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Sample records for field driven ferromagnetic

  1. Field-driven Domain Wall Motion in Ferromagnetic Nanowires with Bulk Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Fengjun; Sun, Z. Z.

    2016-04-01

    Field-driven domain wall (DW) motion in ferromagnetic nanowires with easy- and hard-axis anisotropies was studied theoretically and numerically in the presence of the bulk Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. We propose a new trial function and offer an exact solution for DW motion along a uniaxial nanowire driven by an external magnetic field. A new strategy was suggested to speed up DW motion in a uniaxial magnetic nanowire with large DMI parameters. In the presence of hard-axis anisotropy, we find that the breakdown field and velocity of DW motion was strongly affected by the strength and sign of the DMI parameter under external fields. This work may be useful for future magnetic information storage devices based on DW motion.

  2. Field-driven Domain Wall Motion in Ferromagnetic Nanowires with Bulk Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Fengjun; Sun, Z. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Field-driven domain wall (DW) motion in ferromagnetic nanowires with easy- and hard-axis anisotropies was studied theoretically and numerically in the presence of the bulk Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. We propose a new trial function and offer an exact solution for DW motion along a uniaxial nanowire driven by an external magnetic field. A new strategy was suggested to speed up DW motion in a uniaxial magnetic nanowire with large DMI parameters. In the presence of hard-axis anisotropy, we find that the breakdown field and velocity of DW motion was strongly affected by the strength and sign of the DMI parameter under external fields. This work may be useful for future magnetic information storage devices based on DW motion. PMID:27118064

  3. Field driven ferromagnetic phase evolution originating from the domain boundaries in antiferromagnetically coupled perpendicular anitsotropy films

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Juanita; Hauet, Thomas; Gunther, Christian; Hovorka, Ondrej; Berger, Andreas; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Hellwig, Olav

    2008-05-01

    Strong perpendicular anisotropy systems consisting of Co/Pt multilayer stacks that are antiferromagnetically coupled via thin Ru or NiO layers have been used as model systems to study the competition between local interlayer exchange and long-range dipolar interactions [1,2]. Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) studies of such systems reveal complex magnetic configurations with a mix of antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferromagnetic (FM) phases. However, MFM allows detecting surface stray fields only and can interact strongly with the magnetic structure of the sample, thus altering the original domain configuration of interest [3,4]. In the current study they combine magnetometry and state-of-the-art soft X-ray transmission microscopy (MXTM) to investigate the external field driven FM phase evolution originating from the domain boundaries in such antiferromagnetically coupled perpendicular anisotropy films. MXTM allows directly imaging the perpendicular component of the magnetization in an external field at sub 100 nm spatial resolution without disturbing the magnetic state of the sample [5,6]. Here they compare the domain evolution for two similar [Co(4{angstrom})/Pt(7{angstrom})]x-1/{l_brace}Co(4{angstrom})/Ru(9{angstrom})/[Co(4{angstrom})/Pt(7{angstrom})]x-1{r_brace}16 samples with slightly different Co/Pt stack thickness, i.e. slightly different strength of internal dipolar fields. After demagnetization they obtain AF domains with either sharp AF domain walls for the thinner multilayer stacks or 'tiger-tail' domain walls (one dimensional FM phase) for the thicker stacks. When increasing the external field strength the sharp domain walls in the tinner stack sample transform into the one-dimensional FM phase, which then serves as nucleation site for further FM stripe domains that spread out into all directions to drive the system towards saturation. Energy calculations reveal the subtle difference between the two samples and help to understand the observed transition, when

  4. Rotational properties of ferromagnetic nanoparticles driven by a precessing magnetic field in a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Lyutyy, T V; Denisov, S I; Reva, V V; Bystrik, Yu S

    2015-10-01

    We study the deterministic and stochastic rotational dynamics of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a precessing magnetic field. Our approach is based on the system of effective Langevin equations and on the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. Two key characteristics of the rotational dynamics, namely the average angular frequency of precession of nanoparticles and their average magnetization, are of interest. Using the Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, we calculate both analytically and numerically these characteristics in the deterministic and stochastic cases, determine their dependence on the model parameters, and analyze in detail the role of thermal fluctuations. PMID:26565245

  5. Rotational properties of ferromagnetic nanoparticles driven by a precessing magnetic field in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutyy, T. V.; Denisov, S. I.; Reva, V. V.; Bystrik, Yu. S.

    2015-10-01

    We study the deterministic and stochastic rotational dynamics of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a precessing magnetic field. Our approach is based on the system of effective Langevin equations and on the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. Two key characteristics of the rotational dynamics, namely the average angular frequency of precession of nanoparticles and their average magnetization, are of interest. Using the Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, we calculate both analytically and numerically these characteristics in the deterministic and stochastic cases, determine their dependence on the model parameters, and analyze in detail the role of thermal fluctuations.

  6. Elastically Driven Ferromagnetic Resonance in Nickel Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, M.; Dreher, L.; Heeg, C.; Huebl, H.; Gross, R.; Brandt, M. S.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2011-03-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the GHz frequency range are exploited for the all-elastic excitation and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in a ferromagnetic-ferroelectric (Ni/LiNbO3) hybrid device. We measure the SAW magnetotransmission at room temperature as a function of frequency, external magnetic field magnitude, and orientation. Our data are well described by a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert approach, in which a virtual, strain-induced tickle field drives the magnetization precession. This causes a distinct magnetic field orientation dependence of elastically driven FMR that we observe in both model and experiment.

  7. Field driven ferromagnetic phase nucleation and propagation from the domain boundaries in antiferromagnetically coupled perpendicular anisotropy films

    SciTech Connect

    Hauet, Thomas; Gunther, Christian M.; Hovorka, Ondrej; Berger, Andreas; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Hellwig, Olav

    2008-12-09

    We investigate the reversal process in antiferromagnetically coupled [Co/Pt]{sub X-1}/{l_brace}Co/Ru/[Co/Pt]{sub X-1}{r_brace}{sub 16} multilayer films by combining magnetometry and Magnetic soft X-ray Transmission Microscopy (MXTM). After out-of-plane demagnetization, a stable one dimensional ferromagnetic (FM) stripe domain phase (tiger-tail phase) for a thick stack sample (X=7 is obtained), while metastable sharp antiferromagnetic (AF) domain walls are observed in the remanent state for a thinner stack sample (X=6). When applying an external magnetic field the sharp domain walls of the thinner stack sample transform at a certain threshold field into the FM stripe domain wall phase. We present magnetic energy calculations that reveal the underlying energetics driving the overall reversal mechanisms.

  8. Dynamics of a central electron spin coupled to an anti-ferromagnetic spin bath driven by a variable magnetic field in the Landau-Zener scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouokeng, Georges Collince; Tchoffo, Martin; Ateuafack, Mathurin Esouague; Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2014-07-01

    The Landau-Zener (LZ) transition probability of a two-level crossing in a single quantum dot driven by a two-state auto-correlated (TSAC) noise is studied. The model used isolates a central electron spin (CES) system bathed with TSAC noise and an anti-ferromagnetic spin bath. This model turnes into the LZ formalism in the limit of weak-excitation magnetic field. The effects of noise and of the coupling with the spin chain, on the LZ-transition probability are studied. In the weak coupling regime of the CES with the bath, it is seen that the TSAC noise effect can be compared with that of a deterministic sinusoidal oscillating function. In the strong coupling regime this effect decreases and alters the noise process on the LZ-transition probability.

  9. Elastically driven ferromagnetic resonance in nickel thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, M.; Heeg, C.; Huebl, H.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Dreher, L.; Brandt, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    Due to magneto-elastic coupling, magnetic degrees of freedom are influenced by elastic deformation. We here demonstrate that the magneto-elastic interaction of a radio frequency (RF) surface acoustic wave (SAW) with a ferromagnetic thin film enables an all-elastic excitation and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). We have measured the SAW magneto-transmission at room temperature in Ni/ LiNb O3 hybrid devices as a function of SAW frequency, external magnetic field magnitude and orientation. Our data are consistently described by a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert approach, in which the magnetization precession is not driven by a conventional, external RF magnetic field, but rather by a purely virtual, internal tickle field stemming from RF magneto-elastic interactions. This causes a distinct magnetic field orientation dependence of elastically driven FMR, which we observe in both simulations and experiment. This work is financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via project GO 944/3-1, SFB 631, and the excellence cluster Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM).

  10. Calculation of ultrasonic fields radiated in a ferromagnetic medium by an EMAT of arbitrary bias field driven by a current of arbitrary intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouge, C.; Lhémery, A.; Aristégui, C.; Walaszek, H.

    2014-02-01

    ElectroMagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are contactless transducers generating ultrasonic waves in conductive media, notably shear horizontal and torsional waves (in plates and pipes, respectively), possibly in hostile environments. In a ferromagnetic part, the elastic strain and the magnetic field couple through magnetostriction phenomena, so that a magnetostriction and magnetization forces add up to the Lorentz force created in any conductive medium. Here, a model is proposed to predict these forces for an arbitrary bias field due to the EMAT permanent magnet and whatever the current intensity in its electric circuit, whereas the usual assumption of high bias field and low intensity current leads to important model simplifications. To handle the nonlinear behavior of all the three forces when the usual assumption cannot be made, forces are expressed in the time domain. In particular, magnetostriction force generates waves at several harmonic frequencies of the driving current frequency. Forces are then transformed into equivalent surface stresses readily usable as source terms in existing models of ultrasonic radiation, under the assumption that ultrasonic wavelengths are much longer than force penetration depths, (which is generally true in NDT applications of EMATs). Force spectra computed in various EMAT configurations are compared for illustration.

  11. Calculation of ultrasonic fields radiated in a ferromagnetic medium by an EMAT of arbitrary bias field driven by a current of arbitrary intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Rouge, C.; Lhémery, A.; Aristégui, C.; Walaszek, H.

    2014-02-18

    ElectroMagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are contactless transducers generating ultrasonic waves in conductive media, notably shear horizontal and torsional waves (in plates and pipes, respectively), possibly in hostile environments. In a ferromagnetic part, the elastic strain and the magnetic field couple through magnetostriction phenomena, so that a magnetostriction and magnetization forces add up to the Lorentz force created in any conductive medium. Here, a model is proposed to predict these forces for an arbitrary bias field due to the EMAT permanent magnet and whatever the current intensity in its electric circuit, whereas the usual assumption of high bias field and low intensity current leads to important model simplifications. To handle the nonlinear behavior of all the three forces when the usual assumption cannot be made, forces are expressed in the time domain. In particular, magnetostriction force generates waves at several harmonic frequencies of the driving current frequency. Forces are then transformed into equivalent surface stresses readily usable as source terms in existing models of ultrasonic radiation, under the assumption that ultrasonic wavelengths are much longer than force penetration depths, (which is generally true in NDT applications of EMATs). Force spectra computed in various EMAT configurations are compared for illustration.

  12. Heat-driven spin transport in a ferromagnetic metal

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yadong; Yang, Bowen; Tang, Chi; Jiang, Zilong; Shi, Jing; Schneider, Michael; Whig, Renu

    2014-12-15

    As a non-magnetic heavy metal is attached to a ferromagnet, a vertically flowing heat-driven spin current is converted to a transverse electric voltage, which is known as the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (SSE). If the ferromagnet is a metal, this voltage is also accompanied by voltages from two other sources, i.e., the anomalous Nernst effect in both the ferromagnet and the proximity-induced ferromagnetic boundary layer. By properly identifying and carefully separating those different effects, we find that in this pure spin current circuit the additional spin current drawn by the heavy metal generates another significant voltage by the ferromagnetic metal itself which should be present in all relevant experiments.

  13. Dynamical mean-field theory for flat-band ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hong-Son; Tran, Minh-Tien

    2016-09-01

    The magnetically ordered phase in the Hubbard model on the infinite-dimensional hyper-perovskite lattice is investigated within dynamical mean-field theory. It turns out for the infinite-dimensional hyper-perovskite lattice the self-consistent equations of dynamical mean-field theory are exactly solved, and this makes the Hubbard model exactly solvable. We find electron spins are aligned in the ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic configuration at zero temperature and half filling of the edge-centered sites of the hyper-perovskite lattice. A ferromagnetic-ferrimagnetic phase transition driven by the energy level splitting is found and it occurs through a phase separation. The origin of ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism arises from the band flatness and the virtual hybridization between macroscopically degenerate flat bands and dispersive ones. Based on the exact solution in the infinite-dimensional limit, a modified exact diagonalization as the impurity solver for dynamical mean-field theory on finite-dimensional perovskite lattices is also proposed and examined.

  14. Dynamic Binding of Driven Interfaces in Coupled Ultrathin Ferromagnetic Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Stamps, R. L.; Jamet, J.-P.; Ferré, J.; Baltz, V.; Rodmacq, B.; Politi, P.

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate experimentally dynamic interface binding in a system consisting of two coupled ferromagnetic layers. While domain walls in each layer have different velocity-field responses, for two broad ranges of the driving field H, walls in the two layers are bound and move at a common velocity. The bound states have their own velocity-field response and arise when the isolated wall velocities in each layer are close, a condition which always occurs as H→0. Several features of the bound states are reproduced using a one-dimensional model, illustrating their general nature.

  15. Dynamic binding of driven interfaces in coupled ultrathin ferromagnetic layers.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, P J; Stamps, R L; Jamet, J-P; Ferré, J; Baltz, V; Rodmacq, B; Politi, P

    2010-06-11

    We demonstrate experimentally dynamic interface binding in a system consisting of two coupled ferromagnetic layers. While domain walls in each layer have different velocity-field responses, for two broad ranges of the driving field H, walls in the two layers are bound and move at a common velocity. The bound states have their own velocity-field response and arise when the isolated wall velocities in each layer are close, a condition which always occurs as H→0. Several features of the bound states are reproduced using a one-dimensional model, illustrating their general nature. PMID:20867268

  16. Current-driven electromagnetic soliton collision in a ferromagnetic nanowire.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, M

    2015-07-01

    The propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a uniaxial ferromagnetic nanowire under the spin transfer torque effect is widely investigated in the soliton frame. The magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic nanowire is governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation coupled to the Maxwell equation for the electromagnetic wave propagation. A nonuniform multiscale analysis is invoked for the coupled LLG-Maxwell equations and obtains the extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation for the magnetization and external magnetic field. The effect of electric current is explored by constructing multisoliton solutions to the extended DNLS equation and the possibility of the soliton collision is exploited using the Hirota bilinearization procedure. PMID:26274263

  17. Current-driven periodic domain wall creation in ferromagnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitte, Matthias; Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Valet, Thierry; Rodrigues, Davi R.; Sinova, Jairo; Abanov, Ar.

    2016-08-01

    We predict the electrical generation and injection of domain walls into a ferromagnetic nanowire without the need of an assisting magnetic field. Our analytical and numerical results show that above a critical current jc domain walls are injected into the nanowire with a period T ˜(j-jc) -1 /2 . Importantly, domain walls can be produced periodically even in a simple exchange ferromagnet with uniaxial anisotropy, without requiring any standard "twisting" interaction such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya or dipole-dipole interactions. We show analytically that this process and the period exponents are universal and do not depend on the peculiarities of the microscopic Hamiltonian. Finally we give a specific proposal for an experimental realization.

  18. Ultrafast laser driven spin generation in metallic ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gyung-Min

    This dissertation presents experimental studies of spin generation in metallic ferromagnets (FM) driven by ultrafast laser light using a pump-probe technique. The pump light gives a driving force for spin generation by depositing energy or spin angular momentum on FM. The probe light measures spin responses by magneto-optical Kerr effect or temperature responses by time-domain thermoreflectance. I find that ultrafast laser light generates spins in FM in three distinct mechanisms: (i) demagnetization; (ii) spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE); (iii) optical helicity. The demagnetization-driven spin generation is due to energy transport between electrons and magnons of FM and conservation of angular momentum for electron-magnon coupling. Ultrafast laser light deposits its energy in electrons of metallic layers and leads to a sharp increase of the electron temperature. The excited electrons transport energy to magnons of FM by the electron-magnon coupling. The magnon excitation results in ultrafast demagnetization of FM. I find that the spin loss by magnon excitations during the demagnetization process is converted to the spin generation in electrons of FM by the conservation of angular momentum for electron-magnon coupling. The generated spins diffuse to other layers and leads to spin accumulation in nonmagnetic metals (NM) or spin transfer torque on other FMs. I measure the demagnetization-driven spin accumulation in a NM/FM1/NM structure and spin transfer torque in a NM/FM1/NM/FM2 structure. The SDSE-driven spin generation is due to a heat current at FM/NM interfaces and spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient of FM. Ultrafast laser light deposits its energy in a heat absorbing layer of a multilayer structure and leads to a heat current from the heat absorbing layer to heat sinking layer. When an FM is incorporated in the multilayer structure, the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient of FM converts the heat current to spin generation at interfaces between FM and NM. The

  19. Interface driven states in ferromagnetic topological insulator heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauter, Valeria; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    The broken time reversal symmetry (TRS) states can be introduced into a topological insulator (TI) material by ferromagnetic ordering at the interface. Recently we demonstrated a fundamental step towards realization of high temperature magnetization in Bi2Se3-EuS TI-FMI heterostructures through observation of magnetic proximity-induced symmetry breaking on the Bi2Se3 surface via the exchange interaction by depositing EuS film on the top of the Bi2Se3 surface.Here we show that we can independently break the TRS on both surfaces of a TI, which brings the long-range induced magnetism on either or both surfaces of a TI in a controlled way. We provide a depth-sensitive data on details of magnetic proximity effect in hidden interfaces by Polarized Neutron Reflectometry. The proximity coupling strength and penetration depth of magnetism into TI are extracted as functions of temperature, magnetic field and magnetic history. The large neutron absorption of Eu atoms serves as the element sensitivity and enables us to identify such magnetism in TI as proximity magnetism. This provides a next step to realization of complex heterostructures of TI and FMI leading to wide applications in TI-based next generation spintronic devices. Supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, BES, MIT MRSEC award DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, NSF Grant DMR-1231319.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of three-magnon process driven by ferromagnetic resonance in yttrium iron garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, R. O.; Holanda, J.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.; Vilela-Leão, L. H.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.

    2015-05-11

    We report an investigation of the dynamics of the three-magnon splitting process associated with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in films of the insulating ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The experiments are performed with a 6 μm thick YIG film close to a microstrip line fed by a microwave generator operating in the 2–6 GHz range. The magnetization precession is driven by the microwave rf magnetic field perpendicular to the static magnetic field, and its dynamics is observed by monitoring the amplitude of the FMR absorption peak. The time evolution of the amplitude reveals that if the frequency is lowered below a critical value of 3.3 GHz, the FMR mode pumps two magnons with opposite wave vectors that react back on the FMR, resulting in a nonlinear dynamics of the magnetization. The results are explained by a model with coupled nonlinear equations describing the time evolution of the magnon modes.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of three-magnon process driven by ferromagnetic resonance in yttrium iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, R. O.; Holanda, J.; Vilela-Leão, L. H.; Azevedo, A.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.

    2015-05-01

    We report an investigation of the dynamics of the three-magnon splitting process associated with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in films of the insulating ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The experiments are performed with a 6 μm thick YIG film close to a microstrip line fed by a microwave generator operating in the 2-6 GHz range. The magnetization precession is driven by the microwave rf magnetic field perpendicular to the static magnetic field, and its dynamics is observed by monitoring the amplitude of the FMR absorption peak. The time evolution of the amplitude reveals that if the frequency is lowered below a critical value of 3.3 GHz, the FMR mode pumps two magnons with opposite wave vectors that react back on the FMR, resulting in a nonlinear dynamics of the magnetization. The results are explained by a model with coupled nonlinear equations describing the time evolution of the magnon modes.

  2. Quantum criticality in the ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe under pressure and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Gaël; Braithwaite, Daniel; Aoki, Dai; Knebel, Georg; Flouquet, Jacques

    2016-09-01

    The pressure-temperature phase diagram of the orthorhombic ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe was determined by resistivity measurements up to 10.5 GPa . The Curie temperature TC is suppressed with pressure and vanishes at the critical pressure pc≈1 GPa . Superconductivity is observed in both the ferromagnetic state at low pressure, and in the paramagnetic state above pc up to about 4 GPa . Non-Fermi-liquid behavior appears in a large pressure range. The resistivity varies linearly with temperature around pc and evolves continuously with pressure to a T2 Fermi-liquid behavior for p ⪆5 GPa. The residual resistivity as a function of pressure shows a maximum far above pc at p=7.2 GPa and the amplitude of the inelastic scattering term of the resistivity decreases by more than one order in magnitude at p, which appears to mark the entrance into a weakly correlated regime. The pressure dependence of the upper critical field for magnetic field applied along the b and c axis illustrates the drastic difference in the field dependence of the ferromagnetic superconducting pairing. While for H ∥b axis Hc 2(T ) is driven by the suppression of the ferromagnetic order, it is dominated by the strong initial suppression of the ferromagnetic fluctuations for a field applied in the easy magnetization axis c .

  3. Asymmetric driven dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, Ó.; Martínez, E.; Muñoz, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current.

  4. Exchange-Driven Spin Relaxation in Ferromagnet-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yu-Sheng; Chiu, Yi-Hsin; Harmon, N. J.; Odenthal, Patrick; Sheffield, Matthew; Chilcote, Michael; Kawakami, R. K.; Flatté, M. E.; Johnston-Halperin, E.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that electron spin relaxation in GaAs in the proximity of a Fe /MgO layer is dominated by interaction with an exchange-driven hyperfine field at temperatures below 60 K. Temperature-dependent spin-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy reveals a strong correlation of the electron spin relaxation with carrier freeze-out, in quantitative agreement with a theoretical interpretation that at low temperatures the free-carrier spin lifetime is dominated by inhomogeneity in the local hyperfine field due to carrier localization. As the regime of large nuclear inhomogeneity is accessible in these heterostructures for magnetic fields <3 kG , inferences from this result resolve a long-standing and contentious dispute concerning the origin of spin relaxation in GaAs at low temperature when a magnetic field is present. Further, this improved fundamental understanding clarifies the importance of future experiments probing the time-dependent exchange interaction at a ferromagnet-semiconductor interface and its consequences for spin dissipation and transport during spin pumping.

  5. Thermodynamics of the Heisenberg ferromagnet in an applied magnetic field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flax, L.

    1972-01-01

    The anisotropic-Heisenberg-ferromagnet formalism developed previously is examined to include an applied magnetic field for the isotropic case in the random-phase approximation. Thermodynamic quantities such as magnetization, susceptibility, and the derivative of magnetization with respect to temperature are studied near the Curie point.

  6. Effect of magnetic field on quasiparticle branches of intrinsic Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Ozyuzer, L.; Ozdemir, M.; Kurter, C.; Hinks, D. G.; Gray, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    The interlayer tunneling spectroscopy has been performed on micron-sized mesa arrays of HgBr{sub 2} intercalated superconducting Bi2212 single crystals. A ferromagnetic multilayer (Au/Co/Au) is deposited on top of the mesas. The spin-polarized current is driven along the c-axis of the mesas through a ferromagnetic Co layer and the hysteretic quasiparticle branches are observed at 4.2 K. Magnetic field evolution of hysteretic quasiparticle branches is obtained to examine the effect of injected spin-polarized current on intrinsic Josephson junction characteristics. It is observed that there is a gradual distribution in quasiparticle branches with the application of magnetic field and increasing field reduces the switching current progressively.

  7. Static deformation of a ferromagnet in alternating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdin, D. A.; Chashin, D. V.; Ekonomov, N. A.; Fetisov, Y. K.

    2016-05-01

    Static deformation of a ferromagnet under an action of ac magnetic field was observed and investigated in this work. The effect is due to even and nonlinear dependence of magnetostriction on magnetic field. It is shown that the deformation is proportional to the second derivative of magnetostriction over the field at low fields and depends on the static bias field. The deformation grows nearly linearly and then saturates with increasing ac field. For the samples with very different parameters like permendur and nickel the ac field induced static strain can reach ~50% of the saturation magnetostriction.

  8. Composition-driven spin glass to ferromagnetic transition in the quasicrystal approximant Au-Al-Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, A.; Hiroto, T.; Tokiwa, K.; Fujii, T.; Tamura, R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the composition dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of the quasicrystal approximant Au-Al-Gd. A composition-driven ferromagnetic transition is observed in a quasicrystal approximant, which is attributed to the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) oscillation via a variation in the Fermi wave vector. The ferromagnetic transition is most simply understood as a result of the close matching of the nearest and second-nearest spin distances with the maximum positions of the RKKY potential. The present work provides an idea that allows us to tailor the magnetic order via the electron concentration in quasicrystal approximants as well as in quasicrystals.

  9. Quantum Lifshitz Field Theory of a Frustrated Ferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Balents, Leon; Starykh, Oleg A

    2016-04-29

    We propose a universal nonlinear sigma model field theory for one-dimensional frustrated ferromagnets, which applies in the vicinity of a "quantum Lifshitz point," at which the ferromagnetic state develops a spin wave instability. We investigate the phase diagram resulting from perturbations of the exchange and of magnetic field away from the Lifshitz point, and uncover a rich structure with two distinct regimes of different properties, depending upon the value of a marginal, dimensionless, parameter of the theory. In the regime relevant for one-dimensional systems with low spin, we find a metamagnetic transition line to a vector chiral phase. This line terminates in a critical end point, beyond which there is at least one multipolar or "spin nematic" phase. We show that the field theory is asymptotically exactly soluble near the Lifshitz point.

  10. Effect of non-uniform exchange field in ferromagnetic graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Debashree Basu, B.

    2015-04-15

    We have presented here the consequences of the non-uniform exchange field on the spin transport issues in spin chiral configuration of ferromagnetic graphene. Taking resort to the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) term and non-uniform exchange coupling term we are successful to express the expression of Hall conductivity in terms of the exchange field and SOC parameters through the Kubo formula approach. However, for a specific configuration of the exchange parameter we have evaluated the Berry curvature of the system. We also have paid attention to the study of SU(2) gauge theory of ferromagnetic graphene. The generation of anti damping spin–orbit torque in spin chiral magnetic graphene is also briefly discussed.

  11. A ferromagnet in a continuously tunable random field.

    PubMed

    Silevitch, D M; Bitko, D; Brooke, J; Ghosh, S; Aeppli, G; Rosenbaum, T F

    2007-08-01

    Most physical and biological systems are disordered, even though the majority of theoretical models treat disorder as a weak perturbation. One particularly simple system is a ferromagnet approaching its Curie temperature, T(C), where all of the spins associated with partially filled atomic shells acquire parallel orientation. With the addition of disorder by way of chemical substitution, the Curie point is suppressed, but no qualitatively new phenomena appear in bulk measurements as long as the disorder is truly random on the atomic scale and not so large as to eliminate ferromagnetism entirely. Here we report the discovery that a simply measured magnetic response is singular above the Curie temperature of a model, disordered magnet, and that the associated singularity grows to an anomalous divergence at T(C). The origin of the singular response is the random internal field induced by an external magnetic field transverse to the favoured direction for magnetization. The fact that ferromagnets can be studied easily and with high precision using bulk susceptibility and a large variety of imaging tools will not only advance fundamental studies of the random field problem, but also suggests a mechanism for tuning the strength of domain wall pinning, the key to applications.

  12. Double-exchange driven ferromagnetic metal-paramagnetic insulator transition in Mn-doped CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippetti, Alessio; Fiorentini, Vincenzo

    2006-12-01

    Employing ab initio self-interaction-corrected local-spin-density calculations, we explain the nature of the ferromagnetic, metallic phase of Mn-doped CuO (an antiferromagnetic insulator when undoped), and of its concurrent transitions to a paramagnetic, insulating phase. Mn-induced donor levels enable conduction through ferromagnetically aligned Mn centers and ferromagnetic CuO planes via double exchange. In the paramagnetic insulating phase, a polaron hopping mechanism consistent with the experiments is envisaged. Our results suggest the intriguing possibility of designing double-exchange driven ferromagnetic cuprates.

  13. Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.

  14. Thermally driven transverse transports and magnetic dynamics on a topological surface capped with a ferromagnet strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ming-Xun; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, Shi-Han; Qiu, Jian-Ming; Yang, Mou; Wang, Rui-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically study thermally driven transport of the Dirac fermions on the surface of a topological insulator capped with a ferromagnet strip. The generation and manipulation of anomalous Hall and Nernst effects are analyzed, in which the in-plane magnetization of the ferromagnet film is found to take a decisive role. This scenario is distinct from that modulated by Berry phase where the in-plane magnetization is independent. We further discuss the thermal spin-transfer torque as a backaction of the thermoelectric transports on the magnetization and calculate the dynamics of the anomalous Hall and Nernst effects self-consistently. It is found that the magnitude of the long-time steady Hall and Nernst conductance is determined by competition between the magnetic anisotropy and current-induced effective anisotropy. These results open up a possibility of magnetically controlling the transverse thermoelectric transports or thermally manipulating the magnet switching.

  15. Ferromagnetism controlled by electric field in tilted phosphorene nanoribbon

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, M. Umar; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2016-01-01

    Study on phosphorene nanoribbon was mostly focused on zigzag and armchair structures and no ferromagnetic ground state was observed in these systems. Here, we investigated the magnetic property of tilted black phosphorene nanoribbons (TPNRs) affected by an external electric field. We also studied the edge passivation effect on the magnetism and thermal stability of the nanoribbons. The pure TPNR displayed an edge magnetic state, but it disappeared in the edge reconstructed TPNR due to the self-passivation. In addition, we found that the bare TPNR was mechanically unstable because an imaginary vibration mode was obtained. However, the imaginary vibration mode disappeared in the edge passivated TPNRs. No edge magnetism was observed in hydrogen and fluorine passivated TPRNs. In contrast, the oxygen passivated TPNR was more stable than the pure TPNR and the edge-to-edge antiferromagntic (AFM) ground state was obtained. We found that the magnetic ground state could be tuned by the electric field from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) ground state. Interestingly, the oxygen passivated TPNR displayed a half-metallic state at a proper electric field in both FM and AFM states. This finding may provoke an intriguing issue for potential spintronics application using the phosphorene nanoribbons. PMID:27189417

  16. Ferromagnetism controlled by electric field in tilted phosphorene nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, M. Umar; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2016-05-01

    Study on phosphorene nanoribbon was mostly focused on zigzag and armchair structures and no ferromagnetic ground state was observed in these systems. Here, we investigated the magnetic property of tilted black phosphorene nanoribbons (TPNRs) affected by an external electric field. We also studied the edge passivation effect on the magnetism and thermal stability of the nanoribbons. The pure TPNR displayed an edge magnetic state, but it disappeared in the edge reconstructed TPNR due to the self-passivation. In addition, we found that the bare TPNR was mechanically unstable because an imaginary vibration mode was obtained. However, the imaginary vibration mode disappeared in the edge passivated TPNRs. No edge magnetism was observed in hydrogen and fluorine passivated TPRNs. In contrast, the oxygen passivated TPNR was more stable than the pure TPNR and the edge-to-edge antiferromagntic (AFM) ground state was obtained. We found that the magnetic ground state could be tuned by the electric field from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) ground state. Interestingly, the oxygen passivated TPNR displayed a half-metallic state at a proper electric field in both FM and AFM states. This finding may provoke an intriguing issue for potential spintronics application using the phosphorene nanoribbons.

  17. Ferromagnetism controlled by electric field in tilted phosphorene nanoribbon.

    PubMed

    Farooq, M Umar; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2016-05-18

    Study on phosphorene nanoribbon was mostly focused on zigzag and armchair structures and no ferromagnetic ground state was observed in these systems. Here, we investigated the magnetic property of tilted black phosphorene nanoribbons (TPNRs) affected by an external electric field. We also studied the edge passivation effect on the magnetism and thermal stability of the nanoribbons. The pure TPNR displayed an edge magnetic state, but it disappeared in the edge reconstructed TPNR due to the self-passivation. In addition, we found that the bare TPNR was mechanically unstable because an imaginary vibration mode was obtained. However, the imaginary vibration mode disappeared in the edge passivated TPNRs. No edge magnetism was observed in hydrogen and fluorine passivated TPRNs. In contrast, the oxygen passivated TPNR was more stable than the pure TPNR and the edge-to-edge antiferromagntic (AFM) ground state was obtained. We found that the magnetic ground state could be tuned by the electric field from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) ground state. Interestingly, the oxygen passivated TPNR displayed a half-metallic state at a proper electric field in both FM and AFM states. This finding may provoke an intriguing issue for potential spintronics application using the phosphorene nanoribbons.

  18. Ferromagnetism controlled by electric field in tilted phosphorene nanoribbon.

    PubMed

    Farooq, M Umar; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2016-01-01

    Study on phosphorene nanoribbon was mostly focused on zigzag and armchair structures and no ferromagnetic ground state was observed in these systems. Here, we investigated the magnetic property of tilted black phosphorene nanoribbons (TPNRs) affected by an external electric field. We also studied the edge passivation effect on the magnetism and thermal stability of the nanoribbons. The pure TPNR displayed an edge magnetic state, but it disappeared in the edge reconstructed TPNR due to the self-passivation. In addition, we found that the bare TPNR was mechanically unstable because an imaginary vibration mode was obtained. However, the imaginary vibration mode disappeared in the edge passivated TPNRs. No edge magnetism was observed in hydrogen and fluorine passivated TPRNs. In contrast, the oxygen passivated TPNR was more stable than the pure TPNR and the edge-to-edge antiferromagntic (AFM) ground state was obtained. We found that the magnetic ground state could be tuned by the electric field from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) ground state. Interestingly, the oxygen passivated TPNR displayed a half-metallic state at a proper electric field in both FM and AFM states. This finding may provoke an intriguing issue for potential spintronics application using the phosphorene nanoribbons. PMID:27189417

  19. Emerging Diluted Ferromagnetism in High‐T c Superconductors Driven by Point Defect Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Roger.; Mishra, Rohan; Bartolomé, Elena; Salafranca, Juan; Magén, Cesar; Varela, Maria; Coll, Mariona; Palau, Anna; Valvidares, S. Manuel; Gargiani, Pierluigi; Pellegrin, Eric; Herrero‐Martin, Javier.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Defects in ceramic materials are generally seen as detrimental to their functionality and applicability. Yet, in some complex oxides, defects present an opportunity to enhance some of their properties or even lead to the discovery of exciting physics, particularly in the presence of strong correlations. A paradigmatic case is the high‐temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7‐δ (Y123), in which nanoscale defects play an important role as they can immobilize quantized magnetic flux vortices. Here previously unforeseen point defects buried in Y123 thin films that lead to the formation of ferromagnetic clusters embedded within the superconductor are unveiled. Aberration‐corrected scanning transmission microscopy has been used for exploring, on a single unit‐cell level, the structure and chemistry resulting from these complex point defects, along with density functional theory calculations, for providing new insights about their nature including an unexpected defect‐driven ferromagnetism, and X‐ray magnetic circular dichroism for bearing evidence of Cu magnetic moments that align ferromagnetically even below the superconducting critical temperature to form a dilute system of magnetic clusters associated with the point defects. PMID:27812469

  20. Thermally driven spin injection from a ferromagnet into a non-magnetic metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slachter, A.; Bakker, F. L.; Adam, J.-P.; van Wees, B. J.

    2010-11-01

    Creation, manipulation and detection of spin-polarized carriers are the key elements of spin-based electronics. Most practical devices use a perpendicular geometry in which the spin currents are accompanied by charge currents. In recent years, new sources of pure spin currents (that is, transport of spin angular momentum without charge currents) have been demonstrated and applied. Here we demonstrate a conceptually new source of pure spin current driven by the flow of heat across the interface between a ferromagnet and a non-magnetic metal. This spin current is generated because, in a ferromagnet, the Seebeck effect-which describes the generation of a voltage as a result of a temperature gradient-is spin dependent. We studied this new source of spin currents experimentally in a non-local lateral geometry and developed a three-dimensional model that describes the heat, charge and spin transport in this geometry, enabling us to quantify this process. We obtain a spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient for Permalloy of -3.8μVK-1, suggesting that thermally driven spin injection is a feasible alternative for electrical spin injection in, for example, spin-transfer-torque experiments.

  1. Barkhausen-like antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition driven by spin polarized current

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Ippei; Naito, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Mitsuru; Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-08-24

    We provide clear evidence for the effect of a spin polarized current on the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition of an FeRh wire at Co/FeRh wire junctions, where the antiferromagnetic ground state of FeRh is suppressed by injecting a spin polarized current. We find a discrete change in the current-voltage characteristics with increasing current density, which we attribute to the Barkhausen-like motion of antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interfaces within the FeRh wire. The effect can be understood via spin transfer, which exerts a torque to the antiferromagnetic moments of FeRh, together with non-equilibrium magnetic effective field at the interface. The conclusion is reinforced by the fact that spin unpolarized current injection from a nonmagnetic Cu electrode has no effects on the antiferromagnetic state of FeRh.

  2. Compact pulse generators with soft ferromagnetic cores driven by gunpowder and explosive.

    PubMed

    Ben, Chi; He, Yong; Pan, Xuchao; Chen, Hong; He, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Compact pulse generators which utilized soft ferromagnets as an initial energy carrier inside multi-turn coil and hard ferromagnets to provide the initial magnetic field outside the coil have been studied. Two methods of reducing the magnetic flux in the generators have been studied: (1) by igniting gunpowder to launch the core out of the generator, and (2) by detonating explosives that demagnetize the core. Several types of compact generators were explored to verify the feasibility. The generators with an 80-turn coil that utilize gunpowder were capable of producing pulses with amplitude 78.6 V and the full width at half maximum was 0.41 ms. The generators with a 37-turn coil that utilize explosive were capable of producing pulses with amplitude 1.41 kV and the full width at half maximum was 11.68 μs. These two methods were both successful, but produce voltage waveforms with significantly different characteristics.

  3. Compact pulse generators with soft ferromagnetic cores driven by gunpowder and explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, Chi; He, Yong; Pan, Xuchao; Chen, Hong; He, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Compact pulse generators which utilized soft ferromagnets as an initial energy carrier inside multi-turn coil and hard ferromagnets to provide the initial magnetic field outside the coil have been studied. Two methods of reducing the magnetic flux in the generators have been studied: (1) by igniting gunpowder to launch the core out of the generator, and (2) by detonating explosives that demagnetize the core. Several types of compact generators were explored to verify the feasibility. The generators with an 80-turn coil that utilize gunpowder were capable of producing pulses with amplitude 78.6 V and the full width at half maximum was 0.41 ms. The generators with a 37-turn coil that utilize explosive were capable of producing pulses with amplitude 1.41 kV and the full width at half maximum was 11.68 μs. These two methods were both successful, but produce voltage waveforms with significantly different characteristics.

  4. Critical fields of Fe{sub 4}N/NbN ferromagnetic/superconducting multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, J.E.; Potter, C.D.; Conover, M.J.; Sowers, C.H.; Bader, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of ferromagnetic/superconducting multilayers of Fe{sub 4}N/NbN are explored for a variety of thickness combinations. The superconducting properties show that 11 {Angstrom} ferromagnetic layers are sufficient to decouple the superconducting layers and to yield anisotropic behavior. The upper critical field data are well described by theory for ferromagnetic/superconducting multilayers. This analysis yields an interfacial parameter which characterizes the electron scattering at the ferromagnetic/superconducting boundary. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Spin-torque driven magnetization switching in ferromagnetic nanopillar with pinned layer biasing configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoomeeswaran, H.; Bharathi, B. Divya; Sabareesan, P.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetization switching driven by spin transfer torque in a ferromagnetic nanopillar by biasing the angular polarizer with different orientation has been studied. The free layer dynamics includes the spin torque from the oscillating free layer with magneto crystalline anisotropy and shape anisotropy, which is governed by the Landau-Lifshitsz-Gilbert-Slonczweski (LLGS) equation and solving it numerically by using embedded Runge Kutta fourth order method. Results of numerical simulation shows that there is a drastic reduction of switching time in the free layer by the orientation of angular polarizer of the nano pillar device. We fixed the angular polarizer as 0°, 30°, 60°, 90° and the corresponding switching time is 6.53 ns, 4.36 ns, 2.25 ns and 1.21 ns respectively for an applied current density of 5 × 1011 Am-2.

  6. Encouragement of Enzyme Reaction Utilizing Heat Generation from Ferromagnetic Particles Subjected to an AC Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masashi; Aki, Atsushi; Mizuki, Toru; Maekawa, Toru; Usami, Ron; Morimoto, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of activating an enzyme utilizing heat generation from ferromagnetic particles under an ac magnetic field. We immobilize α-amylase on the surface of ferromagnetic particles and analyze its activity. We find that when α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids, that is, ferromagnetic particles, on which α-amylase molecules are immobilized, are subjected to an ac magnetic field, the particles generate heat and as a result, α-amylase on the particles is heated up and activated. We next prepare a solution, in which α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids and free, nonimmobilized chitinase are dispersed, and analyze their activities. We find that when the solution is subjected to an ac magnetic field, the activity of α-amylase immobilized on the particles increases, whereas that of free chitinase hardly changes; in other words, only α-amylase immobilized on the particles is selectively activated due to heat generation from the particles. PMID:25993268

  7. Encouragement of Enzyme Reaction Utilizing Heat Generation from Ferromagnetic Particles Subjected to an AC Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masashi; Aki, Atsushi; Mizuki, Toru; Maekawa, Toru; Usami, Ron; Morimoto, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of activating an enzyme utilizing heat generation from ferromagnetic particles under an ac magnetic field. We immobilize α-amylase on the surface of ferromagnetic particles and analyze its activity. We find that when α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids, that is, ferromagnetic particles, on which α-amylase molecules are immobilized, are subjected to an ac magnetic field, the particles generate heat and as a result, α-amylase on the particles is heated up and activated. We next prepare a solution, in which α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids and free, nonimmobilized chitinase are dispersed, and analyze their activities. We find that when the solution is subjected to an ac magnetic field, the activity of α-amylase immobilized on the particles increases, whereas that of free chitinase hardly changes; in other words, only α-amylase immobilized on the particles is selectively activated due to heat generation from the particles.

  8. Instabilities of spin torque driven auto-oscillations of a ferromagnetic disk magnetized in plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancilla-Almonacid, D.; Arias, R. E.

    2016-06-01

    The stability of the magnetization auto-oscillations of the ferromagnetic free layer of a cylindrical nanopillar structure is studied theoretically using a classical Hamiltonian formalism for weakly interacting nonlinear waves, in a weakly dissipative system. The free layer corresponds to a very thin circular disk, made of a soft ferromagnetic material like Permalloy, and it is magnetized in plane by an externally applied magnetic field. There is a dc electric current that traverses the structure, becomes spin polarized by a fixed layer, and excites the modes of the free layer through the transfer of spin angular momentum. If this current exceeds a critical value, it is possible to generate a large amplitude periodic auto-oscillation of a dynamic mode of the magnetization. We separate our theoretical study into two parts. First, we consider an approximate expression for the demagnetizing field in the disk, i.e., H⃗D=-4 π Mzz ̂ or a very thin film approximation, and secondly we consider the effect of the full demagnetizing field, where one sees important effects due to the edges of the disk. In both cases, as the applied current density is increased, we determine the modes that will first auto-oscillate and when these become unstable to the growth of other modes, i.e., their ranges of "isolated" auto-oscillation.

  9. THz-Driven Ultrafast Spin-Lattice Scattering in Amorphous Metallic Ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, S; Hoffmann, M C; Sher, M-J; Chen, Z; Yang, S-H; Samant, M G; Parkin, S S P; Dürr, H A

    2016-08-19

    We use single-cycle THz fields and the femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr effect to, respectively, excite and probe the magnetization dynamics in two thin-film ferromagnets with different lattice structures: crystalline Fe and amorphous CoFeB. We observe Landau-Lifshitz-torque magnetization dynamics of comparable magnitude in both systems, but only the amorphous sample shows ultrafast demagnetization caused by the spin-lattice depolarization of the THz-induced ultrafast spin current. Quantitative modeling shows that such spin-lattice scattering events occur on similar time scales than the conventional spin conserving electronic scattering (∼30  fs). This is significantly faster than optical laser-induced demagnetization. THz conductivity measurements point towards the influence of lattice disorder in amorphous CoFeB as the driving force for enhanced spin-lattice scattering. PMID:27588880

  10. Interface-Driven Ferromagnetism within the Quantum Wells of a Rare Earth Titanate Superlattice.

    PubMed

    Need, R F; Isaac, B J; Kirby, B J; Borchers, J A; Stemmer, S; Wilson, Stephen D

    2016-07-15

    Here we present polarized neutron reflectometry measurements exploring thin film heterostructures composed of a strongly correlated Mott state, GdTiO_{3}, embedded with SrTiO_{3} quantum wells. Our results reveal that the net ferromagnetism inherent to the Mott GdTiO_{3} matrix propagates into the nominally nonmagnetic SrTiO_{3} quantum wells and tracks the magnetic order parameter of the host Mott insulating matrix. Beyond a well thickness of 5 SrO layers, the magnetic moment within the wells is dramatically suppressed, suggesting that quenched well magnetism comprises the likely origin of quantum critical magnetotransport in this thin film architecture. Our data demonstrate that the interplay between proximate exchange fields and polarity-induced carrier densities can stabilize extended magnetic states within SrTiO_{3} quantum wells. PMID:27472135

  11. THz-Driven Ultrafast Spin-Lattice Scattering in Amorphous Metallic Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, S.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Sher, M.-J.; Chen, Z.; Yang, S.-H.; Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Dürr, H. A.

    2016-08-01

    We use single-cycle THz fields and the femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr effect to, respectively, excite and probe the magnetization dynamics in two thin-film ferromagnets with different lattice structures: crystalline Fe and amorphous CoFeB. We observe Landau-Lifshitz-torque magnetization dynamics of comparable magnitude in both systems, but only the amorphous sample shows ultrafast demagnetization caused by the spin-lattice depolarization of the THz-induced ultrafast spin current. Quantitative modeling shows that such spin-lattice scattering events occur on similar time scales than the conventional spin conserving electronic scattering (˜30 fs ). This is significantly faster than optical laser-induced demagnetization. THz conductivity measurements point towards the influence of lattice disorder in amorphous CoFeB as the driving force for enhanced spin-lattice scattering.

  12. Interface-Driven Ferromagnetism within the Quantum Wells of a Rare Earth Titanate Superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Need, R. F.; Isaac, B. J.; Kirby, B. J.; Borchers, J. A.; Stemmer, S.; Wilson, Stephen D.

    2016-07-01

    Here we present polarized neutron reflectometry measurements exploring thin film heterostructures composed of a strongly correlated Mott state, GdTiO3 , embedded with SrTiO3 quantum wells. Our results reveal that the net ferromagnetism inherent to the Mott GdTiO3 matrix propagates into the nominally nonmagnetic SrTiO3 quantum wells and tracks the magnetic order parameter of the host Mott insulating matrix. Beyond a well thickness of 5 SrO layers, the magnetic moment within the wells is dramatically suppressed, suggesting that quenched well magnetism comprises the likely origin of quantum critical magnetotransport in this thin film architecture. Our data demonstrate that the interplay between proximate exchange fields and polarity-induced carrier densities can stabilize extended magnetic states within SrTiO3 quantum wells.

  13. Universal Pinning Energy Barrier for Driven Domain Walls in Thin Ferromagnetic Films.

    PubMed

    Jeudy, V; Mougin, A; Bustingorry, S; Savero Torres, W; Gorchon, J; Kolton, A B; Lemaître, A; Jamet, J-P

    2016-07-29

    We report a comparative study of magnetic field driven domain wall motion in thin films made of different magnetic materials for a wide range of field and temperature. The full thermally activated creep motion, observed below the depinning threshold, is shown to be described by a unique universal energy barrier function. Our findings should be relevant for other systems whose dynamics can be modeled by elastic interfaces moving on disordered energy landscapes. PMID:27517790

  14. Theory of light-induced effective magnetic field in Rashba ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiumzadeh, Alireza; Titov, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on all-optical magnetization reversal in conductive ferromagnetic thin films we use nonequilibrium formalism to calculate the effective magnetic field induced in a Rashba ferromagnet by a short laser pulse. The main contribution to the effect originates in the direct optical transitions between spin-split subbands. The resulting effective magnetic field is inversely proportional to the impurity scattering rate and can reach the amplitude of a few Tesla in the systems like Co/Pt bilayers. We show that the total light-induced effective magnetic field in ferromagnetic systems is the sum of two contributions: a helicity dependent term, which is an even function of magnetization, and a helicity independent term, which is an odd function of magnetization. The primary role of the spin-orbit interaction is to widen the frequency range for direct optical transitions.

  15. Inverse problem of pulsed eddy current field of ferromagnetic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing-Le; Lei, Yin-Zhao

    2015-03-01

    To determine the wall thickness, conductivity and permeability of a ferromagnetic plate, an inverse problem is established with measured values and calculated values of time-domain induced voltage in pulsed eddy current testing on the plate. From time-domain analytical expressions of the partial derivatives of induced voltage with respect to parameters, it is deduced that the partial derivatives are approximately linearly dependent. Then the constraints of these parameters are obtained by solving a partial linear differential equation. It is indicated that only the product of conductivity and wall thickness, and the product of relative permeability and wall thickness can be determined accurately through the inverse problem with time-domain induced voltage. In the practical testing, supposing the conductivity of the ferromagnetic plate under test is a fixed value, and then the relative variation of wall thickness between two testing points can be calculated via the ratio of the corresponding inversion results of the product of conductivity and wall thickness. Finally, this method for wall thickness measurement is verified by the experiment results of a carbon steel plate. Project supported by the National Defense Basic Technology Research Program of China (Grant No. Z132013T001).

  16. Spin-lattice dynamics simulation of external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron

    SciTech Connect

    Chui, C. P.; Zhou, Yan

    2014-03-15

    Modeling of field-induced magnetization in ferromagnetic materials has been an active topic in the last dozen years, yet a dynamic treatment of distance-dependent exchange integral has been lacking. In view of that, we employ spin-lattice dynamics (SLD) simulations to study the external field effect on magnetic order of ferromagnetic iron. Our results show that an external field can increase the inflection point of the temperature. Also the model provides a better description of the effect of spin correlation in response to an external field than the mean-field theory. An external field has a more prominent effect on the long range magnetic order than on the short range counterpart. Furthermore, an external field allows the magnon dispersion curves and the uniform precession modes to exhibit magnetic order variation from their temperature dependence.

  17. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1997-02-11

    An apparatus is disclosed for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure. 25 figs.

  18. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure.

  19. Light and electric field control of ferromagnetism in magnetic quantum structures.

    PubMed

    Boukari, H; Kossacki, P; Bertolini, M; Ferrand, D; Cibert, J; Tatarenko, S; Wasiela, A; Gaj, J A; Dietl, T

    2002-05-20

    A strong influence of illumination and electric bias on the Curie temperature and saturation value of the magnetization is demonstrated for semiconductor structures containing a modulation-doped p-type Cd(0.96)Mn(0.04)Te quantum well placed in various built-in electric fields. It is shown that both light beam and bias voltage generate an isothermal and reversible crossover between the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, in the way that is predetermined by the structure design. The observed behavior is in quantitative agreement with the expectations for systems, in which ferromagnetic interactions are mediated by the weakly disordered two-dimensional hole liquid.

  20. Calculation of the surface effect in the ferromagnetic conductor with the harmonic electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosov, G. V.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Vassilyeva, Yu Z.; Elizarov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the paper have obtained formulas for analytical calculation of the constants with the harmonic electromagnetic field, which characterize the surface layer (a skin layer) of the ferromagnetic conductors in case of heating and nonlinear magnetic properties, which can be used for practical calculation of the electromagnetic screens, rotors of the electrical machines and inductive heating installations. A nonlinear dependence of the magnetic induction on the magnetic tension of the ferromagnetic conductor is replaced by one or two linear sections. It is considered that the skin layer of the conductor has constant quantities of the specific conductivity and averaged temperature. Linear electrodynamics equations are solved for the conductive half-space. Parameters of the ferromagnetic conductor's surface layer are calculated: magnetic permeability, the thickness of the skin layer and its averaged temperature, exposure time of the electromagnetic field on the conductor with the established maximum temperature on the conductor's surface, pressure of the field on the conductor and its resistance, inductivity of the internal magnetic field in the conductor, the thermal energy capacity. The methods credibility is confirmed with the concurrence of the resistance and inductiviry of the ferromagnetic conductor with analogous quantities from other methods.

  1. Field-effect modulation of anomalous Hall effect in diluted ferromagnetic topological insulator epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, CuiZu; Liu, MinHao; Zhang, ZuoCheng; Wang, YaYu; He, Ke; Xue, QiKun

    2016-03-01

    High quality chromium (Cr) doped three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) Sb2Te3 films are grown via molecular beam epitaxy on heat-treated insulating SrTiO3 (111) substrates. We report that the Dirac surface states are insensitive to Cr doping, and a perfect robust long-range ferromagnetic order is unveiled in epitaxial Sb2- x Cr x Te3 films. The anomalous Hall effect is modulated by applying a bottom gate, contrary to the ferromagnetism in conventional diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs), here the coercivity field is not significantly changed with decreasing carrier density. Carrier-independent ferromagnetism heralds Sb2- x Cr x Te3 films as the base candidate TI material to realize the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. These results also indicate the potential of controlling anomalous Hall voltage in future TI-based magneto-electronics and spintronics.

  2. Electric field control of magnetoresistance in InP nanowires with ferromagnetic contacts.

    PubMed

    Zwanenburg, F A; van der Mast, D W; Heersche, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P; Bakkers, E P A M

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate electric field control of sign and magnitude of the magnetoresistance in InP nanowires with ferromagnetic contacts. The sign change in the magnetoresistance is directly correlated with a sign change in the transconductance. Additionally, the magnetoresistance is shown to persist at such a high bias that Coulomb blockade has been lifted. We also observe the magnetoresistance when one of the ferromagnets is replaced by a nonmagnetic metal. We conclude that it must be induced by a single ferromagnetic contact, and that spin transport can be ruled out as the origin. Our results emphasize the importance of a systematic investigation of spin-valve devices in order to discriminate between ambiguous interpretations. PMID:19537736

  3. Switching field distribution of exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic composite bit patterned media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oezelt, Harald; Kovacs, Alexander; Fischbacher, Johann; Matthes, Patrick; Kirk, Eugenie; Wohlhüter, Phillip; Heyderman, Laura Jane; Albrecht, Manfred; Schrefl, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the switching field distribution and the resulting bit error rate of exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic bilayer island arrays by micromagnetic simulations. Using islands with varying microstructure and anisotropic properties, the intrinsic switching field distribution is computed. The dipolar contribution to the switching field distribution is obtained separately by using a model of a triangular patterned island array resembling 1.4 Tb/in2 bit patterned media. Both contributions are computed for different thicknesses of the soft exchange coupled ferrimagnet and also for ferromagnetic single phase FePt islands. A bit patterned media with a bilayer structure of FeGd( 5 nm )/FePt( 5 nm ) shows a bit error rate of 10-4 with a write field of 1.16 T .

  4. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haihong; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-10-01

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, Hp(y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The Hp(y), its slope coefficient KS and maximum gradient Kmax changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of Hp(y) and its slope coefficient KS increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, Hp(y) and KS reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of Hp(y) instead of changing the signal curve‧s profile; and the magnitude of Hp(y), KS, Kmax and the change rate of KS increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials.

  5. Skyrmion motion driven by oscillating magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Duck-Ho; Je, Soong-Geun; Chun, Byong Sun; Kim, Wondong; Qiu, Z.Q.; Choe, Sug-Bong; Hwang, Chanyong

    2016-01-01

    The one-dimensional magnetic skyrmion motion induced by an electric current has attracted much interest because of its application potential in next-generation magnetic memory devices. Recently, the unidirectional motion of large (20 μm in diameter) magnetic bubbles with two-dimensional skyrmion topology, driven by an oscillating magnetic field, has also been demonstrated. For application in high-density memory devices, it is preferable to reduce the size of skyrmion. Here we show by numerical simulation that a skyrmion of a few tens of nanometres can also be driven by high-frequency field oscillations, but with a different direction of motion from the in-plane component of the tilted oscillating field. We found that a high-frequency field for small skyrmions can excite skyrmion resonant modes and that a combination of different modes results in a final skyrmion motion with a helical trajectory. Because this helical motion depends on the frequency of the field, we can control both the speed and the direction of the skyrmion motion, which is a distinguishable characteristic compared with other methods. PMID:26847334

  6. Skyrmion motion driven by oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Duck-Ho; Je, Soong-Geun; Chun, Byong Sun; Kim, Wondong; Qiu, Z. Q.; Choe, Sug-Bong; Hwang, Chanyong

    2016-02-01

    The one-dimensional magnetic skyrmion motion induced by an electric current has attracted much interest because of its application potential in next-generation magnetic memory devices. Recently, the unidirectional motion of large (20 μm in diameter) magnetic bubbles with two-dimensional skyrmion topology, driven by an oscillating magnetic field, has also been demonstrated. For application in high-density memory devices, it is preferable to reduce the size of skyrmion. Here we show by numerical simulation that a skyrmion of a few tens of nanometres can also be driven by high-frequency field oscillations, but with a different direction of motion from the in-plane component of the tilted oscillating field. We found that a high-frequency field for small skyrmions can excite skyrmion resonant modes and that a combination of different modes results in a final skyrmion motion with a helical trajectory. Because this helical motion depends on the frequency of the field, we can control both the speed and the direction of the skyrmion motion, which is a distinguishable characteristic compared with other methods.

