Science.gov

Sample records for field epidemiology training

  1. Four years into the Indian ocean field epidemiology training programme

    PubMed Central

    Halm, Ariane; Seyler, Thomas; Mohamed, Sainda; Ali Mbaé, Saindou Ben; Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugène; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Nundlall, Ram; Aboobakar, Shahina; Bibi, Jastin; Filleul, Laurent; Piola, Patrice; Razafimandimby, Harimahefa; Rasamoelina, Harena; Valenciano, Marta; Moren, Alain; Cardinale, Eric; Lepec, Richard; Flachet, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Following the 2005-6 chikungunya outbreak, a project to strengthen regional Public Health preparedness in the Indian Ocean was implemented. It includes the Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France) and Seychelles. A Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP-OI) was started in 2011 to develop a pool of well-trained intervention epidemiologists. Methods The FETP-OI consists of two years of supervised, learning-by-doing, on-the-job training at national sites involved in disease surveillance and response. It includes work placements at the Madagascar Pasteur Institute and the French regional epidemiology unit in Reunion and up to three training courses per year. Training objectives include epidemiological surveillance, outbreak investigations, research studies, scientific communication and transfer of competencies. Results In four years, two cohorts of in total 15 fellows originating from four countries followed the FETP-OI. They led 42 surveillance projects (71% routine management, 14% evaluations, 12% setup, 3% other) and investigated 36 outbreak alerts, 58% of them in Madagascar; most investigations (72%) concerned foodborne pathogens, plague or malaria. Fellows performed 18 studies (44% descriptive analyses, 22% disease risk factors, and 34% on other subjects), and presented results during regional and international conferences through 26 oral and 15 poster presentations. Four articles were published in regional Public Health bulletins and several scientific manuscripts are in process. Conclusion The FETP-OI has created a regional force of intervention consisting of field epidemiologists and trained supervisors using the same technical language and epidemiological methods. The third cohort is now ongoing. Technically and financially sustainable FETP-OI projects help addressing public health priorities of the Indian Ocean. PMID:28674588

  2. Four years into the Indian ocean field epidemiology training programme.

    PubMed

    Halm, Ariane; Seyler, Thomas; Mohamed, Sainda; Ali Mbaé, Saindou Ben; Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugène; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Nundlall, Ram; Aboobakar, Shahina; Bibi, Jastin; Filleul, Laurent; Piola, Patrice; Razafimandimby, Harimahefa; Rasamoelina, Harena; Valenciano, Marta; Moren, Alain; Cardinale, Eric; Lepec, Richard; Flachet, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Following the 2005-6 chikungunya outbreak, a project to strengthen regional Public Health preparedness in the Indian Ocean was implemented. It includes the Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France) and Seychelles. A Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP-OI) was started in 2011 to develop a pool of well-trained intervention epidemiologists. The FETP-OI consists of two years of supervised, learning-by-doing, on-the-job training at national sites involved in disease surveillance and response. It includes work placements at the Madagascar Pasteur Institute and the French regional epidemiology unit in Reunion and up to three training courses per year. Training objectives include epidemiological surveillance, outbreak investigations, research studies, scientific communication and transfer of competencies. In four years, two cohorts of in total 15 fellows originating from four countries followed the FETP-OI. They led 42 surveillance projects (71% routine management, 14% evaluations, 12% setup, 3% other) and investigated 36 outbreak alerts, 58% of them in Madagascar; most investigations (72%) concerned foodborne pathogens, plague or malaria. Fellows performed 18 studies (44% descriptive analyses, 22% disease risk factors, and 34% on other subjects), and presented results during regional and international conferences through 26 oral and 15 poster presentations. Four articles were published in regional Public Health bulletins and several scientific manuscripts are in process. The FETP-OI has created a regional force of intervention consisting of field epidemiologists and trained supervisors using the same technical language and epidemiological methods. The third cohort is now ongoing. Technically and financially sustainable FETP-OI projects help addressing public health priorities of the Indian Ocean.

  3. Training and service in public health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  4. Training and Service in Public Health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  5. The Rwanda Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: training skilled disease detectives.

    PubMed

    Ntahobakurira, Isaac; Antara, Simon; Galgalo, Tura Boru; Kakoma, Jean Baptiste; Karema, Corine; Nyatanyi, Thierry; Theogene, Rutagwenda; Mukabayire, Odette; Lowrance, David; Raghunathan, Pratima; Ayebazibwe, Nicholas; Mukanga, David; Nsubuga, Peter; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Rwanda still suffers from communicable diseases which frequently lead to epidemics. In addition to other health workforce needs, Rwanda also lacks a public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems at the national and sub-national levels.In 2009 and 2010 the Rwanda Ministry of Health and its partners from the Government of Rwanda (GOR) as well as the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the African Field Epidemiology Network, and other partners embarked on a series of activities to develop a public health workforce that would be trained to operate disease surveillance and response systems at the national and district levels. The Rwanda Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (RFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership development training program that provides applied epidemiology and public health laboratory training while the trainees provide public health service to the Ministry of Health. RFELTP is hosted at the National University of Rwanda School of Public Health for the didactic training. RFELTP is funded by GOR, the US Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the World Bank; it is managed by a multi-sectoral steering committee headed by the Minister of Health. The first RFELTP cohort has 15 residents who were recruited from key health programs in GOR. Over the first year of implementation, these 15 residents have conducted a variety of field investigations and responded to several outbreaks. RFELTP has also trained 145 frontline health workers through its two-week applied short courses. In the future, RFELTP plans to develop a veterinary track to address public health issues at the animal-human interface.

  6. The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and transforming the public health workforce

    PubMed Central

    Mmbuji, Peter; Mukanga, David; Mghamba, Janeth; Ahly, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Azima, Simba; Senga, Sembuche; Moshiro, Candida; Semali, Innocent; Rolle, Italia; Wiktor, Stefan; McQueen, Suzzane; McElroy, Peter; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (TFELTP) was established in 2008 as a partnership among the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, National Institute for Medical Research, and local and international partners. TFELTP was established to strengthen the capacity of MOHSW to conduct public health surveillance and response, manage national disease control and prevention programs, and to enhance public health laboratory support for surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and disease monitoring. TFELTP is a 2-year full-time training program with approximately 25% time spent in class, and 75% in the field. TFELTP offers two tracks leading to an MSc degree in either Applied Epidemiology or, Epidemiology and Laboratory Management. Since 2008, the program has enrolled a total of 33 trainees (23 males, 10 females). Of these, 11 were enrolled in 2008 and 100% graduated in 2010. All 11 graduates of cohort 1 are currently employed in public health positions within the country. Demand for the program as measured by the number of applicants has grown from 28 in 2008 to 56 in 2011. While training the public health leaders of the country, TFELTP has also provided essential service to the country in responding to high-profile disease outbreaks, and evaluating and improving its public health surveillance systems and diseases control programs. TFELTP was involved in the country assessment of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) core capabilities, development of the Tanzania IHR plan, and incorporation of IHR into the revised Tanzania Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines. TFELTP is training a competent core group of public health leaders for Tanzania, as well as providing much needed service to the MOHSW in the areas of routine surveillance, outbreak detection and response, and disease program management. However, the immediate challenges that the program must

  7. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development.

    PubMed

    López, Augusto; Cáceres, Victor M

    2008-12-16

    The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.

  8. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development

    PubMed Central

    López, Augusto; Cáceres, Victor M

    2008-01-01

    The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development. PMID:19087253

  9. Public health laboratory systems development in East Africa through training in laboratory management and field epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Mosha, Fausta; Oundo, Joseph; Mukanga, David; Njenga, Kariuki; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Laboratories are integral to the delivery of quality health care and for public health functions; however laboratory systems and services are often neglected in resource-poor settings such as the East African region. In order to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in resource-poor countries, there is a need to train laboratory personnel to work in clinical as well as public health laboratories. In 2004,Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan began training public health laboratory workers jointly with field epidemiologists in the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), and later through the Tanzania FELTP, as a strategy to strengthen public health laboratories. These programs train laboratory epidemiologists through a two-year public health leadership development course, and also offer various types of short course training for frontline staff. The FELTP laboratory graduates in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and South Sudan are working in their respective countries to strengthen public health laboratory systems while the short course participants provide a pool of frontline implementers with the capacity to support the lower tiers of health systems, as well as serve as surge capacity for the regions and the national level. Through training competent public health laboratory workers, the East African ministries of health, in collaboration with other regional partners and stakeholders are now engaged in developing and implementing a holistic approach that will guarantee an overall strengthening of the health system by using well-trained public health laboratory leaders to drive the process. Strengthening public health laboratory medicine in East Africa is critical to improve health-care systems. The experience with the FELTP model in East Africa is a step in the right direction towards ensuring a stronger role for the laboratory in public health. PMID:22359702

  10. Public health systems strengthening in Africa: the role of South Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Kuonza, Lazarus; Tint, Khin San; Harris, Bernice; Nabukenya, Immaculate

    2011-01-01

    The South Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (SAFELTP) was created in 2006 after recognizing the need to build and sustain the country's human resource capacity in field (applied) epidemiology and public health practice. The programme was formed as a collaboration between the South Africa Department of Health (DoH), the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD), the National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the University of Pretoria. The primary goal of the programme was to produce field-trained epidemiologists equipped with knowledge and practical skills to effectively and efficiently address the public health priorities of South Africa. SAFELTP is a 2-year full-time training, consisting of a combination of classroom-based instruction (30%) and mentored field work (70%). The training places emphasis on public health surveillance, investigation of disease epidemics, public health laboratory practice and communication of epidemiologic information, among other aspects of epidemiology research. At completion, residents are awarded a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree from the University of Pretoria. Since its inception in 2006, 48 residents have enrolled onto the programme and 30 (62%) of them have completed the training. Over the past 5 years, the residents have conducted more than 92 outbreak investigations, 47 surveillance evaluations, 19 planned studies, analyzed 37 large databases and presented more than 56 papers at local and international conferences. In recognition of the high-quality work, at least five SAFELTP residents have received awards at various international scientific conferences during the 5 years. In conclusion, the South Africa FELTP is now fully established and making valuable contributions to the country's public health system, albeit with innumerable challenges.

  11. Public health systems strengthening in Africa: The role of South Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme

    PubMed Central

    Kuonza, Lazarus; Tint, Khin San; Harris, Bernice; Nabukenya, Immaculate

    2011-01-01

    The South Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (SAFELTP) was created in 2006 after recognizing the need to build and sustain the country's human resource capacity in field (applied) epidemiology and public health practice. The programme was formed as a collaboration between the South Africa Department of Health (DoH), the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD), the National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the University of Pretoria. The primary goal of the programme was to produce field-trained epidemiologists equipped with knowledge and practical skills to effectively and efficiently address the public health priorities of South Africa. SAFELTP is a 2-year full-time training, consisting of a combination of classroom-based instruction (30%) and mentored field work (70%). The training places emphasis on public health surveillance, investigation of disease epidemics, public health laboratory practice and communication of epidemiologic information, among other aspects of epidemiology research. At completion, residents are awarded a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree from the University of Pretoria. Since its inception in 2006, 48 residents have enrolled onto the programme and 30 (62%) of them have completed the training. Over the past 5 years, the residents have conducted more than 92 outbreak investigations, 47 surveillance evaluations, 19 planned studies, analyzed 37 large databases and presented more than 56 papers at local and international conferences. In recognition of the high-quality work, at least five SAFELTP residents have received awards at various international scientific conferences during the 5 years. In conclusion, the South Africa FELTP is now fully established and making valuable contributions to the country's public health system, albeit with innumerable challenges. PMID:22359696

  12. Strong and Flexible: Developing a Three-Tiered Curriculum for the Regional Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Traicoff, Denise A.; Suarez-Rangel, Gloria; Espinosa-Wilkins, Yescenia; Lopez, Augusto; Diaz, Anaite; Caceres, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) are recognized worldwide as an effective means to strengthen countries’ capacity in epidemiology, surveillance, and outbreak response. FETPs are field-based, with minimum classroom time and maximum time in the field, providing public health services while participants achieve competency. The Central America FETP (CAFETP) uses a three-level pyramid model: basic, intermediate, and advanced. In 2006, a multidisciplinary team used a methodical process based on adult learning practices to construct a competency-based curriculum for the CAFETP. The curriculum was designed based on the tasks related to disease surveillance and field epidemiology that public health officers would conduct at multiple levels in the system. The team used a design process that engaged subject matter experts and considered the unique perspective of each country. The designers worked backwards from the competencies to define field activities, evaluation methods, and classroom components. The 2006 pyramid curriculum has been accredited for a master’s of science in field epidemiology by the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala and has been adapted by programs around the world. The team found the time and effort spent to familiarize subject matter experts with key adult learning principles was worthwhile because it provided a common framework to approach curriculum design. Early results of the redesigned curriculum indicate that the CAFETP supports consistent quality while allowing for specific country needs. PMID:28702503

  13. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model.

  14. Ebola virus disease outbreak; the role of field epidemiology training programme in the fight against the epidemic, Liberia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lubogo, Mutaawe; Donewell, Bangure; Godbless, Lucas; Shabani, Sasita; Maeda, Justin; Temba, Herilinda; Malibiche, Theophil C; Berhanu, Naod

    2015-01-01

    The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to supporting Ministries of Health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. The goal for the establishment of FETP and FELTP was and still is to produce highly competent multi-disciplinary public health professionals who would assume influential posts in the public health structures and tackle emerging and re-emerging communicable and non-communicable diseases. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, African Union Support for the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa (ASEOWA) supported FETP graduates from Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Tanzania for the investigation and control of the EVD outbreak in Liberia. The graduates were posted in different counties in Liberia where they lead teams of other experts conduct EVD outbreak investigations, Infection Control and Prevention trainings among health workers and communities, Strengthening integrated disease surveillance, developing Standard Operating Procedures for infection control and case notification in the Liberian setting as well as building capacity of local surveillance officers' conduct outbreak investigation and contact tracing. The team was also responsible for EVD data management at the different Counties in Liberia. The FETP graduates have been instrumental in the earlier successes registered in various counties in Liberia

  15. Ebola virus disease outbreak; the role of field epidemiology training programme in the fight against the epidemic, Liberia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lubogo, Mutaawe; Donewell, Bangure; Godbless, Lucas; Shabani, Sasita; Maeda, Justin; Temba, Herilinda; Malibiche, Theophil C; Berhanu, Naod

    2015-01-01

    The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to supporting Ministries of Health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. The goal for the establishment of FETP and FELTP was and still is to produce highly competent multi-disciplinary public health professionals who would assume influential posts in the public health structures and tackle emerging and re-emerging communicable and non-communicable diseases. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, African Union Support for the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa (ASEOWA) supported FETP graduates from Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Tanzania for the investigation and control of the EVD outbreak in Liberia. The graduates were posted in different counties in Liberia where they lead teams of other experts conduct EVD outbreak investigations, Infection Control and Prevention trainings among health workers and communities, Strengthening integrated disease surveillance, developing Standard Operating Procedures for infection control and case notification in the Liberian setting as well as building capacity of local surveillance officers’ conduct outbreak investigation and contact tracing. The team was also responsible for EVD data management at the different Counties in Liberia. The FETP graduates have been instrumental in the earlier successes registered in various counties in

  16. Applied field epidemiology programme in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez Navarro, J F; Herrera, D; Sanchez Barco, C

    2001-03-01

    In 1994, the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII; Carlos III Health Institute) of the Spanish Ministry of Health and the Consumer (MSC) created the Programa de Epidemiología Aplicada de Campo (PEAC; Applied Field Epidemiology Programme). The programme is managed by the Centro Nacional de Epidemiología (National Epidemiological Centre) in collaboration with the Escuela Nacional de Sanidad (National School of Health), and supported by General Direction for Health and Consumer of MSC and the Health Councils (Consejerías de Sanidad) of the autonomous regions. The PEAC runs a masters degree programme in applied field epidemiology, in which degrees are conferred by the National School of Health. As PEAC is a national programme, it forms a part of the European Program for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) and is a member of the Network Training for Epidemiology Public Health Intervention (TEPHINET), the association of 27 regional and national programmes of the acting Intervention Epidemiology Training Programs.

  17. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010: need, the process, and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Nsubuga, Peter; Johnson, Kenneth; Tetteh, Christopher; Oundo, Joseph; Weathers, Andrew; Vaughan, James; Elbon, Suzanne; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Ndugulile, Faustine; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Evering-Watley, Michele; Mosha, Fausta; Oleribe, Obinna; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Preacely, Nykiconia; Luce, Richard; Antara, Simon; Imara, Hiari; Ndjakani, Yassa; Doyle, Timothy; Espinosa, Yescenia; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Ngulefac, John; Njenga, Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    As of 2010 sub-Saharan Africa had approximately 865 million inhabitants living with numerous public health challenges. Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems is necessary to build upon and sustain these successes and to address other public health problems. Sub-Saharan Africa appears to have weathered the recent global economic downturn remarkably well and its increasing middle class may soon demand stronger public health systems to protect communities. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been the backbone of public health surveillance and response in the US during its 60 years of existence. EIS has been adapted internationally to create the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) in several countries. In the 1990s CDC and the Rockefeller Foundation collaborated with the Uganda and Zimbabwe ministries of health and local universities to create 2-year Public Health Schools Without Walls (PHSWOWs) which were based on the FETP model. In 2004 the FETP model was further adapted to create the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) in Kenya to conduct joint competency-based training for field epidemiologists and public health laboratory scientists providing a master's degree to participants upon completion. The FELTP model has been implemented in several additional countries in sub-Saharan Africa. By the end of 2010 these 10 FELTPs and two PHSWOWs covered 613 million of the 865 million people in sub-Saharan Africa and had enrolled 743 public health professionals. We describe the process that we used to develop 10 FELTPs covering 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010 as a

  18. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Steve E; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Scott, James C; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED) at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and statistics--this exercise

  19. Disease surveillance system evaluation as a model for improved integration and standardization of the laboratory component in the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) curriculum worldwide.

    PubMed

    Rush, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Integration of laboratory training into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) began in 2004 and has advanced the training of laboratory scientists worldwide on the basic principles of epidemiology, disease surveillance, and outbreak investigation. The laboratory component of the FE(L)TP training has traditionally been disease specific, revolving around classroom and bench training on laboratory methods, and field placement in areas where services are needed. There is however a need to improve the integration of epidemiology elements used in surveillance, outbreak investigation, and evaluation activities with specific measurable laboratory activities that could in turn impact the overall disease surveillance and response. A systematic and clear evaluation guideline for the laboratory components of disease surveillance systems alongside the corresponding epidemiological indicators can better identify, address, and mitigate weaknesses that may exist in the entire surveillance system, and also help to integrate and standardize the FE(L)TP curriculum content. The institution of laboratory Quality Management System principles linked to a comprehensive surveillance evaluation scheme will result in improved disease surveillance, response, and overall laboratory capacity over time.

  20. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer

    2011-01-01

    The lack of highly trained field epidemiologists in the public health system in Ghana has been known since the 1970s when the Planning Unit was established in the Ghana Ministry of Health. When the Public Health School was started in 1994, the decision was taken to develop a 1 academic-year general MPH course. The persisting need for well-trained epidemiologists to support the public health surveillance, outbreak investigation and response system made the development of the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP) a national priority. The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for serving Ghana Health Service staff. The success of the short courses led to development of the FELTP. By October 2007, the new FELTP curriculum for the award of a Masters of Philosophy in Applied Epidemiology and Disease Control was approved by the Academic Board of the University of Ghana and the programme started that academic year. Since then five cohorts of 37 residents have been enrolled in the two tracks of the programme. They consist of 12 physicians, 12 veterinarians and 13 laboratory scientists. The first two cohorts of 13 residents have graduated. The third cohort of seven has submitted dissertations and is awaiting the results. The fourth cohort has started the second year of field placement while the fifth cohort has just started the first semester. The field activities of the graduates have included disease outbreak investigations and response, evaluation of disease surveillance systems at the national level and analysis of datasets on diseases at the regional level. The residents have made a total of 25 oral presentations and 39 poster presentations at various regional and global

  1. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer

    2011-01-01

    The lack of highly trained field epidemiologists in the public health system in Ghana has been known since the 1970s when the Planning Unit was established in the Ghana Ministry of Health. When the Public Health School was started in 1994, the decision was taken to develop a 1 academic-year general MPH course. The persisting need for well-trained epidemiologists to support the public health surveillance, outbreak investigation and response system made the development of the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP) a national priority. The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for serving Ghana Health Service staff. The success of the short courses led to development of the FELTP. By October 2007, the new FELTP curriculum for the award of a Masters of Philosophy in Applied Epidemiology and Disease Control was approved by the Academic Board of the University of Ghana and the programme started that academic year. Since then five cohorts of 37 residents have been enrolled in the two tracks of the programme. They consist of 12 physicians, 12 veterinarians and 13 laboratory scientists. The first two cohorts of 13 residents have graduated. The third cohort of seven has submitted dissertations and is awaiting the results. The fourth cohort has started the second year of field placement while the fifth cohort has just started the first semester. The field activities of the graduates have included disease outbreak investigations and response, evaluation of disease surveillance systems at the national level and analysis of datasets on diseases at the regional level. The residents have made a total of 25 oral presentations and 39 poster presentations at various regional and global

  2. Setting research priorities to reduce malaria burden in a post graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria field epidemiology and laboratory training programme scientific workshop

    PubMed Central

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although several research groups within institutions in Nigeria have been involved in extensive malaria research, the link between the research community and policy formulation has not been optimal. The workshop aimed to assist post graduate students to identify knowledge gaps and to develop relevant Malaria-related research proposals in line with identified research priorities. A training needs assessment questionnaire was completed by 22 students two week prior to the workshop. Also, a one page concept letter was received from 40 residents. Thirty students were selected based the following six criteria: - answerability and ethics; efficacy and impact; deliverability, affordability; scalability, sustainability; health systems, partnership and community involvement; and equity in achieved disease burden reduction. The workshop was over a three day period. The participants at the workshop were 30 Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (NFELTP) residents from cohorts 4 and 5. Ten technical papers were presented by the experts from the academia, National Malaria Elimination (NMEP) Programme, NFELTP Faculty and Implementing partners including CDC/PMI. Draft proposals were developed and presented by the residents. The “strongest need” for training was on malaria prevention, followed by malaria diagnosis. Forty seven new research questions were generated, while the 19 developed by the NMEP were shared. Evaluation revealed that all (100%) students either “agreed” that the workshop objectives were met. Full proposals were developed by some of the residents. A debriefing meeting was held with the NMEP coordinator to discuss funding of the projects. Future collaborative partnership has developed as the residents have supported NMEP to develop a research protocol for a national evaluation. Research prioritization workshops are required in most training programmes to ensure that students embark on studies that address the research needs of their

  3. The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, a strategy to improve disease surveillance and epidemic control in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mutabaruka, Evariste; Sawadogo, Mamadou; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ouédraogo, Lauren; Sangare, Lassana; Ousmane, Badolo; Ndjakani, Yassa; Namusisi, Olivia; Mukanga, David; Evering-Watley, Michele; Hounton, Sennen; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (WA-FELTP) which was established in September 2007, is an inter-country, competency-based, in-service and post -graduate training program in applied epidemiology and public health that builds the capacity to strengthen the surveillance and response system as well as epidemic control in the French-speaking countries where they are implemented. The overall purpose is to provide epidemiological and public health laboratory services to the public health systems at national, provincial, district and local levels. The program includes four countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Togo with an overarching goal to progressively cover all French speaking countries in West Africa through a phased-in approach. WA-FELTP's 2- year Master's program was launched in 2010 with 12 residents, three from each country, and consists of medical and veterinary doctors, pharmacists, and laboratory scientists. The training comprises 25% didactic sessions and 75% practical in-the-field mentored training. During the practical training, residents rovide service to their respective ministries of health and ministries of animal resources by contributing to outbreak investigations and activities that help to improve national surveillance systems at national, regional, district and local levels. The pressing challenges that the program must address consist of the lack of funds to support the second cohort of trainees, though trainee selection was completed, inadequate funds to support staff compensation, and shortage of funds to support trainees’ participation in critical activities in field epidemiology practice, and a need to develop a 5-year plan for sustainability. PMID:22359698

  4. The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, a strategy to improve disease surveillance and epidemic control in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Evariste; Sawadogo, Mamadou; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ouédraogo, Lauren; Sangare, Lassana; Ousmane, Badolo; Ndjakani, Yassa; Namusisi, Olivia; Mukanga, David; Evering-Watley, Michele; Hounton, Sennen; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (WA-FELTP) which was established in September 2007, is an inter-country, competency-based, in-service and post -graduate training program in applied epidemiology and public health that builds the capacity to strengthen the surveillance and response system as well as epidemic control in the French-speaking countries where they are implemented. The overall purpose is to provide epidemiological and public health laboratory services to the public health systems at national, provincial, district and local levels. The program includes four countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Togo with an overarching goal to progressively cover all French speaking countries in West Africa through a phased-in approach. WA-FELTP's 2- year Master's program was launched in 2010 with 12 residents, three from each country, and consists of medical and veterinary doctors, pharmacists, and laboratory scientists. The training comprises 25% didactic sessions and 75% practical in-the-field mentored training. During the practical training, residents rovide service to their respective ministries of health and ministries of animal resources by contributing to outbreak investigations and activities that help to improve national surveillance systems at national, regional, district and local levels. The pressing challenges that the program must address consist of the lack of funds to support the second cohort of trainees, though trainee selection was completed, inadequate funds to support staff compensation, and shortage of funds to support trainees' participation in critical activities in field epidemiology practice, and a need to develop a 5-year plan for sustainability.

  5. Charting a Future for Epidemiologic Training

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Chavez, Gilbert F.; Davies, Megan M.; Galea, Sandro; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hornung, Carlton A.; Khoury, Muin J.; Koo, Denise; Mays, Vickie M.; Remington, Patrick; Yarber, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify macro level trends that are changing the needs of epidemiologic research and practice and to develop and disseminate a set of competencies and recommendations for epidemiologic training that will be responsive to these changing needs. Methods There were three stages to the project: 1) assembly of a working group of senior epidemiologists from multiple sectors, 2) Identifying relevant literature, and 3) conducting key informant interviews with 15 experienced epidemiologists. Results Twelve macro trends were identified along with associated actions for the field and educational competencies. The macro trends include: 1) “Big Data”/ informatics, 2) the changing health communication environment, 3) the Affordable Care Act/health care system reform, 4) shifting demographics, 5) globalization, 6) emerging high throughput technologies (“omics”), 7) a greater focus on accountability, 8) privacy changes, 9) a greater focus on “upstream” causes of disease, 10) the emergence of translational sciences, 11) the growing centrality of team and trans-disciplinary science, and 12) the evolving funding environment. Conclusion Addressing these issues through curricular change is needed to allow the field of epidemiology to more fully reach and sustain its full potential to benefit population health and remain a scientific discipline that makes critical contributions to ensuring clinical, social, and population health. PMID:25976024

  6. Strengthening field-based training in low and middle-income countries to build public health capacity: Lessons from Australia's Master of Applied Epidemiology program

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mahomed S; Phillips, Christine B

    2009-01-01

    Background The International Health Regulations (2005) and the emergence and global spread of infectious diseases have triggered a re-assessment of how rich countries should support capacity development for communicable disease control in low and medium income countries (LMIC). In LMIC, three types of public health training have been tried: the university-based model; streamed training for specialised workers; and field-based programs. The first has low rates of production and teaching may not always be based on the needs and priorities of the host country. The second model is efficient, but does not accord the workers sufficient status to enable them to impact on policy. The third has the most potential as a capacity development measure for LMIC, but in practice faces challenges which may limit its ability to promote capacity development. Discussion We describe Australia's first Master of Applied Epidemiology (MAE) model (established in 1991), which uses field-based training to strengthen the control of communicable diseases. A central attribute of this model is the way it partners and complements health department initiatives to enhance workforce skills, health system performance and the evidence-base for policies, programs and practice. Summary The MAE experience throws light on ways Australia could collaborate in regional capacity development initiatives. Key needs are a shared vision for a regional approach to integrate training with initiatives that strengthen service and research, and the pooling of human, financial and technical resources. We focus on communicable diseases, but our findings and recommendations are generalisable to other areas of public health. PMID:19358710

  7. Should the history of epidemiology be taught in epidemiology training programs?

    PubMed

    Laskaris, Zoey; Morabia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no evidence concerning the presence of historical content in the epidemiology curricula of the United States and abroad. Similarly, it is not known how epidemiologists view this topic in the context of master's or doctoral level course work. We attempted to fill these knowledge gaps with data from 2 online surveys-Survey I administered to persons in charge of all epidemiology training programs in North America and Survey II to epidemiologists practicing around the world. A substantial minority (39%) of graduate programs in epidemiology in the United States teach a course on the history of the field. In both surveys, the most common reasons selected for teaching such a course were "To build a sense of identity as an epidemiologist" and "As a tool for achieving a deeper understanding into specific methods and concepts." The majority of respondents, from 63 countries, agreed that the history of epidemiology should be included in curricula for graduate students in epidemiology.

  8. The Training of Epidemiologists and Diversity in Epidemiology: Findings from the 2006 Congress of Epidemiology Survey

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia D.; Spirtas, Robert; Bethune, Lisa; Mays, Vickie; Freeman, Vincent L.; Cozier, Yvette C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In the past decade, we have witnessed increasing numbers of individuals entering the field of epidemiology. With the increase also has come a diversity of training and paths by which individuals entered the field. The purpose of this survey was characterization of the epidemiology workforce, its job diversity, and continuing education needs. Methods The Minority Affairs and Membership committees of the American College of Epidemiology (ACE) prepared and administered a workforce survey to identify racial/ethnic diversity, demographic background, workplace type, credentials, income, subspecialties, and continuing education needs of epidemiologists. The survey was self-administered to attendees of the Second North American Congress of Epidemiology in June 2006. Results A sample of 397 respondents of the 1348 registered for the Congress was captured (29.5% response). Epidemiologists who participated were from 36 states and 18 countries; 54.6% were trained at the doctoral level; 19.1% earned $120,001 or more a year. A wide range of epidemiology subspecialties and continuing education needs were identified. Conclusions This preliminary snapshot of epidemiologists indicates a wide range of training mechanisms, workplace sites, and subspecialties. Results indicate a need for examination of the core graduate training needs of epidemiologist as well as responding to desired professional development needs through the provision of continuing educations efforts. PMID:19344867

  9. Paradigm shift: contribution of field epidemiology training in advancing the “One Health” approach to strengthen disease surveillance and outbreak investigations in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Monday, Busuulwa; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Wasswa, Peter; Namusisi, Olivia; Bingi, Aloysius; Musenero, Monica; Mukanga, David

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of major zoonotic disease outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa has had a significant impact on the already constrained public health systems. This has, as a result, justified the need to identify creative strategies to address threats from emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases at the human-animal-environmental interface, and implement robust multi-disease public health surveillance systems that will enhance early detection and response. Additionally, enhanced reporting and timely investigation of all suspected notifiable infectious disease threats within the health system is vital. Field epidemiology and laboratory training programs (FELTPs) have made significant contributions to public health systems for more than 10 years by producing highly skilled field epidemiologists. These epidemiologists have not only improved disease surveillance and response to outbreaks, but also improved management of health systems. Furthermore, the FETPs/FELTPs have laid an excellent foundation that brings clinicians, veterinarians, and environmental health professionals drawn from different governmental sectors, to work with a common purpose of disease control and prevention. The emergence of the One Health approach in the last decade has coincided with the present, paradigm, shift that calls for multi-sectoral and cross-sectoral collaboration towards disease surveillance, detection, reporting and timely response. The positive impact from the integration of FETP/FELTP and the One Health approach by selected programs in Africa has demonstrated the importance of multi-sectoral collaboration in addressing threats from infectious and non- infectious causes to man, animals and the environment. PMID:22359701

  10. Paradigm shift: contribution of field epidemiology training in advancing the "One Health" approach to strengthen disease surveillance and outbreak investigations in Africa.

    PubMed

    Monday, Busuulwa; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Wasswa, Peter; Namusisi, Olivia; Bingi, Aloysius; Musenero, Monica; Mukanga, David

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of major zoonotic disease outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa has had a significant impact on the already constrained public health systems. This has, as a result, justified the need to identify creative strategies to address threats from emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases at the human-animal-environmental interface, and implement robust multi-disease public health surveillance systems that will enhance early detection and response. Additionally, enhanced reporting and timely investigation of all suspected notifiable infectious disease threats within the health system is vital. Field epidemiology and laboratory training programs (FELTPs) have made significant contributions to public health systems for more than 10 years by producing highly skilled field epidemiologists. These epidemiologists have not only improved disease surveillance and response to outbreaks, but also improved management of health systems. Furthermore, the FETPs/FELTPs have laid an excellent foundation that brings clinicians, veterinarians, and environmental health professionals drawn from different governmental sectors, to work with a common purpose of disease control and prevention. The emergence of the One Health approach in the last decade has coincided with the present, paradigm, shift that calls for multi-sectoral and cross-sectoral collaboration towards disease surveillance, detection, reporting and timely response. The positive impact from the integration of FETP/FELTP and the One Health approach by selected programs in Africa has demonstrated the importance of multi-sectoral collaboration in addressing threats from infectious and non- infectious causes to man, animals and the environment.

  11. The African Field Epidemiology Network--networking for effective field epidemiology capacity building and service delivery.

    PubMed

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mukanga, David; Babirye, Rebecca; Dahlke, Melissa; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Networks are a catalyst for promoting common goals and objectives of their membership. Public Health networks in Africa are crucial, because of the severe resource limitations that nations face in dealing with priority public health problems. For a long time, networks have existed on the continent and globally, but many of these are disease-specific with a narrow scope. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to helping ministries of health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. AFENET has a unique tripartite working relationship with government technocrats from human health and animal sectors, academicians from partner universities, and development partners, presenting the Network with a distinct vantage point. Through the Network, African nations are making strides in strengthening their health systems. Members are able to: leverage resources to support field epidemiology and public health laboratory training and service delivery notably in the area of outbreak investigation and response as well as disease surveillance; by-pass government bureaucracies that often hinder and frustrate development partners; and consolidate efforts of different partners channelled through the FELTPs by networking graduates through alumni associations and calling on them to offer technical support in various public health capacities as the need arises

  12. The African Field Epidemiology Network-Networking for effective field epidemiology capacity building and service delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mukanga, David; Babirye, Rebecca; Dahlke, Melissa; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Networks are a catalyst for promoting common goals and objectives of their membership. Public Health networks in Africa are crucial, because of the severe resource limitations that nations face in dealing with priority public health problems. For a long time, networks have existed on the continent and globally, but many of these are disease-specific with a narrow scope. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to helping ministries of health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. AFENET has a unique tripartite working relationship with government technocrats from human health and animal sectors, academicians from partner universities, and development partners, presenting the Network with a distinct vantage point. Through the Network, African nations are making strides in strengthening their health systems. Members are able to: leverage resources to support field epidemiology and public health laboratory training and service delivery notably in the area of outbreak investigation and response as well as disease surveillance; by-pass government bureaucracies that often hinder and frustrate development partners; and consolidate efforts of different partners channelled through the FELTPs by networking graduates through alumni associations and calling on them to offer technical support in various public health capacities as the need arises

  13. An evaluation of the global network of field epidemiology and laboratory training programmes: a resource for improving public health capacity and increasing the number of public health professionals worldwide.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Renee E; Herrera, Dionisio G; Kelly, Paul M

    2013-09-21

    Given that many infectious diseases spread rapidly, across borders and species, there is a growing worldwide need to increase the number of public health professionals skilled in controlling infectious epidemics. Needed also are more public health professionals skilled in non-communicable disease surveillance and interventions. As a result, we surveyed all 57 field epidemiology training programmes (FETPs) that are members of the Training Program in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET), to evaluate the progress of the FETPs, the only global applied epidemiology network, toward increasing public health capacity globally. Data on the FETP programmes and the training they provide were abstracted from TEPHINET membership surveys and verified with FETP directors for all FETPs that were members of TEPHINET in 2012. Data on abstracts submitted to the recent TEPHINET Global Scientific Conference, on recent accomplishments by each FETP, and on quality improvement were also compiled to provide a worldwide view of the public health human resource capacity produced by these programmes. A total of 6980 public health professionals worldwide have graduated from an FETP or from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Epidemiology Intelligence Service (EIS). FETP residents and graduates participate in key public health prevention, control, and response activities. Each FETP has adapted its curriculum and objectives over time to align with its country's public health priorities. FETPs are well integrated into their national public health infrastructures, and they have many partners at the national, regional and global levels. FETPs are a competent and diverse source of highly skilled public health professionals who contribute significantly to public health's global human resource needs. This finding is evidenced by 1) the training curricula that were adapted over time to meet public health's human resource needs, 2) the FETPs' continued support from

  14. An evaluation of the global network of field epidemiology and laboratory training programmes: a resource for improving public health capacity and increasing the number of public health professionals worldwide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that many infectious diseases spread rapidly, across borders and species, there is a growing worldwide need to increase the number of public health professionals skilled in controlling infectious epidemics. Needed also are more public health professionals skilled in non-communicable disease surveillance and interventions. As a result, we surveyed all 57 field epidemiology training programmes (FETPs) that are members of the Training Program in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET), to evaluate the progress of the FETPs, the only global applied epidemiology network, toward increasing public health capacity globally. Methods Data on the FETP programmes and the training they provide were abstracted from TEPHINET membership surveys and verified with FETP directors for all FETPs that were members of TEPHINET in 2012. Data on abstracts submitted to the recent TEPHINET Global Scientific Conference, on recent accomplishments by each FETP, and on quality improvement were also compiled to provide a worldwide view of the public health human resource capacity produced by these programmes. Results A total of 6980 public health professionals worldwide have graduated from an FETP or from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Epidemiology Intelligence Service (EIS). FETP residents and graduates participate in key public health prevention, control, and response activities. Each FETP has adapted its curriculum and objectives over time to align with its country’s public health priorities. FETPs are well integrated into their national public health infrastructures, and they have many partners at the national, regional and global levels. Conclusion FETPs are a competent and diverse source of highly skilled public health professionals who contribute significantly to public health’s global human resource needs. This finding is evidenced by 1) the training curricula that were adapted over time to meet public health’s human

  15. VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. )

    1991-07-01

    As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

  16. Training Grant in Epidemiology and Prevention of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    Larissa Nekhlyadov, to begin the first year of training and we are still in the process of recruiting a third MD. We established the Advanced Cancer ... Epidemiology Seminar in Breast Cancer in which all trainees participated. The seminar met once per week for eight weeks this past spring and will continue again this coming spring.

  17. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  18. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  19. Mentoring in epidemiology and public health training.

    PubMed

    Davis, Faith G

    2013-08-01

    In the past, mentoring was the job of one senior researcher in which the mentor molded the mentee in his/her own image. With public health being a very multidisciplinary field, mentoring may need to evolve to facilitate the needs of emerging scientists-including epidemiologists. The mentoring relationship can begin at many education stages, including high school. Involving students at all education levels acts as a way to recruit and nurture interest in public health. On the basis of the experience in the medical sciences, mentoring programs also can be used to recruit and retain high-quality professionals in our discipline. Mentoring functions nurture a young mentee with the bonus of greater workplace satisfaction for the mentor. Nevertheless, more understanding of what constitutes successful mentoring and how to develop programs that create great mentors is needed.

