocity distribution is computed using an ab initio quantum mechanical procedure for the moments of time inside and after the end of the laser pulse. We show that at the moment of time corresponding to the midpoint of the laser pulse the lateral-velocity distribution is a smooth Gaussian curve, its parameters agreeing very well with the predictions of the tunelling theories. At the moment of time corresponding to the end of the pulse the lateral-velocity distribution narrows considerably, showing the initial stage of the cusp-formation process due to the Coulomb focusing effect. Following evolution of the ionized wave packet yet further in time we consider the cusp formation in detail.

  11. Bio-effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in context of cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Saliev, Timur; Tachibana, Katsuro; Bulanin, Denis; Mikhalovsky, Sergey; Whitby, Ray D L

    2014-01-01

    Bio-effects mediated by non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) have become a hot topic of research in the last decades. This interest has been triggered by a growing public concern about the rapid expansion of telecommunication devices and possible consequences of their use on human health. Despite a feasibility study of potential negative impacts, the therapeutic advantages of EMF could be effectively harnessed for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This review aims to examine recent findings relating to the mechanisms of action underlying the bio-effects induced by non-ionizing EMF. The potential of non-thermal and thermal effects is discussed in the context of possible applications for the induction of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, and increase of membrane permeability in malignant cells. A special emphasis has been put on the combination of EMF with magnetic nano-particles and ultrasound for cancer treatment. The review encompasses both human and animal studies.

  12. Superelastic rescattering in single ionization of helium in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Chao; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; He, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Rescattering is a central process in ultrafast physics, in which an electron, freed from an atom and accelerated by a laser field, loses its energy by producing high-order harmonics or multiple ionization. Here, taking helium as a prototypical atom, we demonstrate numerically superelastic rescattering in single ionization of an atom. In this scenario, the absorption of a high-energy extreme ultraviolet photon leads to emission of one electron and excitation of the second one into its first excited state, forming He+*. A time-delayed midinfrared laser pulse accelerates the freed electron, drives it back to the He+*, and induces the transition of the bound electron to the ground state of the ion. Identification of the superelastic rescattering process in the photoelectron momentum spectra provides a means to determine the photoelectron momentum at the time of rescattering without using any information of the time-delayed probe laser pulse.

  13. Ionization effects in the generation of wake-fields by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in argon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Makito, K.; Shin, J.-H.; Zhidkov, A.; Hosokai, T.; Masuda, S.; Kodama, R.

    2012-10-15

    Difference in mechanisms of wake-field generation and electron self-injection by high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in an initially neutral Argon gas and in pre-ionized plasma without ionization is studied via 2D particle-in-cell simulations including optical ionization of the media. For shorter laser pulses, 40 fs, ionization results only in an increase of the charge of accelerated electrons by factor of {approx}3 with qualitatively the same energy distribution. For longer pulses, 80 fs, a more stable wake field structure is observed in the neutral gas with the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons exceeding that in the fixed density plasma. In higher density Argon, an ionizing laser pulse converts itself to a complex system of solitons at a self-induced, critical density ramp.

  14. Single field double inflation and primordial black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannike, K.; Marzola, L.; Raidal, M.; Veermäe, H.

    2017-09-01

    Within the framework of scalar-tensor theories, we study the conditions that allow single field inflation dynamics on small cosmological scales to significantly differ from that of the large scales probed by the observations of cosmic microwave background. The resulting single field double inflation scenario is characterised by two consequent inflation eras, usually separated by a period where the slow-roll approximation fails. At large field values the dynamics of the inflaton is dominated by the interplay between its non-minimal coupling to gravity and the radiative corrections to the inflaton self-coupling. For small field values the potential is, instead, dominated by a polynomial that results in a hilltop inflation. Without relying on the slow-roll approximation, which is invalidated by the appearance of the intermediate stage, we propose a concrete model that matches the current measurements of inflationary observables and employs the freedom granted by the framework on small cosmological scales to give rise to a sizeable population of primordial black holes generated by large curvature fluctuations. We find that these features generally require a potential with a local minimum. We show that the associated primordial black hole mass function is only approximately lognormal.

  15. Radiation dosimetry in magnetic fields with Farmer-type ionization chambers: determination of magnetic field correction factors for different magnetic field strengths and field orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindeldreier, C. K.; Schrenk, O.; Bakenecker, A.; Kawrakow, I.; Burigo, L.; Karger, C. P.; Greilich, S.; Pfaffenberger, A.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine magnetic field correction factors that are needed for dosimetry in hybrid devices for MR-guided radiotherapy for Farmer-type ionization chambers for different magnetic field strengths and field orientations. The response of six custom-built Farmer-type chambers irradiated at a 6 MV linac was measured in a water tank positioned in a magnet with magnetic field strengths between 0.0 T and 1.1 T. Chamber axis, beam and magnetic field were perpendicular to each other and both magnetic field directions were investigated. EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations were compared to the measurements and simulations with different field orientations were performed. For all geometries, magnetic field correction factors, kBQ , and perturbation factors were calculated. A maximum increase of 8.8% in chamber response was measured for the magnetic field perpendicular to chamber and beam axis. The measured chamber response could be reproduced by adjusting the dead volume layer near the chamber stem in the Monte Carlo simulations. For the magnetic field parallel to the chamber axis or parallel to the beam, the simulated response increased by 1.1% at maximum for field strengths up to 1.1 T. A complex dependence of the response was found on chamber radius, magnetic field strength and orientation of beam, chamber axis and magnetic field direction. Especially for magnetic fields perpendicular to beam and chamber axis, the exact sensitive volume has to be considered in the simulations. To minimize magnetic field correction factors and the influence of dead volumes on the response of Farmer chambers, a measurement set-up with the magnetic field parallel to the chamber axis or parallel to the beam is recommended for dosimetry.

  16. The response of prototype plane-parallel ionization chambers in small megavoltage x-ray fields.

    PubMed

    McNiven, Andrea L; Mulligan, Matt; Kron, Tomas; Battista, Jerry J

    2006-11-01

    Accurate small-field dosimetry has become important with the use of multiple small fields in modern radiotherapy treatments such as IMRT and stereotactic radiosurgery. In this study, we investigate the response of a set of prototype plane-parallel ionization chambers, based upon the Exradin T11 chamber, with active volume diameters of 2, 4, 10, and 20 mm, exposed to 6 MV stereotactic radiotherapy x-ray fields. Our goal was to assess their usefulness for accurate small x-ray field dose measurements. The relative ionization response was measured in circular fields (0.5 to 4 cm diameter) as compared to a 10 x 10 cm2 reference field. A large discrepancy (approximately 40%) was found between the relative response in the smallest plane-parallel chamber and other small volume dosimeters (radiochromic film, micro-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor and diode) used for comparison. Monte Carlo BEAMnrc simulations were used to simulate the experimental setup in order to investigate the cause of the under-response and to calculate appropriate correction factors that could be applied to experimental measurements. It was found that in small fields, the air cavity of these custom-made research chambers perturbed the secondary electron fluence profile significantly, resulting in decreased fluence within the active volume, which in turn produces a chamber under-response. It is demonstrated that a large correction to the p(fl) correction factor would be required to improve dosimetric accuracy in small fields, and that these factors could be derived using Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Orientation dependence of the ionization of CO and NO in an intense femtosecond two-color laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Ray, D.; De, S.; Cao, W.; Laurent, G.; Wang, Z.; Le, A. T.; Cocke, C. L.; Znakovskaya, I.; Kling, M. F.

    2011-10-15

    Two-color (800- and 400-nm) short (45-fs) linearly polarized pulses are used to ionize and dissociate CO and NO. The emission of C{sup q+}, N{sup q+}, and O{sup +} fragments indicates that the higher ionization rate occurs when the peak electric field points from C to O in CO and from N to O in NO. This preferred direction is in agreement with that predicted by Stark-corrected strong-field-approximation calculations.

  18. Double bond localization in minor homoallylic fatty acid methyl esters using acetonitrile chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Anthony L; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Abril, Reuben; Brenna, J Thomas

    2002-08-15

    Double bond position in natural fatty acids is critical to biochemical properties, however, common instrument-based methods cannot locate double bonds in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), the predominant analysis form of fatty acids. A recently described mass spectrometry (MS) method for locating double bonds in FAME is reported here for the analysis of minor (<1%) components of real FAME mixtures derived from three natural sources; golden algae (Schizochytrium sp.), primate brain white matter, and transgenic mouse liver. Acetonitrile chemical ionization tandem MS was used to determine double bond positions in 39 FAME, most at concentrations well below 1% of all fatty acid methyl esters. FAME identified in golden algae are 14:1n-6, 14:3n-3, 16:1n-7, 16:2n-6, 16:3n-6, 16:3n-3, 16:4n-3, 18:2n-7, 18:3n-7, 18:3n-8, 18:4n-3, 18:4n-5, 20:3n-7, 20:4n-3, 20:4n-5, 20:4n-7, 20:5n-3, and 22:4n-9. Additional FAME identified in primate brain white matter are 20:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 20:2n-7, 20:2n-9, 22:1n-7, 22:1n-9, 22:1n-13, 22:2n-6, 22:2n-7, 22:2n-9, 22:3n-6, 22:3n-7, 22:3n-9, 22:4n-6, 24:1n-7, 24:1n-9, and 24:4n-6. Additional FAME identified in mouse liver are 26:5n-6, 26:6n-3, 28:5n-6, and 28:6n-3. The primate brain 22:3n-7 and algae 18:4n-5 are novel fatty acids. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the technique for analysis of real samples. Tables are presented to aid in interpretation of acetonitrile CIMS/MS spectra.

  19. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield with high-pressure gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA for improved neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H. S.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C.; Renner, J.

    2015-11-01

    Liquid Xe TPCs are among the most popular choices for double beta decay and WIMP dark matter searches. Gaseous Xe has intrinsic advantages when compared to Liquid Xe, specifically, tracking capability and better energy resolution for double beta decay searches. The performance of gaseous Xe can be further improved by molecular additives such as trimethylamine(TMA), which are expected to (1) cool down the ionization electrons, (2) convert Xe excitation energy to TMA ionizations through Penning transfer, and (3) produce scintillation and electroluminescence light in a more easily detectable wavelength (300 nm). These features may provide better tracking and energy resolution for double-beta decay searches. They are also expected to enhance columnar recombination for nuclear recoils, which can be used for searches for WIMP dark matter with directional sensitivity. We constructed a test ionization chamber and successfully measured scintillation and ionization yields at high precision with various Xe and TMA mixtures and pressures. We observed the Penning effect and an increase in recombination with the addition of TMA. However, many undesired features for dark matter searches, such as strong suppression of the scintillation light and no sign of recombination light, were also found. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  20. Strong-field ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules by a bicircular laser field: Rotational and reflection symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuladžić, M.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Milošević, D. B.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate above-threshold ionization (ATI) of homonuclear diatomic molecules by the so-called bicircular field using the improved molecular strong-field approximation. Bicircular field is a two-color laser field having coplanar circularly polarized counter-rotating components of frequencies r ω and s ω , with r and s integers. Our analysis includes the high-energy part of the corresponding spectra, i.e., high-order ATI (HATI). The obtained molecular (H)ATI spectra are more complicated than the corresponding atomic spectra. We have identified four symmetries which are satisfied in (H)ATI of homonuclear diatomic molecules. Two of these symmetries are general rotational symmetries valid both for direct and rescattered HATI electrons. The remaining two symmetries are reflection symmetries valid only for the direct ATI electrons. Analytical proof of these symmetries is also given. These symmetries are illustrated using numerical examples of HATI spectra of the N2 molecule for various molecular orientations.

  1. Double binding energy differences: Mean-field or pairing effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chong

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter we present a systematic analysis on the average interaction between the last protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei, which can be extracted from the double differences of nuclear binding energies. The empirical average proton-neutron interaction Vpn thus derived from experimental data can be described in a very simple form as the interplay of the nuclear mean field and the pairing interaction. It is found that the smooth behavior as well as the local fluctuations of the Vpn in even-even nuclei with N ≠ Z are dominated by the contribution from the proton-neutron monopole interactions. A strong additional contribution from the isoscalar monopole interaction and isovector proton-neutron pairing interaction is seen in the Vpn for even-even N = Z nuclei and for the adjacent odd-A nuclei with one neutron or proton being subtracted.

  2. INTEGRAL Field Spectroscopy of the Extended Ionized Gas in Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis; Arribas, Santiago; Clements, David

    2004-02-01

    Integral field optical spectroscopy with the INTEGRAL system has been used to investigate for the first time the two-dimensional kinematic and ionization properties of the extended, warm, ionized gas in Arp 220 over an area of 75.0"×40.0" (i.e., 28×15 kpc). The structure of the ionized gas is divided into well-identified regions associated with the X-ray-emitting plumes and extended lobes, previously studied in detail by McDowell and collaborators. The overall ionization state of the warm gas in the plumes and lobes, as traced by the [N II]/Hα line, is consistent with high-velocity shocks expanding in a neutral ambient medium. Changes in the ionization state of the gas along the major axis of the plumes are detected, in particular in the outer regions of the northwestern plume, where the transition between the main stellar body of the galaxy and a broad, low surface brightness tidal tail is located. If the plumes are produced by a starburst-driven galactic wind, the efficiency in the conversion of mechanical to radiation energy is a factor of at least 10 smaller than in galactic winds developed in edge-on spiral galaxies with well-defined rotation and axis of outflow. The kinematic properties of the lobes, with an average velocity of +8 km s-1 (east lobe) and -79 km s-1 (west lobe), are to a first order in agreement with the predictions of the merger scenario, according to which the lobes are tidally induced gas condensations produced during the merging process. The largest velocity gradients of 50 km s-1 kpc-1 and velocity deviations of up to +280 and -320 km s-1 from the systemic velocity are associated not with the plumes but with the outer stellar envelope and broad tidal tails at distances of up to 7.5 kpc, indicating that the large-scale kinematics of the extended ionized gas in Arp 220 is most likely dominated by the tidally induced motions, and not by galactic winds associated with nuclear starbursts. Based on observations with the William Herschel

  3. Spatially resolved integral field spectroscopy of the ionized gas in IZw18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Hernández-Fernández, J. D.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Brinchmann, J.; Durret, F.; Kunth, D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed 2D study of the ionized ionized interstellar medium (ISM) of IZw18 using new Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer-integral field unit (PMAS-IFU) optical observations. IZw18 is a high-ionization galaxy which is among the most metal-poor starbursts in the local Universe. This makes IZw18 a local benchmark for understanding the properties most closely resembling those prevailing at distant starbursts. Our IFU aperture (˜1.4 × 1.4 kpc2) samples the entire IZw18 main body and an extended region of its ionized gas. Maps of relevant emission lines and emission line ratios show that higher-excitation gas is preferentially located close to the north-west knot and thereabouts. We detect a Wolf-Rayet feature near the north-west knot. We derive spatially resolved and integrated physical-chemical properties for the ionized gas in IZw18. We find no dependence between the metallicity indicator R23 and the ionization parameter (as traced by [O III]/[O II]) across IZw18. Over ˜0.30 kpc2, using the [O III] λ4363 line, we compute Te[O III] values (˜15 000-25 000 K), and oxygen abundances are derived from the direct determinations of Te[O III]. More than 70 per cent of the higher-Te[O III] (≳22 000 K) spaxels are He IIλ4686-emitting spaxels too. From a statistical analysis, we study the presence of variations in the ISM physical-chemical properties. A galaxy-wide homogeneity, across hundreds of parsecs, is seen in O/H. Based on spaxel-by-spaxel measurements, the error-weighted mean of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.11 ± 0.01 is taken as the representative O/H for IZw18. Aperture effects on the derivation of O/H are discussed. Using our IFU data we obtain, for the first time, the IZw18 integrated spectrum.