  7. Stress and field contactless sensor based on the scattering of electromagnetic waves by a single ferromagnetic microwire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Gómez, C.; Aragón, A. M.; Hernando-Rydings, M.; Marín, P.; Hernando, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report an experimental study on the microwave modulated scattering intensity for a single F e 2.25 C o 72.75 S i 10 B 15 amorphous metallic microwire. The modulation is driven by applying a bias magnetic field that tunes the magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic microwire. Furthermore, by using a magnetostrictive microwire, we also demonstrate that the microwave scattering is sensitive to mechanical stresses. In fact, we present a wireless microwave controlled stress sensor, suitable for biological applications, as a possible use of this effect. In addition, a first order theoretical approximation accounts for the observed influence of the magnetic permeability on the scattering coefficients. That model leads to predictions in good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Unique correlation between non-linear distortion of tangential magnetic field and magnetic excitation voltage - Unexplored ferromagnetic phenomena and their application for ferromagnetic materials evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, V.

    2016-01-01

    Unexplored ferromagnetic phenomena of non-linear distortion of tangential magnetic field (HT) and that of excitation voltage (VE) across the electromagnetic (EM) yoke, in the presence of a ferromagnetic material between the poles of the EM yoke, have been uniquely correlated in this study. Both the HT and VE show similar distortion behaviour, but in the opposite direction, with unique shape for each ferromagnetic sample with different microstructural conditions. Interestingly unique correlation between (dVE / dt) and (dHT / dt) profiles and their ability to distinguish different magnetisation behaviour of ferromagnetic material with different microstructures have also been discussed in this study. One to one correlation between the distortion of HT and VE shown in this study is clear evidence that both these parameters are strongly influenced by the same mechanism of magnetisation process, but in different ways. The systematic changes in the height and position of the peak and the trough on the time derivative profiles of VE and HT reflect the subtle differences in the magnetisation process for each microstructural condition of the steel. This study reveals the new scientific insight and good potential of this novel as well as very simple approach of distortion analysis of HT and VE for understanding the influence of material properties on the mechanism of magnetisation process and also their suitability for variety of applications related to materials evaluation of ferromagnetic components and structures.

  9. Interface-driven spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance by Rashba coupling at the interface between nonmagnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungfleisch, M. B.; Zhang, W.; Sklenar, J.; Jiang, W.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Rashba-Edelstein effect stems from the interaction between the electron's spin and its momentum induced by spin-orbit interaction at an interface or a surface. It was shown that the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect can be used to convert a spin current into a charge current. Here, we demonstrate the reverse process of a charge- to spin-current conversion at a Bi/Ag Rashba interface. We show that this interface-driven spin current can drive an adjacent ferromagnet to resonance. We employ a spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance excitation/detection scheme which was developed originally for a bulk spin-orbital effect, the spin Hall effect. In our experiment, the direct Rashba-Edelstein effect generates an oscillating spin current from an alternating charge current driving the magnetization precession in a neighboring permalloy (Py, Ni80Fe20 ) layer. Electrical detection of the magnetization dynamics is achieved by a rectification mechanism of the time dependent multilayer resistance arising from the anisotropic magnetoresistance.

  10. The effect of bulk and surface fields on correlations in the semi-infinite ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1990-05-01

    The three-dimensional semi-infinite Ising-like ferromagnet, in which surface and bulk interactions may be different, is considered. The bulk and surface external magnetic fields are applied parallel to the magnetization. The response of a spin to small additional uniform magnetic field and the responses of a spin to small additional uniform magnetic fields applied in different planes parallel to the surface are studied. The analytical formulae for susceptibilities describing these responses are obtained. The Landau continuum theory is used. The effect of the surface field on the susceptibilities at temperatures below and close to the ordinary phase transition temperature is discussed.

  11. Observation of room-temperature magnetic skyrmions and their current-driven dynamics in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seonghoon; Litzius, Kai; Krüger, Benjamin; Im, Mi-Young; Caretta, Lucas; Richter, Kornel; Mann, Maxwell; Krone, Andrea; Reeve, Robert M.; Weigand, Markus; Agrawal, Parnika; Lemesh, Ivan; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Fischer, Peter; Kläui, Mathias; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected spin textures that exhibit fascinating physical behaviours and large potential in highly energy-efficient spintronic device applications. The main obstacles so far are that skyrmions have been observed in only a few exotic materials and at low temperatures, and fast current-driven motion of individual skyrmions has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the observation of stable magnetic skyrmions at room temperature in ultrathin transition metal ferromagnets with magnetic transmission soft X-ray microscopy. We demonstrate the ability to generate stable skyrmion lattices and drive trains of individual skyrmions by short current pulses along a magnetic racetrack at speeds exceeding 100 m s-1 as required for applications. Our findings provide experimental evidence of recent predictions and open the door to room-temperature skyrmion spintronics in robust thin-film heterostructures.

  12. Probing temperature-driven spin reorientation transition of GdFeCo film by Kerr loops and ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    He, Wei Liu, Hao-Liang; Cai, Jian-Wang; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Wu, Hong-Ye

    2015-01-26

    The magnetic anisotropy is of both scientific and technological interest for magneto-optical material GdFeCo film. We characterize the magnetic anisotropy of a 20 nm GdFeCo film from 265 K to 320 K via Kerr loops and ferromagnetic resonance. With increasing temperature, both of the first-order uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and shape anisotropy increase. However, the competition between them causes a temperature-driven spin reorientation transition (SRT) and the effective perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decrease from 2.22 × 10{sup 4 }ergs/cm{sup 3} (288 K) to −1.56 × 10{sup 4 }ergs/cm{sup 3} (317 K). The positive second-order uniaxial magnetic anisotropy determines an easy-cone state as the mediated state during SRT.

  13. Ultrafast time domain demonstration of bulk magnetization precession at zero magnetic field ferromagnetic resonance induced by terahertz magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Namai, A; Ohkoshi, S; Suemoto, T

    2010-08-16

    We report the first observation of sub-terahertz bulk-magnetization precession, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetization precession in gallium-substituted epsilon-iron oxide nano-ferromagnets under zero magnetic field is induced by the impulsive magnetic field of the THz wave through the gyromagnetic effect. Just at the resonance frequency, the linear to circular polarized wave conversion is realized. This is understood as the free induction decay signal radiated from a rotating magnetic dipole corresponding to the natural resonance. Furthermore, this demonstration reveals that the series of gallium-substituted epsilon-iron oxide nano-ferromagnets is very prospective for magneto-optic devices, which work at room temperature without external magnetic field, in next-generation wireless communication.

  14. Current driven spin–orbit torque oscillator: ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Øyvind; Linder, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    We consider theoretically the impact of Rashba spin–orbit coupling on spin torque oscillators (STOs) in synthetic ferromagnets and antiferromagnets that have either a bulk multilayer or a thin film structure. The synthetic magnets consist of a fixed polarizing layer and two free magnetic layers that interact through the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction. We determine analytically which collinear states along the easy axis that are stable, and establish numerically the phase diagram for when the system is in the STO mode and when collinear configurations are stable, respectively. It is found that the Rashba spin–orbit coupling can induce anti-damping in the vicinity of the collinear states, which assists the spin transfer torque in generating self-sustained oscillations, and that it can substantially increase the STO part of the phase diagram. Moreover, we find that the STO phase can extend deep into the antiferromagnetic regime in the presence of spin–orbit torques.

  15. Current driven spin–orbit torque oscillator: ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Øyvind; Linder, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We consider theoretically the impact of Rashba spin–orbit coupling on spin torque oscillators (STOs) in synthetic ferromagnets and antiferromagnets that have either a bulk multilayer or a thin film structure. The synthetic magnets consist of a fixed polarizing layer and two free magnetic layers that interact through the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction. We determine analytically which collinear states along the easy axis that are stable, and establish numerically the phase diagram for when the system is in the STO mode and when collinear configurations are stable, respectively. It is found that the Rashba spin–orbit coupling can induce anti-damping in the vicinity of the collinear states, which assists the spin transfer torque in generating self-sustained oscillations, and that it can substantially increase the STO part of the phase diagram. Moreover, we find that the STO phase can extend deep into the antiferromagnetic regime in the presence of spin–orbit torques. PMID:27653357

  16. Field-driven dynamics of nematic microcapillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayyatzadeh, Pouya; Fu, Fred; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2015-12-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) composites long have been a focus of study for their unique electro-optical properties which have resulted in various applications such as switchable (transparent or translucent) windows. These composites are manufactured using desirable "bottom-up" techniques, such as phase separation of a liquid-crystal-polymer mixture, which enable production of PDLC films at very large scales. LC domains within PDLCs are typically spheroidal, as opposed to rectangular for an LCD panel, and thus exhibit substantially different behavior in the presence of an external field. The fundamental difference between spheroidal and rectangular nematic domains is that the former results in the presence of nanoscale orientational defects in LC order while the latter does not. Progress in the development and optimization of PDLC electro-optical properties has progressed at a relatively slow pace due to this increased complexity. In this work, continuum simulations are performed in order to capture the complex formation and electric field-driven switching dynamics of approximations of PDLC domains. Using a simplified elliptic cylinder (microcapillary) geometry as an approximation of spheroidal PDLC domains, the effects of geometry (aspect ratio), surface anchoring, and external field strength are studied through the use of the Landau-de Gennes model of the nematic LC phase.

  17. Uniaxial ferromagnetic film in magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1987-08-01

    The spin model of single domain ferromagnetic film is considered. Only the nearest-neighbor interactions are taken into account. The interactions depend on distances from surfaces. The external magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis lying in the plane of the film. The thermodynamic behaviour of the model is studied near the second-order ferro-paramagnetic phase transition for the component of the magnetization in the direction of the easy axis. The molecular-field theory is used. The phase diagram and profiles of the order parameter are obtained. Different feasible investigations of the phase transition are compared.

  18. Observation of Thermoelectric Currents in High-Field Superconductor-Ferromagnet Tunnel Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kolenda, S; Wolf, M J; Beckmann, D

    2016-03-01

    We report on the experimental observation of spin-dependent thermoelectric currents in superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions in high magnetic fields. The thermoelectric signals are due to a spin-dependent lifting of the particle-hole symmetry, and are found to be in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. The maximum Seebeck coefficient inferred from the data is about -100  μV/K, much larger than commonly found in metallic structures. Our results directly prove the coupling of spin and heat transport in high-field superconductors.

  19. Reversible switching of ferromagnetism in ZnCuO nanorods by electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Changwei Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Feng; Shao, Lexi

    2015-04-06

    The reproducible switching of ferromagnetism in ZnCuO nanorods by applying a reversible electric field has been realized. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with no detectable trace of secondary phase or precipitation of Cu impurity in the ZnCuO nanorods. The Cu concentrations in the ZnCuO nanorods were tested by energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and found to be about 2.7 at. %. The switching mechanism is confirmed in terms of the formation and rupture of conductive filaments, with oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) localized mainly on surface of the ZnCuO nanorods. Subsequently, the variation of V{sub O} concentration during the resistive switching process modulates the ferromagnetism of the ZnCuO nanorods. The saturation magnetization at low resistance state is apparently 6.4 times larger than that at high resistance state for an Au/ZnCuO/ITO structure. An indirect double-exchange model has been used to explain the ferromagnetism in ZnCuO nanorods.

  20. Tailoring magnetostriction sign of ferromagnetic composite by increasing magnetic field strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Junming; Liu, Xiaolian; Wu, Kaiyun; Wang, Yue; Hu, Shanshan; Zhao, Hui; Xiao, Andong; Ma, Tianyu; Yan, Mi

    2016-08-01

    The unitary deformation of single-phase ferromagnets by a magnetic field, i.e., either positive or negative linear magnetostriction, allows only monotonous control. Here we report a proof-of-principle ferromagnetic composite Fe73Ga27, for which the magnetostriction sign changes from positive to negative by increasing the magnetic field strength. Based on the transformation from body-centered-cubic (BCC) to face-centered-cubic (FCC) phases in this binary system, Fe73Ga27 composite is prepared by aging the BCC averaged precursor for 3 days at 803 K. Magnetic measurements indicate that the BCC phase exhibits smaller magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant than the FCC phase. The offset effect between BCC and FCC phases produces positive net magnetostriction at low magnetic fields but negative net magnetostriction at high magnetic fields. By tuning the field strength, such composites can mediate compressive and tensile strains to other functional materials, e.g., piezoelectric material or optic-fibers, which is beneficial to design multifunctional devices.

  1. Hydrogel Actuation by Electric Field Driven Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Daniel Humphrey

    Hydrogels are networks of crosslinked, hydrophilic polymers capable of absorbing and releasing large amounts of water while maintaining their structural integrity. Polyelectrolyte hydrogels are a subset of hydrogels that contain ionizable moieties, which render the network sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the media and provide mobile counterions, which impart conductivity. These networks are part of a class of "smart" material systems that can sense and adjust their shape in response to the external environment. Hence, the ability to program and modulate hydrogel shape change has great potential for novel biomaterial and soft robotics applications. We utilized electric field driven effects to manipulate the interaction of ions within polyelectrolyte hydrogels in order to induce controlled deformation and patterning. Additionally, electric fields can be used to promote the interactions of separate gel networks, as modular components, and particle assemblies within gel networks to develop new types of soft composite systems. First, we present and analyze a walking gel actuator comprised of cationic and anionic gel legs attached by electric field-promoted polyion complexation. We characterize the electro-osmotic response of the hydrogels as a function of charge density and external salt concentration. The gel walkers achieve unidirectional motion on flat elastomer substrates and exemplify a simple way to move and manipulate soft matter devices in aqueous solutions. An 'ionoprinting' technique is presented with the capability to topographically structure and actuate hydrated gels in two and three dimensions by locally patterning ions induced by electric fields. The bound charges change the local mechanical properties of the gel to induce relief patterns and evoke localized stress, causing rapid folding in air. The ionically patterned hydrogels exhibit programmable temporal and spatial shape transitions which can be tuned by the duration and/or strength of

  2. Model for the growth of electrodeposited ferromagnetic aggregates under an in-plane magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Cronemberger, C; Sampaio, L C; Guimarães, A P; Molho, P

    2010-02-01

    The quasi-two-dimensional deposition of ferromagnetic materials by electrochemical process under the influence of a magnetic field applied in the plane of the growth leads to a surprising symmetry breaking in the dendritic structures found. The reasons for these features are still not completely understood. The original dense circular envelope becomes rectangular, as well as the sparse figures have their shapes elongated. This paper reports the results of a diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) -like simulation. The model proposed here, a modification of the original DLA model, can deal with ferromagnetic particles under the influence of an electric field and the dipolar interactions between particles, submitted to an applied magnetic field in the plane of growth of such structures. The results were produced varying the applied magnetic field and the magnetic moment of the particles and show that the balance between these interactions is an important mechanisms that can be responsible for the changes in shape of the aggregates observed in the experiments. PMID:20365564

  3. Model for the growth of electrodeposited ferromagnetic aggregates under an in-plane magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronemberger, C.; Sampaio, L. C.; Guimarães, A. P.; Molho, P.

    2010-02-01

    The quasi-two-dimensional deposition of ferromagnetic materials by electrochemical process under the influence of a magnetic field applied in the plane of the growth leads to a surprising symmetry breaking in the dendritic structures found. The reasons for these features are still not completely understood. The original dense circular envelope becomes rectangular, as well as the sparse figures have their shapes elongated. This paper reports the results of a diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) -like simulation. The model proposed here, a modification of the original DLA model, can deal with ferromagnetic particles under the influence of an electric field and the dipolar interactions between particles, submitted to an applied magnetic field in the plane of growth of such structures. The results were produced varying the applied magnetic field and the magnetic moment of the particles and show that the balance between these interactions is an important mechanisms that can be responsible for the changes in shape of the aggregates observed in the experiments.

  4. A constraint-free phase field model for ferromagnetic domain evolution.

    PubMed

    Yi, Min; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2014-11-01

    A continuum constraint-free phase field model is proposed to simulate the magnetic domain evolution in ferromagnetic materials. The model takes the polar and azimuthal angles (ϑ1,ϑ2), instead of the magnetization unit vector m(m1,m2,m3), as the order parameters. In this way, the constraint on the magnetization magnitude can be exactly satisfied automatically, and no special numerical treatment on the phase field evolution is needed. The phase field model is developed from a thermodynamic framework which involves a configurational force system for ϑ1 and ϑ2. A combination of the configurational force balance and the second law of thermodynamics leads to thermodynamically consistent constitutive relations and a generalized evolution equation for the order parameters (ϑ1,ϑ2). Beneficial from the constraint-free model, the three-dimensional finite-element implementation is straightforward, and the degrees of freedom are reduced by one. The model is shown to be capable of reproducing the damping-dependent switching dynamics, and the formation and evolution of domains and vortices in ferromagnetic materials under the external magnetic or mechanical loading. Particularly, the calculated out-of-plane component of magnetization in a vortex is verified by the corresponding experimental results, as well as the motion of the vortex under a magnetic field.

  5. A constraint-free phase field model for ferromagnetic domain evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Min; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    A continuum constraint-free phase field model is proposed to simulate the magnetic domain evolution in ferromagnetic materials. The model takes the polar and azimuthal angles (ϑ1,ϑ2), instead of the magnetization unit vector m(m1,m2,m3), as the order parameters. In this way, the constraint on the magnetization magnitude can be exactly satisfied automatically, and no special numerical treatment on the phase field evolution is needed. The phase field model is developed from a thermodynamic framework which involves a configurational force system for ϑ1 and ϑ2. A combination of the configurational force balance and the second law of thermodynamics leads to thermodynamically consistent constitutive relations and a generalized evolution equation for the order parameters (ϑ1,ϑ2). Beneficial from the constraint-free model, the three-dimensional finite-element implementation is straightforward, and the degrees of freedom are reduced by one. The model is shown to be capable of reproducing the damping-dependent switching dynamics, and the formation and evolution of domains and vortices in ferromagnetic materials under the external magnetic or mechanical loading. Particularly, the calculated out-of-plane component of magnetization in a vortex is verified by the corresponding experimental results, as well as the motion of the vortex under a magnetic field. PMID:25383036

  6. Field effect controlled ferromagnetism in transition metal doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, E.; Pellegrino, L.; Biasotti, M.; Pallecchi, I.; Canu, G.; Gerbi, A.; Vignolo, M.; Siri, A. S.; Marré, D.; Rusponi, S.; Lehnert, A.; Nolting, F.

    2008-02-01

    The ability to externally control the properties of magnetic materials would be highly desirable both from fundamental and technological point of views. In this respect, dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS), in which a fraction of atoms of the nonmagnetic semiconductor host is replaced by magnetic ions, have recently attracted broad interest for their potential application in spintronics. In this work, we focused on transition metal (TM) (Co, Mn and Cu) doped Zinc oxide (ZnO) because room temperature ferromagnetism was both theoretically predicted and experimentally observed. However, the origin of such ferromagnetism, in particular whether it is a signature of a true DMS behaviour (long range magnetic interaction between the doping ions) or it arises from the formation of secondary phases, segregation or clustering is still under debate. Measuring the dependence of the magnetic properties on the carrier concentration can clarify the underlying physics. The samples were characterized by resistivity, Hall effect, magnetoresistance, Seebeck effect, synchrotron X-ray adsorption spectra (XAS) and magnetic dichroism (XMD) while modulating the carrier density by electric field. The insulating-gate field-effect transistor structures are realized in ZnO/Strontium Titanate (SrTiO 3) heterostructures by pulsed laser deposition. These devices offers the capability to modulate the carrier density of a probe accessible (light, AFM tip, ...) channel, by more than 5 orders of magnitude (from ~10 15 to ~10 20 e -/cm 3, estimated by Hall effect measurements under FE). The Co and Mn films measured by DC SQUID magnetometer result ferromagnetic and anomalous Hall effect was observed at low temperature but nor ferromagnetic nor antiferromagnetic signal was detectable in the XMD spectra. Cu doped films are insulating and nonmagnetic. Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (x-PEEM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) showed that the sample are homogeneus and no clustering of TM were detected

  7. The phase diagrams of a ferromagnetic thin film in a random magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaim, N.; Zaim, A.; Kerouad, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the magnetic properties and the phase diagrams of a ferromagnetic thin film with a thickness N in a random magnetic field (RMF) are investigated by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique based on the Metropolis algorithm. The effects of the RMF and the surface exchange interaction on the critical behavior are studied. A variety of multicritical points such as tricritical points, isolated critical points, and triple points are obtained. It is also found that the double reentrant phenomenon can appear for appropriate values of the system parameters.

  8. Shell-ferromagnetism of nano-Heuslers generated by segregation under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, A.; Acet, M.; Farle, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report on a new functional property in an AF martensitic Heusler Ni50Mn45In5, which when annealed at high temperatures under a magnetic field, segregates and forms Ni50Mn25In25 Heusler precipitates embedded in a Ni50Mn50 matrix. The precipitates are paramagnetic whereas the matrix is antiferromagnetic. However, the spins at the interface with the Ni50Mn50 matrix align with the field during their nucleation and growth and become strongly pinned in the direction of the applied field during annealing, whereas the core spins become paramagnetic. This shell-ferromagnetism persists up to 600 K and is so strongly pinned that the remanent magnetization remains unchanged, even when the field is reversed or when the temperature is cycled between low temperatures and close to the annealing temperature.

  9. On the Second Critical Field for a Ginzburg-Landau Model with Ferromagnetic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alama, Stan; Bronsard, Lia

    We consider a two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductors which exhibit ferromagnetic ordering in the superconducting phase, introduced by physicists to describe unconventional p-wave superconductors. In this model the magnetic field is directly coupled to a vector-valued order parameter in the energy functional. We show that one effect of spin coupling is to increase the second critical field Hc2, the value of the applied magnetic field at which superconductivity is lost in the bulk. Indeed, when the spin coupling is strong we show that the upper critical field is no longer present, confirming predictions in the physics literature. We treat the energy density as a measure, and show that the order parameter converges (as the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ→∞) in an average sense to a constant determined by the average energy.

  10. Shell-ferromagnetism of nano-Heuslers generated by segregation under magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, A.; Acet, M.; Farle, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a new functional property in an AF martensitic Heusler Ni50Mn45In5, which when annealed at high temperatures under a magnetic field, segregates and forms Ni50Mn25In25 Heusler precipitates embedded in a Ni50Mn50 matrix. The precipitates are paramagnetic whereas the matrix is antiferromagnetic. However, the spins at the interface with the Ni50Mn50 matrix align with the field during their nucleation and growth and become strongly pinned in the direction of the applied field during annealing, whereas the core spins become paramagnetic. This shell-ferromagnetism persists up to 600 K and is so strongly pinned that the remanent magnetization remains unchanged, even when the field is reversed or when the temperature is cycled between low temperatures and close to the annealing temperature. PMID:27412644

  11. Influence of constant and ac electric fields on ferromagnetic resonance in magnetoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarenko, A. S.; Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Fillipov, D. A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2004-03-01

    A composite of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases is expected to show magnetoelectric coupling that is mediated by mechanical deformation. For such composites, we proposed a model to treat the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling at frequencies corresponding to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) [1,2]. The effect manifests as a shift in the resonance field when subjected to a constant electric field. Here we discuss a theory for the influence of both dc and high frequency electric fields on FMR in the composites. The model predicts a significant increase in the strength of ME coupling when the electric field is tuned to the electromechanical resonance (EMR) frequency. We assume the composite to be a homogeneous medium. By solving combined elastostatics, electrostatics and magnetostatics equations, we estimate the ME constants using effective parameters. The calculations are for 3-0, 0-3 and 2-2 connectivities. Expressions for ME coefficients are obtained as a function of interface coupling and the volume fraction for the piezoelectric phase. Under the influence of a constant electric field E, our model predicts a shift in the ferromagnetic resonance field that is proportional to ME constants. In the presence of an ac electric field, we estimate a strong ME coupling when the frequency is tuned to EMR. As an example, the FMR field shift at 9.3 GHz due an ac electrical field tuned to EMR at 350 kHz is determined for multilayer and bulk composites of nickel ferrite - lead zirconate titanate. It is shown that ME interactions are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to off resonance values. 1. M.I. Bichurin, I. A. Kornev, V. M. Petrov, A. S. Tatarenko, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 64, 094409 (2001). 2. M.I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 66, 134404 (2002). - supported by grants from the Russian Ministry of Education (Å02-3.4-278), the Universities of Russia Foundation (UNR 01.01.007), and the National Science

  12. Infrared thermography based defect detection in ferromagnetic specimens using a low frequency alternating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Soumya, C.; Mahendran, V.; Pillai, V. P. M.; Philip, John; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-05-01

    A new active infrared thermography based technique is proposed for defect detection in ferromagnetic specimens using a low frequency alternating magnetic field induced heating. The test specimens (four mild steel specimens with artificial rectangular slots of 8.0, 5.0, 3.3 and 3.0 mm depths) are magnetized using a low frequency alternating magnetic field and by using an infrared camera, the surface temperature is remotely monitored in real time. An alternating magnetic field induces an eddy current in the specimen which increases the specimen temperature due to the Joule's heating. The experimental results show a thermal contrast in the defective region that decays exponentially with the defect depth. The observed thermal contrast is attributed to the reduction in induction heating due to the leakage of magnetic flux caused by magnetic permeability gradient in the defective region. The proposed technique is suitable for rapid non-contact wide area inspection of ferromagnetic materials and offers several advantages over the conventional active thermography techniques like fast direct heating, no frequency optimization, no dependence on the surface absorption coefficient and penetration depth.

  13. Absence of the hyperfine magnetic field at the Ru site in ferromagnetic rare-earth intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, D.; DeMarco, M.; Ho, P. C.; Maple, M. B.; Sayles, T.; Lynn, J. W.; Huang, Q.; Toorongian, S.; Haka, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Moessbauer effect (ME) is frequently used to investigate magnetically ordered systems. One usually assumes that the magnetic order induces a hyperfine magnetic field, B{sub hyperfine}, at the ME active site. This is the case in the ruthenates, where the temperature dependence of B{sub hyperfine} at {sup 99}Ru sites tracks the temperature dependence of the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic order. However this does not happen in the rare-earth intermetallics, GdRu{sub 2} and HoRu{sub 2}. Specific heat, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, Moessbauer effect, and neutron diffraction have been used to study the nature of the magnetic order in these materials. Both materials are found to order ferromagnetically at 83.1 and 15.3 K, respectively. Despite the ferromagnetic order of the rare-earth moments in both systems, there is no evidence of a correspondingly large B{sub hyperfine} in the Moessbauer spectrum at the Ru site. Instead the measured spectra consist of a narrow peak at all temperatures which points to the absence of magnetic order. To understand the surprising absence of a transferred hyperfine magnetic field, we carried out ab initio calculations which show that spin polarization is present only on the rare-earth site. The electron spin at the Ru sites is effectively unpolarized and, as a result, B{sub hyperfine} is very small at those sites. This occurs because the 4d Ru electrons form broad conduction bands rather than localized moments. These 4d conduction bands are polarized in the region of the Fermi energy and mediate the interaction between the localized rare-earth moments.

  14. Spin-to-charge conversion in lateral and vertical topological-insulator/ferromagnet heterostructures with microwave-driven precessing magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad; Nagaosa, Naoto; Nikolić, Branislav K.

    2014-09-01

    Using the charge-conserving Floquet-Green function approach to open quantum systems driven by an external time-periodic potential, we analyze how spin current pumped by the precessing magnetization of a ferromagnetic (F) layer is injected laterally into the interface with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and converted into charge current flowing in the same direction. In the case of a metallic interface with the Rashba SOC used in recent experiments [J. C. R. Sánchez, L. Vila, G. Desfonds, S. Gambarelli, J. P. Attané, J. M. De Teresa, C. Magén, and A. Fert, Nat. Commun. 4, 2944 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms3944], both spin ISα and charge I current flow within the interface where I /ISα≃ 2-8% (depending on the precession cone angle), while for a F/topological-insulator (F/TI) interface employed in related experiments [Y. Shiomi, K. Nomura, Y. Kajiwara, K. Eto, M. Novak, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, and E. Saitoh, arXiv:1312.7091] the conversion efficiency is greatly enhanced (I /ISα≃ 40-60%) due to perfect spin-momentum locking on the surface of a TI. The spin-to-charge conversion occurs also when spin current is pumped vertically through the F/TI interface with smaller efficiency (I /ISα˜0.001%), but with the charge current signal being sensitive to whether the Dirac fermions at the interface are massive or massless.

  15. Modeling of magnetic field driven simultaneous assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Rene David

    The Magnetic Field Driven Simultaneous Assembly (MFDSA) is a method that offers a non-statistical and deterministic solution to the problem of assembly via batch processing; a hybrid of serial and parallel processing. The technique requires the use of electromagnets as well as soft and hard magnetic materials that are applied to devices and recesses respectively. The MFDSA approach offers the ability to check and correct errors in real-time and is capable of scalable, versatile, and high-yield integration. Devices, coated with a layer of soft magnetic material, are moved from initial to final positions along predetermined pathways through the action of an array of electromagnets. Various devices, of arbitrary geometries, with different physical and functional properties, are manipulated simultaneously toward specific desired locations and then dropped onto a template under the influence of gravity by weakening the local applied field. Locations on the template correspond to sites on a substrate that contain recesses. When a number of devices have been dropped onto the template, a substrate is pressed onto it and the soft magnetic layers on the devices adhere to the hard magnetic strips in the recesses, completing integration in a single step. The objectives of this dissertation are the following: to present the MFDSA method; comparing and contrasting it with other extant techniques employed by the semiconductor industry; to discuss key aspects of this solution with respect to the problem of assembly, and to model the calculations involved with determining both device pathways and field interactions that are required to implement the approach. The Fourier Series technique will be used to describe the force of attraction between the device's soft magnetic layer and the recess's hard magnetic strips. Methodology from finite element analysis will be employed to calculate the force exerted on a device by an array of electromagnets. The Swarm Algorithm, which was

  16. Training effects induced by cycling of magnetic field in ferromagnetic rich phase-separated nanocomposite manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have carried out an experimental investigation of magneto-transport and magnetic properties of charge-ordered Pr0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (PCMO) and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) nanoparticles along with a nanocomposite consisting of those two types of nanoparticles. From the magneto-transport measurements, clear irreversibility is observed in the field dependence of resistance due to magnetic field cycling in the case of PCMO nanoparticles. The value of resistance increases during such a field cycling. However such an irreversibility is absent in the case of LSMO nanoparticles as well as nanocomposites. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate the gradual growth of antiferromagnetic phases in all samples leading to a decrease in magnetization. These inconsistencies between magneto-transport and magnetic behaviors are attributed to the magnetic training effects.

  17. Proximity-Driven Enhanced Magnetic Order at Ferromagnetic-Insulator-Magnetic-Topological-Insulator Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingda; Chang, Cui-Zu; Kirby, Brian. J.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Cui, Wenping; Wu, Lijun; Wei, Peng; Zhu, Yimei; Heiman, Don; Li, Ju; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator-topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. Here we report a dramatic enhancement of proximity exchange coupling in the MI/magnetic-TI EuS /Sb2 -xVx Te3 hybrid heterostructure, where V doping is used to drive the TI (Sb2 Te3 ) magnetic. We observe an artificial antiferromagneticlike structure near the MI-TI interface, which may account for the enhanced proximity coupling. The interplay between the proximity effect and doping in a hybrid heterostructure provides insights into the engineering of magnetic ordering.

  18. Proximity-driven enhanced magnetic order at ferromagnetic-insulator-magnetic-topological-insulator interface

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Mingda; Zhu, Yimei; Chang, Cui -Zu; Kirby, B. J.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Cui, Wenping; Wu, Lijun; Wei, Peng; Heiman, Don; Li, Ju; et al

    2015-08-17

    Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator–topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. In this study, we report a dramatic enhancement of proximity exchange coupling in the MI/magnetic-TI EuS/Sb2–xVxTe3 hybrid heterostructure, where V doping is used to drive the TI (Sb2Te3) magnetic. We observe an artificial antiferromagneticlike structure near the MI-TI interface, which may account for the enhanced proximity coupling. The interplay between the proximity effect and doping in a hybrid heterostructure provides insights into the engineering of magnetic ordering.

  19. Proximity-driven enhanced magnetic order at ferromagnetic-insulator-magnetic-topological-insulator interface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingda; Zhu, Yimei; Chang, Cui -Zu; Kirby, B. J.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Cui, Wenping; Wu, Lijun; Wei, Peng; Heiman, Don; Li, Ju; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Katmis, Ferhat

    2015-08-17

    Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator–topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. In this study, we report a dramatic enhancement of proximity exchange coupling in the MI/magnetic-TI EuS/Sb2–xVxTe3 hybrid heterostructure, where V doping is used to drive the TI (Sb2Te3) magnetic. We observe an artificial antiferromagneticlike structure near the MI-TI interface, which may account for the enhanced proximity coupling. The interplay between the proximity effect and doping in a hybrid heterostructure provides insights into the engineering of magnetic ordering.

  20. Singlet-to-triplet interconversion using hyperfine as well as ferromagnetic fringe fields.

    PubMed

    Wohlgenannt, M; Flatté, M E; Harmon, N J; Wang, F; Kent, A D; Macià, F

    2015-06-28

    Until recently the important role that spin-physics ('spintronics') plays in organic light-emitting devices and photovoltaic cells was not sufficiently recognized. This attitude has begun to change. We review our recent work that shows that spatially rapidly varying local magnetic fields that may be present in the organic layer dramatically affect electronic transport properties and electroluminescence efficiency. Competition between spin-dynamics due to these spatially varying fields and an applied, spatially homogeneous magnetic field leads to large magnetoresistance, even at room temperature where the thermodynamic influences of the resulting nuclear and electronic Zeeman splittings are negligible. Spatially rapidly varying local magnetic fields are naturally present in many organic materials in the form of nuclear hyperfine fields, but we will also review a second method of controlling the electrical conductivity/electroluminescence, using the spatially varying magnetic fringe fields of a magnetically unsaturated ferromagnet. Fringe-field magnetoresistance has a magnitude of several per cent and is hysteretic and anisotropic. This new method of control is sensitive to even remanent magnetic states, leading to different conductivity/electroluminescence values in the absence of an applied field. We briefly review a model based on fringe-field-induced polaron-pair spin-dynamics that successfully describes several key features of the experimental fringe-field magnetoresistance and magnetoelectroluminescence. PMID:25987575

  1. Singlet-to-triplet interconversion using hyperfine as well as ferromagnetic fringe fields

    PubMed Central

    Wohlgenannt, M.; Flatté, M. E.; Harmon, N. J.; Wang, F.; Kent, A. D.; Macià, F.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently the important role that spin-physics (‘spintronics’) plays in organic light-emitting devices and photovoltaic cells was not sufficiently recognized. This attitude has begun to change. We review our recent work that shows that spatially rapidly varying local magnetic fields that may be present in the organic layer dramatically affect electronic transport properties and electroluminescence efficiency. Competition between spin-dynamics due to these spatially varying fields and an applied, spatially homogeneous magnetic field leads to large magnetoresistance, even at room temperature where the thermodynamic influences of the resulting nuclear and electronic Zeeman splittings are negligible. Spatially rapidly varying local magnetic fields are naturally present in many organic materials in the form of nuclear hyperfine fields, but we will also review a second method of controlling the electrical conductivity/electroluminescence, using the spatially varying magnetic fringe fields of a magnetically unsaturated ferromagnet. Fringe-field magnetoresistance has a magnitude of several per cent and is hysteretic and anisotropic. This new method of control is sensitive to even remanent magnetic states, leading to different conductivity/electroluminescence values in the absence of an applied field. We briefly review a model based on fringe-field-induced polaron-pair spin-dynamics that successfully describes several key features of the experimental fringe-field magnetoresistance and magnetoelectroluminescence. PMID:25987575

  2. Induced magnetization and power loss for a periodically driven system of ferromagnetic nanoparticles with randomly oriented easy axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, S. I.; Lyutyy, T. V.; Pedchenko, B. O.; Hryshko, O. M.

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of an elliptically polarized magnetic field on a system of noninteracting, single-domain ferromagnetic nanoparticles characterized by a uniform distribution of easy axis directions. Our main goal is to determine the average magnetization of this system and the power loss in it. In order to calculate these quantities analytically, we develop a general perturbation theory for the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find its steady-state solution for small magnetic field amplitudes. On this basis, we derive the second-order expressions for the average magnetization and power loss, investigate their dependence on the magnetic field frequency, and analyze the role of subharmonic resonances resulting from the nonlinear nature of the LLG equation. For arbitrary amplitudes, the frequency dependence of these quantities is obtained from the numerical solution of this equation. The impact of transitions between different regimes of regular and chaotic dynamics of magnetization, which can be induced in nanoparticles by changing the magnetic field frequency, is examined in detail.

  3. A ferromagnetic model for the action of electric and magnetic fields in cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Atsuko; Kirschvink, Joseph L

    2014-04-01

    Recent discussions in the literature have questioned the ability of electromagnetic exposure to inhibit ice crystal formation in supercooled water. Here we note that strong electric fields are able to disrupt the surface boundary layer of inert air on the surface of materials, promoting higher rates of heat transport. We also note that most biological tissues contain ferromagnetic materials, both biologically precipitated magnetite (Fe3O4) as well as environmental contaminants that get accidentally incorporated into living systems. Although present at trace levels, the number density of these particulates is high, and they have extraordinarily strong interactions with weak, low-frequency magnetic fields of the sort involved in claims of electromagnetic cryopreservation. Magnetically-induced mechanical oscillation of these particles provides a plausible mechanism for the disruption of ice-crystal nucleation in supercooled water. PMID:24333152

  4. Magnetic-field-modulated resonant tunneling in ferromagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic junctions.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Dery, Hanan

    2014-07-25

    We present a theory for resonance-tunneling magnetoresistance (MR) in ferromagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic junctions. The theory sheds light on many of the recent electrical spin injection experiments, suggesting that this MR effect rather than spin accumulation in the nonmagnetic channel corresponds to the electrically detected signal. We quantify the dependence of the tunnel current on the magnetic field by quantum rate equations derived from the Anderson impurity model, with the important addition of impurity spin interactions. Considering the on-site Coulomb correlation, the MR effect is caused by competition between the field, spin interactions, and coupling to the magnetic lead. By extending the theory, we present a basis for operation of novel nanometer-size memories. PMID:25105652

  5. Perfect spin-valley filter controlled by electric field in ferromagnetic silicene

    SciTech Connect

    Soodchomshom, Bumned E-mail: fscibns@ku.ac.th

    2014-01-14

    The spin-valley currents in silicene-based normal/sublattice-dependent ferromagnetic/normal junction are investigated. Unlike that in graphene, the pseudo Dirac mass in silicene is generated by spin-orbit interaction and tunable by applying electric or exchange fields into it. This is due to silicon-based honeycomb lattice having buckled structure. As a result, it is found that the junction leads to currents perfectly split into four groups, spin up (down) in k- and k{sup ′}-valleys, when applying different values of the electric field, considered as a perfect spin-valley polarization (PSVP) for electronic application. The PSVP is due to the interplay of spin-valley-dependent Dirac mass and chemical potential in the barrier. The PSVP also occurs only for the energy comparable to the spin-orbit energy gap. This work reveals potential of silicene for spinvalleytronics applications.

  6. Zero field conductance singularity in two terminal ferromagnet-topological insulator device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaopeng; Semenov, Yuriy G.; Kim, Ki Wook

    2014-03-01

    Spin-momentum interlocking of surface electronic states on 3D topological insulator (TI) grants the unique opportunity to generate electric current directed according to the spin polarization of injected electrons instead of the applied electric field. Such asymmetry in momentum distribution of injected electrons takes place in the vicinity of ferromagnetic contact but vanishes on the length of few mean free passes. We propose to use this property in two terminal devices consisting of two parallel ferromagnetic contacts deposited on the surface of 3D TI. When the injected spin polarization leads to electron momentum pointing towards the other electrode, it facilitate the direct transmission, resulting in a lower resistance; in contrast with a reversed bias, the spin-determined momentum points away from the other electrode, because of which the electrons could gain the right momentum only after multiple scatterings to approach the second electrode, thus resulting in a higher resistance. We stress that this asymmetry in the resistance keeps up to arbitrarily small applied voltage since it does not need the formation of space charge region that is essential in conventional diodes. The rectification ratio near zero voltage are estimated and potential application are discussed. This work was supported, in part, by the US Army Research Office and FAME (one of six centers of STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA).

  7. Induced Anisotropy in FeCo-Based Nanocrystalline Ferromagnetic Alloys (HITPERM) by Very High Field Annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F.; Garmestani, H.; Chu, S.-Y.; McHenry, M. E.; Laughlin, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Very high magnetic field annealing is shown to affect the magnetic anisotropy in FeCo-base nanocrystalline soft ferromagnetic alloys. Alloys of composition Fe(44.5)Co(44.5)Zr(7)B(4) were prepared by melt spinning into amorphous ribbons, then wound to form toroidal bobbin cores. One set of cores was crystallized in a zero field at 600 deg. C for 1 h, then, field annealed at 17 tesla (T) at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Another set was crystallized in a 17-T field at 480 deg. C for 1 h. Field orientation was transverse to the magnetic path of the toroidal cores. An induced anisotropy is indicated by a sheared hysteresis loop. Sensitive torque magnetometry measurements with a Si cantilever sensor indicated a strong, uniaxial, longitudinal easy axis in the zero-field-crystallized sample. The source is most likely magnetoelastic anisotropy, caused by the residual stress from nanocrystallization and the nonzero magnetostriction coefficient for this material. The magnetostrictive coefficient lambda(5) is measured to be 36 ppm by a strain gage technique. Field annealing reduces the magnitude of the induced anisotropy. Core loss measurements were made in the zero-field-crystallized, zero-field-crystallized- than-field-annealed, and field-crystallized states. Core loss is reduced 30%-50% (depending on frequency) by field annealing. X-ray diffraction reveals no evidence of crystalline texture or orientation that would cause the induced anisotropy. Diffusional pair ordering is thought to be the cause of the induced anisotropy. However, reannealing the samples in the absence of a magnetic field at 480 deg. C does not completely remove the induced anisotropy.

  8. Electric-field control of electromagnon propagation and spin-wave injection in a spiral multiferroic/ferromagnet composite

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hong-Bo; Li, You-Quan; Berakdar, Jamal

    2015-01-28

    We consider theoretically a composite chain consisting of a multiferroic helimagnet coupled to a conventional ferromagnet and inspect the conversion of electromagnon excitation into spin waves and vice versa. We demonstrate an electric-field control of spin-wave injection realized by electrically exciting an electromagnon that propagates with an intrinsic frequency larger than the gap of the spin wave in the ferromagnet. The efficiency of the conversion of the electromagnon into spin waves depends strongly on the strength of the magnetoelectric coupling at the interface and the intrinsic frequency of the multiferroic helimagnets. The phenomena predicted here suggest that a multiferroic/ferromagnet composite offers new opportunities for spin-wave injection, conversion, and control using electric field.

  9. Influence of nonlocal damping on the field-driven domain wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, H. Y.; Yuan, Zhe; Xia, Ke; Wang, X. R.

    2016-08-01

    We derive a general expression of nonlocal damping in noncollinear magnetization due to the nonuniform spin current pumped by precessional magnetization and incorporate it into a generalized Thiele equation to study its effects on the dynamics of the transverse and vortex domain walls (DWs) in ferromagnetic nanowires. We demonstrate that the transverse component of nonlocal damping slows down the field-driven DW propagation and increases the Walker breakdown field, whereas it is neglected in many previous works in literature. The experimentally measured DW mobility variation with the damping tuned by doping with heavy rare-earth elements that had discrepancy from micromagnetic simulation is now well understood with the nonlocal damping. Our results suggest that the nonlocal damping should be properly included as a prerequisite for quantitative studies of current-induced torques in noncollinear magnetization.

  10. Coherent magnon dynamics in ferromagnetic models with nonuniform magnetic field and correlated disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, D. M.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we investigated the nature of the one-magnon eigenstates in a disordered chain at the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field. In our study, we analyzed the one-dimensional ferromagnetic Heisenberg model within the one-magnon framework. The spin-spin interaction was considered as a correlated disorder distribution with power law spectrum S(k) ∝k-α. By using numerical methods we calculated the time evolution of a initially localized Gaussian wave-packet. Our results reveal that for weak correlations (α < 1), the magnetic wave-packet remains localized around the initial position and for α > 1, we got an oscillatory profile similar to the Bloch-like phenomenology. We calculate the frequency of these oscillations and observed that it is in a good agreement with the semi-classical approach traditionally used to explain the Block-like oscillatory behavior.

  11. Electric-field control of magnetism via strain transfer across ferromagnetic/ferroelectric interfaces.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-23

    By taking advantage of the coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic (FM)/ferroelectric (FE) multiferroic interfaces play a pivotal role in manipulating magnetism by electric fields. Integrating the multiferroic heterostructures into spintronic devices significantly reduces energy dissipation from Joule heating because only an electric field is required to switch the magnetic element. New concepts of storage and processing of information thus can be envisioned when the electric-field control of magnetism is a viable alternative to the traditional current based means of controlling magnetism. This article reviews some salient aspects of the electric-field effects on magnetism, providing a short overview of the mechanisms of magneto-electric (ME) coupling at the FM/FE interfaces. A particular emphasis is placed on the ME effect via interfacial magneto-elastic coupling arising from strain transfer from the FE to FM layer. Recent results that demonstrate the electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy, magnetic order, magnetic domain wall motion, and etc are described. Obstacles that need to be overcome are also discussed for making this a reality for future device applications. PMID:26613163

  12. Manipulation of the ferromagnetic domains of a manganite using an electric field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Tara; Selcuk, Sinan; Hebard, Arthur F.; Biswas, Amlan

    2007-03-01

    We have measured the response of the fluid like phases^1 of ferromagnetic metal (FMM) and charge ordered insulator (COI) in thin films of the manganite (La0.4Pr0.6)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LPCMO) to an external electric field. The electric field (set by applying a voltage difference across the material) alters the fluid phases and increases the conductivity of the material by about 2 orders of magnitude above a threshold voltage^2. To check if the enhanced conductivity is associated with an increase in the size of the FMM domains, we measured the magnetization of the thin films using a SQUID magnetometer with and without an applied electric field. The saturation magnetization remained the same in either case showing that the FMM domains do not increase in size, which led us to hypothesize that the domains are just reoriented by the electric field. This hypothesis was verified by measuring the transverse resistance while a voltage difference was applied longitudinally across the material. At a threshold voltage when the longitudinal resistance decreased by about 2 orders of magnitude, the transverse resistance showed a small increase. This increase in resistance was attributed to the FMM domains being stretched in the direction of the electric field. [1] P. A. Sharma et al., Phys. Rev. B 71, 224416 (2005), [2] Tara Dhakal, et. al, Cond-mat/0607502.

  13. Exploring 360 domain walls in ferromagnetic nanostructures using circular magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarella, Anandakumar; Kaya, F. I.; Aidala, K. E.

    Ferromagnetic nanostructures can exhibit intriguing magnetic states, such as the metastable 360 domain wall (DW), in which two 180 DWs combine to form a nearly flux closed state in sufficiently thin structures. These composite structures have potential to maximize storage densities due to their minimal stray fields. We study a straightforward method to nucleate 360 DWs in nanorings, nanowires, using in-plane circular fields, as if from a current carrying wire passing through the substrate in close proximity to the nanostructures. Our simulations, using OOMMF, predict that the vortex state of a ring with appropriate geometry will reverse from CW to CCW through an intermediate state consisting of pairs of 360 DWs. We examine the dependence of the switching field and intermediate states on geometric properties such as the diameter, thickness, and width of the ring. Using the local circular field, we can also nucleate 360 DWs in nanowires, pinning the location of the DWs at notches spaced as close as 100 nm apart, suggesting high density storage. We are currently studying these structures experimentally using AFM/MFM. We generate the circular field by passing current through AFM tip and image the resulting magnetic states with MFM. NSF Grants No. DMR 1208042 and 1207924. Simulations were run on the Odyssey cluster, Research Computing Group at Harvard.

  14. Electric-field control of magnetism via strain transfer across ferromagnetic/ferroelectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-01

    By taking advantage of the coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic (FM)/ferroelectric (FE) multiferroic interfaces play a pivotal role in manipulating magnetism by electric fields. Integrating the multiferroic heterostructures into spintronic devices significantly reduces energy dissipation from Joule heating because only an electric field is required to switch the magnetic element. New concepts of storage and processing of information thus can be envisioned when the electric-field control of magnetism is a viable alternative to the traditional current based means of controlling magnetism. This article reviews some salient aspects of the electric-field effects on magnetism, providing a short overview of the mechanisms of magneto-electric (ME) coupling at the FM/FE interfaces. A particular emphasis is placed on the ME effect via interfacial magneto-elastic coupling arising from strain transfer from the FE to FM layer. Recent results that demonstrate the electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy, magnetic order, magnetic domain wall motion, and etc are described. Obstacles that need to be overcome are also discussed for making this a reality for future device applications.

  15. Electric-field control of magnetism via strain transfer across ferromagnetic/ferroelectric interfaces.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-23

    By taking advantage of the coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic (FM)/ferroelectric (FE) multiferroic interfaces play a pivotal role in manipulating magnetism by electric fields. Integrating the multiferroic heterostructures into spintronic devices significantly reduces energy dissipation from Joule heating because only an electric field is required to switch the magnetic element. New concepts of storage and processing of information thus can be envisioned when the electric-field control of magnetism is a viable alternative to the traditional current based means of controlling magnetism. This article reviews some salient aspects of the electric-field effects on magnetism, providing a short overview of the mechanisms of magneto-electric (ME) coupling at the FM/FE interfaces. A particular emphasis is placed on the ME effect via interfacial magneto-elastic coupling arising from strain transfer from the FE to FM layer. Recent results that demonstrate the electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy, magnetic order, magnetic domain wall motion, and etc are described. Obstacles that need to be overcome are also discussed for making this a reality for future device applications.

  16. Classification of magnons in rotated ferromagnetic Heisenberg model and their competing responses in transverse fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fadi; Ye, Jinwu; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study the rotated ferromagnetic Heisenberg model (RFHM) in two different transverse fields, hx and hz, which can be intuitively visualized as studying spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects in two-dimensional (2D) Ising or anisotropic X Y model in a transverse field. At a special SOC class, it was found in our previous work [Phys. Rev. A 92, 043609 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.043609] that the RFHM at a zero field owns an exact spin-orbit coupled ground state called the Y -x state. It supports not only the commensurate magnons (called C -C0 and C -Cπ ), but also the incommensurate magnons (called C-IC). These magnons are nonrelativistic, not embedded in the exact ground state, so need to be thermally excited or generated by various external probes. Their dramatic response under a longitudinal hy field was recently worked out by Sun et al. [arXiv:1502.05338]. Here we find they respond very differently under the two transverse fields. Any hx (hz) introduces quantum fluctuations to the ground state and changes the collinear Y -x state to a canted coplanar Y X -x (Y Z -x ) state. The C -C0,C -Cπ , and C-IC magnons become relativistic and sneak into the quantum ground state. We determine the competing boundaries among the C -C0,C -Cπ , and C-IC magnons, especially the detailed dispersions of the C-IC magnons inside the canted phases, which can be mapped out by the transverse spin structure factors. As hx (hz) increases further, the C -C0 magnons always win the competition and emerge as the seeds to drive a transition from the Y X -x (or Y Z -x ) to the ferromagnetic along the X (orZ ) direction called the X -FM (or Z -FM) phase. We show that the transition is in the 3D Ising universality class and it becomes the 3D X Y transition at the two Abelian points. We evaluate these magnons' contributions to magnetization and specific heat at low temperatures which can be measured by various established experimental techniques. The nature of the finite

  17. Influence of crossed fields in structures combining large grain, bulk (RE)BCO superconductors and soft ferromagnetic discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, M. P.; Fagnard, J. F.; Wéra, L.; Morita, M.; Nariki, S.; Teshima, H.; Caps, H.; Vanderheyden, B.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2016-03-01

    Bulk (RE)BCO superconductors are able to trap record magnetic fields and can be used as powerful permanent magnets in various engineering applications such as rotating machines and magnetic bearings. When such superconducting (SC) “trapped field magnets” are combined to a ferromagnetic (FM) disc, the total magnetic moment is increased with respect to that of the superconductor alone. In the present work, we study experimentally the magnetic behaviour of such hybrid FM/SC structures when they are subjected to cycles of applied field that are orthogonal to their permanent magnetization, i.e. a “crossed-field” configuration. Experimental results show that the usual “crossed-field demagnetization” caused by the cycles of transverse field is strongly reduced in the presence of the ferromagnet.

  18. Magnetic response of a disordered binary ferromagnetic alloy to an oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatansever, Erol; Polat, Hamza

    2015-08-01

    By means of Monte Carlo simulation with local spin update Metropolis algorithm, we have elucidated non-equilibrium phase transition properties and stationary-state treatment of a disordered binary ferromagnetic alloy of the type ApB1-p on a square lattice. After a detailed analysis, we have found that the system shows many interesting and unusual thermal and magnetic behaviors, for instance, the locations of dynamic phase transition points change significantly depending upon amplitude and period of the external magnetic field as well as upon the active concentration of A-type components. Much effort has also been dedicated to clarify the hysteresis tools, such as coercivity, dynamic loop area as well as dynamic correlations between time dependent magnetizations and external time dependent applied field as a functions of period and amplitude of field as well as active concentration of A-type components, and outstanding physical findings have been reported in order to better understand the dynamic process underlying present system.

  19. PKP simulation of size effect on interaction field distribution in highly ordered ferromagnetic nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrotă, Costin-Ionuţ; Stancu, Alexandru

    2012-12-01

    Perpendicular structured nanowire arrays interaction field distributions (IFDs), as revealed from first-order reversal curves (FORC) diagrams, are related to the presence of the demagnetizing field in the system. Despite the similarity between the geometric properties of bit patterned media and mentioned nanowire arrays, FORC diagrams of these two types of systems are not similar essentially due to the different number of magnetic entities influencing the switch of an individual element. We show that one Preisach-Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii (PKP) symmetrical hysteron can be representative of an ideal infinite nanowire array when the field is applied along the wires. Starting from this observation, we present a very simple model based on PKP symmetrical hysterons that can be applied to real finite ferromagnetic nanowire arrays, and is able to describe a wide class of experimentally observed FORC distributions, revealing features due to size effects. We also present IFDs modeled for different geometric characteristics such as array size, interwire distance, and nanowire dimensions, and an identification procedure for the proposed model.

  20. Hysteretic ac loss in a coated superconductor subjected to oscillating magnetic fields: ferromagnetic effect and frequency dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guang-Tong

    2014-06-01

    Numerical simulations of the hysteretic ac loss in a coated superconductor with a more realistic version of the architecture were performed via the finite-element technique in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. The coated superconductor was electromagnetically modeled by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of a vector potential approach in conjunction with nonlinear descriptions of the superconducting layer and the ferromagnetic substrate therein by a power-law model and the Langevin equation, respectively. A diverse effect of the ferromagnetic substrate on the hysteretic ac loss, depending on the strength of the applied magnetic field, was displayed, and its underlying cause was identified. The dependence of the hysteretic ac loss on the applied frequency is found to be related to a critical amplitude of the applied magnetic field, and the eddy-current loss dissipated in the metal coatings becomes prominent as the frequency increases only at high applied magnetic fields.

  1. Deterministic switching of ferromagnetism at room temperature using an electric field.

    PubMed

    Heron, J T; Bosse, J L; He, Q; Gao, Y; Trassin, M; Ye, L; Clarkson, J D; Wang, C; Liu, Jian; Salahuddin, S; Ralph, D C; Schlom, D G; Iñiguez, J; Huey, B D; Ramesh, R

    2014-12-18

    The technological appeal of multiferroics is the ability to control magnetism with electric field. For devices to be useful, such control must be achieved at room temperature. The only single-phase multiferroic material exhibiting unambiguous magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature is BiFeO3 (refs 4 and 5). Its weak ferromagnetism arises from the canting of the antiferromagnetically aligned spins by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. Prior theory considered the symmetry of the thermodynamic ground state and concluded that direct 180-degree switching of the DM vector by the ferroelectric polarization was forbidden. Instead, we examined the kinetics of the switching process, something not considered previously in theoretical work. Here we show a deterministic reversal of the DM vector and canted moment using an electric field at room temperature. First-principles calculations reveal that the switching kinetics favours a two-step switching process. In each step the DM vector and polarization are coupled and 180-degree deterministic switching of magnetization hence becomes possible, in agreement with experimental observation. We exploit this switching to demonstrate energy-efficient control of a spin-valve device at room temperature. The energy per unit area required is approximately an order of magnitude less than that needed for spin-transfer torque switching. Given that the DM interaction is fundamental to single-phase multiferroics and magnetoelectrics, our results suggest ways to engineer magnetoelectric switching and tailor technologically pertinent functionality for nanometre-scale, low-energy-consumption, non-volatile magnetoelectronics. PMID:25519134

  2. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Quantum Ferromagnetic XXZ Chains in an Oblique Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Jun

    2016-02-01

    A semiclassical study of intrinsic localized spin-wave modes in a one-dimensional quantum ferromagnetic XXZ chain in an oblique magnetic field is presented in this paper. We quantize the model Hamiltonian by introducing the Dyson-Maleev transformation, and adopt the coherent state representation as the basic representation of the system. By means of the method of multiple scales combined with a quasidiscreteness approximation, the equation of motion for the coherent-state amplitude can be reduced to the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is found that, at the center of the Brillouin zone, when θ < θ c a bright intrinsic localized spin-wave mode appears below the bottom of the magnon frequency band and when θ > θ c a dark intrinsic localized spin-wave resonance mode can occur above the bottom of the magnon frequency band. In other words, the switch between the bright and dark intrinsic localized spin-wave modes can be controlled via varying the angle of the magnetic field. This result has potential applications in quantum information storage. In addition, we find that, at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, the system can only produce a dark intrinsic localized spin-wave mode, whose eigenfrequency is above the upper of the magnon frequency band.