  20. The Epidemiology of Injuries Across the Weight-Training Sports.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Winwood, Paul W

    2017-03-01

    Weight-training sports, including weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, strongman, Highland Games, and CrossFit, are weight-training sports that have separate divisions for males and females of a variety of ages, competitive standards, and bodyweight classes. These sports may be considered dangerous because of the heavy loads commonly used in training and competition. Our objective was to systematically review the injury epidemiology of these weight-training sports, and, where possible, gain some insight into whether this may be affected by age, sex, competitive standard, and bodyweight class. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Embase for injury epidemiology studies involving competitive athletes in these weight-training sports. Eligible studies included peer-reviewed journal articles only, with no limit placed on date or language of publication. We assessed the risk of bias in all studies using an adaption of the musculoskeletal injury review method. Only five of the 20 eligible studies had a risk of bias score ≥75 %, meaning the risk of bias in these five studies was considered low. While 14 of the studies had sample sizes >100 participants, only four studies utilized a prospective design. Bodybuilding had the lowest injury rates (0.12-0.7 injuries per lifter per year; 0.24-1 injury per 1000 h), with strongman (4.5-6.1 injuries per 1000 h) and Highland Games (7.5 injuries per 1000 h) reporting the highest rates. The shoulder, lower back, knee, elbow, and wrist/hand were generally the most commonly injured anatomical locations; strains, tendinitis, and sprains were the most common injury type. Very few significant differences in any of the injury outcomes were observed as a function of age, sex, competitive standard, or bodyweight class. While the majority of the research we reviewed utilized retrospective designs, the weight-training sports appear to have relatively low rates of injury compared with common team

  1. Rheumatology in India: a Bird's Eye View on Organization, Epidemiology, Training Programs and Publications.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Agarwal, Vikas; Negi, Vir Singh

    2016-07-01

    India is home to the world's second largest population. Rheumatology is an emerging specialty in India. We reviewed organization, epidemiology and training facilities for Rheumatology in India. Also, we also looked at publications in the field of rheumatology from India from over the past six years using Scopus and Medline databases. Despite rheumatologic disorders affecting 6%-24% of the population, rheumatology in India is still in its infancy. Till recently, there were as few as two centers in the country training less than five fellows per year. However, acute shortage of specialists and increasing patient numbers led to heightened awareness regarding the need to train rheumatologists. Subsequently, six new centers have now started 3-year training programs in rheumatology. The epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in India is being actively studies under the Community Oriented Programme for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) initiative. The most number of publications on rheumatic diseases from India are on rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and osteoporosis, many of which have been widely cited. Major collaborators worldwide are USA, UK and France, whereas those from Asia are Japan, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. The Indian Rheumatology Association (IRA) is the national organization of rheumatologists. The flagship publication of the IRA, the Indian Journal of Rheumatology, is indexed in Scopus and Embase. To conclude, rheumatology in India is an actively expanding and productive field with significant contributions to world literature. There is a need to train more personnel in the subject in India.

  2. Rheumatology in India: a Bird's Eye View on Organization, Epidemiology, Training Programs and Publications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    India is home to the world's second largest population. Rheumatology is an emerging specialty in India. We reviewed organization, epidemiology and training facilities for Rheumatology in India. Also, we also looked at publications in the field of rheumatology from India from over the past six years using Scopus and Medline databases. Despite rheumatologic disorders affecting 6%-24% of the population, rheumatology in India is still in its infancy. Till recently, there were as few as two centers in the country training less than five fellows per year. However, acute shortage of specialists and increasing patient numbers led to heightened awareness regarding the need to train rheumatologists. Subsequently, six new centers have now started 3-year training programs in rheumatology. The epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in India is being actively studies under the Community Oriented Programme for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) initiative. The most number of publications on rheumatic diseases from India are on rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and osteoporosis, many of which have been widely cited. Major collaborators worldwide are USA, UK and France, whereas those from Asia are Japan, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. The Indian Rheumatology Association (IRA) is the national organization of rheumatologists. The flagship publication of the IRA, the Indian Journal of Rheumatology, is indexed in Scopus and Embase. To conclude, rheumatology in India is an actively expanding and productive field with significant contributions to world literature. There is a need to train more personnel in the subject in India. PMID:27365996

  3. Establishing a field epidemiology elective for medical students in Kenya: a strategy for increasing public health awareness and workforce capacity.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Wences; Gura, Zeinab; Amwayi, Samuel; Wiersma, Petra; Omolo, Jared; Becknell, Steven; Jones, Donna; Ongore, Dismas; Dicker, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Medical students have limited exposure to field epidemiology, even though will assume public health roles after graduation. We established a 10-week elective in field epidemiology during medical school. Students attended one-week didactic sessions on epidemiology, and nine weeks in field placement sites. We administered pre- and post-tests to evaluate the training. We enrolled 34 students in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, we enrolled five of 24 applicants from a class of 280 medical students. In 2012, we enrolled 18 of 81 applicants from a class of 360 students; plus 11 who participated in the didactic sessions only. Among the 34 students who completed the didactic sessions, 74% were male, and their median age was 24 years (range: 22-26). The median pre-test score was 64% (range: 47-88%) and the median post-test score was 82% (range: 72-100%). Successful completion of the field projects was 100%. Six (30%) students were not aware of public health as a career option before this elective, 56% rated the field experience as outstanding, and 100% reported it increased their understanding of epidemiology. Implementing an elective in field epidemiology within the medical training is a highly acceptable strategy to increase awareness for public health among medical students.

  4. Establishing a field epidemiology elective for medical students in Kenya: A strategy for increasing public health awareness and workforce capacity

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Wences; Gura, Zeinab; Amwayi, Samuel; Wiersma, Petra; Omolo, Jared; Becknell, Steven; Jones, Donna; Ongore, Dismas; Dicker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Medical students have limited exposure to field epidemiology, even though will assume public health roles after graduation. We established a 10-week elective in field epidemiology during medical school. Students attended one-week didactic sessions on epidemiology, and nine weeks in field placement sites. We administered pre-and post-tests to evaluate the training. We enrolled 34 students in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, we enrolled five of 24 applicants from a class of 280 medical students. In 2012, we enrolled 18 of 81 applicants from a class of 360 students; plus 11 who participated in the didactic sessions only. Among the 34 students who completed the didactic sessions, 74% were male, and their median age was 24 years (range: 22–26). The median pre-test score was 64% (range: 47–88%) and the median post-test score was 82% (range: 72–100%). Successful completion of the field projects was 100%. Six (30%) students were not aware of public health as a career option before this elective, 56% rated the field experience as outstanding, and 100% reported it increased their understanding of epidemiology. Implementing an elective in field epidemiology within the medical training is a highly acceptable strategy to increase awareness for public health among medical students. PMID:25700921

  5. The Singapore Field Epidemiology Service: Insights Into Outbreak Management

    PubMed Central

    Seetoh, Theresa; Cutter, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    Field epidemiology involves the implementation of quick and targeted public health interventions with the aid of epidemiological methods. In this article, we share our practical experiences in outbreak management and in safeguarding the population against novel diseases. Given that cities represent the financial nexuses of the global economy, global health security necessitates the safeguard of cities against epidemic diseases. Singapore's public health landscape has undergone a systemic and irreversible shift with global connectivity, rapid urbanization, ecological change, increased affluence, as well as shifting demographic patterns over the past two decades. Concomitantly, the threat of epidemics, ranging from severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza A (H1N1) to the resurgence of vector-borne diseases as well as the rise of modern lifestyle-related outbreaks, have worsened difficulties in safeguarding public health amidst much elusiveness and unpredictability. One critical factor that has helped the country overcome these innate and man-made public health vulnerabilities is the development of a resilient field epidemiology service, which includes our enhancement of surveillance and response capacities for outbreak management, and investment in public health leadership. We offer herein the Singapore story as a case study in meeting the challenges of disease control in our modern built environment. PMID:23091652

  6. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, M N

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence that low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by alternating current may be a cause of cancer. Studies examining residential exposures of children and adults and studies of electrical and electronics workers are reviewed. Using conventional epidemiologic criteria for inferring causal associations, including strength and consistency of the relationship, biological plausibility, and the possibility of bias as an explanation, it is concluded that the evidence is strongly suggestive that such radiation is carcinogenic. The evidence is strongest for brain and central nervous system cancers in electrical workers and children. Weaker evidence supports an association with leukemia in electrical workers. Some evidence also exists for an association with melanoma in electrical workers. Failure to find consistent evidence of a link between residential exposures and adult cancers may be attributable to exposure misclassification. Studies so far have used imperfect surrogates for any true biologically effective magnetic field exposure. The resulting exposure misclassification has produced relative risk estimates that understate any true risk. PMID:1821368

  7. Applied epidemiology and public health: are we training the future generations appropriately?

    PubMed

    Brownson, Ross C; Samet, Jonathan M; Bensyl, Diana M

    2017-02-01

    To extend the reach and relevance of epidemiology for public health practice, the science needs be broadened beyond etiologic research, to link more strongly with emerging technologies and to acknowledge key societal transformations. This new focus for epidemiology and its implications for epidemiologic training can be considered in the context of macro trends affecting society, including a greater focus on upstream causes of disease, shifting demographics, the Affordable Care Act and health care system reform, globalization, changing health communication environment, growing centrality of team and transdisciplinary science, emergence of translational sciences, greater focus on accountability, big data, informatics, high-throughput technologies ("omics"), privacy changes, and the evolving funding environment. This commentary describes existing approaches to and competencies for training in epidemiology, maps macro trends with competencies, highlights an example of competency-based education in the Epidemic Intelligence Service of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and suggests expanded and more dynamic training approaches. A reexamination of current approaches to epidemiologic training is needed.

  8. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  9. The epidemiology of teaching and training General Practices in England.

    PubMed

    Rees, Eliot L; Gay, Simon P; McKinley, Robert K

    2016-11-01

    There is no national picture of teaching and training practices or the communities they serve. We aimed to describe the association between general practices' engagement with education and their characteristics, locality and patients' health-status and satisfaction. This data linkage study of all English practices calculated odds ratios for teaching and training status and practice, locality and patient variables. Teaching and training practices are larger than practices which do neither (mean list size (SD) 7074 (3736), 10112 (4934), and 5327 (3368) respectively, p < 0.001 and have fewer patients per GP (1932 (951), 1838 (544), and 2117 (1585) respectively, p < 0.001). Their localities have a higher proportion of White British residents (77.99% (24.17), 81.66% (20.81), 73.07% (26.91), p < 0.001). Practices with more GPs (OR 1.21 (95%CI 1.18-1.20)), fewer male GPs (0.45 (0.36-0.55)) and a higher proportion of White British people in their locality (1.30 (1.06-1.60)) were more likely to teach. Practices in rural areas (1.68 (1.43-1.98)), with more GPs (1.22 (1.27-1.39)), more full time equivalent GPs (2.68 (1.64-4.40)), fewer male GPs (0.17 (0.13-0.22)) and a higher proportion of White British people in their locality (1.34 (1.02-1.75)) were more likely to train. Teaching and training practices had higher patient satisfaction (0.293 (0.190, 0.397) and (0.563 (0.442, 0.685)) respectively and quality and outcomes framework scores (0.507 (0.211, 0.804)) and (0.996 (0.650, 1.342)) respectively than those which did not. Educationally engaged practices are unrepresentative in serving less ethnically diverse and (for training practices) less urban environments. Investment is needed to increase the proportion of educational practices in diverse urban localities.

  10. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response, public health informatics, vaccine preventable diseases, immunization, outbreak investigation, Millennium Development Goals, Non-Communicable Diseases, and public health surveillance. The theme for the 5th AFENET Scientific Conference was; “Addressing Public Health Priorities in Africa through FELTPs.” Previous AFENET Scientific conferences have been held in: Accra, Ghana (2005), Kampala, Uganda (2007), Mombasa, Kenya (2009) and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2011). PMID:26491534

  11. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations.

    PubMed

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response, public health informatics, vaccine preventable diseases, immunization, outbreak investigation, Millennium Development Goals, Non-Communicable Diseases, and public health surveillance. The theme for the 5th AFENET Scientific Conference was; "Addressing Public Health Priorities in Africa through FELTPs." Previous AFENET Scientific conferences have been held in: Accra, Ghana (2005), Kampala, Uganda (2007), Mombasa, Kenya (2009) and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2011).

  12. Field Test of an Epidemiology Curriculum for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark A.; Huebner, Wendy W.; Nicolich, Mark J.; Kimbrough, Maudellyn L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a middle school epidemiology curriculum called Detectives in the Classroom. The curriculum presents epidemiology as the science of public health, using health-related issues that capture the interest of young students and help prepare them to make evidence-based health-related decisions.…

  13. An epidemiological investigation of training and injury patterns in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Zwingenberger, Stefan; Valladares, Roberto D; Walther, Achim; Beck, Heidrun; Stiehler, Maik; Kirschner, Stephan; Engelhardt, Martin; Kasten, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Associated with the trend towards increased health consciousness and fitness, triathlon has established itself as a sport for masses. The goals of this study were to evaluate injury risk factors of non-professional triathletes and to compare prospective and retrospective evaluation methods. Using an online survey, 212 triathletes retrospectively answered a questionnaire about their training habits and injuries during the past 12 months. Forty-nine of these triathletes participated in a 12-month prospective trial. Injuries were classified with regard to the anatomical location, type of injury, incidence and associated risk factors. Most injuries occurred during running (50%) followed by cycling (43%) and swimming (7%). Fifty-four per cent (retrospective) and 22% (prospective) of the injuries were contusions and abrasions, 38% (retrospective) and 46% (prospective) were ligament and capsular injuries, 7% (retrospective) and 32% (prospective) were muscle and tendon injuries and 1% (retrospective) and 0% (prospective) were fractures. The incidence of an injury per 1000 training hours was 0.69 (retrospective) and 1.39 (prospective) during training and 9.24 (retrospective) and 18.45 (prospective) during competition. The main risk factor for injury in non-professional triathlon is participation in a competitive triathlon event. A retrospective design may underestimate the rate of overuse injuries.

  14. The United States Army Special Forces--Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Field Epidemiologic Survey Team (Airborne).

    PubMed

    Dorogi, Louis Theodore

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Army Special Forces--Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Field Epidemiological Survey Team (Airborne) was formed in late 1965 and later deployed to Vietnam in 1966. Funded by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and staffed by highly trained Special Forces qualified medical personnel from Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the team was attached to the 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) while in Vietnam. During its short existence, the team conducted extensive and important field studies on diseases of military medical importance, often under combat conditions.

  15. Rapporteur report: cellular, animal and epidemiological studies of the effects of static magnetic fields relevant to human health.

    PubMed

    Leszczynski, Dariusz

    2005-01-01

    Three talks were presented in the session on "Cellular, Animal and Epidemiological Studies of the Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health". The first talk presented the in vitro effects of static magnetic fields on cell cultures. The second talk presented the in vivo evidence obtained from animal studies. The final, third talk, presented the evidence obtained from epidemiological studies. The overall conclusion of the three presentations and the following general discussion was that the scientific evidence available to date is weak and contains large gaps in knowledge either due to the poor quality of published studies or because of the lack of published research on certain health-related topics. It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects.

  16. Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Heath, C W

    1983-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY.

  17. The next generation of large-scale epidemiologic research: implications for training cancer epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Margaret R; Lam, Tram Kim; Schully, Sheri D; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-11-15

    There is expanding consensus on the need to modernize the training of cancer epidemiologists to accommodate rapidly emerging technological advancements and the digital age, which are transforming the practice of cancer epidemiology. There is also a growing imperative to extend cancer epidemiology research that is etiological to that which is applied and has the potential to affect individual and public health. Medical schools and schools of public health are recognizing the need to develop such integrated programs; however, we lack the data to estimate how many current training programs are effectively equipping epidemiology students with the knowledge and tools to design, conduct, and analyze these increasingly complex studies. There is also a need to develop new mentoring approaches to account for the transdisciplinary team-science environment that now prevails. With increased dialogue among schools of public health, medical schools, and cancer centers, revised competencies and training programs at predoctoral, doctoral, and postdoctoral levels must be developed. Continuous collection of data on the impact and outcomes of such programs is also recommended. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Training and calibration of interviewers for oral health literacy using the BREALD-30 in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Vilella, Karina Duarte; Assunção, Luciana Reichert da Silva; Junkes, Mônica Carmem; Menezes, José Vitor Nogara Borges de; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Ferreira, Fernanda de Morais

    2016-08-22

    The objective of this study was to describe an interviewer training and calibration method to evaluate oral health literacy using the Brazilian Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30) in epidemiological studies. An experienced researcher (gold standard) conducted all training sessions. The interviewer training and calibration sessions included three different phases: theoretical training, practical training, and calibration. In the calibration phase, six interviewers (dentists) independently assessed 15 videos of individuals who had different levels of oral health literacy. Accuracy and reproducibility were evaluated using the kappa coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The percentage of agreement for each word in the instrument was also calculated. After training, the kappa values were higher than 0.911 and 0.893 for intra- and inter-rater agreement, respectively. When the results were analyzed separately for the different levels of literacy, the lowest agreement rate was found when evaluating the videos of individuals with low literacy (K = 0.871), but still within the range considered to be near-perfect agreement. The ICC values were higher than 0.990 and 0.975 for intra- and inter-rater agreement, respectively. The lowest percentage of agreement was 86.6% for the word "hipoplasia" (hypoplasia). This interviewer training and calibration method proved to be feasible and effective. Therefore, it can be used as a methodological tool in studies assessing oral health literacy using the BREALD-30.

  19. Undergraduate Training in the Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer with Focus on Genetics of Disease Progression and Quality of Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    14. ABSTRACT The goal of the Department of Defense Undergraduate Training grant is to create a transdisciplinary summer internship training in...transdisciplinary summer internship training in prostate cancer research for 4 interns per summer in clinical and translational epidemiology and bio-behavioral... internship , all interns were given several modules to complete from the CITI training website hosted by the University of Miami, , to assure adequate

  20. Field Instructors and Online Training: An Exploratory Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Denise E.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2011-01-01

    Despite field placement being the signature pedagogy of the social work profession, little research exists regarding methods for training field instructors. This study captures their perceptions regarding the use of online training. An online survey of 642 field instructors from 4 universities produced 208 responses. Less than 4% rejected the idea…

  1. Field Instructors and Online Training: An Exploratory Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedman, Denise E.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2011-01-01

    Despite field placement being the signature pedagogy of the social work profession, little research exists regarding methods for training field instructors. This study captures their perceptions regarding the use of online training. An online survey of 642 field instructors from 4 universities produced 208 responses. Less than 4% rejected the idea…

  2. Epidemiology of injuries in English professional rugby union: part 2 training Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, J; Fuller, C; Kemp, S; Reddin, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To undertake a detailed epidemiological study of training injuries sustained by professional rugby union players in order to define their incidence, nature, severity, and causes. Methods: A two season prospective design was used to study training injuries associated with 502 rugby union players at 11 English Premiership clubs. Team clinicians reported all training injuries on a weekly basis and provided details of the location, diagnosis, severity, and mechanism of each injury. Training exposures for individual players were recorded on a weekly basis. Loss of time from training and match play was used as the definition of an injury. Results: The overall incidence of injury was 2.0 per 1000 player-hours, and each injury resulted on average in 24 days lost time. Recurrences, which accounted for 19% of injuries, were more severe (35 days) than new injuries (21 days). Twenty two per cent of all training occurred during the preseason but 34% of all injuries were sustained in this period. Hamstring, calf, hip flexor/quadriceps, and adductor muscle injuries were the most common for backs, whereas hamstring, lateral ankle ligament, and lumbar disc/nerve root injuries predominated for forwards. Lumbar disc/nerve root, shoulder dislocation/instability, and hamstring muscle injuries for forwards and hamstring muscle and anterior cruciate ligament injuries for backs caused the greatest number of days absence. Running was the predominant cause of injury for both forwards and backs, although the overall incidence and severity of injuries sustained during skills training were significantly greater than those sustained during conditioning training. Conclusions: On average, a club will have 5% of their players unavailable for selection as a consequence of training injuries. PMID:16183775

  3. Selected epidemiological aspects of fresh whole blood application in the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Adam; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Lass, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Minimisation of blood transmitted diseases is a basic element of all blood transfusion strategies. Civilian health service standards used in peacetime may be difficult to implement in a battlefield. The risk of blood-borne diseases depends on the applied donor qualification procedures and the epidemiological situation in the areas of military operations. The authors discuss various epidemiological aspects considered when selecting potential donors of fresh whole blood for a Walking Blood Bank at the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

  4. [Progress of the micronucleus test in the field of molecular cancer epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Xu, Huadong; Jia, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus test (MNT) can be used to detect multiple genetic end points simultaneously, including chromosome aberration, mis-repaired DNA damage, apoptosis, parts of mutation and so on, which MNT has been an important part of the study of cancer epidemiology.Here, we reviewed the progress of MNT in the field of molecular cancer epidemiology in recent years, including early detection and diagnosis of cancer, evaluation of carcinogenic substances, genetic susceptibility biomarkers, micronutrient and cohort studies.

  5. Mobile phones, radiofrequency fields, and health effects in children--epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Feychting, Maria

    2011-12-01

    In 2004, when WHO organized a workshop on children's sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, very few studies on radiofrequency fields were available. With the recent increase in mobile phone use among children and adolescents, WHO has identified studies on health effects in this age-group as a high priority research area. There are no empirical data supporting the notion that children and adolescents are more susceptible to RF exposure, but the number of studies is still relatively small. There are a few cross-sectional studies on well-being, cognitive effects and behavioral problems, and some cohort studies, mainly of maternal use of mobile phones during pregnancy. Cancer outcomes have been studied in relation to environmental RF exposure, e.g. from transmitters, and only one study on mobile phone use in children and adolescents and brain tumor risk has been published. Several methodological limitations need to be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings of the epidemiological studies. The cross-sectional design does not allow determination of the temporal sequence of exposure and outcome, and for several outcomes there is a large potential for reversed causality, i.e. that the outcome causes an increased RF exposure rather than the opposite. Biases such as recall errors in self-reported mobile phone use, lack of confounding control, e.g. of other aspects of mobile phone use than RF fields, trained behaviors, and pubertal development, makes causal interpretations impossible. Future studies need to include prospectively collected exposure information, incident outcomes, and proper confounding control. Monitoring of brain tumor incidence trends is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

  7. Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

  8. Corporate U. Takes the Job Training Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Discusses corporations such as Sears, Motorola, Saturn, and Intel that have created their own corporate universities to train and retrain their workers. Highlights Motorola, the largest of the corporate universities. (JOW)

  9. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. Methods A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Results Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529–0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191–0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698–0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced

  10. Value of Desiccated Swabs for Streptococcal Epidemiology in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, David; Lansdell, Lyle

    1973-01-01

    Streptococcal surveys in foreign countries or remote areas may be greatly enhanced by the use of calcium alginate swabs desiccated in sterile silica gel. Delays of up to 4 weeks before return to a base laboratory are feasible, and the need for fresh media or laboratory facilities in the field may be eliminated. Comparison of direct plating on crystal violet blood agar versus delayed silica gel preservation during surveys in Uganda, Haiti, Colombia, and Miami, Fla., showed no significant loss of positive cultures from skin lesions and suggests that desiccated swabs increase the recovery of bacitracin-sensitive Streptococcus pyogenes (presumptive group A) from throats. PMID:4346975

  11. NAGT-USGS Cooperative Summer Field Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Thomas E.; Hanshaw, Penelope M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the National Association of Geology Teachers and the United States Geological Survey's Cooperative Summer Field Training Program. Reviews its origins, eligibility requirements, nomination and selection criteria, and includes summaries of participant evaluation of the 1985 program. (ML)

  12. NAGT-USGS Cooperative Summer Field Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Thomas E.; Hanshaw, Penelope M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the National Association of Geology Teachers and the United States Geological Survey's Cooperative Summer Field Training Program. Reviews its origins, eligibility requirements, nomination and selection criteria, and includes summaries of participant evaluation of the 1985 program. (ML)

  13. Epidemiological appraisal of studies of residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and adult cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C Y; Thériault, G; Lin, R S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To appraise epidemiological evidence of the purported association between residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and adult cancers. METHODS: Literature review and epidemiological evaluation. RESULTS: Seven epidemiological studies have been conducted on the risk of cancer among adults in relation to residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields. Leukaemia was positively associated with magnetic fields in three case-control studies. The other two case-control studies and two cohort studies did not show such a link. Brain tumours and breast cancer have rarely been examined by these studies. Based on the epidemiological results, the analysis of the role of chance and bias, and the criteria for causal inferences, it seems that the evidence is not strong enough to support the putative causal relation between residential exposure to magnetic fields and adult leukaemia, brain tumours, or breast cancer. Inadequate statistical power is far more a concern than selection bias, information bias, and confounding in interpreting the results from these studies, and in explaining inconsistencies between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our reviews suggested that the only way to answer whether residential exposure to magnetic fields is capable of increasing the risks of adult cancers is to conduct more studies carefully avoiding methodological flaws, in particular small sample size. We also suggested that the risk of female breast cancer should be the object of additional investigations, and that future studies should attempt to include information on exposure to magnetic fields from workplaces as well as residential exposure to estimate the effects of overall exposure to magnetic fields. PMID:8983460

  14. Current status and future prospects of epidemiology and public health training and research in the WHO African region

    PubMed Central

    Nachega, Jean B; Uthman, Olalekan A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Lo, Melanie; Anude, Chuka; Kayembe, Patrick; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gomo, Exnevia; Sow, Papa Salif; Obike, Ude; Kusiaku, Theophile; Mills, Edward J; Mayosi, Bongani M; IJsselmuiden, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Background To date little has been published about epidemiology and public health capacity (training, research, funding, human resources) in WHO/AFRO to help guide future planning by various stakeholders. Methods A bibliometric analysis was performed to identify published epidemiological research. Information about epidemiology and public health training, current research and challenges was collected from key informants using a standardized questionnaire. Results From 1991 to 2010, epidemiology and public health research output in the WHO/AFRO region increased from 172 to 1086 peer-reviewed articles per annum [annual percentage change (APC) = 10.1%, P for trend < 0.001]. The most common topics were HIV/AIDS (11.3%), malaria (8.6%) and tuberculosis (7.1%). Similarly, numbers of first authors (APC = 7.3%, P for trend < 0.001), corresponding authors (APC = 8.4%, P for trend < 0.001) and last authors (APC = 8.5%, P for trend < 0.001) from Africa increased during the same period. However, an overwhelming majority of respondents (>90%) reported that this increase is only rarely linked to regional post-graduate training programmes in epidemiology. South Africa leads in publications (1978/8835, 22.4%), followed by Kenya (851/8835, 9.6%), Nigeria (758/8835, 8.6%), Tanzania (549/8835, 6.2%) and Uganda (428/8835, 4.8%) (P < 0.001, each vs South Africa). Independent predictors of relevant research productivity were ‘in-country numbers of epidemiology or public health programmes’ [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90–6.11; P = 0.03] and ‘number of HIV/AIDS patients’ (IRR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.02–1.66; P < 0.001). Conclusions Since 1991, there has been increasing epidemiological research productivity in WHO/AFRO that is associated with the number of epidemiology programmes and burden of HIV/AIDS cases. More capacity building and training initiatives in epidemiology are required to promote research and address the public health challenges

  15. Current status and future prospects of epidemiology and public health training and research in the WHO African region.

    PubMed

    Nachega, Jean B; Uthman, Olalekan A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Lo, Melanie; Anude, Chuka; Kayembe, Patrick; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gomo, Exnevia; Sow, Papa Salif; Obike, Ude; Kusiaku, Theophile; Mills, Edward J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Ijsselmuiden, Carel

    2012-12-01

    To date little has been published about epidemiology and public health capacity (training, research, funding, human resources) in WHO/AFRO to help guide future planning by various stakeholders. A bibliometric analysis was performed to identify published epidemiological research. Information about epidemiology and public health training, current research and challenges was collected from key informants using a standardized questionnaire. From 1991 to 2010, epidemiology and public health research output in the WHO/AFRO region increased from 172 to 1086 peer-reviewed articles per annum [annual percentage change (APC) = 10.1%, P for trend < 0.001]. The most common topics were HIV/AIDS (11.3%), malaria (8.6%) and tuberculosis (7.1%). Similarly, numbers of first authors (APC = 7.3%, P for trend < 0.001), corresponding authors (APC = 8.4%, P for trend < 0.001) and last authors (APC = 8.5%, P for trend < 0.001) from Africa increased during the same period. However, an overwhelming majority of respondents (>90%) reported that this increase is only rarely linked to regional post-graduate training programmes in epidemiology. South Africa leads in publications (1978/8835, 22.4%), followed by Kenya (851/8835, 9.6%), Nigeria (758/8835, 8.6%), Tanzania (549/8835, 6.2%) and Uganda (428/8835, 4.8%) (P < 0.001, each vs South Africa). Independent predictors of relevant research productivity were 'in-country numbers of epidemiology or public health programmes' [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90-6.11; P = 0.03] and 'number of HIV/AIDS patients' (IRR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.02-1.66; P < 0.001). Since 1991, there has been increasing epidemiological research productivity in WHO/AFRO that is associated with the number of epidemiology programmes and burden of HIV/AIDS cases. More capacity building and training initiatives in epidemiology are required to promote research and address the public health challenges facing the continent.

  16. FAA Training. Continued Improvements Needed in FAA's Controller Field Training Program. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    Having examined the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) current program for providing field training to developmental and full-performance-level air traffic controllers, the General Accounting Office (GAO) recommends ensuring that FAA and contractor personnel are providing training consistently and uniformly. Further changes needed to ensure…

  17. Age, Sex, Training, and the Measurement of Field Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morell, Jonathan A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of age and sex on susceptibility to field dependence training and to determine whether the field dependence phenomenon is a function of cognitive style or of a general inability to make correct judgments because of confusing and inaccurate information. (MS)

  18. Photon-Fluence-Weighted let for Radiation Fields Subjected to Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michiya

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the uncertainty of the radiation risk associated with the photon energy in epidemiological studies, photon-fluence-weighted LET values were quantified for photon radiation fields with the target organs and irradiation conditions taken into consideration. The photon fluences giving a unit absorbed dose to the target organ were estimated by using photon energy spectra together with the dose conversion coefficients given in ICRP Publication 116 for the target organs of the colon, bone marrow, stomach, lung, skin and breast with three irradiation geometries. As a result, it was demonstrated that the weighted LET values did not show a clear difference among the photon radiation fields subjected to epidemiological studies, regardless of the target organ and the irradiation geometry.

  19. Field Relations in Educational Administration Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daresh, John C.; LaPlant, James C.

    In response to ongoing needs for improved preservice field experiences for prospective administrators, more stringent state certification standards, and technical support for practitioners, mutually beneficial alliances are being formed between universities and local schools. This paper describes part of a continuing University Council for…

  20. Computer Based Training: Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronaut training has traditionally been conducted at specific sites with specialized facilities. Because of its size and nature the training equipment is generally not portable. Efforts are now under way to develop training tools that can be taken to remote locations, including into orbit. Two of these efforts are the Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality projects. Field Deployable Trainer NASA has used the recent shuttle mission by astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian space station, Mir, as an opportunity to develop and test a prototype of an on-orbit computer training system. A laptop computer with a customized user interface, a set of specially prepared CD's, and video tapes were taken to the Mir by Ms. Lucid. Based upon the feedback following the launch of the Lucid flight, our team prepared materials for the next Mir visitor. Astronaut John Blaha will fly on NASA/MIR Long Duration Mission 3, set to launch in mid September. He will take with him a customized hard disk drive and a package of compact disks containing training videos, references and maps. The FDT team continues to explore and develop new and innovative ways to conduct offsite astronaut training using personal computers. Shared Virtual Reality Training NASA's Space Flight Training Division has been investigating the use of virtual reality environments for astronaut training. Recent efforts have focused on activities requiring interaction by two or more people, called shared VR. Dr. Bowen Loftin, from the University of Houston, directs a virtual reality laboratory that conducts much of the NASA sponsored research. I worked on a project involving the development of a virtual environment that can be used to train astronauts and others to operate a science unit called a Biological Technology Facility (BTF). Facilities like this will be used to house and control microgravity experiments on the space station. It is hoped that astronauts and instructors will ultimately be able to share

  1. Computer Based Training: Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronaut training has traditionally been conducted at specific sites with specialized facilities. Because of its size and nature the training equipment is generally not portable. Efforts are now under way to develop training tools that can be taken to remote locations, including into orbit. Two of these efforts are the Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality projects. Field Deployable Trainer NASA has used the recent shuttle mission by astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian space station, Mir, as an opportunity to develop and test a prototype of an on-orbit computer training system. A laptop computer with a customized user interface, a set of specially prepared CD's, and video tapes were taken to the Mir by Ms. Lucid. Based upon the feedback following the launch of the Lucid flight, our team prepared materials for the next Mir visitor. Astronaut John Blaha will fly on NASA/MIR Long Duration Mission 3, set to launch in mid September. He will take with him a customized hard disk drive and a package of compact disks containing training videos, references and maps. The FDT team continues to explore and develop new and innovative ways to conduct offsite astronaut training using personal computers. Shared Virtual Reality Training NASA's Space Flight Training Division has been investigating the use of virtual reality environments for astronaut training. Recent efforts have focused on activities requiring interaction by two or more people, called shared VR. Dr. Bowen Loftin, from the University of Houston, directs a virtual reality laboratory that conducts much of the NASA sponsored research. I worked on a project involving the development of a virtual environment that can be used to train astronauts and others to operate a science unit called a Biological Technology Facility (BTF). Facilities like this will be used to house and control microgravity experiments on the space station. It is hoped that astronauts and instructors will ultimately be able to share

  2. [Significance of field epidemiologic study to identification of chronic arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Qin; Jin, Yin-Long

    2005-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning has serious and extensive impact on human health, which attracts wide attention worldwide. Bases on vast public survey, this article introduces recent field studies on chronic arsenic poisoning from three aspects: exposure history, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences, and also explains the meaning of each index to the determination of chronic arsenic poisoning, then bring forward some considerations on further epidemiological studies on chronic arsenic poisoning.

  3. Epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries in a population of harness Standardbred racehorses in training

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a substantial paucity of studies concerning musculoskeletal injuries in harness Standardbred racehorses. Specifically, little is known about the epidemiology of exercise-related musculoskeletal injuries. Most studies on this subject involve Thoroughbred racehorses, whose biomechanics and racing speed differ from Standardbred, making comparisons difficult. Here, a population of Standardbred racehorses trained at the same racecourse was studied over four years and a classification system for exercise-related musculoskeletal injuries was designed. The incidence rates of musculoskeletal injuries causing horses’ withdrawal from training for 15 days or longer were investigated. A mixed-effects Poisson regression model was used to estimate musculoskeletal injury rates and to describe significance of selected risk factors for exercise-related injuries in this population. Results A total of 356 trotter racehorses from 10 different stables contributed 8961 months at risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Four-hundred-and-twenty-nine injuries were reported and classified into 16 categories, based on their aetiology and anatomical localisation. The overall exercise-related injury rate was 4.79 per 100 horse months. When considering risk factors one by one in separate univariable analyses, we obtained the following results: rates did not differ significantly between genders and classes of age, whereas one driver seemed to cause fewer injuries than the others. Racing speed and racing intensity, as well as recent medical history, seemed to be significant risk factors (p < 0.001), while being shod or unshod during racing was not. On the other hand, when pooling several risk factors in a multivariable approach, only racing intensity turned out to be significant (p < 0.001), since racing speed and the racing intensity were partially confounded, being strongly correlated to one another. Conclusion Characterizing epidemiology of exercise-related musculoskeletal

  4. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures.

    PubMed

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed.

  5. Training competent psychologists in the field of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Damashek, Amy; Balachova, Tatiana; Bonner, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Child maltreatment is a serious threat to children's physical and psychological well-being; therefore, it is critically important to develop high-quality educational programs to train psychologists in effectively addressing child abuse and neglect. Various health care disciplines and areas within the field of psychology have established competencies as a guide for student training curricula; however, none have been established for the area of child maltreatment. The present article presents training competencies for the field of child maltreatment that have been developed from a program designed to train psychology graduate students to practice and conduct research in child maltreatment. The competencies have been divided into eight core areas including assessment, treatment, multidisciplinary collaboration, advocacy, ethics, research, research ethics, and professional development.

  6. Land Application Training Center - A Field Based Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Jonathan; Lindbo, David L.; McLaughlin, Rich

    2015-04-01

    More and more professionals have to be licensed or certified to perform activities related to soil and the environment. Many certification programs have been solely based on classroom instruction with no field experience. We saw this as a gap in training that could lead to problems with implementation and job performance. As a result we developed a field based training center to assist with both certification training and continuing education of environmental professionals. The center broke ground in 1997 and has expanded over the years to include soils and waste application, wetland restoration, and sediment and erosion control demonstrations. This presentation describes the individual components and outlines the courses offered at the training center.

  7. Magnetic fields from steel-belted radial tires: implications for epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Milham, S; Hatfield, J B; Tell, R

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic fields emanate from radial tires due to the presence of reinforcing belts which are made of magnetized steel wire. When these tires spin, they generate alternating magnetic fields of extremely low frequency (ELF), usually below 20 Hz. The fundamental frequency of these fields is determined by tire rotation rate and has a sinusoidal waveform with a high harmonic content. The static field of radial tires can exceed 500 microT at the tread, and the tire-generated alternating fields can exceed 2.0 microT at seat level in the passenger compartment of vehicles. Degaussing the tires reduces both the static and alternating fields to low levels, but the fields increase gradually over time after degaussing. The tire-generated fields are below the frequencies detected by most of the magnetic field meters used in previous studies of power frequency magnetic field health effects. If these fields are biologically active, failure to detect them could compromise exposure assessments associated with epidemiologic studies.

  8. A systematic appraisal of field synopses in genetic epidemiology: a HuGE review.

    PubMed

    Belbasis, Lazaros; Panagiotou, Orestis A; Dosis, Vasilios; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from genetic association studies is accumulating rapidly. Field synopses have recently arisen as an unbiased way of systematically synthesizing this evidence. We performed a systematic review and appraisal of published field synopses in genetic epidemiology and assessed their main findings and methodological characteristics. We identified 61 eligible field synopses, published between January 1, 2007, and October 31, 2013, on 52 outcomes reporting 734 significant associations at the P < 0.05 level. The median odds ratio for these associations was 1.25 (interquartile range, 1.15-1.43). Egger's test was the most common method (n = 30 synopses) of assessing publication bias. Only 12 synopses (20%) used the Venice criteria to evaluate the epidemiologic credibility of their findings (n = 449 variants). Eleven synopses (18%) were accompanied by an online database that has been regularly updated. These synopses received more citations (P = 0.01) and needed a larger research team (P = 0.02) than synopses without an online database. Overall, field synopses are becoming a valuable tool for the identification of common genetic variants, especially when researchers follow relevant methodological guidelines. Our work provides a summary of the current status of the field synopses published to date and may help interested readers efficiently identify the online resources containing the relevant genetic evidence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Field epidemiology: possible beginning of community health. An example: epidemic caused by water].

    PubMed

    Collin, J F; Agbalika, F

    1983-01-01

    The authors illustrate one facet of field epidemiology. They describe an example: a waterborne disease outbreak. The investigations were undertaken in a town in Moselle (F), on the general population with health professionals, school teachers, counselors and water service workers. They estimate that one thousand people had suffered from gastroenteritis (attack rate greater than 60%). Water was polluted and people became ill at the same time and in the same place. There is a strong statistical association between drinkers of polluted water and gastroenteric illness (relative risk: 10). This study has provided population information and resulted in motivation of the responsible people. In the conclusion of the epidemiological investigation they have carried out coherent measures for the protection of the water distribution system.

  10. Introductory Epidemiology. An Instructor Resource Guide. Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Stephen H.; Myer, Donna Foster

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with teaching a course in introductory epidemiology. Covered in the first section of the guide are the role of epidemiology in rural health promotional training, general…

  11. Out-of-School Field on Hunt for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    As out-of-school programs--and the expectations for them--grow, the field is struggling to identify the kind of training staff members need to meet those expectations. A variety of efforts have sprung up across the country to define and improve the quality of after-school staff, some of which bear resemblance to the quest to improve the…

  12. Out-of-School Field on Hunt for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    As out-of-school programs--and the expectations for them--grow, the field is struggling to identify the kind of training staff members need to meet those expectations. A variety of efforts have sprung up across the country to define and improve the quality of after-school staff, some of which bear resemblance to the quest to improve the…

  13. Epidemiologic Issues in Audiology: Impact on Professional Training and Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Thomas H.