  4. The doubling dose of ionizing radiation for drosophilia, mice, and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.

    1997-10-01

    It is part of the lore of radiation genetics that Drosophila is much more resistant to the genetic effects of radiation than the mouse. For across-species comparisons and risk setting, an estimate of the mutational doubling dose (DD) for human germ cells (immature oocytes and spermatogonia) was approximately 2 Sv equivalents. Neel and Lewis suggested that the population DD for mouse spermatogonia was approximately 1.3 Sv equivalents, with the rate for immature oocytes even higher, because of the failure to recover mutations in the late litters of radiated females. With the incorporation of cluster mutations into the mouse DD estimate, as discussed by Selby here last year, these mouse DD can only go higher. Given the relative agreement between these two mammals, I have now reviewed all the pertinent Drosophila data, the results of which review will be presented. There are many difficulties to combining the results of the various relevant Drosophila studies, but, to a first approximation, a population DD of approximately 4 Gy emerges. There is, thus, given the uncertainties in such estimates, agreement within a factor of 2 between the three species, with such different life histories. The coincidence, to what extent a simple function of target size, and to what extent the result of an evolutionary adjustment by virtue of which induced mutation rates (i.e., repair inefficiencies) are proportional to generation length rather than absolute time.

  5. Double-electron capture by highly-ionized atoms isolated at very low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwell Hoogerheide, Shannon; Dreiling, Joan M.; Sahiner, Arda; Tan, Joseph N.

    2016-05-01

    Charge exchange with background gases, also known as electron capture processes, is important in the study of comets, controlled fusion energy, anti-matter atoms, and proposed one-electron ions in Rydberg states. However, there are few experiments in the very low energy regime that could be useful for further theoretical development. At NIST, highly-charged ions extracted from an electron-beam ion trap can be isolated with energy < 10 eV in a compact Penning trap. By controlling the background gas pressure and composition, the charge exchange rates can be studied. Fully stripped neon or other ions are held in the trap for varying lengths of time and allowed to interact with different background gases at multiple pressures. The ions are then pulsed to a time-of-flight detector to count the population of each charge state. Analysis using a system of rate equations yields information about the ion cloud expansion and single-electron capture rates. A substantial amount of double-electron capture is also observed. We present the relative rates and discuss the error budget. SFH and JMD were funded by National Research Council Research Associateship Awards during some of this work.

  6. Large-area field-ionization detector for the study of Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. C. L.; Piñeiro, A. M.; Roeder, E. E.; Rutbeck-Goldman, H. J.; Tom, H. W. K.; Mills, A. P.

    2016-11-01

    We describe here the development and characterization of a micro-channel plate (MCP) based detector designed for the efficient collection and detection of Rydberg positronium (Ps) atoms for use in a time-of-flight apparatus. The designed detector collects Rydberg atoms over a large area (˜4 times greater than the active area of the MCP), ionizing incident atoms and then collecting and focusing the freed positrons onto the MCP. Here we discuss the function, design, and optimization of the device. The detector has an efficiency for Rydberg Ps that is two times larger than that of the γ-ray scintillation detector based scheme it has been designed to replace, with half the background signal. In principle, detectors of the type described here could be readily employed for the detection of any Rydberg atom species, provided a sufficient field can be applied to achieve an ionization rate of ≥108/s. In such cases, the best time resolution would be achieved by collecting ionized electrons rather than the positive ions.

  7. Cross-Field Current Instabilities in Thin Ionization Layers and the Enhanced Aurora

    SciTech Connect

    Jay R. Johnson and Hideo Okuda

    2008-05-20

    Nearly half of the time, auroral displays exhibit thin, bright layers known as \\enhanced aurora." There is a substantial body of evidence that connects these displays with thin, dense, heavy ion layers in the E-region. Based on the spectral characteristics of the enhanced layers, it is believed that they result when wave-particle interaction heats ambient electrons to energies at or just above the 17 eV ionization energy of N2. While there are several possible instabilities that could produce suprathermal electrons in thin layers, there has been no clear theoretical investigation which examines in detail how wave instabilities in the thin ionization layers could develop and produce the suprathermal electrons. We examine instabilities which would occur in thin, dense, heavy ion layers using extensive analytical analysis combined with particle simulations. We analyze a cross field current instability that is found to be strongly unstable in the heavy ion layers. Electrostatic simulations show that substantial heating of the ambient electrons occurs with energization at or above the N2 ionization energy.

  8. Melatonin sensitizes human breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation by downregulating proteins involved in double-strand DNA break repair.

    PubMed

    Alonso-González, Carolina; González, Alicia; Martínez-Campa, Carlos; Gómez-Arozamena, José; Cos, Samuel

    2015-03-01

    Radiation and adjuvant endocrine therapy are nowadays considered a standard treatment option after surgery in breast cancer. Melatonin exerts oncostatic actions on human breast cancer cells. In the current study, we investigated the effects of a combination of radiotherapy and melatonin on human breast cancer cells. Melatonin (1 mm, 10 μm and 1 nm) significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Radiation alone inhibited the MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of breast cancer cells with melatonin 1 wk before radiation led to a significantly greater decrease of MCF-7 cell proliferation compared with radiation alone. Melatonin pretreatment before radiation also decreased G2 -M phase arrest compared with irradiation alone, with a higher percentage of cells in the G0 -G1 phase and a lower percentage of cells in S phase. Radiation alone diminished RAD51 and DNA-protein kinase (PKcs) mRNA expression, two main proteins involved in double-strand DNA break repair. Treatment with melatonin for 7 days before radiation led to a significantly greater decrease in RAD51 and DNA-PKcs mRNA expression compared with radiation alone. Our findings suggest that melatonin pretreatment before radiation sensitizes breast cancer cells to the ionizing effects of radiation by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest and downregulating proteins involved in double-strand DNA break repair. These findings may have implications for designing clinical trials using melatonin and radiotherapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. STORAGE RING CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR ELECTRON IMPACT SINGLE AND DOUBLE IONIZATION OF Fe{sup 13+} AND SINGLE IONIZATION OF Fe{sup 16+} AND Fe{sup 17+}

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Novotny, O.; Savin, D. W.; Becker, A.; Grieser, M.; Krantz, C.; Repnow, R.; Wolf, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Spruck, K.; Lestinsky, M.

    2013-04-10

    We report measurements of electron impact ionization for Fe{sup 13+}, Fe{sup 16+}, and Fe{sup 17+} over collision energies from below threshold to above 3000 eV. The ions were recirculated using an ion storage ring. Data were collected after a sufficiently long time that essentially all the ions had relaxed radiatively to their ground state. For single ionization of Fe{sup 13+}, we find that previous single pass experiments are more than 40% larger than our results. Compared to our work, the theoretical cross section recommended by Arnaud and Raymond is more than 30% larger, while that of Dere is about 20% greater. Much of the discrepancy with Dere is due to the theory overestimating the contribution of excitation-autoionization via n = 2 excitations. Double ionization of Fe{sup 13+} is dominated by direct ionization of an inner shell electron accompanied by autoionization of a second electron. Our results for single ionization of Fe{sup 16+} and Fe{sup 17+} agree with theoretical calculations to within the experimental uncertainties.

  10. Calculation of correction factors for ionization chamber measurements with small fields in low-density media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaturo, O.; Pachoud, M.; Bochud, F. O.; Moeckli, R.

    2012-07-01

    The quantity of interest for high-energy photon beam therapy recommended by most dosimetric protocols is the absorbed dose to water. Thus, ionization chambers are calibrated in absorbed dose to water, which is the same quantity as what is calculated by most treatment planning systems (TPS). However, when measurements are performed in a low-density medium, the presence of the ionization chamber generates a perturbation at the level of the secondary particle range. Therefore, the measured quantity is close to the absorbed dose to a volume of water equivalent to the chamber volume. This quantity is not equivalent to the dose calculated by a TPS, which is the absorbed dose to an infinitesimally small volume of water. This phenomenon can lead to an overestimation of the absorbed dose measured with an ionization chamber of up to 40% in extreme cases. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate correction factors based on the Monte Carlo simulations. These correction factors are obtained by the ratio of the absorbed dose to water in a low-density medium □Dw,Q,V1low averaged over a scoring volume V1 for a geometry where V1 is filled with the low-density medium and the absorbed dose to water □Dw,QV2low averaged over a volume V2 for a geometry where V2 is filled with water. In the Monte Carlo simulations, □Dw,QV2low is obtained by replacing the volume of the ionization chamber by an equivalent volume of water, according to the definition of the absorbed dose to water. The method is validated in two different configurations which allowed us to study the behavior of this correction factor as a function of depth in phantom, photon beam energy, phantom density and field size.

  11. Pulsed field ionization electron spectroscopy and molecular structure of aluminum uracil.

    PubMed

    Krasnokutski, Serge A; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2007-10-25

    Al-uracil (Al-C4H4N2O2) was synthesized in a laser-vaporization supersonic molecular beam source and studied with pulsed field ionization-zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). The DFT calculations predicted several low-energy Al-uracil isomers with Al binding to the diketo, keto-enol, and dienol tautomers of uracil. The ZEKE spectroscopic measurements of Al-uracil determined the ionization energy of 43 064(5) cm-1 [or 5.340(6) eV] and a vibrational mode of 51 cm-1 for the neutral complex and several vibrational modes of 51, 303, 614, and 739 cm-1 for the ionized species. Combination of the ZEEK spectrum with the DFT and Franck-Condon factor calculations determined the preferred isomeric structure and electronic states of the Al-uracil complex. This isomer is formed by Al binding to the O4 atom of the diketo tautomer of uracil and has a planar Cs symmetry. The ground electronic states of the neutral and ionized species are 2A' ' and 1A', respectively. The 2A' ' neutral state has a slightly shorter Al-O4 distance than the 1A' ion state. However, the 1A' ion state has stronger metal-ligand binding compared to the 2A' ' state. The increased Al-O4 distance from the 2A' ' state to the 1A' state is attributed to the loss of the pi binding interaction between Al and O4 in the singlet ion state, whereas the increased metal-ligand binding strength is due to the additional charge-dipole interaction in the ion that surpasses the loss of the pi orbital interaction.

  12. Spin-orbit Larmor clock for ionization times in one-photon and strong-field regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Jivesh; Morales, Felipe; Torlina, Lisa; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Photoionization is a process where absorption of one or several photons liberates an electron and creates a hole in a quantum system, such as an atom or a molecule. Is it faster to remove an electron using one or many photons, and how to define this time? Here we introduce a clock that allows us to define ionization time for both one-photon and many-photon ionization regimes. The clock uses the interaction of the electron or hole spin with the magnetic field created by their orbital motion, known as the spin-orbit interaction. The angle of spin precession in the magnetic field records time. We use the combination of analytical theory and ab initio calculations to show how ionization delay depends on the number of absorbed photons, how it appears in the experiment and what electron dynamics it signifies. In particular, we apply our method to calculate the derived time delays in tunneling regime of strong-field ionization.

  13. Dc to ac field conversion due to leaky-wave excitation in a plasma slab behind an ionization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostin, V. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.

    2015-03-01

    We present a way for generating coherent tunable electromagnetic radiation through dc to ac field conversion by an ionization front. The conversion is caused by the excitation of leaky waves behind the transversely limited ionization front propagating in a uniform electrostatic field. This differs significantly from the well-known dc-to-ac-radiation-converter models which consider Doppler-like frequency conversion by a transversely unlimited ionization front propagating in a spatially periodic electric field. We explore the dispersion properties and excitation of these leaky waves radiated through the transverse plasma boundary at the Cherenkov angle to the direction of propagation of a superluminal ionization front as dependent on the parameters of the plasma produced and on the speed of the ionization front. It is shown that not only the center frequency but also the duration and waveform of the generated pulse may significantly depend on the speed of the ionization front. The results indicate the possibility of using such converters based on planar photoconductive antennas to create sources of microwave and terahertz radiation with controllable waveforms that are transformed from video to radio pulse when the angle of incident ionizing radiation is tuned.

  14. Anomalous photoelectron angular distribution in ionization of Kr in intense ultraviolet laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Motoyoshi; Otobe, Tomohito; Itakura, Ryuji

    2017-06-01

    We investigate multiphoton ionization of Kr for the formation of the two spin-orbit split states 1/2 2P and 3/2 2P of Kr+ in intense ultraviolet femtosecond laser fields (λ ≈ 398 nm, τ ≈ 50 fs). As the laser intensity increases from 8 to 39 TW cm-2, the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) exhibits the anomalous enhancement in the direction perpendicular to the laser polarization. With the support of the time-dependent density functional theory taking account of the spin-orbit interaction, the measured anomalous PAD is ascribed to the autoionization to 3/2 2P.

  15. Sprites as Luminous Columns of Ionization Produced by Quasi-Electrostatic Thundercloud Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasko, V. P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    1996-01-01

    Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields which exist above thunderclouds after lightning discharges can lead to the formation of columnar channels of breakdown ionization and carrot-like vertical luminous structures with typical transverse dimension approximately 5-10 km spaning an altitude range from approximately 80 km to well below approximately 50 km. The carrot-like forms closely resemble those observed in sprites. Results indicate that the appearance of optical emissions can be significantly delayed in time (approx. 1-20 ms) with respect to the causative lightning discharge.

  16. Switching the vibrational excitation of a polyatomic ion in multi-photon strong field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuzhu; Gerber, Thomas; Radi, Peter; Sych, Yaroslav; Knopp, Gregor

    2014-08-01

    The multiphoton ionization (MPI) of CH3I has been investigated by angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy as a function of femtosecond laser excitation intensity. A sudden change in the electron kinetic energy is observed above a specific field strength. The multiphoton excitation at a fixed wavelength of 800 nm becomes vibronically resonant due to Stark shifting of intermediate Rydberg state levels. The present letter gives an experimental evidence for ultrafast optical control of the vibrational excitation in a polyatomic ion by adjusting the intensity of a femtosecond laser pulse.