  3. Cooling field and temperature dependent exchange bias in spin glass/ferromagnet bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rui, W. B.; Hu, Y.; Du, A.; You, B.; Xiao, M. W.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, S. M.; Du, J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the experimental and theoretical studies of cooling field (HFC) and temperature (T) dependent exchange bias (EB) in FexAu1 − x/Fe19Ni81 spin glass (SG)/ferromagnet (FM) bilayers. When x varies from 8% to 14% in the FexAu1 − x SG alloys, with increasing T, a sign-changeable exchange bias field (HE) together with a unimodal distribution of coercivity (HC) are observed. Significantly, increasing in the magnitude of HFC reduces (increases) the value of HE in the negative (positive) region, resulting in the entire HE ∼ T curve to move leftwards and upwards. In the meanwhile, HFC variation has weak effects on HC. By Monte Carlo simulation using a SG/FM vector model, we are able to reproduce such HE dependences on T and HFC for the SG/FM system. Thus this work reveals that the SG/FM bilayer system containing intimately coupled interface, instead of a single SG layer, is responsible for the novel EB properties. PMID:26348277

  4. Large Field Visualization with Demand-Driven Calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Henze, Chris

    1999-01-01

    We present a system designed for the interactive definition and visualization of fields derived from large data sets: the Demand-Driven Visualizer (DDV). The system allows the user to write arbitrary expressions to define new fields, and then apply a variety of visualization techniques to the result. Expressions can include differential operators and numerous other built-in functions, ail of which are evaluated at specific field locations completely on demand. The payoff of following a demand-driven design philosophy throughout becomes particularly evident when working with large time-series data, where the costs of eager evaluation alternatives can be prohibitive.

  5. Parametric resonances of a conductive pipe driven by an alternating magnetic field in the presence of a static magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.

    2012-03-01

    The parametric oscillations of an oscillator driven electromagnetically are presented. The oscillator is a conductive pipe hung from a spring, and driven by the oscillating magnetic field of a surrounding coil in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is an interesting case of parametric oscillations since the pipe is neither a magnet nor a ferromagnet, and because the driving and the damping forces are functions of the magnet-to-pipe distance. We develop an analytical model of the oscillator that leads to a new kind of Mathieu equation with nonlinear terms of third order in the oscillator position, and on the product of the squared position times the first derivative of the position function. We show how the oscillations evolve as the frequency is varied up to the saturation regime and present ample experimental evidence of the parametric nature of our oscillator. Because of its peculiarities and their advanced scientific and technological applications, parametric oscillations are very important for physicists and engineers at both senior undergraduate and graduate levels. This oscillator is very easy to set up and provides an excellent opportunity to learn all facets of parametric oscillations at both levels.

  6. Interfacial spin-orbit fields in ferromagnet/normal metal (FN) and ferromagnet/superconductor (FS) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegl, Petra; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Zutic, Igor; Fabian, Jaroslav

    Breaking of space-inversion symmetry at interfaces induces spin-orbit fields as an emergent phenomenon. Interfacial spin-orbit fields are believed to enable a wealth of new phenomena, not existent or fragile in the bulk, such as the tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR), interfacial spin-orbit torques, Skyrmions, or possible realization of topological superconductors. We theoretically investigate spin-polarized transport in FN and FS junctions in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus interfacial spin-orbit fields. The interplay of magnetism and spin-orbit fields leads to a marked magnetoanisotropy of the conductances. Remarkably, the anisotropy in FS systems--magnetoanisotropic Andreev reflection (MAAR)--is giant compared to TAMR, its normal-state counterpart in FN junctions. We further report on the dependence of spin-flip probability currents on characteristic system parameters. This work has been supported by DFG SFB 689, International Doctorate Program Topological Insulators of the Elite Network of Bavaria, DOE-BES Grant No. DE-SC0004890, and ONR N000141310754.

  7. A general nonlinear magnetomechanical model for ferromagnetic materials under a constant weak magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Pengpeng; Jin, Ke; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2016-04-01

    Weak magnetic nondestructive testing (e.g., metal magnetic memory method) concerns the magnetization variation of ferromagnetic materials due to its applied load and a weak magnetic surrounding them. One key issue on these nondestructive technologies is the magnetomechanical effect for quantitative evaluation of magnetization state from stress-strain condition. A representative phenomenological model has been proposed to explain the magnetomechanical effect by Jiles in 1995. However, the Jiles' model has some deficiencies in quantification, for instance, there is a visible difference between theoretical prediction and experimental measurements on stress-magnetization curve, especially in the compression case. Based on the thermodynamic relations and the approach law of irreversible magnetization, a nonlinear coupled model is proposed to improve the quantitative evaluation of the magnetomechanical effect. Excellent agreement has been achieved between the predictions from the present model and previous experimental results. In comparison with Jiles' model, the prediction accuracy is improved greatly by the present model, particularly for the compression case. A detailed study has also been performed to reveal the effects of initial magnetization status, cyclic loading, and demagnetization factor on the magnetomechanical effect. Our theoretical model reveals that the stable weak magnetic signals of nondestructive testing after multiple cyclic loads are attributed to the first few cycles eliminating most of the irreversible magnetization. Remarkably, the existence of demagnetization field can weaken magnetomechanical effect, therefore, significantly reduces the testing capability. This theoretical model can be adopted to quantitatively analyze magnetic memory signals, and then can be applied in weak magnetic nondestructive testing.

  8. Nonvolatile, reversible electric-field controlled switching of remanent magnetization in multifunctional ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandlmaier, A.; Geprägs, S.; Woltersdorf, G.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2011-08-01

    In spin-mechanics, the magnetoelastic coupling in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid devices is exploited in order to realize an electric-voltage control of magnetization orientation. To this end, different voltage-induced elastic strain states are used to generate different magnetization orientations. In our approach, we take advantage of the hysteretic expansion and contraction of a commercial piezoelectric actuator as a function of electrical voltage to deterministically select one of two electro-remanent elastic strain states. We investigate the resulting magnetic response in a nickel thin film/piezoelectric actuator hybrid device at room temperature, using simultaneous magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetotransport measurements. The magnetic properties of the hybrid can be consistently described in a macrospin model, i.e., in terms of a single magnetic domain. At zero external magnetic field, the magnetization orientation in the two electro-remanent strain states differs by 15°, which corresponds to a magnetoresistance change of 0.5%. These results demonstrate that the spin-mechanics scheme indeed enables a nonvolatile electrically read- and writable memory bit where the information is encoded in a magnetic property.

  9. High Field Magnetic Circular Dichroism in Ferromagnetic InMnSb and InMnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeker, M. A.; Magill, B. A.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Saha, D.; Stanton, C. J.; McGill, S.; Wessels, B. W.

    An understanding of the fundamental interactions in narrow gap ferromagnetic semiconductors such as InMnAs and InMnSb has been developed primarily from static magnetization and electrical transport measurements. In this study, to provide a better understanding of the coupling of the Mn impurities to the conduction and valence bands through the sp-d exchange interactions, we have performed magnetic circular dichroism measurements (MCD) on MOVPE grown InMnAs and InMnSb. In our samples, the Mn content varies from 2% to 10.7% and all the samples have Curie temperatures above 300 K. The samples were photo-excited using a Quartz Tungsten Halogen lamp with energies ranging between 0.92-1.45 eV, and in magnetic fields up to 31 T. The temperatures ranged from 15-190 K. Comparison of the observed MCD with theoretical calculations provides a direct method to probe the band structure including the temperature dependence of the spin-orbit split-off bandgap and g-factors, as well as a means to estimate the sp-d coupling constants. Supported by the AFOSR through grant FA9550-14-1-0376, NSF-Career Award DMR-0846834 , NSF-DMR-60035274 , NSF-DMR-1305666, NSF MRI program (DMR-1229217).

  10. Motion Driven by Strain Gradient Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Shaohua

    2015-09-01

    A new driving mechanism for direction-controlled motion of nano-scale objects is proposed, based on a model of stretching a graphene strip linked to a rigid base with linear springs of identical stiffness. We find that the potential energy difference induced by the strain gradient field in the graphene strip substrate can generate sufficient force to overcome the static and kinetic friction forces between the nano-flake and the strip substrate, resulting in the nanoscale flake motion in the direction of gradient reduction. The dynamics of the nano-flake can be manipulated by tuning the stiffness of linear springs, stretching velocity and the flake size. This fundamental law of directional motion induced by strain gradient could be very useful for promising designs of nanoscale manipulation, transportation and smart surfaces.

  11. Motion Driven by Strain Gradient Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    A new driving mechanism for direction-controlled motion of nano-scale objects is proposed, based on a model of stretching a graphene strip linked to a rigid base with linear springs of identical stiffness. We find that the potential energy difference induced by the strain gradient field in the graphene strip substrate can generate sufficient force to overcome the static and kinetic friction forces between the nano-flake and the strip substrate, resulting in the nanoscale flake motion in the direction of gradient reduction. The dynamics of the nano-flake can be manipulated by tuning the stiffness of linear springs, stretching velocity and the flake size. This fundamental law of directional motion induced by strain gradient could be very useful for promising designs of nanoscale manipulation, transportation and smart surfaces. PMID:26323603

  12. Electric field driven torque in ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Rajapakshe, Kimal I; Infante, Hans L; Claycomb, James R

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  13. Electric Field Driven Torque in ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  14. Electric field driven torque in ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Rajapakshe, Kimal I; Infante, Hans L; Claycomb, James R

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring.

  15. Alkali-vapor magnetic resonance driven by fictitious radiofrequency fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zhivun, Elena; Wickenbrock, Arne; Patton, Brian; Budker, Dmitry

    2014-11-10

    We demonstrate an all-optical {sup 133}Cs scalar magnetometer, operating in nonzero magnetic field, in which the magnetic resonance is driven by an effective oscillating magnetic field provided by the AC Stark shift of an intensity-modulated laser beam. We achieve a projected shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 1.7fT/√(Hz) and measure a technical noise floor of 40fT/√(Hz). These results are essentially identical to a coil-driven scalar magnetometer using the same setup. This all-optical scheme offers advantages over traditional coil-driven magnetometers for use in arrays and in magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, e.g., searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  16. Ferromagnetism and crystalline electric field effects in cubic UX2Zn20 (X=Co, Rh, Ir)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Sarrao, J. L.; Hundley, M. F.

    2007-03-01

    The physical properties of a new family of cubic UX2Zn20 (X=Co, Rh, Ir) heavy-fermion compounds are presented. Both UCo2Zn20 and URh2Zn20 show peaks in specific heat and magnetic susceptibility at ˜5-10 K suggesting the presence of crystalline electric field (CEF) effects in these materials, i.e., a localized 5f2 configuration of uranium. UIr2Zn20 exhibits a first-order ferromagnetic transition at Tc=2.1 K with a saturation moment μsat=0.4 μB at 2 K indicating itinerant ferromagnetism. All compounds in this series are heavy-fermion materials with enhanced electronic specific heat coefficients γ˜100-450 mJ/mol K2.

  17. Hiding objects in AC magnetic fields of power grid frequency by two-shell ferromagnetic/superconducting cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šouc, J.; Solovyov, M.; Gömöry, F.

    2016-07-01

    Performance of magnetic cloak made from commercially available materials has been tested by verifying its ability to suppress the magnetic signatures of metallic and ferromagnetic objects. The range of magnetic field amplitudes from 0.1 to 10 mT and frequencies around 50-60 Hz were used. The cloak combines the inner tube from high-temperature superconductor that should be cooled by liquid nitrogen, with the outer tube made from MnZn ferrite powder mixed in plastic matter. Superconductor is in the form of tapes wound in helical manner on a round former. Such design is promising when the objects with dimensions reaching several centimeters should be cloaked. Performance of the small model manufactured following this design was demonstrated by observing ˜20 times reduction of the magnetic signature of metallic or ferromagnetic objects.

  18. Flow Field Measurement of Mixing Driven by Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batur, C.; Zhong, H.

    2003-01-01

    Mixing driven by buoyancy-induced flows inside a cavity consists of stretching and folding of an interface. Measurement of the flow field using particle imaging velocimetry shows that during stretching the flow field has a single elliptic point, thus dominated by a single vortex. However, global bifurcation that results in folding introduces a hyperbolic point whereby the flow field degenerates to multiple vortex interactions. The short-lived coherent structure observed during mixing which results in the Rayleigh- Taylor morphology is attributed to vortex interactions. The mixing characteristics of non-homogeneous fluids driven by buoyancy are important towards understanding transport phenomenon in a microgravity environment. Mixing consists of stretching and folding of an interface due to a flow field whose intensity depends on the body force. For miscible liquids, the characteristic of the flow field determines whether mass transport is governed by diffusion or bulk stirring which induces mixing. For technologically important processes, transport of mass is governed by the coupling of the body force to scalar gradients such as concentration and or temperature' 2 3 . In order to lend insight into these classes of problems we consider a model experimental system to study mixing driven by buoyancy-induced flows. The characteristics of mixing is addressed from detail measurements of the flow field using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), and its corresponding interface dynamics using image processing techniques.

  19. Amplification of magnetic fields by supernova-driven turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Balsara, D. S.

    2006-06-01

    Observations of μG magnetic fields in radio galaxies at cosmological epochs as early as around z=2 have shortened the available time for dynamo action. This fact suggests that the mean-field dynamo mechanism in a global galactic scale either is too slow to amplify a seed field generated by the Biermann battery effect to the level of the observed field strength at z˜2 or needs much stronger seed fields of an order of 10-10 G. A ``contamination'' picture that amplified magnetic fields in smaller objects, such as stars or AGNs, within a relatively shorter timescale spread out through supernova ejecta, stellar winds, and AGN jets to nearby environments is gaining momentum. In line with this picture, we demonstrate, through three-dimensional numerical experiments, that magnetic fields can be amplified by supernova-driven turbulence with two orders of magnitude smaller e-folding timescale than that of the mean-field dynamo mechanism. Therefore, supernova-driven turbulence may play an important role in amplifying small-scale B-fields in any astrophysical systems that have harbored massive stars.

  20. Coexistence of electric field controlled ferromagnetism and resistive switching for TiO{sub 2} film at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Shaoqing; Qin, Hongwei; Bu, Jianpei; Zhu, Gengchang; Xie, Jihao; Hu, Jifan E-mail: hu-jf@vip.163.com

    2015-08-10

    The Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag device exhibits the coexistence of electric field controlled ferromagnetism and resistive switching at room temperature. The bipolar resistive switching in Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag device may be dominated by the modulation of Schottky-like barrier with the electron injection-trapped/detrapped process at the interface of TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}. We suggest that the electric field-induced magnetization modulation originates mainly from the creation/annihilation of lots of oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2}.

  1. Field-free spin Hall effect driven magnetization switching in Pd/Co/IrMn exchange coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W. J.; Ji, Y. R.; Zhang, X.; Wu, H.; Zhang, Q. T.; Yuan, Z. H.; Wan, C. H.; Han, X. F.; Yu, T.; Fukuda, Kenji; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Tung, Mean-Jue

    2016-09-01

    All electrical manipulation of magnetization is crucial and of great important for spintronics devices for the sake of high speed, reliable operation, and low power consumption. Recently, widespread interests have been aroused to manipulate perpendicular magnetization of a ferromagnetic layer using spin-orbit torque (SOT) without field. We report that a commonly used antiferromagnetic material IrMn can be a promising candidate as a functional layer to realize field-free magnetization switching driven by SOT in which IrMn is employed to act as both the source of effective exchange bias field and SOT source. The critical switching current density within our study is Jc = 2.2 × 107 A/cm2, which is the same magnitude as similar materials such as PtMn. A series of measurements based on anomalous Hall effect was systematically implemented to determine the magnetization switching mechanism. This study offers a possible route for IrMn application in similar structures.

  2. Electric-field-driven resistive switching in dissipative Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiajun; Aron, Camille; Kotliar, Gabriel; Han, Jong

    Understanding of solids driven out of equilibrium by external fields has been one of the central goals in condensed matter physics for the past century and is relevant to nanotechnology applications such as resistive transitions. We study how strongly correlated electrons on a dissipative lattice evolve from equilibrium when driven by a constant electric field, focusing on the extent of the linear regime and hysteretic non-linear effects at higher fields. We access the non-equilibrium steady states, non-perturbatively in both the field and the electronic interactions, by means of a non-equilibrium dynamical mean-field theory in the Coulomb gauge. The linear response regime is limited by Joule heating effects and breaks down at fields orders of magnitude smaller than the quasi-particle energy scale. For large electronic interactions, strong but experimentally accessible electric fields can induce a resistive switching by driving the strongly correlated metal into a Mott insulator. Hysteretic I- V curves suggest that the non-equilibrium current is carried through a spatially inhomogeneous metal-insulator mixed state.

  3. Effect of Annealing in Magnetic Field on Ferromagnetic Nanoparticle Formation in Cu-Al-Mn Alloy with Induced Martensite Transformation.

    PubMed

    Titenko, Anatoliy; Demchenko, Lesya

    2016-12-01

    The paper considers the influence of aging of high-temperature phase on subsequent martensitic transformation in Cu-Al-Mn alloy. The morphology of behavior of martensitic transformation as a result of alloy aging under annealing in a constant magnetic field with different sample orientation relatively to the field direction and without field was studied for direct control of the processes of martensite induction at cooling. Temperature dependences of electrical resistance, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization, as well as field dependences of magnetization, and phase composition were found. The tendency to the oriented growth of precipitated ferromagnetic phase nanoparticles in a direction of applied field and to an increase of their volume fraction under thermal magnetic treatment of material that favors a reversibility of induced martensitic transformation is observed.

  4. Dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnet with spin-transfer torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zai-Dong; He, Peng-Bin; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2014-11-01

    We review our recent works on dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnet with spin-transfer torque. Driven by constant spin-polarized current, the spin-transfer torque counteracts both the precession driven by the effective field and the Gilbert damping term different from the common understanding. When the spin current exceeds the critical value, the conjunctive action of Gilbert damping and spin-transfer torque leads naturally the novel screw-pitch effect characterized by the temporal oscillation of domain wall velocity and width. Driven by space- and time-dependent spin-polarized current and magnetic field, we expatiate the formation of domain wall velocity in ferromagnetic nanowire. We discuss the properties of dynamic magnetic soliton in uniaxial anisotropic ferromagnetic nanowire driven by spin-transfer torque, and analyze the modulation instability and dark soliton on the spin wave background, which shows the characteristic breather behavior of the soliton as it propagates along the ferromagnetic nanowire. With stronger breather character, we get the novel magnetic rogue wave and clarify its formation mechanism. The generation of magnetic rogue wave mainly arises from the accumulation of energy and magnons toward to its central part. We also observe that the spin-polarized current can control the exchange rate of magnons between the envelope soliton and the background, and the critical current condition is obtained analytically. At last, we have theoretically investigated the current-excited and frequency-adjusted ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic trilayers. A particular case of the perpendicular analyzer reveals that the ferromagnetic resonance curves, including the resonant location and the resonant linewidth, can be adjusted by changing the pinned magnetization direction and the direct current. Under the control of the current and external magnetic field, several magnetic states, such as quasi-parallel and quasi-antiparallel stable states, out

  5. Predicted very large thermoelectric effect in ferromagnet-superconductor junctions in the presence of a spin-splitting magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ozaeta, A; Virtanen, P; Bergeret, F S; Heikkilä, T T

    2014-02-01

    We show that a huge thermoelectric effect can be observed by contacting a superconductor whose density of states is spin split by a Zeeman field with a ferromagnet with a nonzero polarization. The resulting thermopower exceeds kB/e by a large factor, and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT can far exceed unity, leading to heat engine efficiencies close to the Carnot limit. We also show that spin-polarized currents can be generated in the superconductor by applying a temperature bias. PMID:24580623

  6. Predicted very large thermoelectric effect in ferromagnet-superconductor junctions in the presence of a spin-splitting magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ozaeta, A; Virtanen, P; Bergeret, F S; Heikkilä, T T

    2014-02-01

    We show that a huge thermoelectric effect can be observed by contacting a superconductor whose density of states is spin split by a Zeeman field with a ferromagnet with a nonzero polarization. The resulting thermopower exceeds kB/e by a large factor, and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT can far exceed unity, leading to heat engine efficiencies close to the Carnot limit. We also show that spin-polarized currents can be generated in the superconductor by applying a temperature bias.

  7. Evaluation of magnetic fields due to the ferromagnetic vacuum vessel and their influence on plasma discharge in tokamak devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, T.; Abe, M.; Tadokoro, T.; Otsuka, M.

    We studied characteristics of the magnetic fields due to a ferromagnetic vacuum vessel (F-VV) experimentally and computationally to clarify whether plasma discharge is possible with the F-VV in tokamak devices. We made three kinds of evaluations using the Hitachi tokamak HT-2. One was a discharge test with error field coil. The second was a numerical analysis of the magnetic field induced by a ferritic first wall. The third was a discharge test with the ferritic first wall. Consequently, we confirmed that a normal plasma discharge could be obtained with a ferritic first wall in the HT-2. The strength of the localized magnetic field induced by the F-VV in the plasma region was smaller in tokamak devices with the size of the JFT-2M and ITER than in the HT-2. Therefore, the F-VV should be applicable to tokamak devices.

  8. James C. McGroddy Prize Talk: Controlling and Manipulating Ferromagnetism with an Electric Field Using Multiferroic Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.

    2010-03-01

    Complex perovskite oxides exhibit a rich spectrum of functional responses, including magnetism, ferroelectricity, highly correlated electron behavior, superconductivity, etc. The basic materials physics of such materials provide the ideal playground for interdisciplinary scientific exploration. Over the past decade we have been exploring the science of such materials (for example, colossal magnetoresistance, ferroelectricity, etc) in thin film form by creating epitaxial heterostructures and nanostructures. Among the large number of materials systems, there exists a small set of materials which exhibit multiple order parameters; these are known as multiferroics. Using our work in the field of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic oxides as the background, we are now exploring such materials, as epitaxial thin films as well as nanostructures. A particularly interesting problem is that related to electric field control and manipulation of ferromagnetism. In this talk I will describe to you some aspects of such materials as well as the scientific and technological excitement in this field. Finally I will share my ideas on the most exciting open problems and emerging directions in multiferroics and beyond.

  9. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hager, J. D.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; Delettrez, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature and density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.

  10. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hager, J. D.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; et al

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature andmore » density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.« less

  11. Computations of wind-driven ocean-induced magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachl, Libor; Einspigel, David; Martinec, Zdenek

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of computations of the secondary magnetic field induced by ocean motions. Ocean velocities are computed using the baroclinic ocean model LSOMG. The velocities are then used to determine the Lorentz force which is plugged into the magnetic induction code TLAM as a principal forcing. The TLAM is a 2D magnetic induction code based on the thin-shell approximation (Vivier et al., 2004; Tyler et al., 1997). In this approximation, the equation of magnetic induction simplifies significantly, time derivatives of main and induced magnetic fields are neglected as well as the self-induction term. The price for simplification of governing equations is the limited applicability of the resulting system. It is only suitable for slowly evolving processes. In order to meet the condition, we restrict ourselves to the wind (buoyancy) driven ocean circulation, although the LSOMG model is able to model both tidally- and wind-driven circulations. We assess the accuracy of thin-shell approximation in our setup by comparing the results with the Swarm satellite magnetic data. References Tyler, R. H., Mysak, L. A., and Oberhuber, J. M, 1997. Electromagnetic fields generated by a three dimensional global ocean circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5531-5551. Vivier, F., Meier-Reimer, E., and Tyler, R. H., 2004. Simulations of magnetic fields generated by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current at satellite altitude: Can geomagnetic measurements be used to monitor the flow? Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L10306, doi:10.1029/2004GL019804.

  12. Ferromagnetism and Crystalline Electric Field Effects in Cubic UX2Zn20 (X=Co, Rh, Ir)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. D.; Ronning, F.; Silhanek, A.; Harrison, N.; Thompson, J. D.; Sarrao, J. L.; Movshovich, R.; Hundley, M. F.; Jaime, M.; Daniel, E.; Booth, C. H.

    2006-03-01

    The properties of a new class of cubic UX2Zn20 (X=Co, Rh, Ir) heavy fermion compounds have been investigated by means of magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Both UCo2Zn20 and URh2Zn20 show peaks in C(T) and χ(T) at ˜5-10 K suggesting the presence of crystalline electric field (CEF) effects in these materials, i.e., a localized 5f^2 configuration of uranium. In addition, measurements in high magnetic fields up to 40 T are consistent with a CEF model of a nonmagnetic ground state and a magnetic first excited state separated by ˜ 20 K. In contrast, UIr2Zn20 exhibits a first-order ferromagnetic transition at Tc=2.75 K with a saturation moment μsat=0.5 μB in the ferromagnetic state. All compounds in this series are heavy fermion materials with enhanced electronic specific heat coefficients γ˜ 150-300 mJ/molK^2. The physical properties of UX2Zn20 (X=Co, Rh, Ir) will be discussed.

  13. Direct evidence on magnetic-field-induced phase transition in a NiCoMnIn ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under a stress field

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. D.; Ren Yang; Huang, E. W.; Nie, Z. H.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y. D.; Deng, J. N.; Zuo, L.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P. K.; Brown, D. E.

    2007-03-05

    The magnetoelasticity and magnetoplasticity behaviors of a Ni-Co-Mn-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) induced by the reverse phase transformation interplayed under multiple (temperature, magnetic, and stress) fields were captured directly by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. The experiments showed the direct experimental evidence of that a stress ({approx}50 MPa) applied to this material made a complete recovery of the original orientations of the martensite variants, showing a full shape memory effect. This finding offers the in-depth understanding the fundamental properties and applications of the Ni-Co-Mn-In FSMA with the magnetic-field-induced reverse transformation.

  14. Direct evidence on magnetic-field-induced phase transition in a NiCoMnIn ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under a stress field.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.; Huang, E. W.; Nie, Z. H.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y. D.; Deng, J. N.; Zuo, L.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P .K.; Brown, D. E.; Univ. of Tennessee; Northeastern Univ.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetoelasticity and magnetoplasticity behaviors of a Ni-Co-Mn-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) induced by the reverse phase transformation interplayed under multiple (temperature, magnetic, and stress) fields were captured directly by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. The experiments showed the direct experimental evidence of that a stress ({approx}50 MPa) applied to this material made a complete recovery of the original orientations of the martensite variants, showing a full shape memory effect. This finding offers the in-depth understanding the fundamental properties and applications of the Ni-Co-Mn-In FSMA with the magnetic-field-induced reverse transformation.

  15. Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Sieberer, L M; Buchhold, M; Diehl, S

    2016-09-01

    Recent experimental developments in diverse areas-ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays-move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems. PMID:27482736

  16. Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberer, L. M.; Buchhold, M.; Diehl, S.

    2016-09-01

    Recent experimental developments in diverse areas—ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays—move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.

  17. Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Sieberer, L M; Buchhold, M; Diehl, S

    2016-09-01

    Recent experimental developments in diverse areas-ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays-move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.

  18. Tunable Acoustic Attenuation by Dilute Suspensions of Oblate-Spheroidal Ferromagnetic Particles Under an External Magnetic Field: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wuhan; Shan, Jerry; Liu, Liping

    2015-11-01

    The microstructure of suspensions of spheroidal ferromagnetic particles with subwavelength size can be controlled by an external field, making it possible to develop novel broadband acoustic materials with anisotropic and tunable acoustic properties. In this study we experimentally show that dilute suspensions of nickel microflakes exhibit a 20% to 30% change in attenuation coefficient at MHz frequencies upon changing the direction of an external magnetic field, at particle volume fractions of only 0.5%. Further investigations are conducted to study the mechanism behind this anisotropy. The effects of particle aligning and chaining are analyzed with the aid of optical transmission measurements. By making comparison to suspensions of spherical particles, we show that the ellipsoidal shape of the nickel microflakes plays an important role in tunable acoustic properties of these suspensions.

  19. Spark-plasma-sintering magnetic field assisted compaction of Co80Ni20 nanowires for anisotropic ferromagnetic bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouar, Nassima; Schoenstein, Frédéric; Mercone, Silvana; Farhat, Samir; Villeroy, Benjamin; Leridon, Brigitte; Jouini, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    We developed a two-step process showing the way for sintering anisotropic nanostructured bulk ferromagnetic materials. A new reactor has been optimized allowing the synthesis of several grams per batch of nanopowders via a polyol soft chemistry route. The feasibility of the scale-up has been successfully demonstrated for Co80Ni20 nanowires and a massic yield of ˜97% was obtained. The thus obtained nanowires show an average diameter of ˜6 nm and a length of ˜270 nm. A new bottom-up strategy allowed us to compact the powder into a bulk nanostructured system. We used a spark-plasma-sintering technique under uniaxial compression and low temperature assisted by a permanent magnetic field of 1 T. A macroscopic pellet of partially aligned nanowire arrays has been easily obtained. This showed optimized coercive properties along the direction of the magnetic field applied during compaction (i.e., the nanowires' direction).

  20. Spin wave free spectrum and magnetic field gradient of nanopatterned planes of ferromagnetic cobalt nanoparticles: key properties for magnetic resonance based quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzid, Khalif; Muller, Dominique; Turek, Philippe; Tribollet, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    We present a study by ferromagnetic resonance at microwave Q band of two sheets of cobalt nanoparticles obtained by annealing SiO2 layers implanted with cobalt ions. This experimental study is performed as a function of the applied magnetic field orientation, temperature, and dose of implanted cobalt ions. We demonstrate that each of those magnetic sheet of cobalt nanoparticles can be well modelled by a nearly two dimensional ferromagnetic sheet having a reduced effective saturation magnetization, compared to a regular thin film of cobalt. The nanoparticles are found superparamagnetic above around 210 K and ferromagnetic below this blocking temperature. Magnetostatic calculations show that a strong magnetic field gradient of around 0.1 G/nm could be produced by a ferromagnetic nanostripe patterned in such magnetic sheet of cobalt nanoparticles. Such a strong magnetic field gradient combined with electron paramagnetic resonance may be relevant for implementing an intermediate scale quantum computer based on arrays of coupled electron spins, as previously reported [J. Tribollet, Eur. Phys. J. B 87, 183 (2014)]. However, this new approach only works if no additional spin decoherence is introduced by the spin waves exitations of the ferromagnetic nanostructure. We thus suggest theoretically some possible magnetic anisotropy engineering of cobalt nanoparticles that could allow to suppress the electron spin qubit decoherence induced by the collective magnetic excitation of those nanoparticles.

  1. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.

    1990-07-17

    Methods and systems are disclosed for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a packing'' are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets. 2 figs.

  2. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1990-01-01

    Methods and systems for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a "packing" are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets.

  3. Transverse migration of a polyelectrolyte driven by electric and pressure-driven flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Tony; Kekre, Rahul; Butler, Jason

    2010-03-01

    Capillary electrophoresis experiments show that a flexible polyelectrolyte migrates under the combined action of electric and pressure-driven-flow fields [1]. When the fields act in conjunction, the polymer migrates to the center of the channel, but when the pressure gradient and external force act in opposite directions, the polymer migrates towards the boundaries. We have previously proposed that this is caused by long-range dipolar interactions between segments of the polyelectrolyte chain [2]. Due to the stretching and orientation of the chain by the local shear flow, there is a net motion transverse to the flow and field lines. Here I will describe a coarse-grained simulation of polyelectrolyte migration, including hydrodynamic interactions from the imposed flow and electric fields. The effects of the no-slip condition on the walls are included by regularized Green's functions. Our results explain the experimentally observed migration under different combinations of flow and electric field. [1] J. Zheng and E. S. Yeung. Anal. Chem., 74:4536, 2002; 75:3675, 2003. [2] O. B. Usta, J. E. Butler and A. J. C. Ladd. Phys. Rev. Lett., 98:098301, 2007.

  4. External-Field-Driven Nanopatterning on Crystalline Substrate Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    Current-driven dynamics of single-layer epitaxial islands on fcc crystalline substrates can lead to surface pattern formation with significant implications for nanofabrication. We have developed and validated a fully nonlinear model of driven island evolution on { 110 } , { 100 } and { 111 } substrate surfaces due to diffusional mass transport along the island edge and accounting for edge diffusional anisotropy. We find that the migration speed of a morphologically stable island is inversely proportional to the island size, R, up to a critical size that marks the onset of island morphological transition; further increase in R triggers edge fingering and/or necking or dynamical transitions. We report formation of complex nanopatterns emerging from individual larger-than-critical islands with two different types of initial configuration: a slender, high-aspect-ratio island shape and an equilibrium, rounded morphology. We have developed a linear stability theory that explains the observed morphological instabilities. We characterize the nanopatterns formed and study the dependence of the nanopattern features on the duration of application of the electric field and the misorientation angle between a fast edge diffusion direction and the electric field direction.

  5. CFT driven cosmology and conformal higher spin fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2016-05-01

    Conformal higher spin (CHS) field theory, which is a solid part of recent advanced checks of AdS/CFT correspondence, finds applications in cosmology. The hidden sector of weakly interacting CHS fields suggests a resolution of the hierarchy problem in the model of initial conditions for inflationary cosmology driven by a conformal field theory. These initial conditions are set by thermal garland-type cosmological instantons in the sub-Planckian energy range for the model of CHS fields with a large positive coefficient β of the Gauss-Bonnet term in their total conformal anomaly and a large number of their polarizations N . The upper bound of this range MP/√{β } is shown to be much lower than the gravitational cutoff MP/√{N } which is defined by the requirement of smallness of the perturbatively nonrenormalizable graviton loop contributions. In this way we justify the approximation scheme in which the nonrenormalizable graviton sector is subject to effective field theory under this cutoff, whereas the renormalizable sector of multiple CHS fields is treated beyond perturbation theory and dynamically generates the bound on the inflation scale of the CFT cosmology MP/√{β }≪MP/√{N }. This confirms recent predictions for the origin of the Starobinsky R2 and Higgs inflation models from the CHS cosmology, which occurs at the energy scale 3 or 4 orders of magnitude below the gravitational cutoff, √{N /β }˜10-3- 10-4 . We also consider cosmological models dominated by fermionic CHS fields with a negative β and anomaly free models of infinite towers of CHS fields with β =0 and briefly discuss the status of unitarity in CHS models.

  6. Zero-bias-field microwave dynamic magnetic properties in trapezoidal ferromagnetic stripe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Mei; Wang, Xin; Lu, Haipeng; Zhang, Li; Deng, Longjiang; Xie, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic magnetization response of the axially magnetized ferromagnetic stripe with trapezoidal cross section has been studied. The stripe with beveled edges exhibits multiple resonant peaks modes under an in-plane microwave excitation compared with the single resonant of vertical edge surfaces. The complexity of the observed response is attributed to the spatially nonuniform equilibrium spin distribution at the stripe edges. Micromagnetic simulations identify spin waves as spatially localized mode at the modified edges. This one is also described by effective pinning boundary conditions taking into account finite-size effects, which is related to the exchange interaction, surface anisotropy and dipole-dipole interaction. These results provide detailed insights into the nonlinear spin dynamics of microstructures influenced by the edge properties.

  7. Modeling attention-driven plasticity in auditory cortical receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Michael A.; Elhilali, Mounya

    2015-01-01

    To navigate complex acoustic environments, listeners adapt neural processes to focus on behaviorally relevant sounds in the acoustic foreground while minimizing the impact of distractors in the background, an ability referred to as top-down selective attention. Particularly striking examples of attention-driven plasticity have been reported in primary auditory cortex via dynamic reshaping of spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs). By enhancing the neural response to features of the foreground while suppressing those to the background, STRFs can act as adaptive contrast matched filters that directly contribute to an improved cognitive segregation between behaviorally relevant and irrelevant sounds. In this study, we propose a novel discriminative framework for modeling attention-driven plasticity of STRFs in primary auditory cortex. The model describes a general strategy for cortical plasticity via an optimization that maximizes discriminability between the foreground and distractors while maintaining a degree of stability in the cortical representation. The first instantiation of the model describes a form of feature-based attention and yields STRF adaptation patterns consistent with a contrast matched filter previously reported in neurophysiological studies. An extension of the model captures a form of object-based attention, where top-down signals act on an abstracted representation of the sensory input characterized in the modulation domain. The object-based model makes explicit predictions in line with limited neurophysiological data currently available but can be readily evaluated experimentally. Finally, we draw parallels between the model and anatomical circuits reported to be engaged during active attention. The proposed model strongly suggests an interpretation of attention-driven plasticity as a discriminative adaptation operating at the level of sensory cortex, in line with similar strategies previously described across different sensory modalities

  8. Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberer, L. M.; Buchhold, M.; Diehl, S.

    2016-09-01

    Recent experimental developments in diverse areas—ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays—move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven–dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.

  9. Linearity of the Faraday-rotation-type ac magnetic-field sensor with a ferrimagnetic or ferromagnetic rotator film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hiroshi; Asahara, Yousuke

    1996-03-01

    We analyze the linearity and modulation depth of ac magnetic-field sensors or current sensors, using a ferrimagnetic or ferromagnetic film as the Faraday rotator and employing the detection of only the zeroth-order optical diffraction component from the rotator. It is theoretically shown that for this class of sensor the condition of a constant modulation depth and that of a constant ratio error give an identical series of curves for the relationship between Faraday rotation angle greater than or equals V and polarizer/analyzer relative angle Phi . We give some numerical examples to demonstrate the usefulness of the result with reference to a rare-earth iron garnet film as the rotator.

  10. Assembling Paramagnetic Ceruloplasmin at Electrode Surfaces Covered with Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in the Presence of a Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Edyta; Botz, Alexander J R; Clausmeyer, Jan; Wagner, Barbara; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Stojek, Zbigniew; Nowicka, Anna M

    2015-07-28

    Adsorption of ceruloplasmin (Cp) at a gold electrode modified with ferromagnetic iron nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon (Fe@C Nps) leads to a successful immobilization of the enzyme in its electroactive form. The proper placement of Cp at the electrode surface on top of the nanocapsules containing an iron core allowed a preorientation of the enzyme, hence allowing direct electron transfer between the electrode and the enzyme. Laser ablation coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated that Cp was predominantly located at the paramagnetic nanoparticles. Scanning electrochemical microscopy measurements in the sample-generation/tip-collection mode proved that Cp was ferrooxidative inactive if it was immobilized on the bare gold surface and reached the highest activity if it was adsorbed on Fe@C Nps in the presence of a magnetic field.

  11. Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Schink, S. W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Boger, A.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Keizer, R. S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Gupta, A.; Huebl, H.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.

    2007-04-16

    We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance {rho} and the Hall voltage V{sub Hall} characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (EDFMR) signals closely match the conventional FMR, measured simultaneously, in both resonance fields and line shapes. The sign and the magnitude of the resonant changes {delta}{rho}/{rho} and {delta}V{sub Hall}/V{sub Hall} can be consistently described in terms of a Joule heating effect. Bolometric EDFMR thus is a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetoresistive phenomena in ferromagnetic micro- or nanostructures.

  12. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, T. P. Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Dorf, L.; Sun, X.

    2014-04-15

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  13. Ferromagnetic coupling mediated by Coπ non-covalent contacts in a pentacoordinate Co(ii) compound showing field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization.

    PubMed

    Nemec, I; Herchel, R; Trávníček, Z

    2016-08-01

    [Co(II)(dpt)(NCS)2], where dpt = bis(3-aminopropyl)amine, was identified as a pentacoordinate Co(II) compound showing field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization. Furthermore, intermolecular ferromagnetic coupling mediated by Coπ non-covalent contacts, where π orbitals originate from the thiocyanato ligand, is reported for the first time. PMID:27435418

  14. An effective mean field theory for the coexistence of anti-ferromagnetism and superconductivity: Applications to iron-based superconductors and cold Bose-Fermi atomic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackett, Jeremy; Newman, Joseph; De Silva, Theja N.

    2016-10-01

    We study an effective fermion model on a square lattice to investigate the cooperation and competition of superconductivity and anti-ferromagnetism. In addition to particle tunneling and on-site interaction, a bosonic excitation mediated attractive interaction is also included in the model. We assume that the attractive interaction is mediated by spin fluctuations and excitations of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in electronic systems and Bose-Fermi mixtures on optical lattices, respectively. Using an effective mean-field theory to treat both superconductivity and anti-ferromagnetism at equal footing, we study a single effective model relevant for both systems within the Landau energy functional approach and a linearized theory. Within our approaches, we find possible co-existence of superconductivity and anti-ferromagnetism for both electronic and cold-atomic models. Our linearized theory shows while spin fluctuations favor d-wave superconductivity and BEC excitations favor s-wave superconductivity.

  15. Dual-donor (Zn(i) and V(O)) mediated ferromagnetism in copper-doped ZnO micron-scale polycrystalline films: a thermally driven defect modulation process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Huang, Jun; He, Haiping; Zhu, Liping; Liu, Shijiang; Jin, Yizheng; Sun, Luwei; Ye, Zhizhen

    2013-05-01

    The paper reports robust ferromagnetic Cu-doped ZnO micron-scale polycrystalline films via spin-coating using high-quality doped nanocrystals. A reliable magnetic response is observed in the 900 °C vacuum annealed film without any ferromagnetic contribution from other sources. Post-annealing treatment in terms of atmosphere and temperature can control the proportion of oxygen vacancies (V(O)) and zinc interstitials (Zn(i)) defects and further help to precisely regulate defect-related ferromagnetic behavior. Complex charge transfer processes derived from dual-donor (Zn(i) and V(O)) to Cu acceptor are revealed by photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. Based on the above, specific charge transfer (CT)-type Stoner splitting and indirect double-exchange mechanisms are proposed to understand the ferromagnetic origin. The improvable FM performance and annealing-specific modulation further indicate that a thermal driven process can delicately tailor the magnetic property of the transition metal ion-doped ZnO system.

  16. Electrically controllable spin conductance of zigzag silicene nanoribbons in the presence of anti-ferromagnetic exchange field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournaghavi, Nezhat; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi; Ahmadi, Somaieh; Farokhnezhad, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    We study spin-dependent electron transport properties of zigzag silicene nanoribbons in the presence of anti-ferromagnetic exchange field using a nonequilibrium Green's function method. Applying a transverse electric field, spin splitting can take place and the silicene nanoribbon can work as a spin filter. The spin polarization is calculated and it is shown that the spin filtering is perfect and the spin states of electrons are fully coherent. The spin direction of transmitted electrons through the silicene filter can be easily controlled by changing the transverse electric field direction. Using Hubbard model, we take into account the electron-electron interaction and we find that although this interaction causes some changes in the electron conductance, it has no destructive effect on spin filtering properties. The effect of a single vacancy on electron transport is also investigated and it is found that, the vacancy causes to decrease the electron conductance; however, the spin-dependent properties remain the same. The vacancy in the near of the edges of nanoribbon has less destructive effect on electron conductance than that in the middle.

  17. Localized NMR Mediated by Electrical-Field-Induced Domain Wall Oscillation in Quantum-Hall-Ferromagnet Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S; Miura, T; Watanabe, S; Nagase, K; Hirayama, Y

    2016-03-01

    We present fractional quantum Hall domain walls confined in a gate-defined wire structure. Our experiments utilize spatial oscillation of domain walls driven by radio frequency electric fields to cause nuclear magnetic resonance. The resulting spectra are discussed in terms of both large quadrupole fields created around the wire and hyperfine fields associated with the oscillating domain walls. This provides the experimental fact that the domain walls survive near the confined geometry despite of potential deformation, by which a localized magnetic resonance is allowed in electrical means. PMID:26885703

  18. Acoustic assisted, field-induced strain in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Bradley W.; Feuchtwanger, Jorge; Chambers, Joshua M.; Bono, David; Hall, Steven R.; Allen, Samuel M.; O'Handley, Robert C.

    2004-06-01

    A technique has been developed that uses acoustic energy to assist a magnetic field in driving twin boundary motion in a NiMnGa single crystal. Acoustic assisted magnetic-field-induced strain has been observed to increase the magnetic-field-induced strain response by up to one order of magnitude. This effect is most pronounced for magnetic field drives near the twin boundary threshold field. Increasing frequency of the acoustic wave input is shown to increase strain up to about 4 kHz after which there is a small decline in FSMA strain for higher frequencies.

  19. Enhancing electric-field control of ferromagnetism through nanoscale engineering of high-Tc MnxGe1−x nanomesh

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Tianxiao; Tang, Jianshi; Kou, Xufeng; Gen, Yin; Lee, Shengwei; Zhu, Xiaodan; He, Qinglin; Chang, Li-Te; Murata, Koichi; Fan, Yabin; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage control of magnetism in ferromagnetic semiconductor has emerged as an appealing solution to significantly reduce the power dissipation and variability beyond current CMOS technology. However, it has been proven to be very challenging to achieve a candidate with high Curie temperature (Tc), controllable ferromagnetism and easy integration with current Si technology. Here we report the effective electric-field control of both ferromagnetism and magnetoresistance in unique MnxGe1−x nanomeshes fabricated by nanosphere lithography, in which a Tc above 400 K is demonstrated as a result of size/quantum confinement. Furthermore, by adjusting Mn doping concentration, extremely giant magnetoresistance is realized from ∼8,000% at 30 K to 75% at 300 K at 4 T, which arises from a geometrically enhanced magnetoresistance effect of the unique mesh structure. Our results may provide a paradigm for fundamentally understanding the high Tc in ferromagnetic semiconductor nanostructure and realizing electric-field control of magnetoresistance for future spintronic applications. PMID:27762320

  20. Parametric Resonances of a Conductive Pipe Driven by an Alternating Magnetic Field in the Presence of a Static Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.

    2012-01-01

    The parametric oscillations of an oscillator driven electromagnetically are presented. The oscillator is a conductive pipe hung from a spring, and driven by the oscillating magnetic field of a surrounding coil in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is an interesting case of parametric oscillations since the pipe is neither a magnet nor a…

  1. Giant electric field control of magnetism and narrow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Wang, X.; Xie, L.; Hu, Z.; Lin, H.; Zhou, Z.; Nan, T.; Yang, X.; Howe, B. M.; Jones, J. G.; Brown, G. J.; Sun, N. X.

    2016-06-01

    It has been challenging to achieve combined strong magnetoelectric coupling and narrow ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures. Electric field induced large effective field of 175 Oe and narrow FMR linewidth of 40 Oe were observed in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN-PT heterostructures with substrate clamping effect minimized through removing the Si substrate. As a comparison, FeCoSiB/PMN-PT heterostructures with FeCoSiB film directly deposited on PMN-PT showed a comparable voltage induced effective magnetic field but a significantly larger FMR linewidth of 283 Oe. These multiferroic heterostructures exhibiting combined giant magnetoelectric coupling and narrow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth offer great opportunities for integrated voltage tunable RF magnetic devices.

  2. Ferromagnetic resonance in a single crystal of iron borate and magnetic field tuning of hybrid oscillations in a composite structure with a dielectric: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, M. A.; Zavislyak, I. V.; Chumak, H. L.; Strugatsky, M. B.; Yagupov, S. V.; Srinivasan, G.

    2015-07-01

    The high-frequency properties of a composite resonator comprised single crystal iron borate (FeBO3), a canted antiferromagnet with a weak ferromagnetic moment, and a polycrystalline dielectric were investigated at 9-10 GHz. Ferromagnetic resonance in this frequency range was observed in FeBO3 for bias magnetic fields of ˜250 Oe. In the composite resonator, the magnetic mode in iron borate and dielectric mode are found to hybridize strongly. It is shown that the hybrid mode can be tuned with a static magnetic field. Our studies indicate that coupling between the magnetic mode and the dielectric resonance can be altered from maximum hybridization to a minimum by adjusting the position of resonator inside the waveguide. Magnetic field tuning of the resonance frequency by a maximum of 145 MHz and a change in the transmitted microwave power by as much as 16 dB have been observed for a bias field of 250 Oe. A model is discussed for the magnetic field tuning of the composite resonator and theoretical estimates are in reasonable agreement with the data. The composite resonator with a weak ferromagnet and a dielectric is of interest for application in frequency agile devices with electronically tunable electrodynamic characteristics for the mm and sub-mm wave bands.

  3. Ferromagnetic resonance in a single crystal of iron borate and magnetic field tuning of hybrid oscillations in a composite structure with a dielectric: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, M. A.; Zavislyak, I. V.; Chumak, H. L.; Strugatsky, M. B.; Yagupov, S. V.; Srinivasan, G.

    2015-07-07

    The high-frequency properties of a composite resonator comprised single crystal iron borate (FeBO{sub 3}), a canted antiferromagnet with a weak ferromagnetic moment, and a polycrystalline dielectric were investigated at 9–10 GHz. Ferromagnetic resonance in this frequency range was observed in FeBO{sub 3} for bias magnetic fields of ∼250 Oe. In the composite resonator, the magnetic mode in iron borate and dielectric mode are found to hybridize strongly. It is shown that the hybrid mode can be tuned with a static magnetic field. Our studies indicate that coupling between the magnetic mode and the dielectric resonance can be altered from maximum hybridization to a minimum by adjusting the position of resonator inside the waveguide. Magnetic field tuning of the resonance frequency by a maximum of 145 MHz and a change in the transmitted microwave power by as much as 16 dB have been observed for a bias field of 250 Oe. A model is discussed for the magnetic field tuning of the composite resonator and theoretical estimates are in reasonable agreement with the data. The composite resonator with a weak ferromagnet and a dielectric is of interest for application in frequency agile devices with electronically tunable electrodynamic characteristics for the mm and sub-mm wave bands.

  4. Unstrained Epitaxial Zn-Substituted Fe3O4 Films for Ferromagnetic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Takashi; Fujiwara, Kohei; Kushizaki, Takayoshi; Kanki, Teruo; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2013-06-01

    A field-effect transistor has been fabricated utilizing an epitaxial film of unstrained zinc-substituted magnetite (Fe3O4) as the active channel. A thin film of Fe2.5Zn0.5O4 was grown on a lattice-matched MgO(001) substrate by pulsed-laser deposition and covered by a parylene gate insulator to dope charge carriers by a field effect. The device showed a field-effect mobility of 1.2 ×10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 300 K, which is higher by a factor of 15 than those of the devices with strained Fe2.5Zn0.5O4 channels on perovskite-type substrates. The enhanced response to the gate electric field is useful in exploring gate-tunable magnetism in magnetite.

  5. Experimental study of directionally solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under multi-field coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuping; Chen, Tao; Teng, Yao; Liu, Bingfei; Xue, Lijun

    2016-11-01

    Directionally solidified, polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga is studied in this paper. The polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga samples were cut at different angles to solidification direction. The magnetic field induced strain under constant stress and the temperature-induced strain under constant magnetic field during the loading-unloading cycle were measured. The experimental results show that the mechanical behavior during the loading-unloading cycle of the material is nonlinear and anisotropic. Based on the experimental results, the effects of multi-field coupling factors, such as stress, magnetic field, temperature and cutting angle on the mechanical behaviors were analyzed. Some useful conclusions were obtained, which will provide guidance for practical applications.

  6. Ferromagnetic coupling to muscle receptors as a basis for geomagnetic field sensitivity in animals.

    PubMed

    Presti, D; Pettigrew, J D

    1980-05-01

    Over the past decade several investigators have provided convincing evidence that the orientation of pigeons and other birds during homing and migrational activities is significantly affected by Earth-strength (less than or equal to 0.5 G) magnetic fields. The presumed mediator of such effects would be a highly sensitive magnetoreceptor which the birds would normally use to extract navigational information from the geomagnetic field. The recently reported measurement of magnet remanence in honeybees and in homing pigeons has stimulated interest in the possibility that the magnetically sensitive structure may be constructed from permanently magnetic material. Here we report the detection of permanently magnetic material in the neck musculature of pigeons (Columba livia) and migratory white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys). We propose that a magnetic field detector might involve the coupling of magnetic particles to a sensitive muscle receptor such as a spindle. A detection mechanism of this kind could account for the difficulties encountered in conditioning immobile homing pigeons to magnetic field changes and for the puzzling requirement of movement in other behavioural experiments involving pigeons and magnetic fields.

  7. Creep turns linear in narrow ferromagnetic nanostrips

    PubMed Central

    Leliaert, Jonathan; Van de Wiele, Ben; Vansteenkiste, Arne; Laurson, Lasse; Durin, Gianfranco; Dupré, Luc; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel

    2016-01-01

    The motion of domain walls in magnetic materials is a typical example of a creep process, usually characterised by a stretched exponential velocity-force relation. By performing large-scale micromagnetic simulations, and analyzing an extended 1D model which takes the effects of finite temperatures and material defects into account, we show that this creep scaling law breaks down in sufficiently narrow ferromagnetic strips. Our analysis of current-driven transverse domain wall motion in disordered Permalloy nanostrips reveals instead a creep regime with a linear dependence of the domain wall velocity on the applied field or current density. This originates from the essentially point-like nature of domain walls moving in narrow, line- like disordered nanostrips. An analogous linear relation is found also by analyzing existing experimental data on field-driven domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetised media. PMID:26843125

  8. Synchronous precessional motion of multiple domain walls in a ferromagnetic nanowire by perpendicular field pulses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June-Seo; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Bisig, André; Krüger, Benjamin; Reeve, Robert M.; Schulz, Tomek; Büttner, Felix; Yoon, Jungbum; You, Chun-Yeol; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Swagten, Henk J. M.; Koopmans, Bert; Eisebitt, Stefan; Kläui, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storage and logic devices based on magnetic domain wall motion rely on the precise and synchronous displacement of multiple domain walls. The conventional approach using magnetic fields does not allow for the synchronous motion of multiple domains. As an alternative method, synchronous current-induced domain wall motion was studied, but the required high-current densities prevent widespread use in devices. Here we demonstrate a radically different approach: we use out-of-plane magnetic field pulses to move in-plane domains, thus combining field-induced magnetization dynamics with the ability to move neighbouring domain walls in the same direction. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that synchronous permanent displacement of multiple magnetic walls can be achieved by using transverse domain walls with identical chirality combined with regular pinning sites and an asymmetric pulse. By performing scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, we are able to experimentally demonstrate in-plane magnetized domain wall motion due to out-of-plane magnetic field pulses. PMID:24663150

  9. Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling

    PubMed Central

    Chesnel, Karine; Safsten, Alex; Rytting, Matthew; Fullerton, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    The advance of magnetic nanotechnologies relies on detailed understanding of nanoscale magnetic mechanisms in materials. Magnetic domain memory (MDM), that is, the tendency for magnetic domains to repeat the same pattern during field cycling, is important for magnetic recording technologies. Here we demonstrate MDM in [Co/Pd]/IrMn films, using coherent X-ray scattering. Under illumination, the magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] produce a speckle pattern, a unique fingerprint of their nanoscale configuration. We measure MDM by cross-correlating speckle patterns throughout magnetization processes. When cooled below its blocking temperature, the film exhibits up to 100% MDM, induced by exchange-coupling with the underlying IrMn layer. The degree of MDM drastically depends on cooling conditions. If the film is cooled under moderate fields, MDM is high throughout the entire magnetization loop. If the film is cooled under nearly saturating field, MDM vanishes, except at nucleation and saturation. Our findings show how to fully control the occurrence of MDM by field cooling. PMID:27248368

  10. Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chesnel, Karine; Safsten, Alex; Rytting, Matthew; Fullerton, Eric E.

    2016-06-01

    The advance of magnetic nanotechnologies relies on detailed understanding of nanoscale magnetic mechanisms in materials. Magnetic domain memory (MDM), that is, the tendency for magnetic domains to repeat the same pattern during field cycling, is important for magnetic recording technologies. Here we demonstrate MDM in [Co/Pd]/IrMn films, using coherent X-ray scattering. Under illumination, the magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] produce a speckle pattern, a unique fingerprint of their nanoscale configuration. We measure MDM by cross-correlating speckle patterns throughout magnetization processes. When cooled below its blocking temperature, the film exhibits up to 100% MDM, induced by exchange-coupling with the underlying IrMn layer.more » The degree of MDM drastically depends on cooling conditions. If the film is cooled under moderate fields, MDM is high throughout the entire magnetization loop. Lastly, if the film is cooled under nearly saturating field, MDM vanishes, except at nucleation and saturation. Our findings show how to fully control the occurrence of MDM by field cooling.« less

  11. Quantum criticality and coexistence of spontaneous ferromagnetism and field- induced metamagnetism in triple-layered Sr4Ru3O10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikara, Shalinee; Durairaj, Vinobalan; Cao, Gang; Brill, Joseph W.; Schlottmann, Pedro

    2007-03-01

    Results of a thermodynamic and transport study of Sr4Ru3O10 as a function of temperature and magnetic field are presented. The central results of this work include growing specific heat C with increasing field B, divergent magnetic contribution to C at low temperatures, an abrupt jump and a peak in C/T at B=2.90 T and =7 T for B||ab-plane and B||c-axis, respectively, and corresponding changes in the power law of resistivity. All results provide not only strong evidence for metamagnetic quantum criticality but also quantum fluctuations in a spontaneously ferromagnetic state. The novelty of this work lies in the fact that the quantum criticality occurs in a system that shows both intralayer metamagnetism and interlayer spontaneous ferromagnetism, a feature characteristically different from all other relevant systems involving quantum criticality.