    1997-01-01

    The benefits and disadvantages in conducting universal infant hearing screening and in the transition of audiology from a master's to a doctoral level profession are discussed from an epidemiological point of view. Epidemiologic strategies which may inform decision making in these two important and controversial areas are presented. (Author/CR)

  14. Status of epidemiology in the WHO South-East Asia region: burden of disease, determinants of health and epidemiological research, workforce and training capacity

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Preet K; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Arora, Narendra K; Mathur, Prashant; Maskey, Mahesh; Sukirna, Ratna Djuwita; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2012-01-01

    Background The South-East Asia region (SEAR) accounts for one-quarter of the world's population, 40% of the global poor and ∼30% of the global disease burden, with a disproportionately large share of tuberculosis (35%), injuries (30%), maternal (33%) and <5-year-old mortality (30%). In this article, we describe the disease burden and status of epidemiological research and capacity in the SEAR to understand, analyse and develop capacity in response to the diverse burdens of diseases in the region. Methods Data on morbidity, mortality, risk factors, social determinants, research capacity, health education, workforce and systems in the SEAR were obtained using global data on burden of disease, peer-reviewed journals, World Health Organization (WHO) technical and advisory reports, and where available, validated country reports and key informants from the region. Results SEAR countries are afflicted with a triple burden of disease—infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases and injuries. Of the seven WHO regions, SEAR countries account for the highest proportion of global mortality (26%) and due to relatively younger ages at death, the second highest percentage of total years of life lost (30%). The SEAR exceeds the global average annual mortality rate for all three broad cause groupings—communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (334 vs 230 per 100 000); non-communicable diseases (676 vs 573 per 100 000); and injuries (101 vs 78 per 100 000). Poverty, education and other social determinants of health are strongly linked to inequities in health among SEAR countries and within socio-economic subgroups. India, Thailand and Bangladesh produce two-thirds of epidemiology publications in the region. Significant efforts to increase health workforce capacity, research and training have been undertaken in the region, yet considerable heterogeneity in resources and capacity remains. Conclusions Health systems, statistics and surveillance

  15. Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

    Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required…

  16. Beyond Training: A Field Test of the American Society for Training & Development's Workplace Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucar-Szocki, Diane L.

    In 1991, a project studied implementation of the American Society for Training and Development's Workplace Basics model. Field testing was conducted in two Virginia industries: Corning Incorporated in Waynesboro and American Safety Razor (ASR) in Verona. Corning had fewer than 100 employees and an 85 percent female work force; it had shifted from…

  17. Leadership Assessment and Training Simulation; Field Application and Faculty Training System. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Phillip L.

    In previous research a pilot simulation was developed for use by Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) units in assessing leadership potential of officer candidates in turbulent-field environments. Peer and instructor rating forms were also developed for evaluation of leadership, decision style, ability to cope with stress, and interpersonal…

  18. Design and implementation of epidemiological field investigation method based on mobile collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Dongchuan; Huang, Mingxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Fang, Liqun; Cao, Wuchun

    2008-10-01

    With the development of mobile technologies and the integration with the spatial information technologies, it becomes possible to provide a potential to develop new techno-support solutions to Epidemiological Field Investigation especially for the disposal of emergent public health events. Based on mobile technologies and virtual geographic environment, the authors have designed a model for collaborative work in four communication patterns, namely, S2S (Static to Static), M2S (Mobile to Static), S2M (Static to Mobile), and M2M (Mobile to Mobile). Based on the model mentioned above, this paper stresses to explore mobile online mapping regarding mobile collaboration and conducts an experimental case study of HFRS (Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome) fieldwork, and then develops a prototype system of emergent response disposition information system to test the effectiveness and usefulness of field survey based on mobile collaboration.

  19. Out-of-field doses in radiotherapy: Input to epidemiological studies and dose-risk models.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Roger

    2017-04-06

    Out-of-field doses in radiotherapy have been increasingly studied in recent years because of the generally improved survival of patients who have received radiotherapy as part of their treatment for cancer and their subsequent risk of a second malignancy. This short article attempts to identify some current problems, challenges and opportunities for dosimetry developments in this field. Out-of-field doses and derived risk estimates contribute to general knowledge about radiation effects on humans as well as contributing to risk-benefit considerations for the individual patient. It is suggested that for input into epidemiological studies, the complete dose description (i.e. the synthesis of therapy and imaging doses from all the treatment and imaging modalities) is ideally required, although there is currently no common dosimetry framework which easily covers all modalities. A general strategy for out-of-field dose estimation requires development and improvement in several areas including (i) dosimetry in regions of steep dose gradient close to the field edge (ii) experimentally verified analytical and Monte Carlo models for out-of-field doses (iii) the validity of treatment planning system algorithms outside the field edge (iv) dosimetry of critical sub-structures in organs at risk (v) mixed field (including neutron) dosimetry in proton and ion radiotherapy and photoneutron production in high energy photon beams (vi) the most appropriate quantities to use in neutron dosimetry in a radiotherapy context and (vii) simplification of measurement methods in regions distant from the target volume. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Pathologic Epidemiology of Colorectal Neoplasia: An Emerging Transdisciplinary and Interdisciplinary Field

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a complex disease resulting from somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations, including locus-specific CpG island methylation and global DNA or LINE-1 hypomethylation. Global molecular characteristics such as microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), global DNA hypomethylation, and chromosomal instability cause alterations of gene function in a genome-wide scale. Activation of oncogenes including KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA affects intracellular signaling pathways and has been associated with CIMP and MSI. Traditional epidemiology research has investigated various factors in relation to an overall risk of colon and/or rectal cancer. However, colorectal cancers comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases with different sets of genetic and epigenetic alterations. To better understand how a particular exposure influences the carcinogenic process, somatic molecular changes and tumor biomarkers have been studied in relation to the exposure of interest. Moreover, an investigation of interactive effects of tumor molecular changes and the exposures of interest on tumor behavior (prognosis or clinical outcome) can lead to a better understanding of tumor molecular changes, which may be prognostic or predictive tissue biomarkers. These new research efforts represent “Molecular Pathologic Epidemiology”, which is a multidisciplinary field of investigations of the interrelationship between exogenous and endogenous (e.g., genetic) factors, tumoral molecular signatures and tumor progression. Furthermore, integrating genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with molecular pathologic investigation is a promising area. Examining the relationship between susceptibility alleles identified by GWAS and specific molecular alterations can help elucidate the function of these alleles and provide insights into whether susceptibility alleles are truly causal. Although there are challenges, molecular pathologic epidemiology has unique strengths

  1. Development and Evaluation for Active Learning Instructional Design of Epidemiology in Nursing Informatics Field.

    PubMed

    Majima, Yukie

    2016-01-01

    Nursing education classes are classifiable into three types: lectures, classroom practice, and clinical practice. In this study, we implemented a class that incorporated elements of active learning, including clickers, minutes papers, quizzes, and group work and presentation, in the subject of "epidemiology", which is often positioned in the field of nursing informatics and which is usually taught in conventional knowledge-transmission style lectures, to help students understand knowledge and achieve seven class goals. Results revealed that the average scores of the class achievement (five levels of evaluation) were 3.6-3.9, which was good overall. The highest average score of the evaluation of teaching materials by students (five levels of evaluation) was 4.6 for quizzes, followed by 4.2 for announcement of test statistics, 4.1 for clickers, and 4.0 for news presentation related to epidemiology. We regard these as useful tools for students to increase their motivation. One problem with the class was that it took time to organize the class: creation of tests, class preparation and marking, such as things to be returned and distribution of clickers, and writing comments on small papers.

  2. [Risk of neoplastic diseases in conditions of exposure to radio- and microwave fields--epidemiologic investigations].

    PubMed

    Szmigielski, Stanisław; Sobiczewska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    The review presents current state of knowledge of cancer morbidity in persons exposed to radio- or microwave radiation in the environment or at working posts. The problem of cancer morbidity in persons exposed to microwaves was for many years limited to occupational medicine, but the introduction of mobile telephone system in the 1980s considerably increased the number of persons exposed to this radiation and raised concerns about cancer risks in the users of mobile phones. Cancer risks of microwaves are minor and doubtful, but there exist reliable epidemiologic investigations providing evidence that multiyear occupational exposure and intensive use of mobile phones for more than 10 years may cause the increased morbidity of certain types of neoplasms, mainly brain tumors, as well as hematopoietic and lymphatic malignancies. Neverthelesscurrent state of knowledge does not allow, according to the IARC classification, to classify radio- and microwave fields as the carcinogenic factor.

  3. Epidemiologic Responses to Anthrax Outbreaks: A Review of Field Investigations, 1950–2001

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Michael E.; Brachman, Philip S.; Kaufmann, Arnold F.; Klatsky, Peter C.; Ashford, David A.

    2002-01-01

    We used unpublished reports, published manuscripts, and communication with investigators to identify and summarize 49 anthrax-related epidemiologic field investigations conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1950 to August 2001. Of 41 investigations in which Bacillus anthracis caused human or animal disease, 24 were in agricultural settings, 11 in textile mills, and 6 in other settings. Among the other investigations, two focused on building decontamination, one was a response to bioterrorism threats, and five involved other causes. Knowledge gained in these investigations helped guide the public health response to the October 2001 intentional release of B. anthracis, especially by addressing the management of anthrax threats, prevention of occupational anthrax, use of antibiotic prophylaxis in exposed persons, use of vaccination, spread of B. anthracis spores in aerosols, clinical diagnostic and laboratory confirmation methods, techniques for environmental sampling of exposed surfaces, and methods for decontaminating buildings. PMID:12396934

  4. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lystad, R P; Graham, P L; Poulos, R G

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo.

  5. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Graham, PL; Poulos, RG

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  6. Epidemiologic Studies of Electric and Magnetic Fields and Cancer: A Case Study of Distortions by the Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-21

    as a "probable" and workers exposed to power-line magnetic human carcinogen has been questioned for fields were developing cancer -chiefly leukemia ...AD-A27 5 434 FEB 1992 INTERIM 1 OCT 91-31 MAR 92 Epidemiologic Studies of Electric ank Magnetic Fields and PE - 62202F Cancer : A Case Study of...exposure to electric or magnetic fields and cancer . Assertions made in these articles (and a book dealing with essentially the same information) have

  7. Human adverse reproductive outcomes and electromagnetic field exposures: review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, G M; Croen, L A

    1993-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding a relation between residential and occupational electromagnetic (EM) field exposures and adverse reproductive effects. This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this possible relation, including some pertinent methodologic issues, notes relevant findings from the experimental literature, and discusses areas for future research. Evidence is lacking for a strong association between a woman's use of a video display terminal (VDT) during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. The evidence for a strong association between a women's use of a VDT and other adverse reproductive endpoints is also lacking, with some suggestive findings for congenital malformations and too few data to reach a conclusion about other endpoints. With respect to low-level EM field exposures other than VDTs, the paucity of data prevents one from determining whether there are reproductive health risks associated with such exposures. Therefore, this is an area that needs further investigation. Given that altered growth may be an underlying biologic effect of EM field exposures, endpoints that might be pursued in future studies include congenital malformations not associated with chromosomal anomalies, intrauterine growth retardation, and chromosomally normal spontaneous abortions. PMID:8206019

  8. Putting Life into Computer-Based Training: The Creation of an Epidemiologic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathany, Nancy C.; Stehr-Green, Jeanette K.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the design of "Pharyngitis in Louisiana," a computer-based epidemiologic case study that was created to teach students how to conduct disease outbreak investigations. Topics discussed include realistic content portrayals; graphics; interactive teaching methods; interaction between the instructional designer and the medical…

  9. Waveform magnetic field survey in Russian DC and Swiss AC powered trains: a basis for biologically relevant exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Ptitsyna, N G; Kopytenko, Y A; Villoresi, G; Pfluger, D H; Ismaguilov, V; Iucci, N; Kopytenko, E A; Zaitzev, D B; Voronov, P M; Tyasto, M I

    2003-12-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a link between transport magnetic fields (MF) and certain adverse health effects. We performed measurements in workplaces of engineers on Russian DC and Swiss AC powered (16.67 Hz) electric trains using a computer based waveform capture system with a 200 Hz sampling rate. MF in DC and AC trains show complex combinations of static and varying components. The most probable levels of quasistatic MF (0.001-0.03 Hz) were in the range 40 microT. Maximum levels of 120 microT were found in DC powered locomotives. These levels are much higher than the geomagnetic field at the site of measurements. MF encountered both in DC and AC powered rail systems showed irregular temporal variability in frequency composition and amplitude characteristics across the whole frequency range studied (0-50 Hz); however, more than 90% of the magnetic field power was concentrated in frequencies field intensity of about 44 microT; moreover, a significant contribution (about 15%) is due to components below the fundamental frequency. In Russian DC powered trains amplitudes of field variations sharply decrease from static to approximately 3-4 Hz fields; for higher frequencies a tendency of slow decrease is observed up to 50 Hz. For frequencies higher than 1 Hz average amplitudes of magnetic field variations are less than 1 microT; maximum levels reach tens of microtesla. At frequencies lower than 15 Hz, the average magnetic field generated by Swiss AC powered locomotives was approximately 10 times greater than fields observed in Russian DC powered trains. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. [Problems in the further development of postgraduate training in industrial sanitary chemistry for the laboratory physicians of epidemiological health stations].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, E P; Soldatenkova, N A

    1991-01-01

    The article narrates on the domain of the sanitary inspection medical laboratory workers' supervision in the field of industrial chemistry and their experience in handling different physical and chemical analysis techniques. It is indicated that sanitary inspection medical laboratory personnel requires constant postgraduate training. Proposed is the respective training programme adopted at the Institute for Postgraduate Training of Physicians, Moscow, which includes samples' selection, physical and chemical analysis testing and application in specific conditions, statistical assessment of the results obtained. The programme also includes the hygienic aspects, e. i. current sanitary control, labour hygiene in different gas discharge-related conditions. Practical training is performed in small groups of 2 or 3 persons, thus facilitating adoption of skills in using various analysis techniques. Initial, current and intermediate control, tests and situational analysis are used in the training process.

  11. A bibliometric analysis in the fields of preventive medicine, occupational and environmental medicine, epidemiology, and public health

    PubMed Central

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2006-01-01

    Background Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a) the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b) the population size of each region. Results A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, at a level similar to other scientific disciplines, while USA contribution to science in the field of Public Health is by all means outstanding. Less developed regions would need to support their researchers in the above fields in order to improve scientific production and advancement of knowledge in their countries. PMID:17173665

  12. [New approaches to visual rehabilitation training for patients with visual field defects].

    PubMed

    Li, Mengwei; Zhu, Wenqing; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-07-01

    In clinical practice, maculopathy and neurological eye disorders often cause visual field defects. Once the defects are formed, treatment and rehabilitation are confronted with the bottleneck due to irreversibility. With the transformation of medical patterns and people's higher needs for rehabilitation, new approaches to visual training for these diseases with visual field defects are emerging. Currently, visual rehabilitation training for patients with visual field defects focuses on two directions: central visual field defects and hemianopia / peripheral visual field defects. Patients' fine vision is mainly affected by central visual field defects, the rehabilitation training for which can be divided into eccentric viewing training, eye movement training and perceptual learning training. Patients' visual exploration, orientation, walking and reading are largely influenced by hemianopia and peripheral visual field defects, the rehabilitation training for which can be separated into visual restoration strategy and eye movement compensatory strategy.

  13. Epidemiologic Comparison of Injured High School Basketball Athletes Reporting to Emergency Departments and the Athletic Training Setting

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Erica N.; McKenzie, Lara B.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Context: Basketball is a popular US high school sport with more than 1 million participants annually. Objective: To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005–2011 seasons. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the High School Reporting Information Online database. Main Outcome Measure(s): Complex sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of basketball-related injuries for comparison. Patients or Other Participants: Adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age treated in US emergency departments for basketball-related injuries and athletes from 13 to 19 years of age from schools participating in High School Reporting Information Online who were injured while playing basketball. Results: Nationally, an estimated 1 514 957 (95% confidence interval = 1 337 441, 1 692 474) athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1 064 551 (95% confidence interval = 1 055 482, 1 073 620) presented to the athletic training setting. Overall, the most frequent injuries seen in the emergency department were lacerations and fractures (injury proportion ratios [IPRs] = 3.45 and 1.72, respectively), whereas those seen in the athletic training setting were more commonly concussions and strains/sprains (IPRs = 2.23 and 1.19, respectively; all P values < .0001). Comparisons of body site and diagnosis combinations revealed additional differences. For example, athletes with lower leg fractures more often presented to the emergency department (IPR = 6.53), whereas those with hand fractures more frequently presented to the athletic training setting (IPR = 1.18; all P values < .0001). Conclusions: Patterns of injury differed among high school basketball players

  14. Epidemiologic comparison of injured high school basketball athletes reporting to emergency departments and the athletic training setting.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Basketball is a popular US high school sport with more than 1 million participants annually. To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the High School Reporting Information Online database. Complex sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of basketball-related injuries for comparison. Adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age treated in US emergency departments for basketball-related injuries and athletes from 13 to 19 years of age from schools participating in High School Reporting Information Online who were injured while playing basketball. Nationally, an estimated 1,514,957 (95% confidence interval = 1,337,441, 1,692,474) athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1,064,551 (95% confidence interval = 1,055,482, 1,073,620) presented to the athletic training setting. Overall, the most frequent injuries seen in the emergency department were lacerations and fractures (injury proportion ratios [IPRs] = 3.45 and 1.72, respectively), whereas those seen in the athletic training setting were more commonly concussions and strains/sprains (IPRs = 2.23 and 1.19, respectively; all P values < .0001). Comparisons of body site and diagnosis combinations revealed additional differences. For example, athletes with lower leg fractures more often presented to the emergency department (IPR = 6.53), whereas those with hand fractures more frequently presented to the athletic training setting (IPR = 1.18; all P values < .0001). Patterns of injury differed among high school basketball players presenting for treatment in the emergency department and the athletic training setting. Understanding differences specific to clinical settings is

  15. Overview of epidemiologic research on electric and magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A. )

    1993-04-01

    This overview of epidemiologic research addresses the potential role of 60 Hertz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in the etiology of cancer. The key findings are summarized with notation of the methodological challenges with which investigators must content. Although exposure is ubiquitous, long-term average EMF is influenced primarily by the background levels in homes, use of selected electric appliances such as electric blankets, and workplace exposures to energized equipment. Studies of residential exposure have focused on childhood cancer, starting with the report of an excess of wire configurations associated with elevated magnetic fields near the homes of children who developed cancer compared to healthy children. Several subsequent studies have tended to confirm that association, although the evidence falls short of demonstrating a causal association between magnetic fields and cancer. Exposures from electric appliances have been less extensively pursued, with some suggestions of an association with childhood cancer. A more extensive literature has evaluated the association between workplace exposure to EMF, based on job titles of electrical workers and cancer. Across many different study designs and settings, certain groups of electrical workers show elevated occurrence of leukemia and brain cancer. The consistency of findings is notable, but the key question is whether the association with job title is due to EMF or some other agent in the workplace. Future research would benefit from specification of testable challenges to a causal association between EMF exposure in the home or workplace and cancer, along with continued efforts to improve our understanding and measurement of EMF exposure. 64 refs.

  16. Injury and illness definitions and data collection procedures for use in epidemiological studies in Athletics (track and field): consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Jacobsson, Jenny; Junge, Astrid; Branco, Pedro; Clarsen, Ben; Kowalski, Jan; Mountjoy, Margo; Nilsson, Sverker; Pluim, Babette; Renström, Per; Rønsen, Ola; Steffen, Kathrin; Edouard, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    Movement towards sport safety in Athletics through the introduction of preventive strategies requires consensus on definitions and methods for reporting epidemiological data in the various populations of athletes. To define health-related incidents (injuries and illnesses) that should be recorded in epidemiological studies in Athletics, and the criteria for recording their nature, cause and severity, as well as standards for data collection and analysis procedures. A 1-day meeting of 14 experts from eight countries representing a range of Athletics stakeholders and sport science researchers was facilitated. Definitions of injuries and illnesses, study design and data collection for epidemiological studies in Athletics were discussed during the meeting. Two members of the group produced a draft statement after this meeting, and distributed to the group members for their input. A revision was prepared, and the procedure was repeated to finalise the consensus statement. Definitions of injuries and illnesses and categories for recording of their nature, cause and severity were provided. Essential baseline information was listed. Guidelines on the recording of exposure data during competition and training and the calculation of prevalence and incidences were given. Finally, methodological guidance for consistent recording and reporting on injury and illness in athletics was described. This consensus statement provides definitions and methodological guidance for epidemiological studies in Athletics. Consistent use of the definitions and methodological guidance would lead to more reliable and comparable evidence.

  17. A global network for early warning and response to infectious diseases and bioterrorism: applied epidemiology and training programs, 2001.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Hardeep S; Thomas, Christopher; Nsubuga, Peter; White, Mark E

    2003-10-01

    In many ministries of health, applied epidemiology and training programs (AETPs) are responsible for detecting and responding to acute health events, including bioterrorism. In November 2001, we assessed the bioterrorism response capacity of 29 AETPs; 17 (59%) responded. Fifteen countries (88%) had bioterrorism response plans; in 6 (40%), AETPs took the lead in preparation and in 6 (40%) they assisted. Between September 11 and November 29, 2001, 12 AETPs (71%) responded to a total of 3024 bioterrorism-related phone calls. Six programs (35%) responded to suspected bioterrorism events. AETPs play an important role in bioterrorism surveillance and response. Support for this global network by various health agencies is beneficial for all developed and developing countries.

  18. A Global Network for Early Warning and Response to Infectious Diseases and Bioterrorism: Applied Epidemiology and Training Programs, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Hardeep S.; Thomas, Christopher; Nsubuga, Peter; White, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    In many ministries of health, applied epidemiology and training programs (AETPs) are responsible for detecting and responding to acute health events, including bioterrorism. In November 2001, we assessed the bioterrorism response capacity of 29 AETPs; 17 (59%) responded. Fifteen countries (88%) had bioterrorism response plans; in 6 (40%), AETPs took the lead in preparation and in 6 (40%) they assisted. Between September 11 and November 29, 2001, 12 AETPs (71%) responded to a total of 3024 bioterrorism-related phone calls. Six programs (35%) responded to suspected bioterrorism events. AETPs play an important role in bioterrorism surveillance and response. Support for this global network by various health agencies is beneficial for all developed and developing countries. PMID:14534215

  19. Magnetic fields and childhood cancer: an epidemiological investigation of the effects of high-voltage underground cables.

    PubMed

    Bunch, K J; Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence of increased risks for childhood leukaemia from magnetic fields has implicated, as one source of such fields, high-voltage overhead lines. Magnetic fields are not the only factor that varies in their vicinity, complicating interpretation of any associations. Underground cables (UGCs), however, produce magnetic fields but have no other discernible effects in their vicinity. We report here the largest ever epidemiological study of high voltage UGCs, based on 52,525 cases occurring from 1962-2008, with matched birth controls. We calculated the distance of the mother's address at child's birth to the closest 275 or 400 kV ac or high-voltage dc UGC in England and Wales and the resulting magnetic fields. Few people are exposed to magnetic fields from UGCs limiting the statistical power. We found no indications of an association of risk with distance or of trend in risk with increasing magnetic field for leukaemia, and no convincing pattern of risks for any other cancer. Trend estimates for leukaemia as shown by the odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval) per unit increase in exposure were: reciprocal of distance 0.99 (0.95-1.03), magnetic field 1.01 (0.76-1.33). The absence of risk detected in relation to UGCs tends to add to the argument that any risks from overhead lines may not be caused by magnetic fields.

  20. Meta-narrative analysis of sports injury reporting practices based on the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF): A review of consensus statements and epidemiological studies in athletics (track and field).

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Finch, Caroline F; Bichenbach, Jerome; Edouard, Pascal; Bargoria, Victor; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Consistency in routines for reporting injury has been a focus of development efforts in sports epidemiology for a long time. To gain an improved understanding of current reporting practices, we applied the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF) in a review of injury reporting in a subset of the field. Meta-narrative review. An analysis of injury definitions reported in consensus statements for different sports and studies of injury epidemiology in athletics (track and field) published in PubMed between 1980 and 2013 was performed. Separate narratives for each of the three reporting contexts in the IDCF were constructed from the data. Six consensus statements and 14 studies reporting on athletics injury epidemiology fulfilled the selection criteria. The narratives on sports performance, clinical examination, and athlete self-report contexts were evenly represented in the eligible studies. The sports performance and athlete self-report narratives covered both professional and community athletes as well as training and competition settings. In the clinical examination narrative, data collection by health service professionals was linked to studies of professional athletes at international championships. From an application of the IDCF in a review of injury reporting in sports epidemiology we observed a parallel usage of reporting contexts in this field of research. The co-existence of reporting methodologies does not necessarily reflect a problematic situation, but only provided that firm precautions are taken when comparing studies performed in the different contexts. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    PubMed

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Epidemiology and Herd Health Training in the School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, L. F.; Hagstad, H. V.

    1978-01-01

    At Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, training in preventive medicine is incorporated into all four years of the curriculum. The curriculum is described with focus on the fourth year practical course that involves problem solving, using various herds in the area. (JMD)

  3. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  4. Epidemiology and Herd Health Training in the School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, L. F.; Hagstad, H. V.

    1978-01-01

    At Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, training in preventive medicine is incorporated into all four years of the curriculum. The curriculum is described with focus on the fourth year practical course that involves problem solving, using various herds in the area. (JMD)

  5. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  6. Epidemiology of Injuries Associated With Physical Training Among Young Men in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    the benefits of physical activity and exercise has led army. ked. Sci. Sports i.verc., Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 197-203, 1993. It is widely acknowledged that...musculoskeletal injuries occur as a result public health officials in the United States to promote of vigorous physical activity and exercise , but... EXERCISE , PHYSICAL the foundation for Army training injury prevention ACTIVITY , INCIDENCE, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS strategies. The primary purposes of

  7. Speech training alters consonant and vowel responses in multiple auditory cortex fields.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Crystal T; Rahebi, Kimiya C; Buell, Elizabeth P; Fink, Melyssa K; Kilgard, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Speech sounds evoke unique neural activity patterns in primary auditory cortex (A1). Extensive speech sound discrimination training alters A1 responses. While the neighboring auditory cortical fields each contain information about speech sound identity, each field processes speech sounds differently. We hypothesized that while all fields would exhibit training-induced plasticity following speech training, there would be unique differences in how each field changes. In this study, rats were trained to discriminate speech sounds by consonant or vowel in quiet and in varying levels of background speech-shaped noise. Local field potential and multiunit responses were recorded from four auditory cortex fields in rats that had received 10 weeks of speech discrimination training. Our results reveal that training alters speech evoked responses in each of the auditory fields tested. The neural response to consonants was significantly stronger in anterior auditory field (AAF) and A1 following speech training. The neural response to vowels following speech training was significantly weaker in ventral auditory field (VAF) and posterior auditory field (PAF). This differential plasticity of consonant and vowel sound responses may result from the greater paired pulse depression, expanded low frequency tuning, reduced frequency selectivity, and lower tone thresholds, which occurred across the four auditory fields. These findings suggest that alterations in the distributed processing of behaviorally relevant sounds may contribute to robust speech discrimination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Speech training alters consonant and vowel responses in multiple auditory cortex fields

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Crystal T.; Rahebi, Kimiya C.; Buell, Elizabeth P.; Fink, Melyssa K.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Speech sounds evoke unique neural activity patterns in primary auditory cortex (A1). Extensive speech sound discrimination training alters A1 responses. While the neighboring auditory cortical fields each contain information about speech sound identity, each field processes speech sounds differently. We hypothesized that while all fields would exhibit training-induced plasticity following speech training, there would be unique differences in how each field changes. In this study, rats were trained to discriminate speech sounds by consonant or vowel in quiet and in varying levels of background speech-shaped noise. Local field potential and multiunit responses were recorded from four auditory cortex fields in rats that had received 10 weeks of speech discrimination training. Our results reveal that training alters speech evoked responses in each of the auditory fields tested. The neural response to consonants was significantly stronger in anterior auditory field (AAF) and A1 following speech training. The neural response to vowels following speech training was significantly weaker in ventral auditory field (VAF) and posterior auditory field (PAF). This differential plasticity of consonant and vowel sound responses may result from the greater paired pulse depression, expanded low frequency tuning, reduced frequency selectivity, and lower tone thresholds, which occurred across the four auditory fields. These findings suggest that alterations in the distributed processing of behaviorally relevant sounds may contribute to robust speech discrimination. PMID:25827927

  9. [Accidents, disasters and crises: contribution of epidemiology in th nuclear field].

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Bard, D; Dab, W; Hubert, P

    1995-01-01

    The experience of the Chernobyl accident has shown the necessity of being prepared for epidemiological assessment of the death consequences of a nuclear or a radiological accident. We discuss the contribution of epidemiology in such situations, in addition to the existing tools designed to assess or manage radiological risks. From a decisional point of view, three issues are distinguished: the protection of the different population groups against ionizing radiations, the achievement of health care and the communication with the public and media. We discuss the input of epidemiological tools in both perspectives. Epidemiology may also contribute to the analysis of health events that may be observed after an accident, i.e. to assess whether these events are not statistical artifacts, whether they are an effect of the exposure to the ionizing radiations or a non specific consequence of any accident. Finally, epidemiological studies should be carried out to improve our knowledge on ionizing radiations effects with a special consideration given to the dose-effect relationships. Examples of past nuclear accidents are used to discuss these issues. The last part of this paper is focused on different research issues that should be developed for preparing epidemiological plans for nuclear accidents.

  10. High-voltage overhead power lines in epidemiology: patterns of time variations in current load and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Reitan, J B; Tynes, T; Kvamshagen, K A; Vistnes, A I

    1996-01-01

    In epidemiological studies of electromagnetic fields and health effects, exposure classification is crucial. There is no generally accepted biophysical interaction mechanism, but many studies are based on the hypothesis of a causal relationship with the strength of magnetic field. Some definition of the magnitude of exposure must be used, e.g., mean magnetic flux density, the integral of magnetic flux and time, or a peak value. Magnetic fields around a particular power line depend on the current load. The aim of the present study was to follow variations in line current load in the power supply system of the largest Norwegian city on a yearly, monthly, daily and diurnal basis. Fairly large variations in load were found, but increases in consumption were not necessarily reflected in current load on high voltage lines. The correlation between outdoor temperature and current load varied widely, depending on the type of power station feeding the line in question. The registered time variations are large enough to interfere with epidemiological classification of residences and testing of epidemiological hypotheses.

  11. What’s So Different about Big Data?. A Primer for Clinicians Trained to Think Epidemiologically

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The Big Data movement in computer science has brought dramatic changes in what counts as data, how those data are analyzed, and what can be done with those data. Although increasingly pervasive in the business world, it has only recently begun to influence clinical research and practice. As Big Data draws from different intellectual traditions than clinical epidemiology, the ideas may be less familiar to practicing clinicians. There is an increasing role of Big Data in health care, and it has tremendous potential. This Demystifying Data Seminar identifies four main strands in Big Data relevant to health care. The first is the inclusion of many new kinds of data elements into clinical research and operations, in a volume not previously routinely used. Second, Big Data asks different kinds of questions of data and emphasizes the usefulness of analyses that are explicitly associational but not causal. Third, Big Data brings new analytic approaches to bear on these questions. And fourth, Big Data embodies a new set of aspirations for a breaking down of distinctions between research data and operational data and their merging into a continuously learning health system. PMID:25102315

  12. What's so different about big data?. A primer for clinicians trained to think epidemiologically.

    PubMed

    Iwashyna, Theodore J; Liu, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    The Big Data movement in computer science has brought dramatic changes in what counts as data, how those data are analyzed, and what can be done with those data. Although increasingly pervasive in the business world, it has only recently begun to influence clinical research and practice. As Big Data draws from different intellectual traditions than clinical epidemiology, the ideas may be less familiar to practicing clinicians. There is an increasing role of Big Data in health care, and it has tremendous potential. This Demystifying Data Seminar identifies four main strands in Big Data relevant to health care. The first is the inclusion of many new kinds of data elements into clinical research and operations, in a volume not previously routinely used. Second, Big Data asks different kinds of questions of data and emphasizes the usefulness of analyses that are explicitly associational but not causal. Third, Big Data brings new analytic approaches to bear on these questions. And fourth, Big Data embodies a new set of aspirations for a breaking down of distinctions between research data and operational data and their merging into a continuously learning health system.

  13. [Field epidemiological study on news reports that related to public health emergencies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shun-xiang; Li, Xue-mei; Luo, Nian-ci; Mei, Shu-jiang; Jiang, Li-juan

    2013-12-01

    All news reports (NR) that were related to public health emergency (PHE) were collected from the Southern Metropolis Daily (SMD) to explore the characteristics of epidemiology in the fields. Based on the theory of communication that including both case and text analysis, qualitative analysis on all the NR regarding PHE published in SMD from the years of 2008 to 2012, was carried out and input to database using the EpiData. Numbers of articles as indicators were compared to show the yearly change of different types of events. Various features of the NR including coverage, source of information, location of the incident, style and size of news, with or without editorials etc. were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 18.0. Among all the 998 reports related to PHE, higher proportion was found in the events of Infectious diseases (35.3%) and food safety (34.1%)respectively. Events on vaccines and drugs used for disease prevention and control (8.9%), environmental pollution caused incidents (8.0%)appeared to be less frequent. Events related to occupational disease, poisoning, bioterrorism and biochemical events were rare. Looking at the monthly distribution of reports, we noticed that the peaks occurred in 2008 and in 2009, which were caused by the Melamine-contamination events and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Between 2010 and 2012, figures of monthly reports were smooth, including some critical events from the interests of the media. Most events took place in Guangdong province (34.3%) and other provinces (50.9%), with some were from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions (9.5%). However, international events (5.2%)were less seen. Extensive coverage accounted for 17.6% of all of reports, and 11.5% allotted the editorials or other forms of in-depth reports. Most of the source of reports on infectious diseases and food safety were from the official release, however. The main sources of occupational diseases and poisoning, vaccines and drug incidents, environmental pollution

  14. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: field epidemiology and the management of wild rabbit populations.

    PubMed

    Cooke, B D

    2002-08-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) has become established in wild rabbit populations throughout Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand. The abundance of wild rabbits has been significantly reduced, particularly in drier areas of southern Spain, inland Australia and South Island New Zealand. A detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of RHD is essential for the management of the disease in natural rabbit populations, either to rebuild or to control populations. When RHD first spread among naive wild rabbits, epidemiological studies provided unique information on the rate of spread, the possible role of insect vectors in transmission, and the correlation between the impact of disease on populations and climatic variables. Current research shows a consistent pattern of epidemiology between Europe and Australasia. Typically, the most severe epizootics of RHD occur among young sub-adult rabbits which have lost age-related resilience and maternal antibodies. However, the timing of these outbreaks reflects climatic variables that determine the breeding season of the rabbits and the periods when RHD virus (RDHV) is most likely to persist and spread. Further factors that may complicate epidemiology include the possibility that non-pathogenic RHDV-like viruses are present in natural rabbit populations. Additionally, the question of how the virus persists from year to year remains unresolved; persistence in carrier rabbits is a possibility. Understanding of the epidemiology of RHD is now sufficiently advanced to consider the possibility of manipulating rabbit populations to alter the epidemiological pattern of RHD and thereby maximise or minimise the mortality caused by the disease. Altering the epidemiology of RHD in this manner would assist the management of wild rabbit populations either for conservation or pest control purposes.

  15. A Universal Model for Evaluating Basic Electronic Courses in Terms of Field Utilization of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The main purpose of the Air Force project was to develop a universal model to evaluate usage of basic electronic principles training. The criterion used by the model to evaluate electronic theory training is a determination of the usefulness of the training vis-a-vis the performance of assigned tasks in the various electronic career fields. Data…

  16. Using field-based epidemiological methods to investigate FMD outbreaks: an example from the 2002 outbreak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Wee, S-H; Nam, H-M; Moon, O-K; Yoon, H; Park, J-Y; More, S J

    2008-12-01

    Relevant to foot and mouth disease (FMD), most published epidemiological studies have been conducted using quantitative methods and substantial regional or national datasets. Veterinary epidemiology also plays a critical role during outbreak investigations, both to assist with herd-level decision-making and to contribute relevant information to assist with ongoing national or regional control strategies. Despite the importance of this role, however, little information has been published on the use of applied (field-based) epidemiological methods during disease outbreaks. In this study, we outline an investigative template for FMD, and a case study of its use during the 2002 FMD outbreak in Korea. Suitable for use during field-based epidemiological investigations of individual farms within a broader regional/national response, the template considers three steps including confirming infection, estimating date of introduction and determining method of introduction. A case study was conducted on IP13 (the 13th infected premises), the only IP during the 2002 FMD outbreak in Korea that was geographically isolated from all other known cases. The authorities first became aware of FMD on IP13 on 2 June, however, infection may have been present from 12 May. Infection was confirmed on 3 June 2002. FMD was probably spread to IP13 by a contract worker who had participated during 2-4 May in the culling operations on IP1. Other routes of spread were ruled out during the investigation. The contract worker lived in the locality of IP13 and worked on a part-time basis at a pork-processing plant that was adjacent to this farm. The contractor became heavily contaminated during the cull, but did not comply fully with cleaning and disinfection requirements once the cull had been completed. The investigative template contributed structure and focus to the field-based investigation. Results from this case study demonstrate the need for strict management of personnel in disease control and

  17. CIP Training Manual: Collaborative Information Portal Advance Training Information for Field Test Participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, John; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Collaborative Information Portal (CIP) is a web-based information management and retrieval system. Its purpose is to provide users at MER (Mars Exploration Rover) mission operations with easy access to a broad range of mission data and products and contextual information such as the current operations schedule. The CIP web-server provides this content in a user customizable web-portal environment. Since CIP is still under development, only a subset of the full feature set will be available for the EDO field test. The CIP web-portal will be accessed through a standard web browser. CIP is intended to be intuitive and simple to use, however, at the training session, users will receive a one to two page reference guide, which should aid them in using CIP. Users must provide their own computers for accessing CIP during the field test. These computers should be configured with Java 1.3 and a Java 2 enabled browser. Macintosh computers should be running OS 10.1.3 or later. Classic Mac OS (OS 9) is not supported. For more information please read section 7.3 in the FIASCO Rover Science Operations Test Mission Plan. Several screen shots of the Beta Release of CIP are shown on the following pages.

  18. Field of View Requirements for Carrier Landing Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams Air Force Base. The visual image for the simulation was provided by a data base which crea&.ed the aircraft carrier...USS Forrestal (CVA-59) in the ASPT computer-image-generation systor.m. The pilots in these three groups’ were trained under different conditions. Two...Advanced Simalator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) would be ideal for this effort, and later, Lt Col Samuel T. Hannan and Capt Ricky A. Perry were assigned

  19. A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkibi, Hod

    2012-01-01

    Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  2. ASCAN Helms sits in T-38A cockpit and prepares for Ellington Field training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Susan J. Helms, wearing a helmet with oxygen mask, sits in T-38A cockpit while preparing for flight training at Ellington Field. Helms, along with other 1990 Astronaut Class members, participated in the training conducted by NASA staff pilots on 07-26-90 and 07-27-90. Ellington Field is located near JSC.

  3. Physiological variables measured under field conditions according to age and state of training in French Trotters.

    PubMed

    Couroucé, A; Chrétien, M; Valette, J P

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesised that the derived physiological variables V2 and V4 (velocity to achieve a blood lactate concentration of 2 and 4 mmol/l, respectively), HR2 and HR4 (the corresponding heart rate) and V200 (the velocity for a heart rate of 200 beats/min) would improve with training state and age, in French Trotters. A total of 194 French Trotters from one training establishment were followed for 6 years and 1105 standardised field exercise tests performed on a sand training track. The horses were divided into 6 age groups (from 1 to > or = 6 years) and 4 training groups (beginning, endurance training, sprint training, racing). A 2-way analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the effects of age, training and the interaction of age and training on these physiological variables with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. The results showed that there was a significant influence of age on HR4, V2, V4 and V200, with these variables increasing with age. Also, there was a significant influence of training and both age and training on V2, V4 and V200, with these variables increasing with training and age. These results, obtained in a longitudinal study in a reproducible field environment, are consistent with previous laboratory-based experimental studies. We conclude that objective indices of fitness obtained on the training track can be useful in the commercial training environment.