  17. Dynamics of optical-field-ionized plasmas for x-ray lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, T. D.; Lee, R. W.; Falcone, R. W.

    1995-04-01

    The dynamics in the optical-field ionized (OFI) Li plasma system was studied. The analysis was conducted using the atomic and plasma physics kinetics code FLY. It was determined that collisional processes due to OFI generated electrons, electron equilibration within a doubly peaked distribution, and collisional heating of low-energy electrons have significant roles in constraining the gain of the Li recombination-pumped x-ray laser system. The findings also indicated that the Li system must be investigated under higher density conditions than previously considered.

  18. Repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end-joining

    PubMed Central

    Mahaney, Brandi L.; Meek, Katheryn; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are considered the most cytotoxic type of DNA lesion. They can be introduced by external sources such as ionizing radiation (IR), by chemotherapeutic drugs such as topoisomerase poisons and by normal biological processes such as V(D)J recombination. If left unrepaired, DSBs can cause cell death. If misrepaired, DSBs may lead to chromosomal translocations and genomic instability. One of the major pathways for the repair of IR-induced DSBs in mammalian cells is non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The main proteins required for NHEJ in mammalian cells are the Ku heterodimer, the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Artemis, XRCC4, DNA ligase IV and XLF (XRCC4-like factor, also called Cernunnos). Additional proteins including DNA polymerases μ and λ, polynucleotide kinase (PNK) and the Werner’s Syndrome helicase (WRN) may also play a role. Here, we will review our current understanding of the mechanism of NHEJ in mammalian cells and discuss the roles of DNA-PKcs and DNA-PK-mediated phosphorylation in NHEJ. PMID:19133841

  19. High-field plasma acceleration in a high-ionization-potential gas

    DOE PAGES

    Corde, S.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; ...

    2016-06-17

    Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a very promising future accelerator technology as they can sustain high accelerating fields over long distances with high energy efficiency. They rely on the excitation of a plasma wave in the wake of a drive beam. To generate the plasma, a neutral gas can be field-ionized by the head of the drive beam, in which case the distance of acceleration and energy gain can be strongly limited by head erosion. In our research, we overcome this limit and demonstrate that electrons in the tail of a drive beam can be accelerated by upmore » to 27 GeV in a high-ionization-potential gas (argon), boosting their initial 20.35 GeV energy by 130%. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the argon plasma is sustaining very high electric fields, of ~150 GV m-1, over ~20 cm. Lastly, the results open new possibilities for the design of particle beam drivers and plasma sources.« less

  20. High-field plasma acceleration in a high-ionization-potential gas

    SciTech Connect

    Corde, S.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Clausse, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.; Green, S. Z.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Walz, D.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-06-17

    Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a very promising future accelerator technology as they can sustain high accelerating fields over long distances with high energy efficiency. They rely on the excitation of a plasma wave in the wake of a drive beam. To generate the plasma, a neutral gas can be field-ionized by the head of the drive beam, in which case the distance of acceleration and energy gain can be strongly limited by head erosion. In our research, we overcome this limit and demonstrate that electrons in the tail of a drive beam can be accelerated by up to 27 GeV in a high-ionization-potential gas (argon), boosting their initial 20.35 GeV energy by 130%. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the argon plasma is sustaining very high electric fields, of ~150 GV m-1, over ~20 cm. Lastly, the results open new possibilities for the design of particle beam drivers and plasma sources.

  1. Charge transfer to a dielectric target by guided ionization waves using electric field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slikboer, Elmar; Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Guaitella, Olivier; Sobota, Ana

    2017-03-01

    A kHz-operated atmospheric pressure plasma jet is investigated by measuring charge transferred to a dielectric electro-optic surface (BSO crystal) allowing for the measurement of electric field by exploiting the Pockels effect. The electric field values, distribution of the surface discharge and amount of deposited charge are obtained for various parameters, including gas flow, applied voltage, target distance and the length of the capillary from ground to the end. A newly formed surface discharge emerges at the target when enough charge is deposited at the impact point and electric fields are high enough, i.e. 200 pC and 9 ± 2 kV cm-1. The maximum amount of charge transferred by a single ionization wave (‘plasma bullet’) is 350 ± 40 pC. Due to the emerging new surface discharge behind the impact point, the total charge deposited on the surface of the dielectric target can increase up to 950 pC. The shape of the secondary discharge on the target is found to be mainly driven by gas flow, while the applied voltage allows us to utilize longer distances within the boundaries set by this gas mixing. Finally the ionization wave is found to lose charge along its propagation on the inner walls of the capillary. The loss is estimated to be approximately 7.5 pC mm-1 of travel distance inside the capillary.

  2. High-field plasma acceleration in a high-ionization-potential gas

    PubMed Central

    Corde, S.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Clausse, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.; Green, S. Z.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Walz, D.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a very promising future accelerator technology as they can sustain high accelerating fields over long distances with high energy efficiency. They rely on the excitation of a plasma wave in the wake of a drive beam. To generate the plasma, a neutral gas can be field-ionized by the head of the drive beam, in which case the distance of acceleration and energy gain can be strongly limited by head erosion. Here we overcome this limit and demonstrate that electrons in the tail of a drive beam can be accelerated by up to 27 GeV in a high-ionization-potential gas (argon), boosting their initial 20.35 GeV energy by 130%. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the argon plasma is sustaining very high electric fields, of ∼150 GV m−1, over ∼20 cm. The results open new possibilities for the design of particle beam drivers and plasma sources. PMID:27312720

  3. Adaptive Response in Animals Exposed to Non-Ionizing Radiofrequency Fields: Some Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Tong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, our research group has been investigating the phenomenon of adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. The results from several separate studies indicated a significant increase in survival, decreases in genetic damage as well as oxidative damage and, alterations in several cellular processes in mice pre-exposed to radiofrequency fields and subsequently subjected to sub-lethal or lethal doses of γ-radiation or injected with bleomycin, a radiomimetic chemical mutagen. These observations indicated the induction of adaptive response providing the animals the ability to resist subsequent damage. Similar studies conducted by independent researchers in mice and rats have supported our observation on increased survival. In this paper, we have presented a brief review of all of our own and other independent investigations on radiofrequency fields-induced adaptive response and some underlying mechanisms discussed. PMID:24758897

  4. Adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: some underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Tong, Jian

    2014-04-22

    During the last few years, our research group has been investigating the phenomenon of adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. The results from several separate studies indicated a significant increase in survival, decreases in genetic damage as well as oxidative damage and, alterations in several cellular processes in mice pre-exposed to radiofrequency fields and subsequently subjected to sub-lethal or lethal doses of γ-radiation or injected with bleomycin, a radiomimetic chemical mutagen. These observations indicated the induction of adaptive response providing the animals the ability to resist subsequent damage. Similar studies conducted by independent researchers in mice and rats have supported our observation on increased survival. In this paper, we have presented a brief review of all of our own and other independent investigations on radiofrequency fields-induced adaptive response and some underlying mechanisms discussed.

  5. High-rate axial-field ionization chamber for particle identification of Radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza, Romualdo; Vadas, Justin; Singh, Varinderjit; Visser, G.; Alexander, A.; Hudan, S.; Huston, J.; Wiggins, B.; Chbihi, A.; Famiano, M.; Bischak, M.

    2017-01-01

    The design, construction and performance characteristics of a simple axial-field ionization chamber suitable for identifying ions in a radioactive beam are presented. The detector is optimized for use with low-energy radioactive beams (<) 5 MeV/A. A fast charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) integrated into the detector design is also described. Coupling this fast CSA to the axial field ionization chamber produces an output pulse with a rise-time of 60 to 70 ns and a fall time of 100 ns, making the detector capable of sustaining a relatively high rate while providing a time resolution of 6 to 8 ns. Tests with an α source establish the detector energy resolution as 8 % for an energy deposit of 3.5 MeV. Beam tests indicate that the detector is an effective tool for the characterization of low-energy radioactive beams at beam intensities up to 3 x 105 ions/s. Supported by the U.S. DOE under Award # DE-FG02-88ER-40404 and the NSF under Grant No. 1342962.

  6. Space-time description of strong-field ionization and high-order-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, C.; Plaja, L.

    2014-02-01

    We develop the spatiotemporal description of matter-field interaction within the strong-field approximation. We show that the space-time form of the ionized wave function has analogies with the diffraction phenomenon, allowing for the definition of two different regimes: Fresnel and Fraunhofer. We demonstrate that the standard saddle-point analysis corresponds to the paraxial approximation of the Fraunhofer case. The Fresnel number therefore appears as a useful parameter to characterize the validity of the saddle-point approach. We give a closed formula for the ionized wave function beyond the standard saddle-point analysis that takes the form of a chirped Volkov wave. We apply our results to the study of high-order-harmonic generation, demonstrating that the saddle-point approximation breaks down for extended systems, i.e., when the Fresnel number approaches or is above the unity. As a simple example, we analyze the harmonic generation of dissociating H2+ and demonstrate the Fresnel number as a useful parameter to determine the accuracy of the semiclassical saddle-point approach.

  7. High-rate axial-field ionization chamber for particle identification of radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, J.; Singh, Varinderjit; Visser, G.; Alexander, A.; Hudan, S.; Huston, J.; Wiggins, B. B.; Chbihi, A.; Famiano, M.; Bischak, M. M.; deSouza, R. T.

    2016-11-01

    The design, construction and performance characteristics of a simple axial-field ionization chamber suitable for identifying ions in a radioactive beam are presented. Optimized for use with low-energy radioactive beams (< 5 MeV / A) the detector presents only three 0.5 μm/cm2 foils to the beam in addition to the detector gas. A fast charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) integrated into the detector design is also described. Coupling this fast CSA to the axial field ionization chamber produces an output pulse with a risetime of 60-70 ns and a fall time of 100 ns, making the detector capable of sustaining a relatively high rate and providing a time resolution of 6-8 ns. Tests with an α source establish the detector energy resolution as ∼ 8 % for an energy deposit of ∼3.5 MeV. The energy resolution with beams of 2.5 and 4.0 MeV/A 39K ions and the dependence of the energy resolution on beam intensity is measured. At an instantaneous rate of 3×105 ions/s the energy resolution has degraded to 14% with a pileup of 12%. The good energy resolution of this detector at rates up to 3×105 ions/s makes it an effective tool in the characterization of low-energy radioactive beams.

  8. The Nonlinear Ohm's Law: Plasma Heating by Strong Electric Fields and its Effects on the Ionization Balance in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2015-02-01

    The ionization state of the gas plays a key role in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of protoplanetary disks. However, the ionization state can depend on the gas dynamics, because electric fields induced by MHD turbulence can heat up plasmas and thereby affect the ionization balance. To study this nonlinear feedback, we construct an ionization model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as charging of dust grains. We show that when plasma sticking onto grains is the dominant recombination process, the electron abundance in the gas decreases with increasing electric field strength. This is a natural consequence of electron-grain collisions whose frequency increases with the electron's random velocity. The decreasing electron abundance may lead to a self-regulation of MHD turbulence. In some cases, not only the electron abundance but also the electric current decreases with increasing field strength in a certain field range. The resulting N-shaped current-field relation violates the fundamental assumption of the non-relativistic MHD that the electric field is uniquely determined by the current density. At even higher field strengths, impact ionization causes an abrupt increase of the electric current as expected by previous studies. We find that this discharge current is multi-valued (i.e., the current-field relation is S-shaped) under some circumstances, and that the intermediate branch is unstable. The N/S-shaped current-field relations may yield hysteresis in the evolution of MHD turbulence in some parts of protoplanetary disks.

  9. THE NONLINEAR OHM'S LAW: PLASMA HEATING BY STRONG ELECTRIC FIELDS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE IONIZATION BALANCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2015-02-10

    The ionization state of the gas plays a key role in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of protoplanetary disks. However, the ionization state can depend on the gas dynamics, because electric fields induced by MHD turbulence can heat up plasmas and thereby affect the ionization balance. To study this nonlinear feedback, we construct an ionization model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as charging of dust grains. We show that when plasma sticking onto grains is the dominant recombination process, the electron abundance in the gas decreases with increasing electric field strength. This is a natural consequence of electron-grain collisions whose frequency increases with the electron's random velocity. The decreasing electron abundance may lead to a self-regulation of MHD turbulence. In some cases, not only the electron abundance but also the electric current decreases with increasing field strength in a certain field range. The resulting N-shaped current-field relation violates the fundamental assumption of the non-relativistic MHD that the electric field is uniquely determined by the current density. At even higher field strengths, impact ionization causes an abrupt increase of the electric current as expected by previous studies. We find that this discharge current is multi-valued (i.e., the current-field relation is S-shaped) under some circumstances, and that the intermediate branch is unstable. The N/S-shaped current-field relations may yield hysteresis in the evolution of MHD turbulence in some parts of protoplanetary disks.

  10. Rigorous electromagnetic field simulation of two-beam interference exposures for the exploration of double patterning and double exposure scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Schnattinger, Thomas; Xu, Cheng-Bai; Szmanda, Chuck

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of double patterning and double exposure technologies, especially in combination with hyper NA, increases the importance of wafer topography phenomena. Rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) simulations of two beam interference exposures over non-planar wafers are used to explore the impact of the hardmask material and pattern on resulting linewidths and swing curves after the second lithography step. Moreover, the impact of the optical material contrast between the frozen and unfrozen resist in a pattern freezing process and the effect of a reversible contrast enhancement layer on the superposition of two subsequent lithographic exposures are simulated. The described simulation approaches can be used for the optimization of wafer stack configurations for double patterning and to identify appropriate optical material properties for alternative double patterning and double exposure techniques.

  11. Double K-shell ionization accompanying the internal conversion of the 0.166-MeV transition in 139La

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schupp, G.; Nagy, H. J.; Miles, V. A.

    1987-12-01

    Double ionization of the atomic K shell accompanying the K-shell internal conversion of the 0.166-MeV transition of 139La has been studied by recording triple coincidences between La K x rays, La K satellite x rays, and La Kα hypersatellite x rays emitted when the K-shell vacancies are filled. The probability per K-shell internal conversion that a double vacancy is formed, PKK(IC), was found to be (6.0+/-1.4)×10-5, which is in good agreement with the K-shell electron shakeoff prediction of 5.1×10-5 by Mukoyama and Shimizu.