  12. Multi-state magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/organic-ferromagnet/ferromagnet junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guichao; Xie, Shijie

    Organic ferromagnets (OFs) are fascinating in the field of organic spintronics, since they combine both the ferromagnetic and organic properties. The utilization of OFs in the design of organic spintronic is promising to generate some novel effects. Here, we designed an organic spin valve by sandwiching the OF between two ferromagnets. By calculating the spin-dependent transport property, we found that the current through the device strongly depends on the alignment of the magnetization orientation of the electrodes and the OF. The spin-related electron tunneling between the ferromagnetic electrodes suffers a further spin selection from the spin-polarized states of the central OF. This work indicates a realization of four-state magnetoresistance based on OFs, which may be manipulated by a magnetic field to control the magnetization orientations of the ferromagnets and the OF. Support from the NSF of China is acknowledged.

  13. Electrolyte vortex dynamics in the vicinity of a ferromagnetic surface in a direct current magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Derecha, Dmytro O; Skirta, Yury B; Gerasimchuk, Igor V

    2014-12-18

    We propose a new method for determining the frequency characteristics of the rotational motion of an electrolyte flow during electrochemical reactions under the influence of an external magnetic field. The main advantage of the proposed method is the possibility to determine the frequency characteristics without introducing marker particles or other changes in the electrolyte or in the nature of the reaction. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by measuring the electrolyte rotation frequencies during the corrosion of a steel ball in an external magnetic field. It is shown that at the chosen experimental conditions the typical electrolyte rotation frequencies during etching of the steel ball are 0.88 and 1.7 Hz. The developed method can be used for determining corrosion areas of metallic compounds via in situ testing.

  14. Spin Mechanics in Ferromagnet/Ferroelectric Hybrid Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goennenwein, Sebastian

    2013-03-01

    In most ferromagnets, magnetic and elastic degrees of freedom are coupled - as evident, e.g., from the hum of a transformer. In the ``spin mechanics'' scheme, one intentionally exploits magneto-elastic coupling (inverse magneto-striction) to control the magnetization of ferromagnetic films. On the one hand, I will briefly review spin mechanics in the static limit, taking ferromagnetic nickel thin film/piezoelectric actuator hybrid structures as prototype examples. In these hybrids, the application of an electric field to the actuator results in a uniaxial strain, which is transferred into the Ni film. Due to magneto-elastic coupling, the voltage-controlled strain modifies the magnetic anisotropy and thus induces a magnetization reorientation. This allows for a voltage-controlled, fully reversible magnetization orientation manipulation within a range of approximately 90 degrees at room temperature in these hybrids. On the other hand, I will show that the spin mechanics scheme also is operational at GHz frequencies. In the corresponding experiments, we use surface acoustic waves (SAWs) propagating in Ni/LiNbO3 hybrid devices for the all-elastic excitation and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Our SAW magneto-transmission data are consistently described by a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert approach, in which the magnetization precession is not driven by a conventional, external microwave magnetic field, but rather by a purely virtual, internal tickle field stemming from radio-frequency magneto-elastic interactions. This causes a distinct magnetic field orientation dependence of elastically driven FMR, observed in both simulations and experiment. Last but not least, I will address perspectives for spin mechanics experiments, e.g., the study of magnon-phonon coupling, or acoustic spin pumping in normal metal/ferromagnet hybrid structures.

  15. Simulating magnetic field of a ferromagnetic pipe underwater in COMSOL Multiphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanova, D.; Baranov, P.; Baranova, V.; Chudinova, A.

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays ecological situation in seas and oceans requires permanent supervision and control. Carrying out building activity such as building hydraulic structures, oil- and gas- pipes in areas of past warfare is the reason for the active usage of geophysical methods to search method of the objects underwater. The paper examines the classification of magnetic search methods and theoretical base statements of electromagnetics. The work represents the investigation of an object influence on geomagnetic field in problem-solving environment “COMSOL Multiphysics”. The article also contains the results of simulating for variations of different object parameters. This paper is connected with the magnetometric

  16. Periodic magnetic domain wall pinning in an ultrathin film with perpendicular anisotropy generated by the stray magnetic field of a ferromagnetic nanodot array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Zermatten, P.-J.; Jamet, J.-P.; Ferré, J.; Gaudin, G.; Rodmacq, B.; Schuhl, A.; Stamps, R. L.

    2009-03-01

    The stray magnetic field of an array of hard ferromagnetic perpendicularly magnetized [Co/Pt]4 nanodots is used to nondestructively generate a periodic pinning potential for domain walls in an underlying [Pt/Co]2/Pt layer with perpendicular anisotropy. Pinning is evidenced using magneto-optical microscopy. The magnetic field (H) dependence of the average wall velocity in the presence of the periodic pinning potential is consistent with thermally activated creep, modified only by the addition of a uniform retarding field Hret, whose magnitude depends on the relative alignment of H and the dots' magnetizations.

  17. In-plane stray field induced spin-filtering in a two-dimensional electron gas under the modulation of surface ferromagnetic dual-gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Zhang, X. W.; Yin, Z. G.

    2010-10-01

    Based upon a hybrid ferromagnet/semiconductor structure consisting of two-dimensional electron gas and a pair of surface ferromagnetic stripes on top, we have theoretically investigated the effect of in-plane stray field omitted frequently in previous studies on the spin-dependent ballistic transport properties in hybrid structure. It is demonstrated here that, in combination with an external-controllable electrostatic modulation, the concerned structure shows a similar function as a lateral spin-polarized resonant tunneling device, where the strong spin-filtering effect occurs and nearly single-mode polarization is anticipated for the proper modulation. More importantly, the spin polarity of transmission electron can be easily transferred from one extreme to the other by switching the magnetization of stripes, showing the promising application as an efficient spin aligner in the developing semiconductor spintronics.

  18. Influence of nonuniform surface magnetic fields in wetting transitions in a confined two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2013-11-01

    Wetting transitions are studied in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. In our finite samples of size L×M, the walls are separated by a distance L, M being the length of the sample. The surface fields are taken to be short-range and nonuniform, i.e., of the form H1,δH1,H1,δH1,..., where the parameter -1≤δ≤1 allows us to control the nonuniformity of the fields. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we found that those competitive surface fields lead to the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation that runs parallel to the walls. In finite samples, such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition, which is the precursor of a true wetting transition that takes place in the thermodynamic limit. By exactly working out the ground state (T=0), we found that besides the standard nonwet and wet phases, a surface antiferromagnetic-like state emerges for δ<-1/3 and large fields (H1>3), H1tr/J=3, δtr=-1/3,T=0, being a triple point where three phases coexist. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that these features of the phase diagram remain at higher temperatures; e.g., we examined in detail the case T=0.7×Tcb. Furthermore, we also recorded phase diagrams for fixed values of δ, i.e., plots of the critical field at the wetting transition (H1w) versus T showing, on the one hand, that the exact results of Abraham [Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.44.1165 44, 1165 (1980)] for δ=1 are recovered, and on the other hand, that extrapolations to T→0 are consistent with our exact results. Based on our numerical results we conjectured that the exact result for the phase diagram worked out by Abraham can be extended for the case of nonuniform fields. In fact, by considering a nonuniform surface field of some period λ, with λ≪M, e.g., [H1(x,λ)>0], one can obtain the effective field Heff at a λ coarse-grained level

  19. Influence of nonuniform surface magnetic fields in wetting transitions in a confined two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2013-11-01

    Wetting transitions are studied in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. In our finite samples of size L×M, the walls are separated by a distance L, M being the length of the sample. The surface fields are taken to be short-range and nonuniform, i.e., of the form H(1),δH(1),H(1),δH(1),..., where the parameter -1≤δ≤1 allows us to control the nonuniformity of the fields. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we found that those competitive surface fields lead to the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation that runs parallel to the walls. In finite samples, such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition, which is the precursor of a true wetting transition that takes place in the thermodynamic limit. By exactly working out the ground state (T=0), we found that besides the standard nonwet and wet phases, a surface antiferromagnetic-like state emerges for δ<-1/3 and large fields (H(1)>3), H(1)(tr)/J=3, δ(tr)=-1/3,T=0, being a triple point where three phases coexist. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that these features of the phase diagram remain at higher temperatures; e.g., we examined in detail the case T=0.7×T(cb). Furthermore, we also recorded phase diagrams for fixed values of δ, i.e., plots of the critical field at the wetting transition (H(1w)) versus T showing, on the one hand, that the exact results of Abraham [Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1165 (1980)] for δ=1 are recovered, and on the other hand, that extrapolations to T→0 are consistent with our exact results. Based on our numerical results we conjectured that the exact result for the phase diagram worked out by Abraham can be extended for the case of nonuniform fields. In fact, by considering a nonuniform surface field of some period λ, with λ0], one can obtain the effective field H(eff) at a λ coarse-grained level given by H(eff)=1/

  20. Thermoelectric detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a nanoscale ferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Bakker, F L; Flipse, J; Slachter, A; Wagenaar, D; van Wees, B J

    2012-04-20

    We present thermoelectric measurements of the heat dissipated due to ferromagnetic resonance of a Permalloy strip. A microwave magnetic field, produced by an on-chip coplanar strip waveguide, is used to drive the magnetization precession. The generated heat is detected via Seebeck measurements on a thermocouple connected to the ferromagnet. The observed resonance peak shape is in agreement with the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and is compared with thermoelectric finite-element modeling. Unlike other methods, this technique is not restricted to electrically conductive media and is therefore also applicable to for instance ferromagnetic insulators. PMID:22680756

  1. Ferromagnetic Microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrin, Feodor Y.; Petrov, Peter G.; Winlove, C. Peter

    2008-05-01

    We propose a model for a novel artificial low Reynolds number swimmer, based on the magnetic interactions of a pair of ferromagnetic particles: one with hard and the other with soft magnetic properties, connected by a linear spring. Using a computational model, we analyze the behavior of the system and demonstrate that for realistic values of the parameters involved, the swimmer is capable of self-propelling with average speeds of the order of hundreds of micrometers per second.

  2. Ferromagnetic microswimmers.

    PubMed

    Ogrin, Feodor Y; Petrov, Peter G; Winlove, C Peter

    2008-05-30

    We propose a model for a novel artificial low Reynolds number swimmer, based on the magnetic interactions of a pair of ferromagnetic particles: one with hard and the other with soft magnetic properties, connected by a linear spring. Using a computational model, we analyze the behavior of the system and demonstrate that for realistic values of the parameters involved, the swimmer is capable of self-propelling with average speeds of the order of hundreds of micrometers per second. PMID:18518640

  3. Quantum dynamical field theory for nonequilibrium phase transitions in driven open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Jamir; Diehl, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    We develop a quantum dynamical field theory for studying phase transitions in driven open systems coupled to Markovian noise, where nonlinear noise effects and fluctuations beyond semiclassical approximations influence the critical behavior. We systematically compare the diagrammatics, the properties of the renormalization group flow, and the structure of the fixed points of the quantum dynamical field theory and of its semiclassical counterpart, which is employed to characterize dynamical criticality in three-dimensional driven-dissipative condensates. As an application, we perform the Keldysh functional renormalization of a one-dimensional driven open Bose gas, where a tailored diffusion Markov noise realizes an analog of quantum criticality for driven-dissipative condensation. We find that the associated nonequilibrium quantum phase transition does not map into the critical behavior of its three-dimensional classical driven counterpart.

  4. Flow-Driven Cell Migration under External Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-12-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and they can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this Letter, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent.

  5. Fundamental properties of field emission-driven direct current microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbach, Paul; Go, David B.

    2012-11-01

    For half a century, it has been known that the onset of field emission in direct current microdischarges with gap sizes less than 10 μm can lead to breakdown at applied voltages far less than predicted by Paschen's law. It is still unclear how field emission affects other fundamental plasma properties at this scale. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to predict basic scaling laws for fundamental properties including ion density, electric field due to space charge, and current-voltage relations in the pre-breakdown regime. Computational results are compared with approximate analytic solutions. It is shown that field emission provides an abundance of cathode electrons, which in turn create large ion concentrations through ionizing collisions well before Paschen's criterion for breakdown is met. Breakdown due to ion-enhanced field emission occurs when the electric field due to space charge becomes comparable to the applied electric field. Simple scaling analysis of the 1D Poisson equation demonstrates that an ion density of n+ ≈ 0.1VAɛ0/qd2 is necessary to significantly distort the electric field. Defining breakdown in terms of this critical ion density leads analytically to a simple, effective secondary emission coefficient γ' of the same mathematical form initially suggested by Boyle and Kisliuk [Phys. Rev. 97, 255 (1955)].

  6. Plasma-satellite interaction driven magnetic field perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed-ur-Rehman; Marchand, Richard

    2014-09-15

    We report the first fully kinetic quantitative estimate of magnetic field perturbations caused by the interaction of a spacecraft with space environment. Such perturbations could affect measurements of geophysical magnetic fields made with very sensitive magnetometers on-board satellites. Our approach is illustrated with a calculation of perturbed magnetic fields near the recently launched Swarm satellites. In this case, magnetic field perturbations do not exceed 20 pT, and they are below the sensitivity threshold of the on-board magnetometers. Anticipating future missions in which satellites and instruments would be subject to more intense solar UV radiation, however, it appears that magnetic field perturbations associated with satellite interaction with space environment, might approach or exceed instruments' sensitivity thresholds.

  7. Magnetic properties of an Ising ferromagnetic model on a square lattice with next-nearest-neighbor and crystal field interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Espriella, N.; Arenas, Abraham J.; Páez Meza, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    We studied an Ising ferromagnet on a bipartite square lattice with nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic exchange couplings between spin values SiA = 2 and σjB = 5 / 2, next-nearest-neighbor exchange couplings between spins, SiA = 2 and an average term of single-ion anisotropy for each lattice site. We carried out Monte Carlo simulations on the planes (D‧ ,kB T‧) and (J2‧ ,kB T‧) to investigate the influence of exchange parameters J2‧ and anisotropy of D‧ lattice on the critical temperature of the system. The thermal behaviors of the sublattice magnetizations, total magnetization and specific heat were investigated. We found that the critical behavior system depends linearly on the next-nearest-neighbor interaction J2‧ and for antiferromagnetic exchange interactions the system undergoes reentrant phenomena.

  8. A 3D MOF constructed from dysprosium(III) oxalate and capping ligands: ferromagnetic coupling and field-induced two-step magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai-Ming; Zhang, De-Qing; Zhu, Dao-Ben

    2016-04-01

    A novel 3D MOF based on dysprosium(iii) oxalate and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), {[Dy(C2O4)1.5phen]·0.5H2O}n (1), has been hydrothermally synthesized. The Dy(3+) ion acts as a typical Y-shaped node, linking to each other to generate an interesting 3D topology structure. Complex 1 is the first 3D DyMOF displaying both ferromagnetic coupling and field-induced two-step magnetic relaxation. PMID:26961387

  9. A 3D MOF constructed from dysprosium(III) oxalate and capping ligands: ferromagnetic coupling and field-induced two-step magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai-Ming; Zhang, De-Qing; Zhu, Dao-Ben

    2016-04-01

    A novel 3D MOF based on dysprosium(iii) oxalate and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), {[Dy(C2O4)1.5phen]·0.5H2O}n (1), has been hydrothermally synthesized. The Dy(3+) ion acts as a typical Y-shaped node, linking to each other to generate an interesting 3D topology structure. Complex 1 is the first 3D DyMOF displaying both ferromagnetic coupling and field-induced two-step magnetic relaxation.

  10. Inversion of the electric field driven by ionic solvation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero Garcia, Guillermo; Solis, Francisco; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-03-01

    In previous studies, Monte Carlo simulations have suggested the possibility of inverting the electric field near a liquid/liquid interface due to excluded volume effects, ionic size asymmetry, and image charges at high electrolyte concentrations in the absence of ion transfer. In this work, we develop a mean field theory and coarse grained simulations to study the ion transfer between the two immiscible electrolytes in the presence of an electric field. Our calculations suggest a novel mechanism to invert the electric field near confined oil/water interfaces based on differences of the ionic solvation energy in both liquid media. We thank the support of the Office of the Secretary of Defense under the NSSEFF program award number FA9550-10-1-0167.

  11. Electric Field Driven Self-Assembly of Colloidal Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Jaime; Chaudhary, Kundan; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve; Lewis, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    The ability to assemble anisotropic colloidal building blocks into ordered configurations is of both scientific and technological importance. We are studying how electric field-induced interactions guide the self-assembly of these blocks into well aligned microstructures. Specifically, we present observations of the assembly of colloidal silica rods (L/D ˜ 4) within planar electrode cells as a function of different electric field parameters. Results from video microscopy and image analysis demonstrate that aligned microstructures form due to the competition between equilibrium interactions of induced dipoles and non-equilibrium processes (i.e., electro-osmosis). Under the appropriate electric field conditions (˜ kHZ AC fields), aligned colloidal rod fluids form over large areas on the electrode surface. The superposition of a DC electric field to this aligned colloidal rod fluid initiates their condensation into a vertically oriented crystalline phase. Ongoing work is now focused on exploring how temporal changes to electric fields influence colloidal rod dynamics and, hence, the assembly kinetics of aligned colloidal monolayers.

  12. Spin-1 J1 -J2 -J3 ferromagnetic Heisenberg model with an easy-plane crystal field on the cubic lattice: A bosonic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, D. C.; Pires, A. S. T.; Mól, L. A. S.

    2016-06-01

    We examine the phase diagram of the spin-1 J1 -J2 -J3 ferromagnetic Heisenberg model with an easy-plane crystal field on the cubic lattice, in which J1 is the ferromagnetic exchange interaction between nearest neighbors, J2 is the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between next-nearest neighbors and J3 is the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between next-next-nearest neighbors. Using the bond-operator formalism, we investigate the phase transitions between the disordered paramagnetic phase and the ordered ones. We show that the nature of the quantum phase transitions changes as the frustration parameters (J2/J1, J3/J1) are varied. The zero-temperature phase diagram exhibits second- and first-order transitions, depending on the energy gap behavior. Remarkably, we find a disordered nonmagnetic phase, even in the absence of a crystal field, which is suggested to be a quantum spin liquid candidate. We also depict the phase diagram at finite temperature for some values of crystal field and frustration parameters.

  13. Three-dimensional measurement of temperature and velocity field in buoyancy driven flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Sato, Gen; Ohkawa, Youhei

    2008-11-01

    Three-dimensional measurements of temperature and velocity field in buoyancy driven flows are carried out using a background oriented Schlieren combined with tomographic reconstruction technique. This method is based on the refractive index measurement in the three-dimensional flow field, and the corresponding velocity field is evaluated from the displacement of the measured temperature field. The accuracy of this measurement is examined using the artificial images derived from the numerical simulation.

  14. Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kusa, F.; Echternkamp, K. E.; Herink, G.; Ropers, C.; Ashihara, S.

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate strong-field photoelectron emission from gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared optical pulses. The maximum photoelectron yield is reached at the localized surface plasmon resonance, indicating that the photoemission is governed by the resonantly-enhanced optical near-field. The wavelength- and field-dependent photoemission yield allows for a noninvasive determination of local field enhancements, and we obtain intensity enhancement factors close to 1300, in good agreement with finite-difference time domain computations.

  15. Field-induced transition of the magnetic ground state from A-type antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic order in CsCo2Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohr, Fabian; Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Grundmann, Henrik; Guguchia, Zurab; Schnick, Wolfgang; Schilling, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of CsCo2Se2 with ThCr2Si2 structure, which we have characterized through a series of magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. We find that CsCo2Se2 undergoes a phase transition to an antiferromagnetically ordered state with a Néel temperature of {{T}\\text{N}}≈ 66 K. The nearest neighbour interactions are ferromagnetic as observed by the positive Curie-Weiss temperature of \\Theta≈ 51.0 K. We find that the magnetic structure of CsCo2Se2 consists of ferromagnetic sheets, which are stacked antiferromagnetically along the tetragonal c-axis, generally referred to as A-type antiferromagnetic order. The observed magnitude of the ordered magnetic moment at T  =  1.5 K is found to be only 0.20(1){μ\\text{Bohr}}  / Co. Already in comparably small magnetic fields of {μ0}H{{}\\text{MM}}(5~K)≈ 0.3 T, we observe a metamagnetic transition that can be attributed to spin-rearrangements of CsCo2Se2, with the moments fully ferromagnetically saturated in a magnetic field of {μ0}{{H}\\text{FM}}(5~K)≈ 6.4 T. We discuss the entire experimentally deduced magnetic phase diagram for CsCo2Se2 with respect to its unconventionally weak magnetic coupling. Our study characterizes CsCo2Se2, which is chemically and electronically posed closely to the A x Fe2-y Se2 superconductors, as a host of versatile magnetic interactions.

  16. Properties of a field emission-driven Townsend discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbach, Paul; Go, David

    2012-10-01

    For half a century, it has been known that the onset of field emission in direct current (DC) microplasmas with gap sizes less than 10 μm can lead to breakdown at applied voltages far less than predicted by Paschen's law. It is still unclear how field emission affects other fundamental plasma properties at this scale. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to predict basic scaling laws for fundamental properties such as ion density, electric field due to space charge, and current voltage relations in the pre-breakdown regime. Computational results are compared with approximate analytic solutions. It is shown that ionizing collisions by field-emitted electrons produce significant ion densities well before Paschen's criteria for breakdown is met. When positive space charge densities become sufficiently large, the effect of ion-enhanced field emission leads to breakdown. Defining breakdown mathematically using a solvability condition leads to a full modified Paschen's curve, while defining it physically in terms of a critical ion density leads analytically to an effective secondary emission coefficient, γ', of the form initially suggested by Boyle and Kisliuk.footnotetextBoyle, W.S. and Kisliuk, P., Phys. Rev. 97, 255 (1955).

  17. Flow field topology of transient mixing driven by buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M B.

    2004-01-01

    Transient mixing driven by buoyancy occurs through the birth of a symmetric Rayleigh-Taylor morphology (RTM) structure for large length scales. Beyond its critical bifurcation the RTM structure exhibits self-similarity and occurs on smaller and smaller length scales. The dynamics of the RTM structure, its nonlinear growth and internal collision, show that its genesis occurs from an explosive bifurcation which leads to the overlap of resonance regions in phase space. This event shows the coexistence of regular and chaotic regions in phase space which is corroborated with the existence of horseshoe maps. A measure of local chaos given by the topological entropy indicates that as the system evolves there is growth of uncertainty. Breakdown of the dissipative RTM structure occurs during the transition from explosive to catastrophic bifurcation; this event gives rise to annihilation of the separatrices which drives overlap of resonance regions. The global bifurcation of explosive and catastrophic events in phase space for the large length scale of the RTM structure serves as a template for which mixing occurs on smaller and smaller length scales. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Gravity Driven Universe: Energy from a Unified Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Roy

    2012-10-01

    One way or another, whether push or pull, we know for sure that gravity is omnidirectional with identical mathematics. With PULL, gravity can be seen as as a property of matter. If so something is wrong. The Moon, lifting the tides twice-daily, should have fallen into orbital decay, with Earth having pulled it down eons ago. It is puzzling that physicists are not troubled by the fact that the Moon not only insists on forever lifting the tides, but, adding insult to injury, keeps moving it about 4 cm further away from Earth each year. Now if instead, we consider gravity as driven by an omnidirectional pressure--a PUSH force, another possibility arises. We can consider that it is mysteriously infusing energy into the Earth-Moon system, sustaining the Moon's orbit with the appearance of raising the tides and actually pushing it away from Earth. Here we can show push and pull, while being identical in their mathematics, have different outcomes. With push, gravity is a property of the universe. If this is true, then gravitation is flowing from an everlasting source, and the Earth/Moon system is one example of many other vacuum energy machines in the universe.

  19. Simulations of particle structuring driven by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Vlahovska, Petia; Miksis, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments (Ouriemi and Vlahovska, 2014) show intriguing surface patterns when a uniform electric field is applied to a droplet covered with colloidal particles. Depending on the particle properties and the electric field intensity, particles organize into an equatorial belt, pole-to-pole chains, or dynamic vortices. Here we present 3D simulations of the collective particle dynamics, which account for electrohydrodynamic flow and dielectrophoresis of particles. In stronger electric fields, particles are expected to undergo Quincke rotation and impose disturbance to the ambient flow. Transition from ribbon-shaped belt to rotating clusters is observed in the presence of the rotation-induced hydrodynamical interactions. Our results provide insight into the various particle assembles discovered in the experiments.

  20. Field-driven transitions in the dipolar pyrochlore antiferromagnet Gd2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cépas, Olivier; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2004-05-01

    We present a mean-field theory for magnetic-field-driven transitions in dipolar coupled gadolinium titanate Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore system. Low-temperature neutron scattering yields a phase that can be regarded as a eight sublattice antiferromagnet, in which long-ranged ordered moments and fluctuating moments coexist. Our theory gives parameter regions where such a phase is realized, and predicts several other phases, with transitions amongst them driven by magnetic field as well as temperature. We find several instances of local disorder parameters describing the transitions.

  1. Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan

    2015-12-01

    A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.

  2. Electric field driven fractal growth dynamics in polymeric medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawar, Anit; Chandra, Amita

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the extension of earlier work (Dawar and Chandra, 2012) [27] by including the influence of low values of electric field on diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) patterns in polymer electrolyte composites. Subsequently, specified cut-off value of voltage has been determined. Below the cut-off voltage, the growth becomes direction independent (i.e., random) and gives rise to ramified DLA patterns while above the cut-off, growth is governed by diffusion, convection and migration. These three terms (i.e., diffusion, convection and migration) lead to structural transition that varies from dense branched morphology (DBM) to chain-like growth to dendritic growth, i.e., from high field region (A) to constant field region (B) to low field region (C), respectively. The paper further explores the growth under different kinds of electrode geometries (circular and square electrode geometry). A qualitative explanation for fractal growth phenomena at applied voltage based on Nernst-Planck equation has been proposed.

  3. FLARES IN THE CRAB NEBULA DRIVEN BY UNTWISTING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, Peter; Aschwanden, Markus J. E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com

    2012-06-01

    The recent discovery of PeV electrons from the Crab Nebula, produced on rapid timescales of one day or less with a sharply peaked gamma-ray spectrum without hard X-rays, challenges traditional models of diffusive shock acceleration followed by synchrotron radiation. Here, we outline an acceleration model involving a DC electric field parallel to the magnetic field in a twisted toroidal field around the pulsar. Sudden developments of resistivity in localized regions of the twisted field are thought to drive the particle acceleration, up to PeV energies, resulting in flares. This model can reproduce the observed timescales of T Almost-Equal-To 1 day, the peak photon energies of U{sub {Phi},rr} Almost-Equal-To 1 MeV, maximum electron energies of U{sub e,rr} Almost-Equal-To 1 PeV, and luminosities of L Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}.

  4. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics. PMID:27232012

  5. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F.; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, N ℏ≫I Ω (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin N ℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t-3 /2. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  6. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  7. Current Filament Merging Driven by Cross-Field Plasma Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Collette, A.; Cooper, C.

    2007-05-01

    The study of the penetration and mixing of plasmas with differing density, temperature, and species composition has wide-ranging applicability to space plasma systems such as coronal mass ejections, magnetic clouds, galactic jets, and super novae. In these laboratory experiments, two high-beta plasmas are created using a pair of 1.5J, 8ns lasers which strike facing solid carbon targets at right angles to the background magnetic field. The targets are immersed within a low-beta, helium plasma and the lasers are aimed to produce head-on, or glancing collisions. The cylindrical background plasma is 17 m long (10 parallel Alfven wavelengths) by 60 cm wide (300 ρi or 175 c/ωpe). The laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) expand as diamagnetic cavities, become polarized, and then E× B drift at speeds of Mach 10 (v/cs) across the field. As they do so, the ambient plasma facilitates charge separation between energetic LPP electrons and relatively unmagnetized 1keV LPP ions. One of the many resulting dynamic features is the release of a continuous stream of electrons from each LPP. Downstream from the LPP merging, the fast electron current filaments come together with reconnection-like X-line field patterns and eventually merge with a broadband spectrum of electromagnetic (whistler wave) fluctuations. Near-miss LPP collisions result in elongated current sheet formations and the shedding of magnetic field eddies. Current sheet thicknesses are a few electron inertial lengths and the width is approximately one ion inertial length. These results will be presented along with 3D measurements of the magnetic fields and the underlying current systems. These experiments are conducted at the Basic Plasma Science Facility, in the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD) located at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA. This work is funded by the United States Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  8. Phase segregation of superconductivity and ferromagnetism at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, N; Taraphder, A

    2014-01-15

    The highly conductive two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between insulating SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 shows low-temperature superconductivity coexisting with inhomogeneous ferromagnetism. The Rashba spin-orbit interaction with the in-plane Zeeman field of the system favors p(x) ± ip(y)-wave superconductivity at finite momentum. Owing to the intrinsic disorder at the interface, the role of spatial inhomogeneity in the superconducting and ferromagnetic states becomes important. We find that, for strong disorder, the system breaks up into mutually excluded regions of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. This inhomogeneity-driven electronic phase separation accounts for the unusual coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism observed at the interface.

  9. Field driven charging dynamics of a fluidized granular bed.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, R; Araújo, N A M; Shinbrot, T; Herrmann, H J

    2016-07-20

    A simplified model has previously described the inductive charging of colliding identical grains in the presence of an external electric field. Here we extend that model by including heterogeneous surface charge distributions, grain rotations and electrostatic interactions between grains. We find from this more realistic model that strong heterogeneities in charging can occur in agitated granular beds, and we predict that shielding due to these heterogeneities can dramatically alter the charging rate in such beds.

  10. Field driven charging dynamics of a fluidized granular bed.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, R; Araújo, N A M; Shinbrot, T; Herrmann, H J

    2016-07-20

    A simplified model has previously described the inductive charging of colliding identical grains in the presence of an external electric field. Here we extend that model by including heterogeneous surface charge distributions, grain rotations and electrostatic interactions between grains. We find from this more realistic model that strong heterogeneities in charging can occur in agitated granular beds, and we predict that shielding due to these heterogeneities can dramatically alter the charging rate in such beds. PMID:27357361

  11. A model of the radiation-induced bystander effect based on an analogy with ferromagnets. Application to modelling tissue response in a uniform field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliev, O. N.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a model of the radiation-induced bystander effect based on an analogy with magnetic systems. The main benefit of this approach is that it allowed us to apply powerful methods of statistical mechanics. The model exploits the similarity between how spin-spin interactions result in correlations of spin states in ferromagnets, and how signalling from a damaged cell reduces chances of survival of neighbour cells, resulting in correlated cell states. At the root of the model is a classical Hamiltonian, similar to that of an Ising ferromagnet with long-range interactions. The formalism is developed in the framework of the Mean Field Theory. It is applied to modelling tissue response in a uniform radiation field. In this case the results are remarkably simple and at the same time nontrivial. They include cell survival curves, expressions for the tumour control probability and effects of fractionation. The model extends beyond of what is normally considered as bystander effects. It offers an insight into low-dose hypersensitivity and into mechanisms behind threshold doses for deterministic effects.

  12. Quantum driven dissipative parametric oscillator in a blackbody radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Brumer, Paul

    2014-01-15

    We consider the general open system problem of a charged quantum oscillator confined in a harmonic trap, whose frequency can be arbitrarily modulated in time, that interacts with both an incoherent quantized (blackbody) radiation field and with an arbitrary coherent laser field. We assume that the oscillator is initially in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, a non-factorized initial density matrix of the system and the environment, and that at t = 0 the modulation of the frequency, the coupling to the incoherent and the coherent radiation are switched on. The subsequent dynamics, induced by the presence of the blackbody radiation, the laser field, and the frequency modulation, is studied in the framework of the influence functional approach. This approach allows incorporating, in analytic closed formulae, the non-Markovian character of the oscillator-environment interaction at any temperature as well the non-Markovian character of the blackbody radiation and its zero-point fluctuations. Expressions for the time evolution of the covariance matrix elements of the quantum fluctuations and the reduced density-operator are obtained.

  13. JET ROTATION DRIVEN BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHOCKS IN HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fendt, Christian

    2011-08-10

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the hypothesis that a rotation of astrophysical jets can be caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in a helical magnetic field. Shock compression of the helical magnetic field results in a toroidal Lorentz force component that will accelerate the jet material in the toroidal direction. This process transforms magnetic angular momentum (magnetic stress) carried along the jet into kinetic angular momentum (rotation). The mechanism proposed here only works in a helical magnetic field configuration. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism by axisymmetric MHD simulations in 1.5 and 2.5 dimensions using the PLUTO code. In our setup, the jet is injected into the ambient gas with zero kinetic angular momentum (no rotation). We apply different dynamical parameters for jet propagation such as the jet internal Alfven Mach number and fast magnetosonic Mach number, the density contrast of the jet to the ambient medium, and the external sonic Mach number of the jet. The mechanism we suggest should work for a variety of jet applications, e.g., protostellar or extragalactic jets, and internal jet shocks (jet knots) or external shocks between the jet and the ambient gas (entrainment). For typical parameter values for protostellar jets, the numerically derived rotation feature looks consistent with the observations, i.e., rotational velocities of 0.1%-1% of the jet bulk velocity.

  14. Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

  15. Self-assembly of colloidal bands driven by a periodic external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, André S.; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the formation of bands of colloidal particles driven by periodic external fields. Using Brownian dynamics, we determine the dependence of the band width on the strength of the particle interactions and on the intensity and periodicity of the field. We also investigate the switching (field-on) dynamics and the relaxation times as a function of the system parameters. The observed scaling relations were analyzed using a simple dynamic density-functional theory of fluids.

  16. Flexible chains of ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Townsend, James; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Galabura, Yuriy; Luzinov, Igor

    2014-07-22

    We report the fabrication of flexible chains of ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles that possess the ability to adapt other than the typically observed rigid (nearly) straight configurations in the absence of an external magnetic field. The dynamic mobility of the ferromagnetic chains originates from a layer of densely grafted polyethylene glycol macromolecules enveloping each nanoparticle in the chain. While ferromagnetic chains of unmodified Ni nanoparticles behave as stiff nickel nanorods, the chains made of the grafted nanoparticles demonstrate extreme flexibility. Upon changing the direction of the field, and inevitably going through a zero-field point, the shorter chains undergo chain-globule-chain transformation. The longer chains can bend to a high degree, attaining "snake-like" configurations.

  17. Anomalous Hall Effect in a Kagome Ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Linda; Wicker, Christina; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph; Joseph Checkelsky Team

    The ferromagnetic kagome lattice is theoretically known to possess topological band structures. We have synthesized large single crystals of a kagome ferromagnet Fe3Sn2 which orders ferromagnetically well above room temperature. We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these crystals over a broad temperature and magnetic field range. Both the scaling relation of anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility show that the ferromagnetism of Fe3Sn2 is unconventional. We discuss these results in the context of magnetism in kagome systems and relevance to the predicted topological properties in this class of compounds. This research is supported by DMR-1231319.

  18. Evidence of a pseudogap driven by competing orders of multi-band origin in the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Mohammad; Paul, Arpita; Thakur, Gohil S.; Gayen, Sirshendu; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Avtar; Das, Shekhar; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-05-01

    From temperature and magnetic field dependent point-contact spectroscopy on the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 (bulk superconducting {{T}\\text{c}}=2.5 K) we observe (a) a pseudogap in the normal state that sustains to a remarkably high temperature of 40 K and (b) two-fold enhancement of T c upto 5 K in the point-contact geometry. In addition, Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals a superconducting gap of 6 meV for certain point-contacts suggesting that the mean field T c of this system could be approximately 40 K, the onset temperature of pseudo-gap. Our results suggest that quantum fluctuations originating from other competing orders in Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 forbid a global phase coherence at high temperatures thereby suppressing T c. Apart from the known ordering to a ferromagnetic state, our first-principles calculations reveal nesting of a multi-band Fermi surface and a significant electron-phonon coupling that could result in charge density wave-like instabilities.

  19. Evidence of a pseudogap driven by competing orders of multi-band origin in the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammad; Paul, Arpita; Thakur, Gohil S; Gayen, Sirshendu; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Avtar; Das, Shekhar; Ganguli, Ashok K; Waghmare, Umesh V; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-05-18

    From temperature and magnetic field dependent point-contact spectroscopy on the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 (bulk superconducting [Formula: see text] K) we observe (a) a pseudogap in the normal state that sustains to a remarkably high temperature of 40 K and (b) two-fold enhancement of T c upto 5 K in the point-contact geometry. In addition, Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals a superconducting gap of 6 meV for certain point-contacts suggesting that the mean field T c of this system could be approximately 40 K, the onset temperature of pseudo-gap. Our results suggest that quantum fluctuations originating from other competing orders in Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 forbid a global phase coherence at high temperatures thereby suppressing T c. Apart from the known ordering to a ferromagnetic state, our first-principles calculations reveal nesting of a multi-band Fermi surface and a significant electron-phonon coupling that could result in charge density wave-like instabilities.

  20. Vortex Flipping in Superconductor-Ferromagnet Spin Valve Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino, Edgar J.; Aprili, Marco; Blamire, Mark; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2014-03-01

    We report in plane magnetization measurements on Ni/Nb/Ni/CoO and Co/Nb/Co/CoO spin valve structures with one of the ferromagnetic layers pinned by an antiferromagnetic layer. In samples with Ni, below the superconducting transition Tc, our results show strong evidence of vortex flipping driven by the ferromagnets magnetization. This is a direct consequence of proximity effect that leads to vortex supercurrents leakage into the ferromagnets. Here the polarized electron spins are subject to vortices magnetic field occasioning vortex flipping. Such novel mechanism has been made possible for the first time by fabrication of the F/S/F/AF multilayered spin valves with a thin-enough S layer to barely confine vortices inside as well as thin-enough F layers to align and control the magnetization within the plane. When Co is used there is no observation of vortex flipping effect. This is attributed to Co shorter coherence length. Interestingly instead a reduction in pinning field of about 400 Oe is observed when the Nb layer is in superconducting state. This effect cannot be explained in terms of vortex fields. In view of these facts any explanation must be directly related to proximity effect and thus a remarkable phenomenon that deserves further investigation. Programa Nacional de Ciencias Basicas COLCIENCIAS (No. 120452128168).

  1. Phase-field-crystal model of phase and microstructural stability in driven nanocrystalline systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Opoku, Nana; Hoyt, Jeffrey J.; Provatas, Nikolas

    2012-12-01

    We present a phase-field-crystal model for driven systems which describes competing effects between thermally activated diffusional processes and those driven by externally imposed ballistic events. The model demonstrates how the mesoscopic Enrique and Bellon [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.84.2885 84, 2885 (2000)] model of externally induced ballistic mixing can be incorporated into the atomistic phase-field-crystal formalism. The combination of the two approaches results in a model capable of describing the microstructural and compositional evolution of a driven system while incorporating elastoplastic effects. The model is applied to the study of grain growth in nanocrystalline materials subjected to an external driving.

  2. Resonances of an oscillating conductive pipe driven by an alternating magnetic field in the presence of a static magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    A short conducting pipe that hangs from a weak spring is forced to oscillate by the magnetic field of a surrounding coaxial coil that has been excited by a low-frequency current source in the presence of an additional static magnetic field. Induced oscillating currents appear in the pipe. The pipe motion becomes damped by the dragging forces between the induced currents and the static field. This oscillating system presents an interesting set of properties. To start with, it is not a magnet interacting with the oscillating field of a coil. The oscillating pipe is not even a ferromagnet. It is a new and conceptually rich case of a damped forced oscillator whose motion differential equation contains coefficients that depend upon a parameter. Here, we present and analytically explain the case of the small amplitude oscillations of this magneto-mechanical system. The ordinary amplitude and phase resonance curves are theoretically derived and confirmed by the set of experimental results presented. This oscillator is inexpensive and simple to set up, does not require sophisticated instrumentation, and with its interesting analytical model, is recommended either as an undergraduate laboratory experiment, as student project work, or even as a demonstration experiment. In loving memory of our late colleague and friend Professor Darío Moreno

  3. A Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek; Sushkov, Alexander; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω when IΩ << Nℏ , where I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle. In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics. Supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation, Simons Foundation, and the National Science Foundation.

  4. Optical signatures of electric-field-driven magnetic phase transitions in graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Tista; Shukla, Alok

    2016-06-01

    Experimental challenges in identifying various types of magnetic ordering in graphene quantum dots (QDs) pose a major hurdle in the application of these nanostructures for spintronic devices. Based upon phase diagrams obtained by employing the π -electron Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that the magnetic states undergo phase transition under the influence of an external electric field. Our calculations of the electroabsorption spectra of these QDs indicate that the spectrum in question carries strong signatures of their magnetic state (FM vs AFM), thus suggesting the possibility of an all-optical characterization of their magnetic nature. Further, the gaps for the up and the down spins are the same in the absence of an external electric field, both for the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and the ferromagnetic (FM) states of QDs. But, once the QDs are exposed to a suitably directed external electric field, gaps for different spins split and exhibit distinct variations with respect to the strength of the field. The nature of variation exhibited by the energy gaps corresponding to the up and down spins is different for the AFM and FM configurations of QDs. This selective manipulation of the spin-polarized gap splitting by an electric field in finite graphene nanostructures can open up new frontiers in the design of graphene-based spintronic devices.

  5. Superdiffusion in dispersions of active colloids driven by an external field and their sedimentation equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Wei, Hsien-Hung; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2016-04-01

    The diffusive behaviors of active colloids with run-and-tumble movement are explored by dissipative particle dynamics simulations for self-propelled particles (force dipole) and external field-driven particles (point force). The self-diffusion of tracers (solvent) is investigated as well. The influences of the active force, run time, and concentration associated with active particles are studied. For the system of self-propelled particles, the normal diffusion is observed for both active particles and tracers. The diffusivity of the former is significantly greater than that of the latter. For the system of field-driven particles, the superdiffusion is seen for both active particles and tracers. In contrast, it is found that the anomalous diffusion exponent of the former is slightly less than that of the latter. The anomalous diffusion is caused by the many-body, long-range hydrodynamic interactions. In spite of the superdiffusion, the sedimentation equilibrium of field-driven particles can be acquired and the density profile is still exponentially decayed. The sedimentation length of field-driven particles is always greater than that of self-propelled particles.

  6. Superdiffusion in dispersions of active colloids driven by an external field and their sedimentation equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Wei, Hsien-Hung; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2016-04-01

    The diffusive behaviors of active colloids with run-and-tumble movement are explored by dissipative particle dynamics simulations for self-propelled particles (force dipole) and external field-driven particles (point force). The self-diffusion of tracers (solvent) is investigated as well. The influences of the active force, run time, and concentration associated with active particles are studied. For the system of self-propelled particles, the normal diffusion is observed for both active particles and tracers. The diffusivity of the former is significantly greater than that of the latter. For the system of field-driven particles, the superdiffusion is seen for both active particles and tracers. In contrast, it is found that the anomalous diffusion exponent of the former is slightly less than that of the latter. The anomalous diffusion is caused by the many-body, long-range hydrodynamic interactions. In spite of the superdiffusion, the sedimentation equilibrium of field-driven particles can be acquired and the density profile is still exponentially decayed. The sedimentation length of field-driven particles is always greater than that of self-propelled particles. PMID:27176356

  7. Electric field driven plasmon dispersion in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ren-Bing; Qin, Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Wen

    2013-11-01

    We present a theoretical study on the electric field driven plasmon dispersion of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). By introducing a drifted Fermi—Dirac distribution, we calculate the transport properties of the 2DEG in the AlGaN/GaN interface by employing the balance-equation approach based on the Boltzmann equation. Then, the nonequilibrium Fermi—Dirac function is obtained by applying the calculated electron drift velocity and electron temperature. Under random phase approximation (RPA), the electric field driven plasmon dispersion is investigated. The calculated results indicate that the plasmon frequency is dominated by both the electric field E and the angle between wavevector q and electric field E. Importantly, the plasmon frequency could be tuned by the applied source—drain bias voltage besides the gate voltage (change of the electron density).

  8. First-order antiferro-ferromagnetic transition in Fe(49)(Rh(0.93)Pd(0.07))(51) under simultaneous application of magnetic field and external pressure.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Pallavi; Bag, Pallab; Rawat, R; Chaddah, P

    2012-03-01

    A magnetic field-pressure-temperature (H-P-T) phase diagram for first-order antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transitions in Fe(49)(Rh(0.93)Pd(0.07))(51) has been constructed using resistivity measurements under simultaneous application of magnetic field (up to 8 T) and pressure (up to 20 kbar). The temperature dependence of resistivity (ρ-T) shows that the width of the transition and the extent of hysteresis decreases with pressure and increases with magnetic field. By exploiting opposing trends of dT(N)/dP and dT(N)/dH (where T(N) is the first-order transition temperature), the relative effects of temperature, magnetic field and pressure on disorder-broadened first-order transitions has been studied. For this, a set of H and P values are chosen for which T(N)(H(1),P(1)) = T(N)(H(2),P(2)). Measurements for such combinations of H and P show that the temperature dependence of resistivity is similar, i.e. the broadening (in temperature) of transition as well as the extent of hysteresis remains independent of H and P. Isothermal magnetoresistance measurements under various constant pressures show that even though the critical field required for AFM-FM transition depends on applied pressure, the extent of hysteresis as well as transition width (in magnetic field) remains constant with varying pressure.

  9. Electric-field-driven electron-transfer in mixed-valence molecules.

    PubMed

    Blair, Enrique P; Corcelli, Steven A; Lent, Craig S

    2016-07-01

    Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata is a computing paradigm in which digital information is encoded by the charge configuration of a mixed-valence molecule. General-purpose computing can be achieved by arranging these compounds on a substrate and exploiting intermolecular Coulombic coupling. The operation of such a device relies on nonequilibrium electron transfer (ET), whereby the time-varying electric field of one molecule induces an ET event in a neighboring molecule. The magnitude of the electric fields can be quite large because of close spatial proximity, and the induced ET rate is a measure of the nonequilibrium response of the molecule. We calculate the electric-field-driven ET rate for a model mixed-valence compound. The mixed-valence molecule is regarded as a two-state electronic system coupled to a molecular vibrational mode, which is, in turn, coupled to a thermal environment. Both the electronic and vibrational degrees-of-freedom are treated quantum mechanically, and the dissipative vibrational-bath interaction is modeled with the Lindblad equation. This approach captures both tunneling and nonadiabatic dynamics. Relationships between microscopic molecular properties and the driven ET rate are explored for two time-dependent applied fields: an abruptly switched field and a linearly ramped field. In both cases, the driven ET rate is only weakly temperature dependent. When the model is applied using parameters appropriate to a specific mixed-valence molecule, diferrocenylacetylene, terahertz-range ET transfer rates are predicted. PMID:27394108

  10. Electric-field-driven electron-transfer in mixed-valence molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Enrique P.; Corcelli, Steven A.; Lent, Craig S.

    2016-07-01

    Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata is a computing paradigm in which digital information is encoded by the charge configuration of a mixed-valence molecule. General-purpose computing can be achieved by arranging these compounds on a substrate and exploiting intermolecular Coulombic coupling. The operation of such a device relies on nonequilibrium electron transfer (ET), whereby the time-varying electric field of one molecule induces an ET event in a neighboring molecule. The magnitude of the electric fields can be quite large because of close spatial proximity, and the induced ET rate is a measure of the nonequilibrium response of the molecule. We calculate the electric-field-driven ET rate for a model mixed-valence compound. The mixed-valence molecule is regarded as a two-state electronic system coupled to a molecular vibrational mode, which is, in turn, coupled to a thermal environment. Both the electronic and vibrational degrees-of-freedom are treated quantum mechanically, and the dissipative vibrational-bath interaction is modeled with the Lindblad equation. This approach captures both tunneling and nonadiabatic dynamics. Relationships between microscopic molecular properties and the driven ET rate are explored for two time-dependent applied fields: an abruptly switched field and a linearly ramped field. In both cases, the driven ET rate is only weakly temperature dependent. When the model is applied using parameters appropriate to a specific mixed-valence molecule, diferrocenylacetylene, terahertz-range ET transfer rates are predicted.

  11. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar; Harold J. , Harris; Christopher Kelvin

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  12. First-order phase transition from an antiferromagnetic ferroelectric to a cycloidal multiferroic with weak ferromagnetism during the joint action of applied magnetic and electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A. Lyubutin, I. S.

    2013-09-15

    The thermodynamics of the phase transition in a perovskite-like multiferroic, in which an antiferromagnetic ferroelectric transforms into a new magnetic state where a spiral spin structure and weak ferromagnetism can coexist in applied magnetic field H, is described. This state forms as a result of a first-order phase transition at a certain temperature (below Neel temperature T{sub N}), where a helicoidal magnetic structure appears due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya effect. In this case, the axes of electric polarization and the helicoid of magnetic moments are mutually perpendicular and lie in the ab plane, which is normal to principal axis c. Additional electric polarization p, which decreases the total polarization of the ferroelectric P, appears in the ab plane. The effect of applied magnetic and electric fields on the properties of a multiferroic with a helicoidal magnetic structure is described. An alternating electric field is shown to cause a field-linear change in magnetic moment m, whose sign is opposite to the sign of the change of electric field E. The detected hysteretic phenomena that determine the temperature ranges of overheating and supercooling of each phase are explained. A comparison with the experimental data is performed.

  13. A platform to study magnetic field amplification of laser driven shocks due to induced turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinecke, Jena; Doyle, Hugo; Bell, A. R.; Crowston, Robert; Drake, Paul; Fatenejad, M.; Hartley, Nick; Koenig, Michel; Kuramitsu, Y.; Kuranz, Carolyn; Lamb, Don; MacDonald, Mike; Miniati, F.; Murphy, Chris; Pelka, Alex; Ravasio, Alessandra; Reville, Brian; Sakawa, Y.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Scopatz, Anthony; Tzeferacos, Petros; Wan, Wesley; Woolsey, Nigel; Gregori, Gianluca

    2012-10-01

    Misaligned pressure and temperature gradients associated with asymmetrical shock waves generate currents which seed magnetic fields (Biermann battery process). These fields could then be further amplified by increasing particle gyration driven by vorticity and turbulence. Studies of such phenomena have been conducted at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and scaled to astrophysical conditions (e.g., protogalacitc structure formation) using magnetohydrodynamic scaling techniques. Shock waves were driven in a 1 mbar Argon gas filled chamber from ablation of 500 micron Carbon rods using 300 J of 527 nm, 1 ns pulse light. A plastic grid was positioned 1 cm from the target to drive turbulence with outer scale ˜1 mm (the size of the grid opening). An induction coil, located 2 cm from the grid, was used to measure the magnetic field while optical diagnostics were used to track the fluid flow. Preliminary results and comparisons with hydrodynamic codes will be shown.

  14. Double-electron recombination in high-order-harmonic generation driven by spatially inhomogeneous fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, Alexis; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2016-10-01

    We present theoretical studies of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) driven by plasmonic fields in two-electron atomic systems. Comparing the single- and two-electron active approximation models of the hydrogen negative ion, we provide strong evidence that a nonsequential double-electron recombination mechanism appears to be mainly responsible for the HHG cutoff extension. Our analysis is carried out by means of a reduced one-dimensional numerical integration of the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and on investigations of the classical electron trajectories, resulting from the Newton's equation of motion. Additional comparisons between the hydrogen negative ion and the helium atom suggest that the double recombination process depends distinctly on the atomic target. Our research paves the way to the understanding of strong field processes in multielectronic systems driven by spatially inhomogeneous fields.

  15. Measurement of pulsed-power-driven magnetic fields via proton deflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mariscal, D.; McGuffey, C.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Chittenden, J. P.; Niasse, N.; Presura, R.; Haque, S.; Wallace, M.; Arias, A.; Covington, A.; Sawada, H.; Wiewior, P.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring magnetic field and current distribution in Z-pinch plasma systems is crucial to the validation of Z-pinch theory. In this letter, the demonstration of proton deflectometry to pulsed-power-driven loads at the mega-amp scale is presented, which is capable of making more detailed field maps in high-density regions of plasmas. In this method, a laser-driven, broad-spectrum, MeV-energy proton beam is directed through a pulsed-power-driven plasma system, and the resulting deflections are measured to examine configuration of magnetic fields and to infer the currents that support them. The technique was first demonstrated on simple short-circuit loads, and the results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations providing reliable estimates of the field and current configurations. It was then applied to a more complex—radial foil—plasma load. The measurements show unexpected proton deflections that exhibit the complexity of the plasma load and that with further analysis will reveal details about the current and magnetic field topology in this complex configuration.

  16. The ENSO signal in atmospheric composition fields: emission-driven versus dynamically induced changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inness, A.; Benedetti, A.; Flemming, J.; Huijnen, V.; Kaiser, J. W.; Parrington, M.; Remy, S.

    2015-08-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) not only affects meteorological fields but also has a large impact on atmospheric composition. Atmospheric composition fields from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) reanalysis are used to identify the ENSO signal in tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and smoke aerosols, concentrating on the months October to December. During El Niño years, all of these fields have increased concentrations over maritime South East Asia in October. The MACC Composition Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) model is used to quantify the relative magnitude of dynamically induced and emission-driven changes in the atmospheric composition fields. While changes in tropospheric ozone are a combination of dynamically induced and emission-driven changes, the changes in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and smoke aerosols are almost entirely emission-driven in the MACC model. The ozone changes continue into December, i.e. after the end of the Indonesian fire season while changes in the other fields are confined to the fire season.

  17. Microwave properties of ferromagnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, R; Alvarez, G; Mata-Zamora, M E

    2008-06-01

    A review of the dynamic properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic materials at microwave frequencies (1-40 GHz) is presented. Since some confusion has recently appeared between giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), a detailed analysis is made in order to establish their differences. A brief review of a novel microwave absorption mode, the low-field microwave absorption (LFA) is then presented, together with a discussion about its similarities with GMI. Recent results on high-frequency measurements on nanogranular thin films and FMR in nanowire arrays are finally addressed.

  18. Magnetic field-driven induction of ZENK in the trigeminal system of pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Lefeldt, Nele; Heyers, Dominik; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Engels, Svenja; Elbers, Dana; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoreception remains one of the few unsolved mysteries in sensory biology. The upper beak, which is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), has been suggested to contain magnetic sensors based on ferromagnetic structures. Recently, its existence in pigeons has been seriously challenged by studies suggesting that the previously described iron-accumulations are macrophages, not magnetosensitive nerve endings. This raised the fundamental question of whether V1 is involved in magnetoreception in pigeons at all. We exposed pigeons to either a constantly changing magnetic field (CMF), to a zero magnetic field providing no magnetic information, or to CMF conditions after V1 was cut bilaterally. Using immediate early genes as a marker of neuronal responsiveness, we report that the trigeminal brainstem nuclei of pigeons, which receive V1 input, are activated under CMF conditions and that this neuronal activation disappears if the magnetic stimuli are removed or if V1 is cut. Our data suggest that the trigeminal system in pigeons is involved in processing magnetic field information and that V1 transmits this information from currently unknown, V1-associated magnetosensors to the brain. PMID:25232052

  19. Field-driven phase transitions in a quasi-two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M. B.; Broholm, C.; Reich, D. H.; Schiffer, P.; Tchernyshyov, O.; Vorderwisch, P.; Harrison, N.

    2007-02-01

    We report magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature to characterize the S = 1/2 quasi-two-dimensional (2D) frustrated magnet piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC). The experiments reveal four distinct phases. At low temperatures and fields the material forms a quantum paramagnet with a 1 meV singlet triplet gap and a magnon bandwidth of 1.7 meV. The singlet state involves multiple spin pairs some of which have negative ground state bond energies. Increasing the field at low temperatures induces 3D long-range antiferromagnetic order at 7.5 Tesla through a continuous phase transition that can be described as magnon Bose Einstein condensation. The phase transition to a fully polarized ferromagnetic state occurs at 37 Tesla. The ordered antiferromagnetic phase is surrounded by a renormalized classical region. The crossover to this phase from the quantum paramagnet is marked by a distinct anomaly in the magnetic susceptibility which coincides with closure of the finite temperature singlet triplet pseudo gap. The phase boundary between the quantum paramagnet and the Bose Einstein condensate features a finite temperature minimum at T = 0.2 K, which may be associated with coupling to nuclear spin or lattice degrees of freedom close to quantum criticality.