  4. Evaluation of Highly Realistic Training for Navy Corpsmen: Results for Field Medical Training Battalion-West

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-14

    Responses were made on a 5-point scale, ranging from 1 (very unlikely) to 5 (very likely). This item was adapted from a career intentions item that...highly realistic training on participants’ self-efficacy (i.e., confidence), perceived readiness, and career intentions. Corpsmen participants...perceived readiness, and career intentions. We expected that participants would express a high level of satisfaction with the training and that the training

  5. South-to-North, cross-disciplinary training in global health practice: ten years of lessons learned from an infectious disease field course in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Henroy P; Nisbett, Richard A; Stoler, Justin; Bain, Brendan C; Bhatta, Madhav P; Castle, Trevor; Harbertson, Judith; Brodine, Stephanie K; Vermund, Sten H

    2011-09-01

    Global commerce, travel, and emerging and resurging infectious diseases have increased awareness of global health threats and opportunities for collaborative and service learning. We review course materials, knowledge archives, data management archives, and student evaluations for the first 10 years of an intensive summer field course in infectious disease epidemiology and surveillance offered in Jamaica. We have trained 300 students from 28 countries through collaboration between the University of the West Indies and U.S. partner universities. Participants were primarily graduate students in public health, but also included health professionals with terminal degrees, and public health nurses and inspectors. Strong institutional synergies, committed faculty, an emphasis on scientific and cultural competencies, and use of team-based field research projects culminate in a unique training environment that provides participants with career-developing experiences. We share lessons learned over the past decade, and conclude that South-to-North leadership is critical in shaping transdisciplinary, cross-cultural, global health practice.

  6. The Training of Multicompetent Allied Health Professionals Using a Combined-Fields Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Robert E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the training of multicompetent health care providers by combining one or more aspects of their respective curricula. Three methods--intra-, across-, and extra-field combinations--of melding two historically separate fields are described. An example of an across-field combination--the Baylor College of Medicine Physician…

  7. Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial.

    PubMed Central

    Kellam, S G; Anthony, J C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether interventions aimed at aggressive/disruptive classroom behavior and poor academic achievement would reduce the incidence of initiation of smoking. METHODS: An epidemiologically based, universal randomized preventive trial involved 2311 children in 2 classroom-based preventive interventions or controls. Each intervention was directed at 1 of the aforementioned 2 antecedents over first and second grades in 19 urban schools. RESULTS: Smoking initiation was reduced in both cohorts for boys assigned to the behavioral intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting early risk antecedents such as aggressive behavior appears to be an important smoking prevention strategy. PMID:9772850

  8. Technical Co-operation between Developing Countries in the Field of Human Resources Training. Training Policies Discussion Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergerie, Julio

    This paper describes the progress achieved in the fields of vocational and management training as well as the contributions made by the technical services of the International Labor Office to the efforts of developing countries. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section describes cooperation between management training…

  9. Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

  10. Recruiting and Training Undergraduate Research Assistants for Longitudinal Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a research training project for undergraduate psychology students in the development, administration, and evaluation of strategies to deter addictive smoking in adolescents. Students worked closely with faculty and graduate student researchers and became aware of the constraints of institutional regulations and logistical problems…

  11. Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

  12. Aviation Pilot Training I & II. Flight Syllabus. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot training I and II begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. The syllabus is designed to be used concurrently with the ground school program. A minimum of 29 flights are scheduled with a minimum of 40 hours total flight time. Tasks/competencies are categorized into five concept/duty…

  13. Industrial Waste Treatment. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This operations manual represents a continuation of operator training manuals developed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in response to the technological advancements of wastewater treatment and the changing needs of the operations profession. It is intended to be used as a home-study course manual (using the concepts…

  14. Advanced Waste Treatment. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This operations manual represents a continuation of operator training manuals developed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in response to the technological advancements of wastewater treatment and the changing needs of the operations profession. It is intended to be used as a home-study course manual (using the concepts…

  15. A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

    This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

  16. A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

    This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

  17. Training in dissemination and implementation research: a field-wide perspective.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Enola K; Chambers, David A

    2016-05-03

    We report outcomes of an NIH-convened meeting on training for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, focused on accelerating translation of research to healthcare practice. Participants included leaders of current trainings, center directors, and those trained in existing programs. Given the large proportion of D&I research focused on cancer control, mental health, and substance abuse, participants overwhelmingly reflected the experiences and challenges of gaining capacity in behavioral health-related D&I research. The 2-day meeting required participants to draw upon their experiences to help build a field-wide perspective for D&I research training, identify resources needed to support this perspective, and brainstorm gaps in training that needed to be filled. Questions were sent to participants in advance, and responses were synthesized and presented to discuss during the meeting. A preliminary "field-wide" perspective emerged, spanning multiple disciplines, training models, and career levels. Current programs face high demand, need for continued evolution to reflect field advances, and sustainability challenges. Current gaps include implementation practice and predoctoral training. Federal funding is key to D&I research training, be it through grants or agency-led training programs, in order to span and address specialized disease and disorder foci and career tracks.

  18. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total...

  19. Learning for All: The Value of Field Experience in Training a New Generation of Program Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buitrag, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Professionals in various fields have the opportunity to train in real-life situations before they take on a job by themselves. In program evaluation, however, preservice training usually focuses on coursework oriented to research design and methods. After completing these studies, evaluators go off to conduct evaluations guided primarily by their…

  20. Effects of Field Instructor Training on Student Competencies and the Supervisory Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Kathleen Holtz; Bennett, Susanne; Mohr, Jonathan; Hwang, Jeongha

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study of a field instructor (FI) training model, offered at two universities, focused on the relationship between student competencies, the supervisory alliance, and students' attachment styles. Method: The study used a pretest-posttest follow-up design of 100 randomly assigned FIs (training group = 48; control group = 52) and 64…

  1. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  2. Technology's Role in Field Experiences for Preservice Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixon, Emily; So, Hyo-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of how technology has been used to enhance or replace field experiences in preservice teacher preparation programs, and discuss the benefits and limitations of traditional and technology-enhanced/virtual field experience approaches. In this paper, three types of technology-enhanced…

  3. The Role of Professional Journals and Societies in the Future of a Field: A Reflection on the Partnership Between the American Journal of Epidemiology and the Society for Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Kristen A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    On this, the 100th anniversary of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, we take the opportunity to reflect on the ties between the School, the American Journal of Epidemiology, and the Society for Epidemiologic Research. We discuss briefly the intersection of the School, the Journal, and the Society throughout their histories, with the aim of providing some insight into how the Journal and the Society have contributed to the evolution of the field. In so doing, we articulate the challenges that the Journal and the Society jointly face today, with an eye to finding opportunities in these challenges that can be helpful in coming decades.

  4. Incidence and molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremias in patients with acute leukemia: analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fanci, R; Paci, C; Anichini, P; Pecile, P; Marra, G; Casini, C; Nicoletti, P

    2003-10-01

    The incidence and molecular epidemiology of P. aeruginosa bacteremias, were monitored in patients with acute leukemia to define mechanisms of possible nosocomial transmission. From September 1997 to March 2001 febrile episodes were examined and blood isolates of P. aeruginosa were studied employing Pulsed-Field gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Evaluation of DNA correlation was performed according to Tenover criteria. A total of 309 febrile episodes occurred in 187 patients. Of 139 organisms isolated in 116 bacteremias, 48% were gram negative bacilli (GNB); P. aeruginosa bacteremias were recorded in 34 (51%) of GNB sepsis. Evaluation of DNA correlation showed 2 related in 1997, 7 related in 1998, 10 related in 1999, 6 related in 2000-2001 (mainly closely and possibly related); therefore isolates closely related among themselves were also possibly related with other strains. About 60% of patients with related strains were hospitalized in the same room or in different rooms but became infected in the same period. Our data suggest a horizontal spread among the patients even if other sources were possible. The study assessed the usefulness of PFGE in bacteriological epidemiology.

  5. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis: a review of application and interpretation in the molecular epidemiology of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Goering, Richard V

    2010-10-01

    Over the years, approaches to the epidemiological analysis of infectious disease have undergone a remarkable evolutionary transition moving from phenotypic to molecular in nature. As discussed here, the quest for a clearer comparison of genomic relatedness between bacterial clinical isolates has involved four generations of molecular iteration. First generation plasmid analysis gave way to a second generation use of restriction enzymes and probes. This was followed by third generation pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR-based methods with movement now to fourth-generation DNA sequence-based approaches. Remarkably, despite (or perhaps because of) its more than 20-year history as a typing method, PFGE has demonstrated exceptional staying power. The reasons for this endurance as well as the pros and cons of PFGE use are examined in this review. In broad context the history and technology behind PFGE are considered. Issues commonly influencing the quality of PFGE data and its analysis are discussed. Specifics regarding the mechanics of DNA preparation, restriction-enzyme digestion, and proper conditions for electrophoresis are detailed and, most importantly for any approach to epidemiological assessment, issues regarding the analysis and interpretation of PFGE data are explored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the discriminatory power of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR fingerprinting for epidemiologic typing of Candida species.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Pfaller, Michael A.; Hollis, Richard J.; Melchers, Willem J.G.; Meis, Jacques F.G.M.

    1998-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the discriminatory power of genotyping methods (PCR fingerprinting and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) validated for Candida albicans in other Candida species. METHODS: Molecular typing methods are increasingly being applied for studies where the interpretation of data essentially relies on the typing results rather than epidemiologic data. In this situation, the discriminatory power (ability to identify differences among epidemiologically unrelated strains) of the typing method is important in allowing one to draw valid conclusions. By applying PCR fingerprinting, electrophoretic karyotyping, and restriction fragment endonuclease analysis using standard restriction enzymes and primers proven to be useful in previous studies, we evaluated whether the use of multiple genotyping methods is sufficient to delineate known unrelated strains among seven Candida species. RESULTS: All three methods identified individual genotypes for each of the seven Candida species studied. However, optimal strain delineation required the combined use of all three typing methods and was observed only within the small number of C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates tested in this study. CONCLUSION: Typing assays that are able to delineate a certain Candida species may not be used blindly for other species of that genus. Regarding the limited number of strains tested, further validation of the discriminative power of genotyping methods (including in C. tropicalis) should be done.

  7. Mechanisms of Geomagnetic Field Influence on Gene Expression Using Influenza as a Model System: Basics of Physical Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Zaporozhan, Valeriy; Ponomarenko, Andriy

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate distinct changes in gene expression in cells exposed to a weak magnetic field (MF). Mechanisms of this phenomenon are not understood yet. We propose that proteins of the Cryptochrome family (CRY) are “epigenetic sensors” of the MF fluctuations, i.e., magnetic field-sensitive part of the epigenetic controlling mechanism. It was shown that CRY represses activity of the major circadian transcriptional complex CLOCK/BMAL1. At the same time, function of CRY, is apparently highly responsive to weak MF because of radical pairs that periodically arise in the functionally active site of CRY and mediate the radical pair mechanism of magnetoreception. It is known that the circadian complex influences function of every organ and tissue, including modulation of both NF-κB- and glucocorticoids- dependent signaling pathways. Thus, MFs and solar cycles-dependent geomagnetic field fluctuations are capable of altering expression of genes related to function of NF-κB, hormones and other biological regulators. Notably, NF-κB, along with its significant role in immune response, also participates in differential regulation of influenza virus RNA synthesis. Presented data suggests that in the case of global application (example—geomagnetic field), MF-mediated regulation may have epidemiological and other consequences. PMID:20617011

  8. Field Training Activities for Hydrologic Science in West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustina, C.; Fajri, P. N.; Fathoni, F.; Gusti, T. P.; Harifa, A. C.; Hendra, Y.; Hertanti, D. R.; Lusiana, N.; Rohmat, F. I.; Agouridis, C.; Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Pandjaitan, N.; Santoso, R.; Suharyanto, A.

    2013-12-01

    In hydrologic science and engineering, one challenge is establishing a common framework for discussion among workers from different disciplines. As part of the 'Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology: Helping Hydrologic Outreach (BOOST H2O)' project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of State, nine current or recent graduate students from four Indonesian universities participated in a week of training activities during June 2013. Students had backgrounds in agricultural engineering, civil and environmental engineering, water resources engineering, natural resources management, and soil science. Professors leading the training, which was based at Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) in west Java, included an agricultural engineer, civil engineers, and geologists. Activities in surface-water hydrology included geomorphic assessment of streams (measuring slope, cross-section, and bed-clast size) and gauging stream flow (wading with top-setting rods and a current meter for a large stream, and using a bucket and stopwatch for a small stream). Groundwater-hydrology activities included measuring depth to water in wells, conducting a pumping test with an observation well, and performing vertical electrical soundings to infer hydrostratigraphy. Students also performed relatively simple water-quality measurements (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and alkalinity) in streams, wells, and springs. The group analyzed data with commercially-available software such as AQTESOLV for well hydraulics, freeware such as the U.S. Geological Survey alkalinity calculator, and Excel spreadsheets. Results were discussed in the context of landscape position, lithology, and land use.

  9. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  10. The World Bank Rural Development Field Staff Distance Learning and Training Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando

    The Rural Development Distance Learning and Training Strategy targets locally recruited field staff of the World Bank Rural Sector. Field staff at the bank's mission offices worldwide are heterogeneous in terms of culture, ethnicity, race, gender, social class, and religion. However, they have the following in common: they follow the Bank's work…

  11. The impact of immersion training on complementing organizational goals and accelerating culture change - a field study

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.M.

    1996-02-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a national defense laboratory with a history of working in seclusion and secrecy, scientists and engineers have received an important new mission to partner with industry. The scientists and engineers need to expand their skill base beyond science and understand the business of innovation to be successful in this new environment. An administrative field experiment of conducting intensive, immersion training about the commercialization process was piloted at Los Alamos in September, 1992. This Field Research Project addresses the following research question: {open_quotes}Does {open_quotes}immersion{close_quotes} commercialization training complement organizational goals and does the method accelerate cultural change?{close_quotes} The field experiment first began as a pilot Commercialization Workshop conducted for twelve scientists in September, 1992. The objective was to create commercialization action plans for promising environmental technologies. The immersion method was compared to the indoctrination method of training also. The indoctrination training was a one-day lecture style session conducted for one hundred and fifty scientists in July, 1993. The impact of the training was measured by perceived attitude change and the amount of subsequent industrial partnerships that followed the training. The key management question addressed on the job was, {open_quotes}With a limited budget, how do we maximize the impact of training and achieve the best results?{close_quotes}

  12. Transfer effects of training-induced visual field recovery in patients with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Bergsma, D P; Elshout, J A; van der Wildt, G J; van den Berg, A V

    2012-01-01

    Visual training of light detection in the transition zone between blind and healthy hemianopic visual fields leads to improvement of color and simple pattern recognition. Recently, we demonstrated that visual field enlargement (VFE) also occurs when an area just beyond the transition zone is stimulated. In the current study, we attempted to determine whether this peripheral training also causes improvement in color and shape perception and reading speed. Further, we evaluated which measure of VFE relates best to improvements in performance: the average border shift (ABS) in degrees or the estimated amount of cortical surface gain (ECSG) in millimeters, using the cortical magnification factor (CMF). Twelve patients received 40 sessions of 1-hour restorative function training (RFT). Before and after training, we measured visual fields and reading speed. Additionally, color and shape perception in the trained visual field area was measured in 7 patients. VFE was found for 9 of 12 patients. Significant improvements were observed in reading speed for 8 of 12 patients and in color and shape perception for 3 of 7 patients. ECSG correlates significantly with performance; ABS does not. Our data indicate that the threshold ECSG, needed for significant changes in color and shape perception and reading speed, is about 6 mm. White stimulus training-induced VFE can lead to improved color and shape perception and to increased reading speed in and beyond the pretraining transition zone if ECSG is sufficiently large. The latter depends on the eccentricity of the VFE.

  13. The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of Mycoplasma bovis in French calf feedlots.

    PubMed

    Arcangioli, Marie-Anne; Aslan, Hamidé; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Le Grand, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major cause of respiratory outbreaks in cattle feedlots. In this study pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to trace field strains and provide information on M. bovis patterns of spread in calf feedlots. The suitability of KpnI, MluI and SmaI restriction enzymes was assessed on different sets of strains. The discriminative power of the first two enzymes was first assessed using 28 epidemiologically unrelated strains; stability was 100% on multiple isolates from in vivo experimental infection. Thirty-nine field isolates from six feedlots were then evaluated. In contrast to the unique fingerprints displayed by the unrelated strains, the isolates from the feedlots showed identical patterns at the time of the outbreak of respiratory disease and 4 weeks later. The PFGE typing results suggest that M. bovis strains follow a clonal epidemic spread pattern at the herd level and that the same strain persists in calves of the herd after the clinical signs have disappeared.

  14. Epidemiology Characteristics, Methodological Assessment and Reporting of Statistical Analysis of Network Meta-Analyses in the Field of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ge, Long; Tian, Jin-Hui; Li, Xiu-Xia; Song, Fujian; Li, Lun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ge; Pei, Gai-Qin; Qiu, Xia; Yang, Ke-Hu

    2016-11-16

    Because of the methodological complexity of network meta-analyses (NMAs), NMAs may be more vulnerable to methodological risks than conventional pair-wise meta-analysis. Our study aims to investigate epidemiology characteristics, conduction of literature search, methodological quality and reporting of statistical analysis process in the field of cancer based on PRISMA extension statement and modified AMSTAR checklist. We identified and included 102 NMAs in the field of cancer. 61 NMAs were conducted using a Bayesian framework. Of them, more than half of NMAs did not report assessment of convergence (60.66%). Inconsistency was assessed in 27.87% of NMAs. Assessment of heterogeneity in traditional meta-analyses was more common (42.62%) than in NMAs (6.56%). Most of NMAs did not report assessment of similarity (86.89%) and did not used GRADE tool to assess quality of evidence (95.08%). 43 NMAs were adjusted indirect comparisons, the methods used were described in 53.49% NMAs. Only 4.65% NMAs described the details of handling of multi group trials and 6.98% described the methods of similarity assessment. The median total AMSTAR-score was 8.00 (IQR: 6.00-8.25). Methodological quality and reporting of statistical analysis did not substantially differ by selected general characteristics. Overall, the quality of NMAs in the field of cancer was generally acceptable.

  15. Epidemiology Characteristics, Methodological Assessment and Reporting of Statistical Analysis of Network Meta-Analyses in the Field of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Long; Tian, Jin-hui; Li, Xiu-xia; Song, Fujian; Li, Lun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ge; Pei, Gai-qin; Qiu, Xia; Yang, Ke-hu

    2016-01-01

    Because of the methodological complexity of network meta-analyses (NMAs), NMAs may be more vulnerable to methodological risks than conventional pair-wise meta-analysis. Our study aims to investigate epidemiology characteristics, conduction of literature search, methodological quality and reporting of statistical analysis process in the field of cancer based on PRISMA extension statement and modified AMSTAR checklist. We identified and included 102 NMAs in the field of cancer. 61 NMAs were conducted using a Bayesian framework. Of them, more than half of NMAs did not report assessment of convergence (60.66%). Inconsistency was assessed in 27.87% of NMAs. Assessment of heterogeneity in traditional meta-analyses was more common (42.62%) than in NMAs (6.56%). Most of NMAs did not report assessment of similarity (86.89%) and did not used GRADE tool to assess quality of evidence (95.08%). 43 NMAs were adjusted indirect comparisons, the methods used were described in 53.49% NMAs. Only 4.65% NMAs described the details of handling of multi group trials and 6.98% described the methods of similarity assessment. The median total AMSTAR-score was 8.00 (IQR: 6.00–8.25). Methodological quality and reporting of statistical analysis did not substantially differ by selected general characteristics. Overall, the quality of NMAs in the field of cancer was generally acceptable. PMID:27848997

  16. A Delphi Study on Staff Bereavement Training in the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Field.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer A; Truesdale, Jesslyn

    2015-12-01

    The Delphi technique was used to obtain expert panel consensus to prioritize content areas and delivery methods for developing staff grief and bereavement curriculum training in the intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) field. The Delphi technique was conducted with a panel of 18 experts from formal and informal disability caregiving, nursing, and hospice and bereavement service provision. Results showed that training should help staff identify and support service users experiencing grief. Importantly, staff also needs help in managing their own grief. Organizational policies and resources should be instituted to support the grief processes of both service users and staff. Practice-based applications are discussed, and research implications are presented for training evaluation.

  17. Effect of psychological skills training during military survival school: a randomized, controlled field study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Stanfill, Katherine E; Padilla, Genieleah A; Markham, Amanda E; Ward, Michael D; Koehler, Matthew M; Anglero, Antonio; Adams, Barry D

    2011-12-01

    In this randomized, controlled field study, we examined the effects of a brief psychological skills training (PST) intervention on stress responses during military survival school. A second purpose was to build upon prior research in this unique environment by extending the follow-up window to 3 months. Baseline subjective distress (dissociative) symptoms were measured in 65 male military subjects, who were then randomized either to PST or a control group that received no training beyond the normal survival school curriculum. PST received training in arousal control, mental imagery, goal setting, and positive self-talk in two separate 40-minute sessions before stressful field exercises. Stress symptoms were then assessed during a mock-captivity phase of training, as well as 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months after completion of training. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with follow-up paired t tests examined differences between groups and across time. Survival training precipitated remarkable increases in subjective distress, but few substantive group differences emerged. This study extends prior work quantifying the human stress response to intense military training.

  18. The impact of a sports vision training program in youth field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Sebastian; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a sports vision training program improves the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training. The choice reaction time task at the D2 board (Learning Task I), the functional field of view task (Learning Task II) and the multiple object tracking (MOT) task (Transfer Task) were assessed before and after the intervention and again six weeks after the second test. Analyzes showed significant differences between the two groups for the choice reaction time task at the D2 board and the functional field of view task, with significant improvements for the intervention group and none for the control group. For the transfer task, we could not find statistically significant improvements for either group. The results of this study are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications. Key pointsPerceptual training with youth field hockey playersCan a sports vision training program improve the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training?The intervention was performed in the "VisuLab" as DynamicEye(®) SportsVision Training at the German Sport University Cologne.We ran a series of 3 two-factor univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on both within subject independent variables (group; measuring point) to examine the effects on central perception, peripheral perception and choice reaction time.The present study shows an improvement of certain visual abilities with the help of the sports vision training program.

  19. The Impact of a Sports Vision Training Program in Youth Field Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Sebastian; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a sports vision training program improves the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training. The choice reaction time task at the D2 board (Learning Task I), the functional field of view task (Learning Task II) and the multiple object tracking (MOT) task (Transfer Task) were assessed before and after the intervention and again six weeks after the second test. Analyzes showed significant differences between the two groups for the choice reaction time task at the D2 board and the functional field of view task, with significant improvements for the intervention group and none for the control group. For the transfer task, we could not find statistically significant improvements for either group. The results of this study are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications. Key pointsPerceptual training with youth field hockey playersCan a sports vision training program improve the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training?The intervention was performed in the “VisuLab” as DynamicEye® SportsVision Training at the German Sport University Cologne.We ran a series of 3 two-factor univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on both within subject independent variables (group; measuring point) to examine the effects on central perception, peripheral perception and choice reaction time.The present study shows an improvement of certain visual abilities with the help of the sports vision training program. PMID:24150071

  20. TRAINING-INDUCED CHANGES IN DRAG-FLICK TECHNIQUE IN FEMALE FIELD HOCKEY PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, M.; Martín-Casado, L.; Navarro, E.

    2012-01-01

    The penalty corner is one of the most important goal plays in field hockey. The drag-flick is used less by women than men in a penalty corner. The aim of this study was to describe training-induced changes in the drag-flick technique in female field hockey players. Four female players participated in the study. The VICON optoelectronic system (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) measured the kinematic parameters of the drag-flick with six cameras sampling at 250 Hz, prior to and after training. Fifteen shots were captured for each subject. A Wilcoxon test assessed the differences between pre-training and post-training parameters. Two players received specific training twice a week for 8 weeks; the other two players did not train. The proposed drills improved the position of the stick at the beginning of the shot (p < 0.05), the total distance of the shot (p < 0.05) and the rotation radius at ball release (p < 0.01). It was noted that all players had lost speed of the previous run. Further studies should include a larger sample, in order to provide more information on field hockey performance. PMID:24868116

  1. Graduate Medical Education Training in Clinical Epidemiology, Critical Appraisal, and Evidence-Based Medicine: A Critical Review of Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    A study systematically reviewed published literature on graduate medical-education curricula in clinical epidemiology, critical appraisal, and evidence-based medicine (EBM). The 18 reports found in the search provide useful guidelines for medical educators but many suffer from incomplete descriptions and inadequate curriculum evaluations.…

  2. Effects of intensified military field training on jumping performance.

    PubMed

    Welsh, T T; Alemany, J A; Montain, S J; Frykman, P N; Tuckow, A P; Young, A J; Nindl, B C

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive, reliable, field-expedient test may be valuable for monitoring interventions during periods of anticipated physical performance decline. The purpose of this study was to determine the capabilities of unloaded jumping tests for detecting decrements in physical performance following eight days of military sustained operations. Twenty-nine U. S. Marines (24 +/- 1 y; 180 +/- 6 cm; 82.5 +/- 8.2 kg) performed 1, 5 and 30 repetition(s) of unloaded countermovement jumps (UJ) before and after eight days of sustained operations (SUSOPS). Jump performance data was collected simultaneously using a switch mat (SM) and a linear position transducer (LPT). Jump height (m) and power (W) were highest using 1 UJ and declined 4.9 and 8.9%, respectively after SUSOPS. Jump power (JP) declined progressively over 30 UJ (20%). Five UJ offered no advantages over 1 UJ and was inadequate to examine changes in muscle fatigability (pre: 1294 +/- 138 W; post: 1250 +/- 165 W). The SM and a LPT were in agreement and had a high correlation (r = 0.92). One UJ was a sensitive, easy to implement test for monitoring the collective impact of high physical, nutritional, cognitive, and environmental stress on an individuals' physical performance before and after 8 days of SUSOPS, suggesting decrements in physical performance associated with overreaching can be detected by simply administered field-expedient jumping tests.

  3. Wave trains induced by circularly polarized electric fields in cardiac tissues

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Juan-Mei; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, cardiac fibrillation caused by spiral and turbulent waves can be terminated by globally resetting electric activity in cardiac tissues with a single high-voltage electric shock, but it is usually associated with severe side effects. Presently, a promising alternative uses wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a sequence of low-voltage uniform electric field pulses. Nevertheless, this method can only emit waves locally near obstacles in turbulent waves and thereby requires multiple obstacles to globally synchronize myocardium and thus to terminate fibrillation. Here we propose a new approach using wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a low-voltage circularly polarized electric field (i.e., a rotating uniform electric field). We find that, this approach can generate circular wave trains near obstacles and they propagate outwardly. We study the characteristics of such circular wave trains and further find that, the higher-frequency circular wave trains can effectively suppress spiral turbulence. PMID:26302781

  4. Wave trains induced by circularly polarized electric fields in cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Juan-Mei; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2015-08-25

    Clinically, cardiac fibrillation caused by spiral and turbulent waves can be terminated by globally resetting electric activity in cardiac tissues with a single high-voltage electric shock, but it is usually associated with severe side effects. Presently, a promising alternative uses wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a sequence of low-voltage uniform electric field pulses. Nevertheless, this method can only emit waves locally near obstacles in turbulent waves and thereby requires multiple obstacles to globally synchronize myocardium and thus to terminate fibrillation. Here we propose a new approach using wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a low-voltage circularly polarized electric field (i.e., a rotating uniform electric field). We find that, this approach can generate circular wave trains near obstacles and they propagate outwardly. We study the characteristics of such circular wave trains and further find that, the higher-frequency circular wave trains can effectively suppress spiral turbulence.

  5. Portable Functional Neuroimaging as an Environmental Epidemiology Tool: A How-To Guide for the Use of fNIRS in Field Studies.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph M; Rojas-Valverde, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Randall; Winkler, Mirko; Fuhrimann, Samuel; Eskenazi, Brenda; Reiss, Allan L; Mora, Ana M

    2017-09-21

    The widespread application of functional neuroimaging within the field of environmental epidemiology has the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of how environmental toxicants affect brain function. Because many epidemiological studies take place in remote and frequently changing environments, it is necessary that the primary neuroimaging approach adopted by the epidemiology community be robust to many environments, easy to use, and, preferably, mobile. Here, we outline our use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to collect functional brain imaging data from Costa Rican farm workers enrolled in an epidemiological study on the health effects of chronic pesticide exposure. While couched in this perspective, we focus on the methodological considerations that are necessary to conduct a mobile fNIRS study in a diverse range of environments. Thus, this guide is intended to be generalizable to all research scenarios and projects in which fNIRS may be used to collect functional brain imaging data in epidemiological field surveys. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2049.

  6. The Development and Field Trial of a System for Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of a Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Research Report 1336 THE DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD TRIAL OF A SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF A TRAINING PROGRAM Rol G w d Don...FIELD TRIAL OF A SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY Final Report OF A TRAINING PROGRAM 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7...Training Evaluation Methodology Training Program Deficiencies 2&. AStUAC ( CantOe mirevee ol it nocooay and identify by block number) 7A unique system

  7. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains.

    PubMed

    Niu, D; Zhu, F; Qiu, R; Niu, Q

    2016-01-01

    High-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains generate high-frequency electric fields, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency wideband electromagnetic emissions when running. Potential human health concerns arise because the electromagnetic disturbances are transmitted mainly into the car body from windows, and from there to passengers and train staff. The transmission amount and amplitude distribution characteristics that dominate electromagnetic field emission need to be studied, and the exposure level of electromagnetic field emission to humans should be measured. We conducted a series of tests of the on board electromagnetic field distribution on several high-speed railway lines. While results showed that exposure was within permitted levels, the possibility of long-term health effects should be investigated.

  8. Optimal Questions for Sleep in Epidemiological Studies: Comparisons of Subjective and Objective Measures in Laboratory and Field Studies.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Smith, Michael Gerard; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on sleep often use questionnaires, and measurement of validity provides necessary guidance in selection of valid single sleep questions. Twenty-five items assessing different aspects of sleep, including overall sleep quality, specific sleep parameters, nocturnal restoration, and exposure-related questions, were tested. This involved coherence with objective polysomnographic (PSG) laboratory measurements of sleep in 47 participants and application of selected items under field conditions in over 3,000 participants. Items on overall sleep quality correlated significantly with PSG data. For specific sleep parameter questions, tiredness in the morning, time to fall asleep, difficulties to sleep and estimated number of awakenings were correlated to PSG data. Questions asking specifically about the effect of potential sleep disturbances correlated poorly with PSG data, but showed highest effects between environmental exposure (noise and vibration) and control nights in the laboratory and highest correlation with the dose of exposure in the field. In conclusion, healthy participants seem to be able to access their sleep reliably; and sleep questions asking about specific sleep parameters can be recommended for the assessment of sleep.

  9. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Amazonia: a comparison of sex-biased incidence among rural settlers and field biologists.

    PubMed

    Soares, Letícia; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is more frequently reported in men than in women; this may be due to male-biased exposure to CL vectors, female-biased resistance against the disease or both. We sought to determine whether gender-specific exposure to vector habitats explains male-biased CL incidence in two human populations of central Amazonia. We compared the CL incidence in one population of field researchers (N = 166), with similar exposure for males and females, and one population of rural settlers (N = 646), where exposure is overall male-biased. We used a combination of questionnaires and clinical data to quantify CL cases, and modelled disease incidence in a Bayesian framework. There was a moderately higher incidence of CL among men than among women in both populations, but male bias decreased as exposure time increased. Disease incidence was overall higher among field researchers, suggesting that they are an important but understudied CL risk group. Our comparison of two contrasting populations provided epidemiological evidence that CL incidence can be male-biased even when exposure is comparable in both sexes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Comment on Results of Recent Pooled Analyses of Epidemiological Papers Related to Cancer and Power-Line Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Yoshifumi

    In June 2001, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified ELF magnetic fields as a possible human carcinogen based on the results of two recent pooled analyses by Ahlbom et al. and Greenland et al. on epidemiological papers for childhood leukemia. Examining the data displayed by them, this author succeeded to read the other informations than theirs: in the paper of Ahlbom et al., for instance, 9 cases were prepared for verifying the hypothesis that magnetic fields are associated with childhood leukemia, and this author considers that the general conclusion derived by inductive inference is that the hypothesis is not supported, because 2 cases out of 9 support the hypothesis and 7 cases do not support the hypothesis, although the hypothesis has been believed by many people for about twenty years; furthermore, the author does not consider that the IARC’s evaluation that risk doubles in excess of 3 or 4 mG is based on the general conclusion, because it comes from pooling two kinds of data, one of which is of 7 cases bringing the ‘general conclusion’, and the other of the remained 2 cases being the ‘particular facts’.

  11. Jumping on the Train of Personalized Medicine: A Primer for Non-Geneticist Clinicians: Part 2. Fundamental Concepts in Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aihua; Meyre, David

    2014-01-01

    With the decrease in sequencing costs, personalized genome sequencing will eventually become common in medical practice. We therefore write this series of three reviews to help non-geneticist clinicians to jump into the fast-moving field of personalized medicine. In the first article of this series, we reviewed the fundamental concepts in molecular genetics. In this second article, we cover the key concepts and methods in genetic epidemiology including the classification of genetic disorders, study designs and their implementation, genetic marker selection, genotyping and sequencing technologies, gene identification strategies, data analyses and data interpretation. This review will help the reader critically appraise a genetic association study. In the next article, we will discuss the clinical applications of genetic epidemiology in the personalized medicine area. PMID:25598767

  12. A Strategic Model for the Business Communication Field Training Decision in the Commercial Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannis, Seimenis; Damianos, Sakas P.; Nikolaos, Konstantopoulos

    2009-08-01

    This article examines the factors that affect the decision making of the training managers responsible in case of business communication field as they have emerged from the study of the decision that have taken place in the commercial sector in this specific Greek market. Previous researches have indicated the participation of a number of variables in this kind of decision. The aim of this article is to locate the main factors which determine, in the commercial sector the decision for the training of the employees in the field of business communication. On the basis of quality research, dynamic simulation model have been created for some of this main factors.

  13. Effects of sprint and plyometrics training on field sport acceleration technique.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D

    2014-07-01

    The mechanisms for speed performance improvement from sprint training and plyometrics training, especially relating to stance kinetics, require investigation in field sport athletes. This study determined the effects of sprint training and plyometrics training on 10-m sprint time (0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m intervals), step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and stance kinetics (first, second, and last contact relative vertical [VF, VI], horizontal [HF, HI], and resultant [RF, RI] force and impulse; resultant ground reaction force angle [RFθ]; ratio of horizontal to resultant force [RatF]) during a 10-m sprint. Sixteen male field sport athletes were allocated into sprint training (ST) and plyometrics training (PT) groups according to 10-m sprint time; independent samples t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) indicated no between-group differences. Training involved 2 sessions per week for 6 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) determined within- and between-subject differences. Both groups decreased 0-5 and 0-10 m time. The ST group increased step length by ∼15%, which tended to be greater than step length gains for the PT group (∼7%). The ST group reduced first and second contact RFθ and RatF, and second contact HF. Second contact HI decreased for both groups. Results indicated a higher post-training emphasis on VF production. Vertical force changes were more pronounced for the PT group for the last contact, who increased or maintained last contact VI, RF, and RI to a greater extent than the ST group. Sprint and plyometrics training can improve acceleration, primarily through increased step length and a greater emphasis on VF.

  14. Epidemiology in Ethiopia 200 years after John Snow's birth.

    PubMed

    Enquselassie, Fikre

    2013-10-01

    The year 2013 marks exactly 200 years since John Snow, known as the father of modern epidemiology, was born. In 19th century, epidemiologists like John Snow, concentrated almost entirely upon infectious diseases of humans measuring the burden of disease, describing pattern and attempting to understand the transmission dynamics. During the second half of the 20th century; big changes occurred so that epidemiologists in the developed world started to use systematized approaches to investigate the etiologies, conditions and to evaluate interventions through different study designs. However, the situation in the developing world is not the same as the rest of the world. Even 200 years after Snow's birth, epidemiological capacity is lowest in Africa. This article attempts to describe that Ethiopia is not exceptional. In the past few decades, there have been some attempts to build capacity in the country by launching training programs in clinical epidemiology, general epidemiology and field epidemiology. However, not only few epidemiologists are trained, but, limited funding, high-teaching burdens, poor working conditions and low salaries are among important contributors for epidemiological brain drain in Ethiopia. Thus, strengthening learning opportunities and rewarding career paths are required to increase human resource capacity and retain skilled personnel in the field of epidemiology.

  15. Commentary: linking cultural competence training to improved health outcomes: perspectives from the field.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Green, Alexander R

    2010-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine report entitled Unequal Treatment recommended that all health care professionals receive training in cross-cultural communication-also called "cultural competence"-as one potential strategy for addressing racial or ethnic disparities in health care. Although evidence shows that cultural competence training improves the attitudes, knowledge, and skills of physicians as well as patients' ratings of care, no definitive evidence has yet linked this training to improved health outcomes. Recently, there has been great interest in the field of cultural competence, including an expressed desire for a better understanding of its key principles, of effective ways of engaging clinicians in this area of instruction, and of the link between training and health outcomes. On the basis of years of experience in the field, the authors share key perspectives in all of these areas, with particular focus on a set of guidelines for measuring the impact of cultural competence training on health care outcomes. The authors maintain that cultural competence represents an important building block of clinical care, as well as a skill set that is central to professionalism and quality. Cultural competence training should be evaluated in a stepwise fashion by using the tools of health services research and the principles of quality improvement, and it should be held to the same standards as other educational interventions and activities. Just as medicine strives to meet other challenges in U.S. health care, so should it focus on developing the skills needed to care for the country's diverse population.

  16. Intercomparison of passive radon-detectors under field conditions in epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreienbrock, L. ); Poffijn, A. ); Tirmarche, M. ); Feider, M. ); Kies, A. ); Darby, S.C. )

    1999-05-01

    The Ardennes and Eifel region is a geologically distinct area covering parts of Germany, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg where enhanced concentrations of radon occur in some houses and other buildings. An international case-control study is being conducted to examine the role of radon in the etiology of lung cancer in this area. The radon detectors used are issued by different laboratories involving a variety of detector types and processes. A series of intercomparisons in houses was therefore conducted under similar conditions of exposure in the field. In most situations the different detectors gave similar results. Nevertheless, in some situations open and closed detectors yielded different results. Therefore, estimates of radon exposure have to be adjusted if results are to be pooled.

  17. Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network Series - Paper 1: The Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network "LatinCLEN".

    PubMed

    Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Muñoz N, Sergio; Ruiz, Alvaro J; Lanas, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network (LatinCLEN) was born in the 90s as a branch of the International Clinical Epidemiology Network. Clinical Epidemiology Units that made up this network in the region were initially composed of health professionals trained in Australia and North America. From these units, second- and third-generation training centers started to develop in the region, with the main purpose of introducing clinical research methodology and critical appraisal, as well as health economics and biostatistics. The field of Clinical Epidemiology has been introduced into health schools, and has had great influence on health policies and practices in Latin America. The articles in this series provide a bird's eye view of research development in the region which include, among others, the capacity to conduct clinical trials on innovative therapies, systematic reviews, economic analyses, as well as studies on risk factors and burden of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Descriptive epidemiology of deployment-related medical conditions and shipboard training-related injuries in a Chinese Navy population.