  12. The effect of high strength static magnetic fields and ionizing radiation on gene expression and DNA damage in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takafumi; Takahashi, Kohki; Suzuki, Yoko; Konishi, Yukinaga; Ota, Yuta; Mori, Chihiro; Ikenaga, Takahiko; Takanami, Takako; Saito, Rumiko; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging with high static magnetic fields (SMFs) has become widely used for medical imaging purposes because SMFs cause fewer genotoxic side effects than ionizing radiation (IR). However, the effect of exposure to high SMFs on global transcription is little understood. We demonstrate that genes involved in motor activity, actin binding, cell adhesion, and cuticles are transiently and specifically induced following exposure to 3 or 5 T SMF in the experimental model metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, transient induction of hsp12 family genes was observed after SMF exposure. The small-heat shock protein gene hsp16 was also induced but to a much lesser extent, and the LacZ-stained population of hsp-16.1::lacZ transgenic worms did not significantly increase after exposure to SMFs with or without a second stressor, mild heat shock. Several genes encoding apoptotic cell-death activators and secreted surface proteins were upregulated after IR, but were not induced by SMFs. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses for 12 of these genes confirmed these expression differences between worms exposed to SMFs and IR. In contrast to IR, exposure to high SMFs did not induce DNA double-strand breaks or germline cell apoptosis during meiosis. These results suggest that the response of C. elegans to high SMFs is unique and capable of adjustment during long exposure, and that this treatment may be less hazardous than other therapeutic tools.

  13. Identification of first order and non-first order contributions in the (e,3-1e) and (e,3e) double ionization of molecular nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Staicu Casagrande, E. M.; Lahmam-Bennani, A.; Naja, A.

    2012-07-01

    Double ionization of nitrogen molecules is investigated in coplanar asymmetric (e,3-1e) and (e,3e) experiments. The measurements are performed at intermediate incident energy (˜600 eV) with one fast scattered electron and two slower ejected electrons sharing equally the excess energy. The data are compared with the predictions of a simple kinematical model recently reported by Lahmam-Bennani et al (2010 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 105201) which describes the ‘two-step 2’ (TS2) mechanism as two successive (e,2e) single ionization interactions. The model is extended to include binary as well as recoil scattering during the two successive single ionization events. It is shown to qualitatively predict the correct angular positions for most of the observed structures. Moreover, the (e,3e) data are compared with the predictions of a first Born model which fails to reproduce the experimental angular distributions. These results demonstrate that the molecular double ionization process is largely dominated by the TS2 mechanism, as was the case in our previous works on atomic targets.

  14. Characteristics of krypton ion emission from a gas field ionization source with a single atom tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shichi, Hiroyasu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Hashizume, Tomihiro

    2017-06-01

    A scanning ion beam instrument equipped with a gas field ionization source (GFIS) has been commercialized, but only helium and neon are currently available as GFISs. The characteristics of krypton ion emission from a single atom tip (SAT) have not been reported yet. In this study, the characteristics of krypton ion emission were investigated by field ion microscopy. At 65 K, the krypton ion emission current reached approximately 40 pA, which is 1 order of magnitude higher than that at 130 K. As the krypton gas pressure was increased, the krypton ion current increased. At a pressure of 0.3 Pa, the emission current was anticipated to reach 200 pA, which may be high enough for nanofabrication. The variation of the krypton ion current was as low as 5% in one hour. We concluded that a krypton ion beam instrument equipped with a GFIS will be a powerful tool for nanofabrication.

  15. Neutron production using a pyroelectric driven target coupled with a gated field ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, J. L.; Tang, V.; Falabella, S.; Naranjo, B.; Putterman, S.

    2013-04-19

    A palm sized, portable neutron source would be useful for widespread implementation of detection systems for shielded, special nuclear material. We present progress towards the development of the components for an ultracompact neutron generator using a pulsed, meso-scale field ionization source, a deuterated (or tritiated) titanium target driven by a negative high voltage lithium tantalate crystal. Neutron production from integrated tests using an ion source with a single, biased tungsten tip and a 3 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm, vacuum insulated crystal with a plastic deuterated target are presented. Component testing of the ion source with a single tip produces up to 3 nA of current. Dielectric insulation of the lithium tantalate crystals appears to reduce flashover, which should improve the robustness. The field emission losses from a 3 cm diameter crystal with a plastic target and 6 cm diameter crystal with a metal target are compared.

  16. Generation of electric fields and currents by neutral flows in weakly ionized plasmas through collisional dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimant, Y. S.; Oppenheim, M. M.; Fletcher, A. C.

    2016-08-01

    In weakly ionized plasmas neutral flows drag plasma across magnetic field lines generating intense electric fields and currents. An example occurs in the Earth's ionosphere near the geomagnetic equator. Similar processes take place in the Solar chromosphere and magnetohydrodynamic generators. This paper argues that not all convective neutral flows generate electric fields and currents and it introduces the corresponding universal criterion for their formation, ∇×(U ×B )≠∂B /∂t , where U is the neutral flow velocity, B is the magnetic field, and t is time. This criterion does not depend on the conductivity tensor, σ ̂ . For many systems, the displacement current, ∂B /∂t , is negligible making the criterion even simpler. This theory also shows that the neutral-dynamo driver that generates E-fields and currents plays the same role as the DC electric current plays for the generation of the magnetic field in the Biot-Savart law.

  17. Empirical formulas for direct double ionization by bare ions: Z = - 1 to 92

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, R. D.; Santos, A. C. F.; Manson, S. T.

    2014-11-25

    Experimental cross sections and cross-section ratios reported in the literature for direct double ionization of the outer shells of helium, neon, and argon atoms resulting from bare ions ranging from protons to uranium and for antiprotons are analyzed in terms of a first- and second-order interference model originally proposed by McGuire [J. H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1153 (1982)]. Empirical formulas for the various contributions to double ionization plus information about the phase difference between the first- and second-order mechanisms are extracted from the data. Projectile and target scalings are also extracted. Total cross sections and their ratios determined using these formulas and scalings are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data for lower-Z projectiles and impact velocities larger than 1 a.u. For very-high-Z projectiles, the amount of double ionization is overestimated, probably due to saturation of probabilities that is not accounted for in scaling formulas.

  18. Standing striations as a series of double layers induced in a positive column by a transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, M.; Biborosch, L.; Curteanu, M.

    1995-12-31

    It was experimentally proved that the action of a static transverse magnetic field (TMF) on a cylindrical positive column (PC) can change its internal structure. As a result, a succession of luminous structures known as standing striations are observed. The excitation of striations in a PC (frequently in molecular gases) is usually explained taking into account the periodic changes in ionised rate. It is known that the ionization rate is a strong function of the electron temperature (more precisely, kinetic energy). Thus, the standing striations being the spatial periodic change in the ionization rate, are affected by electron velocity. It can easily observed that in a striated PC there is a periodic change in light intensity. This means that beside ionization processes there is also a periodic change in excitation processes. It was showed that standing striations are, in fact spatial sequences of space charge structures known as double layers (Dls). In the last time it was proved that there is a direct connection between the excitation processes and the ordered spatial arrangement of the electric charges inside the DLs. The aim of this paper is to emphasize that the appearance of standing striations can be adequately described by the model of DL generation in a collisional plasma, that takes into account the electron-neutral excitation processes.

  19. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. E-mail: ehardy@nrao.cl

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion σ, and the ionized gas velocity (Hβ and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter λ {sub R}. An evaluation of the galaxies in the λ {sub R} ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact Hα morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  20. Recognition, signaling, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks produced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells: the molecular choreography.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Larry H

    2012-01-01

    The faithful maintenance of chromosome continuity in human cells during DNA replication and repair is critical for preventing the conversion of normal diploid cells to an oncogenic state. The evolution of higher eukaryotic cells endowed them with a large genetic investment in the molecular machinery that ensures chromosome stability. In mammalian and other vertebrate cells, the elimination of double-strand breaks with minimal nucleotide sequence change involves the spatiotemporal orchestration of a seemingly endless number of proteins ranging in their action from the nucleotide level to nucleosome organization and chromosome architecture. DNA DSBs trigger a myriad of post-translational modifications that alter catalytic activities and the specificity of protein interactions: phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, and SUMOylation, followed by the reversal of these changes as repair is completed. "Superfluous" protein recruitment to damage sites, functional redundancy, and alternative pathways ensure that DSB repair is extremely efficient, both quantitatively and qualitatively. This review strives to integrate the information about the molecular mechanisms of DSB repair that has emerged over the last two decades with a focus on DSBs produced by the prototype agent ionizing radiation (IR). The exponential growth of molecular studies, heavily driven by RNA knockdown technology, now reveals an outline of how many key protein players in genome stability and cancer biology perform their interwoven tasks, e.g. ATM, ATR, DNA-PK, Chk1, Chk2, PARP1/2/3, 53BP1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BLM, RAD51, and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex. Thus, the nature of the intricate coordination of repair processes with cell cycle progression is becoming apparent. This review also links molecular abnormalities to cellular pathology as much a possible and provides a framework of temporal relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ionization of elements in medium power capacitively coupled argon plasma torch with single and double ring electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ponta, Michaela; Frentiu, Maria; Frentiu, Tiberiu

    2012-06-01

    A medium power, low Ar consumption capacitively coupled plasma torch (275 W, 0.4 L min-1) with molybdenum tubular electrode and single or two ring electrodes in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) was characterized with respect to its ability to achieve element ionization. Ionization degrees of Ca, Mg, Mn and Cd were determined from ionic-to-atomic emission ratio and ionization equilibrium according to Saha's equation. The ionization degrees resulted from the Saha equation were higher by 9-32% than those obtained from spectral lines intensity in LTE regime and closer to reality. A linear decrease of ionization with increase of ionization energy of elements was observed. Plasma torch with two ring electrodes provided higher ionization degrees (85 ± 7% Ca, 79 ± 7% Mn, 80 ± 7% Mg and 73 ± 8% Cd) than those in single ring arrangement (70 ± 6% Ca, 57 ± 7% Mn, 57 ± 8% Mg and 42 ± 9% Cd). The Ca ionization decreased linearly by up to 79 ± 4% and 53 ± 6% in plasma with two ring electrodes and single ring respectively in the presence of up to 400 µg mL-1 Na as interferent. The studied plasma was effective in element ionization and could be a potential ion source in mass spectrometry.

  2. ESTIMATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH IN THE TURBULENT WARM IONIZED MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qingwen; Kim, Jongsoo; Ryu, Dongsu; Cho, Jungyeon; Alexander, Paul E-mail: jskim@mrao.cam.ac.u E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.k

    2009-11-01

    We studied Faraday rotation measure (RM) in turbulent media with the rms Mach number of unity, using isothermal, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence simulations. Four cases with different values of initial plasma beta were considered. Our main findings are as follows. (1) There is no strong correlation between the fluctuations of magnetic field strength and gas density. So the magnetic field strength estimated with RM/DM (DM is the dispersion measure) correctly represents the true mean strength of the magnetic field along the line of sight. (2) The frequency distribution of RMs is well fitted to the Gaussian. In addition, there is a good relation between the width of the distribution of RM/RM-bar (RM-bar is the average value of RMs) and the strength of the regular field along the line of sight; the width is narrower, if the field strength is stronger. We discussed the implications of our findings in the warm ionized medium where the Mach number of turbulent motions is around unity.

  3. Ionization, Charging and Electric Field Effects on Cloud Particles in the CLOUD Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichman, L.; Järvinen, E.; Wagner, R.; Dorsey, J.; Dias, A. M.; Ehrhart, S.; Kirkby, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Saunders, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ice crystals and frozen droplets play an important role in atmospheric charging and electrification processes, particularly by collision and aggregation. The dynamics of charged particles in the atmosphere can be modulated by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). High electric fields also affect the alignment of charged particles, allowing more time for interactions. The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) experiment at CERN has the ability to conduct ionization, charging and high electric field experiments on liquid or ice clouds created in the chamber by adiabatic pressure reductions. A pion secondary beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron is used to ionize the molecules in the chamber, and Ar+ Corona Ion Generator for Atmospheric Research (CIGAR) is used to inject unipolar charged ions directly into the chamber. A pressurized airgun provides rapid pressure shocks inside the chamber and induces charged ice nucleation. The cloud chamber is accompanied by a variety of analysing instruments e.g. a 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI) coupled with an induction ring, a Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detection of icE (SIMONE) and a Nano-aerosol and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS). Using adiabatic expansion and high electric fields we can replicate the ideal conditions for adhesion, sintering and interlocking between ice crystals. Charged cloud particles produced measurable variations in the total induced current pulse on the induction ring. The most influential factors comprised initial temperature, lapse rate and charging mechanism. The ions produced in the chamber may deposit onto larger particles and form dipoles during ice nucleation and growth. The small ion concentration was monitored by the NAIS during these runs. Possible short-term aggregates or alignment of particles were observed in-situ with the SIMONE. These and future chamber measurements of charging and aggregation could shed more light on the ambient conditions and dynamics for electrification

  4. Dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of CH3I in intense femto second laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Luo, Sizuo; Xu, Haifeng; Jin, Mingxing; Liu, Fuchun; Yan, Bing; Wang, Zhigang; Liu, Hang; Jiang, Dianwu; Eppink, André; Roeterdink, Wim; Stolte, Steven; Ding, Dajun

    2017-06-01

    The interaction of CH3I molecules with 100 fs 800 nm linearly polarized laser fields has been investigated at the intensity region from 2.6 × 1014 to 5.8 × 1014 W/cm2 by means of a velocity map imaging method. The kinetic energy distribution of the various atomic fragment ions I q+ ( q = 1-3) has been measured and reproduced by a fit of multiple Gaussian functions. Several dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion channels were identified for I q+ ( q = 1-3). As expected for a geometric alignment dominated interaction process the anisotropic angular recoil distributions of the atomic ion fragments are peaked in the laser polarization direction. The kinetic energy release (KER) of I q+ ( q = 1-3) depending upon the laser intensity has been investigated. The relative weight of the various contributions from the identified dissociative ionization (DI) and Coulomb explosion (CE) channels is found to depend strongly on the laser intensity.

  5. Multiple ionization of Ar, Kr, and Xe in a superstrong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Kornev, Aleksei S.; Tulenko, Elena B.; Zon, Boris A.

    2011-11-15

    We report the numerical calculation of Ar{sup 9+}{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} Ar{sup 13+}, Kr{sup 13+}{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} Kr{sup 17+}, and Xe{sup 19+}{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} Xe{sup 23+} ion yield in the laser field with intensity exceeding 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The results of the calculations agree with the experimental data [K. Yamakava et al., Phys. Rev. A 68, 065403 (2003)] quantitatively (for the Ar ions) or qualitatively (for the Kr ions). The theoretical results disagree with the experimental data for the Xe ions. We discuss the possible influence of the relativistic effects on this disagreement between theory and experiment. We obtained the approximation formula for the position of the maximum ionic population with the given ionization multiplicity Z depending on the radiation intensity. This position is described by the power function of Z; the exponent is determined by the dependence of sequential ionization potentials on Z value. We discuss the dependence of the approximation formula parameters on the value of the FWHM of the laser pulse.