  20. Magnetic field-driven induction of ZENK in the trigeminal system of pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Lefeldt, Nele; Heyers, Dominik; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Engels, Svenja; Elbers, Dana; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    Magnetoreception remains one of the few unsolved mysteries in sensory biology. The upper beak, which is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), has been suggested to contain magnetic sensors based on ferromagnetic structures. Recently, its existence in pigeons has been seriously challenged by studies suggesting that the previously described iron-accumulations are macrophages, not magnetosensitive nerve endings. This raised the fundamental question of whether V1 is involved in magnetoreception in pigeons at all. We exposed pigeons to either a constantly changing magnetic field (CMF), to a zero magnetic field providing no magnetic information, or to CMF conditions after V1 was cut bilaterally. Using immediate early genes as a marker of neuronal responsiveness, we report that the trigeminal brainstem nuclei of pigeons, which receive V1 input, are activated under CMF conditions and that this neuronal activation disappears if the magnetic stimuli are removed or if V1 is cut. Our data suggest that the trigeminal system in pigeons is involved in processing magnetic field information and that V1 transmits this information from currently unknown, V1-associated magnetosensors to the brain.

  1. Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.

  2. Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-08-01

    Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.

  3. Approximate Integrals of rf-driven Particle Motion in Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2004-04-26

    For a particle moving in nonuniform magnetic field under the action of an rf wave, ponderomotive effects result from rf-driven oscillations nonlinearly coupled with Larmor rotation. Using Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, we show how, despite this coupling, two independent integrals of the particle motion are approximately conserved. Those are the magnetic moment of free Larmor rotation and the quasi-energy of the guiding center motion parallel to the magnetic field. Under the assumption of non-resonant interaction of the particle with the rf field, these integrals represent adiabatic invariants of the particle motion.

  4. Fast nanoscale addressability of nitrogen-vacancy spins via coupling to a dynamic ferromagnetic vortex

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wolf, M. S.; Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2016-06-14

    The core of a ferromagnetic vortex domain creates a strong, localized magnetic field, which can be manipulated on nanosecond timescales, providing a platform for addressing and controlling individual nitrogen-vacancy centre spins in diamond at room temperature, with nanometre-scale resolution. Here, we show that the ferromagnetic vortex can be driven into proximity with a nitrogen-vacancy defect using small applied magnetic fields, inducing significant nitrogen-vacancy spin splitting. We also find that the magnetic field gradient produced by the vortex is sufficient to address spins separated by nanometre-length scales. By applying a microwave-frequency magnetic field, we drive both the vortex and the nitrogen-vacancymore » spins, resulting in enhanced coherent rotation of the spin state. Lastly, we demonstrate that by driving the vortex on fast timescales, sequential addressing and coherent manipulation of spins is possible on ~ 100 ns timescales.« less

  5. Fast nanoscale addressability of nitrogen-vacancy spins via coupling to a dynamic ferromagnetic vortex

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, M. S.; Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2016-01-01

    The core of a ferromagnetic vortex domain creates a strong, localized magnetic field, which can be manipulated on nanosecond timescales, providing a platform for addressing and controlling individual nitrogen-vacancy centre spins in diamond at room temperature, with nanometre-scale resolution. Here, we show that the ferromagnetic vortex can be driven into proximity with a nitrogen-vacancy defect using small applied magnetic fields, inducing significant nitrogen-vacancy spin splitting. We also find that the magnetic field gradient produced by the vortex is sufficient to address spins separated by nanometre-length scales. By applying a microwave-frequency magnetic field, we drive both the vortex and the nitrogen-vacancy spins, resulting in enhanced coherent rotation of the spin state. Finally, we demonstrate that by driving the vortex on fast timescales, sequential addressing and coherent manipulation of spins is possible on ∼100 ns timescales. PMID:27296550

  6. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  7. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L; Smith, Gregory M; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-11

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m(2) with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today's OLEDs in performance.

  8. Control of Ferromagnetic Resonance Frequency and Frequency Linewidth by Electrical Fields in FeCo/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2016-10-01

    We report our detailed investigation of the electrical tuning of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures consisting of FeCo thin films grown onto [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) substrates with NiFe underlayers. Our study shows that the electrical tuning range of both ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in this FeCo/PMN-PT heterostructure can be very large. Specifically, the resonance frequency can be tuned from 1.8 GHz to 10.3 GHz, and the frequency linewidth can be changed from 1.6 GHz to 7.3 GHz. The electrical tuning of these microwave properties is discussed in conjunction with the result from the static magnetic characterization and is explained based on the strain-driven magnetoelectric heterostructured effect.

  9. Control of Ferromagnetic Resonance Frequency and Frequency Linewidth by Electrical Fields in FeCo/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    We report our detailed investigation of the electrical tuning of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures consisting of FeCo thin films grown onto [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) substrates with NiFe underlayers. Our study shows that the electrical tuning range of both ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in this FeCo/PMN-PT heterostructure can be very large. Specifically, the resonance frequency can be tuned from 1.8 GHz to 10.3 GHz, and the frequency linewidth can be changed from 1.6 GHz to 7.3 GHz. The electrical tuning of these microwave properties is discussed in conjunction with the result from the static magnetic characterization and is explained based on the strain-driven magnetoelectric heterostructured effect.

  10. Controlling magnetic domain wall positions with an external magnetic field and a low spin-polarized current in chamfered L-shaped ferromagnetic thin ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Syuta; Yamamoto, Daiki; Ohsawa, Tomokatsu; Gushi, Toshiki; Ito, Keita; Suemasu, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Current-induced magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in ferromagnetic ribbons is utilized in spintronic devices. The direction of the motion changes in response to the sign of the spin-polarizability of the current through the ribbon. The DW motion is expected to measure the sign. In this study, we investigate the magnetic structures of chamfered L-shaped nano-ribbons using micro-magnetic simulations, and show that the position at which the DW is produced can be controlled by applying an external magnetic field with a low spin-polarized current (SPC). In particular, we use the material parameters of Fe4N and permalloy to simulate the magnetic structure of the ribbon. The DW can be produced at either of two locations in a chamfered corner of the ribbon, and disappears upon applying an external magnetic field. From this point, after the field is removed, a new DW is produced at either of two locations, and its position can be controlled by adjusting the low SPC.

  11. Fault tolerant filtering and fault detection for quantum systems driven by fields in single photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qing; Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve the fault tolerant filtering and fault detection problem for a class of open quantum systems driven by a continuous-mode bosonic input field in single photon states when the systems are subject to stochastic faults. Optimal estimates of both the system observables and the fault process are simultaneously calculated and characterized by a set of coupled recursive quantum stochastic differential equations.

  12. Electric-field-driven dynamics of magnetic domain walls in magnetic nanowires patterned on ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Leliaert, Jonathan; Franke, Kévin J. A.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-03-01

    Strong coupling of magnetic domain walls onto straight ferroelastic boundaries of a ferroelectric layer enables full and reversible electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion. In this paper, the dynamics of this new driving mechanism is analyzed using micromagnetic simulations. We show that transverse domain walls with a near-180° spin structure are stabilized in magnetic nanowires and that electric fields can move these walls with high velocities. Above a critical velocity, which depends on material parameters, nanowire geometry and the direction of domain wall motion, the magnetic domain walls depin abruptly from the ferroelastic boundaries. Depinning evolves either smoothly or via the emission and annihilation of a vortex or antivortex core (Walker breakdown). In both cases, the magnetic domain wall slows down after depinning in an oscillatory fashion and eventually comes to a halt. The simulations provide design rules for hybrid ferromagnetic-ferroelectric domain-wall-based devices and indicate that material disorder and structural imperfections only influence Walker-breakdown-like depinning at high domain wall velocities.

  13. Electric-field-driven Phenomena for Manipulating Particles in Micro-Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khusid, Boris; Acrivos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Compared to other available methods, ac dielectrophoresis is particularly well-suited for the manipulation of minute particles in micro- and nano-fluidics. The essential advantage of this technique is that an ac field at a sufficiently high frequency suppresses unwanted electric effects in a liquid. To date very little has been achieved towards understanding the micro-scale field-and shear driven behavior of a suspension in that, the concepts currently favored for the design and operation of dielectrophoretic micro-devices adopt the approach used for macro-scale electric filters. This strategy considers the trend of the field-induced particle motions by computing the spatial distribution of the field strength over a channel as if it were filled only with a liquid and then evaluating the direction of the dielectrophoretic force, exerted on a single particle placed in the liquid. However, the exposure of suspended particles to a field generates not only the dielectrophoretic force acting on each of these particles, but also the dipolar interactions of the particles due to their polarization. Furthermore, the field-driven motion of the particles is accompanied by their hydrodynamic interactions. We present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies which indicate that, under certain conditions, these long-range electrical and hydrodynamic interparticle interactions drastically affect the suspension behavior in a micro-channel due to its small dimensions.

  14. Instability of magnetic fields in electroweak plasma driven by neutrino asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornikov, Maxim; Semikoz, Victor B. E-mail: semikoz@yandex.ru

    2014-05-01

    The magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is modified to incorporate the parity violation in the Standard Model leading to a new instability of magnetic fields in the electroweak plasma in the presence of nonzero neutrino asymmetries. The main ingredient for such a modified MHD is the antisymmetric part of the photon polarization tensor in plasma, where the parity violating neutrino interaction with charged leptons is present. We calculate this contribution to the polarization tensor connected with the Chern-Simons term in effective Lagrangian of the electromagnetic field. The general expression for such a contribution which depends on the temperature and the chemical potential of plasma as well as on the photon's momentum is derived. The instability of a magnetic field driven by the electron neutrino asymmetry for the ν-burst during the first second of a supernova explosion can amplify a seed magnetic field of a protostar, and, perhaps, can explain the generation of strongest magnetic fields in magnetars. The growth of a cosmological magnetic field driven by the neutrino asymmetry density Δn{sub ν} = n{sub ν}−n{sub ν-bar}≠0 is provided by a lower bound on |ξ{sub ν{sub e}}| = |μ{sub ν{sub e}}|/T which is consistent with the well-known Big Bang nucleosynthesis (upper) bound on neutrino asymmetries in a hot universe plasma.

  15. Statics and field-driven dynamics of transverse domain walls in biaxial nanowires under uniform transverse magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we report analytical results on transverse domain wall (TDW) statics and field-driven dynamics in quasi-one-dimensional biaxial nanowires under arbitrary uniform transverse magnetic fields (TMFs) based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Without axial driving fields, the static TDW should be symmetric about its center while twisted in its azimuthal angle distribution. By decoupling polar and azimuthal degrees of freedom, an approximate solution is provided which reproduces these features to a great extent. When an axial driving field is applied, the dynamical behavior of a TDW is viewed as the response of its static profile to external excitations. By means of the asymptotic expansion method, the TDW velocity in the traveling-wave mode is obtained, which provides the extent and boundary of the "velocity-enhancement" effect of TMFs on TDWs in biaxial nanowires. Finally, numerical simulations are performed and strongly support our analytics.

  16. Self-generated magnetic fields in blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaig, Markus; Plewa, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    We study the effect of self-generated magnetic fields in two-dimensional computer models of blast-wave driven high-energy density Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) experiments. Previous works [1,2] suggested that such fields have the potential to influence the RTI morphology and mixing. When neglecting the friction force between electrons and ions, we do indeed find that dynamically important (β≲103) magnetic fields are generated. However, in the more realistic case where the friction force is accounted for, the resulting fields are much weaker, β≳105 , and can no longer influence the dynamics of the system. Although we find no evidence for dynamically important magnetic fields being created in the two-dimensional case studied here, the situation might be different in a three-dimensional setup, which will be addressed in a future study.

  17. High-order Harmonic Generation Driven by Sub-Cycle Shaped Laser Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yinghui; Zeng, Zhinan; Wei, Pengfei; Miao, Jing; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    High-order harmonic generation can be described by the semiclassical three-step model, in which an electron is freed, accelerated away from an atom or molecule by a strong oscillating laser field, and then, upon reversal of the field, careened back into its parent ion. The shaped laser field has been proved to be an effective tool to control the three-step process and consequently to achieve the high intensity harmonic generation or an isolated attosecond pulse generation by changing the relative phase, intensity ratio, polarization, etc, between the pulses of shaped laser field. High-order harmonic and attosecond pulse generation driven by a shaped laser field synthesized with two or three laser pulses of controlled related phase are reviewed.

  18. Macrospin in ferromagnetic nanojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, Yu. V.; Zilberman, P. E.; Panas, A. I.; Epshtein, E. M.

    2008-12-01

    We study the passage of transverse current through a ferromagnetic nanojunctions, viz., a layered nanostructure of the spin-valve type containing two ferromagnetic layers separated by a spacer that prevents exchange coupling between the layers in the absence of current, but does not affect spin polarization of the current. The conditions for a high level of injection of spins by current are derived at which the concentration of injected nonequilibrium spins can reach or even exceed their equilibrium concentration. In such conditions, a number of new effects are observed. The threshold of exchange switching by current is lowered by several orders of magnitude due to matching of spin resistances of the layers. The application of an external magnetic field in the vicinity of the orientation phase transition additionally lowers this threshold. This leads to multistability, in which one value of the current corresponds to two (or more) stable noncollinear orientations of magnetization, and switching itself becomes irreversible. A methodical feature of this research is that the calculation is performed in the so-called macrospin approximation, which is in good agreement with most of known experiments. In this approximation, the equations of motion taking into account the torque as well as spin injection are derived for the first time and solved.

  19. AN UPGRADE OF MAGNET-FIELD-DRIVEN TIMING SYSTEMS AT THE AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    TIAN, Y.; OERTER, B.

    2005-10-10

    An upgrade of the main magnet-field-driven timing systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and Booster accelerators will be described in this paper. A novel approach using content addressable memory (CAM) is applied to overcome a weakness in the previous systems, which required a reproducible dwell field for proper operation. Upgraded from a multibus-based system to a VME-based system, the new timing system also proves easier to maintain and to diagnose. Details of the system architecture, as well as its application in other timing systems will be discussed.

  20. Self-generated Magnetic Fields in Blast-wave Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaig, Markus; Plewa, Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    We study the generation of magnetic fields via the Biermann battery effect in blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor experiments. Previous estimates have shown that in a typical experiment, one should expect fields in the MG range to be generated, with the potential to influence the Rayleigh-Taylor morphology. We perform two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations, where we solve the extended set of MHD equations known as the Braginskii equations. The simulation parameters reflect the physical conditions in past experiments performed on the OMEGA laser and potential future experiments on the NIF laser facility. When neglecting the friction force between electrons and ions in the simulations, magnetic fields of the order of a few 0.1 MG (with a plasma smaller than 1000) are generated, and are found to be dynamically significant. However, it turns out that once the friction force is included, the magnetic fields become much smaller (with a plasma beta greater than 100000) which have negligible influence on the dynamics of the system. Our results therefore indicate that, contrary to previous speculations, it is highly unlikely that self-generated magnetic fields can influence the morphology of a typical blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor experiment. M.F. and T.P. were supported by the DOE Grant DE-FG52- 09NA29548 and the NSF Grant AST-1109113. This research used resources of the National Energy Re.

  1. Progress and Problems in Data-Driven Models of the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRosa, M. L.; Fisher, G. H.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss the development of the Coronal Global Evolutionary Model (CGEM), a multi-institution effort with the aim of constructing a data-driven model of the evolving magnetic field of the global solar corona. CGEM involves employing time series of vector magnetograms and Dopplergrams from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to infer electric fields, electric currents, and Poynting fluxes at the solar photosphere. These data are then used as a time-evolving boundary condition to drive a magnetofrictional model of the coronal magnetic field. Here, we discuss recent advances, along with some yet-to-be-resolved issues, in these methods that will eventually bridge the gap between current capabilities (of evolving MF models running on localized Cartesian domains) and the eventual CGEM product (of evolving MF models of the global coronal magnetic field). This project is funded jointly by NASA and the NSF. Synthetic coronal image rendered from the magnetic field calculated by the data-driven model for NOAA Active Region 11158, on disk in February, 2011.

  2. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  3. Suppressing of slow magnetic relaxation in tetracoordinate Co(II) field-induced single-molecule magnet in hybrid material with ferromagnetic barium ferrite

    PubMed Central

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    The novel field-induced single-molecule magnet based on a tetracoordinate mononuclear heteroleptic Co(II) complex involving two heterocyclic benzimidazole (bzi) and two thiocyanido ligands, [Co(bzi)2(NSC)2], (CoL4), was prepared and thoroughly characterized. The analysis of AC susceptibility data resulted in the spin reversal energy barrier U = 14.7 cm−1, which is in good agreement with theoretical prediction, Utheor. = 20.2 cm−1, based on axial zero-field splitting parameter D = −10.1 cm−1 fitted from DC magnetic data. Furthermore, mutual interactions between CoL4 and ferromagnetic barium ferrite BaFe12O19 (BaFeO) in hybrid materials resulted in suppressing of slow relaxation of magnetization in CoL4 for 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 mass ratios of CoL4 and BaFeO despite the lack of strong magnetic interactions between two magnetic phases. PMID:26039085

  4. Influence of the FFLO-like state on the upper critical field of a superconductor/ferromagnet bilayer: Angular and temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenk, D.; Hemmida, M.; Morari, R.; Zdravkov, V. I.; Ullrich, A.; Müller, C.; Sidorenko, A. S.; Horn, S.; Tagirov, L. R.; Loidl, A.; von Nidda, H.-A. Krug; Tidecks, R.

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the upper critical magnetic field Hc of a superconductor-ferromagnet (S/F) bilayer of Nb/Cu41Ni59 and a Nb film (as reference). We obtained the dependence of Hc ⊥ and Hc ∥ (perpendicular and parallel to the film plane, respectively) on the temperature T by measurements of the resistive transitions and the dependence on the inclination angle θ of the applied field to the film plane, by nonresonant microwave absorption. Over a wide range, Hc ⊥ and Hc ∥ show the temperature dependence predicted by the Ginzburg-Landau theory. At low temperatures and close to the critical temperature, deviations are observed. While Hc(θ ) of the Nb film follows the Tinkham prediction for thin superconducting films, the Nb/Cu41Ni59 -bilayer data exhibit deviations when θ approaches zero. We attribute this finding to the additional anisotropy induced by the quasi-one-dimensional Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO)-like state and propose a new vortex structure in S/F bilayers, adopting the segmentation approach from high-temperature superconductors.

  5. Suppressing of slow magnetic relaxation in tetracoordinate Co(II) field-induced single-molecule magnet in hybrid material with ferromagnetic barium ferrite.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    The novel field-induced single-molecule magnet based on a tetracoordinate mononuclear heteroleptic Co(II) complex involving two heterocyclic benzimidazole (bzi) and two thiocyanido ligands, [Co(bzi)2(NSC)2], (CoL4), was prepared and thoroughly characterized. The analysis of AC susceptibility data resulted in the spin reversal energy barrier U = 14.7 cm(-1), which is in good agreement with theoretical prediction, U(theor). = 20.2 cm(-1), based on axial zero-field splitting parameter D = -10.1 cm(-1) fitted from DC magnetic data. Furthermore, mutual interactions between CoL4 and ferromagnetic barium ferrite BaFe12O19 (BaFeO) in hybrid materials resulted in suppressing of slow relaxation of magnetization in CoL4 for 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 mass ratios of CoL4 and BaFeO despite the lack of strong magnetic interactions between two magnetic phases. PMID:26039085

  6. Longitudinal detection of ferromagnetic resonance using x-ray transmission measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Boero, G.; Rusponi, S.; Kavich, J.; Rizzini, A. Lodi; Piamonteze, C.; Nolting, F.; Tieg, C.; Thiele, J.-U.; Gambardella, P.

    2009-12-15

    We describe a setup for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance in the longitudinal geometry using element-specific transmission measurements. Thin magnetic film samples are placed in a static magnetic field collinear with the propagation direction of a polarized soft x-ray beam and driven to ferromagnetic resonance by a continuous wave microwave magnetic field perpendicular to it. The transmitted photon flux is measured both as a function of the x-ray photon energy and as a function of the applied static magnetic field. We report experiments performed on a 15 nm film of doped Permalloy (Ni{sub 73}Fe{sub 18}Gd{sub 7}Co{sub 2}) at the L{sub 3}/L{sub 2}-edges of Fe, Co, and Ni. The achieved ferromagnetic resonance sensitivity is about 0.1 monolayers/{radical}(Hz). The obtained results are interpreted in the framework of a conductivity tensor based formalism. The factors limiting the sensitivity as well as different approaches for the x-ray detection of ferromagnetic resonance are discussed.

  7. Cosmic ray pressure driven magnetic field amplification: dimensional, radiative and field orientation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, T. P.; Drury, L. O'C.

    2014-10-01

    Observations of non-thermal emission from several supernova remnants suggest that magnetic fields close to the blastwave are much stronger than would be naively expected from simple shock compression of the field permeating the interstellar medium (ISM). We investigate in some detail a simple model based on turbulence generation by cosmic ray pressure gradients. Previously, this model was investigated using 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Motivated by the well-known qualitative differences between 2D and 3D turbulence, we further our investigations of this model using both 2D and 3D simulations to study the influence of the dimensionality of the simulations on the field amplification achieved. Further, since the model implies the formation of shocks which can, in principle, be efficiently cooled by collisional cooling, we include such cooling in our simulations to ascertain whether it could increase the field amplification achieved. Finally, we examine the influence of different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the normal of the blastwave. We find that dimensionality has a slight influence on the overall amplification achieved, but a significant impact on the morphology of the amplified field. Collisional cooling has surprisingly little impact, primarily due to the short time which any element of the ISM resides in the precursor region for supernova blastwaves. Even allowing for a wide range of orientations of the magnetic field, we find that the magnetic field can be expected to be amplified by, on average, at least an order of magnitude in the precursors of supernova blastwaves.

  8. Receptive field properties of rod-driven horizontal cells in the skate retina.

    PubMed

    Qian, H; Ripps, H

    1992-09-01

    The large receptive fields of retinal horizontal cells result primarily from extensive intercellular coupling via gap (electrical) junctions; thus, the extent of the receptive field provides an index of the degree to which the cells are electrically coupled. For rod-driven horizontal cells in the dark-adapted skate retina, a space constant of 1.18 +/- 0.15 mm (SD) was obtained from measurements with a moving slit stimulus, and a comparable value (1.43 +/- 0.55 mm) was obtained with variation in spot diameter. These values, and the extensive spread of a fluorescent dye (Lucifer Yellow) from the site of injection to neighboring cells, indicate that the horizontal cells of the all-rod retina of skate are well coupled electrically. Neither the receptive field properties nor the gap-junctional features of skate horizontal cells were influenced by the adaptive state of the retina: (a) the receptive field organization was unaffected by light adaptation, (b) similar dye coupling was seen in both dark- and light-adapted retinae, and (c) no significant differences were found in the gap-junctional particle densities measured in dark- and light-adapted retinas, i.e., 3,184 +/- 286/microns 2 (n = 8) and 3,073 +/- 494/microns 2 (n = 11), respectively. Moreover, the receptive fields of skate horizontal cells were not altered by either dopamine, glycine, GABA, or the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. We conclude that the rod-driven horizontal cells of the skate retina are tightly coupled to one another, and that the coupling is not affected by photic and pharmacological conditions that are known to modulate intercellular coupling between cone-driven horizontal cells in other species. PMID:1359000

  9. Study of current-voltage characteristics of ferromagnetic α-Fe{sub 1.64}Ga{sub 0.36}O{sub 3} oxide under magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayasri, G. Bhowmik, R. N.

    2015-06-24

    We report the influence of magnetic field on I-V characteristics of α-Fe{sub 1.64}Ga{sub 0.36}O{sub 3} sample. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman Spectroscopy have confirmed rhombohedral structure with space group R3C in the sample. The sample exhibits ferromagnetic feature at room temperature and non saturation of magnetization up to 7Tesla suggests the effect of non-collinear structure (canting) of the spins on the ferromagnetic properties. We have recorded I-V characteristics of the sample under magnetic field to study the effect of non-collinear spin structure on the electrical properties. Space charge limited current mechanism controlled the nature of non-linear I-V curves and the curves are significantly affected by magnetic field.

  10. Measurements of laser-driven magnetic fields in quasi-hohlraum geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Bradley; Turnbull, D.; Goyon, C.; Ross, S.; Farmer, W.; Hazi, A.; Tubman, E.; Woolsey, N.; Law, K.; Fujioka, S.; Moody, J.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic fields of 10-100 T have been produced with a laser-driven scheme using a parallel-plate target geometry, where a laser is directed through a hole in the front plate and irradiates the plate behind it. Hot electrons generated from the rear plate collect on the front plate, creating a voltage difference (~ 10-100 keV) between them. When the plates are connected via a quasi-loop conductor, this voltage sources current in the range of ~ 0.1-1 MA which produces a magnetic field along the axis of the loop. The field is generated on fast (~ ns) timescales, and can be scaled by changing the drive laser parameters. Recent experiments at the Jupiter Laser Facility have allowed temporally-resolved measurements of the voltage between the plates with ~ 1 J laser drive. Separate experiments at the Omega EP laser system have allowed direct Faraday rotation (in fused SiO2) measurements of the field strength inside the current loop by employing the 4w polarimetry capability of EP. We have also measured the extent and structure of the field with proton deflectometry at EP. The maximum field recorded along the axis of the quasi-loop is ~ 5 T at moderate (100 J) laser drive, and measurements of fringing fields outside the loop at 1 kJ indicate that the field increases to ~ 40 T. These results are compared with modeling to determine the current driven in the target, and infer information about the plasma conditions which sourced the current. This work was performed under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. The effect of electron inertia in Hall-driven magnetic field penetration in electron-magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Ottinger, P. F.; Schumer, J. W.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic field penetration in electron-magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) can be driven by density gradients through the Hall term [Kingsep et al., Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 10, 495 (1984)]. Particle-in-cell simulations have shown that a magnetic front can go unstable and break into vortices in the Hall-driven EMHD regime. In order to understand these results, a new fluid model had been derived from the Ly/Ln≪1 limit of EMHD, where Ly is the length scale along the front and Ln is the density gradient length scale. This model is periodic in the direction along the magnetic front, which allows the dynamics of the front to be studied independently of electrode boundary effects that could otherwise dominate the dynamics. Numerical solutions of this fluid model are presented that show for the first time the relation between Hall-driven EMHD, electron inertia, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, and the formation of magnetic vortices. These solutions show that a propagating magnetic front is unstable to the same KH mode predicted for a uniform plasma. This instability causes the electron flow to break up into vortices that are then driven into the plasma with a speed that is proportional to the Hall speed. This demonstrates that, in two-dimensional geometry with sufficiently low collisionality [collision rate ν ≲ vHall/(4 δe) ], Hall-driven magnetic penetration occurs not as a uniform shock front but rather as vortex-dominated penetration. Once the vortices form, the penetration speed is found to be nearly a factor of two larger than the redicted speed ( vHall/2 ) obtained from Burgers' equation in the one-dimensional limit.

  12. Study of shockwave method for diagnosing the radiation fields of laser-driven gold hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongsheng; Lan, Ke; Huo, Wenyi; Lai, Dongxian; Gao, Yaoming; Pei, Wenbing

    2013-11-01

    Besides the routinely used broad-band x-ray spectrometer (Dante or SXS), ablative shock-wave method is often used to diagnose the radiation fields of laser-driven Hohlraums. The x-ray ablation process of Aluminum and Titanium is studied numerically with a 1-D radiation hydrodynamic code RDMG [F. Tinggui et al., Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 16, 199 (1999)], based on which a new scaling relation of the equivalent radiation temperature with the ablative shock velocity in Aluminum plates is proposed, and a novel method is developed for determining simultaneously the radiation temperature and the M-band (2-4 keV) fraction in laser-driven gold Hohlraums.

  13. Hysteretic magnetic pinning and reversible resistance switching in high-temperature superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visani, C.; Metaxas, P. J.; Collaudin, A.; Calvet, B.; Bernard, R.; Briatico, J.; Deranlot, C.; Bouzehouane, K.; Villegas, J. E.

    2011-08-01

    We study a high-critical temperature superconducting (YBa2Cu3O7-δ)/ferromagnetic (Co/Pt multilayer) hybrid that exhibits resistance switching driven by the magnetic history: depending on the direction of the external field, a pronounced decrease or increase of the mixed-state resistance is observed as magnetization reversal occurs within the Co/Pt multilayer. We demonstrate that stray magnetic fields cause these effects via (i) creation of vortices/antivortices and (ii) magnetostatic pinning of vortices that are induced by the external field.

  14. Fluid modeling of operating modes in a field emission driven alternating current (FEDAC) microdischarge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Alamatsaz, Arghavan; Shivaprasad, Therazhundur Ramesh

    2014-10-01

    The recent interest in electrostatic microscale devices has lead to a great emphasis on electrical breakdown of gases in microgaps. The breakdown process has been shown to be significantly different from its counterpart in macrogaps with field emission of electrons from the cathode playing a major role. This work aims to build on prior work dealing with pre-breakdown and post-breakdown operating modes in direct current field emission driven (FED) microdischarges. Specifically, charged particle dynamics in microscale gaps that are driven by time-varying fields are studied using an in-house two-fluid code with appropriate cathode boundary conditions including field emission. The model includes continuity and energy equations for both electrons and ions to account for the significant non-equilibrium and is augmented by the Poisson's equation for electrostatic potential. The frequency dependence of breakdown behavior as well as pre-breakdown and post-breakdown current-voltage characteristics is determined for a wide range of frequencies from low radio frequency (RF) to microwave and contrasted with existing results for direct current FED microdischarges. The results are also used to explain trends recently observed in an evanescent-mode cavity resonator operating in the microwave regime.

  15. Seeding magnetic fields for laser-driven flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Gotchev, O V; Knauer, J P; Chang, P Y; Jang, N W; Shoup, M J; Meyerhofer, D D; Betti, R

    2009-04-01

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a <100 J capacitor bank, a laser-triggered switch, and a low-impedance (<1 Omega) strip line. The device has been integrated into a series of magnetic-flux-compression experiments on the 60 beam, 30 kJ OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The initial application is a novel magneto-inertial fusion approach [O. V. Gotchev et al., J. Fusion Energy 27, 25 (2008)] to inertial confinement fusion (ICF), where the amplified magnetic field can inhibit thermal conduction losses from the hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity-a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF.

  16. Seeding Magnetic Fields for Laser-Driven Flux Compression in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gotchev, O.V.; Knauer, J.P.; Chang, P.Y.; Jang, N.W.; Shoup III, M.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Betti, R.

    2010-03-23

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a <100 J capacitor bank, a laser-triggered switch, and a low-impedance (<1 Omega) strip line. The device has been integrated into a series of magnetic-flux-compression experiments on the 60 beam, 30 kJ OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The initial application is a novel magneto-inertial fusion approach [O. V. Gotchev et al., J. Fusion Energy 27, 25 (2008)] to inertial confinement fusion (ICF), where the amplified magnetic field can inhibit thermal conduction losses from the hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity—a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF.

  17. Seeding magnetic fields for laser-driven flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Gotchev, O V; Knauer, J P; Chang, P Y; Jang, N W; Shoup, M J; Meyerhofer, D D; Betti, R

    2009-04-01

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a <100 J capacitor bank, a laser-triggered switch, and a low-impedance (<1 Omega) strip line. The device has been integrated into a series of magnetic-flux-compression experiments on the 60 beam, 30 kJ OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The initial application is a novel magneto-inertial fusion approach [O. V. Gotchev et al., J. Fusion Energy 27, 25 (2008)] to inertial confinement fusion (ICF), where the amplified magnetic field can inhibit thermal conduction losses from the hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity-a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF. PMID:19405657

  18. Universality in the entanglement structure of ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Pratt, J S

    2004-12-01

    Systems of exchange-coupled spins are commonly used to model ferromagnets. The quantum correlations in such magnets are studied using tools from quantum information theory. Isotropic ferromagnets are shown to possess a universal low-temperature density matrix which precludes entanglement between spins, and the mechanism of entanglement cancellation is investigated, revealing a core of states resistant to pairwise entanglement cancellation. Numerical studies of one-, two-, and three-dimensional lattices as well as irregular geometries showed no entanglement in ferromagnets at any temperature or magnetic field strength.

  19. Global constraints to the properties of convection-driven magnetic fields in Super Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, J. I.; Cuartas Restrepo, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Starting from numerical models of planetary interiors of Super Earths (Valencia et al. 2006, 2007), i.e. rocky planets with composition and interior structure similar to the Earth, and using empirical scaling laws for numerical dynamos (Olson & Christensen, 2006), we develop global relationships between the properties of an hypothetical liquid iron core in planets with different masses and rotation rates and the critical parameters of a convection-driven planetary dynamo. The obtained global scaling laws are independent of particular details of the iron core physics and its thermal history, that, although very important in the determination of the magnetic dynamo properties (Gaidos et al. 2010), are presently very uncertain. We discover that although Super Earths with an arbitrary mass can develop a core convection-driven magnetic field at some point in its thermal history (modulo very uncertain factors that could avoid the development of an external liquid core in the hole history of the planet), the regime of the magnetic field will be constrained by the planetary mass and its rotational velocity. In a particular case planets with rotation rates similar to the Earth could have dipole dominant fields if their masses are not larger than 2 terrestrial masses. Beyond that limit magnetic fields are developed at some point but are always multipolar in nature (see figure 1). The maximum mass to develop an intense dipolar field that could be able to protect the atmosphere against the action of the stellar wind, strongly dependens on the rotation period, a relationship that it is translated on field regime regions in a mass-rotation diagram. Assuming extreme values for parameters that depends on the unknown planetary thermal history we compute regime regions in the mass-rotation diagram that allow us to globally constrain the masses of Super Earths that could generate magnetic fields compatible with an atmosphere and therefore with life.

  20. Improved leakage current and ferromagnetic properties in magnetic field annealed BiFeO{sub 3}-based ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, L.H.; Zhao, B.C.; Fang, J.; Zhang, R.R.; Tang, X.W.; Song, W.H.; Dai, J.M.; Sun, Y.P.

    2012-10-15

    Single-phase Bi{sub 0.85}La{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3} ceramics were synthesized under various magnetic fields (H{sub a}=0 T, 3 T, 5 T). Substantially reduced leakage current and hence modified ferroelectric (FE) properties were obtained with magnetic field annealing (MA). The largest magnetization and lowest leakage current with large FE polarization (P{sub r}{approx}33 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) were found in the sample annealed with H{sub a}=3 T. Great changes were also observed in the Raman spectra. All the observed features originate mainly from the different FE domain wall structures induced by MA. These results demonstrate that MA is an effective way to tune the multiferroic and magnetoelectric properties in BiFeO{sub 3}-based materials. - Graphical abstract: Bright field TEM micrograph of the representative domain structures in the samples (a) BLF0, (b) BLF3 and (c) BLF5. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi{sub 0.85}La{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3} ceramics were synthesized under various magnetic fields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substantially reduced leakage current with improved ferroelectricity were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced magnetization with moderate annealing magnetic field.

  1. Measurement of high frequency conductivity of oxide-doped anti-ferromagnetic thin film with a near-field scanning microwave microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Souza, A. D.; Peng, B.; Sun, W. Q.; Xu, S. Y.; Ong, C. K.

    2014-04-01

    In this manuscript, we describe how the map of high frequency conductivity distribution of an oxide-doped anti-ferromagnetic 200 nm thin film can be obtained from the quality factor (Q) measured by a near-field scanning microwave microscope (NSMM). Finite element analysis (FEA) is employed to simulate the NSMM tip-sample interaction and obtain a curve related between the simulated quality factor (Q) and conductivity. The curve is calibrated by a standard Cu thin film with thickness of 200 nm, together with NSMM measured Q of Ag, Au, Fe, Cr and Ti thin films. The experimental conductivity obtained by the NSMM for IrMn thin films with various doped concentrations of Al2O3 is found consistent with conventional voltammetry measurement in the same tendency. That conductivity decreases as the content of doped Al2O3 increases. The results and images obtained demonstrate that NSMM can be employed in thin film analysis for characterization of local electrical properties of materials in a non-destructive manner and for obtaining a map of conductivity distribution on the same film.

  2. Tunable zero-field ferromagnetic resonance frequency from S to X band in oblique deposited CoFeB thin films

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengyi; Chai, Guozhi; Yang, Chengcheng; Wang, Wenfeng; Xue, Desheng

    2015-01-01

    Tunable zero-field ferromagnetic resonance frequency in wide range is very useful for the application of microwave devices. We performed an investigation of the static and high frequency magnetic properties for oblique sputtered CoFeB thin films. The static magnetic results revealed that oblique sputtered CoFeB thin films possess well defined in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, which increases monotonically from 50.1 to 608.8 Oe with the increasing of deposition angle from 10° to 70°. Continuous modification of the resonance frequency of CoFeB thin films in a range of 2.83–9.71 GHz (covers three microwave bands including S, C and X bands) has been achieved. This behavior can be explained as the result of the microstructure due to the self-shadowing effect mainly. These CoFeB thin films with tunable magnetic properties may be good candidates for usage in microwave devices. PMID:26593035

  3. The supernova remnant W50: understanding the magnetic fields in a unique outflow-driven object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnes, Jamie; Gaensler, Bryan; Feain, Ilana; Farrell, Sean; Bell, Martin; O'Sullivan, Shane; Anderson, Craig; Sun, Xiaohui; Akahori, Takuya

    2013-04-01

    We propose polarimetric, mosaiced observations of the unique outflow-driven supernova remnant W50 in order to model the large-scale magnetic fields and investigate interactions between the remnant shell and jets. The combination of Rotation Measure Synthesis and Stokes Q,U fitting will allow us to distinguish between magnetic effects arising in the SNR itself and those arising along the line of sight in an intervening Faraday screen. For the first time, we will attempt to disentangle the relative influence of a density gradient, expansion into the inhomogeneous interstellar medium, elongation due to the ambient field, B field compression at local shock fronts, and jet/remnant coupling on both the evolution and observed morphology of W50. We request a total of 66.0 hours of ATCA time.

  4. A simple model for estimating a magnetic field in laser-driven coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiksel, Gennady; Fox, William; Gao, Lan; Ji, Hantao

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic field generation by laser-driven coils is a promising way of magnetizing plasma in laboratory high-energy-density plasma experiments. A typical configuration consists of two electrodes—one electrode is irradiated with a high-intensity laser beam and another electrode collects charged particles from the expanding plasma. The two electrodes are separated by a narrow gap forming a capacitor-like configuration and are connected with a conducting wire-coil. The charge-separation in the expanding plasma builds up a potential difference between the electrodes that drives the electrical current in the coil. A magnetic field of tens to hundreds of Teslas generated inside the coil has been reported. This paper presents a simple model that estimates the magnetic field using simple assumptions. The results are compared with the published experimental data.

  5. Scaling law for direct current field emission-driven microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Venkattraman, A.; Alexeenko, A. A.

    2012-12-15

    The effects of field emission on direct current breakdown in microscale gaps filled with an ambient neutral gas are studied numerically and analytically. Fundamental numerical experiments using the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions method are used to systematically quantify microscale ionization and space-charge enhancement of field emission. The numerical experiments are then used to validate a scaling law for the modified Paschen curve that bridges field emission-driven breakdown with the macroscale Paschen law. Analytical expressions are derived for the increase in cathode electric field, total steady state current density, and the ion-enhancement coefficient including a new breakdown criterion. It also includes the effect of all key parameters such as pressure, operating gas, and field-enhancement factor providing a better predictive capability than existing microscale breakdown models. The field-enhancement factor is shown to be the most sensitive parameter with its increase leading to a significant drop in the threshold breakdown electric field and also to a gradual merging with the Paschen law. The proposed scaling law is also shown to agree well with two independent sets of experimental data for microscale breakdown in air. The ability to accurately describe not just the breakdown voltage but the entire pre-breakdown process for given operating conditions makes the proposed model a suitable candidate for the design and analysis of electrostatic microscale devices.

  6. Role of particle masses in the magnetic field generation driven by the parity violating interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2016-09-01

    Recently the new model for the generation of strong large scale magnetic fields in neutron stars, driven by the parity violating interaction, was proposed. In this model, the magnetic field instability results from the modification of the chiral magnetic effect in presence of the electroweak interaction between ultrarelativistic electrons and nucleons. In the present work we study how a nonzero mass of charged particles, which are degenerate relativistic electrons and nonrelativistic protons, influences the generation of the magnetic field in frames of this approach. For this purpose we calculate the induced electric current of these charged particles, electroweakly interacting with background neutrons and an external magnetic field, exactly accounting for the particle mass. This current is calculated by two methods: using the exact solution of the Dirac equation for a charged particle in external fields and computing the polarization operator of a photon in matter composed of background neutrons. We show that the induced current is vanishing in both approaches leading to the zero contribution of massive particles to the generated magnetic field. We discuss the implication of our results for the problem of the magnetic field generation in compact stars.

  7. Packing 360∘ domain walls of identical circulation on planar ferromagnetic nanowires with notches using circular magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, F. I.; Sarella, A.; Wang, D.; Tuominen, M.; Aidala, K. E.

    2016-05-01

    360∘ domain walls (DWs) have generated substantial interest with the recognition that their minimal stray field creates only short range interactions, leading to a potentially higher packing density for data storage devices compared to 180∘ DWs. The topology of neighboring 360∘ DWs with identical circulation allows a higher packing density than that of 360∘ DWs of opposite circulation. Our simulations demonstrate the process by which we can pack 360∘ DWs of identical circulation on a long wire with 100 nm width (in y) and 4 nm thickness (in z), studying different size and shape notches to pin the DWs. The process to generate these walls follows a series of circular fields with non-uniform magnetic field strength that decreases as 1/r as if created by an infinitely long wire passing current into or out of the page and centered just above the notches. We are able to pin two 360∘ DWs of the same circulation on adjacent 16 nm (x) by 32 nm (y) rectangular notches 100 nm apart and on adjacent triangular notches of the same area that are 100 nm apart. The location and strength required of the series of fields is different for the different notches. Such stable high density packing of 360∘ DWs in simulations is unprecedented and suggests the potential for high density information storage.

  8. Frequency-based nanoparticle sensing over large field ranges using the ferromagnetic resonances of a magnetic nanodisc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Maximilian; Beg, Marijan; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Carey, Rebecca L.; Fangohr, Hans; Metaxas, Peter J.

    2016-11-01

    Using finite element micromagnetic simulations, we study how resonant magnetisation dynamics in thin magnetic discs with perpendicular anisotropy are influenced by magnetostatic coupling to a magnetic nanoparticle. We identify resonant modes within the disc using direct magnetic eigenmode calculations and study how their frequencies and spatial profiles are changed by the nanoparticle’s stray magnetic field. We demonstrate that particles can generate shifts in the resonant frequency of the disc’s fundamental mode which exceed resonance linewidths in recently studied spin torque oscillator devices. Importantly, it is shown that the simulated shifts can be maintained over large field ranges (here up to 1 T). This is because the resonant dynamics (the basis of nanoparticle detection here) respond directly to the nanoparticle stray field, i.e. detection does not rely on nanoparticle-induced changes to the magnetic ground state of the disc. A consequence of this is that in the case of small disc-particle separations, sensitivities to the particle are highly mode- and particle-position-dependent, with frequency shifts being maximised when the intense stray field localised directly beneath the particle can act on a large proportion of the disc’s spins that are undergoing high amplitude precession.

  9. Field-free switching of perpendicular magnetization through spin–orbit torque in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet/oxide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Young-Wan; Chris Baek, Seung-Heon; Kim, Y. M.; Lee, Hae Yeon; Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Yang, Chang-Geun; Park, Eun-Sang; Lee, Ki-Seung; Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Go, Gyungchoon; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Min, Byoung-Chul; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Park, Byong-Guk

    2016-10-01

    Spin–orbit torques arising from the spin–orbit coupling of non-magnetic heavy metals allow electrical switching of perpendicular magnetization. However, the switching is not purely electrical in laterally homogeneous structures. An extra in-plane magnetic field is indeed required to achieve deterministic switching, and this is detrimental for device applications. On the other hand, if antiferromagnets can generate spin–orbit torques, they may enable all-electrical deterministic switching because the desired magnetic field may be replaced by their exchange bias. Here we report sizeable spin–orbit torques in IrMn/CoFeB/MgO structures. The antiferromagnetic IrMn layer also supplies an in-plane exchange bias field, which enables all-electrical deterministic switching of perpendicular magnetization without any assistance from an external magnetic field. Together with sizeable spin–orbit torques, these features make antiferromagnets a promising candidate for future spintronic devices. We also show that the signs of the spin–orbit torques in various IrMn-based structures cannot be explained by existing theories and thus significant theoretical progress is required.

  10. Measurements accounting for the impediment of ion spin-up in rotating magnetic field driven field reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Deards, C. L.; Hoffman, A. L.; Steinhauer, L. C.

    2011-11-15

    Improved vacuum hygiene, wall conditioning, and reduced recycling in the rotating magnetic field (RMF) driven translation, confinement, and sustainment-upgrade (TCSU) field reversed configuration experiment have made possible a more accurate assessment of the forces affecting ion spin-up. This issue is critical in plasmas sustained by RMFs, such as TCSU since ion spin-up can substantially reduce or cancel the RMF current drive effect. Several diagnostics are brought to bear, including a 3-axis translatable magnetic probe allowing the first experimental measurement of the end shorting effect. These results show that the ion rotation is determined by a balance between electron-ion friction, the end shorting effect, and ion drag against neutrals.

  11. Ferromagnetic Resonance detection using stroboscopic magneto optical Kerr effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungha; Moriyama, Takahiro; McMichael, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is a powerful method for measuring the magnetic properties of ferromagnets. A number of related optical techniques have become popular, including time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) microscopy and Brillouin light scattering (BLS). In this presentation we describe a new, stroboscopic method of measuring FMR based on the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We use a polarized telecommunications fiber laser (wavelength = 1550 nm) and a fiber modulator driven at a frequency of interest (1 GHz to 10 GHz) to create pulsed, linearly polarized light incident on a CoFeB thin film sample. Precession in the sample is driven via a coplanar waveguide in the sample holder while the reflected light is split by a polarizing beam splitter and detected by a balanced detector. As the magnetic field is swept, oscillations in the Kerr angle and in the light intensity mix to produce a DC resonance signal. The spectra are Lorentzian, with a superposition of symmetric and anti-symmetric shapes that depends on the phase of the optical and microwave signals. In the presentation, we will also discuss phase sensitive measurements with this technique as well as the advantages over other FMR techniques.

  12. Pseudospin anisotropy of trilayer semiconductor quantum Hall ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miravet, D.; Proetto, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    When two Landau levels are brought to a close coincidence between them and with the chemical potential in the integer quantum Hall regime, the two Landau levels can just cross or collapse while the external or pseudospin field that induces the alignment changes. In this work, all possible crossings are analyzed theoretically for the particular case of semiconductor trilayer systems, using a variational Hartree-Fock approximation. The model includes tunneling between neighboring layers, bias, intralayer, and interlayer Coulomb interaction among the electrons. We have found that the general pseudospin anisotropy classification scheme used in bilayers applies also to the trilayer situation, with the simple crossing corresponding to an easy-axis ferromagnetic anisotropy analogy, and the collapse case corresponding to an easy-plane ferromagnetic analogy. An isotropic case is also possible, with the levels just crossing or collapsing depending on the filling factor and the quantum numbers of the two nearby levels. While our results are valid for any integer filling factor ν (=1 ,2 ,3 ,... ), we have analyzed in detail the crossings at ν =3 and 4, and we have given clear predictions that will help in their experimental search. In particular, the present calculations suggest that by increasing the bias, the trilayer system at these two filling factors can be driven from an easy-plane anisotropy regime to an easy-axis regime, and then can be driven back to the easy-plane regime. This kind of reentrant behavior is a unique feature of the trilayers, compared with the bilayers.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of a sinusoidally driven pendulum in a repulsive magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahmakoun, Azad; French, Valentina A.; Patterson, Jeffrey

    1997-05-01

    The dynamics of a sinusoidally driven pendulum in a repulsive magnetic field is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The experimental data are acquired using a shaft encoder interfaced to a PC which measures the angular displacement of the pendulum as a function of time. Both the theoretical simulations and the experimental measurements exhibit regions of periodic and chaotic behavior, depending on the system parameters. Amplitude jumps, hysteresis, and bistable states are also observed. The simplicity of the apparatus makes this experiment suitable for an advanced undergraduate laboratory.

  14. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate β's, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high β, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  15. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Paccagnella, R.

    2013-01-15

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate {beta}'s, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high {beta}, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  16. Superconducting magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamopoulos, D.; Aristomenopoulou, E.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetoresistance is a multifaceted effect reflecting the diverse transport mechanisms exhibited by different kinds of plain materials and hybrid nanostructures; among other, giant, colossal, and extraordinary magnetoresistance versions exist, with the notation indicative of the intensity. Here we report on the superconducting magnetoresistance observed in ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet trilayers, namely Co/Nb/Co trilayers, subjected to a parallel external magnetic field equal to the coercive field. By manipulating the transverse stray dipolar fields that originate from the out-of-plane magnetic domains of the outer layers that develop at coercivity, we can suppress the supercurrent of the interlayer. We experimentally demonstrate a scaling of the magnetoresistance magnitude that we reproduce with a closed-form phenomenological formula that incorporates relevant macroscopic parameters and microscopic length scales of the superconducting and ferromagnetic structural units. The generic approach introduced here can be used to design novel cryogenic devices that completely switch the supercurrent ‘on’ and ‘off’, thus exhibiting the ultimate magnetoresistance magnitude 100% on a regular basis.

  17. Superconducting magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet trilayers.

    PubMed

    Stamopoulos, D; Aristomenopoulou, E

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance is a multifaceted effect reflecting the diverse transport mechanisms exhibited by different kinds of plain materials and hybrid nanostructures; among other, giant, colossal, and extraordinary magnetoresistance versions exist, with the notation indicative of the intensity. Here we report on the superconducting magnetoresistance observed in ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet trilayers, namely Co/Nb/Co trilayers, subjected to a parallel external magnetic field equal to the coercive field. By manipulating the transverse stray dipolar fields that originate from the out-of-plane magnetic domains of the outer layers that develop at coercivity, we can suppress the supercurrent of the interlayer. We experimentally demonstrate a scaling of the magnetoresistance magnitude that we reproduce with a closed-form phenomenological formula that incorporates relevant macroscopic parameters and microscopic length scales of the superconducting and ferromagnetic structural units. The generic approach introduced here can be used to design novel cryogenic devices that completely switch the supercurrent 'on' and 'off', thus exhibiting the ultimate magnetoresistance magnitude 100% on a regular basis.

  18. Superconducting magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet trilayers

    PubMed Central

    Stamopoulos, D.; Aristomenopoulou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance is a multifaceted effect reflecting the diverse transport mechanisms exhibited by different kinds of plain materials and hybrid nanostructures; among other, giant, colossal, and extraordinary magnetoresistance versions exist, with the notation indicative of the intensity. Here we report on the superconducting magnetoresistance observed in ferromagnet/superconductor/ferromagnet trilayers, namely Co/Nb/Co trilayers, subjected to a parallel external magnetic field equal to the coercive field. By manipulating the transverse stray dipolar fields that originate from the out-of-plane magnetic domains of the outer layers that develop at coercivity, we can suppress the supercurrent of the interlayer. We experimentally demonstrate a scaling of the magnetoresistance magnitude that we reproduce with a closed-form phenomenological formula that incorporates relevant macroscopic parameters and microscopic length scales of the superconducting and ferromagnetic structural units. The generic approach introduced here can be used to design novel cryogenic devices that completely switch the supercurrent ‘on’ and ‘off’, thus exhibiting the ultimate magnetoresistance magnitude 100% on a regular basis. PMID:26306543

  19. Micromagnetic simulations of spin-wave normal modes and the spin-transfer-torque driven magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Tanmoy; Roy, Urmimala; Tsoi, Maxim; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2014-05-01

    We studied spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching of a cross-shaped magnetic tunnel junction in a recent report [Roy et al., J. Appl. Phys. 113, 223904 (2013)]. In that structure, the free layer is designed to have four stable energy states using the shape anisotropy of a cross. STT switching showed different regions with increasing current density. Here, we employ the micromagnetic spectral mapping technique in an attempt to understand how the asymmetry of cross dimensions and spin polarization direction of the injected current affect the magnetization dynamics. We compute spatially averaged frequency-domain spectrum of the time-domain magnetization dynamics in the presence of the current-induced STT term. At low currents, the asymmetry of polarization direction and that of the arms are observed to cause a splitting of the excited frequency modes. Higher harmonics are also observed, presumably due to spin-wave wells caused by the regions of spatially non-uniform effective magnetic field. The results could be used towards designing a multi-bit-per-cell STT-based random access memory with an improved storage density.

  20. Micromagnetic simulations of spin-wave normal modes and the spin-transfer-torque driven magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cross

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanik, Tanmoy Roy, Urmimala; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Tsoi, Maxim

    2014-05-07

    We studied spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching of a cross-shaped magnetic tunnel junction in a recent report [Roy et al., J. Appl. Phys. 113, 223904 (2013)]. In that structure, the free layer is designed to have four stable energy states using the shape anisotropy of a cross. STT switching showed different regions with increasing current density. Here, we employ the micromagnetic spectral mapping technique in an attempt to understand how the asymmetry of cross dimensions and spin polarization direction of the injected current affect the magnetization dynamics. We compute spatially averaged frequency-domain spectrum of the time-domain magnetization dynamics in the presence of the current-induced STT term. At low currents, the asymmetry of polarization direction and that of the arms are observed to cause a splitting of the excited frequency modes. Higher harmonics are also observed, presumably due to spin-wave wells caused by the regions of spatially non-uniform effective magnetic field. The results could be used towards designing a multi-bit-per-cell STT-based random access memory with an improved storage density.

  1. Nonlinear magnetization dynamics of the classical ferromagnet with two single-ion anisotropies in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wu-Ming; Zhang, Wu-Shou; Pu, Fu-Cho; Zhou, Xin

    1999-11-01

    By using a stereographic projection of the unit sphere of magnetization vector onto a complex plane for the equations of motion, the effect of an external magnetic field for integrability of the system is discussed. The properties of the Jost solutions and the scattering data are then investigated through introducing transformations other than the Riemann surface in order to avoid double-valued functions of the usual spectral parameter. The exact multisoliton solutions are investigated by means of the Binet-Cauchy formula. The results showed that under the action of an external magnetic field nonlinear magnetization depends essentially on two parameters: its center moves with a constant velocity, while its shape changes with another constant velocity; its amplitude and width vary periodically with time, while its shape is also dependent on time and is unsymmetric with respect to its center. The orientation of the nonlinear magnetization in the plane orthogonal to the anisotropy axis changes with an external magnetic field. The total magnetic momentum and the integral of the motion coincident with its z component depend on time. The mean number of spins derivated from the ground state in a localized magnetic excitations is dependent on time. The asymptotic behavior of multisoliton solutions, the total displacement of center, and the phase shift of the jth peak are also analyzed.

  2. Flow Driven by an Archimedean Helical Permanent Magnetic Field. Part I: Flow Patterns and Their Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Zhang, Xinde; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an Archimedean helical permanent magnetic field was constructed and its driving effects on liquid metal were examined. A magnetic stirrer was constructed using a series of arc-like magnets. The helical distribution of its magnetic field, which was confirmed via Gauss probe measurements and numerical simulations, can be considered a combination of rotating and traveling magnetic fields. The characteristics of the flow patterns, particularly the transitions between the meridian secondary flow (two vortices) and the global axial flow (one vortex), driven by this magnetic field were quantitatively measured using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The transient and modulated flow behaviors will be presented in a companion article. The D/ H dimension ratio was used to characterize the transitions of these two flow patterns. The results demonstrated that the flow patterns depend on not only the intrinsic structure of the magnetic field, e.g., the helix lead angle, but also the performance parameters, e.g., the dimensional ratio of the liquid bulk. The notable opposing roles of these two flow patterns in the improvement of macrosegregations when imposing such magnetic fields near the solidifying front were qualitatively addressed.

  3. Evaluation of standoff distance method to determine the coronal magnetic field using CME-driven shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, K.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Syed Ibrahim, M.

    2016-11-01

    We have analyzed the propagation characteristics of four limb coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with their shocks. These CMEs were observed in 18 frames up to 18 solar radii using LASCO white light images. Gopalswamy and Yashiro (Astrophys. J. 736:L17, 2011) introduced the standoff distance method (SOD) to find the magnetic field in the corona using CME-driven shock. In this paper, we have used this technique to determine the magnetic field strength and to study the propagation/shock formation condition of these CMEs at 18 different locations. Since the thickness of shock sheath (standoff distance or SOD) is not constant around CME, we estimate the shock parameters and their variation in large and small SOD regions of the shock. The Mach number ranges from 1.7 to 2.8 and Alfvén speed varies from 197 to 857 km s^{-1}. Finally, we estimate the magnetic field variation in the corona. The magnetic field strength ranges from 4.9 to 26.2 mG from 8.3 to 17.5 solar radii. The estimated magnetic field strength in this study is consistent with the literature value (7.6 to 45.8 mG from Gopalswamy and Yashiro (Astrophys. J. 736:L17, 2011), and 6 to 105 mG from Kim et al. (Astrophys. J. 746:118, 2012)) and it smoothly follows the general coronal magnetic field profile.