    PubMed

    Qi, R-R; Wang, J-Q; Pan, L-L; Zhou, W; Liu, J-L; Ju, J-T; Cai, Y-L

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the deployment-related medical conditions and shipboard tactical training-related injuries in a Chinese Navy population. A retrospective study with the Chinese Navy was conducted. The medical records of 1543 Navy crewmembers from 2011 to 2015 were collected. The distribution and incidence rate (IR) of different types of medical conditions were provided and compared between the Aden Gulf deployment and nondeployment periods. The occurrence of military training-related injuries in crewmembers receiving 12-week shipboard tactical training was compared with that of 956 marines and 4371 recruits receiving combat and physical training, respectively. The anatomic locations and types of training-related injury were analyzed. Compared with the nondeployment period, the percentages of the following injuries were significantly higher during deployment: injuries and certain other consequences of external causes (16.97% vs 7.76%), diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (15.40% vs 10.34%) and mental and behavioral disorders (11.23% vs 3.45%); however, respiratory system diseases had a lower percentage (19.84% vs 28.35%). Far seas deployment significantly increased the IRs of acute upper respiratory infection, skin and eye infection, sprains and low back pain as well as aphthous ulcer, insomnia, and seasickness (P < 0.05, 0.01 or 0.001). Shipboard training induced higher IRs of injuries to the upper extremities, spine and back and head and face than physical training and a higher incidence of head and face injury than combat training (P < 0.05 or 0.001). Physical training had higher IRs of overuse injuries than shipboard and combat training (P < 0.001). The IR of fracture was higher during combat and physical training than shipboard training (P < 0.01 and 0.001). The Chinese Navy has experienced novel health issues in crewmembers in recent years. Corresponding countermeasures should be taken to address deployment-related medical

  19. A comparison of Landsat point and rectangular field training sets for land-use classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tom, C. H.; Miller, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Rectangular training fields of homogeneous spectroreflectance are commonly used in supervised pattern recognition efforts. Trial image classification with manually selected training sets gives irregular and misleading results due to statistical bias. A self-verifying, grid-sampled training point approach is proposed as a more statistically valid feature extraction technique. A systematic pixel sampling network of every ninth row and ninth column efficiently replaced the full image scene with smaller statistical vectors which preserved the necessary characteristics for classification. The composite second- and third-order average classification accuracy of 50.1 percent for 331,776 pixels in the full image substantially agreed with the 51 percent value predicted by the grid-sampled, 4,100-point training set.

  20. The use of total simulator training in transitioning air-carrier pilots: A field evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Tanner, T. A.; Hamerman, J. A.; Showalter, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which the performance of air carrier transitioning pilots who had landing training in a landing maneuver approved simulator was compared with the performance of pilots who had landing training in the aircraft. Forty-eight trainees transitioning to the B-727 aircraft and eighty-seven trainees transitioning to the DC-10 were included in the study. The study results in terms of both objectively measured performance indicants and observer and check-pilot ratings did not demonstrate a clear distinction between the two training groups. The results suggest that, for these highly skilled transitioning pilots, a separate training module in the aircraft may be of dubious value.

  1. Field acoustic measurements of high-speed train sound along BTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, HuaHua; Li, JiaChun

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, single-point field measurements of noise radiated from high-speed trains were performed at two sites along Beijing-Tianjin intercity railway (BTIR), aiming at acquiring the realistic acoustic data for validation and verification of physical model and computational prediction. The measurements showed that A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) were between 80 and 87 dBA as trains passed. The maximum noise occurred at the moment when the pantograph arrived, suggesting that pantograph noise was one of the most significant sources. Sound radiated from high-speed trains of BTIR was a typical broadband spectrum with most acoustic power restricted in the range of medium-high frequency from about 400 Hz to 5 kHz. Aerodynamic noise was shown to be the dominant one over other acoustic sources for high-speed trains.

  2. Advanced GPS-based field mapping for collecting training data within a remote sensing classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich

    2004-10-01

    Automation of image classification is a challenge to the image interpretation community. One of the most time consuming task is certainly the collection of training data. The introduction especially of low cost Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and the higher accuracy of the GPS signal after turning-off the Selective Availability has enhanced the ease and versatility of spatial data acquisition. Has also made the approaches by which it is integrated with GIS and remote sensing data more flexible. The emphasis of this paper is to present a method for improving the training data collection for classification purposes using remotely sensed imagery as well as various data sources combined in a GIS. Firstly, a methodology for defining and describing training areas is demonstrated. The training data were stored in a vector data base (shape files) by using the geometry of the land parcels of the test site. Secondly, in addition to a conventional field mapping approach, an advanced GPS based field mapping methodology was used to collect new training data. Within this new approach single point information of the target ground truth class were collected along the roads in this test area. In this step, the following attributes were recorded: ID, left or right of the street and biotope class. The goal for this approach is that one single person should handle the field mapping while driving in a car. The implementation of this approach is performed in ArcPad 6.03 and Application Builder from ESRI. The standard version of ArcPad was modified so that a one hand collection of training data is possible. After the field survey, the results were used within Erdas Imagine (version 8.7). In our approach all "left" points were moved to the adjacent left field - "orthogonal" to the street. All "right" points were shifted to the adjacent right field. Now those moved points were used as a seed pixel in a Euclidian distance algorithm to automatically derive new training sets. In

  3. Epidemiological Validation of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Patterns for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, D. S.; Struelens, M. J.; Deplano, A.; De Ryck, R.; Hauser, P. M.; Petignat, C.; Francioli, P.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the stability of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the nosocomial setting, we analyzed isolates from long-term carriers (>1 month) and from patients involved in well-defined nosocomial epidemics. The number of fragment differences between the first isolate and subsequent isolates in long-term carriers showed a bimodal distribution, with one group having 0 to 6 fragment differences and the other group having 14 to 24 fragment differences. The PFGE patterns of isolates involved in epidemics also presented a similar bimodal distribution of the number of fragment differences. Typing these isolates with another molecular method (inter-IS256 PCR) showed that isolates of the first group (i.e., with 1 to 6 fragment differences) were clonally related, whereas the second group (with 14 to 24 fragment differences) could be considered genetically different. Among long-term carriers with clonally related isolates, 74 of 84 (88%) of consecutive isolates showed indistinguishable patterns, whereas 10 of 84 (12%) showed related patterns differing by one to six fragments. Moreover, the frequency of apparition of related patterns is higher when the time between the first and the subsequent isolate is longer. During seven nosocomial epidemics lasting from 1 to 15 months, only 2 of 120 isolates (1.7%) showed a pattern which was different, although related, from the predominant one involved in each of these outbreaks. PMID:11574553

  4. Molecular Detection, Epidemiology, and Genetic Characterization of Novel European Field Isolates of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cook, Frank R.; Felicetti, Michela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Coppola, Giacomo; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Coletti, Mauro; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    The application of molecular diagnostic techniques along with nucleotide sequence determination to permit contemporary phylogenetic analysis of European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has not been widely reported. As a result, of extensive testing instigated following the 2006 outbreak of equine infectious anemia in Italy, 24 farms with a history of exposure to this disease were included in this study. New PCR-based methods were developed, which, especially in the case of DNA preparations from peripheral blood cells, showed excellent correlation with OIE-approved agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests for identifying EIAV-infected animals. In contrast, the OIE-recommended oligonucleotide primers for EIAV failed to react with any of the Italian isolates. Similar results were also obtained with samples from four Romanian farms. In addition, for the first time complete characterization of gag genes from five Italian isolates and one Romanian isolate has been achieved, along with acquisition of extensive sequence information (86% of the total gag gene) from four additional EIAV isolates (one Italian and three Romanian). Furthermore, in another 23 cases we accomplished partial characterization of gag gene sequences in the region encoding the viral matrix protein. Analysis of this information suggested that most Italian isolates were geographically restricted, somewhat reminiscent of the “clades” described for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Collectively this represents the most comprehensive genetic study of European EIAV isolates conducted to date. PMID:21084503

  5. Molecular detection, epidemiology, and genetic characterization of novel European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cook, Frank R; Felicetti, Michela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Coppola, Giacomo; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Coletti, Mauro; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    The application of molecular diagnostic techniques along with nucleotide sequence determination to permit contemporary phylogenetic analysis of European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has not been widely reported. As a result, of extensive testing instigated following the 2006 outbreak of equine infectious anemia in Italy, 24 farms with a history of exposure to this disease were included in this study. New PCR-based methods were developed, which, especially in the case of DNA preparations from peripheral blood cells, showed excellent correlation with OIE-approved agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests for identifying EIAV-infected animals. In contrast, the OIE-recommended oligonucleotide primers for EIAV failed to react with any of the Italian isolates. Similar results were also obtained with samples from four Romanian farms. In addition, for the first time complete characterization of gag genes from five Italian isolates and one Romanian isolate has been achieved, along with acquisition of extensive sequence information (86% of the total gag gene) from four additional EIAV isolates (one Italian and three Romanian). Furthermore, in another 23 cases we accomplished partial characterization of gag gene sequences in the region encoding the viral matrix protein. Analysis of this information suggested that most Italian isolates were geographically restricted, somewhat reminiscent of the "clades" described for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Collectively this represents the most comprehensive genetic study of European EIAV isolates conducted to date.

  6. An examination of the training profiles and injuries in elite youth track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Dianne J; O'Connor, Donna; Healey, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Australian track and field has a strong focus on State and National elite youth programmes as the development pathway to elite senior international competition. Yet, there are no clearly defined parameters for appropriate training volumes, training intensities or competition schedules for youth athletes. This study sought to examine the training profiles of, and injuries suffered by, elite youth track and field athletes between the ages 13 and 17 years. The participants were 103 elite NSW athletes (age 17.7 ± 2.4 years, 64% girls) who recalled, through a questionnaire, their training profiles (frequency, volume and intensity) and injuries (type, site and severity) at three age groups: 13-14 years, 15-16 years and at 17 years of age. Eighty-one athletes (78.6%) sustained 200 injuries (time loss > 3 weeks) that were predominantly classified as overuse (76%) with 17.3% of athletes retiring due to injuries prior to turning 18 years. The results, analysed using t-test, one-way analysis of variance and chi-square analysis, showed that injured athletes trained at a higher intensity at 13-14 years (p < 0.01), completed more high-intensity training sessions at 13-14 years (p < 0.01) and 15-16 years (p < 0.05) and had a higher yearly training load at 13-14 years (p < 0.01). There was a significant relationship between forced retirement and having sustained an overuse injury (p<0.05). These findings suggest that monitoring by coaches and athletes of training loads, intensity and the number of hard sessions completed each week is warranted to minimise injuries sustained by 13-16 year old athletes.

  7. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  8. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  9. A Descriptive Analysis of the Experience Based Training and Development Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Todd

    This article describes and analyzes the field of experience-based training and development (EBTD) in an attempt to determine its scope, goals, activities, participants, providers, and philosophical bases. EBTD is a process that uses hands-on challenge or adventure, usually in the outdoors, combined with review and feedback, to improve work place…

  10. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  11. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  12. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  13. A Delphi Study on Staff Bereavement Training in the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Truesdale, Jesslyn

    2015-01-01

    The Delphi technique was used to obtain expert panel consensus to prioritize content areas and delivery methods for developing staff grief and bereavement curriculum training in the intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) field. The Delphi technique was conducted with a panel of 18 experts from formal and informal disability caregiving,…

  14. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  15. Childhood Trauma Training in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Field Visit Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobayed, Mamoun

    2004-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder is the psychological reaction to various traumas. It is common among children living in war zones or conflict regions. This paper describes a field visit to train mental health professionals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on how to help traumatised children.

  16. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  17. RPA Field Simulations:Dilemma Training for Legal and Ethical Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-07

    RPA Field Simulations: Dilemma -Training for Legal and Ethical Decision-Making Professor Wilbur Scott Dept of...composite scenarios were developed incorporating best features, i.e., “ ethically challenging” moments: wicked dilemmas * cadets were...Impact on Ethics and Law of Armed Conflicts” University of Zurich 6-7 November 2015 BACKGROUND  4th year cadets in Behavioral

  18. Management of Social Incentives in Air Force Technical Training: A Field Experiment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakel, Milton D.; And Others

    The report is a study of the utility of social reinforcement for improving Air Force training. It was conducted through a field evaluation of social incentive instructional systems which would serve to improve student motivation, classroom performance, and attitudes. The participants included a total of 300 trainees from two Air Force bases; 25…

  19. Childhood Trauma Training in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Field Visit Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobayed, Mamoun

    2004-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder is the psychological reaction to various traumas. It is common among children living in war zones or conflict regions. This paper describes a field visit to train mental health professionals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on how to help traumatised children.

  20. A Field-Based Deaf Education Teacher Training Model: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadadian, Azar; Koch, Kourtland; Merbler, John

    2012-01-01

    This article provides professional perspective of a teacher-training model which relies heavily on an intensive, culturally immersive field experience for the teacher of the Deaf and hard of hearing. Survey results were based upon 21 past participants concerning their perceptions during their one-year internship experience at Indiana School for…

  1. A Review of Systems for Continued Education and Training in the Substance Abuse Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchtenhagen, Ambros; Stamm, Rene; Huber, Jakob; Vuille, Rodolphe

    2008-01-01

    Continued education of professionals is a major factor for service improvement and evidence-based good practice. This project explores the strategies used for this purpose across countries (CET = continued education and training in the substance abuse field). A structured questionnaire was circulated internationally by an expert committee of the…

  2. A Delphi Study on Staff Bereavement Training in the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Truesdale, Jesslyn

    2015-01-01

    The Delphi technique was used to obtain expert panel consensus to prioritize content areas and delivery methods for developing staff grief and bereavement curriculum training in the intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) field. The Delphi technique was conducted with a panel of 18 experts from formal and informal disability caregiving,…

  3. Effectiveness of Distal and Proximal Goals as Transfer-of-Training Interventions: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Travor C.

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of distal outcome goals, proximal plus distal outcome goals, and being urged to "do your best" interventions on self-efficacy and transfer was investigated in a field experiment involving government employees (N = 72). Six weeks after the training session took place, both participants who were urged to do their best and those who…

  4. The Field Manager as Change Agent: A "New Think" Approach to an Old Training Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard K.

    The focus of this paper is methods for training middle and lower managers, especially those in the field. It is helpful to regard those managers as change agents who must implement decisions coming from the top of the organization, usually in an authoritarian way. Periods of change in an organization can be the time for most effective development…

  5. Bilingual Education Instructional and Training Materials. Field Test Results and Final Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, Alicia

    The report describes a federally funded project for the development of an innovative approach to bilingual curriculum and instruction and inservice teacher training. A needs assessment and research process resulted in development and field testing of a set of bilingual Spanish-English instructional materials for limited-English-speaking urban…

  6. Research on USMC Marksmanship Training Assessment Tools, Instructional Simulations, and Qualitative Field-Based Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-10

    delivery of remedial training through the instructional simulations. ONR is also funding CHI Systems, Inc. to conduct field-based qualitative ... research on Navy and Marine Corps DL implementations to develop practical guidelines and procedures to support effective DL employment in the Navy and Marine Corps.

  7. Fortbildung im BID-Bereich der Offentlichen Verwaltung (Inservice Training for the Librarianship/Information/Documentation Field of Public Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner

    The first portion of this report describes a study of the relationship between inservice training requirements and training programs currently offered in the field of librarianship, information, and documentation in the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin. Data on inservice needs were mainly gathered from a study on training requirements…

  8. Pesticide safety training and access to field sanitation among migrant farmworker mothers from Starr County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Shipp, E M; Cooper, S P; Burau, K D; Bolin, J N

    2005-02-01

    Very little published research describes employer compliance with EPA-mandated Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide safety training and the OSHA Field Sanitation Standard among farmworker women in general and mothers specifically. A goal of both standards is limiting farmworkers' exposure to potentially hazardous agricultural pesticides. Data from a NIOSH-supported cohort study ("Injury and Illness Surveillance in Migrant Farmworker Families") allowed for examining these issues. The cohort included 267 migrant farmworker families who usually reside along the Texas-Mexico border (Starr County, Texas). Data were collected in Starr County during in-home interviews. Of 102 mothers who participated in migrant farm work during summer 2001, 57 (55.9%) reported having ever received training/instruction in the safe use of pesticides, while 47 (46.1%) reported having received training within the previous five years, as required by WPS. Of trained mothers, 91.5% to 93.6% reported that their training covered key WPS areas: (1) entry into a recently treated field, (2) pesticide related injuries/illnesses, and (3) where to go and who to contact for emergency care following exposure. Regarding access to field sanitation, 67.5% to 84.2% of 77 mothers who worked outside Texas reported employer-provided decontamination supplies (e.g., soap, wash water, towels, and toilet facilities). However, a strikingly smaller proportion (12% to 28%) of 25 mothers who worked within Texas reported access to the same resources, suggesting discrepancies in compliance across the U.S. Due to the low level of employer compliance with both WPS and OSHA mandated standards, increased enforcement and an alternate delivery of pesticide training is recommended.

  9. [New professional field in France: Analysis of the training needs of case managers].

    PubMed

    Somme, Dominique; Corvol, Aline; Couturier, Yves; Pimouguet, Clément; Moreau, Olivier; Perivier, Samuel; Balard, Frédéric; de Stampa, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Case management is a relatively new career field in France. It was first introduced on an experimental basis in 2007-2008, and was then developedfollowing the National Alzheimer Plan and finally enshrined in legislation in 2012. This careerfield is based on a set of tasks widely described internationally: identifying the right level of intervention, standardized multidimensional assessment, planning all aid (care and social services), implementation of the plan, monitoring and reassessment and periodic reassessment of all needs in a continuous and long-term process. The specific, systematic and dedicated nature of these tasks to these tasks makes training essential. Regulations also stipulate that the professional must acquire additional training by a dedicated inter-university degree. This requirement is a French specificity The authors present the history of case management and training in France and analyze the various international training frameworks identified by an Internet search. Moreover, based on the opinions expressed by case managers at different times of the scientific assessment and a review ofseveral studies conducted by inter-university case management program students, this article highlights the specific training needs of case managers and how the proposed training can meet these needs.

  10. Estimating the correlation between bursty spike trains and local field potentials.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohui; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Yao, Li; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-09-01

    To further understand rhythmic neuronal synchronization, an increasingly useful method is to determine the relationship between the spiking activity of individual neurons and the local field potentials (LFPs) of neural ensembles. Spike field coherence (SFC) is a widely used method for measuring the synchronization between spike trains and LFPs. However, due to the strong dependency of SFC on the burst index, it is not suitable for analyzing the relationship between bursty spike trains and LFPs, particularly in high frequency bands. To address this issue, we developed a method called weighted spike field correlation (WSFC), which uses the first spike in each burst multiple times to estimate the relationship. In the calculation, the number of times that the first spike is used is equal to the spike count per burst. The performance of this method was demonstrated using simulated bursty spike trains and LFPs, which comprised sinusoids with different frequencies, amplitudes, and phases. This method was also used to estimate the correlation between pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and gamma oscillations in rats performing behaviors. Analyses using simulated and real data demonstrated that the WSFC method is a promising measure for estimating the correlation between bursty spike trains and high frequency LFPs.

  11. Efficacy and feasibility of home-based training for individuals with homonymous visual field defects.

    PubMed

    Aimola, Lina; Lane, Alison R; Smith, Daniel T; Kerkhoff, Georg; Ford, Gary A; Schenk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are one of the most common consequences of stroke. Compensatory training encourages affected individuals to develop more efficient eye movements to improve function. However, training is typically supervised, which can be time consuming and costly. To develop and evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of an unsupervised reading and exploration computer training for individuals with HVFDs. Seventy individuals with chronic HVFDs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: intervention or control. The former received 35 hours of reading and exploration training, and the latter received 35 hours of control training. Visual and attentional abilities were assessed before and after training using perimetry, visual search, reading, activities of daily living, the Test of Everyday Attention, and a Sustained Attention to Response task. Eighteen individuals failed to complete the training; analyses were conducted on the remaining 28 intervention and 24 control group participants. Individuals in the intervention group demonstrated significant improvements in the primary outcomes of exploration (12.87%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.44% to 17.30%) and reading (18.45%, 95% CI = 9.93% to 26.97%), which were significantly greater than those observed following the control intervention (exploration = 4.80%, 95% CI = 0.09% to 9.51%; reading = 1.95%, 95% CI = -4.78% to 8.68%). Participants in the intervention group also reported secondary subjective improvements, although these were not matched by objective gains in tasks simulating activities of daily living. Home-based compensatory training is an inexpensive accessible rehabilitation option for individuals with HVFDs, which can result in objective benefits in searching and reading, as well as improving quality of life.

  12. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields from trams, trains and hybrid cars.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Abeyrathne, Chathurika D; Mendis, Priyan

    2010-10-01

    Electricity is used substantially and sources of electric and magnetic fields are, unavoidably, everywhere. The transportation system is a source of these fields, to which a large proportion of the population is exposed. Hence, investigation of the effects of long-term exposure of the general public to low-frequency electromagnetic fields caused by the transportation system is critically important. In this study, measurements of electric and magnetic fields emitted from Australian trams, trains and hybrid cars were investigated. These measurements were carried out under different conditions, locations, and are summarised in this article. A few of the measured electric and magnetic field strengths were significantly lower than those found in prior studies. These results seem to be compatible with the evidence of the laboratory studies on the biological effects that are found in the literature, although they are far lower than international levels, such as those set up in the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection guidelines.

  13. [The role of epidemiology in mental disorder research].

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, María Elena; López-Moreno, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders, including substance abuse, are part of the Mexican epidemiologic scenario and will remain so during several decades. They may even become more prominent as causes of disease, disability, and death in our country. It is thus imperative to frame appropriate management strategies to curb these problems without delay. This paper aims at outlining epidemiology of mental diseases as a field of study, and to identify its limitations. Emphasis is made on common elements shared with other more traditional fields of epidemiology, as well as on the specific contributions made by this particular field to epidemiology and to psychiatry in general. This paper describes the main study designs and problems in this field of epidemiology, its usefulness in prevention actions, and future challenges. A unique characteristic of mental disorder epidemiology is that its target diseases manifest in two levels: behaviorally (for example, compulsive hand-washing) and as an element of the individual's mental life (e.g., obsession with bacteria being a constant, omnipresent health threat). It follows that much of the knowledge currently available on the phenomena of mental disorders in general is based on the self-reported insight of individuals. Trained clinicians have collected such reports by interview or with standardized questionnaires. This field of epidemiology is characterized by having two-sides: a mental disorder is a problem in and of itself, causing suffering and prompting the search for specialized care, as it has peculiar clinical manifestations. On the other hand, mental disorder epidemiology also focuses on determining factors (drug use, abuse, or addiction) and on the way these independent variables result in certain processes and outcomes (such as accidents, homicide, suicide, liver cirrhosis, etc.). Finally, the epidemiology of mental disorders has also been set apart by its focus in series of processes that are not suitably classified as syndromes, but

  14. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Megan M.; Jetly, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field training settings may be an important adjunct to traditional military ethics education and training. We make the case as to why this approach will enhance ethical operational preparation for soldiers, supporting their psychological well-being as well as mission effectiveness. PMID:25206947

  15. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  16. Epidemiologic analysis of sporadic Salmonella typhi isolates and those from outbreaks by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Thong, K L; Cheong, Y M; Puthucheary, S; Koh, C L; Pang, T

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to compare and analyze 158 isolates of Salmonella typhi from five well-defined outbreaks of typhoid fever in Malaysia and also isolates involved in sporadic cases of typhoid fever occurring during the same period. Digestion of chromosomal DNAs from these S. typhi isolates with the restriction endonucleases XbaI (5'-TCTAGA-3'), SpeI (5'-ACTAGT-3'), and AvrII (5'-CCTAGG-3') and then PFGE produced restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) patterns consisting of 11 to 24 DNA fragments ranging in size from 20 to 630 kbp. Analysis of the REA patterns generated by PFGE after digestion with XbaI and SpeI indicated that the S. typhi isolates obtained from sporadic cases of infection were much more heterogeneous (at least 13 different REA patterns were detected; Dice coefficient, between 0.73 and 1.0) than those obtained during outbreaks of typhoid fever. The clonal nature and the close genetic identities of isolates from outbreaks in Alor Setar, Penang, Kota Kinabalu, Johor Bahru, and Kota Bahru were suggested by the fact that only a limited number of REA patterns, which mostly differed by only a single band, were detected (one to four patterns; Dice coefficient, between 0.82 and 1.0), although a different pattern was associated with each of these outbreaks. Comparison of REA patterns with ribotyping for 18 S. typhi isolates involved in sporadic cases of infection showed a good correlation, in that 72% of the isolates were in the same group. There was no clear correlation of phage types with a specific REA pattern. We conclude that PFGE of s. typhi chromosomal DNA digested with infrequently cutting restriction endonucleases is a useful method for comparing and differentiating S. typhi isolates for epidemiological purposes. Images PMID:7914202

  17. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J

    2015-12-15

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology.

  18. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.

    2015-01-01

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology. PMID:26628513

  19. Mean-field thalamocortical modeling of longitudinal EEG acquired during intensive meditation training.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Manish; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-07-01

    Meditation training has been shown to enhance attention and improve emotion regulation. However, the brain processes associated with such training are poorly understood and a computational modeling framework is lacking. Modeling approaches that can realistically simulate neurophysiological data while conforming to basic anatomical and physiological constraints can provide a unique opportunity to generate concrete and testable hypotheses about the mechanisms supporting complex cognitive tasks such as meditation. Here we applied the mean-field computational modeling approach using the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) collected at three assessment points from meditating participants during two separate 3-month-long shamatha meditation retreats. We modeled cortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic interactions to generate a simulation of EEG signals recorded across the scalp. We also present two novel extensions to the mean-field approach that allow for: (a) non-parametric analysis of changes in model parameter values across all channels and assessments; and (b) examination of variation in modeled thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) connectivity over the retreat period. After successfully fitting whole-brain EEG data across three assessment points within each retreat, two model parameters were found to replicably change across both meditation retreats. First, after training, we observed an increased temporal delay between modeled cortical and thalamic cells. This increase provides a putative neural mechanism for a previously observed reduction in individual alpha frequency in these same participants. Second, we found decreased inhibitory connection strength between the TRN and secondary relay nuclei (SRN) of the modeled thalamus after training. This reduction in inhibitory strength was found to be associated with increased dynamical stability of the model. Altogether, this paper presents the first computational approach, taking core aspects of physiology and

  20. [The IARC carcinogenicity evaluation of radio-frequency electromagnetic field: with special reference to epidemiology of mobile phone use and brain tumor risk].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer of World Health Organization announced in May 2011 the results of evaluation of carcinogenicity of radio-frequency electromagnetic field. In the overall evaluation, the radio-frequency electromagnetic field was classified as "possibly carcinogenic to humans", on the basis of the fact that the evidence provided by epidemiological studies and animal bioassays was limited. Regarding epidemiology, the results of the Interphone Study, an international collaborative case-control study, were of special importance, together with the results of a prospective cohort study in Denmark, case-control studies in several countries, and a case-case study in Japan. The evidence obtained was considered limited, because the increased risk observed in some studies was possibly spurious, caused by selection bias or recall bias as well as residual effects of confounding factors. Further research studies, such as large-scale multinational epidemiological studies, are crucially needed to establish a sound evidence base from which a more conclusive judgment can be made for the carcinogenicity of the radio-frequency electromagnetic field.

  1. Impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    DEHGHANI, MOHAMMADREZA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; SOLTANi, BEHROUZ; AGHAKHANI, NADER; HAGHPANAH, SEZANEH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obtaining clinical competency in clinical education is one of the problems in nursing and use of the new methods of clinical training is very important. Clinical supervision is one of the methods used as a mechanism to promote knowledge and skill for promoting professional performance in nursing students. This study is carried out to determine the impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Methods In the present experimental study, 32 nursing students were enrolled in the study based on census and randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control by block randomization. Clinical supervision was used in the experimental group and the control group received routine clinical trainings in the field. The students’ clinical skills were assessed using a researcher-made checklist, the validity of which was confirmed through content validity method by 13 faculty members and its reliability was approved by test-retest method on 20 nursing students in the form of a pilot study and through Cronbach’s alpha (87%). Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 14. Results ‍There was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in clinical skills such as recognition and administration of medication, team participation,  patients and their relatives’ education, considering the safety,  infection prevention and  nursing process (p<0.005). Conclusion The study demonstrated that in clinical supervision process, students have a better communication and cooperation with their instructor and with each other and their confidence and understanding and the amount of learning in practical skills was enhanced more than routine clinical training. The implementation of this clinical training method for students of nursing and other fields of medical sciences is recommendable. PMID:27104203

  2. Molecular Subtyping of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis in Hong Kong: Correlation with Epidemiological Events from 1994 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Kai Man; Luey, Cindy Kit Yee; Tsang, Yee Man; Law, Choi Ping; Chu, Man Yu; Cheung, Tze Leung; Chiu, Agatha Wai Huen

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred twenty isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 collected from 1994 to 2002 in Hong Kong were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal DNAs from all V. cholerae isolates in agarose plugs were digested with the restriction enzyme NotI, resulting in 20 to 27 bands. Sixty distinctive PFGE patterns in the range of 10 to 300 kb were noted among 213 isolates typeable by PFGE. By comparing the common PFGE patterns obtained from four well-defined outbreaks of V. cholerae O1 and O139 with those obtained from other, epidemiologically unrelated isolates during the study period, indistinguishable and similar PFGE patterns were identified, indicating their close relatedness, in agreement with the results of epidemiological investigations. Heterogeneous PFGE patterns (with four to six banding differences), however, were identified among strains that were imported from other parts of Asia, including Indonesia, India, and Pakistan. Correlations with epidemiological information further support the usefulness of PFGE as an epidemiological tool in laboratory investigations of suspected outbreaks. Standardization of PFGE methodology will allow international comparison of fingerprint patterns and will form the basis of a laboratory network for tracking V. cholerae. PMID:14532174

  3. The influence of train leakage currents on the LEP dipole field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravin, E.; Brun, G.; Dehning, B.; Drees, A.; Galbraith, P.; Geitz, M.; Henrichsen, K.; Koratzinos, M.; Mugnai, G.; Tonutti, M.

    The determination of the mass and the width of the Z boson at CERN's LEP accelerator, an e+e- storage ring with a circumference of approximately 27 km, imposes heavy demands on the knowledge of the LEP counter-rotating electron and positron beam energies. The precision required is of the order of 1 MeV or ≈ 20 ppm. Due to its size, the LEP collider is influenced by various macroscopic and regional factors such as the position of the moon or seasonal changes of the rainfall in the area, as reported earlier. A new and not less surprising effect on the LEP energy was observed in 1995: railroad trains in the Geneva region perturb the dipole field. A parasitic flow of electricity, originating from the trains, travels along the LEP vacuum chamber, affecting the LEP dipole field. An account of the phenomenon with its explanation substantiated by dedicated measurements is presented.

  4. The future of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease).

  5. Efficacy of a Four-Week Uphill Sprint Training Intervention in Field Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Jakeman, John R; McMullan, Judith; Babraj, John A

    2016-10-01

    Jakeman, JR, McMullan, J, and Babraj, JA. Efficacy of a four-week uphill sprint training intervention in field hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2761-2766, 2016-Current evidence increasingly suggests that very short, supramaximal bouts of exercise can have significant health and performance benefits. Most research conducted in the area, however, uses laboratory-based protocols, which can lack ecological validity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a high-intensity sprint training program on hockey-related performance measures. Fourteen semiprofessional hockey players either completed a 4-week high-intensity training (HIT) intervention, consisting of a total of 6 sessions of HIT, which progressively increased in volume (n = 7), or followed their normal training program (Con; n = 7). Straight-line sprint speed, with and without a hockey stick and ball, and slalom sprint speed, with and without a hockey stick and ball, were used as performance indicators. Maximal sprint speed over 22.9 m was also assessed. On completion of the 4-week intervention, straight-line sprint speed improved significantly in the HIT group (∼3%), with no changes in performance for the Con group. Slalom sprint speed, both with and without a hockey ball, was not significantly different after the training program in either group. Maximal sprint speed improved significantly (12.1%) in the HIT group, but there was no significant performance change in the Con group. The findings of this study indicate that a short period of HIT can significantly improve hockey-related performance measures and could be beneficial to athletes and coaches in field settings.

  6. Perceptual-cognitive skill training and its transfer to expert performance in the field: future research directions.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, David P; Causer, Joe; Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual-cognitive skills training provides a potentially valuable method for training athletes on key skills, such as anticipation and decision-making. It can be used when athletes are unable to physically train or are unable to experience repeated key situations from their sport. In this article, we review research on perceptual-cognitive skills training and describe future research areas focusing on a number of key theories and principles. The main aim of any training intervention should be the efficacy of retention and transfer of learning from training to field situations, which should be the key consideration when designing the representative tasks used in perceptual-cognitive skills training. We review the principles that seek to create practice tasks that replicate those found in the field, so as to increase the amount of transfer that occurs. These principles are perception-action coupling, the contextual interference effect and contextual information, which suggest there should be a high level of similarity between training and real-life performance when designing perceptual-cognitive skills training. In the final section, we discuss the transfer of retained skill acquisition from perceptual-cognitive skills training to field performance, which we suggest to be the key area for future research in this area.

  7. South-to-North, Cross-Disciplinary Training in Global Health Practice: Ten Years of Lessons Learned from an Infectious Disease Field Course in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Scarlett, Henroy P.; Nisbett, Richard A.; Stoler, Justin; Bain, Brendan C.; Bhatta, Madhav P.; Castle, Trevor; Harbertson, Judith; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Vermund, Sten H.

    2011-01-01

    Global commerce, travel, and emerging and resurging infectious diseases have increased awareness of global health threats and opportunities for collaborative and service learning. We review course materials, knowledge archives, data management archives, and student evaluations for the first 10 years of an intensive summer field course in infectious disease epidemiology and surveillance offered in Jamaica. We have trained 300 students from 28 countries through collaboration between the University of the West Indies and U.S. partner universities. Participants were primarily graduate students in public health, but also included health professionals with terminal degrees, and public health nurses and inspectors. Strong institutional synergies, committed faculty, an emphasis on scientific and cultural competencies, and use of team-based field research projects culminate in a unique training environment that provides participants with career-developing experiences. We share lessons learned over the past decade, and conclude that South-to-North leadership is critical in shaping transdisciplinary, cross-cultural, global health practice. PMID:21896794

  8. Effect of varied training techniques on field endotracheal intubation success rates.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R D; Paris, P M; Pelton, G H; Garretson, D

    1984-11-01

    A pool of 146 mobile intensive care unit paramedics was divided into four equal groups and trained in the technique of direct laryngoscopic endotracheal intubation of cardiac arrest or deeply comatose patients. Group 1 was selected from supervisors and crew chiefs and trained as preceptors. The remaining paramedics were assigned to three other study groups. Groups 1 and 2 were trained with a didactic presentation followed by manikin practice, an animal laboratory exercise, and operating room experience. Group 3 had no OR experience; Group 4 had only didactic/manikin training. Intubations were observed by preceptors on scene. During the study period of 27 months, 689 of 763 patients (90.3%) were successfully intubated by 122 paramedics. While results suggest variation in skill levels according to training group (Group 1, 92.4%; Group 2, 87.6%, Group 3, 83.3%; Group 4, 76.9%), statistical analysis allowing for the variables of seniority and number of intubations performed by personnel failed to reveal differences in groups attributable to training programs. Complication rates were relatively low for all groups, the most common being prolonged intubation attempts. A significant improvement in the skill was seen as the study progressed when groups are pooled and compared. The findings suggest that endotracheal intubation of deeply comatose or cardiac arrest patients is a field procedure that can be performed safely and skillfully by well-monitored paramedical personnel. Operating room or animal laboratory experience may increase initial success levels, but these factors do not appear to greatly influence eventual performance or incidence of complications of the procedure.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella spp. isolates from gulls, fish-meal factories, feed factories, animals and humans in Norway based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, L. L.; Refsum, T.; Heir, E.; Nordby, K.; Vardund, T.; Holstad, G.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of 98 isolates of Salmonella serovar Agona (n = 27), S. Montevideo (n = 42) and S. Senftenberg (n = 29) from wild-living gulls, fish-meal factories, feed factories, humans and domestic animals was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and computerized numerical analysis. Two of the S. Agona profiles were identified both in gulls and in two of the factories. In addition, one of these profiles was detected in two infected poultry farms. Two of the S. Montevideo profiles were also identified both in gulls and in two of the factories, and one of these profiles was observed in a human isolate. Four factories shared an identical S. Senftenberg profile. The S. Senftenberg profile found in gulls was not identified in any other source investigated. The presence of isolates with identical PFGE profiles indicates potential epidemiological links between different factories, as well as between gulls and factories. PMID:15724711

  10. Training for Change Agents. A Guide to the Design of Training Programs in Education and Other Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Ronald G.

    This work provides a framework for the design of programs to train change agents in the skills of helping and of resource utilization, and presents some alternative models of such training programs. The organization of the training guide is as follows: Part I is concerned with outlining the principal content areas that relate to the concept of…

  11. Generation of spatiotemporally correlated spike trains and local field potentials using a multivariate autoregressive process.

    PubMed

    Gutnisky, Diego A; Josić, Kresimir

    2010-05-01

    Experimental advances allowing for the simultaneous recording of activity at multiple sites have significantly increased our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns in neural activity. The impact of such patterns on neural coding is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The simulation of spike trains with predetermined activity patterns is therefore an important ingredient in the study of potential neural codes. Such artificially generated spike trains could also be used to manipulate cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. Here, we propose a method to generate spike trains with given mean firing rates and cross-correlations. To capture this statistical structure we generate a point process by thresholding a stochastic process that is continuous in space and discrete in time. This stochastic process is obtained by filtering Gaussian noise through a multivariate autoregressive (AR) model. The parameters of the AR model are obtained by a nonlinear transformation of the point-process correlations to the continuous-process correlations. The proposed method is very efficient and allows for the simulation of large neural populations. It can be optimized to the structure of spatiotemporal correlations and generalized to nonstationary processes and spatiotemporal patterns of local field potentials and spike trains.

  12. Continuous assessments of pressure comfort on a train -- a field-laboratory comparison.

    PubMed

    Schwanitz, Sandra; Wittkowski, Martin; Rolny, Vinzent; Samel, Christina; Basner, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Pressure variations on a train predominantly occur while trains are passing through tunnels. These aerodynamic effects may give rise to aural discomfort in railway passengers. We conducted a field study on the high speed railway track Cologne-Frankfurt/Main as well as a simulation study in our pressure chamber TITAN (DLR-Institute of Aerospace Medicine) with 31 subjects (mean age = 37.7, SD = 12.7; 51.6% male) to investigate pressure comfort for passengers. Continuous assessments of pressure events using sliders and retrospective assessments were acquired. Pressure variations were mostly tolerated. A comparison of field and laboratory setting revealed high congruency of continuous as well as retrospective assessments. A generalized estimating equation model identified pressure change attributes contributing to passengers' discomfort. Beside attributes of instantaneous pressure changes (e.g. high amplitudes, short durations), pressure events of the recent past significantly influenced current discomfort. Design engineers may use these findings to improve train and tunnel design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. [The health professional in the dental/oral field and exposure to risk of infection: epidemiology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Manfredi, R; Calza, L; Verucchi, G

    2007-01-01

    A systematic review of the main infectious pathogens potentially transmissible to health care professionals during odontostomatologic procedures is carried out, with special attention focused on parenteral exposure in the surgical, dental, and stomatological environment. Epidemiological issues and specific risk factors are treated systematically, together with all available, recommended chemoprophylactic and immunological prophylactic strategies.

  14. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  15. Commentary: Epidemiology in the era of big data.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-05-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called "three V's": variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field's future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future.

  16. The Epidemiology of Physical Training Injuries in U.S. Army Infantry Trainees: Methodology, Population, and Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Livingston. 1965. 18. Hoppenfeld S. Chapter 6 Physical examination of the hip and pelvis; Chapter 7 Physical examination of the knee; and, Chapter 8... Hip 4 (1.3) 4 3-12 2 (50.0) Thigh 14 (4.6) 3.5 2-100 4 (28.6) Knee 46 (15.2) ii 0-90 30 (65.2) Calf 7 (2.3) 6 3-30 4 (57.1) Foot 25 (8.6) 1.5 0-9 21...Sites and Types of Injuries Experienced During Basic Training Injury Site Frequency Ankle 33 Calf 26 Foot 33 Hip 1 Knee 31 Lower Back 18 Thigh 5 Injury

  17. Training effects induced by cycling of magnetic field in ferromagnetic rich phase-separated nanocomposite manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have carried out an experimental investigation of magneto-transport and magnetic properties of charge-ordered Pr0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (PCMO) and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) nanoparticles along with a nanocomposite consisting of those two types of nanoparticles. From the magneto-transport measurements, clear irreversibility is observed in the field dependence of resistance due to magnetic field cycling in the case of PCMO nanoparticles. The value of resistance increases during such a field cycling. However such an irreversibility is absent in the case of LSMO nanoparticles as well as nanocomposites. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate the gradual growth of antiferromagnetic phases in all samples leading to a decrease in magnetization. These inconsistencies between magneto-transport and magnetic behaviors are attributed to the magnetic training effects.