  6. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, JN

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  7. Correlated electron-nuclear kinetic energy distribution following strong-field ionization of H2^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. B.; Anis, F.; Madsen, L. B.; Esry, B. D.

    2010-03-01

    Being the simplest molecule, understanding the behavior of H2^+ in a strong laser field helps to understand more complex molecules. Theoretically, however, it is challenging to account for both electronic and nuclear motion in the ionization of even this simple molecule. Accordingly, calculating correlated electron-nuclear physical observables --- such as energy or momentum distributions --- has rarely been accomplished. Such calculations are needed to interpret recent measurements of coincidence momentum distributions of electrons and ions following the ionization of molecules by short intense laser pulses. We study how the energy absorbed from an intense laser pulse (400--800 nm, ˜10^14 W/cm^2, >=10 cycles) is shared among the nuclei and the electron of H2^+ by calculating the 2D electron-nuclei momentum distribution for a 1D model with soft-core Coulomb interactions. These 2D momentum plots reveal multiphoton structure with the energy shared between the nuclei and electron. This structure survives integrating out the nuclear energy, but not integrating out the electronic energy. ^*Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. DoE.

  8. Differential cross sections for atomic ionization determined through the Bohm's velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randazzo, Juan M.; Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo; Colavecchia, Flavio D.

    2016-09-01

    Differential cross sections for atomic ionization are usually evaluated via the scattering amplitude defined as the transition matrix element between the initial and final states of the collision. R. Peterkop proposed an alternative approach - known as flux formula - based on the relation linking the cross section to the ratio between the incident electronic flux and the emitted post-collisional one, through the asymptotic outgoing behavior of the scattering wave function. The flux formula was seen to fail for very unequal energy sharing when evaluating Single Differential Cross Sections (SDCSs) for the s-wave electron-hydrogen problem. The procedure was thereafter abandoned. However, an alternative way of defining the electrons' local momenta by using the Bohm's velocity field was recently proposed, and it was found that SDCS results with a new definition of the energy fraction are well behaved on the whole range. In this contribution, we apply the modified quantum flux approach with local momenta to the electron impact ionization of hydrogen by considering the problem in its whole dimensionality, i.e., not only the s-wave contribution. We compare triple differential cross section results with other theoretical and experimental data, and this for several incident energies.

  9. Nonadiabaticity of electron-tunneling-ionization processes in elliptical strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Chen, Yan-jun; Xia, Qin-zhi; Ye, Di-fa; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-bin

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the electron-tunneling process for a helium atom irradiated by an elliptical strong laser field. The momentum distribution for an electron ionized during the cycle when the laser intensity reaches its maximum is captured, such that we can ignore the interference between the wave packets ionized in different laser cycles and precisely determine the center of the momentum distribution. The quantum mechanical prediction of the center position is further compared to the semiclassical single-trajectory simulation as well as the experimental data. We find that the electron momentums along the minor axis of the laser polarization show good agreement with the nonadiabatic semiclassical calculation for a wide range of laser intensities, indicating the existence of a nonzero lateral momentum when the electron exits the barrier. On the other hand, the offset angles obtained by our quantum mechanical approach for different laser intensities are larger than the nonadiabatic semiclassical results, indicating the importance of the quantum effects during the electron's under-the-barrier dynamics.

  10. Mechanism of enhanced ionization of linear H+3 in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, I.; Kono, H.; Bandrauk, A. D.

    2001-10-01

    We investigate the mechanism of enhanced ionization that occurs at a critical internuclear distance Rc in the two-electron symmetric linear triatomic molecule H+3 subjected to an ultrashort, intense laser pulse by solving exactly the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a one-dimensional model of H+3. Results of the simulations are analyzed by using three essential adiabatic field states \\|1>, \\|2>, and \\|3> that are adiabatically connected with the lowest three electronic states X1Σ+g, B1Σ+u, and E1Σ+g of the field free ion. We give also a simple MO (molecular orbital) picture in terms of these three states to illustrate the important electronic configurations in an intense field. The states \\|1>, \\|2>, and \\|3> are shown to be composed mainly of the configurations HHH+, HH+H, and H+HH, respectively in the presence of the field. We conclude that the overall level dynamics is governed mainly by transitions at the zero-field energy quasicrossings of these three states. The response of H+3 to a laser field can be classified into two regimes. In the adiabatic regime (RRc), internuclear electron transfer is suppressed due to electron repulsion and laser induced localization. In the intermediate (R~=Rc) region, where enhanced ionization occurs, the state \\|3> is most efficiently created by the field-induced nonadiabatic transitions between the states at quasicrossing points. The ``quasistatic'' laser-induced potential barriers are low enough for the electron to tunnel from the ascending (upper) well, thus confirming the quasistatic model at high intensities. Analytic expressions for the critical distance Rc are obtained from this model and collective electron motion is inferred from the detailed time-dependent two-electron distributions.

  11. Long-range Coulomb effect in above-threshold ionization of Ne subject to few-cycle and multicycle laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, SongPo; Quan, Wei; Chen, YongJu; Xiao, ZhiLei; Wang, YanLan; Kang, HuiPeng; Hua, LinQiang; Gong, Cheng; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Hao, XiaoLei; Hu, ShiLin; Chen, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The long-range Coulomb effect (LRCE) is demonstrated experimentally and theoretically by investigating the pulse duration dependence of low-energy structure (LES) in above-threshold ionization of Ne. It is found experimentally that at 800 nm the LES shows itself as a double-hump structure (DHS) in momentum distribution of singly charged ion for Ne, and moreover, this structure is more prominent for multicycle laser fields than for few-cycle cases. This result can be reproduced and explained qualitatively with a semiclassical model and attributed to the paramount role of LRCE. That is to say, after the laser field vanishes, the electrons decelerate while flying away from the core by the long-range tail of Coulomb potential, which eventually makes DHS less notable.

  12. Scaling properties of field ionization of Rydberg atoms in single-cycle THz pulses: 1D considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agueny, H.; Chovancova, M.; Hansen, J. P.; Kocbach, L.

    2016-12-01

    In recent experiments of single-cycle field ionization of excited Na(nd) atoms with principal quantum number n\\in [6,15] (Li and Jones 2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 143006) it was shown that the maximum field intensity necessary to ionize 10% of the atoms decreases with increasing n according to an {n}-3 power law dependence. This scaling property at the same ionization probability was confirmed in classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. In this work we note that the scaling relation in the experiment is much more general, it is in fact valid for all ionization probabilities. When applied to the emitted electron energies it places a very wide distribution of electron momenta from different initial states onto a narrow range. These aspects are investigated in a one-dimensional model with a 3D hydrogen-like spectrum. Calculations confirm the general {n}-3 scaling relation for the ionization probability and that this particular scaling of the kinetic emission spectrum puts the ejected electron momenta on a narrow common scale. The ionization mechanism itself is identified as quantum mechanical tunneling and the nature of the tunneling process is the direct origin of the scaling law.

  13. Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization of current-carrying orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kunlong; Barth, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    We derive the analytical formula of the ratio of the ionization rates of degenerate valence π± orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized (CP) laser fields. Interestingly, our theory shows that the ionization ratio for molecular orbitals with opposite azimuthal quantum numbers ±|m | (e.g., π±) is identical to that for atomic orbitals with the same ±|m | (e.g., p±). In general, the electron counter-rotating to the CP laser field tunnels more easily, not only for atoms but also for linear molecules. Our theoretical predictions are then verified by numerically solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the ionization of the prealigned nitric oxide (NO) molecule in strong CP laser fields. Due to the spin-orbital coupling in the electronic ground state of NO and the sensitivity of ionization to the sense of electron rotation, the ionization of NO in CP fields can produce spin-polarized photoelectrons with high controllability of spin polarization up to 100 % .

  14. Strong-field ionization rates of linear polyenes simulated with time-dependent configuration interaction with an absorbing potential.

    PubMed

    Krause, Pascal; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2014-11-07

    The strong field ionization rates for ethylene, trans 1,3-butadiene, and trans,trans 1,3,5-hexatriene have been calculated using time-dependent configuration interaction with single excitations and a complex absorbing potential (TDCIS-CAP). The calculations used the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set with a large set of diffuse functions (3 s, 2 p, 3 d, and 1 f) on each atom. The absorbing boundary was placed 3.5 times the van der Waals radius from each atom. The simulations employed a seven-cycle cosine squared pulse with a wavelength of 800 nm. Ionization rates were calculated for intensities ranging from 0.3 × 10(14) W/cm(2) to 3.5 × 10(14) W/cm(2). Ionization rates along the molecular axis increased markedly with increasing conjugation length. By contrast, ionization rates perpendicular to the molecular axis were almost independent of the conjugation length.

  15. Strong-field ionization rates of linear polyenes simulated with time-dependent configuration interaction with an absorbing potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Pascal; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    The strong field ionization rates for ethylene, trans 1,3-butadiene, and trans,trans 1,3,5-hexatriene have been calculated using time-dependent configuration interaction with single excitations and a complex absorbing potential (TDCIS-CAP). The calculations used the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set with a large set of diffuse functions (3 s, 2 p, 3 d, and 1 f) on each atom. The absorbing boundary was placed 3.5 times the van der Waals radius from each atom. The simulations employed a seven-cycle cosine squared pulse with a wavelength of 800 nm. Ionization rates were calculated for intensities ranging from 0.3 × 1014 W/cm2 to 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2. Ionization rates along the molecular axis increased markedly with increasing conjugation length. By contrast, ionization rates perpendicular to the molecular axis were almost independent of the conjugation length.

  16. Connecting the dots: a correlation between ionizing radiation and cloud mass-loss rate traced by optical integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. F.; Gritschneder, M.; Dale, J. E.; Ginsburg, A.; Klaassen, P. D.; Mottram, J. C.; Preibisch, T.; Ramsay, S.; Reiter, M.; Testi, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of the effect of feedback from O- and B-type stars with data from the integral field spectrograph Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) mounted on the Very Large Telescope of pillar-like structures in the Carina Nebular Complex, one of the most massive star-forming regions in the Galaxy. For the observed pillars, we compute gas electron densities and temperatures maps, produce integrated line and velocity maps of the ionized gas, study the ionization fronts at the pillar tips, analyse the properties of the single regions, and detect two ionized jets originating from two distinct pillar tips. For each pillar tip, we determine the incident ionizing photon flux Q0, pil originating from the nearby massive O- and B-type stars and compute the mass-loss rate dot{M} of the pillar tips due to photoevaporation caused by the incident ionizing radiation. We combine the results of the Carina data set with archival MUSE data of a pillar in NGC 3603 and with previously published MUSE data of the Pillars of Creation in M16, and with a total of 10 analysed pillars, find tight correlations between the ionizing photon flux and the electron density, the electron density and the distance from the ionizing sources, and the ionizing photon flux and the mass-loss rate. The combined MUSE data sets of pillars in regions with different physical conditions and stellar content therefore yield an empirical quantification of the feedback effects of ionizing radiation. In agreement with models, we find that dot{M}∝ Q_0,pil^{1/2}.

  17. A convolution model for obtaining the response of an ionization chamber in static non standard fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Castano, D. M.; Gonzalez, L. Brualla; Gago-Arias, M. A.; Pardo-Montero, J.; Gomez, F.; Luna-Vega, V.; Sanchez, M.; Lobato, R.

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: This work contains an alternative methodology for obtaining correction factors for ionization chamber (IC) dosimetry of small fields and composite fields such as IMRT. The method is based on the convolution/superposition (C/S) of an IC response function (RF) with the dose distribution in a certain plane which includes chamber position. This method is an alternative to the full Monte Carlo (MC) approach that has been used previously by many authors for the same objective. Methods: The readout of an IC at a point inside a phantom irradiated by a certain beam can be obtained as the convolution of the dose spatial distribution caused by the beam and the IC two-dimensional RF. The proposed methodology has been applied successfully to predict the response of a PTW 30013 IC when measuring different nonreference fields, namely: output factors of 6 MV small fields, beam profiles of cobalt 60 narrow fields and 6 MV radiosurgery segments. The two-dimensional RF of a PTW 30013 IC was obtained by MC simulation of the absorbed dose to cavity air when the IC was scanned by a 0.6 x 0.6 mm{sup 2} cross section parallel pencil beam at low depth in a water phantom. For each of the cases studied, the results of the IC direct measurement were compared with the corresponding obtained by the C/S method. Results: For all of the cases studied, the agreement between the IC direct measurement and the IC calculated response was excellent (better than 1.5%). Conclusions: This method could be implemented in TPS in order to calculate dosimetry correction factors when an experimental IMRT treatment verification with in-phantom ionization chamber is performed. The miss-response of the IC due to the nonreference conditions could be quickly corrected by this method rather than employing MC derived correction factors. This method can be considered as an alternative to the plan-class associated correction factors proposed recently as part of an IAEA work group on nonstandard field dosimetry.

  18. Estimating the daytime Equatorial Ionization Anomaly strength from electric field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, C.; Manoj, C.; Lühr, H.; Maus, S.; Alken, P.

    2008-09-01

    The Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) is a significant feature of the low-latitude ionosphere. During daytime, the eastward electric field drives a vertical plasma fountain at the magnetic equator creating the EIA. Since the eastward electric field is also the driving force for the Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ), the latter is positively correlated with the EIA strength. We investigate the correlation between the zonal electric field and the EIA in the Peruvian sector and compare the results with correlations of the EEJ versus EIA strength. Analyzing 5 years of Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) electron density measurements, plasma drift readings from the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere (JULIA) radar, and magnetic field observations at Huancayo and Piura, we find the EEJ strength and the zonal electric field to be suitable proxies for the EIA intensity. Both analyses reveal high correlation coefficients of cc > 0.8. A typical response time of the EIA to variations in the zonal electric field is ˜1-2 h, and it is ˜2-4 h after EEJ strength variations. Quantitative expressions are provided, which directly relate the EIA parameters to both proxies. From these relations, we infer that an EIA develops also during weak Counter Electrojets (CEJs), but no EIA forms when the vertical plasma drift is zero. For positive EEJ magnetic signatures to form, a minimum eastward electric field of 0.2 mV/m is required on average. The above-mentioned delay between EIA and EEJ variations of ˜3 h is further confirmed by the investigation of the EIA response to transitions from CEJ to EEJ, e.g., during late morning hours.

  19. Nonadiabatic molecular alignment of linear molecules probed by strong-field ionization yields of photoelectrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, G.; Kaya, N.; Strohaber, J.; Hart, N. A.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of rotational wave packets of laser-aligned linear molecules were studied with femtosecond laser-driven strong-field ionization (SFI). The dynamics were observed as a function of the delay between a femtosecond probe pulse and a linearly polarized aligning pump pulse. The induced nonadiabatic molecular alignment was directly monitored by the total SFI yield. The measured revival signatures were compared to the calculated degree of molecular alignment taking into account the effects of electronic structure and symmetry of the molecules. By fitting the calculated alignment parameter to the measured experimental data, we also determined the molecular rotational constants of N2, CO, O2, and C2H2 gas molecules.