  4. Field emission driven direct current argon discharges and electrical breakdown mechanism across micron scale gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejčik, Štefan; Radjenović, Branislav; Klas, Matej; Radmilović-Radjenović, Marija

    2015-11-01

    In this paper results of the experimental and theoretical studies of the field emission driven direct current argon microdischarges for the gaps between 1 μm and 100 μm are presented and discussed. The breakdown voltage curves and Volt-Ampere characteristics proved to be a fertile basis providing better understanding of the breakdown phenomena in microgaps. Based on the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields have been estimated confirming that the secondary electron emission due to high electric field generated in microgaps depends primarily on the electric field leading directly to the violation of the Paschen's law. Experimental data are supported by the theoretical predictions that suggest departure from the scaling law and a flattening of the Paschen curves at higher pressures confirming that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism leading to the breakdown. Field emission of electrons from the cathode, the space charge effects in the breakdown and distinction between the Fowler-Nordheim field emission and the space charge limited current density are also analyzed. Images and Volt-Ampere characteristics recorded at the electrode gap size of 20 μm indicate the existence of a discharge region similar to arc at the pressure of around 200 Torr has been observed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  5. Quantum hall ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Akshay

    We study several quantum phases that are related to the quantum Hall effect. Our initial focus is on a pair of quantum Hall ferromagnets where the quantum Hall ordering occurs simultaneously with a spontaneous breaking of an internal symmetry associated with a semiconductor valley index. In our first example ---AlAs heterostructures--- we study domain wall structure, role of random-field disorder and dipole moment physics. Then in the second example ---Si(111)--- we show that symmetry breaking near several integer filling fractions involves a combination of selection by thermal fluctuations known as "order by disorder" and a selection by the energetics of Skyrme lattices induced by moving away from the commensurate fillings, a mechanism we term "order by doping". We also study ground state of such systems near filling factor one in the absence of valley Zeeman energy. We show that even though the lowest energy charged excitations are charge one skyrmions, the lowest energy skyrmion lattice has charge > 1 per unit cell. We then broaden our discussion to include lattice systems having multiple Chern number bands. We find analogs of quantum Hall ferromagnets in the menagerie of fractional Chern insulator phases. Unlike in the AlAs system, here the domain walls come naturally with gapped electronic excitations. We close with a result involving only topology: we show that ABC stacked multilayer graphene placed on boron nitride substrate has flat bands with non-zero local Berry curvature but zero Chern number. This allows access to an interaction dominated system with a non-trivial quantum distance metric but without the extra complication of a non-zero Chern number.

  6. Transport driven plasma flows in the scrape-off layer of ADITYA Tokamak in different orientations of magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sangwan, Deepak; Jha, Ratneshwar; Brotankova, Jana; Gopalkrishna, M. V.

    2014-06-15

    Parallel plasma flows in the scrape-off layer of ADITYA tokamak are measured in two orientations of total magnetic field. In each orientation, experiments are carried out by reversing the direction of the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The transport-driven component is determined by averaging flow Mach numbers, measured in two directions of the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current for the same orientation. It is observed that there is a significant transport-driven component in the measured flow and the component depends on the field orientation.

  7. The Behaviors of Ferro-Magnetic Nano-Particles In and Around Blood Vessels under Applied Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Nacev, A.; Beni, C.; Bruno, O.; Shapiro, B.

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic drug delivery, therapeutic magnetizable particles are typically injected into the blood stream and magnets are then used to concentrate them to disease locations. The behavior of such particles in-vivo is complex and is governed by blood convection, diffusion (in blood and in tissue), extravasation, and the applied magnetic fields. Using physical first-principles and a sophisticated vessel-membrane-tissue (VMT) numerical solver, we comprehensively analyze in detail the behavior of magnetic particles in blood vessels and surrounding tissue. For any blood vessel (of any size, depth, and blood velocity) and tissue properties, particle size and applied magnetic fields, we consider a Krogh tissue cylinder geometry and solve for the resulting spatial distribution of particles. We find that there are three prototypical behaviors (blood velocity dominated, magnetic force dominated, and boundary-layer formation) and that the type of behavior observed is uniquely determined by three non-dimensional numbers (the magnetic-Richardson number, mass Péclet number, and Renkin reduced diffusion coefficient). Plots and equations are provided to easily read out which behavior is found under which circumstances (Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8). We compare our results to previously published in-vitro and in-vivo magnetic drug delivery experiments. Not only do we find excellent agreement between our predictions and prior experimental observations, but we are also able to qualitatively and quantitatively explain behavior that was previously not understood. PMID:21278859

  8. Electrical-field-driven metal-insulator transition tuned with self-aligned atomic defects.

    PubMed

    Syrlybekov, Askar; Wu, Han-Chun; Mauit, Ozhet; Wu, Ye-Cun; Maguire, Pierce; Khalid, Abbas; Coileáin, Cormac Ó; Farrell, Leo; Heng, Cheng-Lin; Abid, Mohamed; Liu, Huajun; Yang, Li; Zhang, Hong-Zhou; Shvets, Igor V

    2015-09-01

    Recently, significant attention has been paid to the resistance switching (RS) behaviour in Fe3O4 and it was explained through the analogy of the electrically driven metal-insulator transition based on the quantum tunneling theory. Here, we propose a method to experimentally support this explanation and provide a way to tune the critical switching parameter by introducing self-aligned localized impurities through the growth of Fe3O4 thin films on stepped SrTiO3 substrates. Anisotropic behavior in the RS was observed, where a lower switching voltage in the range of 10(4) V cm(-1) is required to switch Fe3O4 from a high conducting state to a low conducting state when the electrical field is applied along the steps. The anisotropic RS behavior is attributed to a high density array of anti-phase boundaries (APBs) formed at the step edges and thus are aligned along the same direction in the film which act as a train of hotspot forming conduits for resonant tunneling. Our experimental studies open an interesting window to tune the electrical-field-driven metal-insulator transition in strongly correlated systems.

  9. Field observations of wave-driven circulation over spur and groove formations on a coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Justin S.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Koweek, David

    2015-01-01

    and groove (SAG) formations are found on the forereefs of many coral reefs worldwide. Modeling results have shown that SAG formations together with shoaling waves induce a nearshore Lagrangian circulation pattern of counter-rotating circulation cells, but these have never been observed in the field. We present results from two separate field studies of SAG formations on Palmyra Atoll which show their effect on waves to be small, but reveal a persistent order 1 cm/s depth-averaged Lagrangian offshore flow over the spur and onshore flow over the grooves. This circulation was stronger for larger, directly incident waves and low alongshore flow conditions, consistent with predictions from modeling. Favorable forcing conditions must be maintained on the order of 1 h to accelerate and develop the SAG circulation cells. The primary cross and alongshore depth-averaged momentum balances were between the pressure gradient, radiation stress gradient, and nonlinear convective terms, and the bottom drag was similar to values found on other reefs. The vertical structure of these circulation cells was previously unknown and the results show a complex horizontal offshore Lagrangian flow over the spurs near the surface driven by alongshore variability in radiation stress gradients. Vertical flow was downward over the spur and upward over the groove, likely driven by alongshore differences in bottom stress and not by vortex forcing.

  10. SELF-HEATING OF CORONA BY ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS DRIVEN BY SHEARED FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, H.; Ali, S.; Poedts, S.

    2012-04-01

    A mechanism for self-heating of the solar corona is discussed. It is shown that the free energy available in the form of sheared flows gives rise to unstable electrostatic perturbations which accelerate and heat particles. The electrostatic perturbations can occur through two processes, viz., by a purely growing sheared flow-driven instability and/or by a sheared flow-driven drift wave. These processes can occur throughout the corona and, hence, this self-heating mechanism could be very important for coronal heating. These instabilities can give rise to local perturbed electrostatic potentials {psi}{sub 1} of up to 100 volts within 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} to a few seconds time, if the (dimensionless) initial perturbation is assumed to be about 1%, that is, e{psi}{sub 1}/T{sub e} {approx_equal} 10{sup -2}. The wavelengths in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field B{sub 0} vary from about 10 m to 1 m in our model. The purely growing instability creates electrostatic fields by sheared flows even if there is no density gradient, whereas a density gradient is crucial for the occurrence of the drift wave instability. The purely growing instability develops a small real frequency as well in the two-ion coronal plasma. In the solar corona, very low frequency (of the order of 1 Hz) drift dissipative waves can also occur due to electron-ion collisions.

  11. Neutron production using a pyroelectric driven target coupled with a gated field ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, J. L.; Tang, V.; Falabella, S.; Naranjo, B.; Putterman, S.

    2013-04-19

    A palm sized, portable neutron source would be useful for widespread implementation of detection systems for shielded, special nuclear material. We present progress towards the development of the components for an ultracompact neutron generator using a pulsed, meso-scale field ionization source, a deuterated (or tritiated) titanium target driven by a negative high voltage lithium tantalate crystal. Neutron production from integrated tests using an ion source with a single, biased tungsten tip and a 3 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm, vacuum insulated crystal with a plastic deuterated target are presented. Component testing of the ion source with a single tip produces up to 3 nA of current. Dielectric insulation of the lithium tantalate crystals appears to reduce flashover, which should improve the robustness. The field emission losses from a 3 cm diameter crystal with a plastic target and 6 cm diameter crystal with a metal target are compared.

  12. Current-driven domain wall motion enhanced by the microwave field

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Li, Zhi-xiong; Tang, Wei; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2014-07-14

    The magnetic domain wall (DW) motion driven by a spin-polarized current opens a new concept for memory and logic devices. However, the critical current density required to overcome the intrinsic and/or extrinsic pinning of DW remains too large for practical applications. Here, we show, by using micromagnetic simulations and analytical approaches, that the application of a microwave field offers an effective solution to this problem. When a transverse microwave field is applied, the adiabatic spin-transfer torque (STT) alone can sustain a steady-state DW motion without the sign of Walker breakdown, meaning that the intrinsic pinning disappears. The extrinsic pinning can also be effectively reduced. Moreover, the DW velocity is increased greatly for the microwave-assisted DW motion. This provides a new way to manipulate the DW motion at low current densities.

  13. Quantum correlations of three-qubit states driven by a classical random external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Youneng; Fang, Maofa; Zhang, Shiyang; Liu, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we exploit the notions of tripartite quantum discord {{D}(3)}, tripartite negativity {{N}(3)}, and entanglement witnesses (EWs), respectively, as a measure of quantum correlations in a model of three noninteracting qubits subject to a classical random external field. We compare the dynamics of {{D}(3)} with that of entanglement for the initial entangled pure or mixed GHZ- and W-type states. We find that the quantum correlations dynamics depend on the input configuration of the purity of the initial states. The results show that {{D}(3)} may be more robust than entanglement and no sudden death of the {{D}(3)} occurs, whereas entanglement displays periodically sudden death and revivals in the regions for GHZ- and W-type states driven by a classical random external field. Furthermore, we also show that the survival partial entanglement can be detected by means of the suitable EWs.

  14. Topological quantum phase transitions driven by external electric fields in Sb2Te3 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsung; Kim, Choong H.; Kim, Heung-Sik; Ihm, Jisoon

    2012-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we show that topological quantum phase transitions are driven by external electric fields in thin films of Sb2Te3. The film, as the applied electric field normal to its surface increases, is transformed from a normal insulator to a topological insulator or vice versa depending on the film thickness. We identify the band topology by directly calculating the invariant from electronic wave functions. The dispersion of edge states is also found to be consistent with the bulk band topology in view of the bulk-boundary correspondence. We present possible applications of the topological phase transition as an on/off switch of the topologically protected edge states in nano-scale devices. PMID:22203972

  15. Electric-field-driven magnetization reversal in square-shaped nanomagnet-based multiferroic heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ren-Ci; Nan, Ce-Wen E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, J. J. E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chen, Long-Qing; Hu, Jia-Mian

    2015-04-06

    Based on phase field modeling and thermodynamic analysis, purely electric-field-driven magnetization reversal was shown to be possible in a multiferroic heterostructure of a square-shaped amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} nanomagnet on top of a ferroelectric layer through electrostrain. The reversal is made possible by engineering the mutual interactions among the built-in uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, the geometry-dependent magnetic configuration anisotropy, and the magnetoelastic anisotropy. Particularly, the incorporation of the built-in uniaxial anisotropy made it possible to reverse magnetization with one single unipolar electrostrain pulse, which is simpler than previous designs involving the use of bipolar electrostrains and may alleviate ferroelectric fatigue. Critical conditions for triggering the magnetization reversal are identified.

  16. Resonant field amplification with feedback-stabilized regime in current driven resistive wall mode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yueqiang; In, Y.; Okabayashi, M.

    2010-07-15

    The stability and resonant field response of current driven resistive wall modes are numerically studied for DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] low pressure plasmas. The resonant field response of the feedback-stabilized resistive wall mode is investigated both analytically and numerically, and compared with the response from intrinsically stable or marginally stable modes. The modeling qualitatively reproduces the experimental results. Furthermore, based on some recent results and on the indirect numerical evidence in this work, it is suggested that the mode stability behavior observed in DIII-D experiments is due to the kink-peeling mode stabilization by the separatrix geometry. The phase inversion radius of the computed plasma displacement does not generally coincide with the radial locations of rational surfaces, also supporting experimental observations.

  17. Simulation of electromechanical responses of ferroelectric ceramics driven by alternating compressive stress and static electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Simon Ching-kin; Lo Vengcheong

    2008-11-15

    The effect of static electric field on mechanical and dielectric properties of a lead zirconate titanate (PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3}) piezoceramic sample driven by an alternating compressive stress has been experimentally investigated by Zhou et al.[J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 867 (2005)]. Numerical simulation for this experimental result using two-dimensional four-state Potts model is presented in this article. Upon polarization switching, the dipole in the perovskite cell undergoes 90 deg. rotation, which is in turn associated with the switching of ferroelastic strain state. Consequently, the stress-strain relation and hence the mechanical stiffness are strongly influenced by the magnitude of the dc bias. Optimal mechanical and piezoelectric responses can be obtained by the suitable selection of biasing field.

  18. Passive Superconducting Flux Conservers for Rotating-Magnetic-Field-Driven Field-Reversed Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Oz, E.; Myers, C. E.; Edwards, M. R.; Berlinger, B.; Brooks, A.; Cohen, S. A.

    2011-01-05

    The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) experiment employs an odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMFo) current drive and plasma heating system to form and sustain high-Β plasmas. For radial confinement, an array of coaxial, internal, passive, flux-conserving (FC) rings applies magnetic pressure to the plasma while still allowing radio-frequency RMFo from external coils to reach the plasma. The 3 ms pulse duration of the present experiment is limited by the skin time (τfc) of its room-temperature copper FC rings. To explore plasma phenomena with longer characteristic times, the pulse duration of the next-generation PFRC-2 device will exceed 100 ms, necessitating FC rings with (τfc > 300 ms. In this paper we review the physics of internal, discrete, passive FCs and describe the evolution of the PFRC's FC array. We then detail new experiments that have produced higher performance FC rings that contain embedded high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. Several HTS tape winding configurations have been studied and a wide range of extended skin times, from 0.4 s to over 103 s, has been achieved. The new FC rings must carry up to 3 kA of current to balance the expected PFRC-2 plasma pressure, so the dependence of the HTS-FC critical current on the winding configuration and temperature was also studied. From these experiments, the key HTS-FC design considerations have been identified and HTS-FC rings with the desired performance characteristics have been produced.

  19. Electric-Field-Driven Dual Vacancies Evolution in Ultrathin Nanosheets Realizing Reversible Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Mengjie; Liu, Youwen; Zhi, Yuduo; Xiao, Chong; Gu, Bingchuan; Hua, Xuemin; Fan, Shaojuan; Lin, Yue; Bai, Wei; Tong, Wei; Zou, Youming; Pan, Bicai; Ye, Bangjiao; Xie, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Fabricating a flexible room-temperature ferromagnetic resistive-switching random access memory (RRAM) device is of fundamental importance to integrate nonvolatile memory and spintronics both in theory and practice for modern information technology and has the potential to bring about revolutionary new foldable information-storage devices. Here, we show that a relatively low operating voltage (+1.4 V/-1.5 V, the corresponding electric field is around 20,000 V/cm) drives the dual vacancies evolution in ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets at room temperature, which causes the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal, accompanyied by an abrupt conductivity change up to 10(3) times, exhibiting room-temperature ferromagnetism in two resistance states. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron spin resonance results show that the Sn/O dual vacancies in the ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets evolve to isolated Sn vacancy under electric field, accounting for the switching behavior of SnO2 ultrathin nanosheets; on the other hand, the different defect types correspond to different conduction natures, realizing the transition between semiconductor and half-metal. Our result represents a crucial step to create new a information-storage device realizing the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal with flexibility and room-temperature ferromagnetism at low energy consumption. The as-obtained half-metal in the low-resistance state broadens the application of the device in spintronics and the semiconductor to half-metal transition on the basis of defects evolution and also opens up a new avenue for exploring random access memory mechanisms and finding new half-metals for spintronics. PMID:26535800

  20. Phase transitions in pure and dilute thin ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1983-10-01

    The mean-field model of a thin ferromagnetic film where the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling in surface layers can be different from that inside the film is considered. The phase diagram, equations for the second-order phase-transition lines, and the spontaneous magnetization profiles near the phase transitions are given. It is shown that there is no extra-ordinary transition in a thin film. If the thickness of the film tends to infinity the well-known results for the mean-field model of a semi-infinite ferromagnet are obtained. The generalization for disordered dilute thin ferromagnetic films and semi-infinite ferromagnets is also given.

  1. Simulation Study of Magnetic Fields generated by the Electromagnetic Filamentation Instability driven by Pair Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2007-01-01

    Using a 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron (cold) jet propagating into ambient electron-positron and electron-ion plasmas without initial magnetic fields in order to investigate the nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability. We have also performed simulations with broad Lorentz factor distribution of jet electrons and positrons, which are assumed to be created by the photon annihilation. The growth time and nonlinear saturation levels depend on the initial jet parallel velocity distributions and ambient plasma. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shocks accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The nonlinear fluctuation amplitude of densities, currents, electric, and magnetic fields in the electron-ion ambient plasma are larger than those in the electron-positron ambient plasma. We have shown that plasma instabilities driven by these streaming electron-positron pairs are responsible for the excitation of near-equipartition, turbulent magnetic fields. These fields maintain a strong saturated level on timescales much longer than the electron skin depth at least for the duration of the simulations. Our results reveal the importance of the electromagnetic filamentation instability in ensuring an effective coupling between electron-positron pairs and ions, and may help explain the origin of large upstream fields in GRB shock.

  2. Multiphoton transitions in a spin system driven by strong bichromatic field

    SciTech Connect

    Saiko, A. P. Fedoruk, G. G.; Markevich, S. A.

    2007-11-15

    EPR transient nutation spectroscopy is used to measure the effective field (Rabi frequency) for multiphoton transitions in a two-level spin system bichromatically driven by a transverse microwave (MW) field and a longitudinal radio-frequency (RF) field. The behavior of the effective field amplitude is examined in the case of a relatively strong MW field, when the derivation of the effective Hamiltonian cannot be reduced to first-order perturbation theory in {omega}{sub 1}/{omega}{sub rf}({omega}{sub 1} is the microwave Rabi frequency, {omega}{sub rf} is the RF frequency). Experimental results are consistently interpreted by taking into account the contributions of second and third order in {omega}{sub 1}/{omega}{sub rf} evaluated by Krylov-Bogolyubov-Mitropolsky averaging. In the case of inhomogeneously broadened EPR line, the third-order correction modifies the nutation frequency, while the second-order correction gives rise to a change in the nutation amplitude due to a Bloch-Siegert shift.

  3. Energetic electron propagation in solid targets driven by the intense electric fields of femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.

    2011-06-15

    An analytical model is used to interpret experimental data on the propagation of energetic electrons perpendicular to and parallel to the propagation direction of intense femtosecond laser pulses that are incident on solid targets. The pulses with {approx_equal}10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} intensity are incident normal onto a gadolinium or tungsten wire embedded in an aluminum substrate, and MeV electrons generated in the focal spot propagate along the laser direction into the irradiated wire. Electrons also propagate laterally from the focal spot through the aluminum substrate and into a dysprosium or hafnium spectator wire at a distance up to 1 mm from the irradiated wire. The ratio of the K shell emission from the spectator and irradiated wires is a measure of the numbers and energies of the MeV electrons propagating parallel to and perpendicular to the intense oscillating electric field of the laser pulse. It is found that the angular distribution of electrons from the focal spot is highly non-isotropic, and approximately twice as many electrons are driven by the electric field toward the spectator wire as into the irradiated wire. This quantitative result is consistent with the qualitative experimental observation that the oscillating electric field of an intense femtosecond laser pulse, when interacting with a heavy metal target, preferentially drives energetic electrons in the electric field direction as compared to perpendicular to the field.

  4. H II REGION DRIVEN GALACTIC BUBBLES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, Michael D.; Clemens, D. P. E-mail: clemens@bu.edu

    2012-12-01

    The relative alignments of mid-infrared traced Galactic bubbles are compared to the orientation of the mean Galactic magnetic field in the disk. The orientations of bubbles in the northern Galactic plane were measured and are consistent with random orientations-no preferential alignment with respect to the Galactic disk was found. A subsample of H II region driven Galactic bubbles was identified, and as a single population they show random orientations. When this subsample was further divided into subthermal and suprathermal H II regions, based on hydrogen radio recombination linewidths, the subthermal H II regions showed a marginal deviation from random orientations, but the suprathermal H II regions showed significant alignment with the Galactic plane. The mean orientation of the Galactic disk magnetic field was characterized using new near-infrared starlight polarimetry and the suprathermal H II regions were found to preferentially align with the disk magnetic field. If suprathermal linewidths are associated with younger H II regions, then the evolution of young H II regions is significantly affected by the Galactic magnetic field. As H II regions age, they cease to be strongly linked to the Galactic magnetic field, as surrounding density variations come to dominate their morphological evolution. From the new observations, the ratios of magnetic-to-ram pressures in the expanding ionization fronts were estimated for younger H II regions.

  5. Tuning the dynamic exchange interaction in ferromagnet/semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yu-Sheng; Chiu, Yi-Hsin; Harmon, N. J.; Odenthal, Patrick; Sheffield, Matthew; Chilcote, Michael; Kawakami, R. K.; Flatté, M. E.; Johnston-Halperin, E.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the impact of tunnel barrier thickness on electron spin dynamics in Fe/MgO/GaAs heterostructures using spin-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy. Comparison of the Larmor frequency between thick and thin MgO barriers reveals a four-fold variation in exchange coupling strength, and investigation of the inhomogeneous dephasing time, T2*, argues that inhomogeneity in the local effective hyperfine field dominates free-carrier spin relaxation across the entire range of barrier thickness. These results provide additional evidence to support the theory of hyperfine-dominated spin relaxation in GaAs at low temperature and in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. Further, this work lays the foundation for engineering both the exchange coupling and the free carrier spin dynamics in ferromagnet/semiconductor heterostructures, allowing for the exploration of dissipation and transport in the regime of dynamically-driven spin pumping.

  6. Phase-resolved ferromagnetic resonance using heterodyne detection method

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seungha; Liu, Jason; McMichael, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a phase-resolved ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement using a heterodyne method. Spin precession is driven by microwave fields and detected by 1550 nm laser light that is modulated at a frequency slightly shifted with respected to the FMR driving frequency. The evolving phase difference between the spin precession and the modulated light produces a slowly oscillating Kerr rotation signal with a phase equal to the precession phase plus a phase due to the path length difference between the excitation microwave signal and the optical signal. We estimate the accuracy of the precession phase measurement to be 0.1 rad. This heterodyne FMR detection method eliminates the need for field modulation and allows a stronger detection signal at higher intermediate frequency where the 1/f noise floor is reduced. PMID:27453957

  7. Ultrafast electron microscopy and diffraction with laser-driven field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropers, Claus

    2015-03-01

    Ultrafast structural dynamics in solids and nanostructures can be investigated by an increasing number of sophisticated electron and x-ray diffraction techniques. Electrons are particularly suited for this purpose, exhibiting high scattering cross-sections and allowing for beam control by versatile electrostatic or magnetic lens systems. The capabilities of time-resolved electron imaging techniques critically depend on the employed source of laser-driven ultrashort electron pulses. Nanoscopic sources offer exceptional possibilities for the generation of electron probe pulses with very short durations and high spatial beam coherence. In this talk, I will discuss recent progress in the development of ultrafast electron microscopy and diffraction based on nanoscopic photocathodes. In particular, we implemented ultrafast low-energy electron diffraction (ULEED) and ultrafast transmission electron microscopy (UTEM) driven by nonlinear photoemission from field emission tips. ULEED enables the study of structural changes with high temporal resolution and ultimate surface sensitivity, at sub-keV electron energies. As a first application of this technique, we studied the structural phase transition in a stripe-like polymer superstructure on freestanding monolayer graphene. An advanced UTEM instrument was realized by custom modifications of a standard transmission electron microscope, leading to electron focal spot sizes in the microscope's sample plane of about 10 nm and electron pulse durations of less than 700 fs. Utilizing these features, we investigate the quantum-coherent interaction between the ultrashort electron pulse and the optical near-field of an illuminated nanostructure. Finally, further applications and prospects of ultrafast electron imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy using nanoscale field emitters will be discussed.

  8. Dynamics of a reconnection-driven runaway ion tail in a reversed field pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. K.; Kim, J.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Sears, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    While reconnection-driven ion heating is common in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, the underlying mechanisms for converting magnetic to kinetic energy remain not fully understood. Reversed field pinch discharges are often characterized by rapid ion heating during impulsive reconnection, generating an ion distribution with an enhanced bulk temperature, mainly perpendicular to magnetic field. In the Madison Symmetric Torus, a subset of discharges with the strongest reconnection events develop a very anisotropic, high energy tail parallel to magnetic field in addition to bulk perpendicular heating, which produces a fusion neutron flux orders of magnitude higher than that expected from a Maxwellian distribution. Here, we demonstrate that two factors in addition to a perpendicular bulk heating mechanism must be considered to explain this distribution. First, ion runaway can occur in the strong parallel-to-B electric field induced by a rapid equilibrium change triggered by reconnection-based relaxation; this effect is particularly strong on perpendicularly heated ions which experience a reduced frictional drag relative to bulk ions. Second, the confinement of ions varies dramatically as a function of velocity. Whereas thermal ions are governed by stochastic diffusion along tearing-altered field lines (and radial diffusion increases with parallel speed), sufficiently energetic ions are well confined, only weakly affected by a stochastic magnetic field. High energy ions traveling mainly in the direction of toroidal plasma current are nearly classically confined, while counter-propagating ions experience an intermediate confinement, greater than that of thermal ions but significantly less than classical expectations. The details of ion confinement tend to reinforce the asymmetric drive of the parallel electric field, resulting in a very asymmetric, anisotropic distribution.

  9. Ab initio description of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs: Ferromagnetism, electronic structure, and optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craco, L.; Laad, M. S.; Müller-Hartmann, E.

    2003-12-01

    Motivated by a study of various experiments describing the electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs, we investigate its physical response in detail using a combination of first-principles band structure with methods based on dynamical mean field theory to incorporate strong, dynamical correlations, and intrinsic as well as extrinsic disorder in one single theoretical picture. We show how ferromagnetism is driven by double exchange (DE), in agreement with very recent observations, along with a good quantitative description of the details of the electronic structure, as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy and optical conductivity. Our results show how ferromagnetism can be driven by DE even in diluted magnetic semiconductors with small carrier concentration.

  10. Quantum transport in ferromagnetic graphene: Role of Berry curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, Banasri

    2014-12-10

    The magnetic effects in ferromagnetic graphene basically depend on the principle of exchange interaction when ferromagntism is induced by depositing an insulator layer on graphene. Here we deal with the consequences of non-uniformity in the exchange coupling strength of the ferromagnetic graphene. We discuss how the in- homogeneity in the coordinate and momentum of the exchange vector field can provide interesting results in the conductivity analysis of the ferromagnetic graphene. Our analysis is based on the Kubo formalism of quantum transport.

  11. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments of colliding jets: Turbulent amplification of seed magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeferacos, Petros; Fatenejad, Milad; Flocke, Norbert; Graziani, Carlo; Gregori, Gianluca; Lamb, Donald; Lee, Dongwook; Meinecke, Jena; Scopatz, Anthony; Weide, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    In this study we present high-resolution numerical simulations of laboratory experiments that study the turbulent amplification of magnetic fields generated by laser-driven colliding jets. The radiative magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations discussed here were performed with the FLASH code and have assisted in the analysis of the experimental results obtained from the Vulcan laser facility. In these experiments, a pair of thin Carbon foils is placed in an Argon-filled chamber and is illuminated to create counter-propagating jets. The jets carry magnetic fields generated by the Biermann battery mechanism and collide to form a highly turbulent region. The interaction is probed using a wealth of diagnostics, including induction coils that are capable of providing the field strength and directionality at a specific point in space. The latter have revealed a significant increase in the field's strength due to turbulent amplification. Our FLASH simulations have allowed us to reproduce the experimental findings and to disentangle the complex processes and dynamics involved in the colliding flows. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by DOE NNSA ASC.

  12. Electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective plasmon driven surface catalysis in metal nanowire-film systems.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liang; Huang, Yingzhou; Yang, Yanna; Xiong, Wen; Chen, Guo; Su, Xun; Wei, Hua; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    For the novel interpretation of Raman spectrum from molecule at metal surface, the plasmon driven surface catalysis (PDSC) reactions have become an interesting topic in the research field of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, the selective PDSC reactions of p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) produced from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) or 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT) were demonstrated in the Ag nanowires dimer-Au film systems. The different SERS spectra collected at individual part and adjacent part of the same nanowire-film system pointed out the importance of the electromagnetic field redistribution induced by image charge on film in this selective surface catalysis, which was confirmed by the simulated electromagnetic simulated electro- magnetic field distributions. Our result indicated this electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective surface catalysis was largely affected by the polarization and wavelength of incident light but slightly by the difference in diameters between two nanowires. Our work provides a further understanding of PDSC reaction in metal nanostructure and could be a deep support for the researches on surface catalysis and surface analysis.

  13. Persistence of magnetic field driven by relativistic electrons in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flacco, A.; Vieira, J.; Lifschitz, A.; Sylla, F.; Kahaly, S.; Veltcheva, M.; Silva, L. O.; Malka, V.

    2015-05-01

    The onset and evolution of magnetic fields in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas is determined by several mechanisms, including instabilities, dynamo effects and ultrahigh-energy particle flows through gas, plasma and interstellar media. These processes are relevant over a wide range of conditions, from cosmic ray acceleration and gamma ray bursts to nuclear fusion in stars. The disparate temporal and spatial scales where each process operates can be reconciled by scaling parameters that enable one to emulate astrophysical conditions in the laboratory. Here we unveil a new mechanism by which the flow of ultra-energetic particles in a laser-wakefield accelerator strongly magnetizes the boundary between plasma and non-ionized gas. We demonstrate, from time-resolved large-scale magnetic-field measurements and full-scale particle-in-cell simulations, the generation of strong magnetic fields up to 10-100 tesla (corresponding to nT in astrophysical conditions). These results open new paths for the exploration and modelling of ultrahigh-energy particle-driven magnetic-field generation in the laboratory.

  14. Model for the magnetomechanical behavior of NiMnGa driven with collinear field and stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a model for NiMnGa transducers driven with collinear magnetic fields and stresses. Prior work by the authors demonstrates the existence of reversible strains under the application of collinear magnetic fields and stresses oriented along the [001] crystallographic axis of a cylindrical rod of single-crystal Ni 50Mn 28.7Ga 21.3. Internal bias stresses from pinning sites in the material are believed to provide the restoring force which allows for the reversibility of the strain. A constitutive model to describe the motion of twin boundaries in the presence of energetically strong pinning sites is presented. The effective pinning strength is represented by an internal bias stress oriented transversely. Stochastic homogenization is then used to account for variability in the bias stresses throughout the material and inhomogeneity in the interaction field intensity. The internal rod dynamics are modeled through force balancing with boundary conditions dictated by the constructive details of the transducer and mechanical load. The model is formulated in variational form, resulting in a second-order temporal system with magnetic field induced strain as the driving mechanism. Model result for unloaded conditions is compared with experimental measurements.

  15. Electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective plasmon driven surface catalysis in metal nanowire-film systems

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liang; Huang, Yingzhou; Yang, Yanna; Xiong, Wen; Chen, Guo; Su, Xun; Wei, Hua; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    For the novel interpretation of Raman spectrum from molecule at metal surface, the plasmon driven surface catalysis (PDSC) reactions have become an interesting topic in the research field of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, the selective PDSC reactions of p,p’-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) produced from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) or 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT) were demonstrated in the Ag nanowires dimer-Au film systems. The different SERS spectra collected at individual part and adjacent part of the same nanowire-film system pointed out the importance of the electromagnetic field redistribution induced by image charge on film in this selective surface catalysis, which was confirmed by the simulated electromagnetic simulated electro- magnetic field distributions. Our result indicated this electromagnetic field redistribution induced selective surface catalysis was largely affected by the polarization and wavelength of incident light but slightly by the difference in diameters between two nanowires. Our work provides a further understanding of PDSC reaction in metal nanostructure and could be a deep support for the researches on surface catalysis and surface analysis. PMID:26601698

  16. Exciton Absorption in Semiconductor Quantum Wells Driven by a Strong Intersubband Pump Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    1999-01-01

    Optical interband excitonic absorption of semiconductor quantum wells (QW's) driven by a coherent pump field is investigated based on semiconductor Bloch equations. The pump field has a photon energy close to the intersubband spacing between the first two conduction subbands in the QW's. An external weak optical field probes the interband transition. The excitonic effects and pump-induced population redistribution within the conduction subbands in the QW system are included. When the density of the electron-hole pairs in the QW structure is low, the pump field induces an Autler-Townes splitting of the exciton absorption spectrum. The split size and the peak positions of the absorption doublet depend not only on the pump frequency and intensity but also on the carrier density. As the density of the electron-hole pairs is increased, the split contrast (the ratio between the maximum and minimum values) is decreased because the exciton effect is suppressed at higher densities due to the many-body screening.

  17. 2D profile of poloidal magnetic field diagnosed by a laser-driven ion-beam trace probe (LITP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Chijie; Chen, Yihang; Xu, Tianchao; Lin, Chen; Wang, Long; Xu, Min; Yu, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Based on large energy spread of laser-driven ion beam (LIB), a new method, the Laser-driven Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP), was suggested recently to diagnose the poloidal magnetic field (Bp) and radial electric field (Er) in toroidal devices. Based on another property of LIB, a wide angular distribution, here we suggested that LITP could be extended to get 2D Bp profile or 1D profile of both poloidal and radial magnetic fields at the same time. In this paper, we show the basic principle, some preliminary simulation results, and experimental preparation to test the basic principle of LITP.

  18. Effects of hydrodynamic interactions in binary colloidal mixtures driven oppositely by oscillatory external fields.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Adam; Löwen, Hartmut

    2011-07-20

    The collective dynamics in a binary mixture of colloidal particles which are driven in opposite directions by an external oscillatory field is examined by computer simulations in two spatial dimensions. Both Brownian dynamics (BD) computer simulations, which ignore solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interactions between the colloidal particles, and multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) simulations, which include hydrodynamic interactions, are employed. We first review recent results obtained by BD. Depending on the driving frequency and amplitude, lane formation parallel to the drive and band formation perpendicular to the drive occur. Band formation is stable only in a finite window of oscillation frequencies and driving strengths and is taken over by lane formation if the driving force is increased or the oscillation frequency is decreased. MPCD simulations, on the other hand, reveal that band formation is blurred by hydrodynamic interactions. During the front collisions of oppositely driven particles there is a strong vortical movement of the solvent which tends to mix particles and broaden the interface of the bands. This can either lead to a novel intermittent dynamical behaviour or to band rupture into local clusters. These effects, which are absent for BD, are characterized by the strengths of the enstrophy and its spectrum. We finally discuss possible experimental realizations of the models employed.

  19. Stereo Imaging Velocimetry of Mixing Driven by Buoyancy Induced Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, W. M. B.; Jacqmin, D.; Bomani, B. M.; Alexander, I. J.; Kassemi, M.; Batur, C.; Tryggvason, B. V.; Lyubimov, D. V.; Lyubimova, T. P.

    2000-01-01

    Mixing of two fluids generated by steady and particularly g-jitter acceleration is fundamental towards the understanding of transport phenomena in a microgravity environment. We propose to carry out flight and ground-based experiments to quantify flow fields due to g-jitter type of accelerations using Stereo Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), and measure the concentration field using laser fluorescence. The understanding of the effects of g-jitter on transport phenomena is of great practical interest to the microgravity community and impacts the design of experiments for the Space Shuttle as well as the International Space Station. The aim of our proposed research is to provide quantitative data to the community on the effects of g-jitter on flow fields due to mixing induced by buoyancy forces. The fundamental phenomenon of mixing occurs in a broad range of materials processing encompassing the growth of opto-electronic materials and semiconductors, (by directional freezing and physical vapor transport), to solution and protein crystal growth. In materials processing of these systems, crystal homogeneity, which is affected by the solutal field distribution, is one of the major issues. The understanding of fluid mixing driven by buoyancy forces, besides its importance as a topic in fundamental science, can contribute towards the understanding of how solutal fields behave under various body forces. The body forces of interest are steady acceleration and g-jitter acceleration as in a Space Shuttle environment or the International Space Station. Since control of the body force is important, the flight experiment will be carried out on a tunable microgravity vibration isolation mount, which will permit us to precisely input the desired forcing function to simulate a range of body forces. To that end, we propose to design a flight experiment that can only be carried out under microgravity conditions to fully exploit the effects of various body forces on fluid mixing. Recent

  20. Ferromagnetic Resonance of a Single Magnetochiral Metamolecule of Permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Toshiyuki; Tomita, Satoshi; Kato, Takeshi; Oshima, Daiki; Iwata, Satoshi; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Kitakami, Osamu; Hosoito, Nobuyoshi; Yanagi, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of a single chiral structure of a ferromagnetic metal—the magnetochiral (MCh) metamolecule. Using a strain-driven self-coiling technique, micrometer-sized MCh metamolecules of metallic permalloy (Py) are fabricated without any residual Py films. The magnetization curves of ten Py MCh metamolecules obtained by an alternating gradient magnetometer show soft magnetic behavior. In cavity FMR with a magnetic-field sweep and coplanar-waveguide (CPW) FMR with a frequency sweep, the Kittel-mode FMR of the single Py metamolecule is observed. The CPW-FMR results, which are consistent with the cavity-FMR results, bring about the effective g factor, effective magnetization, and Gilbert damping of the single metamolecule. Together with calculations using these parameters, the angle-resolved cavity FMR reveals that the magnetization in the Py MCh metamolecule is most likely to be the hollow-bar type of configuration when the external magnetic field is applied parallel to the chiral axis, although the expected magnetization state at remanence is the corkscrew type of configuration.

  1. Dynamical features and electric field strengths of double layers driven by currents. [in auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Thiemann, H.; Schunk, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, a number of papers have been concerned with 'ion-acoustic' double layers. In the present investigation, results from numerical simulations are presented to show that the shapes and forms of current-driven double layers evolve dynamically with the fluctuations in the current through the plasma. It is shown that double layers with a potential dip can form even without the excitation of ion-acoustic modes. Double layers in two-and one-half-dimensional simulations are discussed, taking into account the simulation technique, the spatial and temporal features of plasma, and the dynamical behavior of the parallel potential distribution. Attention is also given to double layers in one-dimensional simulations, and electrical field strengths predicted by two-and one-half-dimensional simulations.

  2. Quantum system driven by incoherent a.c fields: Multi-crossing Landau Zener dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jipdi, M. N.; Fai, L. C.; Tchoffo, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper investigates the multi-crossing dynamics of a Landau-Zener (LZ) system driven by two sinusoidal a.c fields applying the Dynamic Matrix approach (DMA). The system is shown to follow one-crossing and multi-crossing dynamics for low and high frequency regime respectively. It is shown that in low frequency regime, the resonance phenomenon occurs and leads to the decoupling of basis states; the effective gap vanishes and then the complete blockage of the system. For high frequency, the system achieves multi-crossing dynamics with two fictitious crossings; the system models a Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) interferometer with critical parameters that tailor probabilities. The system is then shown to depend only on the phase that permits the easiest control with possible application in implementing logic gates.

  3. A compact broadband ion beam focusing device based on laser-driven megagauss thermoelectric magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, B; d'Humières, E; Lancia, L; Dervieux, V; Antici, P; Böcker, J; Bonlie, J; Breil, J; Cauble, B; Chen, S N; Feugeas, J L; Nakatsutsumi, M; Nicolaï, P; Romagnani, L; Shepherd, R; Sentoku, Y; Swantusch, M; Tikhonchuk, V T; Borghesi, M; Willi, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-intense lasers can nowadays routinely accelerate kiloampere ion beams. These unique sources of particle beams could impact many societal (e.g., proton-therapy or fuel recycling) and fundamental (e.g., neutron probing) domains. However, this requires overcoming the beam angular divergence at the source. This has been attempted, either with large-scale conventional setups or with compact plasma techniques that however have the restriction of short (<1 mm) focusing distances or a chromatic behavior. Here, we show that exploiting laser-triggered, long-lasting (>50 ps), thermoelectric multi-megagauss surface magnetic (B)-fields, compact capturing, and focusing of a diverging laser-driven multi-MeV ion beam can be achieved over a wide range of ion energies in the limit of a 5° acceptance angle.

  4. A compact broadband ion beam focusing device based on laser-driven megagauss thermoelectric magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, B; d'Humières, E; Lancia, L; Dervieux, V; Antici, P; Böcker, J; Bonlie, J; Breil, J; Cauble, B; Chen, S N; Feugeas, J L; Nakatsutsumi, M; Nicolaï, P; Romagnani, L; Shepherd, R; Sentoku, Y; Swantusch, M; Tikhonchuk, V T; Borghesi, M; Willi, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-intense lasers can nowadays routinely accelerate kiloampere ion beams. These unique sources of particle beams could impact many societal (e.g., proton-therapy or fuel recycling) and fundamental (e.g., neutron probing) domains. However, this requires overcoming the beam angular divergence at the source. This has been attempted, either with large-scale conventional setups or with compact plasma techniques that however have the restriction of short (<1 mm) focusing distances or a chromatic behavior. Here, we show that exploiting laser-triggered, long-lasting (>50 ps), thermoelectric multi-megagauss surface magnetic (B)-fields, compact capturing, and focusing of a diverging laser-driven multi-MeV ion beam can be achieved over a wide range of ion energies in the limit of a 5° acceptance angle. PMID:25933857

  5. Centrifugal Force Based Magnetic Micro-Pump Driven by Rotating Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Hashi, S.; Ishiyama, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a centrifugal force based magnetic micro-pump for the pumping of blood. Most blood pumps are driven by an electrical motor with wired control. To develop a wireless and battery-free blood pump, the proposed pump is controlled by external rotating magnetic fields with a synchronized impeller. Synchronization occurs because the rotor is divided into multi-stage impeller parts and NdFeB permanent magnet. Finally, liquid is discharged by the centrifugal force of multi-stage impeller. The proposed pump length is 30 mm long and19 mm in diameter which much smaller than currently pumps; however, its pumping ability satisfies the requirement for a blood pump. The maximum pressure is 120 mmHg and the maximum flow rate is 5000ml/min at 100 Hz. The advantage of the proposed pump is that the general mechanical problems of a normal blood pump are eliminated by the proposed driving mechanism.

  6. A compact broadband ion beam focusing device based on laser-driven megagauss thermoelectric magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertazzi, B.; d'Humières, E.; Lancia, L.; Dervieux, V.; Antici, P.; Böcker, J.; Bonlie, J.; Breil, J.; Cauble, B.; Chen, S. N.; Feugeas, J. L.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nicolaï, P.; Romagnani, L.; Shepherd, R.; Sentoku, Y.; Swantusch, M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Borghesi, M.; Willi, O.; Pépin, H.; Fuchs, J.

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-intense lasers can nowadays routinely accelerate kiloampere ion beams. These unique sources of particle beams could impact many societal (e.g., proton-therapy or fuel recycling) and fundamental (e.g., neutron probing) domains. However, this requires overcoming the beam angular divergence at the source. This has been attempted, either with large-scale conventional setups or with compact plasma techniques that however have the restriction of short (<1 mm) focusing distances or a chromatic behavior. Here, we show that exploiting laser-triggered, long-lasting (>50 ps), thermoelectric multi-megagauss surface magnetic (B)-fields, compact capturing, and focusing of a diverging laser-driven multi-MeV ion beam can be achieved over a wide range of ion energies in the limit of a 5° acceptance angle.

  7. Stability threshold of ion temperature gradient driven mode in reversed field pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, S. C.

    2008-12-15

    For the first time in the reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration, the stability threshold of the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) mode is studied by linear gyrokinetic theory. In comparison with tokamaks, the RFP configuration has a shorter connection length and stronger magnetic curvature drift. These effects result in a stronger instability driving mechanism and a larger growth rate in the fluid limit. However, the kinetic theory shows that the temperature slopes required for the excitation of ITG instability are much steeper than the tokamak ones. This is because the effect of Landau damping also becomes stronger due to the shorter connection length, which is dominant and ultimately determines the stability threshold. The required temperature slope for the instability may only be found in the very edge of the plasma and/or near the border of the dominant magnetic island during the quasi-single helicity state of discharge.

  8. Ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic dust interactions in complex plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesh, Matthew; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge

    2007-10-01

    A GEC rf reference cell is used to create groupings of 4.5 micron melamine formaldehyde dust particles and also of 4.5 micron ferromagnetic dust particles. It is shown that ferromagnetic dust particles respond to variations in chamber pressure in a similar fashion to non-ferromagnetic dust. It is also found that non-ferromagnetic dust particles exhibit more short-range ordering and structure than ferromagnetic dust particles for the range of pressures and powers tested.

  9. Temporal Evolution of Energetic Particles and Magnetic Field Waves Near CME-driven shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Mihir; Smith, Charles; Lee, Martin; Mason, Glenn; Al-Dayeh, Maher

    Coronal Mass Ejection-or CME-driven interplanetary (IP) shocks are responsible for caus-ing the so-called energetic storm particle (ESP) events observed at Earth. However, despite recent observational and theoretical advances, many important questions regarding such CME-associated particle events remain unanswered. This is because ESP events occur due to a con-fluence of numerous poorly understood physical effects all of whose contributions can vary with time and location. These effects include: the origin, structure, and obliquity of the shocks, the nature of wave-particle interactions and the type of turbulence that is present near the shocks, the distribution and composition of the seed populations, and the type of injection and accel-eration processes involved. In this paper, we combine observations of ˜0.1-0.5 MeV/nucleon O and Fe ions with that of the magnetic field near four CME-driven IP shocks observed at the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft to differentiate between shocks where the seed population is most likely dominated by thermal solar wind ions and those events where it is dominated by pre-existing suprathermal ions. In particular, we use the temporal evolution of (1) O and Fe intensities, (2) power-law spectral indices of O, (3) the Fe/O and C/O ratios, and (4) the magnetic field power spectrum to identify unique signatures that provide strong clues regarding the origin of the seed population. Such observational signatures may also be useful in modeling the properties of the so-called large gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events that are primarily accelerated by CME shocks near the Sun.

  10. In Situ Nanoscale Electric Field Control of Magnetism by Nanoionics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jiantao; Chen, Lin; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Gang; Li, Run-Wei; Lu, Wei D

    2016-09-01

    Direct, nonvolatile, and reversible control of nanomagnetism in solid-state ferromagnetic thin films is achieved by controlling the chemical composition of the film through field-driven ion redistribution. The electric field-driven de-intercalation/intercalation of lithium ions can result in ≈100% modulation of the magnetization and drives domain wall motion over ≈100 nm. High-speed and multilevel magnetic information storage is further demonstrated.

  11. In Situ Nanoscale Electric Field Control of Magnetism by Nanoionics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jiantao; Chen, Lin; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Gang; Li, Run-Wei; Lu, Wei D

    2016-09-01

    Direct, nonvolatile, and reversible control of nanomagnetism in solid-state ferromagnetic thin films is achieved by controlling the chemical composition of the film through field-driven ion redistribution. The electric field-driven de-intercalation/intercalation of lithium ions can result in ≈100% modulation of the magnetization and drives domain wall motion over ≈100 nm. High-speed and multilevel magnetic information storage is further demonstrated. PMID:27346164

  12. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm2, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  13. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiangyu E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn

    2015-09-14

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm{sup 2}, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  14. Flow Driven by an Archimedean Helical Permanent Magnetic Field. Part II: Transient and Modulated Flow Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Fautrelle, Yves; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Baltaretu, Florin

    2016-08-01

    The present study considers the transient and modulated flow behaviors of liquid metal driven by a helical permanent magnetic field. The transient process, in which the fluid at rest experiences an increase in the angular velocity, is observed both in secondary and global axial flow with duration time less than 1 second. The flow fields are measured quantitatively to reveal the evolution of the transient flow, and the transient process is due to the variation of the electromagnetic force. Besides, the modulated flow behaviors of global axial flow, which is significantly different from that of secondary flow, is expected to avoid flow-induced macrosegregation in solidification process if the modulated time is suitable because its direction reversed periodically with the modulated helical stirrer. In addition, an optimal modulation frequency, under which the magnetic field could efficiently stir the solute at the solidification front, exists both in secondary and global axial flow (0.1 Hz and 0.625 Hz, respectively). Future investigations will focus on additional metallic alloy solidification experiments.

  15. Towards ferromagnetic quantum criticality in FeGa3 -xGex :71Ga NQR as a zero-field microscopic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, M.; Wagner-Reetz, M.; Cardoso-Gil, R.; Gille, P.; Steglich, F.; Grin, Y.; Baenitz, M.

    2016-02-01

    71Ga NQR, magnetization, and specific-heat measurements have been performed on polycrystalline Ge-doped FeGa3 samples. A crossover from an insulator to a correlated local moment metal in the low-doping regime and the evolution of itinerant ferromagnet upon further doping is found. For the nearly critical concentration at the threshold of ferromagnetic order, xC=0.15, 71(1 /T1T ) exhibits a pronounced T-4 /3 power law over two orders of magnitude in temperature, which indicates three-dimensional quantum critical ferromagnetic fluctuations. Furthermore, for the ordered x =0.2 sample (TC≈6 K), 71(1 /T1T ) could be fitted well in the frame of Moriya's self-consistent renormalization theory for weakly ferromagnetic systems with 1 /T1T ˜χ . In contrast to this, the low-doping regime nicely displays local moment behavior where 1 /T1T ˜χ2 is valid. For T →0 , the Sommerfeld ratio γ =(C /T ) is enhanced (70 mJ /mole K2 for x =0.1 ) , which indicates the formation of heavy 3 d electrons.

  16. Stereo Imaging Velocimetry of Mixing Driven by Buoyancy Induced Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, W. M. B.; Jacqmin, D.; Bomani, B. M.; Alexander, I. J.; Kassemi, M.; Batur, C.; Tryggvason, B. V.; Lyubimov, D. V.; Lyubimova, T. P.

    2000-01-01

    Mixing of two fluids generated by steady and particularly g-jitter acceleration is fundamental towards the understanding of transport phenomena in a microgravity environment. We propose to carry out flight and ground-based experiments to quantify flow fields due to g-jitter type of accelerations using Stereo Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), and measure the concentration field using laser fluorescence. The understanding of the effects of g-jitter on transport phenomena is of great practical interest to the microgravity community and impacts the design of experiments for the Space Shuttle as well as the International Space Station. The aim of our proposed research is to provide quantitative data to the community on the effects of g-jitter on flow fields due to mixing induced by buoyancy forces. The fundamental phenomenon of mixing occurs in a broad range of materials processing encompassing the growth of opto-electronic materials and semiconductors, (by directional freezing and physical vapor transport), to solution and protein crystal growth. In materials processing of these systems, crystal homogeneity, which is affected by the solutal field distribution, is one of the major issues. The understanding of fluid mixing driven by buoyancy forces, besides its importance as a topic in fundamental science, can contribute towards the understanding of how solutal fields behave under various body forces. The body forces of interest are steady acceleration and g-jitter acceleration as in a Space Shuttle environment or the International Space Station. Since control of the body force is important, the flight experiment will be carried out on a tunable microgravity vibration isolation mount, which will permit us to precisely input the desired forcing function to simulate a range of body forces. To that end, we propose to design a flight experiment that can only be carried out under microgravity conditions to fully exploit the effects of various body forces on fluid mixing. Recent

  17. Numerical studies of light-matter interaction driven by plasmonic fields: The velocity gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, A.; Ciappina, M. F.; Lewenstein, M.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional theoretical approaches to model strong field phenomena driven by plasmonic fields are based on the length gauge formulation of the laser-matter coupling. Obviously, from the physical point of view, there exists no preferable gauge and, consequently, the predictions and outcomes should be independent of this choice. The use of the length gauge is mainly due to the fact that the quantity obtained from finite-element simulations of plasmonic fields is the plasmonic enhanced laser electric field rather than the laser vector potential. We develop, from first principles, the velocity gauge formulation of the problem and we apply it to the high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) in atoms. A comparison to the results obtained with the length gauge is made. As expected, it is analytically and numerically demonstrated that both gauges give equivalent descriptions of the emitted HHG spectra resulting from the interaction of a spatially inhomogeneous field and the single active electron model of the helium atom. We discuss, however, advantages and disadvantages of using different gauges in terms of numerical efficiency, which turns out to be very different. In order to understand it, we analyze the quantum mechanical results using time-frequency Gabor distributions. This analysis, combined with classical calculations based on solutions of the Newton equation, yields important physical insight into the electronic quantum paths underlying the dynamics of the harmonic generation process. The results obtained in this way also allow us to assess the quality of the quantum approaches in both gauges and put stringent limits on the numerical parameters required for a desired accuracy.

  18. COSMIC-RAY CURRENT-DRIVEN TURBULENCE AND MEAN-FIELD DYNAMO EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan; Brandenburg, Axel; Eichler, David

    2012-07-01

    We show that an {alpha} effect is driven by the cosmic-ray (CR) Bell instability exciting left-right asymmetric turbulence. Alfven waves of a preferred polarization have maximally helical motion, because the transverse motion of each mode is parallel to its curl. We show how large-scale Alfven modes, when rendered unstable by CR streaming, can create new net flux over any finite region, in the direction of the original large-scale field. We perform direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a magnetohydrodynamic fluid with a forced CR current and use the test-field method to determine the {alpha} effect and the turbulent magnetic diffusivity. As follows from DNS, the dynamics of the instability has the following stages: (1) in the early stage, the small-scale Bell instability that results in the production of small-scale turbulence is excited; (2) in the intermediate stage, there is formation of larger-scale magnetic structures; (3) finally, quasi-stationary large-scale turbulence is formed at a growth rate that is comparable to that expected from the dynamo instability, but its amplitude over much longer timescales remains unclear. The results of DNS are in good agreement with the theoretical estimates. It is suggested that this dynamo is what gives weakly magnetized relativistic shocks such as those from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) a macroscopic correlation length. It may also be important for large-scale magnetic field amplification associated with CR production and diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) and blast waves from GRBs. Magnetic field amplification by Bell turbulence in SNRs is found to be significant, but it is limited owing to the finite time available to the super-Alfvenicly expanding remnant. The effectiveness of the mechanisms is shown to be dependent on the shock velocity. Limits on magnetic field growth in longer-lived systems, such as the Galaxy and unconfined intergalactic CRs, are also discussed.

  19. Ferromagnetic viscoelastic liquid crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesier, Cristina; Shibaev, Petr; McDonald, Scott

    2012-02-01

    Novel ferromagnetic liquid crystalline materials were designed by mixing ferromagnetic nanoparticles with glass forming oligomers and low molar mass liquid crystals. The matrix in which nanoparticles are embedded is highly viscous that reduces aggregation of nanoparticles and stabilizes the whole composition. Mechanical and optical properties of the composite material are studied in the broad range of nanoparticle concentrations. The mechanical properties of the viscoelastic composite material resemble those of chemically crosslinked elastomers (elasticity and reversibility of deformations). The optical properties of ferromagnetic cholesteric materials are discussed in detail. It is shown that application of magnetic field leads to the shift of the selective reflection band of the cholesteric material and dramatically change its color. Theoretical model is suggested to account for the observed effects; physical properties of the novel materials and liquid crystalline elastomers are compared and discussed. [1] P.V. Shibaev, C. Schlesier, R. Uhrlass, S. Woodward, E. Hanelt, Liquid Crystals, 37, 1601 (2010) [2] P.V. Shibaev, R. Uhrlass, S. Woodward, C. Schlesier, Md R. Ali, E. Hanelt, Liquid Crystals, 37, 587 (2010)

  20. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2014-12-01

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E12g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET.Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E12g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable

  1. All-optical switching in granular ferromagnets caused by magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Matthew O. A.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Chantrell, Roy W.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic recording using circularly polarised femto-second laser pulses is an emerging technology that would allow write speeds much faster than existing field driven methods. However, the mechanism that drives the magnetisation switching in ferromagnets is unclear. Recent theories suggest that the interaction of the light with the magnetised media induces an opto-magnetic field within the media, known as the inverse Faraday effect. Here we show that an alternative mechanism, driven by thermal excitation over the anisotropy energy barrier and a difference in the energy absorption depending on polarisation, can create a net magnetisation over a series of laser pulses in an ensemble of single domain grains. Only a small difference in the absorption is required to reach magnetisation levels observed experimentally and the model does not preclude the role of the inverse Faraday effect but removes the necessity that the opto-magnetic field is 10 s of Tesla in strength.