  18. Evolution of a train of interacting steps in a surface diffusion field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwaha, Makio

    1993-03-01

    We study the time evolution of a train of parallel straight steps interacting with an elastic interaction. A general formula for the step velocity is given as a function of the step distances, the interaction strength and the kinetic coefficients of the step. If the attachment kinetics from the lower terrace of the step is faster than that from the upper terrace, the interference of diffusion field gives rise to an effective attraction in sublimation. There is a critical undersaturation below which two repulsive steps can form a bound state. When a step collides with a bound pair, recombination of the steps takes place, which looks like billiards. For an equidistant step train, under a similar condition, an instability occurs and the steps form pairs, which has a significant effect on the growth law of the vicinal surface.

  19. A review of systems for continued education and training in the substance abuse field.

    PubMed

    Uchtenhagen, Ambros; Stamm, René; Huber, Jakob; Vuille, Rodolphe

    2008-01-01

    Continued education of professionals is a major factor for service improvement and evidence-based good practice. This project explores the strategies used for this purpose across countries (CET = continued education and training in the substance abuse field). A structured questionnaire was circulated internationally by an expert committee of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. Reports from 11 countries were collected in 2005. The following review is based on these reports and structured according to the questionnaire (questions in italics). The authors of the reports are listed in the acknowledgements. The countries are Australia, Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland, and the United States. As a result of this project, an international think tank on continued education and training was established and is briefly described.

  20. Effects of Field of View and Visual Complexity on Virtual Reality Training Effectiveness for a Visual Scanning Task

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric D.; Bowman, Doug A.; Kopper, Regis; Stinson, Cheryl; Scerbo, Siroberto; McMahan, Ryan P.

    2015-02-13

    Virtual reality training systems are commonly used in a variety of domains, and it is important to understand how the realism of a training simulation influences training effectiveness. The paper presents a framework for evaluating the effects of virtual reality fidelity based on an analysis of a simulation’s display, interaction, and scenario components. Following this framework, we conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of fidelity on training effectiveness for a visual scanning task. The experiment varied the levels of field of view and visual realism during a training phase and then evaluated scanning performance with the simulator’s highest level of fidelity. To assess scanning performance, we measured target detection and adherence to a prescribed strategy. The results show that both field of view and visual realism significantly affected target detection during training; higher field of view led to better performance and higher visual realism worsened performance. Additionally, the level of visual realism during training significantly affected learning of the prescribed visual scanning strategy, providing evidence that high visual realism was important for learning the technique. The results also demonstrate that task performance during training was not always a sufficient measure of mastery of an instructed technique. That is, if learning a prescribed strategy or skill is the goal of a training exercise, performance in a simulation may not be an appropriate indicator of effectiveness outside of training—evaluation in a more realistic setting may be necessary.

  1. Effects of Field of View and Visual Complexity on Virtual Reality Training Effectiveness for a Visual Scanning Task

    DOE PAGES

    Ragan, Eric D.; Bowman, Doug A.; Kopper, Regis; ...

    2015-02-13

    Virtual reality training systems are commonly used in a variety of domains, and it is important to understand how the realism of a training simulation influences training effectiveness. The paper presents a framework for evaluating the effects of virtual reality fidelity based on an analysis of a simulation’s display, interaction, and scenario components. Following this framework, we conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of fidelity on training effectiveness for a visual scanning task. The experiment varied the levels of field of view and visual realism during a training phase and then evaluated scanning performance with the simulator’s highestmore » level of fidelity. To assess scanning performance, we measured target detection and adherence to a prescribed strategy. The results show that both field of view and visual realism significantly affected target detection during training; higher field of view led to better performance and higher visual realism worsened performance. Additionally, the level of visual realism during training significantly affected learning of the prescribed visual scanning strategy, providing evidence that high visual realism was important for learning the technique. The results also demonstrate that task performance during training was not always a sufficient measure of mastery of an instructed technique. That is, if learning a prescribed strategy or skill is the goal of a training exercise, performance in a simulation may not be an appropriate indicator of effectiveness outside of training—evaluation in a more realistic setting may be necessary.« less

  2. The Impact of Pre-Service Field Training Sessions on the Probability of Future Teachers Using ICT in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larose, Francois; Grenon, Vincent; Morin, Marie-Pier; Hasni, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Most industrialised countries have adopted training strategies for pre-service teachers that place experienced teacher guidance centre stage, particularly within the context of regular pre-service field training sessions. In this article, after analysing the data taken from a longitudinal survey on the computer skills and attitudes of students…

  3. The Undergraduate Field-Research Experience in Global Health: Study Abroad, Service Learning, Professional Training or "None of the Above"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kearsley A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in short-term international placements in global health training for U.S.-based medical students is growing; the trend is mirrored for global health undergraduate students. Best practices in field-based global health training can increase success for medical students, but we lack a critical framework for the undergraduate global health…

  4. The Undergraduate Field-Research Experience in Global Health: Study Abroad, Service Learning, Professional Training or "None of the Above"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kearsley A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in short-term international placements in global health training for U.S.-based medical students is growing; the trend is mirrored for global health undergraduate students. Best practices in field-based global health training can increase success for medical students, but we lack a critical framework for the undergraduate global health…

  5. Field training for permafrost students in the cold-climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibman, M.

    2009-04-01

    We all know how complicated is organizing expeditions to the Arctic, especially to the remote areas with continuous permafrost, tundra landscapes, expensive helicopters, and extreme living conditions. But this cannot be the reason to deprive students of studying the nature. There is a serious problem with computer modeling becoming a main research instrument. Often young people involved in such modeling have never seen the object of their modeling. Some of us are "remnants" of the epoch before computer and satellite technologies when field data was the main source of mapping information, small-scale maps were based on field mapping. This knowledge is getting lost with the experts getting retired. This is the reason for involving students into field research as much and as soon as possible. Arctic expeditions often mean absence of usual amenities in living conditions, exposure to weather extremes, bugs and simple meal. These complications make each bit of field data be of high-hourly-rate. That is why teaching the methods of field study is very important, to make each trip most effective and reduce costs of each bit of information. These methods include both science and logistic issues. There are two more aspects in field training: (1) students and teachers from different countries meeting in field learn to identify natural objects and conciliate positions and terminology; and (2) students and teachers from different disciplines learn to conciliate understanding of each others study subjects. Examples of field research stations in Russian Arctic where interdisciplinary studies are ongoing for many years with participation of graduate and postgraduate students show the effectiveness of the above mentioned approach. In the north of West Siberia there are four polygons serving as a base for associated research of permafrost geologists, geographers, biologists, geochemists and more. The system is built in which basic role is shifting from one subject to the other

  6. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412

  7. The JICA training course, community-based cancer prevention for the Asian Pacific countries, fiscal years 2004 and 2005 (epidemiological approach).

    PubMed

    Wakai, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however, increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), and malignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al., 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are limited, and encouragement of their development should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki, 2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensive procedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention of cancer.

  8. The JICA training course, community-based cancer prevention for the Asian and Pan-Pacific countries, fiscal year 2006 (epidemiological approach).

    PubMed

    Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2007-01-01

    Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however, increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), and malignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al., 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are also limited, and encouragement of their development should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki, 2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004; 2006). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensive procedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention of cancer.

  9. Functional localization of auditory cortical fields of human: click-train stimulation.

    PubMed

    Brugge, John F; Volkov, Igor O; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Reale, Richard A; Fenoy, Albert; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Howard, Matthew A

    2008-04-01

    Averaged auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to bilaterally presented 100 Hz click trains were recorded from multiple sites simultaneously within Heschl's gyrus (HG) and on the posterolateral surface of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in epilepsy-surgery patients. Three auditory fields were identified based on AEP waveforms and their distribution. Primary (core) auditory cortex was localized to posteromedial HG. Here the AEP was characterized by a robust polyphasic low-frequency field potential having a short onset latency and on which was superimposed a smaller frequency-following response to the click train. Core AEPs exhibited the lowest response threshold and highest response amplitude at one HG site with threshold rising and amplitude declining systematically on either side of it. The AEPs recorded anterolateral to the core, if present, were typically of low amplitude, with little or no evidence of short-latency waves or the frequency-following response that characterized core AEPs. We suggest that this area is part of a lateral auditory belt system. Robust AEPs, with waveforms demonstrably different from those of the core or lateral belt, were localized to the posterolateral surface of the STG and conform to previously described field PLST.

  10. [Features of the regulation of legal relations in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare in the Eurasian Economic Community member-states].

    PubMed

    Eremin, G B; Iakubova, I Sh; Mel'tser, A V; Cherniakina, T S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was identification of both general trends and approaches, and the differences in the regulation of relations in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population, determination of the necessary measures to harmonize legislation states in the countries - members of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) in the noted sphere. As a result of the present research recommendations about unification and harmonization of legislations in member states of EurAsEC are developed for formation of uniform economic policy in noted sphere.

  11. One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J

    2006-10-01

    Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields showed prominent bilateral P100m, N250m, P320m and N450m peaks. Significant change in the peak latencies of all components except P100m was observed over time. Larger P100m and N450m amplitude as well as more rapid change of N250m amplitude and latency was associated with the violin rather than the noise stimuli. Larger P100m and P320m peak amplitudes in the left hemisphere than in the right are consistent with left-lateralized cortical development in this age group. A clear musical training effect was expressed in a larger and earlier N250m peak in the left hemisphere in response to the violin sound in musically trained children compared with untrained children. This difference coincided with pronounced morphological change in a time window between 100 and 400 ms, which was observed in musically trained children in response to violin stimuli only, whereas in untrained children a similar change was present regardless of stimulus type. This transition could be related to establishing a neural network associated with sound categorization and/or involuntary attention, which can be altered by music learning experience.

  12. Transforming epidemiology for 21st century medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P A; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Croyle, Robert T; Goddard, Katrina A; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Kramer, Barnet S; Lauer, Michael S; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Palmer, Julie R; Sellers, Thomas A; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating "big data" science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  13. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  14. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Croyle, Robert T.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Kramer, Barnet S.; Lauer, Michael S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M.; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving towards more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits. PMID:23462917

  15. Forty Days after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Field Research Investigating Community Engagement and Traumatic Stress Screening in a Post-Disaster Community Mental Health Training

    PubMed Central

    Tuerk, Peter W.; Hall, Brian; Nagae, Nobukazu; McCauley, Jenna L.; Yoder, Matthew; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Acierno, Ron; Dussich, John

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes the results of posttraumatic stress educational outreach and screening offered to 141 citizens of Japan who attended a public-service mental health training regarding post-disaster coping 40 days after a 6.8 Richter Scale earthquake, local and regional deaths, and an ongoing nuclear radiation threat. Attendees were given access to anonymous questionnaires that were integrated into the training as a tool to help enhance mental health literacy and bridge communication gaps. Questionnaires were turned in by a third of those in attendance. Among respondents, multiple exposures to potentially-traumatic events were common. More than a quarter of respondents met criteria for probable PTSD. Physical health and loss of sense of community were related to PTSD symptoms. Associations and diagnosis rates represented in these data are not generalizable to the population as a whole or intended for epidemiological purposes; rather, they are evidence of a potentially useful approach to post-disaster clinical screening, education, and engagement. Results are presented in the context of previous findings in Japan and ecologically-supportive post-disaster field research is discussed. PMID:23977819

  16. Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  17. Repeated sprints, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

  18. Enhancing Foster Parent Training with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Mersky, Joshua P; Topitzes, James; Janczewski, Colleen E; McNeil, Cheryl B

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that foster parents often do not receive sufficient training and support to help them meet the demands of caring for foster children with emotional and behavioral disturbances. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a clinically efficacious intervention for child externalizing problems, and it also has been shown to mitigate parenting stress and enhance parenting attitudes and behaviors. However, PCIT is seldom available to foster families, and it rarely has been tested under intervention conditions that are generalizable to community-based child welfare service contexts. To address this gap, PCIT was adapted and implemented in a field experiment using 2 novel approaches-group-based training and telephone consultation-both of which have the potential to be integrated into usual care. This study analyzes 129 foster-parent-child dyads who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) waitlist control, (b) brief PCIT, and (c) extended PCIT. Self-report and observational data were gathered at multiple time points up to 14 weeks post baseline. Findings from mixed-model, repeated measures analyses indicated that the brief and extended PCIT interventions were associated with a significant decrease in self-reported parenting stress. Results from mixed-effects generalized linear models showed that the interventions also led to significant improvements in observed indicators of positive and negative parenting. The brief course of PCIT was as efficacious as the extended PCIT intervention. The findings suggest that usual training and support services can be improved upon by introducing foster parents to experiential, interactive PCIT training.

  19. Enhancing Foster Parent Training with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Janczewski, Colleen E.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research indicates that foster parents often do not receive sufficient training and support to help them meet the demands of caring for foster children with emotional and behavioral disturbances. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a clinically efficacious intervention for child externalizing problems, and it also has been shown to mitigate parenting stress and enhance parenting attitudes and behaviors. However, PCIT is seldom available to foster families, and it rarely has been tested under intervention conditions that are generalizable to community-based child welfare service contexts. To address this gap, PCIT was adapted and implemented in a field experiment using 2 novel approaches—group-based training and telephone consultation—both of which have the potential to be integrated into usual care. Method This study analyzes 129 foster-parent-child dyads who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) waitlist control, (b) brief PCIT, and (c) extended PCIT. Self-report and observational data were gathered at multiple time points up to 14 weeks post baseline. Results Findings from mixed-model, repeated measures analyses indicated that the brief and extended PCIT interventions were associated with a significant decrease in self-reported parenting stress. Results from mixed-effects generalized linear models showed that the interventions also led to significant improvements in observed indicators of positive and negative parenting. The brief course of PCIT was as efficacious as the extended PCIT intervention. Conclusions The findings suggest that usual training and support services can be improved upon by introducing foster parents to experiential, interactive PCIT training. PMID:26977251

  20. Supporting the joint warfighter by development, training, and fielding of man-portable UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Kenneth A.; Stratton, Benjamin V.

    2005-05-01

    The Robotic Systems Pool (RSP), sponsored by the Joint Robotics Program (JRP), is an inventory of small robotic systems, payloads, and components intended to expedite the development and integration of technology into effective, supportable, fielded robotic assets. The RSP loans systems to multiple users including the military, first-responders, research organizations, and academia. These users provide feedback in their specific domain, accelerating research and development improvements of robotic systems, which in turn allow the joint warfighter to benefit from such changes more quickly than from traditional acquisition cycles. Over the past year, RSP assets have been used extensively for pre-deployment operator and field training of joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) teams, and for the training of Navy Reservist repair technicians. These Reservists are part of the Robotic Systems Combat Support Platoon (RSCSP), attached to Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego. The RSCSP maintains and repairs RSP assets and provides deployable technical support for users of robotic systems. Currently, a small team from the RSCSP is deployed at Camp Victory repairing and maintaining man-portable unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) used by joint EOD teams in Operation Iraqi Freedom. The focus of this paper is to elaborate on the RSP and RSCSP and their role as invaluable resources for spiral development in the robotics community by gaining first-hand technical feedback from the warfighter and other users.

  1. BOOST H2O - Field Training Activities for Hydrologic Science near Lake Iznik, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derin, Y.; Hatipoglu, E.; Sunnetci, M. O.; Tanyas, H.; Unal Ercan, H.; Aktuna, Z.; Agouridis, C.; Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Schroeder, P.; Ece, O. I.; Yilmaz, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Field activities are often the best pedagogy for reinforcing principles learned in the classroom. As part of the 'Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology: Helping Hydrologic Outreach (BOOST H2O)' project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of State, six graduate students from three Turkish universities, four U.S. professors, and two Turkish professors participated in a week of training activities during May-June 2013. Field activities took place in the Lake Iznik region in western Turkey. The lake basin is geologically complex, with fault-controlled hydrogeology, and land use is dominated by agriculture, particularly olive cultivation. Professors trained the students (four females and two males) on concepts and techniques in surface-water and groundwater hydrology, water quality, and related computer software. Activities included stream gauging (using top-setting rods and a current meter), geomorphic assessment of streams (slope, cross-sections, and bed-clast size), measuring depth to water in wells, and collection of water samples from springs, wells, and the lake. Measurements of pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and alkalinity were performed along with sampling for stable isotope (oxygen and hydrogen) analysis. The students visited local villages, farms, surface-water intakes, and recreational springs for a holistic approach towards integrated water resource management. Results were discussed in the context of lithology, tectonics, land use, and other human impacts.

  2. Differential single nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis of an outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Manhattan reveals epidemiological details missed by standard pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Scaltriti, Erika; Sassera, Davide; Comandatore, Francesco; Morganti, Marina; Mandalari, Carmen; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bandi, Claudio; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pongolini, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    We retrospectively analyzed a rare Salmonella enterica serovar Manhattan outbreak that occurred in Italy in 2009 to evaluate the potential of new genomic tools based on differential single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in comparison with the gold standard genotyping method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 39 isolates were analyzed from patients (n=15) and food, feed, animal, and environmental sources (n=24), resulting in five different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Isolates epidemiologically related to the outbreak clustered within the same pulsotype, SXB_BS.0003, without any further differentiation. Thirty-three isolates were considered for genomic analysis based on different sets of SNPs, core, synonymous, nonsynonymous, as well as SNPs in different codon positions, by Bayesian and maximum likelihood algorithms. Trees generated from core and nonsynonymous SNPs, as well as SNPs at the second and first plus second codon positions detailed four distinct groups of isolates within the outbreak pulsotype, discriminating outbreak-related isolates of human and food origins. Conversely, the trees derived from synonymous and third-codon-position SNPs clustered food and human isolates together, indicating that all outbreak-related isolates constituted a single clone, which was in line with the epidemiological evidence. Further experiments are in place to extend this approach within our regional enteropathogen surveillance system. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Differential Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Analysis of an Outbreak Caused by Salmonella enterica Serovar Manhattan Reveals Epidemiological Details Missed by Standard Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Scaltriti, Erika; Sassera, Davide; Comandatore, Francesco; Morganti, Marina; Mandalari, Carmen; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bandi, Claudio; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed a rare Salmonella enterica serovar Manhattan outbreak that occurred in Italy in 2009 to evaluate the potential of new genomic tools based on differential single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in comparison with the gold standard genotyping method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 39 isolates were analyzed from patients (n = 15) and food, feed, animal, and environmental sources (n = 24), resulting in five different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Isolates epidemiologically related to the outbreak clustered within the same pulsotype, SXB_BS.0003, without any further differentiation. Thirty-three isolates were considered for genomic analysis based on different sets of SNPs, core, synonymous, nonsynonymous, as well as SNPs in different codon positions, by Bayesian and maximum likelihood algorithms. Trees generated from core and nonsynonymous SNPs, as well as SNPs at the second and first plus second codon positions detailed four distinct groups of isolates within the outbreak pulsotype, discriminating outbreak-related isolates of human and food origins. Conversely, the trees derived from synonymous and third-codon-position SNPs clustered food and human isolates together, indicating that all outbreak-related isolates constituted a single clone, which was in line with the epidemiological evidence. Further experiments are in place to extend this approach within our regional enteropathogen surveillance system. PMID:25653407

  4. New training tools for new epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Arts, Ilja C W; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2013-08-01

    Molecular epidemiology is moving from an era of single marker studies to omics-driven population-based studies, made possible by recent rapid technological advances in high-throughput laboratory assays. The use of these assays in large, observational, epidemiologic studies poses major methodological challenges. The traditional, reductionist approach that most epidemiologists have been taught is no longer sufficient with the introduction of omics data into epidemiology. However, basic epidemiological principles, such as confounding, must still be addressed. In order to successfully implement these tools into molecular epidemiology, scientists in the required disciplines must be able to effectively communicate. We propose an interdisciplinary, three-level, problem-based approach to training in molecular epidemiology. This approach requires interdisciplinary teaching teams that appeal to students coming from diverse backgrounds. First, concepts from each field necessary for molecular epidemiology must be addressed at a basic level, with a specific focus on biological, epidemiological, and statistical concepts. Second, state-of the art methods applied in molecular epidemiology should be covered (e.g., omics technologies, smart study designs, statistical modeling, and biological interpretation). Third, the application of omics technologies in population studies calls for awareness of issues related to biobanking, ethics, legislation, and public health. Problem-based learning is a useful tool for teaching when students need to apply complex concepts to complex situations as is the case in molecular epidemiology. Using this approach, students from diverse backgrounds work together to analyze problems, discuss, and exchange knowledge in modern molecular epidemiology. Training tools characterized by this approach will shape the molecular epidemiologists of the future. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Epidemiology and heterogeny].

    PubMed

    Breilh, J; Granda, E

    1989-01-01

    The innovation of epidemiology plays a crucial role in the development of the health sciences. The authors emphasize the importance of epistemological analysis related to scientific and technical production. They focus on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the principal Latin American groups in the field of epidemiology, stating their main accomplishments, issues and potentials. When reviewing those conceptual and practical innovations, the authors analyse the effects of broader historical conditions on scientific work. To them, Latin American contemporary innovative epidemiological research and production have developed clearly differentiated principles, methods and technical projections which have led to a movement of critical or 'social' epidemiology. The functionalist approach of conventional epidemiology, characterized by an empiricist viewpoint, is being overcome by a more rigorous and analytical approach. This new epidemiological approach, in which the authors as members of CEAS (Health Research and Advisory Center) are working, has selectively incorporated some of the technical instruments of conventional epidemiology, subordinating them to a different theoretical and logical paradigm. The new framework of this group explains the need to consider the people's objective situation and necessities, when constructing scientific interpretations and planning technical action. In order to accomplish this goal, epidemiological reasoning has to reflect the unity of external epidemiological facts and associations, the so-called phenomenological aspect of health, with the underlying determinants and conditioning processes or internal relations, which are the essence of the health-disease production and distribution process. Epidemiological analysis is considered not only as a problem of empirical observation but as a process of theoretical construction, in which there is a dynamic fusion of deductive and inductive reasoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250

  6. Computer-aided detection of masses in full-field digital mammography using screen-film mammograms for training.

    PubMed

    Kallenberg, Michiel; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2008-12-07

    It would be of great value when available databases of screen-film mammography (SFM) images can be used to train full-field digital mammography (FFDM) computer-aided detection (CAD) systems, as compilation of new databases is costly. In this paper, we investigate this possibility. Firstly, we develop a method that converts an FFDM image into an SFM-like representation. In this conversion method, we establish a relation between exposure and optical density by simulation of an automatic exposure control unit. Secondly, we investigate the effects of using the SFM images as training samples compared to training with FFDM images. Our FFDM database consisted of 266 cases, of which 102 were biopsy-proven malignant masses and 164 normals. The images were acquired with systems of two different manufacturers. We found that, when we trained our FFDM CAD system with a small number of images, training with FFDM images, using a five-fold crossvalidation procedure, outperformed training with SFM images. However, when the full SFM database, consisting of 348 abnormal cases (including 204 priors) and 810 normal cases, was used for training, SFM training outperformed FFDMA training. These results show that an existing CAD system for detection of masses in SFM can be used for FFDM images without retraining.

  7. Preventing Empathic Distress and Social Stressors at Work Through Nonviolent Communication Training: A Field Study With Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Renata; Dziobek, Isabel

    2016-12-15

    One major source of mental health problems in health professionals are personally demanding encounters at work. Thus, a crucial prevention focus is the development of emotional and social skills necessary to effectively manage interactions with clients, colleagues, and supervisors. The aim of our pre-post intervention field study was to evaluate an employee training in nonviolent communication (NVC) within a public health organization. A training group participated in a 3-day NVC training and completed questionnaires before and 3 months after training. Changes in NVC skills, empathic distress, empathy, and social stressors at work were compared with data from a control group without training. Additionally, we observed NVC-trained participants' communication behavior immediately before and after the intervention. We found a promotion of communication skills in training participants as evidenced by increased emotion verbalization behavior and enhanced use of NVC at work. Empathic distress declined, and an increase of social stressors at work was prevented by enhanced emotion verbalization. The findings demonstrate that NVC training can be an effective means to foster emotional and interpersonal skills and to prevent empathic distress and social stressors at work in individuals working in socioemotionally challenging settings. Possible causal mechanisms explaining the training effects are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Train-induced field vibration measurements of ground and over-track buildings.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Moore, James A; Sanayei, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Transit-oriented development, such as metro depot and over-track building complexes, has expanded rapidly over the last 5years in China. Over-track building construction has the advantage of comprehensive utilization of land resources, ease of commuting to work, and provide funds for subway construction. But the high frequency of subway operations into and out of the depots can generate excessive vibrations that transmit into the over track buildings, radiate noise within the buildings, hamper the operation of vibration sensitive equipment, and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Field measurements of vibration during subway operations were conducted at Shenzhen, China, a city of 10.62 million people in southern China. Considering the metro depot train testing line and throat area train lines were the main vibration sources, vibration data were captured in five measurement setups. The train-induced vibrations were obtained and compared with limitation of FTA criteria. The structure-radiated noise was calculated using measured vibration levels. The vertical vibration energy directly passed through the columns on both sides of track into the platform, amplifying vibration on the platform by up to 6dB greater than ground levels at testing line area. Vibration amplification around the natural frequency in the vertical direction of over-track building made the peak values of indoor floor vibration about 16dB greater than outdoor platform vibration. We recommend to carefully examining design of new over-track buildings within 40m on the platform over the throat area to avoid excessive vertical vibrations and noise. For both buildings, the measured vertical vibrations were less than the FTA limit. However, it is demonstrated that the traffic-induced high-frequency noise has the potential to annoy occupants on the upper floors.

  9. The effect of physical contact on changes in fatigue markers following rugby union field-based training.

    PubMed

    Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Till, Kevin; Phibbs, Padraic; Read, Dale; Weakley, Jonathon; Rock, Andrew; Jones, Ben

    2017-02-26

    Repeated physical contact in rugby union is thought to contribute to post-match fatigue; however, no evidence exists on the effect of contact activity during field-based training on fatigue responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of contact during training on fatigue markers in rugby union players. Twenty academy rugby union players participated in the cross-over study. The magnitude of change in upper- and lower-body neuromuscular function (NMF), whole blood creatine kinase concentration [CK] and perception of well-being was assessed pre-training (baseline), immediately and 24 h post-training following contact and non-contact, field-based training. Training load was measured using mean heart rate, session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and microtechnology (Catapult Optimeye S5). The inclusion of contact during field-based training almost certainly increased mean heart rate (9.7; ±3.9%) and sRPE (42; ±29.2%) and resulted in likely and very likely greater decreases in upper-body NMF (-7.3; ±4.7% versus 2.7; ±5.9%) and perception of well-being (-8.0; ±4.8% versus  -3.4; ±2.2%) 24 h post-training, respectively, and almost certainly greater elevations in [CK] (88.2; ±40.7% versus 3.7; ±8%). The exclusion of contact from field-based training almost certainly increased running intensity (19.8; ±5%) and distance (27.5; ±5.3%), resulting in possibly greater decreases in lower-body NMF (-5.6; ±5.2% versus 2.3; ±2.4%). Practitioners should be aware of the different demands and fatigue responses of contact and non-contact, field-based training and can use this information to appropriately schedule such training in the weekly microcycle.

  10. Analysis of international competition and training in men's field hockey by global positioning system and inertial sensor technology.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew D; MacFarlane, Niall G

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the relative demands of elite field hockey training and competition to determine whether familiar exercise prescription strategies provide an appropriate training stimulus. Sixteen elite male field hockey players (age, 25 ± 4 years; body mass, 70.9 ± 6.6 kg; and maximal oxygen consumption, 61.0 ± 2.1 ml·kg·min [mean ± SD]) participated in the study. Seventy-five elite level competition and 37 training analyses from 8 games and 4 training sessions were obtained. Training duration was longer than competition and covered a greater total distance (109 ± 2.5 vs. 74 ± 0.3 minutes and 7318 ± 221 vs. 5868 ± 75 m; p < 0.001 in both). The distance covered sprinting and running at high intensity was not different between training and competition (114 ± 6 vs. 116 ± 9 m when sprinting and 457 ± 6 vs. 448 ± 7 m for high-intensity running). More high-intensity accelerations were performed during training than in competition (37 ± 3 vs. 20 ± 2). Despite having lower predicted aerobic capacity and covering less distance in competition than in some previous studies, these data support the suggestion that it is high-intensity activity that differentiates international level competition and further suggests that international players can replicate the intensity of competition during small-sided games.

  11. Field monitoring of a LID-BMP treatment train system in China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Haifeng; Wang, Xiangwen; Ti, Chaopu; Zhai, Yanyun; Field, Richard; Tafuri, Anthony N; Cai, Huihua; Yu, Shaw L

    2015-06-01

    In order to assess the urban runoff control effectiveness of a low-impact development best management practice (LID-BMP) treatment train system, a field test of selected LID-BMPs was conducted in China. The LID-BMPs selected include three grassed swales, a buffer strip, a bioretention cell, two infiltration pits, and a constructed wetland. The test site is in a campus in southern China. The LID-BMPs, connected in a series, received stormwater runoff from four tennis courts with an area of 2808 m(2) and eight basketball courts with an area of 4864 m(2). Construction of the LID-BMPs was completed in early spring of 2012, and the sampling was conducted during May of 2012 to September of 2013. During the sampling effort, besides the performance evaluations of grassed swales and the bioretention cell in controlling runoff quantity as well as quality, the emphasis was also on determining the performance of the LID-BMP treatment train system. A total of 19 storm events were monitored, with nine producing no runoff and ten producing runoff. Data collected from the ten storm events were analyzed for estimating runoff quantity (peak flow rate and total runoff volume) and quality reduction by the LID-BMPs. The sum of loads (SOL) method was used for calculating the water quality performance of LID-BMPs. Results indicated that, for peak flow rate, a bioretention cell reduction of 50-84 % was obtained, and grassed swale reduction was 17-79 %, with a runoff volume reduction of 47-80 and 9-74 %, respectively. For water quality, the bioretention cell in general showed good removal for zinc (nearly 100 %), copper (69 %), NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen) (51 %), and total nitrogen (TN) (49 %); fair removal for chemical oxygen demand (COD) (18 %); and poor removal for total suspended solids (TSS) (-11 %) and total phosphorus (TP) (-21 %). And its performance effectiveness for pollutant removal increased in the second year after 1 year of stabilizing. When considering the aggregated effect of

  12. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  13. Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis & repetitive sequence-based PCR methods for molecular epidemiological studies of Escherichia coli clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Kim, Juwon; Sun, Je Young Hannah; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Yong-Rok; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: PFGE, rep-PCR, and MLST are widely used to identify related bacterial isolates and determine epidemiologic associations during outbreaks. This study was performed to compare the ability of repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the genetic relationships among Escherichia coli isolates assigned to various sequence types (STs) by two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes. Methods: A total of 41 extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) and/or AmpC β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical isolates were included in this study. MLST experiments were performed following the Achtman's MLST scheme and the Whittam's MLST scheme, respectively. Rep-PCR experiments were performed using the DiversiLab system. PFGE experiments were also performed. Results: A comparison of the two MLST methods demonstrated that these two schemes yielded compatible results. PFGE correctly segregated E. coli isolates belonging to different STs as different types, but did not group E. coli isolates belonging to the same ST in the same group. Rep-PCR accurately grouped E. coli isolates belonging to the same ST together, but this method demonstrated limited ability to discriminate between E. coli isolates belonging to different STs. Interpretation & conclusions: These results suggest that PFGE would be more effective when investigating outbreaks in a limited space, such as a specialty hospital or an intensive care unit, whereas rep-PCR should be used for nationwide or worldwide epidemiology studies. PMID:25579152

  14. Developing a Field Artillery Training System Based on Devices and Simulations: Evaluation of Training Devices and Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    development of a recoil simulator be given the highest priority due to its potential in training to prevent serious injury from a recoiling howitzer. In...those that are not cued by the equipment or previous steps. The implication here is to " overtrain " those tasks or steps most likely to be forgotten

  15. Preceptors' Influence on Athletic Training Students' Development of Excitement and Commitment to the Field of Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students (ATS) who are excited about their chosen profession are likely to persist to graduation. Preceptors exert significant influence on ATS; however, little is known about the methods that preceptors use to help ATS develop their own professional commitments. Objective: To investigate the methods used by preceptors…

  16. Vocational Training for Women Refugees in Africa: Guide-lines from Selected Field Projects. Training Discussion Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eve

    In addition to describing how training programs for African refugees fail to meet the needs of women (who along with children are the majority of refugees), this document offers guidelines for improving the programs and, thus, the productivity and incomes of women refugees. The first section, called "Women Refugees: The Overlooked…

  17. Vocational Training for Women Refugees in Africa: Guide-lines from Selected Field Projects. Training Discussion Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eve

    In addition to describing how training programs for African refugees fail to meet the needs of women (who along with children are the majority of refugees), this document offers guidelines for improving the programs and, thus, the productivity and incomes of women refugees. The first section, called "Women Refugees: The Overlooked…

  18. Stabilization window and attosecond pulse train production at atom ionization in superintense laser field.

    PubMed

    Ryabikin, M; Sergeev, A

    2000-12-04

    We present the results of numerical experiments on a two-dimensional model atom driven by a high-intense laser pulse. The electron wave-packet behavior is studied in a range of laser parameters corresponding to the dynamic stabilization regime. Wave packet localization in this regime with arbitrary laser polarizations is shown to manifest itself macroscopically by high-order harmonic production in the form of long trains of attosecond pulses. Calculations for the sub-relativistic regime of laser-atom interaction are carried out without making the dipole approximation in order to take into account the Lorentz force effect in wave packet evolution. The transition from polychotomy to the magnetic-field-induced drifting at very high laser intensities is documented which results in the electron delocalization. As a consequence, the intensity dependence of the atomic survival probability as well as that of the efficiency of high-order harmonic production possess a wide "stabilization window" followed by an abrupt drop because of the magnetic field effect.

  19. Retesting The Validity Of A Specific Field Test For Judo Training

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luis; González, Vicente; Iscar, Marta; Brime, Juan I.; Fernández-Río, Javier; Rodríguez, Blanca; Montoliu, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this research project was to retest the validity of a specifically designed judo field test (Santos Test) in a different group of judokas. Eight (n=8) national-level male judokas underwent laboratory and field testing. The mean data (mean +/− SD) obtained in the laboratory tests was: HRmax: 200 ± 4.0 beats × min−1, VO2 max: 52.8 ± 7.9 ± ml × kg−1 × min−1, lactate max: 12 ± 2.5 mmol × l−1, HR at the anaerobic threshold: 174.2 ± 9.4 beats × min−1, percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 87 ± 3.6 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l−1, and RPE: 17.2 ± 1.0. The mean data obtained in the field test (Santos) was: HRmax: 201.3 ± 4.1 beats × min−1, VO2 max: 55.6 ± 5.8 ml × kg−1 × min−1, lactate max: 15.6 ± 2.8 mmol × l−1, HR at the anaerobic threshold: 173.2 ± 4.3 beats × min−1, percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 86 ± 2.5 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l−1, and RPE: 16.7 ± 1.0. There were no significant differences between the data obtained on both tests in any of the parameters, except for maximum lactate concentration. Therefore, the Santos test can be considered a valid tool specific for judo training. PMID:23486994

  20. Retesting the validity of a specific field test for judo training.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luis; González, Vicente; Iscar, Marta; Brime, Juan I; Fernández-Río, Javier; Rodríguez, Blanca; Montoliu, M Ángeles

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this research project was to retest the validity of a specifically designed judo field test (Santos Test) in a different group of judokas. Eight (n=8) national-level male judokas underwent laboratory and field testing. The mean data (mean +/- SD) obtained in the laboratory tests was: HRmax: 200 ± 4.0 beats × min(-1), VO2 max: 52.8 ± 7.9 ± ml × kg(-1) × min(-1), lactate max: 12 ± 2.5 mmol × l(-1), HR at the anaerobic threshold: 174.2 ± 9.4 beats × min(-1), percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 87 ± 3.6 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l(-1), and RPE: 17.2 ± 1.0. The mean data obtained in the field test (Santos) was: HRmax: 201.3 ± 4.1 beats × min(-1), VO2 max: 55.6 ± 5.8 ml × kg(-1) × min(-1), lactate max: 15.6 ± 2.8 mmol × l(-1), HR at the anaerobic threshold: 173.2 ± 4.3 beats × min(-1), percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 86 ± 2.5 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l(-1), and RPE: 16.7 ± 1.0. There were no significant differences between the data obtained on both tests in any of the parameters, except for maximum lactate concentration. Therefore, the Santos test can be considered a valid tool specific for judo training.

  1. Post-training scopolamine treatment induced maladaptive behavior in open field habituation task in rats.

    PubMed

    Popović, Natalija; Caballero-Bleda, María; Popović, Miroljub

    2014-01-01

    The effects of scopolamine on memory consolidation are controversial and depend on several factors (i.e. site of administration, time of administration and testing, dose, cognitive task, experimental protocol, specie, strain, etc.). Generally, the range dose of systemic administered scopolamine, used in memory consolidation studies, has varied from 0.05 to 50 mg/kg. However, according to the literature, the most frequently used doses of scopolamine efficient on memory consolidation, are 1 and 30 mg/kg, low and high doses, respectively. In open field habituation studies only lower doses of scopolamine were used to test memory consolidation. Therefore, in the present study we compared the effects of low (1 mg/kg) and high (30 mg/kg) scopolamine dose, on the open field habituation task, in male Wistar rats. Scopolamine was administered immediately after the acquisition task and animals were retested 48 h later on. On the retested day, the ambulation and rearing in the open field decreased in the same manner in all tested groups. In saline- and 1 mg/kg scopolamine-treated animals, the time spent in grooming significantly decreased in the habituation task, while the same parameter significantly increased in animals treated with 30 mg/kg of scopolamine. The defecation rate significantly decreased (control group), maintained (1 mg/kg of scopolamine treated animals) or significantly increased (30 mg/kg of scopolamine treated group) on retention test. In conclusion, the present data suggest that post-training scopolamine administration does not affect locomotion neither exploration in the habituation to a novel environment, but increases defecation and grooming, two behaviours associated with fearful and stressful situations.

  2. A cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator using a novel torque-field controller for human motion training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weihai; Cui, Xiang; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    Rehabilitation technologies have great potentials in assisted motion training for stroke patients. Considering that wrist motion plays an important role in arm dexterous manipulation of activities of daily living, this paper focuses on developing a cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator (CDWRR) for motion training or assistance to subjects with motor disabilities. The CDWRR utilizes the wrist skeletal joints and arm segments as the supporting structure and takes advantage of cable-driven parallel design to build the system, which brings the properties of flexibility, low-cost, and low-weight. The controller of the CDWRR is designed typically based on a virtual torque-field, which is to plan "assist-as-needed" torques for the spherical motion of wrist responding to the orientation deviation in wrist motion training. The torque-field controller can be customized to different levels of rehabilitation training requirements by tuning the field parameters. Additionally, a rapidly convergent parameter self-identification algorithm is developed to obtain the uncertain parameters automatically for the floating wearable structure of the CDWRR. Finally, experiments on a healthy subject are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the controller and the feasibility of the CDWRR on wrist motion training or assistance.

  3. A cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator using a novel torque-field controller for human motion training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weihai; Cui, Xiang; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    Rehabilitation technologies have great potentials in assisted motion training for stroke patients. Considering that wrist motion plays an important role in arm dexterous manipulation of activities of daily living, this paper focuses on developing a cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator (CDWRR) for motion training or assistance to subjects with motor disabilities. The CDWRR utilizes the wrist skeletal joints and arm segments as the supporting structure and takes advantage of cable-driven parallel design to build the system, which brings the properties of flexibility, low-cost, and low-weight. The controller of the CDWRR is designed typically based on a virtual torque-field, which is to plan "assist-as-needed" torques for the spherical motion of wrist responding to the orientation deviation in wrist motion training. The torque-field controller can be customized to different levels of rehabilitation training requirements by tuning the field parameters. Additionally, a rapidly convergent parameter self-identification algorithm is developed to obtain the uncertain parameters automatically for the floating wearable structure of the CDWRR. Finally, experiments on a healthy subject are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the controller and the feasibility of the CDWRR on wrist motion training or assistance.