  20. Total Ionizing Dose Response of Multiple-Gate Nanowire Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Marcandella, C.; Martinez, M.; Duhamel, O.; Lagutere, T.; Paillet, P.; Raine, M.; Richard, N.; Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Vinet, M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the total ionizing dose (TID) response of nanoscaled field-effect transistors (FET) made of silicon multiple-gate nanowire (NW). The NWFET architecture relies on its remarkable electrostatic properties to push “silicon”-based technologies much deeper into device scaling than present FinFETs. However, as commonly observed when a new device or technology concept is proposed, such as shallow trench isolation and silicon-on-insulator or FinFET, TID effects reveal unexpected behaviors that can permanently modify pristine device electrical characteristics. This is why this paper discusses the impact of several parameters including the NWFET design and the transistor's type to get thorough insights into the NWFET TID behavior.

  1. Intense-Field Ionization of Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons using Radiation Pulses of Ultrashort Duration: Monohalobenzenes and Azabenzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, T.; Strohaber, J.; Foote, D.; McAcy, C.; Uiterwaal, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    Using 50-fs, 800-nm pulses, we study the intense-field ionization and fragmentation of the monohalobenzenes C6H5-X (X=F, Cl, Br, I) and of the heterocyclics azabenzene C5H5N (pyridine) and the three diazabenzenes C4H4N2 (pyridazine, pyrimidine, and pyrazine). Avoiding focal intensity averaging we find indications of resonance-enhanced MPI. In the monohalobenzenes the propensity for fragmentation increases for increasing Z: fluorobenzene yields predominantly C6H5Fn+, while iodobenzene yields atomic ions with charges up to I8+. We ascribe this to the heavy-atom effect: the large charge of the heavy halogens' nuclei induces ultrafast intersystem crossing to dissociative triplet states.

  2. Double K-shell ionization accompanying the internal conversion of the 0.145-MeV transition in 141Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, H. J.; Schupp, G.

    1985-12-01

    Double ionization of the atomic K shell accompanying the K-shell internal conversion of the 0.145-MeV transition of 141Pr has been studied by recording coincidences between Kα satellite x rays and Kα hypersatellite x rays emitted when the double vacancies are filled. The probability per K-shell internal conversion that a double vacancy is formed, PKK(IC), was found to be (3.4+/-0.3)×10-5, which is a factor of (0.79+/-0.07) times the theoretical prediction for K-shell electron shakeoff in K-shell internal conversion of Mukoyama and Shimizu. The Kα1 to Kα2 hyper- satellite ratio was found to be (1.50+/-0.13), a value which is about 6% less than the calculation of Åberg et al.

  3. Strong-field approximation for the ionization of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Bin; Zhao Zengxiu

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the ionization of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} using the strong-field approximation (SFA) in both the length gauge (LG) and the velocity gauge (VG). Comparisons have been made among the different versions of SFA, the molecular Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK), and recent experiments. The study also shows that the VG SFA displays a larger laser parameter (intensity and wavelength) dependence than the LG SFA, which is not observed in experiments and first principal calculations. The LG SFA is preferable for description of the strong-field ionization of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}.

  4. Laser intensity determination using nonadiabatic tunneling ionization of atoms in close-to-circularly polarized laser fields.

    PubMed

    Quan, Wei; Yuan, MingHu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Chen, YongJu; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Xiao, ZhiLei; Gong, Cheng; Hua, LinQiang; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2016-10-03

    We conceive an improved procedure to determine the laser intensity with the momentum distributions from nonadiabatic tunneling ionization of atoms in the close-to-circularly polarized laser fields. The measurements for several noble gas atoms are in accordance with the semiclassical calculations, where the nonadiabatic effect and the influence of Coulomb potential are included. Furthermore, the high-order above-threshold ionization spectrum in linearly polarized laser fields for Ar is measured and compared with the numerical calculation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the single-active-electron approximation to test the accuracy of the calibrated laser intensity.

  5. First-order correction terms in the weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization in many-electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Vinh H.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru

    2016-10-01

    The many-electron weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization including the first-order correction terms in the asymptotic expansion of the ionization rate in field strength was highlighted in our recent fast track communication (Trinh et al 2015 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48 061003) by demonstrating its performance for two-electron atoms. Here we present a thorough derivation of the first-order terms omitted in the previous publication and provide additional numerical illustrations of the theory.

  6. Properties of long-term optical variability of active galactic nuclei with double-peaked broad low-ionization emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Guang; Feng, Long-Long

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study properties of the long-term optical variability of a large sample of 106 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopically confirmed active galactic nuclei (AGN) with double-peaked broad low-ionization emission lines (double-peaked emitters). The long-term optical light curves over 8 yr are collected from the Catalina Sky Surveys Data Release 2, and the Damped Random Walk (DRW) process is applied to describe the long-term variability of the double-peaked emitters. Meanwhile, the same DRW process is applied to long-term optical light curves of more than 7000 spectroscopically confirmed normal quasars in the SDSS Stripe82 Database. Then, we can find that the DRW process determined rest-frame intrinsic variability time-scales ln (τ /d) are about 5.8 and about 4.8 for the double-peaked emitters and for the normal quasars, respectively. The statistically longer intrinsic variability time-scales can be confirmed in the double-peaked emitters, after considerations of necessary effects, such as the effects from different distributions of redshift, black hole mass, and accretion rate between the double-peaked emitters and the normal quasars. Moreover, a radial dependence of the accretion rate dot{m}R ∝ R^β with larger values of β could be an acceptable interpretation of the longer intrinsic variability time-scales in the double-peaked emitters. Therefore, there are different intrinsic properties of emission regions between the double-peaked emitters and the normal quasars. The double-peaked emitters can be well treated as an unique subclass of AGN.

  7. Localization of double bonds in triacylglycerols using high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Háková, Eva; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Míková, Radka; Schwarzová-Pecková, Karolina; Bosáková, Zuzana; Cvačka, Josef

    2015-07-01

    A method for localizing double bonds in triacylglycerols using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was developed. The technique was based on collision-induced dissociation or pulsed Q collision-induced dissociation of the C3H5N(+•) adducts ([M + 55](+•)) formed in the presence of acetonitrile in the APCI source. The spectra were investigated using a large series of standards obtained from commercial sources and prepared by randomization. The fragmentation spectra made it possible to determine (i) the total number of carbons and double bonds in the molecule, (ii) the number of carbons and double bonds in acyls, (iii) the acyl in the sn-2 position on the glycerol backbone, and (iv) the double-bond positions in acyls. The double-bond positions were determined based on two types of fragments (alpha and omega ions) formed by cleavages of C-C bonds vinylic to the original double bond. The composition of the acyls and their positions on glycerol were established from the masses and intensities of the ions formed by the elimination of fatty acids from the [M + 55](+•) precursor. The method was applied for the analysis of triacylglycerols in olive oil and vernix caseosa.

  8. The properties of the ultramicrocylindrical ionization chamber for small field used in stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Vahc, Y W; Chung, W K; Park, K R; Lee, J Y; Lee, Y H; Kwon, O; Kim, S

    2001-03-01

    Accurate dosimetry of small-field photon beams tends to be difficult to perform due to the presence of lateral electronic disequilibrium and steep dose gradients. In stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), small fields of 6-30 mm in diameter are used. Generally thermoluminescence dosimetry chips, Farmer, Thimble ion chamber, and film dosimetry are not adequate to measure dose in SRS beams. These techniques generally do not provide the required precision due to their energy dependence and/or poor resolution. It is necessary to construct a small, accurate detector with high spatial resolution for the small fields used in SRS. The ultramicrocylindrical ionization chamber (UCIC) with a gold wall of 2.2 mm in diameter and 4.0 mm in length has dual sensitive volumes of air (8.0 mm3) and borosilicate (2.6 mm3) cavity. Reproducibility, linearity, and radiation damage with respect to absorbed dose, beam profile of small beam, and independence of dose rate of the UCIC are tested by the dose measurements in high energy photon (5, 15 MV) and electron (9 MeV) beams. The UCIC with a unique supporting system in the polystyrene phantom is demonstrated to be a suitable detector for the dose measurements in a small beam size.

  9. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Electron Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radauscher, Erich J.; Keil, Adam D.; Wells, Mitch; Amsden, Jason J.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2015-11-01

    A novel chemical ionization (CI) source has been developed based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron source. The CNT-based electron source was evaluated and compared with a standard filament thermionic electron source in a commercial explosives trace detection desktop mass spectrometer. This work demonstrates the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. Both positive and negative modes were investigated. Spectra were collected for a standard mass spectrometer calibration compound, perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA), as well as trace explosives including trinitrotoluene (TNT), Research Department explosive (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). The electrical characteristics, lifetime at operating pressure, and power requirements of the CNT-based electron source are reported. The CNT field emission electron sources demonstrated an average lifetime of 320 h when operated in constant emission mode under elevated CI pressures. The ability of the CNT field emission source to cycle on and off can provide enhanced lifetime and reduced power consumption without sacrificing performance and detection capabilities.

  10. Chemical ionization mass spectrometry using carbon nanotube field emission electron sources.

    PubMed

    Radauscher, Erich J; Keil, Adam D; Wells, Mitch; Amsden, Jason J; Piascik, Jeffrey R; Parker, Charles B; Stoner, Brian R; Glass, Jeffrey T

    2015-11-01

    A novel chemical ionization (CI) source has been developed based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron source. The CNT-based electron source was evaluated and compared with a standard filament thermionic electron source in a commercial explosives trace detection desktop mass spectrometer. This work demonstrates the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. Both positive and negative modes were investigated. Spectra were collected for a standard mass spectrometer calibration compound, perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA), as well as trace explosives including trinitrotoluene (TNT), Research Department explosive (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). The electrical characteristics, lifetime at operating pressure, and power requirements of the CNT-based electron source are reported. The CNT field emission electron sources demonstrated an average lifetime of 320 h when operated in constant emission mode under elevated CI pressures. The ability of the CNT field emission source to cycle on and off can provide enhanced lifetime and reduced power consumption without sacrificing performance and detection capabilities. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. The pulsed field ionization spectrum and lifetimes of the states at the S sub 1 origin of pyrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Hillenbrand, S.; Zhu, L.; Johnson, P. )

    1991-08-15

    The pump--probe pulsed field ionization (PFI) spectrum through the origin of {ital S}{sub 1} of pyrazine reveals three distinct types of peaks. At low excess energy above the lowest ionization potential (I.P.) are sharp peaks with Franck--Condon factors representative of the singlet intermediate state. At ionization wavelengths {lt}208 nm, the Franck--Condon overlap allows for the observation of primarily the triplet component of the pumped superposition state. At this energy, some resolved structure has a measured lifetime {gt}10 {mu}s and is determined to be the result of ionization of relaxed triplet states populated through vibrational dissociation of van der Waals clusters. A diffuse structure in the same region is the result of ionization of monomer intermediate states with lifetimes that vary with the ionizing wavelength. From this variation, it can be surmised that there is an inhomogeneous sample of intermediate states, possibly due to a mixture of unrelaxed molecular eigenstates and decoupled triplets populated by an intramolecular vibrational relaxation within the triplet manifold.

  12. Influence of field emission on the propagation of cylindrical fast ionization wave in atmospheric-pressure nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2016-04-21

    The influence of field emission of electrons from surfaces on the fast ionization wave (FIW) propagation in high-voltage nanosecond pulse discharge in the atmospheric-pressure nitrogen is studied by a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions model. A strong influence of field emission on the FIW dynamics and plasma parameters is obtained. Namely, the accounting for the field emission makes possible the bridging of the cathode–anode gap by rather dense plasma (∼10{sup 13 }cm{sup −3}) in less than 1 ns. This is explained by the generation of runaway electrons from the field emitted electrons. These electrons are able to cross the entire gap pre-ionizing it and promoting the ionization wave propagation. We have found that the propagation of runaway electrons through the gap cannot be accompanied by the streamer propagation, because the runaway electrons align the plasma density gradients. In addition, we have obtained that the field enhancement factor allows controlling the speed of ionization wave propagation.

  13. Performance of a multi-axis ionization chamber array in a 1.5 T magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Smit, K; Kok, J G M; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2014-04-07

    At the UMC Utrecht a prototype MR-linac has been installed. The system consists of an 8 MV Elekta linear accelerator and a 1.5 T Philips MRI system. This paper investigates the performance of the IC PROFILER™, a multi-axis ionization chamber array, in a 1.5 T magnetic field. The influence of the magnetic field on the IC PROFILER™ reproducibility, dose response linearity, pulse rate frequency dependence, power to electronics, panel orientation and ionization chamber shape were investigated. The linearity, reproducibility, pulse rate frequency dependence, panel orientation and ionization chamber shape are unaffected by the magnetic field. When the measurements results are normalized to the centre reference chamber, the measurements can commence unaltered. Orientation of the ionization chambers in the magnetic field is of importance, therefore caution must be taken when comparing or normalizing results from several different axes. IC PROFILER™ dose profiles were compared with film dose profiles obtained simultaneously in the MR-linac. Deviation between the film and the IC PROFILER™ data was caused by the noise in the film, indicating correct performance of the IC PROFILER™ in the transverse 1.5 T magnetic field.

  14. Performance of a multi-axis ionization chamber array in a 1.5 T magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, K.; Kok, J. G. M.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2014-04-01

    At the UMC Utrecht a prototype MR-linac has been installed. The system consists of an 8 MV Elekta linear accelerator and a 1.5 T Philips MRI system. This paper investigates the performance of the IC PROFILER™, a multi-axis ionization chamber array, in a 1.5 T magnetic field. The influence of the magnetic field on the IC PROFILER™ reproducibility, dose response linearity, pulse rate frequency dependence, power to electronics, panel orientation and ionization chamber shape were investigated. The linearity, reproducibility, pulse rate frequency dependence, panel orientation and ionization chamber shape are unaffected by the magnetic field. When the measurements results are normalized to the centre reference chamber, the measurements can commence unaltered. Orientation of the ionization chambers in the magnetic field is of importance, therefore caution must be taken when comparing or normalizing results from several different axes. IC PROFILER™ dose profiles were compared with film dose profiles obtained simultaneously in the MR-linac. Deviation between the film and the IC PROFILER™ data was caused by the noise in the film, indicating correct performance of the IC PROFILER™ in the transverse 1.5 T magnetic field.