  2. All-optical switching in granular ferromagnets caused by magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Matthew O A; Fullerton, Eric E; Chantrell, Roy W

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic recording using circularly polarised femto-second laser pulses is an emerging technology that would allow write speeds much faster than existing field driven methods. However, the mechanism that drives the magnetisation switching in ferromagnets is unclear. Recent theories suggest that the interaction of the light with the magnetised media induces an opto-magnetic field within the media, known as the inverse Faraday effect. Here we show that an alternative mechanism, driven by thermal excitation over the anisotropy energy barrier and a difference in the energy absorption depending on polarisation, can create a net magnetisation over a series of laser pulses in an ensemble of single domain grains. Only a small difference in the absorption is required to reach magnetisation levels observed experimentally and the model does not preclude the role of the inverse Faraday effect but removes the necessity that the opto-magnetic field is 10 s of Tesla in strength. PMID:27466066

  3. All-optical switching in granular ferromagnets caused by magnetic circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Matthew O. A.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Chantrell, Roy W.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic recording using circularly polarised femto-second laser pulses is an emerging technology that would allow write speeds much faster than existing field driven methods. However, the mechanism that drives the magnetisation switching in ferromagnets is unclear. Recent theories suggest that the interaction of the light with the magnetised media induces an opto-magnetic field within the media, known as the inverse Faraday effect. Here we show that an alternative mechanism, driven by thermal excitation over the anisotropy energy barrier and a difference in the energy absorption depending on polarisation, can create a net magnetisation over a series of laser pulses in an ensemble of single domain grains. Only a small difference in the absorption is required to reach magnetisation levels observed experimentally and the model does not preclude the role of the inverse Faraday effect but removes the necessity that the opto-magnetic field is 10 s of Tesla in strength. PMID:27466066

  4. An Experimental Study of Continuous Plasma Flows Driven by a Confined Arc in a Transverse Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.; Brooks, J. D.; Beasley, W. D.

    1961-01-01

    A crossed-field, continuous-flow plasma accelerator has been built and operated. The highest measured velocity of the flow, which was driven by the interaction of the electric and magnetic fields, was about 500 meters per second. Some of the problems discussed are ion slip, stability and uniformity of the discharge, effect of the magnetic field on electron emission, use of preionization, and electrode contamination.

  5. Simple Experiment for Studying the Properties of a Ferromagnetic Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, B. R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physics experiment for studying Curie temperature and Curie constant of a ferromagnetic material. The exchange field (Weiss field) has been estimated by using these parameters. (HM)

  6. Pressure-anisotropy-driven microturbulence and magnetic-field evolution in shearing, collisionless plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Scott; Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Kunz, Matthew W.

    2016-07-01

    The non-linear state of a high-beta collisionless plasma is investigated where an imposed shear amplifies or diminishes a uniform mean magnetic field, driving pressure anisotropies and, therefore, firehose or mirror instabilities. To mimic the local behaviour of a macroscopic flow, the shear is switched off or reversed after one shear time, so a new macroscale configuration is superimposed on previous microscale state. A threshold plasma beta is found: when β ≪ Ω/S (ion cyclotron frequency/shear rate), the emergence/disappearance of firehose or mirror fluctuations is quasi-instantaneous compared to the shear time (lending some credence to popular closures that assume this). This follows from the free decay of these fluctuations being constrained by the same marginal-stability conditions as their growth in the unstable regime, giving the decay time ˜β/Ω ≪ S-1. In contrast, when β ≳ Ω/S, the old microscale state only disappears on the shear time-scale. In this `ultra-high-beta' regime, driven firehose fluctuations grow secularly to order-unity amplitudes, compensating for the decrease of the mean field and thus pinning the pressure anisotropy at marginal stability without scattering particles - unlike what happens at moderate β. After the shear reverses, the shearing away of these fluctuations compensates for the increase of the mean field and thus prevents growth of the pressure anisotropy, so the system stays close to the firehose threshold, does not go mirror-unstable, the total magnetic energy barely changing at all. Implications for various astrophysical situations, especially the origin of cosmic magnetism, are discussed: collisionless effects appear mostly beneficial to fast magnetic-field generation.

  7. Magnetic Damping: Domain Wall Dynamics versus Local Ferromagnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weindler, T.; Bauer, H. G.; Islinger, R.; Boehm, B.; Chauleau, J.-Y.; Back, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic relaxation is one of the dominating features of magnetization dynamics. Depending on the magnetic structure and the experimental approach, different magnitudes of the damping parameter are reported even for a given material. In this study, we experimentally address this issue by accessing the damping parameter in the same magnetic nanotracks using different approaches: local ferromagnetic resonance (α =0.0072 ) and field-driven domain wall dynamics (α =0.023 ). The experimental results cannot fully be accounted for by modeling only roughness in micromagnetic simulations. Consequently, we have included nonlocal texture induced damping to the micromagnetic code. We find excellent agreement with the observed increased damping in the vortex structures for the same input Gilbert alpha when texture-induced nonlocal damping is included.

  8. Nonlinear driven response of a phase-field crystal in a periodic pinning potential.

    PubMed

    Achim, C V; Ramos, J A P; Karttunen, M; Elder, K R; Granato, E; Ala-Nissila, T; Ying, S C

    2009-01-01

    We study numerically the phase diagram and the response under a driving force of the phase field crystal model for pinned lattice systems introduced recently for both one- and two-dimensional systems. The model describes the lattice system as a continuous density field in the presence of a periodic pinning potential, allowing for both elastic and plastic deformations of the lattice. We first present results for phase diagrams of the model in the absence of a driving force. The nonlinear response to a driving force on an initially pinned commensurate phase is then studied via overdamped dynamic equations of motion for different values of mismatch and pinning strengths. For large pinning strength the driven depinning transitions are continuous, and the sliding velocity varies with the force from the threshold with power-law exponents in agreement with analytical predictions. Transverse depinning transitions in the moving state are also found in two dimensions. Surprisingly, for sufficiently weak pinning potential we find a discontinuous depinning transition with hysteresis even in one dimension under overdamped dynamics. We also characterize structural changes of the system in some detail close to the depinning transition.

  9. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-01-14

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET.

  10. Nanoscale, electric field-driven water bridges in vacuum gaps and lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chak; Levine, Zachary A; Vernier, P Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Formation of a water bridge across the lipid bilayer is the first stage of pore formation in molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of electroporation, suggesting that the intrusion of individual water molecules into the membrane interior is the initiation event in a sequence that leads to the formation of a conductive membrane pore. To delineate more clearly the role of water in membrane permeabilization, we conducted extensive MD simulations of water bridge formation, stabilization, and collapse in palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and in water-vacuum-water systems, in which two groups of water molecules are separated by a 2.8 nm vacuum gap, a simple analog of a phospholipid bilayer. Certain features, such as the exponential decrease in water bridge initiation time with increased external electric field, are similar in both systems. Other features, such as the relationship between water bridge lifetime and the diameter of the water bridge, are quite different between the two systems. Data such as these contribute to a better and more quantitative understanding of the relative roles of water and lipid in membrane electropore creation and annihilation, facilitating a mechanism-driven development of electroporation protocols. These methods can be extended to more complex, heterogeneous systems that include membrane proteins and intracellular and extracellular membrane attachments, leading to more accurate models of living cells in electric fields. PMID:23644990

  11. Nanoscale, electric field-driven water bridges in vacuum gaps and lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chak; Levine, Zachary A; Vernier, P Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Formation of a water bridge across the lipid bilayer is the first stage of pore formation in molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of electroporation, suggesting that the intrusion of individual water molecules into the membrane interior is the initiation event in a sequence that leads to the formation of a conductive membrane pore. To delineate more clearly the role of water in membrane permeabilization, we conducted extensive MD simulations of water bridge formation, stabilization, and collapse in palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and in water-vacuum-water systems, in which two groups of water molecules are separated by a 2.8 nm vacuum gap, a simple analog of a phospholipid bilayer. Certain features, such as the exponential decrease in water bridge initiation time with increased external electric field, are similar in both systems. Other features, such as the relationship between water bridge lifetime and the diameter of the water bridge, are quite different between the two systems. Data such as these contribute to a better and more quantitative understanding of the relative roles of water and lipid in membrane electropore creation and annihilation, facilitating a mechanism-driven development of electroporation protocols. These methods can be extended to more complex, heterogeneous systems that include membrane proteins and intracellular and extracellular membrane attachments, leading to more accurate models of living cells in electric fields.

  12. Solar wind driven empirical forecast models of the time derivative of the ground magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintoft, Peter; Wik, Magnus; Viljanen, Ari

    2015-03-01

    Empirical models are developed to provide 10-30-min forecasts of the magnitude of the time derivative of local horizontal ground geomagnetic field (|dBh/dt|) over Europe. The models are driven by ACE solar wind data. A major part of the work has been devoted to the search and selection of datasets to support the model development. To simplify the problem, but at the same time capture sudden changes, 30-min maximum values of |dBh/dt| are forecast with a cadence of 1 min. Models are tested both with and without the use of ACE SWEPAM plasma data. It is shown that the models generally capture sudden increases in |dBh/dt| that are associated with sudden impulses (SI). The SI is the dominant disturbance source for geomagnetic latitudes below 50° N and with minor contribution from substorms. However, at occasions, large disturbances can be seen associated with geomagnetic pulsations. For higher latitudes longer lasting disturbances, associated with substorms, are generally also captured. It is also shown that the models using only solar wind magnetic field as input perform in most cases equally well as models with plasma data. The models have been verified using different approaches including the extremal dependence index which is suitable for rare events.

  13. A novel productivity-driven logic element for field-programmable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, Thomas; Bertels, Koen; Gaydadjiev, Georgi

    2014-06-01

    Although various techniques have been proposed for power reduction in field-programmable devices (FPDs), they are still all based on conventional logic elements (LEs). In the conventional LE, the output of the combinational logic (e.g. the look-up table (LUT) in many field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)) is connected to the input of the storage element; while the D flip-flop (DFF) is always clocked even when not necessary. Such unnecessary transitions waste power. To address this problem, we propose a novel productivity-driven LE with reduced number of transitions. The differences between our LE and the conventional LE are in the FFs-type used and the internal LE organisation. In our LEs, DFFs have been replaced by T flip-flops with the T input permanently connected to logic value 1. Instead of connecting the output of the combinational logic to the FF input, we use it as the FF clock. The proposed LE has been validated via Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) simulations for a 45-nm Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology as well as via a real Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools on a real FPGA using the standard Microelectronic Center of North Carolina (MCNC) benchmark circuits. The experimental results show that FPDs using our proposal not only have 48% lower total power but also run 17% faster than conventional FPDs on average.

  14. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-01-14

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET. PMID:25429443

  15. Thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic and thermocapillary driven flows of liquid conductors in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Michael Andrew

    The Solid/Liquid Lithium Divertor experiment (SLiDE) has been designed, constructed and operated in order to determine the behavior of these liquid conductors in a magnetic field with imposed thermal gradients. Liquid lithium is chosen for its applicability to fusion systems as well as recent demonstrations of its ability to passively redistribute incident heat fluxes on the order of 50[MW/m2]. The lithium is contained within a stainless steel tray that is actively cooled and contains a set of temperature diagnostics for analysis of the heat, flux coming from the tray. The system is magnetized by a set of external magnets and a linear electron beam is used to create heat fluxes similar to those found in fusion divertors. Surface velocity of the liquid lithium is measured with a digital camera. A theory explaining the balance between thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamics and thero-capillary driven, free-surface flows in containers of arbitrary type in a magnetized environment has been developed. A new dimensionless group depending on the thermoelectric power of the liquid/container pair, the physical properties of the liquid and solid and the flow geometry has been found that determines which mechanism, TC or TEMHD, is the dominant effect in any given system. Experiments show that TEMHD dominates the flow in SLiDE, consistent with the theory governing these flows. This is verified by series of qualitative experiments, as well as quantitative comparison with theoretical flow predictions. This constitutes the first direct observation of TEMHD driven flow yet reported in the literature. Application of the developed theory indicates liquid lithium fusion systems will operate in a TEMHD dominated regime. Technologies suggested by the exploitation of TEMHD pumping are also presented.

  16. Dynamics of Chemi-Ion Driven Flows in an Applied Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinajero, Jesse A.

    Chemi-ions are produced during combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel. If an external electric field is present, a charge separation occurs due to the electrical force acting on the positively and negatively charged species. These ions traverse in the direction of the electrode of opposite potential. Along their path, they continuously collide with neutral molecules within the surrounding bulk gas until they are able to recombine and neutralize at the downstream electrode. During each collision, the charged species give up their acquired momentum to the neutral molecules. Macroscopically, this transfer of momentum has been best described mathematically as a body force acting on the bulk gas. The effect is commonly referred to as an ion wind effect. Gravity effects make the electric field effects on combustion difficult to study with earth- based experiments. This is because the gravity-driven buoyancy effects behave as a body force also acting on the bulk gas. Buoyancy and electrical body forces act on the same order of magnitude. The two forces are coupled through temperature since the production of ions is temperature dependent. Between the two, the contribution to the net momentum of the gas is then difficult to distinguish. On the other hand, micro-gravity experiments allow for the direct study of electric field effects in the absence of gravity. Micro-gravity experiments on-board the International Space Station through NASA's Advanced Combustion via Micro- gravity Experiments program, or ACME, are planned for 2016--17. Nevertheless, preliminary studies are needed in preparation for the ISS experiments. These studies are described in this thesis. A replica of the ISS experiment for the electric field effects on laminar diffusion flames (EFIELD Flames) that is part of ACME was recreated in a ground based laboratory. A schlieren system was built to visualize the effect an applied electric field has on the flame's buoyant thermal plume when the electric field is given a

  17. Voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Liu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroics, where the ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity are simultaneously exhibiting, is of great importance to achieve compact, fast and energy efficient voltage controllable magnetic/microwave devices. Particularly, these devices are widely used in radar, aircraft, cell phones and satellites, where volume, response time and energy consumption is critical. Researchers realized electric field tuning of magnetic properties like magnetization, magnetic anisotropy and permeability in varied multiferroic heterostructures such as bulk, thin films and nanostructure by different magnetoelectric (ME) coupling mechanism: strain/stress, interfacial charge, spin-electromagnetic (EM) coupling and exchange coupling, etc. In this review, we focus on voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in multiferroics. ME coupling-induced FMR change is critical in microwave devices, where the electric field tuning of magnetic effective anisotropic field determines the tunability of the performance of microwave devices. Experimentally, FMR measurement technique is also an important method to determine the small effective magnetic field change in small amount of magnetic material precisely due to its high sensitivity and to reveal the deep science of multiferroics, especially, voltage control of magnetism in novel mechanisms like interfacial charge, spin-EM coupling and exchange coupling.

  18. Ferromagnetism in poly(N-perfluorophenylpyrrole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čík, G.; Šeršeň, F.; Dlháň, L.; Zálupský, P.; Rapta, P.; Hrnčariková, K.; Plecenik, T.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic properties of the synthesized poly(N-perfluorophenylpyrrole) were studied. The synthesized polymer dissolves in common organic solvents. By the zero-field cooling-field cooling method (ZFC-FC) we found that at low temperatures (Tb<50 K) the synthetic polymer reaches a state with prevailing ferromagnetism. The synthesized polymer retained ferromagnetism even at 300 K. The anomalous magnetic behavior was explained in terms of spin-spin interaction of triplet polarons. As can be seen from the calculated spin density of SOMO and SOMO 1 such a state arise as a consequence of 1-D spin interactions of polarons. Based on the calculated and visualized spin density (SOMO) on the polymer chain such interactions can be explained by the theory of flat-band-ferromagnetism.

  19. Ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussier, Alexandre Francois

    Semiconductor spintronics is a promising new field of study in the ongoing quest to make electronic devices faster, cheaper, and more efficient. While current spintronics utilizes the spin property of electrons to achieve greater functionality, the integration of spintronics into conventional semiconductor electronics will lead to advances in opto-electronics, quantum computing, and other emerging fields of technology. This integration relies on effective generation, injection, transport, and detection of spin polarized electron currents. To these ends, the successful synthesis of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors is mandatory. In this work, we study the properties of cobalt-doped titanium dioxide, a room temperature dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor discovered in 2001. We characterize the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) of Co-doped TiO2 thin films, including the substrate-induced stabilization of the anatase structure of TiO2. We also confirm the substitutional nature of cobalt on titanium sites by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) techniques. The ferromagnetic interaction mechanism remains controversial. Yet, we provide experimental evidence for the polaron mediated ferromagnetic coupling mechanism recently suggested to mediate ferromagnetic interactions in this, and other magnetically doped oxides, in the dilute regime (approximately 0 to 3%). Our evidence is related to a previously unobserved and unreported XAS spectral feature. Finally, we demonstrate the surprising absence of an X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) signature at the cobalt L edge.

  20. Electrical manipulation of a ferromagnet by an antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshitoyan, V.; Ciccarelli, C.; Mihai, A. P.; Ali, M.; Irvine, A. C.; Moore, T. A.; Jungwirth, T.; Ferguson, A. J.

    Several recent studies of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics have focused on transmission and detection of spin-currents in AFMs. Efficient spin transmission through AFMs was inferred from experiments in FM/AFM/NM (normal metal) structures. Measurements in FM/AFM bilayers have demonstrated that a metallic AFM can also act as an efficient ISHE detector of the spin-current, with spin-Hall angles comparable to heavy NMs. Here we demonstrate that an antiferromagnet can be employed for a highly efficient electrical manipulation of a ferromagnet. We use an all-electrical excitation and detection technique of ferromagnetic resonance in a NiFe/IrMn bilayer. We observe antidamping-like spin torque acting on the NiFe generated by the in-plane current driven through the IrMn antiferromagnet. A large enhancement of the torque, characterized by an effective spin-Hall angle exceeding most heavy transition metals, correlates with the presence of the exchange-bias field at the NiFe/IrMn interface. It highlights that, in addition to strong spin-orbit coupling, the AFM order in IrMn governs the observed phenomenon.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electrical magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic III V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, D.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2006-07-01

    Introduction of a high concentration of manganese in III-V semiconductors, such as InAs and GaAs, results in carrier-induced ferromagnetism, which allows us to integrate ferromagnetism in nonmagnetic heterostructures and which modifies their magnetic properties through electric-field control of carrier concentration. The properties of ferromagnetism can in many cases be semi-quantitatively understood by the p-d Zener model, which is qualitatively different from conventional ferromagnetic metals. These ferromagnetic III-V semiconductors also offer the unique opportunity of examining spin-dependent phenomena observed so far only in metallic systems. Here, we review our experimental study on electrical manipulation of magnetization in these ferromagnetic III-V semiconductors. We first describe the results of electrically assisted magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic semiconductor (In, Mn)As field-effect transistor structures. The coercivity as well as ferromagnetic transition temperature can be controlled through the modification of carrier concentration by applied electric fields in a gated structure. We then present electrical magnetization reversal by spin-transfer torque exerted by spin-polarized currents at low threshold current density (~105 A cm-2) in (Ga, Mn)As-based magnetic tunnel junctions.

  2. Ferromagnetic Resonance Force Microscopy Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Midzor, Melissa; Cross, Michael; Wigen, Philip; Hammel, Chris; Roukes, Michael

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) has been used to investigate magnetostatic waves on microscopic samples of YIG. This work elucidates the nature of scanned probe (local) imaging in ferromagnetically-coupled systems. Scanning was performed with a specially-designed ultrasharp tip with Permalloy (NiFe) deposited solely in the tip region, to yield a spatial sensitivity of <10um. This has provided the first direct imaging of fundamental and higher order magnetostatic modes in micromagnetic systems. The modal dependence upon applied field and sample size was measured and compares well with theoretical models. However, unlike traditional ferromagnetic resonance detection technique, MRFM not only serves as a non-perturbative detection tool of magnetostatic modes, but also can locally change their dispersion relations via the strong field gradients generated from the cantilever tip. As a result, when the tip is positioned closely to the YIG surface, certain modes of the magnetostatic waves are either enhanced or depressed, depending on their respective wavelengths. This corresponds to the fact when the tip is further away, the dispersion of the FMR modes is mainly determined by the sample size. As the tip moves closer to the surface, a new regime emerges where the FMR dispersion is dominated by the local magnetic field. A quantitative model based on DE theory is proposed, and it explains the main features of the observed tip influence on different magnetostatic modes.

  3. Experimental and numerical results on the fluid flow driven by a traveling magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantzsch, R.; Galindo, V.; Grants, I.; Zhang, C.; Pätzold, O.; Gerbeth, G.; Stelter, M.

    2007-07-01

    A traveling magnetic field (TMF) driven flow and its transition from a laminar to a time-dependent flow is studied by means of ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry and numerical simulations. The experimental setup comprises a cylindrical cavity containing the electrically conducting model fluid GaInSn and a system of six equidistant coils, which are fed by an out-of-phase current to create an up- or downward directed TMF. Hence, a Lorentz force is induced in the melt which leads to meridional flow patterns. For numerical simulations commercial codes (Opera/Fidap) and a spectral code are used. The characteristic parameters of the magnetohydrodynamic model system are chosen close to the conditions used for vertical gradient freeze (VGF) crystal growth. The axisymmetric basic flow and its dependence on the dimensionless shielding parameter S are examined. It is shown that, for S>10, the flow velocity decreases significantly, whereas almost no influence is found for a smaller shielding parameter. The critical Reynolds number for the onset of instability is found in the range of 300-450. Good agreement between experimental results and the numerical simulations is achieved.

  4. Electric field-driven extraction of lipophilic anions across a carrier-mediated polymer inclusion membrane.

    PubMed

    See, Hong Heng; Hauser, Peter C

    2011-10-01

    The use of a cationic carrier-mediated polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) for extraction and preconcentration of anionic model analytes driven by an electric field directly into an aqueous acceptor solution is demonstrated. The optimized membrane was 20 μm thick and consisted of 60% cellulose triacetate as base polymer, 20% o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as plasticizer, and 20% Aliquat 336 as cationic carrier in the perchlorate form. By applying voltages of up to 700 V across the membrane, the lipophilic model analytes propanesulfonate, octanesulfonate, and decanesulfonate could be transported from the aqueous donor solution to the aqueous acceptor solution with efficiences >90% within 5 to 20 min. A preconcentration factor of 26, defined by the volume ratio between donor and acceptor compartments of the current cell design, could be achieved. The utility of the method for analytical applications is demonstrated by extraction of the herbicide glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethylphosphonic acid from spiked river water, followed by quantification with capillary electrophoresis using contactless conductivity detection. Limits of detection of 0.8 and 1.5 ng/mL were obtained for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, respectively.

  5. Effects of stochastic field lines on the pressure driven MHD instabilities in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohdachi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Sakakibara, Satoru; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Ming, Tingfeng; Du, Xiaodi; LHD Expriment Group Team

    2014-10-01

    In the Large Helical Device (LHD), the plasma is surrounded by the so-called magnetic stochastic region, where the Kolmogorov length of the magnetic field lines is very short, from several tens of meters and to thousands meters. Finite pressure gradient are formed in this region and MHD instabilities localized in this region is observed since the edge region of the LHD is always unstable against the pressure driven mode. Therefore, the saturation level of the instabilities is the key issue in order to evaluate the risk of this kind of MHD instabilities. The saturation level depends on the pressure gradient and on the magnetic Reynolds number; there results are similar to the MHD mode in the closed magnetic surface region. The saturation level in the stochastic region is affected also by the stocasticity itself. Parameter dependence of the saturation level of the MHD activities in the region is discussed in detail. It is supported by NIFS budget code ULPP021, 028 and is also partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 26249144, by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program NSFC: No. 11261140328.

  6. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lonergan, Mark

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  7. Diurnally driven scaling properties of Amazonian rainfall fields: Fourier spectra and order-q statistical moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, JuliáN. E.; Poveda, GermáN.

    2009-06-01

    The influence of the diurnal cycle on spatial scaling properties of Amazonian rainfall fields is investigated using data gathered during the January-February 1999 Wet Season Atmospheric Meso-scale Campaign in the state of Rondonia (Brazil, SW Amazonia). Most intense precipitation events with large spatial coverage occur during early afternoon. Amplitudes of average and maximum intensity diurnal cycles are higher during the easterly than during the westerly atmospheric regime. The diurnal cycle of average rainfall occupancy exhibits a significantly larger amplitude during the westerly regime. Storms exhibit power law Fourier spectra, E(k) = ck-β, with two scaling regimes characterized by different scaling exponents (β1 and β2), separated at a critical distance, which depends on the spatial extent of rainfall organization. Inversely correlated diurnal cycles for β1 and β2 reflect rainfall organization patterns at different spatial scales through the 24-h period. The break occurs at smaller (larger) spatial scales during the morning (afternoon-evening). Average values of c and β exhibit inversely related diurnal cycles, and different behavior during either atmospheric regime. Order-q statistical moments indicate multiscaling of rainfall fields. Departures from simple scaling are also driven by the diurnal cycle, reflecting differences in convective activity and the spatial organization of rainfall throughout the 24-h cycle. Departures from simple scaling are dependent on the moment order q. Clear-cut differences between the estimated order-q statistical moments appear during both atmospheric regimes. These results shed light toward linking physical processes with statistics in Amazonian storms.

  8. Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.

    2014-05-15

    Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvén frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q{sub fi}) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes.

  9. Pattern formation and coarse-graining in two-dimensional colloids driven by multiaxial magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kathrin; Osterman, Natan; Babič, Dušan; Likos, Christos N; Dobnikar, Jure; Nikoubashman, Arash

    2014-05-13

    We study the pattern formation in a two-dimensional system of superparamagnetic colloids interacting via spatially coherent induced interactions driven by an external precessing magnetic field. On the pair level, upon changing the opening angle of the external field, the interactions smoothly vary from purely repulsive (opening angle equal to zero) to purely attractive (time-averaged pair interactions at an opening angle of 90°). In the experiments, we observed ordered hexagonal crystals at the repulsive end and coarsening frothlike structures for purely attractive interactions. In both of these limiting cases, the dense colloidal systems can be sufficiently accurately described by assuming pairwise additivity of the interaction potentials. However, for a range of intermediate angles, pronounced many-body depolarization effects compete with the direct induced interactions, resulting in inherently anisotropic effective interactions. Under such conditions, we observed the decay of hexagonal order with the concomitant formation of short chains and percolated networks of chains coexisting with free colloids. In order to describe and investigate these systems theoretically, we developed a coarse-grained model of a binary mixture of patchy and nonpatchy particles with the ratio of patchy and nonpatchy colloids as the order parameter. Combining genetic algorithms with Monte Carlo simulations, we optimized the model parameters and quantitatively reproduced the experimentally observed sequence of colloidal structures. The results offer new insight into the anisotropy induced by the many-body effects. At the same time, they allow for a very efficient description of the system by means of a pairwise-additive Hamiltonian, whereupon the original, one-component system features a two-component mixture of isotropic and patchy colloids.

  10. KINETIC ALFVEN WAVE INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENTS IN SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Wu, D. J. E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.cn

    2012-08-01

    Magneto-plasma loops, which trace closed solar magnetic field lines, are the primary structural elements of the solar corona. Kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) can play an important role in inhomogeneous heating of these magneto-plasma structures in the corona. By the use of a low-frequency kinetic dispersion equation, which is presented in this paper and is valid in a finite-{beta} plasma with Q < {beta} < 1 plasma (where {beta} is the kinetic to magnetic pressure ratio and Q = m{sub e} /m{sub i} is the mass ratio of electrons to ions), KAW instability driven by a field-aligned current in the current-carrying loops in the solar corona is investigated. The results show that the KAW instability can occur in wave number regimes 0 < k{sub z} < k{sup c}{sub z} and 0 < k < k{sup c} , and that the critical wave numbers k{sup c}{sub z} and k{sup c} and the growth rate both considerably increase as the drift velocity V{sub D} of the current-carrying electrons increases in the loops. In particular, for typical parameters of the current-carrying loops in the solar corona this instability mechanism results in a high growth rate of KAWs, {omega}{sub i} {approx} 0.01-0.1{omega}{sub ci} {approx} 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. The results are of importance in understanding the physics of the electric current dissipation and plasma heating of the current-carrying loops in the solar corona.

  11. Magnetic material in mean-field dynamos driven by small scale helical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.

    2014-07-01

    We perform kinematic simulations of dynamo action driven by a helical small scale flow of a conducting fluid in order to deduce mean-field properties of the combined induction action of small scale eddies. We examine two different flow patterns in the style of the G O Roberts flow but with a mean vertical component and with internal fixtures that are modelled by regions with vanishing flow. These fixtures represent either rods that lie in the center of individual eddies, or internal dividing walls that provide a separation of the eddies from each other. The fixtures can be made of magnetic material with a relative permeability larger than one which can alter the dynamo behavior. The investigations are motivated by the widely unknown induction effects of the forced helical flow that is used in the core of liquid sodium cooled fast reactors, and from the key role of soft iron impellers in the von-Kármán-sodium dynamo. For both examined flow configurations the consideration of magnetic material within the fluid flow causes a reduction of the critical magnetic Reynolds number of up to 25%. The development of the growth-rate in the limit of the largest achievable permeabilities suggests no further significant reduction for even larger values of the permeability. In order to study the dynamo behavior of systems that consist of tens of thousands of helical cells we resort to the mean-field dynamo theory (Krause and Rädler 1980 Mean-field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory (Oxford: Pergamon)) in which the action of the small scale flow is parameterized in terms of an α- and β-effect. We compute the relevant elements of the α- and the β-tensor using the so called testfield method. We find a reasonable agreement between the fully resolved models and the corresponding mean-field models for wall or rod materials in the considered range 1\\leqslant {{\\mu }_{r}}\\leqslant 20. Our results may be used for the development of global large scale models with recirculation

  12. Ferroelectric polarization in antiferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareeva, Z. V.; Mazhitova, F. A.; Doroshenko, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    We report the influence of interface antiferromagnetic coupling on magnetoelectric properties of ferromagnetic bi-layers. Electric polarization arising at magnetic ingomogeneity in bi-layered ferromagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling at interface in applied magnetic field has been explored. Diagrams representing dependences of electric polarization on magnetic field P(H) have been constructed for two magnetic field geometries (in-plane and out-of plane fields). It has been found out that P(H) dependences demonstrate non-monotonic behavior. Peculiarities of polarization in an in-plane-oriented magnetic field have been explained by magnetization processes. It has been shown that a variety of magnetic configurations of Bloch, Neel and mixed Bloch-Neel types can be realized in antiferromagnetically coupled film due to cubic anisotropy contribution. In the area of Bloch magnetic configuration electric polarization vanishes. The critical values of magnetic fields suppressing polarization have been estimated.

  13. Measurment Of Residual Stress In Ferromagnetic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Yost, William T.; Kushnick, Peter W.; Grainger, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic (MAC) and magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) techniques combined to provide complete characterization of residual stresses in ferromagnetic structural materials. Combination of MAC and MAE techniques makes it possible to characterize residual tension and compression without being limited by surface conditions and unavailability of calibration standards. Significant in field of characterization of materials as well as detection of fatigue failure.

  14. Ferromagnetic resonance probe liftoff suppression apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas J.; Tomeraasen, Paul L.

    1985-01-01

    A liftoff suppression apparatus utilizing a liftoff sensing coil to sense the amount a ferromagnetic resonance probe lifts off the test surface during flaw detection and utilizing the liftoff signal to modulate the probe's field modulating coil to suppress the liftoff effects.

  15. Frequency spectra of magnetostrictive and Lorentz forces generated in ferromagnetic materials by a CW excited EMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouge, C.; Lhémery, A.; Aristégui, C.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetostriction arises in ferromagnetic materials subjected to magnetization, e.g., when an EMAT (Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) is used to generate ultrasonic waves. In such a case, the magnetostriction force must be taken into account as a transduction process that adds up to the Lorentz force. When the static magnetic field is high compared to the dynamic field, both forces are driven by the excitation frequency. For lower static relative values of the magnetic fields, the Lorentz force comprises both the excitation frequency and its first harmonic. In this work, a model is derived to predict the frequency content of the magnetostrictive force that comprises several harmonics. The discrete frequency spectrum strongly depends on both the static field and the relative amplitude of the dynamic field. The only material input data needed to predict it is the curve of macroscopic magnetostrictive strain that can be measured in the direction of an imposed magnetic field. Then, the various frequency-dependent distributions of Lorentz and magnetostriction body forces can be transformed into equivalent surface stresses. Examples of computation are given for different static and dynamic magnetic fields to study their influence on the frequency content of waves generated in ferromagnetic materials.

  16. Surface spin polarization induced ferromagnetic Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Po-Hsun; Li, Wen-Hsien; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2016-05-01

    We report on the observation of ferromagnetic spin polarized moments in 4.5 nm Ag nanoparticles. Both ferromagnetic and diamagnetic responses to an applied magnetic field were detected. The spin polarized moments shown under non-linear thermoinduced magnetization appeared on the surface atoms, rather than on all the atoms in particles. The saturation magnetization departed substantially from the Bloch T3/2-law, showing the existence of magnetic anisotropy. The Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin wave model for Ha-aligned moments was then employed to identify the magnetic anisotropic energy gap of ~0.12 meV. Our results may be understood by assuming the surface magnetism model, in which the surface atoms give rise to polarized moments while the core atoms produce diamagnetic responses.

  17. Exchange bias training effect in coupled all ferromagnetic bilayer structures.

    PubMed

    Binek, Ch; Polisetty, S; He, Xi; Berger, A

    2006-02-17

    Exchange coupled bilayers of soft and hard ferromagnetic thin films show remarkable analogies to conventional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic exchange bias heterostructures. Not only do all these ferromagnetic bilayers exhibit a tunable exchange bias effect, they also show a distinct training behavior upon cycling the soft layer through consecutive hysteresis loops. In contrast with conventional exchange bias systems, such all ferromagnetic bilayer structures allow the observation of training induced changes in the bias-setting hardmagnetic layer by means of simple magnetometry. Our experiments show unambiguously that the exchange bias training effect is driven by deviations from equilibrium in the pinning layer. A comparison of our experimental data with predictions from a theory based upon triggered relaxation phenomena shows excellent agreement.

  18. Ferromagnet/semiconductor based spintronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Dipankar

    Spintronics is an emerging field which is great interest for its potential to provide high-speed and low-power novel devices and eventually replace and/or complement conventional silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. Spin-based optoelectronic devices provide improved laser performance and polarized light sources for secure communication. Spintronics has therefore received a lot of interest with the potential for conventional and novel applications. Spintronics has been investigated both in all-metal and semiconductor based platforms. Spin-based ferromagnet/semiconductor heterojunction devices are particularly attractive compared to all-metal spintronic devices due to the versatility and the long electron spin coherence time in semiconductors. Here we have investigated semiconductor based spintronic devices for logic, memory and communication applications. We have demonstrated electrical injection and detection of spin in a MnAs/GaAs lateral spin valve. A peak magnetoresistance of 3.6% at 10 K and 1.1% at 125 K have been measured in these devices. Spin polarization in semiconductors is usually very small and difficult to detect. We have therefore theoretically designed and experimentally demonstrated a spin-current amplifier to alleviate this problem. A spin polarization of 100% has been measured at 150 K in these devices. We have emphasized the importance of finite sizes of ferromagnetic contact pads in terms of two-dimensional spin-diffusion in lateral spintronic devices, which enhances spin-polarization. We have discovered a new phenomenon observing electrically driven spin-dynamics of paramagnetic impurities. We have demonstrated a spin-capacitor using this novel phenomenon. In this study we have also demonstrated a spin-polarized quantum dot spin-laser which is a fundamental spin-based optoelectronic device. An output circular polarization of 8% and threshold current reduction of 14% have been measured at 200 K. We have also demonstrated

  19. A kinetic theory of trapped electron driven drift wave turbulence in a sheared magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Gang, F.Y. . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Diamond, P.H.; Rosenbluth, M.N. . Dept. of Physics General Atomics, San Diego, CA )

    1990-09-01

    A kinetic theory of collisionless and dissipative trapped electron driven drift wave turbulence in a sheared magnetic field is presented. Weak turbulence theory is employed to calculate the nonlinear electron and ion responses and to derive a wave kinetic equation that determines the nonlinear evolution of trapped electron mode turbulence. Saturated fluctuation spectrum is calculated using the condition of nonlinear saturation. The turbulent transport coefficients are in turn calculated using saturated fluctuation spectrum. Due to the disparity in the three different radial scale lengths of the slab-like eigenmode: {Delta} (trapped electron layer width), x{sub t} (turning point width) and x{sub i} (Landau damping point), {Delta} < x{sub t} < x{sub i}, we find that ion Compton scattering rather than trapped electron Compton scattering is the dominant nonlinear saturation mechanism. Ion Compton scattering transfers wave energy from short to long wavelengths where the wave energy is shear damped. As a consequence, a saturated fluctuation spectrum {vert bar}{phi}{vert bar}{sup 2}(k{sub {theta}}) {approximately} k{sub {theta}}{sup {minus}{alpha}} ({alpha} = 2 and 3 for the dissipative and collisionless regime, respectively) occurs for k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub s} < 1 and is heavily damped for k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub s} > 1. The predicted fluctuation level and transport coefficients are well below the mixing length'' estimate. This is due to the contribution of radial wavenumbers x{sub t}{sup {minus}1} < k{sub r} {le} {rho}{sub i}{sup {minus}1} to the nonlinear couplings, the effect of radial localization of trapped electron response to a layer of width, {Delta}, and the weak turbulence factor {l angle}({gamma}{sub e}{sup l})/({omega}{sub {rvec {kappa}}}){r angle}{sub {rvec k}} < 1, which enters the saturation level. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Remote sensing techniques to monitor nitrogen-driven carbon dynamics in field corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    2009-08-01

    Patterns of change in vegetation growth and condition are one of the primary indicators of the present and future ecological status of the globe. Nitrogen (N) is involved in photochemical processes and is one of the primary resources regulating plant growth. As a result, biological carbon (C) sequestration is driven by N availability. Large scale monitoring of photosynthetic processes are currently possible only with remote sensing systems that rely heavily on passive reflectance (R) information. Unlike R, fluorescence (F) emitted from chlorophyll is directly related to photochemical reactions and has been extensively used for the elucidation of the photosynthetic pathways. Recent advances in passive fluorescence instrumentation have made the remote acquisition of solar-induced fluorescence possible. The goal of this effort is to evaluate existing reflectance and emerging fluorescence methodologies for determining vegetation parameters related to photosynthetic function and carbon sequestration dynamics in plants. Field corn N treatment levels of 280, 140, 70, and 0 kg N / ha were sampled from an intensive test site for a multi-disciplinary project, Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement (OPE). Aircraft, near-ground, and leaf-level measurements were used to compare and contrast treatment effects within this experiment site assessed with both reflectance and fluorescence approaches. A number of spectral indices including the R derivative index D730/D705, the normalized difference of R750 vs. R705, and simple ratio R800/R750 differentiated three of the four N fertilization rates and yielded high correlations to three important carbon parameters: C:N, light use efficiency, and grain yield. These results advocate the application of hyperspectral sensors for remotely monitoring carbon cycle dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. Buoyancy-driven convection and mixing in magma chambers - the case of Phlegraean Fields caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagna, Chiara P.; Longo, Antonella; Bagagli, Matteo; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Ascent of primitive magmas from depth into shallow, partially degassed reservoirs is commonly assumed to be a viable eruption trigger. At Phlegraean Fields (Southern Italy), processes of convection and mixing have been identified as taking an active part both in pre- and syn-eruptive stages in many eruptions of different size. We performed numerical simulations of magma chamber replenishment referring to an archetypal case whereby a shallow, small magma chamber containing degassed phonolite is invaded by volatile-rich shoshonitic magma coming from a deeper, larger reservoir. The system evolution is solely driven by buoyancy, as the magma entering the shallower chamber is less dense than the degassed, resident phonolite. The evolution in space and time of physical quantities such as pressure, gas content and density is highly heterogeneous; nonetheless, an overall decreasing exponential trend in time can be observed and characterizes the whole process. The same exponentially decreasing trend can be observed in the amplitude of the ground deformation signals (seismicity over the whole frequency spectrum) calculated from the results of the magmatic dynamics. Exponential decay in the efficiency of the mixing process has been also observed experimentally, albeit on much smaller length and time scales (Morgavi et al., Contrib. Min. Petr. 2013). Depending on the initial and boundary conditions explored, such as chamber geometry or density contrast, the time constant thus the duration of the process can vary. Independently, the evolution of pressure in the magmatic system also depends on the initial and boundary conditions, leading either to eruption-favourable conditions or not. Relating the time scales for convective processes to be effective with their outcomes in terms of stresses at the chamber boundaries can substantially improve our ability to forecast eruptions at volcanoes worldwide.

  2. ROLE OF MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH AND NUMERICAL RESOLUTION IN SIMULATIONS OF THE HEAT-FLUX-DRIVEN BUOYANCY INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Avara, Mark J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Bogdanovic, Tamara E-mail: chris@astro.umd.edu

    2013-08-20

    The role played by magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is complex. The weakly collisional nature of the ICM leads to thermal conduction that is channeled along field lines. This anisotropic heat conduction profoundly changes the instabilities of the ICM atmosphere, with convective stabilities being driven by temperature gradients of either sign. Here, we employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the local non-linear behavior of the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI) relevant in the cores of cooling-core clusters where the temperature increases with radius. We study a grid of two-dimensional simulations that span a large range of initial magnetic field strengths and numerical resolutions. For very weak initial fields, we recover the previously known result that the HBI wraps the field in the horizontal direction, thereby shutting off the heat flux. However, we find that simulations that begin with intermediate initial field strengths have a qualitatively different behavior, forming HBI-stable filaments that resist field-line wrapping and enable sustained vertical conductive heat flux at a level of 10%-25% of the Spitzer value. While astrophysical conclusions regarding the role of conduction in cooling cores require detailed global models, our local study proves that systems dominated by the HBI do not necessarily quench the conductive heat flux.

  3. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheftman, D.; Gupta, D.; Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Giammanco, F.; Conti, F.; Marsili, P.; Moreno, C. D.

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  4. Spontaneous transition of core radial electric field driven by magnetic islands in the H-1NF heliac

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Blackwell, B. D.; Howard, J.; Harris, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental observation of spontaneous transition of the core radial electric field to a large positive value (E(r) similar to 5 kV m(-1)), with a strong electric-field shear (similar to 700 kV m(-2)) in a low temperature (T(e) similar to 10 eV) radio frequency generated argon plasma in the H-1NF heliac stellarator. The transition, which seems to be driven by a spontaneous excitation of m = 2 magnetic islands near the core, is associated with a localized increase in the plasma density and excitation of coherent low frequency (similar to 3 kHz) oscillations possibly due to unstable E(r) shear driven modes. Evidence suggests development of the core electron-root scenario, which previously has been observed only at high temperature electron cyclotron heated plasmas.

  5. Direct imaging of magnetic field-driven transitions of skyrmion cluster states in FeGe nanodisks

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuebing; Jin, Chiming; Wang, Chao; Du, Haifeng; Zang, Jiadong; Tian, Mingliang; Che, Renchao; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmion is a nanosized magnetic whirl with nontrivial topology, which is highly relevant for applications on future memory devices. To enable the applications, theoretical efforts have been made to understand the dynamics of individual skyrmions in magnetic nanostructures. However, directly imaging the evolution of highly geometrically confined individual skyrmions is challenging. Here, we report the magnetic field-driven dynamics of individual skyrmions in FeGe nanodisks with diameters on the order of several skyrmion sizes by using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to the conventional skyrmion lattice in bulk, a series of skyrmion cluster states with different geometrical configurations and the field-driven cascading phase transitions are identified at temperatures far below the magnetic transition temperature. Furthermore, a dynamics, namely the intermittent jumps between the neighboring skyrmion cluster states, is found at elevated temperatures, at which the thermal energy competes with the energy barrier between the skyrmion cluster states. PMID:27051067

  6. Sudden death and rebirth of entanglement for different dimensional systems driven by a classical random external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, N.; Eleuch, H.; Obada, A.-S.

    2016-10-01

    The entangled behavior of different dimensional systems driven by classical external random field is investigated. The amount of the survival entanglement between the components of each system is quantified. There are different behaviors of entanglement that come into view decay, sudden death, sudden birth and long-lived entanglement. The maximum entangled states which can be generated from any of theses suggested systems are much fragile than the partially entangled ones. The systems of larger dimensions are more robust than those of smaller dimensions systems, where the entanglement decay smoothly, gradually and may vanish for a very short time. For the class of $2\\times 3$ dimensional system, the one parameter family is found to be more robust than the two parameters family. Although the entanglement of driven $ 2 \\times 3$ dimensional system is very sensitive to the classical external random field, one can use them to generate a long-lived entanglement.

  7. Damping of Energetic-Particle-Driven Alfven Eigenmodes in Different Magnetic Equilibria in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Stephanie; Anderson, Jay; Capecchi, William; Bonofiglo, Phillip; Kim, Jungha

    2015-11-01

    Alfven wave dissipation is an important mechanism behind anomalous ion heating, both in astrophysical and reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma systems. Additionally, the damping rate has implications for the stability of energetic particle driven modes (EPMs) and their associated nonlinear dynamics and fast ion transport, which are crucial topics for any burning plasma reactor. With a 1 MW neutral beam injector on the MST RFP, a controlled set of EPMs and Alfvenic eigenmodes can be driven in this never-before-probed region of strong magnetic shear and weak externally applied magnetic field. The decay time of the average of 100s of reproducible bursts is computed for different equilibrium profiles. In this work, we report initial measurements of Alfvenic damping rates with varied RFP equilibria (including magnetic shear and flow shear) and the effects on fast ion transport. This research is supported by DOE and NSF.

  8. GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION IN BARRED GALAXIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE COSMIC-RAY-DRIVEN DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa-Dybel, K.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.; Kulesza-Zydzik, B.; Kowal, G.; Hanasz, M.; Woltanski, D.; Kowalik, K.

    2011-06-01

    We present three-dimensional global numerical simulations of the cosmic-ray (CR) driven dynamo in barred galaxies. We study the evolution of the interstellar medium of the barred galaxy in the presence of non-axisymmetric component of the potential, i.e., the bar. The magnetohydrodynamical dynamo is driven by CRs, which are continuously supplied to the disk by supernova (SN) remnants. No magnetic field is present at the beginning of simulations but one-tenth of SN explosions is a source of a small-scale randomly oriented dipolar magnetic field. In all models we assume that 10% of 10{sup 51} erg SN kinetic energy output is converted into CR energy. To compare our results directly with the observed properties of galaxies, we construct realistic maps of polarized radio emission. The main result is that the CR-driven dynamo can amplify weak magnetic fields up to a few {mu}G within a few Gyr in barred galaxies. The obtained e-folding time is equal to 300 Myr and the magnetic field reaches equipartition at time t {approx} 4.0 Gyr. Initially, the completely random magnetic field evolves into large-scale structures. An even (quadrupole-type) configuration of the magnetic field with respect to the galactic plane can be observed. Additionally, the modeled magnetic field configuration resembles maps of the polarized intensity observed in barred galaxies. Polarization vectors are distributed along the bar and between spiral arms. Moreover, the drift of magnetic arms with respect to the spiral pattern in the gas density distribution is observed during the entire simulation time.

  9. Spin pumping through a topological insulator probed by x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, A. I.; Baker, A. A.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Hesjedal, T.; van der Laan, G.

    2016-02-01

    In the field of spintronics, the generation of a pure spin current (without macroscopic charge flow) through spin pumping of a ferromagnetic (FM) layer opens up the perspective of a new generation of dissipation-less devices. Microwave driven ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) can generate a pure spin current that enters adjacent layers, allowing for both magnetization reversal (through spin-transfer torque) and to probe spin coherence in non-magnetic materials. However, standard FMR is unable to probe multilayer dynamics directly, since the measurement averages over the contributions from the whole system. The synchrotron radiation-based technique of x-ray detected FMR (XFMR) offers an elegant solution to this drawback, giving access to element-, site-, and layer-specific dynamical measurements in heterostructures. In this work, we show how XFMR has provided unique information to understand spin pumping and spin transfer torque effects through a topological insulator (TI) layer in a pseudo-spin valve heterostructure. We demonstrate that TIs function as efficient spin sinks, while also allowing a limited dynamic coupling between ferromagnetic layers. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel class of materials, and suggest future directions for the development of room temperature TI-based spintronics.

  10. Spin waves of ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Rodrigo

    The spin wave modes of ferromagnetic films have been studied for a long time experimentally as well as theoretically: initially magnetostatic and later dipole-exchange modes. Theoretically dipole-exchange modes have been solved exactly numerically for some configurations and boundary conditions, and there are approximations of their frequency dispersion relations based on infinite series solutions and perturbation theory, valid for arbitrary orientations of an applied magnetic field, and for boundary conditions that allow varying degrees of pinning. A theoretical method that allows to determine with ease the exact frequency dispersion relations of the dipole-exchange modes is presented: it is required to solve numerically a 6x6 linear eigenvalue problem at each wavevector of interest; the spin wave modes inside or outside the sample may be plotted. Analogous calculations may be done to determine magnetostatic modes in detail. The method corresponds to a generalization of Green's theorem to the problem of determining the dipole-exchange modes of a ferromagnetic film: convolution integral equations for the magnetization and magnetostatic potential are derived on the surfaces of the film that become simple local algebraic equations in Fourier space, or for specific wavevectors. This work was supported by Project ICM FP10-061-F-FIC, Chile, and Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology CEDENNA FB0807 (Chile).

  11. Surface magnetoelectric effect in ferromagnetic metal films.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chun-Gang; Velev, Julian P; Sabirianov, R F; Zhu, Ziqiang; Chu, Junhao; Jaswal, S S; Tsymbal, E Y

    2008-09-26

    A surface magnetoelectric effect is revealed by density-functional calculations that are applied to ferromagnetic Fe(001), Ni(001), and Co(0001) films in the presence of an external electric field. The effect originates from spin-dependent screening of the electric field which leads to notable changes in the surface magnetization and the surface magnetocrystalline anisotropy. These results are of considerable interest in the area of electrically controlled magnetism and magnetoelectric phenomena. PMID:18851486

  12. Suppression of quantum decoherence via infrared-driven coherent exciton-plasmon coupling: Undamped field and Rabi oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, S. M.; Patty, K. D.

    2014-02-24

    We show that when a semiconductor quantum dot is in the vicinity of a metallic nanoparticle and driven by a mid-infrared laser field, its coherent dynamics caused by interaction with a visible laser field can become free of quantum decoherence. We demonstrate that this process, which can offer undamped Rabi and field oscillations, is the result of coherent normalization of the “effective” polarization dephasing time of the quantum dot (T{sub 2}{sup *}). This process indicates formation of infrared-induced coherently forced oscillations, which allows us to control the value of T{sub 2}{sup *} using the infrared laser. The results offer decay-free ultrafast modulation of the effective field experienced by the quantum dot when neither the visible laser field nor the infrared laser changes with time.

  13. Slow-time-scale magnetic fields driven by fast-time-scale waves in an underdense relativistic Vlasov plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shao-ping; He, X. T.; Zheng, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Slow-time-scale magnetic fields driven by fast-time-scale electromagnetic waves or plasma waves are examined from the perspective of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations for a relativistic Vlasov plasma. An equation for slow-time-scale magnetic field is obtained. The field proposed in the present paper is a result of wave-wave beating which drives a solenoidal current. The magnitude of the slow-time-scale magnetic field proposed here can be as high as 20 MG at the critical surface for a laser intensity I=1018W/cm2 at wavelength λ0=1.05 μm. The predicted magnetic field is observed in two-dimensional particle simulations presented here.

  14. Avoiding Tokamak Disruptions by Applying Static Magnetic Fields That Align Locked Modes with Stabilizing Wave-Driven Currents.

    PubMed

    Volpe, F A; Hyatt, A; La Haye, R J; Lanctot, M J; Lohr, J; Prater, R; Strait, E J; Welander, A

    2015-10-23

    Nonrotating ("locked") magnetic islands often lead to complete losses of confinement in tokamak plasmas, called major disruptions. Here locked islands were suppressed for the first time, by a combination of applied three-dimensional magnetic fields and injected millimeter waves. The applied fields were used to control the phase of locking and so align the island O point with the region where the injected waves generated noninductive currents. This resulted in stabilization of the locked island, disruption avoidance, recovery of high confinement, and high pressure, in accordance with the expected dependencies upon wave power and relative phase between the O point and driven current.

  15. Large-Scale Variational Two-Electron Reduced-Density-Matrix-Driven Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field Methods.

    PubMed

    Fosso-Tande, Jacob; Nguyen, Truong-Son; Gidofalvi, Gergely; DePrince, A Eugene

    2016-05-10

    A large-scale implementation of the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method is presented. The active space is described using the variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix (v2RDM) approach, and the algorithm is applicable to much larger active spaces than can be treated using configuration-interaction-driven methods. Density fitting or Cholesky decomposition approximations to the electron repulsion integral tensor allow for the simultaneous optimization of large numbers of external orbitals. We have tested the implementation by evaluating singlet-triplet energy gaps in the linear polyacene series and two dinitrene biradical compounds. For the acene series, we report computations that involve active spaces consisting of as many as 50 electrons in 50 orbitals and the simultaneous optimization of 1892 orbitals. For the dinitrene compounds, we find that the singlet-triplet gaps obtained from v2RDM-driven CASSCF with partial three-electron N-representability conditions agree with those obtained from configuration-interaction-driven approaches to within one-third of 1 kcal mol(-1). When enforcing only the two-electron N-representability conditions, v2RDM-driven CASSCF yields less accurate singlet-triplet energy gaps in these systems, but the quality of the results is still far superior to those obtained from standard single-reference approaches. PMID:27065086

  16. Dipolar ferromagnets and glasses (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, T.F.; Wu, W.; Ellman, B.; Yang, J. ); Aeppli, G. ); Reich, D.H. )

    1991-11-15

    What is the ground state and what are the dynamics of 10{sup 23} randomly distributed Ising spins We have attempted to answer these questions through magnetic susceptibility, calorimetric, and neutron scattering studies of the randomly diluted dipolar-coupled Ising magnet LiHo{sub {ital x}}Y{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}F{sub 4}. The material is ferromagnetic for dipole concentrations at least as low as {ital x}=0.46, with a Curie temperature obeying mean-field scaling relative to that of pure LiHoF{sub 4}. In the dilute spin limit, an {ital x}=0.045 crystal shows very unusual glassy properties characterized by {ital decreasing} barriers to relaxation as {ital T}{r arrow}0. Its properties are consistent with a single low degeneracy ground state with a large gap for excitations. A slightly more concentrated {ital x}=0.167 sample, however, supports a complex ground state with no appreciable gap, in accordance with prevailing theories of spin glasses. The underlying causes of such disparate behavior are discussed in terms of random clusters as probed by neutron studies of the {ital x}=0.167 sample. In addition to tracing the evolution of the glassy and ferromagnetic states with dipole concentration, we investigate the effects of a transverse magnetic field on the Ising spin glass, LiHo{sub 0.167}Y{sub 0.833}F{sub 4}. The transverse field mixes the eigenfunctions of the ground-state Ising doublet with the otherwise inaccessible excited-state levels. We observe a rapid decrease in the characteristic relaxation times, large changes in the spectral form of the relaxation, and a depression of the spin-glass transition temperature with the addition of quantum fluctuations.

  17. Influence of vacuum toroidal field on two-fluid flowing equilibria of helicity-driven spherical torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.

    2006-07-15

    Two-fluid flowing equilibrium configurations of a helicity-driven spherical torus (HD-ST) in the realistic confinement region, including a flux conserver and a coaxial helicity source, are numerically determined by means of the combination of the finite difference and the boundary element methods. It is found from the numerical results that electron fluid near the central conductor is tied to a vacuum toroidal field and ion fluid is not. The magnetic configurations change from the high-q HD-ST (safety factor, q>1) with a paramagnetic toroidal field and low-{beta} (volume average {beta} value, <{beta}>{approx_equal}2%) through the helicity-driven spheromak and reversed-field pinch to the ultra-low-q HD-ST (0field and high-{beta} (<{beta}>{approx_equal}18%) as the vacuum toroidal field at the inner edge regions decreases and reverses the sign. The two-fluid effects are more significant in this equilibrium transition when the ion diamagnetic drift has the same direction as the ExB one.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    J. Williamson and R. Aldrich

    2015-09-01

    To better understand and characterize heating performance, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven ASHPs across the northeast United States during the winter of 2013–2014.

  19. Remote sensing techniques to monitor Nitrogen-driven Carbon dynamics in field corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation change is the primary indicator of the present and future ecological status of the globe. Nitrogen (N) is involved in photochemical processes and is one of the primary resources regulating plant growth. As a result, biological carbon (C) sequestration is driven by N availability. Large...

  20. Efficient stopping of current-driven domain wall using a local Rashba field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatara, Gen; Saarikoski, Henri; Mitsumata, Chiharu

    2016-10-01

    We show theoretically that a locally embedded Rashba interaction acts as a strong pinning center for current-driven domain walls and demonstrate efficient capturing and depinning of the wall using a weak Rashba interaction of the order of 0.01 eV Å. Our discovery is expected to be useful for highly reliable control of domain walls in racetrack memories.