  4. The new epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field.

  5. Impact of a 7-Day Field Training on Oral Health Condition in Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Personnel.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Koji; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Nagata, Emi; Ramadhani, Atik; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Oho, Takahiko

    2017-07-01

    In the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), personnel periodically perform intensive training that mimics the conditions seen in battle and during natural disasters. Military training involves intensive, stressful conditions, and changes in immune responses have been found in personnel following training. Good oral condition is important for military personnel to fulfill their duties; however, they have difficulty performing daily oral care under training conditions. In this study, we investigated the impact of a 7-day field training on the oral health status of JGSDF personnel by comparing their oral condition before and just after training. The participants were 59 male and 3 female JGSDF personnel undergoing a 7-day field training. All personnel provided informed written consent to participate, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences. Oral health behaviors before and during the training period were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed before training in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), and periodontal condition was examined before and immediately after training using the community periodontal index (CPI). The presence of eight species of bacteria in dental plaque, including commensal streptococci that are early colonizers on the tooth surface, cariogenic bacteria, and periodontopathic bacteria, was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also assessed antibacterial factors and a stress marker in saliva samples. Sample collection was performed before and just after training. In addition to difference analysis between groups, logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each health behavior and periodontal deterioration. The frequency of toothbrushing decreased, and snacking increased during the training period. Thirty-five personnel (56.5%) showed an increase in

  6. How Do Clinicians Prefer Cultural Competence Training? Findings from the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Lam, Peter; Castillo, Enrico G; Weiss, Mitchell G; Diaz, Esperanza; Alarcón, Renato D; van Dijk, Rob; Rohlof, Hans; Ndetei, David M; Scalco, Monica; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bassiri, Kavoos; Deshpande, Smita; Groen, Simon; Jadhav, Sushrut; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Westermeyer, Joseph; Santos, Filipa; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Anez, Luis; Boiler, Marit; Nicasio, Andel V; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    This study's objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences. The authors used mixed methods to analyze interviews from 75 clinicians in five continents on their training preferences after a standardized training session and clinicians' first administration of the Cultural Formulation Interview. Content analysis identified most and least helpful educational methods by reason. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis compared clinician characteristics to method preferences. Most frequently, clinicians named case-based behavioral simulations as "most helpful" and video as "least helpful" training methods. Bivariate and logistic regression models, first unadjusted and then clustered by country, found that each additional year of a clinician's age was associated with a preference for behavioral simulations: OR = 1.05 (95 % CI: 1.01-1.10; p = 0.025). Most clinicians preferred active behavioral simulations in cultural competence training, and this effect was most pronounced among older clinicians. Effective training may be best accomplished through a combination of reviewing written guidelines, video demonstration, and behavioral simulations. Future work can examine the impact of clinician training satisfaction on patient symptoms and quality of life.

  7. How Do Clinicians Prefer Cultural Competence Training? Findings from the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Lam, Peter; Castillo, Enrico; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Diaz, Esperanza; Alarcón, Renato D.; van Dijk, Rob; Rohlof, Hans; Ndetei, David M.; Scalco, Monica; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bassiri, Kavoos; Deshpande, Smita; Groen, Simon; Jadhav, Sushrut; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Westermeyer, Joseph; Santos, Filipa; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Anez, Luis; Boiler, Marit; Nicasio, Andel V.; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study’s objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences. Method The authors used mixed methods to analyze interviews from 75 clinicians in five continents on their training preferences after a standardized training session and clinicians’ first administration of the Cultural Formulation Interview. Content analysis identified most and least helpful educational methods by reason. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis compared clinician characteristics to method preferences. Results Most frequently, clinicians named case-based behavioral simulations as “most helpful” and video as “least helpful” training methods. Bivariate and logistic regression models, first unadjusted and then clustered by country, found that each additional year of a clinician’s age was associated with a preference for behavioral simulations: OR=1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.10; p=0.025). Conclusions Most clinicians preferred active behavioral simulations in cultural competence training, and this effect was most pronounced among older clinicians. Effective training may be best accomplished through a combination of reviewing written guidelines, video demonstration, and behavioral simulations. Future work can examine the impact of clinician training satisfaction on patient symptoms and quality of life. PMID:26449983

  8. The Efficacy of InSight Cognitive Training to Improve Useful Field of View Performance: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jerri D; Valdés, Elise G; Peronto, Carol; Castora-Binkley, Melissa; Alwerdt, Jessie; Andel, Ross; Lister, Jennifer J

    2015-05-01

    It is well established that cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT) improves Useful Field of View (UFOV) performance and transfers to enhanced performance of instrumental activities of daily living, including driving. InSight is a recently developed version of SOPT formatted for self-administration by older adults with exercises translated into a gaming format. The goal was to examine whether InSight training improves UFOV performance. Participants ranged in age between 59-95 years and were randomized to InSight cognitive training or a control condition. Cognitive performance and self-perceptions were measured pre- and post-training, or for controls, after an equivalent delay. Participants completed training twice a week over a 12-week period with the goal of completing 20 sessions. Participants randomized to InSight training experienced greater improvements in their UFOV performance relative to the control condition, F(1, 58) = 4.26, p = .043, but no changes in cognitive self-perceptions were found. The InSight program is a viable tool for enhancing older adults' UFOV performance. Future research should examine if training gains from the program endure and transfer to improved everyday function. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-06-01

    A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power.

  10. Ethics and Accreditation in Addictions Counselor Training: Possible Field Placement Issues for CACREP-Accredited Addictions Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors have long been practicing in alcohol and drug treatment settings. However, only recently has the counseling field offered formal recognition of addictions counseling as a specialization through the implementation of accreditation standards for addiction counseling training programs. With the passage of the 2009 standards,…

  11. Using CODAP Job Analysis for the Development of Integrated Training Requirements for Three Army Civilian Career Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Gerald P.; And Others

    A multiuse Comprehensive Occupational Data Analysis Program (CODAP) job analysis is being used to develop training requirements and selection criteria for three interrelated Army civilian logistics career fields. Individual job task lists for the 20 job series within the three career programs were developed. The lists were based on a review of…

  12. Mindfulness Training and Reductions in Teacher Stress and Burnout: Results from Two Randomized, Waitlist-Control Field Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeser, Robert W.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Jha, Amishi; Cullen, Margaret; Wallace, Linda; Wilensky, Rona; Oberle, Eva; Thomson, Kimberly; Taylor, Cynthia; Harrison, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers' occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were…

  13. Ethics and Accreditation in Addictions Counselor Training: Possible Field Placement Issues for CACREP-Accredited Addictions Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors have long been practicing in alcohol and drug treatment settings. However, only recently has the counseling field offered formal recognition of addictions counseling as a specialization through the implementation of accreditation standards for addiction counseling training programs. With the passage of the 2009 standards,…

  14. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Development of Master's Level Counseling Supervisors Who Were Trained in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semivan, Suzanne Gibson

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the experience of eight Master's level supervisors who received their counselor supervision training within the field. The research focused on the lived experiences of becoming a supervisor and strived to understand meaningful and formative influences, as well as the technical and supportive nature of those forces…

  15. Mindfulness Training and Reductions in Teacher Stress and Burnout: Results from Two Randomized, Waitlist-Control Field Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeser, Robert W.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Jha, Amishi; Cullen, Margaret; Wallace, Linda; Wilensky, Rona; Oberle, Eva; Thomson, Kimberly; Taylor, Cynthia; Harrison, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers' occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were…

  16. Human Resource Development and Training Strategies: The Experience and Results of the Eurotecnet Programme. Four Priority Fields of Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    The EUROTECNET program has been refocused to concentrate more on continuing vocational education as the area of greatest need across the European Community. Four priority fields or domains of innovative activity have been defined for the final 2 years of EUROTECNET. Priority domain 1 is innovative training needs analysis with a special focus on…

  17. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  18. Use of Web-based training for quality improvement between a field immunohistochemistry laboratory in Nigeria and its United States-based partner institution.

    PubMed

    Oluwasola, Abideen O; Malaka, David; Khramtsov, Andrey Ilyich; Ikpatt, Offiong Francis; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adeyanju, Oyinlolu Olorunsogo; Sveen, Walmy Elisabeth; Falusi, Adeyinka Gloria; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo Ibironke

    2013-12-01

    The importance of hormone receptor status in assigning treatment and the potential use of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy have made it beneficial for laboratories to improve detection techniques. Because interlaboratory variability in immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests may also affect studies of breast cancer subtypes in different countries, we undertook a Web-based quality improvement training and a comparative study of accuracy of immunohistochemical tests of breast cancer biomarkers between a well-established laboratory in the United States (University of Chicago) and a field laboratory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty-two breast tumor blocks were evaluated for estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and HER2 status at both laboratories using tissue microarray technique. Initially, concordance analysis revealed κ scores of 0.42 (moderate agreement) for ER, 0.41 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.39 (fair agreement) for HER2 between the 2 laboratories. Antigen retrieval techniques and scoring methods were identified as important reasons for discrepancy. Web-based conferences using Web conferencing tools such as Skype and WebEx were then held periodically to discuss IHC staining protocols and standard scoring systems and to resolve discrepant cases. After quality assurance and training, the agreement improved to 0.64 (substantial agreement) for ER, 0.60 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.75 (substantial agreement) for HER2. We found Web-based conferences and digital microscopy useful and cost-effective tools for quality assurance of IHC, consultation, and collaboration between distant laboratories. Quality improvement exercises in testing of tumor biomarkers will reduce misclassification in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer subtypes and provide much needed capacity building in resource-poor countries.

  19. The Effects of Compensatory Scanning Training on Mobility in Patients with Homonymous Visual Field Defects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Gera A.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Tucha, Oliver; Heutink, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are a common consequence of postchiasmatic acquired brain injury and often lead to mobility-related difficulties. Different types of compensatory scanning training have been developed, aimed at decreasing consequences of the HVFD by changing visual scanning. Aim The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of a compensatory scanning training program using horizontal scanning on mobility-related activities and participation in daily life. Method The main interest of this study is to assess the effectiveness of training on mobility-related activities and participation in daily life. Visual scanning tests, such as dot counting and visual search, and control measures for visual functions and reading have been included as well. First, it is examined how performance on scanning and mobility-related measures is affected in patients with HVFD by comparing scores with scores of a healthy control group (n = 25). Second, the effect of training is assessed using an RCT design, in which performance of 26 patients before and after training is compared to performance of 23 patients in a waiting list control group. Results Self-reported improvements after training were found, accompanied by improvements in detecting peripheral stimuli and avoiding obstacles during walking, especially in dual task situations in which a second task limits the attentional capacity available for compensatory scanning. Training only improved mobility-related activities in which detection of peripheral stimuli is important, while no improvement was found on tests that require other visual skills, such as reading, visual counting and visual search. Conclusion This is the first RCT to evaluate the effects of a compensatory scanning training that is based on a systematic horizontal scanning rhythm. This training improved mobility-related activities. The results suggest that different types of compensatory scanning strategies are appropriate for

  20. Improvements Needed in the Army's Program for Developing Extension Training Materials for Use by Soldiers in Field Units. Report to the Secretary of the Army.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses three major issues concerning the Army's program for developing extension training materials: (1) indications of low usage of Army Training Extension Course lessons by soldiers in the field; (2) improvements needed in the process for developing extension training materials; and (3) the need for further evaluation before the…

  1. The Philippines Field Management Training Program (FMTP): strengthening management capacity in a decentralized public health system.

    PubMed

    Sucaldito, Nemia L; Tayag, Enrique A; Roces, Maria Concepcion R; Malison, Michael D; Robie, Brian D; Howze, Elizabeth H

    2014-12-01

    The decentralization of the Philippines' health sector in 1991 sought to improve the efficiency of local health resource allocation; however, local officials were unprepared for the increased responsibility. In 1999 the Philippines Department of Health, with assistance from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), implemented the Philippines Field Management Training Program (FMTP) to provide local health officials with the managerial skills needed to perform their new, more responsible jobs. This paper addresses whether the FMTP has provided participants with useful managerial skills needed for their more responsible positions. The method involved reviewing program outcomes, including results of applied management improvement projects the participants completed to solve managerial problems. Between 2000 and 2010, 294 participants completed the FMTP and many were later promoted to more responsible positions. The participants also completed 204 applied management improvement projects resulting in documented improvements in service delivery, information systems, logistics, health insurance, policy and laboratory outcomes. Examples of their successes are included in this paper. The results provide compelling evidence that managers are using the skills learned to solve significant managerial problems.

  2. Numerical simulations of LNG vapor dispersion in Brayton Fire Training Field tests with ANSYS CFX.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ruifeng; Ng, Dedy; Cormier, Benjamin R; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-11-15

    Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses the ANSYS CFX CFD code to model LNG vapor dispersion in the atmosphere. Discussed are important parameters that are essential inputs to the ANSYS CFX simulations, including the atmospheric conditions, LNG evaporation rate and pool area, turbulence in the source term, ground surface temperature and roughness height, and effects of obstacles. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to illustrate uncertainties in the simulation results arising from the mesh size and source term turbulence intensity. In addition, a set of medium-scale LNG spill tests were performed at the Brayton Fire Training Field to collect data for validating the ANSYS CFX prediction results. A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dense gas behavior of LNG vapor cloud, and its prediction results of downwind gas concentrations close to ground level were in approximate agreement with the test data.

  3. Impact of E4 Training and Field Auditing of GSA Heartland Region Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Gowri, Krishnan; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.

    2012-04-01

    To assess the impact of energy efficiency expert evaluation (E4) training and field audits performed since 2007, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) undertook a follow-up study on the implementation of E4 recommendations and an analysis of energy savings. The building property manager and O and M contractor of each facility were interviewed to obtain feedback and implementation status of the E4 recommendations. Overall, there were more than 160 recommendations documented in the E4 reports; about 50% of these recommendations were fully implemented and the remaining 50% either partially implemented or not implemented. In four buildings, the E4 recommendations were aligned with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) projects replacing HVAC equipment or upgrading the building control system. The E4 recommendations were not followed-up in two buildings because of uncertainty of the long-term use of the facility or personnel changes. Results of this followon study are reported in this document.

  4. Perceived Impacts of a Public Health Training Center Field Placement Program among Trainees: Findings from a Small Group Externship Experience.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Patrik; Grimm, Brandon; Abdel-Monem, Tarik; Hoffman, Stacey J; DeKraai, Mark; McMillan, Analisa

    2014-01-01

    There is heightened interest in identifying the impact of the federally funded Public Health Training Center (PHTC) program. Although evaluation studies have been conducted of public health training in general, evaluations of PHTC programs are rare. Field placement components are congressionally mandated requirements of PHTCs. Field placements are typically intensive, supervised externships for students to gain public health experience with local health departments or non-profit organizations. We have found no published evaluations of PHTC field placement components. This may be because of their small size and unique nature. We designed and evaluated a 200-h field placement program at an established PHTC. The evaluation included pre/post surveys measuring public health core competencies, and post-experience interviews. We found significant increases in three competency domains among trainees: policy development and program planning, communication skills, and community dimensions of practice. These outcomes contribute to evidence based on the efficacy of PHTC field placement programs, and underscore their role in public health training.

  5. [Epidemiology of TBE].

    PubMed

    Süss, J; Klaus, C

    2006-06-01

    In the period between 1974 and 2003, the incidence of TBE increased appreciably in most European countries. Numerous factors, including climatic changes, biological (ecological) and non-biological factors, have an influence on the epidemiology of TBE. In addition, a greater awareness and better understanding (of the problem), improvements in diagnosis, an increase in travel, political and associated major social changes have had an impact on epidemiological data banks. We shall succeed in turning back the rising tide only by achieving further progress in the field of risk analysis, and redoubling our efforts in the area of active immunisation.

  6. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  7. Psychological first aid training for Lebanese field workers in the emergency context of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Akoury-Dirani, Leyla; Sahakian, Tina S; Hassan, Fahed Y; Hajjar, Ranya V; El Asmar, Khalil

    2015-11-01

    The Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon required a fast and efficient comprehensive rescue strategy. Professionals working in emergency response were neither prepared to provide psychological first aid nor prepared to screen for mental health disorders in child refugees. This article examines the efficacy of a national training program in psychological first aid (PFA) to enhance the readiness of mental health field workers in the Syrian refugee response. Participant (N = 109) were recruited from Lebanese ministries and nongovernmental organizations. They received a 2.5-day training on PFA and on screening for mental health disorders in children. Their knowledge and perceived readiness were assessed before the training, immediately after the training, and 1 month after the training using 2 evaluation forms. Evaluation Form A was a multiple choice questionnaire composed of 20 questions and created on the basis of the content of the training, and Evaluation Form B was a Likert-type scale of 20 items created based on the core components of PFA. The data of 60 participants were analyzed. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge and readiness, specifically on the components related to the principles and techniques of PFA.

  8. Environmental epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

  9. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  10. Classification of personal exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) for epidemiological research: Evaluation of different exposure assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Bürgi, Alfred; Fröhlich, Jürg; Neubauer, Georg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Röösli, Martin

    2010-10-01

    The use of personal exposure meters (exposimeters) has been recommended for measuring personal exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from environmental far-field sources in everyday life. However, it is unclear to what extent exposimeter readings are affected by measurements taken when personal mobile and cordless phones are used. In addition, the use of exposimeters in large epidemiological studies is limited due to high costs and large effort for study participants. In the current analysis we aimed to investigate the impact of personal phone use on exposimeter readings and to evaluate different exposure assessment methods potentially useful in epidemiological studies. We collected personal exposimeter measurements during one week and diary data from 166 study participants. Moreover, we collected spot measurements in the participants' bedrooms and data on self-estimated exposure, assessed residential exposure to fixed site transmitters by calculating the geo-coded distance and mean RF-EMF from a geospatial propagation model, and developed an exposure prediction model based on the propagation model and exposure relevant behavior. The mean personal exposure was 0.13 mW/m(2), when measurements during personal phone calls were excluded and 0.15 mW/m(2), when such measurements were included. The Spearman correlation with personal exposure (without personal phone calls) was 0.42 (95%-CI: 0.29 to 0.55) for the spot measurements, -0.03 (95%-CI: -0.18 to 0.12) for the geo-coded distance, 0.28 (95%-CI: 0.14 to 0.42) for the geospatial propagation model, 0.50 (95%-CI: 0.37 to 0.61) for the full exposure prediction model and 0.06 (95%-CI: -0.10 to 0.21) for self-estimated exposure. In conclusion, personal exposure measured with exposimeters correlated best with the full exposure prediction model and spot measurements. Self-estimated exposure and geo-coded distance turned out to be poor surrogates for personal exposure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Vocational Education and Training--The European Research Field. Background Report. Volume I. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This document contains 12 papers on vocational education and training (VET) and related research that were developed for a 1998 European research report titled "Training for a Changing Society." The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Stavros Stavrou, Manfred Tessaring); "Institutional Framework Conditions and…

  12. Online Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Software Training through the Behavioral Modeling Approach: A Longitudinal Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie C.; Shaw, Ruey-shiang

    2006-01-01

    The continued and increasing use of online training raises the question of whether the most effective training methods applied in live instruction will carry over to different online environments in the long run. Behavior Modeling (BM) approach--teaching through demonstration--has been proven as the most effective approach in a face-to-face (F2F)…

  13. Motivation of Civic Education Teachers-in-Training in the Field of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Katharina; Reichhart, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The objective of teacher-training at university for political science is the development of professional competencies that enable teachers-in-training to act proficiently in all aspects of civic education. Although there are some studies that focus on civic education for teachers' professional competencies, most of them relate to general…

  14. Field Test of Guidelines for the Development of Memory Aids in Technical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, J. Peter; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine if Navy authors of instructional material could create effective memory aids for use in rote learning of material. A guidebook published by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group was used in creating the memory aids. Navy school personnel used the guidebook to develop two training booklets incorporating…

  15. The Community College and Career Training Grant Program: Lessons Learned from the Field and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhalde, Ray; Kazis, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The new Community College and Career Training Grant Program to be launched this fall presents an important opportunity to help more American workers find better long-term employment more efficiently, through the promotion of innovative training and education programs that incorporate the best of what works for dislocated and unemployed adult…

  16. Online Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Software Training through the Behavioral Modeling Approach: A Longitudinal Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie C.; Shaw, Ruey-shiang

    2006-01-01

    The continued and increasing use of online training raises the question of whether the most effective training methods applied in live instruction will carry over to different online environments in the long run. Behavior Modeling (BM) approach--teaching through demonstration--has been proven as the most effective approach in a face-to-face (F2F)…

  17. NEW FIELDS OF EMPLOYMENT AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OLDER WORKERS. PANEL AND WORKSHOP V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASH, LANE; AND OTHERS

    OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRAINING OLDER ADULTS IN NEW OCCUPATIONS HAVE BEEN MADE POSSIBLE BY RECENT FEDERAL LEGISLATION. UNDER THE SPONSORSHIP OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, PROGRAMS WERE STARTED IN 20 RURAL COMMUNITIES TO TRAIN OLDER WOMEN AS VISITING HOMEMAKERS. LOCAL AGENCIES ORGANIZED THE COURSE AND RECRUITED THE TRAINEES, THE HOME ECONOMICS AGENT…

  18. Increasing Women's Participation in Technical Fields. A Pilot Project in Africa. Training Discussion Paper No. 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh-Doyle, Sue

    In 1988, the Commonwealth Association of Polytechnics in Africa (CAPA) in collaboration with the International Labour Organization established a pilot project to address the issue of underrepresentation of women in technical education and training. The Women in Technical Education and Training Project (WITED) was based on six key strategic…

  19. Teacher Training Products: The State of the Field. Research and Development Memorandum No. 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierly, Margaret; And Others

    This report describes the development and contents of a computerized catalog of teacher training products. The catalog was compiled by the staff of the Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching (SCRDT) Program on Teaching Effectiveness as part of an effort to develop a systematic teacher training model. A 117-item product…

  20. ASCAN Helms inspects T-38A during flight training at Ellington Field

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-08-13

    S90-45810 (29-31 July 1990) --- Susan J. Helms, one of 23 astronaut candidate who began a year's training and evaluation in July, climbs into a T-38 jet trainer during a survival training school at Vance Air Force Base in Oklahoma.

  1. Field Trials of the MK60 Tank Gunnery Simulator in Armor Institutional Training Courses. Volume 2. Training and Testing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    R. Gene Hoffman and William H. Meiching Human Resources Research Organization David W. Bessemer , Contracting Officer’s Representative Submitted by...HumRRO, Fort Knox Office, P.O. Box 293, Fort Knox, Kentucky 40121, and monitored by David W. Bessemer , ARI Field Unit at Fort Knox. L ~ IS. KEY WORDS...these procedures will be maintained in the processing of information during these procedures. Your participation in this research will not affect your

  2. Environmental factors determining the epidemiology and population genetic structure of the Bacillus cereus group in the field.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Ben; Wyres, Kelly L; Sheppard, Samuel K; Ellis, Richard J; Bonsall, Michael B

    2010-05-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and its insecticidal toxins are widely exploited in microbial biopesticides and genetically modified crops. Its population biology is, however, poorly understood. Important issues for the safe, sustainable exploitation of Bt include understanding how selection maintains expression of insecticidal toxins in nature, whether entomopathogenic Bt is ecologically distinct from related human pathogens in the Bacillus cereus group, and how the use of microbial pesticides alters natural bacterial populations. We addressed these questions with a MLST scheme applied to a field experiment in which we excluded/added insect hosts and microbial pesticides in a factorial design. The presence of insects increased the density of Bt/B. cereus in the soil and the proportion of strains expressing insecticidal toxins. We found a near-epidemic population structure dominated by a single entomopathogenic genotype (ST8) in sprayed and unsprayed enclosures. Biopesticidal ST8 proliferated in hosts after spraying but was also found naturally associated with leaves more than any other genotype. In an independent experiment several ST8 isolates proved better than a range of non-pathogenic STs at endophytic and epiphytic colonization of seedlings from soil. This is the first experimental demonstration of Bt behaving as a specialized insect pathogen in the field. These data provide a basis for understanding both Bt ecology and the influence of anthropogenic factors on Bt populations. This natural population of Bt showed habitat associations and a population structure that differed markedly from previous MLST studies of less ecologically coherent B. cereus sample collections. The host-specific adaptations of ST8, its close association with its toxin plasmid and its high prevalence within its clade are analogous to the biology of Bacillus anthracis. This prevalence also suggests that selection for resistance to the insecticidal toxins of ST8 will have been stronger than

  3. Epidemiologic investigation of hornet and paper wasp stings in forest workers and electrical facility field workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yumeko; Hirata, Hirokuni; Watanabe, Mineaki; Yoshida, Naruo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Murayama, Yoshiki; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Arima, Masafumi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Fukuda, Takeshi; Ishii, Yoshiki

    2014-03-01

    Forestry and field workers who work outdoors are at high risk for Hymenoptera stings and may develop occupation-related allergies from being stung. However, clinical and immunological surveys of Hymenoptera stings in the occupational setting have rarely been reported. We surveyed the natural history of Hymenoptera stings in Japanese forestry workers (FWs) and electrical facility field workers (EFFWs), and we assessed the utility of measuring specific (s)IgE Ab to Hymenptera venom. Questionnaires on hornet and paper wasp stings were completed by 999 FWs, 354 EFFWs, and 365 office workers as controls between July and November 2009. Sera from these participants were tested for sIgE Ab levels to Hymenptera venom with a CAP system using a fluoroenzyme immunoassay. Of the participants who had experienced Hymenoptera stings, 914 (91.5%) were FWs, 293 (82.8%) were EFFWs, and 295 (80.8%) were controls. Of the participants who had experienced systemic reactions, 210 (21.0%) were FWs, 51 (14.4%) were EFFWs, and 39 (10.7%) were controls. sIgE Ab in response to hornet and wasp venom was positive (≥ class 2) in 42.4% and 41.4% of FWs, 30.1% and 31.4% of EFFWs, and 15.1% and 18.1% of controls, respectively. The likelihood of being sIgE-positive to wasp and hornet venom was significantly higher in FWs and EFFWs than in controls (P < 0.05). 21% of FWs and 14% of EFFWs had experienced systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings with a higher frequency compared with office workers in the same area. 40% of FWs and 30% of EFFWs had sera that were sIgE positive to Hymenoptera venom.

  4. Conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-06-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. From year to year, incidents and crimes increase that target IT systems or was done with their help. More and more companies and authorities have security problems in their own IT infrastructure. To respond to these incidents professionally, it is important to have well trained staff. The fact that many agencies and companies work with very sensitive data makes it necessary to further train the own employees in the field of IT forensics. Motivated by these facts, a training concept, which allows the creation of practical exercises, is presented in this paper. The focus is on the practical implementation of forensic important relationships.

  5. Field/Lab Training Workshops in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology for Secondary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A.; Newsom, H.; Hoehler, T.; Tsairides, C.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Kiefer, W.; Kadel, S.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Aubele, J.; Crumpler, L.

    2003-12-01

    Thematic field-lab-classroom workshops can be successful in training secondary teachers in planetary geology and astrobiology, from the LPI's 4 years experience. A typical workshop includes ˜4 days of field study and ˜3 days of related classroom/lab lectures and exercises. Up to 30 teachers have participated at once, and the staff averages 5 researchers and educators. The 2003 workshop, The Great Desert, focused on geology and life in the Colorado Plateau as analogs for Mars. Specific emphases were on geologic processes exemplified in the Grand Canyon, Sunset Crater and Meteor Crater, and on biotic communities in desert soils and hot springs. The classroom portion, hosted by UNM, included lectures, lab work, and teaching exercises keyed to the field experience and its extensions to Mars. Formal followups: non-directive exit questionnaires; email list-serves for participants; websites with images, presentations, and exercises from the workshop, and links to related materials (e.g., http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/EPO/yellowstone2002/index.html); and interviews for six-month retrospective. Graduate and continuing education credit are available. Past workshops, all relevant to Mars, have targeted: geology and extremophiles of Yellowstone NP, geology of the Cascade volcanos; and giant floods and lava flows of central Washington. The greatest benefit of this workshop format is the teachers' intense, deep experience, emphasizing scientific content. They learn from field, classroom, and laboratory perspectives, and work with PhD level researchers who contribute their excitement, demonstrate and teach critical thought processes, and provide authoritative background and answers. The small group size permits personal interactions (among teachers and presenters) that complement each other's understanding and appreciation of the subject. They log ˜65 contact hours with the staff, in small groups or one-on-one. Teachers return to the classroom with personal experiences

  6. [Remote effects of occupational and non-occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency. Epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Rubtsova, N B; Novokhatskaia, E A; Tikhonov, A V

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study of mortality in the personnel of power-supply plants in the European regions of Russia was carried out. The exposure of the personnel to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency (PF) was taken into account. Statistically non-significant raise of mortality from leukemia was found, compared to low mortality rates due to all other causes including cancer of any type. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was equal to 2.03 (95% CI = 0.23-7.31). In the retrospective case-control study the haemoblastosis development risk under occupational PF EMF exposure was evaluated. The data of 571 "cases" and 1208 "controls" interview showed that odd ratio (OR) was 1.64 (95% CI = 0.8-3.1). In another retrospective case-control study the risk of the haemoblastosis development in children due to parents PF EMF occupational exposure was evaluated. The data of 208 "cases" and 319 "controls" interview showed that the odd ratio (OR) was 1.69 (95% CI = 0.7-3.3). A retrospective cohort study of mortality in a settlement situated near a high-voltage (500 kV) substation, which took into account PF EMF levels in residential areas, revealed low mortality rates, except leukemia mortality (SMR 1.3; 95% CI = 0.2-7.0). The obtained data do not allow excluding a possibility of PF EMF leukogenic effect.

  7. Quantifying session ratings of perceived exertion for field-based speed training methods in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Scott, Brendan R; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-10-01

    Session ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE) are commonly used to assess global training intensity for team sports. However, there is little research quantifying the intensity of field-based training protocols for speed development. The study's aim was to determine the session RPE of popular training protocols (free sprint [FST], resisted sprint [RST], and plyometrics [PT]) designed to improve sprint acceleration over 10 m in team sport athletes. Twenty-seven men (age = 23.3 ± 4.7 years; mass = 84.5 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m) were divided into 3 groups according to 10-m velocity. Training consisted of an incremental program featuring two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks. Subjects recorded session RPE 30 minutes post training using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale. Repeated measures analysis of variance found significant (p < 0.05) changes in sprint velocity and session RPE over 6 weeks. All groups significantly increased 0- to 5-m velocity and 0- to 10-m velocity by 4-7%, with no differences between groups. There were no significant differences in session RPE between the groups, suggesting that protocols were matched for intensity. Session RPE significantly increased over the 6 weeks for all groups, ranging from 3.75 to 5.50. This equated to intensities of somewhat hard to hard. Post hoc testing revealed few significant weekly increases, suggesting that session RPE may not be sensitive to weekly load increases in sprint and plyometric training programs. Another explanation, however, could be that the weekly load increments used were not great enough to increase perceived exertion. Nonetheless, the progressive overload of each program was sufficient to improve 10-m sprint performance. The session RPE values from the present study could be used to assess workload for speed training periodization within a team sports conditioning program.

  8. Genomic DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as an epidemiological marker for study of nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyama, S; Ohta, M; Shimokata, K; Kato, N; Takeuchi, J

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we have compared genomic DNA fingerprintings among isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal fragments digested with SmaI were most suitable for the PFGE separation. SmaI cut genomic DNA into 15 to 20 fragments whose sizes ranged from about 30 to 1,500 kb. Thirty-one distinctive fragment patterns were identified in 111 infecting and colonizing MRSA isolates from six different hospitals in Japan. On the basis of the genomic typing by PFGE, we performed an epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of nosocomial MRSA infections among inpatients in Nagoya University Hospital. Ten types of chromosomal digestion were identified in the 20 strains isolated from 18 infected patients and 1 from colonized hospital personnel. According to the restriction patterns, we found that four types of these strains had caused epidemic infections among 13 patients in the outbreak. Two types (types 1 and 4) of the strains were involved in the death of five patients. The other infections were sporadic. The clarity and polymorphism of the chromosomal digestion patterns enabled us to discriminate between isolates which could not be differentiated by antibiogram or plasmid analysis. Classification of the genomic DNA fingerprinting patterns by PFGE is therefore proposed as a useful method for investigating the source, transmission, and spread of nosocomial MRSA infections. Images PMID:1757534

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates Determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis: Comparison of Isolates from Avian Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and the Environment in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Refsum, Thorbjørn; Heir, Even; Kapperud, Georg; Vardund, Traute; Holstad, Gudmund

    2002-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of 142 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from avian wildlife, domestic animals, and the environment in Norway was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and computerized numerical analysis of the data. The bacterial isolates comprised 79 isolates from wild-living birds, including 46 small passerines and 26 gulls, and 63 isolates of nonavian origin, including 50 domestic animals and 13 environmental samples. Thirteen main clusters were discernible at the 90% similarity level. Most of the isolates (83%) were grouped into three main clusters. These were further divided into 20 subclusters at the 95% similarity level. Isolates from passerines, gulls, and pigeons dominated within five subclusters, whereas isolates from domestic animals and the environment belonged to many different subclusters with no predominance. The results support earlier results that passerines constitute an important source of infection to humans in Norway, whereas it is suggested that gulls and pigeons, based on PFGE analysis, represent only a minor source of human serovar Typhimurium infections. Passerines, gulls, and pigeons may also constitute a source of infection of domestic animals and feed plants or vice versa. Three isolates from cattle and a grain source, of which two were multiresistant, were confirmed as serovar Typhimurium phage type DT 104. These represent the first reported phage type DT 104 isolates from other sources than humans in Norway. PMID:12406755

  10. Self-reported illness and use of health services in a rural district of Vietnam: findings from an epidemiological field laboratory.

    PubMed

    Giang, Kim Bao; Allebeck, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The aims of the study were to assess the pattern of self-reported illness as well as use of health services in a rural district in Vietnam, and to analyse these in relation to gender, age, education level, occupation, and economic status. A population-based survey of 11,089 households was conducted in 1999. Through household interviews, data were collected on self-reported health, use of health services during the four weeks prior to the interview, and other background factors. The prevalence of self-reported illness was 48%. Cough, fever, and headache were the most commonly reported symptoms (20%) while cardiovascular disorders were least reported (0.6%). Occurrence of illness was significantly lower in groups with higher education, especially among men, but there was no difference between occupational and economic groups. Self-treatment was very common (69%). Private health facilities were used to a large extent, while community health stations played a less important role. Use of district hospitals was significantly higher among employed people. An epidemiological field laboratory enabled analysis of self-reported illness and use of health services, which is important for planning of health services. We found a high level of reported illness but a very low utilization of community health services. Better knowledge about illness patterns could be important for improving quality of and access to community health services.

  11. Epidemiological Characteristics and Clinical Treatment Outcome of Typhoid Fever in Ningbo, China, 2005-2014: Pulsed-Field Gel Electorophoresis Results Revealing Great Proportion of Common Transmission Sources.

    PubMed

    Song, Qifa; Yang, Yuanbin; Lin, Wenping; Yi, Bo; Xu, Guozhang

    2017-09-25

    We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiological characteristics and clinical treatment outcome of typhoid fever in Ningbo, China during 2005-2014. Eighty-eight Salmonella Typhi isolates were obtained from 307 hospitalized patients. Three prevalent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of 54 isolates from 3 outbreaks were identified. Overall, there were 64 (72.7%) isolates from clustered cases and 24 (27.3%) isolates from sporadic cases. Resistance to nalidixic acid (NAL) (n = 47; 53.4%) and ampicillin (AMP) (n = 40; 45.4%) and rare resistance to tetracycline (TET) (n = 2; 2.3%) and gentamicin (GEN) (n = 2; 2.3%) were observed. No isolates resistant to cefotaxime (CTX), chloramphenicol (CL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) were found. The occurrence of reduced sensitivity to CIP was 52.3% (n = 46). The medians of fever clearance time in cases with and without complications were 7 (interquartile range (IQR): 4-10) and 5 (IQR: 3-7) days (P = 0.001), respectively, when patients were treated with CIP or levofloxacin (LEV) and/or third-generation cephalosporins (CEP). Rates of serious complications were at low levels: peritonitis (2.3%), intestinal hemorrhage (6.8%), and intestinal perforation (1.1%). The present study revealed a long-term clustering trend with respect to PFGE patterns, occasional outbreaks, and the rapid spread of AMP resistance and decreased CIP susceptibility among S. Typhi isolates in recent years.

  12. Methods used to estimate residential exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields from overhead power lines in an epidemiological study in France.

    PubMed

    Bessou, Jérôme; Deschamps, François; Figueroa, Lionel; Cougnaud, Damien

    2013-06-01

    An epidemiological study of paediatric cancers in relation with various environmental factors is currently being carried out in France. One of these factors is the proximity of children's residences to high voltage overhead lines (63-400 kV). This possible influence will be studied following three criteria, namely 'distance', 'distance-voltage' and 'calculated residential exposure' to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF). This paper describes methods for generating and characterising these three criteria of increasing complexity and characterises the influence of the input data in terms of uncertainties in the exposure to ELF-MF assigned to subjects. The method developed for the 'calculated residential exposure' criterion is based on a limited number of configurations of overhead lines, selected to have a representative sample of the French high voltage (HV) network. The calculated exposure is then fitted to each subject and each neighbouring overhead line, taking into account the yearly mean current flowing in the line and the distance of the residence from the power line. All variability factors introduced by this simplified representation have been analysed, classified and quantified to give the best assessment and associated confidence interval of the residential ELF-MF exposure of the subjects. The overall 1σ uncertainty of the calculated residential exposure excluding geo-coding uncertainties is around 8% for subjects living close to power lines with a known current load and 17% for the others.

  13. Analysis of Molecular Epidemiology of Chilean Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Bacteriophage Typing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Jorge; Fica, Alberto; Ebensperger, German; Calfullan, Hector; Prat, Soledad; Fernandez, Alda; Alexandre, Marcela; Heitmann, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Human Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections emerged in Chile in 1994. S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 1 isolates predominated in the north, and phage type 4 isolates predominated in the central and southern regions. A study was planned to characterize this epidemic using the best discriminatory typing technique. Research involved 441 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates, including clinical preepidemic samples (n = 74; 1975 to 1993) and epidemic (n = 199), food (n = 72), poultry (n = 57), and some Latin American (n = 39) isolates. The best method was selected based on a sample of preepidemic isolates, analyzing the discriminatory power (DP) obtained by phage typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The highest DP was associated with BlnI PFGE-bacteriophage typing analysis (0.993). A total of 38 BlnI patterns (B patterns) were identified before the epidemic period, 19 since 1994, and only 4 in both periods. Two major clusters were identified by phylogenetic analysis, and the predominant B patterns clustered in the same branch. Combined analysis revealed that specific B pattern-phage type combinations (subtypes) disappeared before 1994, that different genotypes associated with S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 had been observed since 1988, and that strain diversity increased before the expansion of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in 1994. Predominant subtype B3-phage type 4 was associated with the central and southern regions, and subtype B38-phage type 1 was associated with the north (P < 0.0001). Food and poultry isolates matched the predominant S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes, but isolates identified in neighboring countries (Peru and Bolivia) did not match S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes identified in the north of Chile. The results of this work demonstrate that genetic diversity, replacement, and expansion of specific S. enterica serotype

  14. The Australian Master of Applied Epidemiology Program: Looking back, moving forward.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephanie; Patel, Mahomed S; Fearnley, Emily; Viney, Kerri; Kirk, Martyn

    2016-09-30

    The Master of Applied Epidemiology Program is Australia's Field Epidemiology Training Program. It was established in 1991 and was run out of the National Centre for Population Health (NCEPH) at the Australian National University. The Program has a strong track record in using field-based training to produce competent applied epidemiologists who have contributed to public health in Australia and globally. A new funding model for the program was implemented in 2012, backed by funds from field placement partners and NCEPH. In this paper we review the program's origins and achievements, discuss the ongoing needs of the program and outline a vision for the future. Commun Dis Intell 2016;40(3):E326-E333.