  15. Separation of Opiate Isomers Using Electrospray Ionization and Paper Spray Coupled to High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manicke, Nicholas E.; Belford, Michael

    2015-05-01

    One limitation in the growing field of ambient or direct analysis methods is reduced selectivity caused by the elimination of chromatographic separations prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We explored the use of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), an ambient pressure ion mobility technique, to separate the closely related opiate isomers of morphine, hydromorphone, and norcodeine. These isomers cannot be distinguished by tandem mass spectrometry. Separation prior to MS analysis is, therefore, required to distinguish these compounds, which are important in clinical chemistry and toxicology. FAIMS was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and ionization was performed using either a pneumatically assisted heated electrospray ionization source (H-ESI) or paper spray, a direct analysis method that has been applied to the direct analysis of dried blood spots and other complex samples. We found that FAIMS was capable of separating the three opiate structural isomers using both H-ESI and paper spray as the ionization source.

  16. State-selective preparation of A r2 + and K r2 + by resonantly enhanced two-photon double ionization via intermediate Rydberg states using high-order harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kana; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Sato, Takahiro; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous two-electron emission processes of Ar induced by high-order harmonics of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses were investigated by coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy. Two-photon double ionization processes via the 3 s 3 p6n p (n ˜25 ) intermediate resonances of Ar were observed, which selectively created the 3 s 3 p51P state of A r2 + . The similar double ionization processes were also observed in Kr. The selective creation indicates that the core electron configuration of the doubly ionized state tends to be the same as that of the intermediate state and that the emitted two electrons tend to form the singlet state.

  17. The Absolute Isotopic Composition of Zn in Terrestrial Materials Determined Using Double Spike Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghidan, O. Y.; Loss, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Although long suspected to be widespread in nature, until recently, little was known about the extent of the variation of the isotopic composition, or isotopic fractionation, of Zn in natural materials. During the last decade an increasing number of high precision Zn isotopic fractionation data have been reported using MC- ICP-MS (MARECHAL et al., 1999; PETIT et al., 2008; PICHAT et al., 2003), but none have been reported on an absolute scale which is essential for interlaboratory comparison of results. In this work we report sub- permil Zn fractionation in a range of natural materials relative to the internationally proposed absolute Zn isotopic reference material (δ zero) (PONZEVERA et al., 2006)using the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry double spike technique. Repeated double spike analysis of the laboratory standard relative to itself demonstrated a long term reproducibility of +0.006 ± 0.039 permil amu-1. The measured isotopic composition of Zn in minerals and igneous rocks SRMs was found to be the same as the proposed absolute (δ zero) which makes it possible to consider the proposed absolute Zn isotopic standard as being representative of "bulk earth" Zn. A significant and consistent fractionation of ~+0.3 permil amu-1 was found in 5 sediments from a range of localities. The results obtained for metamorphic SRMs indicate that the fractionation of Zn in these rocks is the same as found in igneous rocks but are different from the Zn found in sedimentary rocks. A clay SRM sample TILL-3 appears to exhibit a consistently Zn fractionation of +0.12 ± 0.10 permil amu-1. The isotopic composition of Zn was also measured in two plant SRMs and one animal SRM sample. The fractionation of (-0.088 ± 0.070 permil amu-1) of Zn in the Rice (a C3 type plant material) sample suggested that Zn may be used to study Zn systematics in plants. The result obtained for MURST-ISS-A2 (Antarctic Krill) was +0.21 ± 0.11 permil amu-1 relative to the laboratory standard which is

  18. Ionization and dissociation of CH3I in intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongtao; Yang, Zheng; Gao, Zhen; Tang, Zichao

    2007-01-01

    The ionization-dissociation of methyl iodide in intense laser field has been studied using a reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RTOF-MS), at a laser intensity of ⩽6.6×1014W/cm2, λ =798nm, and a pulse width of 180fs. With the high resolution of RTOF-MS, the fragment ions with the same M /z but from different dissociation channels are resolved in the mass spectra, and the kinetic energy releases (KERs) of the fragment ions such as Iq + (q=1-6), CHm+ (m =0-3), C2+, and C3+ are measured. It is found that the KERs of the fragment ions are independent of the laser intensity. The fragments CH3+ and I + with very low KERs (<1eV for CH3+ and <0.07eV for I +) are assigned to be produced by the multiphoton dissociation of CH3I +. For the fragments CH3+ and I + from CH3I2+, they are produced by the Coulomb explosion of CH3I2+ with the interaction from the covalent force of the remaining valence electrons. The split of the KER of the fragments produced from CH3I2+ dissociation is observed experimentally and explained with the energy split of I +(P23) and I+(P0,13). The dissociation CH3I3+→CH3++I2+ is caused by Coulomb explosion. The valid charge distance Rc between I2+ and CH3+, at which enhanced ionization of methyl iodide occurs, is obtained to be 3.7Å by the measurements of the KERs of the fragments CH3+ and I2+. For the CH3In + (n⩾3), the KERs of the fragment ions CH3p + and Iq + are attributed to the Coulomb repulsion between CH3p + and Iq + from Rc≈3.7Å. The dissociation of the fragment CH3+ is also discussed. By the enhanced ionization mechanism and using the measured KER of Iq +, all the possible Coulomb explosion channels are identified. By comparing the abundance of fragment ions in mass spectrum, it is found that the asymmetric dissociation channels with more charges on iodine, q >p, are the dominant channels.

  19. Double-K-vacancy states in electron-impact single ionization of metastable two-electron N5+(1s2s 3S1) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, A.; Borovik, A.; Huber, K.; Schippers, S.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.

    2014-07-01

    The role of hollow states intermediately produced in electron-impact ionization of metastable He-like N5+(1s2s3S1) ions has been investigated in detail. A crossed-beam setup and suitable experimental techniques were employed for the measurement of accurate absolute cross sections and precise energy-scan data. Fine structures arising from K-shell excitations and associated resonances have been observed for this two-electron ion with less than ±0.5 eV uncertainty on the energy scale. Fine details, such as interference of the reaction pathways of direct ionization and excitation with capture of the incident electron followed by double-Auger decay, could be revealed. Ab initio calculations based on the convergent close coupling (CCC) approach are in good agreement with the experiment.

  20. Correction factors for ionization chamber dosimetry in CyberKnife: Machine-specific, plan-class, and clinical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gago-Arias, Araceli; Antolin, Elena; Fayos-Ferrer, Francisco; Simon, Rocio; Gonzalez-Castano, Diego M.; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Gomez, Faustino; Pardo-Montero, Juan

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the application of the formalism for ionization chamber reference dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields [R. Alfonso, P. Andreo, R. Capote, M. S. Huq, W. Kilby, P. Kjaell, T. R. Mackie, H. Palmans, K. Rosser, J. Seuntjens, W. Ullrich, and S. Vatnitsky, 'A new formalism for reference dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields,' Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)] to the CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery system. Correction factors for intermediate calibration fields, a machine-specific reference field (msr) and two plan-class specific reference fields (pcsr), have been studied. Furthermore, the applicability of the new formalism to clinical dosimetry has been analyzed through the investigation of two clinical treatments. Methods: PTW31014 and Scanditronix-Wellhofer CC13 ionization chamber measurements were performed for the fields under investigation. Absorbed dose to water was determined using alanine reference dosimetry, and experimental correction factors were calculated from alanine to ionization chamber readings ratios. In addition, correction factors were calculated for the intermediate calibration fields and one of the clinical treatment fields using the Monte Carlo method and these were compared with the experimental values. Results: Overall correction factors deviating from unity by approximately 2% were obtained from both measurements and simulations, with values below and above unity for the studied intermediate calibration fields and clinical fields for the ionization chambers under consideration. Monte Carlo simulations yielded correction factors comparable with those obtained from measurements for the machine-specific reference field, although differences from 1% to 3.3% were observed between measured and calculated correction factors for the composite intermediate calibration fields. Dose distribution inhomogeneities are thought to be responsible for such discrepancies. Conclusions: The differences found between overall

  1. Suppression of strong field ionization in diatomic molecules with triplet ground states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, M. J.; Wells, E.; Jones, R. R.

    2001-05-01

    The ionization rates of S_2, SO, and F2 when subjected to 800 nm, 100 fs laser pulses are measured as a function of laser pulse intensity and compared to those of Xe and Ar. Contrary to recent theoretical predictions, the ionization behavior of F2 is observed to be nearly identical to that of both N2 and Ar, and therefore behaves as would be predicted by a structureless, atom-like ionization model. The ionization rates of triplet S2 and SO are shown to be suppressed, much like triplet O_2, relative to expectations based solely on their ionization potentials. Measurements made with 1360 nm, 80 fs laser pulses show that the ionization suppression of S2 and SO persists at longer wavelengths.

  2. Using PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy to study excited states of molecular ions: implications for state selection through pulsed field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James D.; Alcaraz, Christian; Mank, A.; Kong, Wei; Hepburn, John W.

    1995-09-01

    The introduction of the pulsed field ionization zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy technique (referred to as PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy) has resulted in a revolution in photoelectron spectroscopy, because of the tremendous improvement in resolution. This method of threshold photoelectron spectroscopy is based on field ionization of metastable high principal quantum number Rydberg states using a pulsed electric field, delayed from the laser excitation. The detailed mechanism for stabilization of the high principal quantum number Rydberg states has been the subject of a great deal of recent discussion in the literature, and is still somewhat controversial. It is well known that Rydberg state lifetimes scale as n-3, for fluorescence, autoionization, or predissociation, under ideal conditions. This means that for a Rydberg series that can decay by autoionization, if the lifetime of a 5p Rydberg state is 10-12 s, the lifetime of a 150p state will be 10-7 s, which is an order of magnitude shorter than typical delay times used in PFI-ZEKE. The 150p state will be field ionized by an electric field of 0.7 to 1.5 V/cm, which is typical of the pulsed fields used for Stark ionization. This question about Rydberg state lifetimes becomes quite important if one wishes to carry out PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy of ion states well above the lowest ionization threshold, as many decay channels will be available to the Rydberg states converging to the high energy states, resulting in shorter lifetimes for these high energy Rydberg states. Our work in this area has focused largely on PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy at excited state thresholds in molecular ions, where problems of autoionization will be most severe. To reach these high energy thresholds, we have usually used single photon excitation with coherent vacuum ultraviolet light. This excitation method has many advantages.

  3. Ionization at a solid-water interface in an applied electric field: Charge regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira

    2016-09-01

    We investigate ionization at a solid-water interface in an applied electric field. We attach an electrode to a dielectric film bearing silanol or carboxyl groups with an areal density Γ0, where the degree of dissociation α is determined by the proton density in water close to the film. We show how α depends on the density n0 of NaOH in water and the surface charge density σm on the electrode. For σm > 0, the protons are expelled away from the film, leading to an increase in α. In particular, in the range 0 < σm < eΓ0, self-regulation occurs to realize α ≅ σm/eΓ0 for n0 ≪ nc, where nc is 0.01 mol/L for silica surfaces and is 2 × 10-5 mol/L for carboxyl-bearing surfaces. We also examine the charge regulation with decreasing the cell thickness H below the Debye length κ-1, where a crossover occurs at the Gouy-Chapman length. In particular, when σm ˜ eΓ0 and H ≪ κ-1, the surface charges remain only partially screened by ions, leading to a nonvanishing electric field in the interior.

  4. Sub-cycle directional control of the dissociative ionization of H2 in tailored femtosecond laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Gong, X.; Lin, K.; de Vivie-Riedle, R.; Tong, X. M.; Wu, J.; Kling, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Being the simplest molecule on the planet, H2, as well as its isotopes, have been the prototype systems for strong-field molecular physics for decades. Photoionization and dissociation of H2 have been extensively investigated. After single ionization, the electron left in the molecular ion and its microscopic localization around the two dissociating nuclei can be effectively manipulated using intense femtosecond laser fields with broken symmetry. In this paper, we review the recent progress made on the sub-cycle directional control of the dissociative ionization of hydrogen molecules by tailoring the waveform of femtosecond laser fields, including few-cycle pulses and 2-color fields polarized along the same direction (one-dimension) or different directions (two-dimension).

  5. Field ionization model implemented in Particle In Cell code and applied to laser-accelerated carbon ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nuter, R.; Gremillet, L.; Lefebvre, E.; Levy, A.; Ceccotti, T.; Martin, P.

    2011-03-15

    A novel numerical modeling of field ionization in PIC (Particle In Cell) codes is presented. Based on the quasistatic approximation of the ADK (Ammosov Delone Krainov) theory and implemented through a Monte Carlo scheme, this model allows for multiple ionization processes. Two-dimensional PIC simulations are performed to analyze the cut-off energies of the laser-accelerated carbon ions measured on the UHI 10 Saclay facility. The influence of the target and the hydrocarbon pollutant composition on laser-accelerated carbon ion energies is demonstrated.

  6. Analytical study on the influence of nonequilibrium ionization for current flow pattern and flow field of MPD arcjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Itsuro; Shoji, Tsunetake

    1990-07-01

    The effect of non-equilibrium ionization on a one-dimensional supersonic self-field MPD flow, which starts from the point of Mach number 1, is analyzed taking ionization and recombination rate-equations and electron energy equation into consideration. It was observed generally that for given inlet boundary conditions and a total discharge current, the solution exists in a limited region of propellant flow rate and the required electrode becomes longer for lower propellant flow rate, as in the cases of frozen or thermal-equilibrium flow. Based on the calculated results with argon or hydrogen propellant, it was shown that a remarkable deviation from ionization equilibrium appears in the course of plasma acceleration, when the propellant flow rate is near the lower limit, and that for molecular species hydrogen, current concentration on the inlet part, observed in the case of argon, is removed by the influence of dissociation process.

  7. Selective-field-ionization dynamics of a lithium m=2 Rydberg state: Landau-Zener model versus quantal approach

    SciTech Connect

    Foerre, M.; Hansen, J.P.

    2003-05-01

    The selective-field-ionization (SFI) dynamics of a Rydberg state of lithium with magnetic quantum number m=2 is studied in detail based on two different theoretical models: (1) a close coupling integration of the Schroedinger equation and (2) the multichannel (incoherent) Landau-Zener (MLZ) model. The m=2 states are particularly interesting, since they define a border zone between fully adiabatic (m=0,1) and fully diabatic (m>2) ionization dynamics. Both sets of calculations are performed up to, and above, the classical ionization limit. It is found that the MLZ model is excellent in the description of the fully diabatic dynamics while certain discrepancies between the time dependent quantal amplitudes appear when the dynamics become involved. Thus, in this region, the analysis of experimental SFI spectra should be performed with care.