  1. Ferromagnetic/Superconducting Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, S. D.

    1998-03-01

    Although it is well known that magnetism influences superconductivity, the converse issue has been less well explored. Recent theoretical predictions for ferromagnetic/ superconducting/ ferromagnetic trilayers exhibiting interlayer magnetic coupling in the normal state indicate that the coupling should be suppressed below the superconducting transition temperature.(C.A. R. Sá de Melo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79), 1933 (1997); O. Sipr, B.L. Györffy, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 7, 5239 (1995). To realize such a situation, a requirement (when the magnetic layers are thick) is that the superconducting layer thickness must simultaneously be less than the range over which the magnetic interlayer coupling decays, but greater than the superconducting coherence length. This introduces serious materials constraints. The present work describes initial explorations of three sputtered multilayer systems in an attempt to observe coupling of the ferromagnetic layers across a superconducting spacer:((a) J.E. Mattson, R.M. Osgood III, C.D. Potter, C.H. Sowers, and S.D. Bader, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15), 1774 (1997); (b) J.E. Mattson, C.D. Potter, M.J. Conover, C.H. Sowers, and S.D. Bader, Phys. Rev. B 55, 70 (1997), and (c) R.M. Osgood III, J.E. Pearson, C.H. Sowers, and S.D. Bader, submitted (1997). (a) Ni/Nb, (b) Fe_4N/NbN, and (c) GdN/NbN. In these systems we have retained thinner superconducting layers than had been achieved previously, but interlayer magnetic coupling is not observed even in the normal state. For Ni/Nb the interfacial Ni loses its moment, which also reduces the superconducting pair-breaking. GdN is an insulating ferromagnet, so itinerancy is sacrificed, and, probably as a result of this, no coupling is observed. Each system gives rise to interesting and anisotropic superconducting properties. Thus, although the goal remains elusive, our search highlights the challenges and opportunities.

  2. Proton Radiography of Spontaneous Fields, Plasma Flows and Dynamics in X-Ray Driven Inertial-Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Back, C. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2010-11-01

    Backlighting of x-ray-driven implosions in empty hohlraums with mono-energetic protons on the OMEGA laser facility has allowed a number of important phenomena to be observed. Several critical parameters were determined, including plasma flow, three types of spontaneous electric fields and megaGauss magnetic fields. These results provide insight into important issues in indirect-drive ICF. Even though the cavity is effectively a Faraday cage, the strong, local fields inside the hohlraum can affect laser-plasma instabilities, electron distributions and implosion symmetry. They are of fundamental scientific importance for a range of new experiments at the frontiers of high-energy-density physics. Future experiments designed to characterize the field formation and evolution in low-Z gas fill hohlraums will be discussed.

  3. Metallic quantum ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brando, M.; Belitz, D.; Grosche, F. M.; Kirkpatrick, T. R.

    2016-04-01

    An overview of quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in metallic ferromagnets, discussing both experimental and theoretical aspects, is given. These QPTs can be classified with respect to the presence and strength of quenched disorder: Clean systems generically show a discontinuous, or first-order, QPT from a ferromagnetic to a paramagnetic state as a function of some control parameter, as predicted by theory. Disordered systems are much more complicated, depending on the disorder strength and the distance from the QPT. In many disordered materials the QPT is continuous, or second order, and Griffiths-phase effects coexist with QPT singularities near the transition. In other systems the transition from the ferromagnetic state at low temperatures is to a different type of long-range order, such as an antiferromagnetic or a spin-density-wave state. In still other materials a transition to a state with glasslike spin dynamics is suspected. The review provides a comprehensive discussion of the current understanding of these various transitions and of the relation between experiment and theory.

  4. Magnetic properties of MoS2: Existence of ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongay, Sefaattin; Varnoosfaderani, Sima S.; Appleton, Bill R.; Wu, Junqiao; Hebard, Arthur F.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of MoS2 measured from room temperature down to 10 K and magnetic fields up to 5 T. We find that single crystals of MoS2 display ferromagnetism superimposed onto large temperature-dependent diamagnetism and have observed that ferromagnetism persists from 10 K up to room temperature. We attribute the existence of ferromagnetism partly to the presence of zigzag edges in the magnetic ground state at the grain boundaries. Since the magnetic measurements are relatively insensitive to the interlayer coupling, these results are expected to be valid in the single layer limit.

  5. Fe impurities weaken the ferromagnetic behavior in Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Crespo, P; García, M A; Fernández Pinel, E; Multigner, M; Alcántara, D; de la Fuente, J M; Penadés, S; Hernando, A

    2006-10-27

    In this Letter, we report on a crucial experiment showing that magnetic impurities reduce the ferromagnetic order temperature in thiol-capped Au glyconanoparticles (GNPs). The spontaneous magnetization of AuFe GNPs exhibits a fast decrease with temperature that contrasts with the almost constant value of the magnetization observed in Au NPs. Moreover, hysteresis disappears below 300 K. Both features indicate that Fe impurities reduce the high local anisotropy field responsible for the ferromagnetic behavior in Au GNPs. As a consequence, the amazing ferromagnetism in Au NPs should not be associated with the presence of magnetic impurities.

  6. Ramp-edge structured tunneling devices using ferromagnet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Kwon, Chuhee; Jia, Quanxi

    2002-09-03

    The fabrication of ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet magnetic tunneling junction devices using a ramp-edge geometry based on, e.g., (La.sub.0.7 Sr.sub.0.3) MnO.sub.3, ferromagnetic electrodes and a SrTiO.sub.3 insulator is disclosed. The maximum junction magnetoresistance (JMR) as large as 23% was observed below 300 Oe at low temperatures (T<100 K). These ramp-edge junctions exhibited JMR of 6% at 200 K with a field less than 100 Oe.

  7. Vortex state in ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betto, Davide; Coey, J. M. D.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of the magnetic state of a soft ferromagnetic nanoparticle with its size is usually thought to be from superparamagnetic single domain to blocked single domain to a blocked multidomain structure. Néel pointed out that a vortex configuration produces practically no stray field at the cost of an increase in the exchange energy, of the order of RJS2lnR /c, where JS2 is the bond energy, R is the particle radius, and c is of the order of the exchange length. A vortex structure is energetically cheaper than single domain when the radius is greater than a certain value. The correct sequence should include a vortex configuration between the single domain and the multidomain states. The critical size is calculated for spherical particles of four important materials (nickel, magnetite, permalloy, and iron) both numerically and analytically. A vortex state is favored in materials with high magnetisation.

  8. Irreversible magnetization switching at the onset of superconductivity in a superconductor ferromagnet hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Kim, J.; Satchell, N.; Witt, J. D. S.; Burnell, G.; Flokstra, M. G.; Lee, S. L.; Cooper, J. F. K.; Kinane, C. J.; Langridge, S.; Isidori, A.; Eschrig, M.; Pugach, N.

    2015-12-28

    We demonstrate that the magnetic state of a superconducting spin valve, that is normally controlled with an external magnetic field, can also be manipulated by varying the temperature which increases the functionality and flexibility of such structures as switching elements. In this case, switching is driven by changes in the magnetostatic energy due to spontaneous Meissner screening currents forming in the superconductor below the critical temperature. Our scanning Hall probe measurements also reveal vortex-mediated pinning of the ferromagnetic domain structure due to the pinning of quantized stray fields in the adjacent superconductor. The ability to use temperature as well as magnetic field to control the local magnetisation structure raises the prospect of potential applications in magnetic memory devices.

  9. Nonlinear motion of coupled magnetic vortices in ferromagnetic/non-magnetic/ferromagnetic trilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Su-Hyeong; Shim, Je-Ho; Oh, Suhk-Kun; Yu, Seong-Cho; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Mesler, Brooke; Fischer, Peter

    2009-07-05

    We have investigated a coupled motion of two vortex cores in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayer cynliders by means of micromagnetic simulation. Dynamic motion of two vortex with parallel and antiparallel relative chiralities of curling spins around the vortex cores have been examined after excitation by 1-ns pulsed external field. With systematic variation in non-magnetic spacer layer thickness from 0 to 20 nm, the coupling between two cores becomes significant as the spacer becomes thinner. Significant coupling leads to a nonlinear chaotic coupled motion of two vortex cores for the parallel chiralities and a faster coupled gyrotropic oscillation for the antiparallel chiralities.

  10. Doping-driven orbital-selective Mott transition in multi-band Hubbard models with crystal field splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilin, Wang; Li, Huang; Liang, Du; Xi, Dai

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the doping-driven orbital-selective Mott transition in multi-band Hubbard models with equal band width in the presence of crystal field splitting. Crystal field splitting lifts one of the bands while leaving the others degenerate. We use single-site dynamical mean-field theory combined with continuous time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver to calculate a phase diagram as a function of total electron filling N and crystal field splitting Δ. We find a large region of orbital-selective Mott phase in the phase diagram when the doping is large enough. Further analysis indicates that the large region of orbital-selective Mott phase is driven and stabilized by doping. Such models may account for the orbital-selective Mott transition in some doped realistic strongly correlated materials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00108) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB921700).

  11. Casimir entropy for ferromagnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korikov, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    We describe recent results concerning the compatibility of the Lifshitz theory of dispersion forces with thermodynamics. It is shown that for ferromagnetic metals described by the plasma model and for ferromagnetic dielectrics with omitted dc conductivity the Lifshitz theory satisfies the Nernst heat theorem. At the same time, for magnetic metals described by the Drude model and for ferromagnetic dielectrics with account of dc conductivity the Nernst heat theorem is violated.

  12. Frequency mixer having ferromagnetic film

    DOEpatents

    Khitun, Alexander; Roshchin, Igor V.; Galatsis, Kosmas; Bao, Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-03-29

    A frequency conversion device, which may include a radiofrequency (RF) mixer device, includes a substrate and a ferromagnetic film disposed over a surface of the substrate. An insulator is disposed over the ferromagnetic film and at least one microstrip antenna is disposed over the insulator. The ferromagnetic film provides a non-linear response to the frequency conversion device. The frequency conversion device may be used for signal mixing and amplification. The frequency conversion device may also be used in data encryption applications.

  13. High frequency magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic nano-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Sioan

    The development of smaller high frequency magnetic devices with new functionalities requires a more thorough understanding of magnetization dynamics. This thesis documents research into ultrafast magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic nanoscale materials and summarizes the theoretical foundations and measurement techniques. We present our investigation into the microwave properties of monodisperse, superparamagnetic Fe2O3 nanoparticle arrays using broadband ferromagnetic resonance. We identified a novel field-for resonance relationship in the films. Compared with ferromagnetic films of equal magnetization, resonance frequencies are decreased for in-plane magnetization and increased for out-of-plane magnetization, over the range 0--8 Ghz. The behavior identified is that of a superparamagnetic thin film, where thin-film dipolar fields act on a gradually saturating magnetization described by the Langevin function. Resonance linewidths can be described by the natural dispersion in properties of the system. The second section addresses magnetization dynamics in metalic heterostructures, where the component ultrathin films have nanometer scale dimensions. We have searched for a signature of nonlocal magnetization dynamics, or magnetization dynamics driven by pure spin currents ("spin pumping"), in magnetically soft, polycrystalline Ni81Fe19/Cu/Co93Zr7 tri-layers using ferromagnetic resonance. An interface-related enhancement of damping is expected for each ferromagnetic layer when incorporated in a tri-layer; the enhancement should be absent where layer resonances overlap. While size effects in Gilbert damping have been identified, we note that expectations specific to spin pumping are not confirmed. We have also observed this effect in Ni81Fe19/Cu/Ni81Fe19/Mn 50Fe50 exchange biased spin valves with clearly defined giant magneto-resistance (GMR). Finally, we have investigated the dynamic effects in these films using a novel time-resolved x-ray technique. The reciprocal

  14. Weak ferromagnetism in `non-magnetic' austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crangle, John; Fogarty, A.; Taylor, M. J.

    1992-06-01

    The magnetization and susceptability of the non-magnetic stainless steels AISI 304 and AISI 316 have been measured at low temperatures using a SQUID magnetometer. A small but stable ferromagnetic component is always present. Field cooling shows the effects of exchange anisotropy. Another stainless steel AISI 321 is non-magnetic at room temperature but it transforms irreversibly to a partially ferromagnetic state when it is cooled below 280 K.

  15. High frequency, small signal MH loops of ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Ong, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented for transforming the high frequency bias susceptibility measurements of ferromagnetic thin films into the form of a MH loop with, depending upon the measurement geometry, the y-axis zero crossing giving a measure of the coercive force or anisotropy field. The loops provide a measure of the quantitative and qualitative high frequency switching properties of ferromagnetic thin films. c2000 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Effect of shear stress on electromagnetic behaviors in superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Huadong; Zhao, Meng; Jing, Ze; Zhou, Youhe

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic response and shielding behaviour of superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure are studied. The magnetomechanical coupling in ferromagnetic materials is also considered. Based on the linear piezomagnetic coupling model and anti-plane shear deformation, the current density and magnetic field in superconducting strip are obtained firstly. The effect of shear stress on the magnetization of strip is discussed. Then, we consider the magnetic cloak for superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure. The magnetic permeability of ferromagnetic material is obtained for perfect cloaking in uniform magnetic field with magnetomechanical coupling in ferromagnet. The simulation results show that the electromagnetic response in superconductors will change by applying the stress only to the ferromagnetic material. In addition, the performance of invisibility of structure for non-uniform field will be affected by mechanical stress. It may provide a method to achieve tunability of superconducting properties with mechanical loadings.

  17. Effect of an atom on a quantum guided field in a weakly driven fiber-Bragg-grating cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Le Kien, Fam; Hakuta, K.

    2010-02-15

    We study the interaction of an atom with a quantum guided field in a weakly driven fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) cavity. We present an effective Hamiltonian and derive the density-matrix equations for the combined atom-cavity system. We calculate the mean photon number, the second-order photon correlation function, and the atomic excited-state population. We show that due to the confinement of the guided cavity field in the fiber cross-section plane and in the space between the FBG mirrors, the presence of the atom in the FBG cavity can significantly affect the mean photon number and the photon statistics even though the cavity finesse is moderate, the cavity is long, and the probe field is weak.

  18. High sensitivity far infrared laser diagnostics for the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. H.; Beall, M.; Schroeder, J.; Settles, G.; Feng, P.; Kinley, J. S.; Gota, H.; Thompson, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    A high sensitivity multi-channel far infrared laser diagnostics with switchable interferometry and polarimetry operation modes for the advanced neutral beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is described. The interferometer achieved superior resolution of 1 × 1016 m-2 at >1.5 MHz bandwidth, illustrated by measurement of small amplitude high frequency fluctuations. The polarimetry achieved 0.04° instrument resolution and 0.1° actual resolution in the challenging high density gradient environment with >0.5 MHz bandwidth, making it suitable for weak internal magnetic field measurements in the C-2U plasmas, where the maximum Faraday rotation angle is less than 1°. The polarimetry resolution data is analyzed, and high resolution Faraday rotation data in C-2U is presented together with direct evidences of field reversal in FRC magnetic structure obtained for the first time by a non-perturbative method.

  19. Anisotropic magnetocapacitance in ferromagnetic-plate capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, J. A.; Ciccarelli, C.; Betz, A. C.; Irvine, A.; Novák, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2015-04-01

    The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor can depend on the applied magnetic field. Previous studies have identified capacitance changes induced via classical Lorentz force or spin-dependent Zeeman effects. Here we measure a magnetization direction-dependent capacitance in parallel-plate capacitors where one plate is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, gallium manganese arsenide. This anisotropic magnetocapacitance is due to the anisotropy in the density of states dependent on the magnetization through the strong spin-orbit interaction.

  20. Ferromagnetic resonance with a magnetic Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, S. E.; Aprili, M.; Petković, I.; Maekawa, S.

    2011-02-01

    We show experimentally and theoretically that there is a coupling via the Aharonov-Bohm phase between the order parameter of a ferromagnet and a singlet, s-wave, Josephson super-current. We have investigated the possibility of measuring the dispersion of such spin-waves by varying the magnetic field applied in the plane of the junction and demonstrated the electromagnetic nature of the coupling by the observation of magnetic resonance side-bands to microwave induced Shapiro steps.

  1. Achieving High-Temperature Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmis, Ferhat

    Topological insulators (TIs) are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic and spintronic devices, including TI-based quantum computation. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a TI system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to a realization of several predicted novel physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the TI surface at specific locations without introducing spin scattering centers could open up new possibilities for devices. Here, we demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) to a TI (Bi2Se3); this interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the FMI (EuS) is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The induced magnetism at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and spin-momentum locking feature of the TI surface is found to greatly enhance the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of the TI/FMI bilayer system. Due to the short range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a TI, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered TI could allow for an efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies. Work supported by MIT MRSEC through the MRSEC Program of NSF under award number DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF grant DMR-1231319.

  2. A cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator using a novel torque-field controller for human motion training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weihai; Cui, Xiang; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    Rehabilitation technologies have great potentials in assisted motion training for stroke patients. Considering that wrist motion plays an important role in arm dexterous manipulation of activities of daily living, this paper focuses on developing a cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator (CDWRR) for motion training or assistance to subjects with motor disabilities. The CDWRR utilizes the wrist skeletal joints and arm segments as the supporting structure and takes advantage of cable-driven parallel design to build the system, which brings the properties of flexibility, low-cost, and low-weight. The controller of the CDWRR is designed typically based on a virtual torque-field, which is to plan "assist-as-needed" torques for the spherical motion of wrist responding to the orientation deviation in wrist motion training. The torque-field controller can be customized to different levels of rehabilitation training requirements by tuning the field parameters. Additionally, a rapidly convergent parameter self-identification algorithm is developed to obtain the uncertain parameters automatically for the floating wearable structure of the CDWRR. Finally, experiments on a healthy subject are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the controller and the feasibility of the CDWRR on wrist motion training or assistance.

  3. Modeling the magnetospheres of luminous stars: Interactions between supersonic radiation-driven winds and stellar magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Owocki, Stan; Townsend, Rich; Ud-Doula, Asif

    2007-05-15

    Hot, luminous stars (spectral types O and B) lack the hydrogen recombination convection zones that drive magnetic dynamo generation in the sun and other cool stars. Nonetheless, observed rotational modulation of spectral lines formed in the strong, radiatively driven winds of hot stars suggests magnetic perturbations analogous to those that induce 'co-rotating interaction regions' in the solar wind. Indeed, recent advances in spectropolarimetric techniques have now led to direct detection of moderate to strong (100-10 000 G), tilted dipole magnetic fields in several hot stars. Using a combination of analytic and numerical magnetohydrodynamic models, this paper focuses on the role of such magnetic fields in channeling, and sometimes confining, the radiatively driven mass outflows from such stars. The results show how 'magnetically confined wind shocks' can explain the moderately hard x-ray emission seen from the O7V star Theta-1 Ori C, and how the trapping of material in a 'rigidly rotating magnetosphere' can explain the periodically modulated Balmer line emission seen from the magnetic B2pV star Sigma Ori E. In addition, magnetic reconnection heating from episodic centrifugal breakout events might explain the occasional very hard x-ray flares seen from the latter star. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the generation of hot-star fields and the broader relationship to other types of magnetospheres.

  4. A cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator using a novel torque-field controller for human motion training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weihai; Cui, Xiang; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    Rehabilitation technologies have great potentials in assisted motion training for stroke patients. Considering that wrist motion plays an important role in arm dexterous manipulation of activities of daily living, this paper focuses on developing a cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator (CDWRR) for motion training or assistance to subjects with motor disabilities. The CDWRR utilizes the wrist skeletal joints and arm segments as the supporting structure and takes advantage of cable-driven parallel design to build the system, which brings the properties of flexibility, low-cost, and low-weight. The controller of the CDWRR is designed typically based on a virtual torque-field, which is to plan "assist-as-needed" torques for the spherical motion of wrist responding to the orientation deviation in wrist motion training. The torque-field controller can be customized to different levels of rehabilitation training requirements by tuning the field parameters. Additionally, a rapidly convergent parameter self-identification algorithm is developed to obtain the uncertain parameters automatically for the floating wearable structure of the CDWRR. Finally, experiments on a healthy subject are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the controller and the feasibility of the CDWRR on wrist motion training or assistance.

  5. Control and Transfer of Entanglement between Two Atoms Driven by Classical Fields under Dressed-State Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qing-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Juan; Yan, Qiu-Rong; Liu, Ye; Chen, An

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the dynamics and transfer of the entanglement of the two identical atoms simultaneously interacting with vacuum field by employing the dressed-state representation. The two atoms are driven by classical fields. The influence of the initial entanglement degree of two atoms, the coupling strength between the atom and the classical field and the detuning between the atomic transition frequency and the frequency of classical field on the entanglement and atomic linear entropy is discussed. The initial entanglement of the two atoms can be transferred into the entanglement between the atom and cavity field when the dissipation is neglected. The maximally entangled state between the atoms and cavity field can be obtained under some certain conditions. The time of disentanglement of two atoms can be controlled and manipulated by adjusting the detuning and classical driving fields. Moreover, the larger the cavity decay rate is, the more quickly the entanglement of the two atoms decays. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11247213, 61368002, 11304010, 11264030, 61168001, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2013M531558, Jiangxi Postdoctoral Research Project under Grant No. 2013KY33, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province under Grant No. 20142BAB217001, the Foundation for Young Scientists of Jiangxi Province (Jinggang Star) under Grant No. 20122BCB23002, the Research Foundation of the Education Department of Jiangxi Province under Grant Nos. GJJ13051, GJJ13057, and the Graduate Innovation Special Fund of Nanchang University under Grant No. cx2015137

  6. Soliton dynamics in planar ferromagnets and anti-ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang-Hua; Shatah, Jalal

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a rigorous mathematical proof of the dynamical laws for the topological solitons(magnetic vortices) in ferromagnets and anti-ferromagnets. It is achieved through the conservation laws for the topological vorticity and the weak convergence methods. PMID:12958706

  7. High sensitive space electric field sensing based on micro fiber interferometer with field force driven gold nanofilm

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jingdong; Shi, Leilei

    2015-01-01

    The traditional electrical field sensing can be realized by utilizing electro-optic materials or liquid crystals, and has limitations of easy breakdown, free assembly and difficult measurement of low-frequency. Here, we propose a new method to realize safe measurement of spatial dynamic electric field by using a micro fiber interferometer integrated with gold nanofilm. The energy of the electric charge received through antenna forms the intrinsic electric field with two micro electrodes, one of which is the 120 nm gold film vibration beam micromachined by femtosecond lasers and integrated with the micro fiber. The change of the intrinsic electric field force due to the spatial electric field will cause the vibration of the film beam. By demodulating the output signal of the micro fiber interferometer, the electric field can be measured. We demonstrate the detectable frequency ranges from tens of Hz to tens of KHz, and the minimum electric field intensity is ~200 V/m at 1 KHz. Our electric field measurement technology combining optical fiber interference with gold nanostructures shows the advantages of security, high sensitivity, compact size, and multiplexed multi-point and remote detection. PMID:26507680

  8. High sensitive space electric field sensing based on micro fiber interferometer with field force driven gold nanofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jingdong; Shi, Leilei

    2015-10-01

    The traditional electrical field sensing can be realized by utilizing electro-optic materials or liquid crystals, and has limitations of easy breakdown, free assembly and difficult measurement of low-frequency. Here, we propose a new method to realize safe measurement of spatial dynamic electric field by using a micro fiber interferometer integrated with gold nanofilm. The energy of the electric charge received through antenna forms the intrinsic electric field with two micro electrodes, one of which is the 120 nm gold film vibration beam micromachined by femtosecond lasers and integrated with the micro fiber. The change of the intrinsic electric field force due to the spatial electric field will cause the vibration of the film beam. By demodulating the output signal of the micro fiber interferometer, the electric field can be measured. We demonstrate the detectable frequency ranges from tens of Hz to tens of KHz, and the minimum electric field intensity is ~200 V/m at 1 KHz. Our electric field measurement technology combining optical fiber interference with gold nanostructures shows the advantages of security, high sensitivity, compact size, and multiplexed multi-point and remote detection.

  9. Resonances of an Oscillating Conductive Pipe Driven by an Alternating Magnetic Field in the Presence of a Static Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    A short conducting pipe that hangs from a weak spring is forced to oscillate by the magnetic field of a surrounding coaxial coil that has been excited by a low-frequency current source in the presence of an additional static magnetic field. Induced oscillating currents appear in the pipe. The pipe motion becomes damped by the dragging forces…

  10. Delayed electron emission in strong-field driven tunnelling from a metallic nanotip in the multi-electron regime

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Schnepp, Sascha; Hafner, Christian; Hengsberger, Matthias; Kim, Dong Eon; Kling, Matthias F.; Landsman, Alexandra; Gallmann, Lukas; Osterwalder, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Illuminating a nano-sized metallic tip with ultrashort laser pulses leads to the emission of electrons due to multiphoton excitations. As optical fields become stronger, tunnelling emission directly from the Fermi level becomes prevalent. This can generate coherent electron waves in vacuum leading to a variety of attosecond phenomena. Working at high emission currents where multi-electron effects are significant, we were able to characterize the transition from one regime to the other. Specifically, we found that the onset of laser-driven tunnelling emission is heralded by the appearance of a peculiar delayed emission channel. In this channel, the electrons emitted via laser-driven tunnelling emission are driven back into the metal, and some of the electrons reappear in the vacuum with some delay time after undergoing inelastic scattering and cascading processes inside the metal. Our understanding of these processes gives insights on attosecond tunnelling emission from solids and should prove useful in designing new types of pulsed electron sources. PMID:27786287

  11. Toroidal rotation and radial electric field driven by the lower-hybrid-wave in a tokamak fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shaojie

    2011-10-15

    A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the counter-current rotation driven by the lower-hybrid-wave observed in the tokamak lower-hybrid-wave parallel current drive experiments. It is found that ions absorb the toroidal momentum indirectly from the wave through collisional friction with the resonant electrons that directly take the momentum from the wave through Landau resonance. This momentum coupling pumps out the ions to produce a negative radial electric field and makes the plasma rotate in the counter-current direction.

  12. Laser-driven shock experiments in pre-compressed water: Implications for magnetic field generation in Icy Giant planets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Benedetti, L R; Jeanloz, R; Celliers, P M; Eggert, J H; Hicks, D G; Moon, S J; Mackinnon, A; Henry, E; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Collins, G W

    2005-11-10

    Laser-driven shock compression of pre-compressed water (up to 1 GPa precompression) produces high-pressure, -temperature conditions in the water inducing two optical phenomena: opacity and reflectivity in the initially transparent water. The onset of reflectivity at infrared wavelengths can be interpreted as a semi-conductor to electronic conductor transition in water and is found at pressures above {approx}130 GPa for single-shocked samples pre-compressed to 1 GPa. This electronic conduction provides an additional contribution to the conductivity required for magnetic field generation in Icy Giant planets like Uranus and Neptune.

  13. EFFECT OF BACKGROUND MAGNETIC FIELD ON TURBULENCE DRIVEN BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Sai, Kazuhito; Katoh, Yuto; Terada, Naoki; Ono, Takayuki E-mail: yuto@stpp.gp.tohoku.ac.jp E-mail: ono@stpp.gp.tohoku.ac.jp

    2013-04-20

    We investigate the background magnetic field dependence of the saturated state of a magnetorotational instability (MRI) in an accretion disk by performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We assume an unstratified disk by employing the local shearing box approximation. Three different uniform background magnetic field configurations are treated for a wide range of field intensities. These simulations indicate that the time variations of the turbulent stress and the magnetic energy are altered by the presence of a poloidal component of the background field. We find that the saturation amplitude of the turbulent stress and the magnetic energy are determined by both the poloidal and azimuthal components of the field. In particular, when the poloidal component has the same intensity, the obtained turbulent stress for {beta}{sub y0} Almost-Equal-To 200 becomes smaller than those for a purely poloidal field case. Despite the fact that the background field affects the MRI turbulence, the correlation between the obtained turbulent stress and the magnetic energy in the nonlinear stage is independent of the field topology. Our results indicate that the saturated turbulent stress has a stronger correlation with the power of the perturbed component of the magnetic field than with the power of the total magnetic field. These results suggest that both the intensity and the direction of the background magnetic field significantly affect the turbulent motion of the MRI in accretion disks.

  14. Effect of Background Magnetic Field on Turbulence Driven by Magnetorotational Instability in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Kazuhito; Katoh, Yuto; Terada, Naoki; Ono, Takayuki

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the background magnetic field dependence of the saturated state of a magnetorotational instability (MRI) in an accretion disk by performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We assume an unstratified disk by employing the local shearing box approximation. Three different uniform background magnetic field configurations are treated for a wide range of field intensities. These simulations indicate that the time variations of the turbulent stress and the magnetic energy are altered by the presence of a poloidal component of the background field. We find that the saturation amplitude of the turbulent stress and the magnetic energy are determined by both the poloidal and azimuthal components of the field. In particular, when the poloidal component has the same intensity, the obtained turbulent stress for β y0 ≈ 200 becomes smaller than those for a purely poloidal field case. Despite the fact that the background field affects the MRI turbulence, the correlation between the obtained turbulent stress and the magnetic energy in the nonlinear stage is independent of the field topology. Our results indicate that the saturated turbulent stress has a stronger correlation with the power of the perturbed component of the magnetic field than with the power of the total magnetic field. These results suggest that both the intensity and the direction of the background magnetic field significantly affect the turbulent motion of the MRI in accretion disks.

  15. A high performing brain-machine interface driven by low-frequency local field potentials alone and together with spikes

    PubMed Central

    Stavisky, Sergey D.; Kao, Jonathan C.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) seek to enable people with movement disabilities to directly control prosthetic systems with their neural activity. Current high performance BMIs are driven by action potentials (spikes), but access to this signal often diminishes as sensors degrade over time. Decoding local field potentials (LFPs) as an alternative or complementary BMI control signal may improve performance when there is a paucity of spike signals. To date only a small handful of LFP decoding methods have been tested online; there remains a need to test different LFP decoding approaches and improve LFP-driven performance. There has also not been a reported demonstration of a hybrid BMI that decodes kinematics from both LFP and spikes. Here we first evaluate a BMI driven by the local motor potential (LMP), a low-pass filtered time-domain LFP amplitude feature. We then combine decoding of both LMP and spikes to implement a hybrid BMI. Approach Spikes and LFP were recorded from two macaques implanted with multielectrode arrays in primary and premotor cortex while they performed a reaching task. We then evaluated closed-loop BMI control using biomimetic decoders driven by LMP, spikes, or both signals together. Main Results LMP decoding enabled quick and accurate cursor control which surpassed previously reported LFP BMI performance. Hybrid decoding of both spikes and LMP improved performance when spikes signal quality was mediocre to poor. Significance These findings show that LMP is an effective BMI control signal which requires minimal power to extract and can substitute for or augment impoverished spikes signals. Use of this signal may lengthen the useful lifespan of BMIs and is therefore an important step towards clinically viable BMIs. PMID:25946198

  16. A high performing brain-machine interface driven by low-frequency local field potentials alone and together with spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavisky, Sergey D.; Kao, Jonathan C.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) seek to enable people with movement disabilities to directly control prosthetic systems with their neural activity. Current high performance BMIs are driven by action potentials (spikes), but access to this signal often diminishes as sensors degrade over time. Decoding local field potentials (LFPs) as an alternative or complementary BMI control signal may improve performance when there is a paucity of spike signals. To date only a small handful of LFP decoding methods have been tested online; there remains a need to test different LFP decoding approaches and improve LFP-driven performance. There has also not been a reported demonstration of a hybrid BMI that decodes kinematics from both LFP and spikes. Here we first evaluate a BMI driven by the local motor potential (LMP), a low-pass filtered time-domain LFP amplitude feature. We then combine decoding of both LMP and spikes to implement a hybrid BMI. Approach. Spikes and LFP were recorded from two macaques implanted with multielectrode arrays in primary and premotor cortex while they performed a reaching task. We then evaluated closed-loop BMI control using biomimetic decoders driven by LMP, spikes, or both signals together. Main results. LMP decoding enabled quick and accurate cursor control which surpassed previously reported LFP BMI performance. Hybrid decoding of both spikes and LMP improved performance when spikes signal quality was mediocre to poor. Significance. These findings show that LMP is an effective BMI control signal which requires minimal power to extract and can substitute for or augment impoverished spikes signals. Use of this signal may lengthen the useful lifespan of BMIs and is therefore an important step towards clinically viable BMIs.

  17. Spin orbit torque driven magnetic switching for low power computing and memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Debanjan

    demonstrations of nanomagnetic logic needed an external magnetic field, the generation of which needed a large amount of current rendering such logic scheme uncompetitive compared to its CMOS counterpart. Here we show that spin orbit torque eliminates the need of an external magnetic field for nanomagnetic logic and hence spin orbit torque driven nanomagnetic logic consumes 100 times lower current than magnetic field driven nanomagnetic logic at room temperature. Though we can demonstrate magnetic logic with spin orbit torque in the absence of the magnetic field, spin orbit torque driven deterministic switching of a perpendicular magnet from up to down and down to up still needs the application of an external magnetic field unless the symmetry of the system is broken. This renders such switching scheme not very useful for real memory devices. In the third part of the thesis, we show through micromagnetic simulations that if the magnet has a wedge shape, the symmetry of the system is broken and the magnet can be deterministically switched from up to down and down to up even in the absence of an external magnetic field. Our simulations are supported by recent experiments, performed in our group. In the last part, we show how a bilayer of two heavy metals (Ta and Pt) can be used to increase the spin orbit torque efficiency. Interfaces of ferromagnet with Ta and that of ferromagnet with Pt exhibit spin orbit torques in opposite directions, so it is expected that their effects will cancel. Instead, in our experiments we find that the spin orbit torque efficiency at the Ta/CoFeB interface increases if a Pt layer exists under the Ta layer. Modeling of the system based on conventional spin transport physics cannot explain this result.

  18. Phase transition of nanotube-confined water driven by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhaoming; Luo, Yin; Ma, Jianpeng; Wei, Guanghong

    2011-04-01

    The effects of electric field on the phase behaviors of water encapsulated in a thick single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) (diameter = 1.2 nm) have been studied by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations at atmospheric pressure. We found that liquid water can freeze continuously into either pentagonal or helical solidlike ice nanotube in SWCNT, depending on the strengths of the external electric field applied along the tube axis. Remarkably, the helical one is new ice phase which was not observed previously in the same size of SWCNT in the absence of electric field. Furthermore, a discontinuous solid-solid phase transition is observed between pentagonal and helical ice nanotubes as the strengths of the external electric field changes. The mechanism of electric-field-induced phase transition is discussed. The dependence of ice structures on the chiralities of SWCNTs is also investigated. Finally, we present a phase diagram of confined water in the electric field-temperature plane.

  19. Intrinsic synchronization of an array of spin-torque oscillators driven by the spin-Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Siracusano, G. Puliafito, V.; Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G.; Tomasello, R.; La Corte, A.; Carpentieri, M.

    2015-05-07

    This paper micromagnetically studies the magnetization dynamics driven by the spin-Hall effect in a Platinum/Permalloy bi-layer. For a certain field and current range, the excitation of a uniform mode, characterized by a power with a spatial distribution in the whole ferromagnetic cross section, is observed. We suggest to use the ferromagnet of the bi-layer as basis for the realization of an array of spin-torque oscillators (STOs): the Permalloy ferromagnet will act as shared free layer, whereas the spacers and the polarizers are built on top of it. Following this strategy, the frequency of the uniform mode will be the same for the whole device, creating an intrinsic synchronization. The synchronization of an array of parallely connected STOs will allow to increase the output power, as necessary for technological applications.

  20. Quantifying vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions driven by symmetric and asymmetric multiaxial fields.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle Jameson

    2015-08-07

    We recently reported two methods of inducing vigorous fluid vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions. The first method employs symmetry-breaking rational fields. These fields are comprised of two orthogonal ac components whose frequencies form a rational number and an orthogonal dc field that breaks the symmetry of the biaxial ac field to create the parity required to induce deterministic vorticity. The second method is based on rational triads, which are fields comprised of three orthogonal ac components whose frequency ratios are rational (e.g., 1 : 2 : 3). For each method a symmetry theory has been developed that enables the predictionmore » of the direction and sign of vorticity as functions of the field frequencies and phases. However, this theory has its limitations. It only applies to those particular phase angles that give rise to fields whose Lissajous plots, or principal 2-d projections thereof, have a high degree of symmetry. Nor can symmetry theory provide a measure of the magnitude of the torque density induced by the field. In this paper a functional of the multiaxial magnetic field is proposed that not only is consistent with all of the predictions of the symmetry theories, but also quantifies the torque density. This functional can be applied to fields whose Lissajous plots lack symmetry and can thus be used to predict a variety of effects and trends that cannot be predicted from the symmetry theories. These trends include the dependence of the magnitude of the torque density on the various frequency ratios, the unexpected reversal of flow with increasing dc field amplitude for certain symmetry-breaking fields, and the existence of off-axis vorticity for rational triads, such as 1 : 3 : 5, that do not have the symmetry required to analyze by symmetry theory. As a result, experimental data are given that show the degree to which this functional is successful in predicting observed trends.« less

  1. Quantifying vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions driven by symmetric and asymmetric multiaxial fields.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle Jameson

    2015-08-07

    We recently reported two methods of inducing vigorous fluid vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions. The first method employs symmetry-breaking rational fields. These fields are comprised of two orthogonal ac components whose frequencies form a rational number and an orthogonal dc field that breaks the symmetry of the biaxial ac field to create the parity required to induce deterministic vorticity. The second method is based on rational triads, which are fields comprised of three orthogonal ac components whose frequency ratios are rational (e.g., 1 : 2 : 3). For each method a symmetry theory has been developed that enables the prediction of the direction and sign of vorticity as functions of the field frequencies and phases. However, this theory has its limitations. It only applies to those particular phase angles that give rise to fields whose Lissajous plots, or principal 2-d projections thereof, have a high degree of symmetry. Nor can symmetry theory provide a measure of the magnitude of the torque density induced by the field. In this paper a functional of the multiaxial magnetic field is proposed that not only is consistent with all of the predictions of the symmetry theories, but also quantifies the torque density. This functional can be applied to fields whose Lissajous plots lack symmetry and can thus be used to predict a variety of effects and trends that cannot be predicted from the symmetry theories. These trends include the dependence of the magnitude of the torque density on the various frequency ratios, the unexpected reversal of flow with increasing dc field amplitude for certain symmetry-breaking fields, and the existence of off-axis vorticity for rational triads, such as 1 : 3 : 5, that do not have the symmetry required to analyze by symmetry theory. As a result, experimental data are given that show the degree to which this functional is successful in predicting observed trends.

  2. Terahertz detection of magnetic field-driven topological phase transition in HgTe-based transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kadykov, A. M.; Teppe, F. Consejo, C.; Ruffenach, S.; Marcinkiewicz, M.; Desrat, W.; Dyakonova, N.; Knap, W.; Viti, L.; Vitiello, M. S.; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Morozov, S. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2015-10-12

    We report on terahertz photoconductivity under magnetic field up to 16 T of field effect transistor based on HgTe quantum well (QW) with an inverted band structure. We observe pronounced cyclotron resonance and Shubnikov-de Haas-like oscillations, indicating a high mobility electron gas in the transistor channel. We discover that nonlinearity of the transistor channel allows for observation of characteristic features in photoconductivity at critical magnetic field corresponding to the phase transition between topological quantum spin Hall and trivial quantum Hall states in HgTe QW. Our results pave the way towards terahertz topological field effect transistors.

  3. Fast magnetic field annihilation driven by two laser pulses in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Y. J.; Kumar, D.; Weber, S.; Korn, G.; Klimo, O.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.

    2015-10-15

    Fast magnetic annihilation is investigated by using 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of two parallel ultra-short petawatt laser pulses co-propagating in underdense plasma. The magnetic field generated by the laser pulses annihilates in a current sheet formed between the pulses. Magnetic field energy is converted to an inductive longitudinal electric field, which efficiently accelerates the electrons of the current sheet. This new regime of collisionless relativistic magnetic field annihilation with a timescale of tens of femtoseconds can be extended to near-critical and overdense plasma with the ultra-high intensity femtosecond laser pulses.

  4. Emergent vortices at a ferromagnetic superconducting oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, A. P.; Paré, A.; Paudel, T. R.; Lee, K.; Holmes, S.; Barnes, C. H. W.; David, A.; Wu, T.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Panagopoulos, C.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the cohabitation arrangements of ferromagnetism and superconductivity at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface remains an open challenge. Probing this coexistence with sub-Kelvin magnetotransport experiments, we demonstrate that a hysteretic in-plane magnetoresistance develops below the superconducting transition for ≤ft| {{H}//} \\right| \\lt 0.15 T, independently of the carrier density or oxygen annealing. This hysteresis is argued to arise from vortex depinning within a thin (\\lt 20 nm) superconducting layer, mediated by discrete ferromagnetic dipoles located solely above the layer. The pinning strength may be modified by varying the superconducting channel thickness via electric field-effect doping. No evidence is found for bulk magnetism or finite-momentum pairing, and we conclude that ferromagnetism is strictly confined to the interface, where it competes with superconductivity. Our work indicates that oxide interfaces are ideal candidate materials for the growth and analysis of nanoscale superconductor/ferromagnet hybrids.

  5. Ferromagnetism and strong magnetic anisotropy of the PbMnBO4 orthoborate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankrats, A.; Sablina, K.; Eremin, M.; Balaev, A.; Kolkov, M.; Tugarinov, V.; Bovina, A.

    2016-09-01

    The PbMnBO4 orthoborate single crystals were first grown and their magnetic properties and ferromagnetic resonance were studied. It was found that the ferromagnetic state below the Curie temperature TC=31 K is characterized by the strong magnetic anisotropy. The significant effective anisotropy fields of PbMnBO4 determine the energy gap in the FMR spectrum, which is extraordinary large for ferromagnets (112 GHz at T=4.2 K). It was shown that the static Jahn-Teller effect characteristic of the Mn3+ ion leads to both the ferromagnetic ordering and the strong magnetic anisotropy in the crystal. In the strong external magnetic field the induced ferromagnetic ordering is retained in the crystal above the Curie temperature up to the temperatures multiply higher than TC. A weak anomaly of the dielectric permittivity was observed in PbMnBO4 at the Curie temperature at which the long-range ferromagnetic order is established.

  6. Electric-field-driven magnetization switching and nonlinear magnetoelasticity in Au/FeCo/MgO heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Ong, P. V.; Kioussis, Nicholas; Amiri, P. Khalili; Wang, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-induced switching of magnetization, as opposed to current-driven spin transfer torque switching, can lead to a new paradigm enabling ultralow-power and high density instant-on nonvolatile magnetoelectric random access memory (MeRAM). To date, however, a major bottleneck in optimizing the performance of MeRAM devices is the low voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) efficiency (change of interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy per unit electric field) leading in turn to high switching energy and write voltage. In this work, employing ab initio electronic structure calculations, we show that epitaxial strain, which is ubiquitous in MeRAM heterostructures, gives rise to a rich variety of VCMA behavior with giant VCMA coefficient (~1800 fJ V−1m−1) in Au/FeCo/MgO junction. The heterostructure also exhibits a strain-induced spin-reorientation induced by a nonlinear magnetoelastic coupling. The results demonstrate that the VCMA behavior is universal and robust in magnetic junctions with heavy metal caps across the 5d transition metals and that an electric-field-driven magnetic switching at low voltage is achievable by design. These findings open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering to harvest higher efficiency VCMA for the next generation MeRAM devices. PMID:27424885

  7. Electric-field-driven magnetization switching and nonlinear magnetoelasticity in Au/FeCo/MgO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, P. V.; Kioussis, Nicholas; Amiri, P. Khalili; Wang, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    Voltage-induced switching of magnetization, as opposed to current-driven spin transfer torque switching, can lead to a new paradigm enabling ultralow-power and high density instant-on nonvolatile magnetoelectric random access memory (MeRAM). To date, however, a major bottleneck in optimizing the performance of MeRAM devices is the low voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) efficiency (change of interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy per unit electric field) leading in turn to high switching energy and write voltage. In this work, employing ab initio electronic structure calculations, we show that epitaxial strain, which is ubiquitous in MeRAM heterostructures, gives rise to a rich variety of VCMA behavior with giant VCMA coefficient (~1800 fJ V‑1m‑1) in Au/FeCo/MgO junction. The heterostructure also exhibits a strain-induced spin-reorientation induced by a nonlinear magnetoelastic coupling. The results demonstrate that the VCMA behavior is universal and robust in magnetic junctions with heavy metal caps across the 5d transition metals and that an electric-field-driven magnetic switching at low voltage is achievable by design. These findings open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering to harvest higher efficiency VCMA for the next generation MeRAM devices.

  8. Beyond mean-field bistability in driven-dissipative lattices: Bunching-antibunching transition and quantum simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Clark, S. R.; Felicetti, S.; Romero, G.; Solano, E.; Angelakis, D. G.; Jaksch, D.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work we investigate the existence of multiple nonequilibrium steady states in a coherently driven X Y lattice of dissipative two-level systems. A commonly used mean-field ansatz, in which spatial correlations are neglected, predicts a bistable behavior with a sharp shift between low- and high-density states. In contrast one-dimensional matrix product methods reveal these effects to be artifacts of the mean-field approach, with both disappearing once correlations are taken fully into account. Instead, a bunching-antibunching transition emerges. This indicates that alternative approaches should be considered for higher spatial dimensions, where classical simulations are currently infeasible. Thus we propose a circuit QED quantum simulator implementable with current technology to enable an experimental investigation of the model considered.

  9. Research to practice in addiction treatment: key terms and a field-driven model of technology transfer.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The transfer of new technologies (e.g., evidence-based practices) into substance abuse treatment organizations often occurs long after they have been developed and shown to be effective. Transfer is slowed, in part, due to a lack of clear understanding about all that is needed to achieve full implementation of these technologies. Such misunderstanding is exacerbated by inconsistent terminology and overlapping models of an innovation, including its development and validation, dissemination to the public, and implementation or use in the field. For this reason, a workgroup of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network developed a field-driven conceptual model of the innovation process that more precisely defines relevant terms and concepts and integrates them into a comprehensive taxonomy. The proposed definitions and conceptual framework will allow for improved understanding and consensus regarding the distinct meaning and conceptual relationships between dimensions of the technology transfer process and accelerate the use of evidence-based practices.

  10. Phase field study of interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liang; Russell, Alan

    2014-03-28

    The phase field approach is a powerful computational technique to simulate morphological and microstructural evolution at the mesoscale. Spheroidization is a frequently observed morphological change of mesoscale heterogeneous structures during annealing. In this study, we used the diffuse interface phase field method to investigate the interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization of cylindrical rod structures in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases in a two-dimensional case. Perturbation of rod radius along a cylinder's axis has long been known to cause the necessary chemical potential gradient that drives spheroidization of the rod by Lord Rayleigh's instability theory. This theory indicates that a radius perturbation wavelength larger than the initial rod circumference would lead to cylindrical spheroidization. We investigated the effect of perturbation wavelength, interfacial energy, volume diffusion, phase composition, and interfacial percentage on the kinetics of spheroidization. The results match well with both the Rayleigh's instability criterion and experimental observations.

  11. Phase field study of interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization in a composite comprized of two mutually insoluble phases

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Liang; Russell, Alan

    2014-03-27

    The phase field approach is a powerful computational technique to simulate morphological and microstructural evolution at the mesoscale. Spheroidization is a frequently observed morphological change of mesoscale heterogeneous structures during annealing. In this study, we used the diffuse interface phase field method to investigate the interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization of cylindrical rod structures in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases in a two-dimensional case. Perturbation of rod radius along a cylinder's axis has long been known to cause the necessary chemical potential gradient that drives spheroidization of the rod by Lord Rayleigh's instability theory. This theory indicates that a radius perturbation wavelength larger than the initial rod circumference would lead to cylindrical spheroidization. We investigated the effect of perturbation wavelength, interfacial energy, volume diffusion, phase composition, and interfacial percentage on the kinetics of spheroidization. The results match well with both the Rayleigh's instability criterion and experimental observations.

  12. Accelerated ions from pulsed-power-driven fast plasma flow in perpendicular magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takezaki, Taichi; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Harada, Nob.

    2016-06-01

    To understand the interaction between fast plasma flow and perpendicular magnetic field, we have investigated the behavior of a one-dimensional fast plasma flow in a perpendicular magnetic field by a laboratory-scale experiment using a pulsed-power discharge. The velocity of the plasma flow generated by a tapered cone plasma focus device is about 30 km/s, and the magnetic Reynolds number is estimated to be 8.8. After flow through the perpendicular magnetic field, the accelerated ions are measured by an ion collector. To clarify the behavior of the accelerated ions and the electromagnetic fields, numerical simulations based on an electromagnetic hybrid particle-in-cell method have been carried out. The results show that the behavior of the accelerated ions corresponds qualitatively to the experimental results. Faster ions in the plasma flow are accelerated by the induced electromagnetic fields modulated with the plasma flow.

  13. ``Avalanches'' in the ground state of the 3D Gaussian random field Ising model driven by an external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontera, Carlos; Vives, Eduard

    2002-08-01

    We present a numerical study of the exact ground states of the 3D Gaussian random field Ising model (G-RFIM) with an applied external field B. We combine a max-flow min-cut algorithm with an optimal procedure for determining all the ground states when B is swept from -∞ to ∞. The magnetization of finite lattices ( L3) is studied as a function of the degree of disorder in the system σ (standard deviation of the Gaussian random fields). The magnetization evolves as a sequence of jumps or "avalanches" with a certain size s. The statistical distribution p( s) becomes a power law p( s)˜ s- τ for a certain degree of disorder σc( L). The extrapolation of the results to L→∞ renders σc≃2.4±0.1 and τ≃1.70±0.07.

  14. Nematic-field-driven positioning of particles in liquid crystal droplets.

    PubMed

    Whitmer, Jonathan K; Wang, Xiaoguang; Mondiot, Frederic; Miller, Daniel S; Abbott, Nicholas L; de Pablo, Juan J

    2013-11-27

    Common nematic oils, such as 5CB, experience planar anchoring at aqueous interfaces. When these oils are emulsified, this anchoring preference and the resulting topological constraints lead to the formation of droplets that exhibit one or two point defects within the nematic phase. Here, we explore the interactions of adsorbed particles at the aqueous interface through a combination of experiments and coarse-grained modeling, and demonstrate that surface-active particles, driven by elastic forces in the droplet, readily localize to these defect regions in a programmable manner. When droplets include two nanoparticles, these preferentially segregate to the two poles, thereby forming highly regular dipolar structures that could serve for hierarchical assembly of functional structures. Addition of sufficient concentrations of surfactant changes the interior morphology of the droplet, but pins defects to the interface, resulting in aggregation of the two particles.

  15. Nematic-Field Driven Positioning of Particles in Liquid Crystal Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Wang, Xiaoguang; Mondiot, Frederic; Miller, Daniel S.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Common nematic oils, such as 5CB, experience planar anchoring at aqueous interfaces. When these oils are emulsified, this anchoring preference and the resulting topological constraints lead to formation of droplets that exhibit one or two point defects within the nematic phase. Here, we explore the interactions of adsorbed particles at the aqueous interface through a combination of experiments and coarse-grained modeling, and demonstrate that surface-active particles, driven by elastic forces in the droplet, readily localize to these defect regions in a programmable manner. When droplets include two nanoparticles, these preferentially segregate to the two poles, thereby forming highly regular dipolar structures that could serve for hierarchical assembly of functional structures. Addition of sufficient concentrations of surfactant changes the interior morphology of the droplet, but pins defects to the interface, resulting in aggregation of the two particles. PMID:24329470

  16. Tunable Magnon Weyl Points in Ferromagnetic Pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid

    2016-10-01

    The dispersion relations of magnons in ferromagnetic pyrochlores with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction are shown to possess Weyl points, i. e., pairs of topologically nontrivial crossings of two magnon branches with opposite topological charge. As a consequence of their topological nature, their projections onto a surface are connected by magnon arcs, thereby resembling closely Fermi arcs of electronic Weyl semimetals. On top of this, the positions of the Weyl points in reciprocal space can be tuned widely by an external magnetic field: rotated within the surface plane, the Weyl points and magnon arcs are rotated as well; tilting the magnetic field out of plane shifts the Weyl points toward the center Γ ¯ of the surface Brillouin zone. The theory is valid for the class of ferromagnetic pyrochlores, i. e., three-dimensional extensions of topological magnon insulators on kagome lattices. In this Letter, we focus on the (111) surface, identify candidates of established ferromagnetic pyrochlores which apply to the considered spin model, and suggest experiments for the detection of the topological features.

  17. Magnetoresistance from quantum interference effects in ferromagnets

    PubMed

    Manyala; Sidis; DiTusa; Aeppli; Young; Fisk

    2000-04-01

    The desire to maximize the sensitivity of read/write heads (and thus the information density) of magnetic storage devices has stimulated interest in the discovery and design of new magnetic materials exhibiting magnetoresistance. Recent discoveries include the 'colossal' magnetoresistance in the manganites and the enhanced magnetoresistance in low-carrier-density ferromagnets. An important feature of these systems is that the electrons involved in electrical conduction are different from those responsible for the magnetism. The latter are localized and act as scattering sites for the mobile electrons, and it is the field tuning of the scattering strength that ultimately gives rise to the observed magnetoresistance. Here we argue that magnetoresistance can arise by a different mechanism in certain ferromagnets--quantum interference effects rather than simple scattering. The ferromagnets in question are disordered, low-carrier-density magnets where the same electrons are responsible for both the magnetic properties and electrical conduction. The resulting magnetoresistance is positive (that is, the resistance increases in response to an applied magnetic field) and only weakly temperature-dependent below the Curie point.

  18. Magnetic Control of Solutal Buoyancy Driven Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F. W.

    2003-01-01

    Volumetric forces resulting from local density variations and gravitational acceleration cause buoyancy induced convective motion in melts and solutions. Solutal buoyancy is a result of concentration differences in an otherwise isothermal fluid. If the fluid also exhibits variations in magnetic susceptibility with concentration then convection control by external magnetic fields can be hypothesized. Magnetic control of thermal buoyancy induced convection in ferrofluids (dispersions of ferromagnetic particles in a carrier fluid) and paramagnetic fluids have been demonstrated. Here we show the nature of magnetic control of solutal buoyancy driven convection of a paramagnetic fluid, an aqueous solution of Manganese Chloride hydrate. We predict the critical magnetic field required for balancing gravitational solutal buoyancy driven convection and validate it through a simple experiment. We demonstrate that gravity driven flow can be completely reversed by a magnetic field but the exact cancellation of the flow is not possible. This is because the phenomenon is unstable. The technique can be applied to crystal growth processes in order to reduce convection and to heat exchanger devices for enhancing convection. The method can also be applied to impose a desired g-level in reduced gravity applications.

  19. An evidence for prompt electric field disturbance driven by changes in the solar wind density under northward IMF Bz condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Diptiranjan; Chakrabarty, D.; Sekar, R.; Reeves, G. D.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Pant, Tarun K.; Veenadhari, B.; Shiokawa, K.

    2016-05-01

    Before the onset of a geomagnetic storm on 22 January 2012 (Ap = 24), an enhancement in solar wind number density from 10/cm3 to 22/cm3 during 0440-0510 UT under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz) condition is shown to have enhanced the high-latitude ionospheric convection and also caused variations in the geomagnetic field globally. Conspicuous changes in ΔX are observed not only at longitudinally separated low-latitude stations over Indian (prenoon), South American (midnight), Japanese (afternoon), Pacific (afternoon) and African (morning) sectors but also at latitudinally separated stations located over high and middle latitudes. The latitudinal variation of the amplitude of the ΔX during 0440-0510 UT is shown to be consistent with the characteristics of prompt penetration electric field disturbances. Most importantly, the density pulse event caused enhancements in the equatorial electrojet strength and the peak height of the F layer (hmF2) over the Indian dip equatorial sector. Further, the concomitant enhancements in electrojet current and F layer movement over the dip equator observed during this space weather event suggest a common driver of prompt electric field disturbance at this time. Such simultaneous variations are found to be absent during magnetically quiet days. In absence of significant change in solar wind velocity and magnetospheric substorm activity, these observations point toward perceptible prompt electric field disturbance over the dip equator driven by the overcompression of the magnetosphere by solar wind density enhancement.

  20. Phonon-mediated squeezing of the cavity field off-resonantly coupled with a coherently driven quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jia-pei; Huang, Hui; Li, Gao-xiang

    2014-01-21

    We theoretically propose a scheme for the quadrature squeezing of the cavity field via dissipative processes. The effects of the electron-phonon interaction (EPI) on the squeezing are investigated, where the cavity is off-resonantly coupled with a coherently driven quantum dot (QD) which is allowed to interact with an acoustic-phonon reservoir. Under certain conditions, the participation of the phonon induced by both the EPI and the off-resonant coupling of the cavity with the QD enables some dissipative processes to occur resonantly in the dressed-state basis of the QD. The cavity-mode photons emitted or absorbed during the phonon-mediated dissipative processes are correlated, thus leading to the squeezing of the cavity field. A squeezed vacuum reservoir for the cavity field is built up due to the EPI plus the off-resonant coupling between the cavity and the QD. The numerical results obtained with an effective polaron master equation derived using second-order perturbation theory indicate that, in low temperature limit, the degree of squeezing is maximal but the increasing temperature of the phonon reservoir could hinder the squeezing and degrade the degree of the squeezing of the cavity field. In addition, the presence of the photonic crystal could enhance the quadrature squeezing of the cavity field.