  8. Photoionization of isooctane and n-octane in intense laser fields. I. Effect of irradiance on ionization rates.

    PubMed

    Healy, Andrew T; Lipsky, Sanford; Blank, David A

    2007-12-07

    The population of ejected electrons following multiphoton ionization of neat liquids isooctane and n-octane is investigated over a large range of ionizing irradiance I(ex). Transient absorption (TA) at 1200 nm in both neat liquids is measured in a 60 mum path at time delays of 0.7 and 2.5 ps following an intense 400 nm (3.1 eV) ionizing pulse. As the irradiance of this pulse is varied over the range from 4 to 410 TWcm(2), the dependence of TA on I(ex) exhibits the periodic structure theoretically predicted for multiphoton channel openings and closings. At low I(ex) (<9 TWcm(2)), TA in isooctane is proportional to I(ex) (n) where n=3, consistent with nonresonant, near threshold ionization (liquid phase ionization potential=8.6 eV). At I(ex)>9 TWcm(2), n declines with increasing I(ex) up to I(ex)=13 TWcm(2), at which point n abruptly increases to 4. The pattern is repeated at I(ex)>13 TWcm(2), albeit with n declining from 4 and then abruptly increasing to 5 as I(ex) becomes greater than 100 TWcm(2). A similar trend is observed in n-octane. The dependence of the TA on I(ex) in the regions of channel openings and closings is compared to the nonperturbative, strong field approximation developed by Reiss [Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980)].

  9. Photoionization of isooctane and n-octane in intense laser fields. I. Effect of irradiance on ionization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Andrew T.; Lipsky, Sanford; Blank, David A.

    2007-12-01

    The population of ejected electrons following multiphoton ionization of neat liquids isooctane and n-octane is investigated over a large range of ionizing irradiance Iex. Transient absorption (TA) at 1200nm in both neat liquids is measured in a 60μm path at time delays of 0.7 and 2.5ps following an intense 400nm (3.1eV) ionizing pulse. As the irradiance of this pulse is varied over the range from 4to410TW/cm2, the dependence of TA on Iex exhibits the periodic structure theoretically predicted for multiphoton channel openings and closings. At low Iex (<9TW/cm2), TA in isooctane is proportional to Iexn where n =3, consistent with nonresonant, near threshold ionization (liquid phase ionization potential=8.6eV). At Iex>9TW/cm2, n declines with increasing Iex up to Iex=13TW/cm2, at which point n abruptly increases to 4. The pattern is repeated at Iex>13TW/cm2, albeit with n declining from 4 and then abruptly increasing to 5 as Iex becomes greater than 100TW/cm2. A similar trend is observed in n-octane. The dependence of the TA on Iex in the regions of channel openings and closings is compared to the nonperturbative, strong field approximation developed by Reiss [Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980)].

  10. Exposure to electromagnetic fields (non-ionizing radiation) and its relationship with childhood leukemia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Calvente, I; Fernandez, M F; Villalba, J; Olea, N; Nuñez, M I

    2010-07-15

    Childhood exposure to physical contamination, including non-ionizing radiation, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread and increasing sources of exposure to this type of radiation. The primary objective of this review was to analyze the current state of knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood leukemia. Scientific publications between 1979 and 2008 that include examination of this association have been reviewed using the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Studies to date have not convincingly confirmed or ruled out an association between non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood leukemia. Discrepancies among the conclusions of the studies may also be influenced by confounding factors, selection bias, and misclassification. Childhood defects can result from genetic or epigenetic damage and from effects on the embryo or fetus, which may both be related to environmental exposure of the parent before conception or during the pregnancy. It is therefore critical for researchers to define a priori the type and "window" of exposure to be assessed. Methodological problems to be solved include the proper diagnostic classification of individuals and the estimated exposure to non-ionizing radiation, which may act through various mechanisms of action. There appears to be an urgent need to reconsider exposure limits for low frequency and static magnetic fields, based on combined experimental and epidemiological research into the relationship between exposure to non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects.

  11. Double occupancy in dynamical mean-field theory and the dual boson approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Erik G. C. P.; Krien, Friedrich; Hafermann, Hartmut; Stepanov, Evgeny A.; Lichtenstein, Alexander I.; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the calculation of the double occupancy using dynamical mean-field theory in finite dimensions. The double occupancy can be determined from the susceptibility of the auxiliary impurity model or from the lattice susceptibility. The former method typically overestimates, whereas the latter underestimates the double occupancy. We illustrate this for the square-lattice Hubbard model. We propose an approach for which both methods lead to identical results by construction and which resolves this ambiguity. This self-consistent dual boson scheme results in a double occupancy that is numerically close to benchmarks available in the literature.

  12. High-resolution pulsed-field ionization photoelectron study of O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.; Evans, M.; Stimson, S.

    1997-04-01

    There have been numerous photoionization studies of O{sub 2} over the past 10 years. Using the pulsed field ionization (PFI) photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) technique, the electronic ground state of O{sub 2}{sup +} (X{sup 2}{Pi}{sub g}{sup {minus}}) has been well studied on the rotationally resolved level by several groups. However, due to the difficulty of producing photon energies above 18 eV using the tunable lasers, the electronic excited states of O{sub 2}{sup +} have been mostly studied on the vibrationally resolved level using the threshold photoelectron spectroscopy (TPES) and the synchrotron radiation. Recently, the authors developed a new technique for performing the PFI-PE experiments using multi-bunch synchrotron radiation at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Using the high resolution VUV light from the ALS, they have obtained the PFI-PE spectra of O{sub 2} between 12 and 24 eV. In this abstract, the authors report for the first time the rotationally resolved spectra of O{sub 2}{sup +} (b{sup 4}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}}, v{sup +}=0).

  13. Isolated high-harmonic XUV photon absorption and NIR strong-field tunnel ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, W. A.; Frassetto, F.; Froud, C. A.; Turcu, I. C. E.; King, R. B.; Calvert, C. R.; Nemeth, G. R. A. J.; Villoresi, P.; Poletto, L.; Springate, E.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with a duration of tens of femtoseconds initiate 4s-1 or 4p-1 photoionization of krypton, which populates highly excited satellite states through the electron correlation. The excited ions are then tunnel ionized to Kr2+4s-14p-1 or 4p-2 by a strong-field near-infrared (NIR) pulse of a similar duration. The XUV pulses are produced by high harmonic generation in a gas jet and we employ a state-of-the-art time-preserving monochromator to isolate individual XUV harmonic orders. An enhancement of the Kr2+ yield as a function of harmonic photon energy and XUV-pump NIR-probe delay is observed and compared with a two-step model, which allows the population of the satellite states to be inferred. Furthermore, relative 4s and 4p satellite excitation cross-sections are predicted at the photon energies studied. This proof-of-principle experiment demonstrates that isolated harmonics can be employed to pump specific electronic states, which will be highly complementary to synchrotron, attosecond and x-ray free-electron laser studies of complex systems.

  14. Cluster formation and distributions in field ionization of coadsorbed methanol and water on platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfuss, C. J.; Medvedev, V. K.; Stuve, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    Pure and mixed clusters of methanol and water were examined with pulsed field desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) as a function of adlayer composition varying from pure water to nominally pure methanol. The experiments were performed on a Pt tip at 165 K and total pressure of approximately 5 × 10-6 Torr. Protonated clusters of up 7 water molecules and up to 4 methanol molecules were detected. For mixed adlayers, mixed clusters involving 1 or 2 water and methanol molecules were observed. The hydronium cluster (H2O)H+ exhibited unusual behavior in that its maximum intensity occurred for an approximately equimolar mixture. This was attributed to direct ionization of a methanol monohydrate species, (CH3OH ṡ H2O). Water production was observed in methanol-rich layers and ascribed to scission of the C-O bond to produce CH3 and OH. The TOF-MS data exhibited significant time lags for most higher mass clusters. The time lags for pure H2O were analyzed in terms of a two-step mechanism involving a trade-off of ion cluster emission and growth, from which the rate constant for cluster growth was estimated as 9 × 10-6 s-1.

  15. Ionization Capabilities of Hydronium Ions and High Electric Fields Produced by Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge.

    PubMed

    Sato, Natsuhiko; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure corona discharge (APCD) was applied to the ionization of volatile organic compounds. The mass spectra of analytes having aromatic, phenolic, anilinic, basic and aliphatic in nature were obtained by using vapor supply and liquid smear supply methods. The vapor supply method mainly gave protonated analytes [A+H](+) caused by proton transfer from hydronium ion H3O(+), except for benzene, toluene and n-hexane that have lower proton affinity. The use of the liquid smear supply method resulted in the formation of molecular ion A(·+) and/or dehydride analyte [A-H](+), according to the nature of analytes used. The formation of A(·+) without fragment ions could be explained by the electron tunneling via high electric fields 10(8) V/m at the tip of the corona needle. The dehydride analytes [A-H](+) observed in the mass spectra of n-hexane, di- and tributylamines may be explained by the hydride abstraction from the alkyl chains by the hydronium ion. The hydronium ion can play the two-roles for analytes, i.e., the proton donor to form [A+H](+) and the hydride acceptor to form [A-H](+).

  16. Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guihua; Jing, Chenrui; Zeng, Bin; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xu, Huailiang; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2014-03-01

    Recently, Yao et al. demonstrated the creation of coherent emissions in nitrogen gas with two-color (800 nm + 400 nm) ultrafast laser pulses [J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, New J. Phys. 15, 023046 (2013), 10.1088/1367-2630/15/2/023046]. Based on this two-color scheme, here we report on systematic investigation of temporal characteristics of the radiation emitted at 391 nm [N2+: B2Σu+(ν =0) -X2Σg+(ν =0)] by experimentally examining its temporal profiles with the increase of the plasma channel induced by the intense 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses at a nitrogen-gas pressure of ˜25 mbar. We reveal unexpected temporal profiles of the coherent emissions, which show significant superradiance signatures owing to the cooperation of an ensemble of excited N2+ molecules that are coherently radiating in phase. Our findings shed more light on the mechanisms behind the coherent laserlike emissions induced by strong-field ionization of molecules.

  17. Perturbation theory for electric-field amplitude and phase ripple transfer in frequency doubling and tripling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Jerome M.; L, L.; Eimerl, David; Milam, David; Milonni, Peter W.

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for the transfer of a perturbation of the electric field from the input to the output of a frequency converter. The transfer relationship for the field ripple is shown to depend on the plane-wave operating parameters of the converter. Predictions of the theory are shown to be in excellent agreement with full numerical simulations of doubling and tripling and experiments measuring ripple transfer in frequency doubling.

  18. Effect of Chromatin Structure on the Extent and Distribution of DNA Double Strand Breaks Produced by Ionizing Radiation; Comparative Study of hESC and Differentiated Cells Lines.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Priyanka; Panyutin, Irina V; Remeeva, Evgenia; Neumann, Ronald D; Panyutin, Igor G

    2016-01-02

    Chromatin structure affects the extent of DNA damage and repair. Thus, it has been shown that heterochromatin is more protective against DNA double strand breaks (DSB) formation by ionizing radiation (IR); and that DNA DSB repair may proceed differently in hetero- and euchromatin regions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have a more open chromatin structure than differentiated cells. Here, we study the effect of chromatin structure in hESC on initial DSB formation and subsequent DSB repair. DSB were scored by comet assay; and DSB repair was assessed by repair foci formation via 53BP1 antibody staining. We found that in hESC, heterochromatin is confined to distinct regions, while in differentiated cells it is distributed more evenly within the nuclei. The same dose of ionizing radiation produced considerably more DSB in hESC than in differentiated derivatives, normal human fibroblasts; and one cancer cell line. At the same time, the number of DNA repair foci were not statistically different among these cells. We showed that in hESC, DNA repair foci localized almost exclusively outside the heterochromatin regions. We also noticed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in an increase in heterochromatin marker H3K9me3 in cancer HT1080 cells, and to a lesser extent in IMR90 normal fibroblasts, but not in hESCs. These results demonstrate the importance of chromatin conformation for DNA protection and DNA damage repair; and indicate the difference of these processes in hESC.

  19. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism for studying the carcinogenicity of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation].

    PubMed

    Voĭchuk, S I

    2014-01-01

    Medical and biological aspects of the effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic (EM) fields and radiation on human health are the important issues that have arisen as a result of anthropogenic impact on the biosphere. Safe use of man-made sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation in a broad range of frequencies--static, radio-frequency and microwave--is a subject of discussions and speculations. The main problem is the lack of understanding of the mechanism(s) of reception of EMFs by living organisms. In this review we have analyzed the existing literature data regarding the effects of the electromagnetic radiation on the model eukaryotic organism--yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An attempt was made to estimate the probability of induction of carcinogenesis in humans under the influence of magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation of extremely low frequency, radio frequency and microwave ranges.

  20. Combined vacuum ultraviolet laser and synchrotron pulsed field ionization study of CH2BrCl.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Jie; Mo, Yuxiang; Lau, K C; Qian, X M; Song, Y; Liu, Jianbo; Ng, C Y

    2007-05-14

    The pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectrum of bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) in the region of 85,320-88,200 cm-1 has been measured using vacuum ultraviolet laser. The vibrational structure resolved in the PFI-PE spectrum was assigned based on ab initio quantum chemical calculations and Franck-Condon factor predictions. At energies 0-1400 cm-1 above the adiabatic ionization energy (IE) of CH2BrCl, the Br-C-Cl bending vibration progression (nu1+=0-8) of CH2BrCl+ is well resolved and constitutes the major structure in the PFI-PE spectrum, whereas the spectrum at energies 1400-2600 cm-1 above the IE(CH2BrCl) is found to exhibit complex vibrational features, suggesting perturbation by the low lying excited CH2BrCl+(A 2A") state. The assignment of the PFI-PE vibrational bands gives the IE(CH2BrCl)=85,612.4+/-2.0 cm-1 (10.6146+/-0.0003 eV) and the bending frequencies nu1+(a1')=209.7+/-2.0 cm-1 for CH2BrCl+(X2A'). We have also examined the dissociative photoionization process, CH2BrCl+hnu-->CH2Cl++Br+e-, in the energy range of 11.36-11.57 eV using the synchrotron based PFI-PE-photoion coincidence method, yielding the 0 K threshold or appearance energy AE(CH2Cl+)=11.509+/-0.002 eV. Combining the 0 K AE(CH2Cl+) and IE(CH2BrCl) values obtained in this study, together with the known IE(CH2Cl), we have determined the 0 K bond dissociation energies (D0) for CH2Cl+-Br (0.894+/-0.002 eV) and CH2Cl-Br (2.76+/-0.01 eV). We have also performed CCSD(T, full)/complete basis set (CBS) calculations with high-level corrections for the predictions of the IE(CH2BrCl), AE(CH2Cl+), IE(CH2Cl), D0(CH2Cl+-Br), and D0(CH2Cl-Br). The comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental determinations indicates that the CCSD(T, full)/CBS calculations with high-level corrections are highly reliable with estimated error limits of <17 meV.