  15. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  16. Many Aggressive Community Colleges Focusing on Training Workers for Fast-Growing Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    Aggressive community colleges are fostering linkages with government programs, large and small businesses, and educational institutions for special training to upgrade worker skills, prepare workers to cope with plant closings, and meet the skill requirements of advancing technology. (MSE)

  17. Major Workforce and Workplace Trends Influencing the Training and Development Field in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, William J.; Kolb, Judith A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes six key work force and workplace trends facing human resource managers and implications for training and development: technology, globalization, cost containment, speed of market change, importance of knowledge capital, and change itself. (SK)

  18. Many Aggressive Community Colleges Focusing on Training Workers for Fast-Growing Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    Aggressive community colleges are fostering linkages with government programs, large and small businesses, and educational institutions for special training to upgrade worker skills, prepare workers to cope with plant closings, and meet the skill requirements of advancing technology. (MSE)

  19. An Explorative Study Examining Augmentative and Alternative Communication Training in the Field of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gadberry, Anita L; Sweeney, Alison

    2017-07-01

    Music therapists work with many people who require Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). As communication goals are central to music therapy practice, many music therapists would benefit from training in AAC. The purpose of this survey study was to determine the state of AAC education for music therapists at the university level, how AAC is being used in music therapy sessions, and how practicing music therapists are trained in AAC. Music therapy faculty and credentialed music therapists in North America and Europe were invited to complete an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey data from each group of respondents. With regard to training in AAC at the university level, results indicate that almost half of music therapy faculty (44.66%) provided some training. The primary reason given for not providing training was a lack of educator knowledge in this area. Results indicate that a majority (81.77%) of music therapy clinicians are familiar with AAC and slightly over half (55.08%) reported that they work with clients who use AAC. Sixty-two percent of music therapists reported using AAC to promote expressive language, and 49% to increase receptive language. Over 80% of clinicians stated they would benefit from additional AAC training. Although a majority of music therapists are familiar with ACC, results indicate that ACC competency could be enhanced through university-level instruction and continuing professional development courses.

  20. Acute injuries in track and field athletes: a 3-year observational study at the Penn Relays Carnival with epidemiology and medical coverage implications.

    PubMed

    Opar, David; Drezner, Jonathan; Shield, Anthony; Williams, Morgan; Webner, David; Sennett, Brian; Kapur, Rahul; Cohen, Marc; Ulager, James; Cafengiu, Anna; Cronholm, Peter F

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined acute injuries in track and field in both elite and subelite athletes. To observe the absolute number and relative rates of injury in track and field athletes across a wide range of competition levels and ages during 3 years of the Penn Relays Carnival to assist with future medical coverage planning and injury prevention strategies. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over a 3-year period, all injuries treated by the medical staff were recorded on a standardized injury report form. Absolute number of injuries and relative injury rates (number of injuries per 1000 competing athletes) were determined and odds ratios (ORs) of injury rates were calculated between sexes, competition levels, and events. Injuries were also broken down into major or minor medical or orthopaedic injuries. Throughout the study period, 48,473 competing athletes participated in the Penn Relays Carnival, and 436 injuries were sustained. For medical coverage purposes, the relative rate of injury subtypes was greatest for minor orthopaedic injuries (5.71 injuries per 1000 participants), followed by minor medical injuries (3.42 injuries per 1000 participants), major medical injuries (0.69 injuries per 1000 participants), and major orthopaedic injuries (0.18 injuries per 1000 participants). College/elite athletes displayed the lowest relative injury rate (7.99 injuries per 1000 participants), which was significantly less than that of high school (9.87 injuries per 1000 participants) and masters athletes (16.33 injuries per 1000 participants). Male athletes displayed a greater likelihood of having a minor orthopaedic injury compared with female athletes (OR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.06-1.75]; χ2 = 5.73; P = .017) but were less likely to sustain a major medical injury (OR, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.15-0.75]; χ2 = 7.75; P = .005). Of the 3 most heavily participated in events, the 4 × 400-m relay displayed the greatest relative injury rate (13.6 injuries per 1000 participants) compared with the 4

  1. Leadership behaviors of athletic training leaders compared with leaders in other fields.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Timothy G; Bradney, Debbie A

    2007-01-01

    Athletic trainers are in positions of leadership. To determine self-reported leadership practices of head athletic trainers (HATCs) and program directors (PDs). Cross-sectional study. Respondents' academic institutions. A total of 238 athletic training leaders completed the Leadership Practices Inventory. Of these, 50.4% (n = 120) were HATCs and 49.6% (n = 118) were PDs; 69.3% (n = 165) were men and 30.7% (n = 73) were women; almost all respondents (97.1%, n = 231) were white. Respondents typically reported having 11 to 15 years of experience as an athletic trainer (n = 57, 23.9%) and being between the ages of 30 and 39 years (n = 109, 45.8%). Categories of leadership behaviors (ie, Model, Inspire, Challenge, Encourage, and Enable) were scored from 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Item scores were summed to compute mean category scores. We analyzed demographic information; used t ratios to compare the data from athletic training leaders (PDs and HATCs) with normative data; compared sex, age, position, ethnicity, and years of experience with leadership practices; and computed mean scores. Athletic training leaders reported using leadership behaviors similar to those of other leaders. The PDs reported using inspiring, challenging, enabling, and encouraging leadership behaviors more often than did the HATCs. No differences were found by ethnicity, age, years of experience, or leadership practices. Athletic training leaders are transformational leaders. Athletic training education program accreditation requirements likely account for the difference in leadership practices between PDs and HATCs.

  2. Ethnological Field Training in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico. Papers from the Ixmiquilpan Field Schools in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Michael, Ed.; Bernard, H. Russell, Ed.

    Thirteen papers by graduate students who participated in a 1971 summer field program in Hidalgo, Mexico, are presented. Twelve of the papers are presented in the English language and one is presented in Spanish. Research for seven of the papers was undertaken in established Otomi Indian villages or hamlets. Research for the remaining six papers…

  3. Police Training to Align Law Enforcement and HIV Prevention: Preliminary Evidence From the Field

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Alpna; Moreau, Bruce; Kumar, Pratima; Weiss-Laxer, Nomi; Heimer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Having identified gaps in implementation of Rhode Island's syringe access law and police occupational safety education, public health and police professionals developed police training to boost legal knowledge, improve syringe access attitudes, and address needlestick injuries. Baseline data (94 officers) confirmed anxiety about needlestick injuries, poor legal knowledge, and occupational risk overestimation. Before training, respondents believed that syringe access promotes drug use (51%), increases likelihood of police needlestick injuries (58%), and fails to reduce epidemics (38%). Pretraining to posttraining evaluation suggested significant shifts in legal and occupational safety knowledge; changes in attitudes toward syringe access were promising. Training that combines occupational safety with syringe access content can help align law enforcement with public health goals. Additional research is needed to assess street-level effect and to inform intervention tailoring. PMID:21940924

  4. Development and field testing of a consumer shared decision-making training program for adults with low literacy.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Danielle M; Morony, Suzanne; Shepherd, Heather L; Smith, Sian K; Dhillon, Haryana M; Trevena, Lyndal; Hayen, Andrew; Luxford, Karen; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Given the scarcity of shared decision-making (SDM) interventions for adults with low literacy, we created a SDM training program tailored to this population to be delivered in adult education settings. Formative evaluation during program development included a review of the problem and previous efforts to address it, qualitative interviews with the target population, program planning and field testing. A comprehensive SDM training program was developed incorporating core SDM elements. The program aimed to improve students' understanding of SDM and to provide them with the necessary skills (understanding probabilistic risks and benefits, personal values and preferences) and self-efficacy to use an existing set of questions (the AskShareKnow questions) as a means to engage in SDM during healthcare interactions. There is an ethical imperative to develop SDM interventions for adults with lower literacy. Generic training programs delivered direct-to-consumers in adult education settings offer promise in a national and international environment where too few initiatives exist. Formative evaluation of the program offers practical insights into developing consumer-focused SDM training. The content of the program can be used as a guide for future efforts to engage consumers in SDM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  6. Program to stimulate graduate training in the field of aeroacoustics. [cross correlation of flow fields of a jet-blown flap with far fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment is reported to cross correlate the output of hot film probes located at various points in the flow field of a jet-blown flap with the output of microphones in the acoustic far field. Fluid dynamic measurements of the flow fields of the test configuration are reported.

  7. F-16 Limited-Field-of-View Simulator Training Effectiveness Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Singer-Link provided data bases for the Luke AFB area, air-to-air and air-to-surface ranges, low level navigation route, Phoenix area, and a Nap -of-the...any perceived training benifit of using the visual simulator, (2) for any change in skill level of students prior to the first flying sortie for air-to... benifit . Sixty to eighty percent of the pilots indicated training was enhanced in air-to-air tasks. Tasks which could only be done with some type of

  8. Field Dependence-Independence and Its Relationship to Flight Training Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that level of field dependence- independence could be used as a measure of social skills and vocational interests...According to this research, field-dependent individuals tend to prefer areas of work that require social skills , whereas field-independent individuals

  9. Temperature and thermal stress fields during the pulse train of long-pulse laser irradiating aluminium alloy plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jin, Guangyong; Gu, Xiu-ying

    2014-12-01

    Based on Von Mises yield criterion and elasto-plastic constitutive equations, an axisymmetric finite element model of a Gaussian laser beam irradiating a metal substrate was established. In the model of finite element, the finite difference hybrid algorithm is used to solve the problem of transient temperature field and stress field. Taking nonlinear thermal and mechanical properties into account, transient distributions of temperature field and stress fields generated by the pulse train of long-pulse laser in a piece of aluminium alloy plate were computed by the model. Moreover,distributions as well as histories of temperature and stress fields were obtained. Finite element analysis software COMSOL is used to simulate the Temperature and thermal stress fields during the pulse train of long-pulse laser irradiating 7A04 aluminium alloy plate. By the analysis of the results, it is found that Mises equivalent stress on the target surface distribute within the scope of the center of a certain radius. However, the stress is becoming smaller where far away from the center. Futhermore, the Mises equivalent stress almost does not effect on stress damage while the Mises equivalent stress is far less than the yield strength of aluminum alloy targets. Because of the good thermal conductivity of 7A04 aluminum alloy, thermal diffusion is extremely quick after laser irradiate. As a result, for the multi-pulsed laser, 7A04 aluminum alloy will not produce obvious temperature accumulation when the laser frequency is less than or equal to 10 Hz. The result of this paper provides theoretical foundation not only for research of theories of 7A04 aluminium alloy and its numerical simulation under laser radiation but also for long-pulse laser technology and widening its application scope.

  10. Aviation Technician Training I and Task Analyses: Semester II. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 16 concept/duty areas: understanding technical symbols and abbreviations; understanding mathematical terms, symbols, and formulas; computing decimals; computing fractions; computing ratio…

  11. A Field Test of the Impact of an Inservice Training Program on Health Sciences Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowers, Jo-Ann; Smith, Martha R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Health Sciences Faculty Education Project at Oregon Health & Science University was to enhance the capacity of health science programs and faculty to admit, teach, accommodate, and graduate students with disabilities. Multiple approaches were implemented to achieve this goal. A key strategy was an inservice training program…

  12. Game-profile-based Training in Soccer: A New Field Approach.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Antonio Dello; Martone, Domenico; Cular, Drazen; Milic, Mirjana; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-12-08

    The aim of the study was to profile and compare the time-motion, physiological, and neuromuscular responses of both national youth league (NYL) and UEFA Youth League (UYL) matches with those of an experimental game-profile-based training (GPBT) protocol. Time-motion traits and physiological, perceptual, and neuromuscular responses were investigated in 24 male soccer players across 14 matches and 6 GPBT training sessions, for a total of 420 samples. The GPBT had a greater influence on time-motion traits and perceptual responses than the NYL and UYL matches (all p< 0.001). No significant GPBT vs. matches differences were found for mean heart rate (%HR) or BLa (F= 1.228, p= 0.304 and F= 0.978, p= 0.385, respectively). Finally, the GPBT protocol led to greater impairment of the neuromuscular explosive performances when compared to those of the post-match scores (SJ: F= 19.991, p< 0.001; CMJ: F= 61.703, p< 0.001). Results identified the GPBT protocol as characterized by relatively greater high-intensity workloads than official NYL and UYL matches, requiring increased demanding efforts. In light of these outcomes, the GPBT protocol can be considered an advantageous training method for elite soccer players, capable of stimulating the physical effort and physiological capabilities required during a match. This approach is favorable when designing a training intervention according to the principle of sport specificity, as it is based on the specific metabolic demands.

  13. Aviation Pilot Training I and Aviation Technician I: Task Analyses. Semester I. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot and aviation technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aviation career opportunities; comprehending the history of aviation; understanding classes, categories, and types of aircraft;…

  14. Aviation Pilot Training II. Task Analyses: [Year II.] Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot II training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aircraft staffs and procedures for safe recovery; understanding procedures for constant altitude turns; understanding procedures for traffic pattern…

  15. Dual Mission: An Innovative Field Model for Training Social Work Students for Work with Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selber, Katherine; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive article explores a collaborative model that blends the dual missions of training social work students to work with military personnel, veterans, and their families while serving student veterans on campus. The model consists of 2 main components: (1) a nationally recognized service component for providing academic, health and…

  16. [The importance of continuing training in the field of home care].

    PubMed

    Moine, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    When delivering care in the patient's home, the nurse is often alone. Care procedures are becoming increasingly complex in contexts which are often mentally challenging. It is essential that nurses regularly update their knowledge through continuing training sessions in order to maintain their skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Do Training Programs Work? An Assessment of Pharmacists Activities in the Field of Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Valerie G.; Brock, Tina Penick; Ahn, Jungeun

    2001-01-01

    Seeks to determine if pharmacists who attended a chemical dependency training program were performing more chemical dependency related activities. Results reveal that participants were more likely to perform the following activities: lecture to community groups about chemical dependency; participate in a pharmacists' recovery program; provide…

  18. Dual Mission: An Innovative Field Model for Training Social Work Students for Work with Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selber, Katherine; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive article explores a collaborative model that blends the dual missions of training social work students to work with military personnel, veterans, and their families while serving student veterans on campus. The model consists of 2 main components: (1) a nationally recognized service component for providing academic, health and…

  19. Exploring the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice: stories from the field.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Teresa; Howie, Linsey

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses interested in extending their interpersonal and psychotherapeutic skills sometimes undertake postgraduate training in gestalt therapy. Little is known about how this new knowledge and psychotherapeutic skill base informs their practice. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that aimed to explore the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice. Within a framework of narrative inquiry, four psychiatric nurses trained in gestalt therapy were invited to tell their stories of training in a gestalt approach to therapy, and recount their experiences of how it influenced their practice. In keeping with narrative analysis methods, the research findings were presented as a collection of four stories. Eight themes were derived from a thematic analysis conducted within and across the four stories. The discussion of the themes encapsulates the similarities and differences across the storied collection, providing a community and cultural context for understanding the individual stories. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. A Randomized Field Trial of the Fast ForWord Language Computer-Based Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Benson, James G.; Overman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an independent assessment of the Fast ForWord Language computer-based training program developed by Scientific Learning Corporation. Previous laboratory research involving children with language-based learning impairments showed strong effects on their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech…

  1. Aviation Pilot Training I. Task Analyses: Semester II. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 12 concept/duty areas: understanding safe procedures in the flight environment; understanding safe procedures in the airport environment; understanding Federal Aviation Regulations concerning…

  2. Vocational Training for Professionals in the Field of Equal Opportunities for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Julio Fernandez; Higuera, Luis Aramburu-Zabala

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of job profiles for equal opportunity officers and advisers in Spain and recognition of these occupations in the National Classification of Occupations. Discusses standardized training for these positions and the development of a certificate of occupational proficiency. (SK)

  3. Investing in African research training institutions creates sustainable capacity for Africa: the case of the University of the Witwatersrand School of Public Health masters programme in epidemiology and biostatistics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving health in Africa is a high priority internationally. Inadequate research capacity to produce local, relevant research has been identified as a limitation to improved population health. Increasing attention is being paid to the higher education sector in Africa as a method of addressing this; evidence that such investment is having the desired impact is required. A 1998 3-year investment by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) in research training at the School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa was reviewed to assess its' impact. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey of the 70 students registered for the masters programme in epidemiology & biostatistics from 2000-2005 was conducted. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires. Results Sixty percent (42/70) of students responded. At the time of the survey 19% of respondents changed their country of residence after completion of the masters course, 14% migrated within Africa and 5% migrated out of Africa. Approximately half (47%) were employed as researchers and 38% worked in research institutions. Sixty percent reported research output, and four graduates were pursuing PhD studies. Government subsidy to higher education institutions, investments of the University of the Witwatersrand in successful programmes and ongoing bursaries for students to cover tuition fees were important for sustainability. Conclusions Investing in African institutions to improve research training capacity resulted in the retention of graduates in Africa in research positions and produced research output. Training programmes can be sustained when national governments invest in higher education and where that funding is judiciously applied. Challenges remain if funding for students bursaries is not available. PMID:22475629

  4. Investing in African research training institutions creates sustainable capacity for Africa: the case of the University of the Witwatersrand School of Public Health masters programme in epidemiology and biostatistics.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, Ronel; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Weiner, Renay; Wayling, Steven; Fonn, Sharon

    2012-04-04

    Improving health in Africa is a high priority internationally. Inadequate research capacity to produce local, relevant research has been identified as a limitation to improved population health. Increasing attention is being paid to the higher education sector in Africa as a method of addressing this; evidence that such investment is having the desired impact is required. A 1998 3-year investment by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) in research training at the School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa was reviewed to assess its' impact. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of the 70 students registered for the masters programme in epidemiology & biostatistics from 2000-2005 was conducted. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires. Sixty percent (42/70) of students responded. At the time of the survey 19% of respondents changed their country of residence after completion of the masters course, 14% migrated within Africa and 5% migrated out of Africa. Approximately half (47%) were employed as researchers and 38% worked in research institutions. Sixty percent reported research output, and four graduates were pursuing PhD studies. Government subsidy to higher education institutions, investments of the University of the Witwatersrand in successful programmes and ongoing bursaries for students to cover tuition fees were important for sustainability. Investing in African institutions to improve research training capacity resulted in the retention of graduates in Africa in research positions and produced research output. Training programmes can be sustained when national governments invest in higher education and where that funding is judiciously applied. Challenges remain if funding for students bursaries is not available.

  5. Field-based pre-cooling for on-court tennis conditioning training in the heat.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Rob; Bird, Stephen P; Ballard, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of pre-cooling for on- court, tennis-specific conditioning training in the heat. Eight highly-trained tennis players performed two on-court conditioning sessions in 35°C, 55% Relative Humidity. Sessions were randomised, involved either a pre-cooling or control session, and consisted of 30-min of court- based, tennis movement drills. Pre-cooling involved 20-min of an ice-vest and cold towels to the head/neck and legs, followed by warm-up in a cold compression garment. On-court movement distance was recorded by 1Hz Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) devices, while core temperature, heart rate and perceptual exertion and thermal stress were also recorded throughout the session. Additionally, mass and lower-body peak power during repeated counter-movement jumps were measured before and after each session. No significant performance differences were evident between conditions, although a moderate-large effect (d = 0.7-1.0; p > 0.05) was evident for total (2989 ± 256 v 2870 ± 159m) and high-intensity (805 ± 340 v 629 ± 265m) distance covered following pre-cooling. Further, no significant differences were evident between conditions for rise in core temperature (1.9 ± 0.4 v 2. 2 ± 0.4°C; d > 0.9; p > 0.05), although a significantly smaller change in mass (0.9 ± 0.3 v 1. 3 ± 0.3kg; p < 0.05) was present following pre-cooling. Perceived thermal stress and exertion were significantly lower (d > 1.0; p < 0.05) during the cooling session. Finally, lower-body peak power did not differ between conditions before or after training (d < 0.3; p > 0.05). Despite trends for lowered physiological load and increased distances covered following cooling, the observed responses were not significantly different or as explicit as previously reported laboratory-based pre-cooling research. Key pointsPre-cooling did not significantly enhance training performance or reduce physiological load for tennis training in the heat, although trends

  6. Field-Based Pre-Cooling for On-Court Tennis Conditioning Training in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Rob; Bird, Stephen P.; Ballard, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of pre-cooling for on- court, tennis-specific conditioning training in the heat. Eight highly-trained tennis players performed two on-court conditioning sessions in 35°C, 55% Relative Humidity. Sessions were randomised, involved either a pre-cooling or control session, and consisted of 30-min of court- based, tennis movement drills. Pre-cooling involved 20-min of an ice-vest and cold towels to the head/neck and legs, followed by warm-up in a cold compression garment. On-court movement distance was recorded by 1Hz Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) devices, while core temperature, heart rate and perceptual exertion and thermal stress were also recorded throughout the session. Additionally, mass and lower-body peak power during repeated counter-movement jumps were measured before and after each session. No significant performance differences were evident between conditions, although a moderate-large effect (d = 0.7-1.0; p > 0.05) was evident for total (2989 ± 256 v 2870 ± 159m) and high-intensity (805 ± 340 v 629 ± 265m) distance covered following pre-cooling. Further, no significant differences were evident between conditions for rise in core temperature (1.9 ± 0.4 v 2. 2 ± 0.4°C; d > 0.9; p > 0.05), although a significantly smaller change in mass (0.9 ± 0.3 v 1. 3 ± 0.3kg; p < 0.05) was present following pre-cooling. Perceived thermal stress and exertion were significantly lower (d > 1.0; p < 0.05) during the cooling session. Finally, lower-body peak power did not differ between conditions before or after training (d < 0.3; p > 0.05). Conclusions: Despite trends for lowered physiological load and increased distances covered following cooling, the observed responses were not significantly different or as explicit as previously reported laboratory-based pre-cooling research. Key points Pre-cooling did not significantly enhance training performance or reduce physiological load for tennis training in the heat

  7. Muscle Oxygen Changes following Sprint Interval Cycling Training in Elite Field Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ben; Hamilton, David K.; Cooper, Chris E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Sprint Interval Cycling (SIT) on muscle oxygenation kinetics and performance during the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT). Twenty-five women hockey players of Olympic standard were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP) and a control group (CON). The EXP group performed six additional SIT sessions over six weeks in addition to their normal training program. To explore the potential training-induced change, EXP subjects additionally completed 5 x 30s maximal intensity cycle testing before and after training. During these tests near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measured parameters; oxyhaemoglobin + oxymyoglobin (HbO2+ MbO2), tissue deoxyhaemoglobin + deoxymyoglobin (HHb+HMb), total tissue haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation (TSI %) were taken. In the EXP group (5.34±0.14 to 5.50±0.14m.s-1) but not the CON group (pre = 5.37±0.27 to 5.39±0.30m.s-1) significant changes were seen in the 30-15IFT performance. EXP group also displayed significant post-training increases during the sprint cycling: ΔTSI (−7.59±0.91 to −12.16±2.70%); ΔHHb+HMb (35.68±6.67 to 69.44±26.48μM.cm); and ΔHbO2+ MbO2 (−74.29±13.82 to −109.36±22.61μM.cm). No significant differences were seen in ΔtHb (−45.81±15.23 to −42.93±16.24). NIRS is able to detect positive peripheral muscle oxygenation changes when used during a SIT protocol which has been shown to be an effective training modality within elite athletes. PMID:25807517

  8. German students' current choice of profession in the field of psychotherapy: Reasons for or against engaging in psychoanalytic training.

    PubMed

    Lebiger-Vogel, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The psychoanalytic societies in Germany as in many other countries are concerned by a decline in the number of candidates for full psychoanalytic training. While this situation is partly attributable to changes both in society and in educational and healthcare systems, it is questionable whether psychoanalytic training institutions have yet found adequate responses to it. Under the banner of 'evidence-based treatment', behaviour therapy has come to be widely disseminated, with major implications for the teaching of different psychotherapy paradigms at universities. To investigate the determinants of this trend in the specific German situation, a large-scale, multi-method exploratory study supported by IPA's DPPT programme was undertaken, focusing on the reasons given by a population (N = 679) of German psychology, medical, and education students for embarking on training in psychoanalysis or behaviour therapy. The results suggest that behaviour therapy is more compatible with the prevailing scientific understanding and with current societal and cultural trends, owing in part to inadequacies or bias in university teaching of the various paradigms of psychotherapy. While most of the psychology students expressed a preference for behavioural training, the psychotherapy option proved less attractive for their counterparts in the fields of medicine and education. Semi-standardized qualitative interviews were used to gain a deeper understanding of the students' decisions for or against training in a specific paradigm, and led to the identification of seven decision-making prototypes. Possible reasons for the students' decisions are discussed, and concrete proposals and recommendations are presented. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Muscle co-contraction patterns in robot-mediated force field learning to guide specific muscle group training.

    PubMed

    Pizzamiglio, Sara; Desowska, Adela; Shojaii, Pegah; Taga, Myriam; Turner, Duncan L

    2017-01-01

    Muscle co-contraction is a strategy of increasing movement accuracy and stability employed in dealing with force perturbation of movement. It is often seen in neuropathological populations. The direction of movement influences the pattern of co-contraction, but not all movements are easily achievable for populations with motor deficits. Manipulating the direction of the force instead, may be a promising rehabilitation protocol to train movement with use of a co-contraction reduction strategy. Force field learning paradigms provide a well described procedure to evoke and test muscle co-contraction. The aim of this study was to test the muscle co-contraction pattern in a wide range of arm muscles in different force-field directions utilising a robot-mediated force field learning paradigm of motor adaptation. Forty-two participants volunteered to participate in a study utilising robot-mediated force field motor adaptation paradigm with a clockwise or counter-clockwise force field. Kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) of eight arm muscles were measured. Both muscle activation and co-contraction was earlier and stronger in flexors in the clockwise condition and in extensors in the counter-clockwise condition. Manipulating the force field direction leads to changes in the pattern of muscle co-contraction.

  10. Education in epidemiology: "The Times They Are a-Changin'".

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M; Savitz, David A

    2008-03-01

    "The Changing Face of Epidemiology" is a series of symposia sponsored by Epidemiology for the purpose of addressing topical issues that cut across specialty areas. We comment here on 3 papers presented last summer at a symposium ("Education in Epidemiology: Changing needs for changing times") at the 2007 meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research. These papers address current challenges in training epidemiologists, including the rise of molecular epidemiology, the ongoing need to redefine core epidemiologic methods and develop optimum approaches, and the increasing difficulty of assuring competency in primary data collection. We offer suggestions for educational programs and professional organizations on approaching these ongoing challenges.

  11. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course

    PubMed Central

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Jason D.; Morel, Samantha; Cheung, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography, with a larger number of courses incorporating psychobiographical and/or narrative elements. With regard to psychobiography dissertations, the majority focused on artists, pioneering psychologists, and political leaders. Theories undergirding psychobiographical studies were most frequently psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Methodologically, a majority of the dissertations were anchored in constructivist (discovery-oriented) qualitative procedures, with a minority incorporating mixed methods designs. The authors highlight the value of psychobiographical training to psychology students and present avenues and models for incorporating psychobiography into psychology curriculums. PMID:27247670

  12. A field study report of intensive computer keyboard training with schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Glencross, D; Bluhm, N; Earl, J

    1989-06-01

    A video-based keyboard skills training programme was used to teach primary and secondary school students to touch type, in ten 45-min lessons. Previous research (Glencross and Bluhm, 1986) had found the programme to be successful in training a variety of personnel in the workforce. In all, 197 students (105 females, 92 males) received instruction over a two-week period. The influence of age (11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18 years) and sex on keyboard operating speed and accuracy were examined. Speed tests were conducted after the second and ninth lesson. Significant improvements in speed of typing were recorded for all age categories. Age and sex were found to be associated with speed of typing and rate of improvement across tests. Error rates remained constant across tests.

  13. Assessment and training of clinical interviewing skills: analogue analysis and field replication.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, B A; Wong, S E; Riordan, M M; Dorsey, M F; Lau, M M

    1982-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess the train clinical interviewing skills. In Experiment 1, eight university practicum students ("therapists") and either role played or volunteer "clients" were audiotaped during simulated interviews. Following the collection of baseline data on both therapist and client responses, training was provided by way of written materials, classroom instruction and practice, and quizzes. Results of a multiple baseline design across subjects showed improvements in therapists' interviewing skills and subsequent increases in client responding. Experiment 2 replicated and extended the research to a hospital outpatient clinic, in which therapists interviewed the parents of children with behavior problems. In addition, four months following the completion of Experiment 2, follow-up data collected during a maintenance condition showed continued high levels of therapist and client behavior. Finally, a panel of expert peers indicated that each response category was judged highly relevant to the behavioral assessment process. PMID:7118753

  14. The Emergence of a Field: Research and Training in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education as a field of study emerged as universities became complex institutions requiring data and interpretation for effective management and governance. The field expanded in the mid-20th century, and now includes many research and other journals, books, and other reports and publications. Academic departments and centers have been…

  15. Sites for Student Field Experiences in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, George; And Others

    This report on sites for student field experiences in refugee mental health has been prepared by the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs. After a brief introduction describing the mission of the Technical Assistance Center, the characteristics of field experience in mental…

  16. Teacher Training in Urban Settings: Inquiry, Efficacy, and Culturally Diverse Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlamery, Sheryl L.; Franks, Bridget A.; Shillingstad, Saundra L.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes two years of findings with a unique field experience (teaching science inquiry activities to African-American girls in a summer STEM camp) for preservice elementary education majors. It reports on the effects of the field experience, in conjunction with blocked science and mathematics methods courses, on preservice teachers'…

  17. The Emergence of a Field: Research and Training in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education as a field of study emerged as universities became complex institutions requiring data and interpretation for effective management and governance. The field expanded in the mid-20th century, and now includes many research and other journals, books, and other reports and publications. Academic departments and centers have been…

  18. Transformation of the frequency-modulated continuous-wave field into a train of short pulses by resonant filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhmuratov, R. N.

    2017-03-01

    The resonant filtering method transforming the frequency-modulated radiation field into a train of short pulses is proposed to be applied in the optical domain. Effective frequency modulation can be achieved by using an electro-optic modulator. Due to frequency modulation, a narrow-spectrum cw radiation field is seen by the resonant filter as a comb of equidistant spectral components separated by the modulation frequency. Tuning a narrow-bandwidth filter in resonance with the n th spectral component of the comb transforms the radiation field into bunches of pulses, with n pulses in each bunch. The transformation is explained by the interference of the coherently scattered resonant component of the field with the whole comb. Constructive interference results in the formation of pulses, while destructive interference is seen as dark windows between pulses. It is indicated that the optimal thickness of the resonant filter is several orders of magnitude smaller than the necessary thickness of the dispersive filters used before in the optical domain to produce short pulses from the frequency-modulated field.

  19. Social Work Field Training for the Community: A Student Self-Directed Approach in the Environmental Domain in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Makhamreh, Sahar; Alnabulsi, Hana; Asfour, Hana

    2016-06-01

    This article outlines innovative field training methods that foster the abilities of undergraduate social work students so that they are able to empower the local community and raise awareness of environmental issues. In this study, students were engaged in a local community assessment that sought to understand their views on environmental and community impacts of the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) Project on the lives of the host village's residents. A students' self-directed approach was applied for the fieldwork out of which interventions were developed ( Garrison, 1997). Quantitative data were gathered by eighteen students through a survey of 361 questionnaires targeting Allan society. In addition to students' field notes, pre and post focus groups were used to collect qualitative information. Study findings highlighted the effectiveness of students' self-directed projects in cultivating culturally competent practices; ensuring sustainable development; and providing evidence-based knowledge on social work practice involving environmental issues.

  20. Electromagnetic fields and health effects--epidemiologic studies of cancer, diseases of the central nervous system and arrhythmia-related heart disease.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    This epidemiologic investigation comprised separate studies of the risk of cancer, cause-specific mortality rates, risks for neurodegenerative diseases, and the risk of arrhythmia-related heart disease among employees exposed to extremely low-frequency (50-Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the Danish utility industry. All the employees in this industry were followed-up in several registers. The risk of disease was analyzed in relation to occupational exposure to EMF, latency, and duration of employment. A specific job-exposure matrix was developed and validated by comparison with direct measurements of EMF during a workday. Linkage with the Danish Cancer Register did not identify increased risks for the cancers suggested a priori to be associated with exposure to EMF, including leukemia, brain tumors, and breast cancer. Significantly increased risks for lung cancer and mesothelioma were identified for workers highly exposed to asbestos. Linkage with the National Mortality Register revealed a significantly increased overall mortality rate from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with an increasing trend with duration of employment and EMF exposure. In addition, a significantly increased mortality rate from electric accidents was observed. It was hypothesized that the observation of increased mortality from ALS was associated with exposure to EMF or electric shocks. No increased mortality rate from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease was observed. Linkage with the National Hospital Register also revealed an increased risk of ALS and, thereby confirmed the finding of an increased mortality rate for this disease in the previous study. Linkage of the cohort with the Multiple Sclerosis Register revealed an increased risk of multiple sclerosis, which was not, however, significant. Linkage with the Pacemaker Register showed no increased risk of severe arrhythmia-related heart disease. The second part of the study included the establishment of a large, nationwide

  1. Field camp: Using traditional methods to train the next generation of petroleum geologists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckette, J.O.; Suneson, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The summer field camp experience provides many students with their best opportunity to learn the scientific process by making observations and collecting, recording, evaluating, and interpreting geologic data. Field school projects enhance student professional development by requiring cooperation and interpersonal interaction, report writing to communicate interpretations, and the development of project management skills to achieve a common goal. The field school setting provides students with the opportunity to observe geologic features and their spatial distribution, size, and shape that will impact the student's future careers as geoscientists. The Les Huston Geology Field Camp (a.k.a. Oklahoma Geology Camp) near Ca??on City, Colorado, focuses on time-tested traditional methods of geological mapping and fieldwork to accomplish these goals. The curriculum consists of an introduction to field techniques (pacing, orienteering, measuring strike and dip, and using a Jacob's staff), sketching outcrops, section measuring (one illustrating facies changes), three mapping exercises (of increasing complexity), and a field geophysics project. Accurate rock and contact descriptions are emphasized, and attitudes and contacts are mapped in the field. Mapping is done on topographic maps at 1:12,000 and 1:6000 scales; air photos are provided. Global positioning system (GPS)-assisted mapping is allowed, but we insist that locations be recorded in the field and confirmed using visual observations. The course includes field trips to the Cripple Creek and Leadville mining districts, Floris-sant/Guffey volcano area, Pikes Peak batholith, and the Denver Basin. Each field trip is designed to emphasize aspects of geology that are not stressed in the field exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to accurately describe geologic features and gather evidence to support their interpretations of the geologic history. Concise reports are a part of each major exercise. Students are grouped

  2. Development of Field Methodology and Processes for Task Analysis and Training Feedback

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-31

    identify training needs. Data is collected and analyzed on a weekly or monthly I basis. I vii 4 The system has a number of checks and balances which...will indicate Ifalse or incomplete data. For example, the various types of data provide Ia check and balance . Inaccurate recording of job man-hours...Make out a Request for Issue Card , 2765-1. Activity Block Number 3.8 Title: Update Status H Description: Duty Position: Shop Supply Clerk MOS: 76D0

  3. Effect of a patient training video on visual field test reliability

    PubMed Central

    Sherafat, H; Spry, P G D; Waldock, A; Sparrow, J M; Diamond, J P

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of a visual field test educational video on the reliability of the first automated visual field test of new patients. Methods: A prospective, randomised, controlled trial of an educational video on visual field test reliability of patients referred to the hospital eye service for suspected glaucoma was undertaken. Patients were randomised to either watch an educational video or a control group with no video. The video group was shown a 4.5 minute audiovisual presentation to familiarise them with the various aspects of visual field examination with particular emphasis on sources of unreliability. Reliability was determined using standard criteria of fixation loss rate less than 20%, false positive responses less than 33%, and false negative responses less than 33%. Results: 244 patients were recruited; 112 in the video group and 132 in the control group with no significant between group difference in age, sex, and density of field defects. A significant improvement in reliability (p=0.015) was observed in the group exposed to the video with 85 (75.9%) patients having reliable results compared to 81 (61.4%) in the control group. The difference was not significant for the right (first tested) eye with 93 (83.0%) of the visual fields reliable in the video group compared to 106 (80.0%) in the control group (p = 0.583), but was significant for the left (second tested) eye with 97 (86.6 %) of the video group reliable versus 97 (73.5%) of the control group (p = 0.011). Conclusions: The use of a brief, audiovisual patient information guide on taking the visual field test produced an improvement in patient reliability for individuals tested for the first time. In this trial the use of the video had most of its impact by reducing the number of unreliable fields from the second tested eye. PMID:12543740

  4. Effect of a patient training video on visual field test reliability.

    PubMed

    Sherafat, H; Spry, P G D; Waldock, A; Sparrow, J M; Diamond, J P

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of a visual field test educational video on the reliability of the first automated visual field test of new patients. A prospective, randomised, controlled trial of an educational video on visual field test reliability of patients referred to the hospital eye service for suspected glaucoma was undertaken. Patients were randomised to either watch an educational video or a control group with no video. The video group was shown a 4.5 minute audiovisual presentation to familiarize them with the various aspects of visual field examination with particular emphasis on sources of unreliability. Reliability was determined using standard criteria of fixation loss rate less than 20%, false positive responses less than 33%, and false negative responses less than 33%. 244 patients were recruited; 112 in the video group and 132 in the control group with no significant between group difference in age, sex, and density of field defects. A significant improvement in reliability (p=0.015) was observed in the group exposed to the video with 85 (75.9%) patients having reliable results compared to 81 (61.4%) in the control group. The difference was not significant for the right (first tested) eye with 93 (83.0%) of the visual fields reliable in the video group compared to 106 (80.0%) in the control group (p = 0.583), but was significant for the left (second tested) eye with 97 (86.6 %) of the video group reliable versus 97 (73.5%) of the control group (p = 0.011). The use of a brief, audiovisual patient information guide on taking the visual field test produced an improvement in patient reliability for individuals tested for the first time. In this trial the use of the video had most of its impact by reducing the number of unreliable fields from the second tested eye.

  5. Cold and heat strain during cold-weather field training with nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Sirkka; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the thermal strain of soldiers wearing nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing during short-term field training in cold conditions. Eleven male subjects performed marching exercises at moderate and heavy activity levels for 60 minutes. Rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperatures, and heart rate were monitored. Ambient temperature (Ta) varied from -33 to 0 degrees C. Tre was affected by changes in metabolism, rather than in Ta. Tre increased above 38 degrees during heavy exercise even at -33 degrees C. The mean skin temperature decreased to tolerance level (25 degrees C) at Ta below -25 degrees C with moderate exercise. Finger temperature decreased below 15 degrees C (performance degradation) at Ta of -15 degrees C or cooler. The present results from the field confirm the previous results based on laboratory studies and show that risk of both heat and cold strain is evident, with cooling of extremities being most critical, while wearing nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing during cold-weather training.

  6. The 2-degree Field Lensing Survey: photometric redshifts from a large new training sample to r < 19.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, C.; Johnson, A. S.; Bilicki, M.; Blake, C.; Amon, A.; Erben, T.; Glazebrook, K.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Joudaki, S.; Klaes, D.; Kuijken, K.; Lidman, C.; Marin, F.; Parkinson, D.; Poole, G.

    2017-04-01

    We present a new training set for estimating empirical photometric redshifts of galaxies, which was created as part of the 2-degree Field Lensing Survey project. This training set is located in a ˜700 deg2 area of the Kilo-Degree-Survey South field and is randomly selected and nearly complete at r < 19.5. We investigate the photometric redshift performance obtained with ugriz photometry from VST-ATLAS and W1/W2 from WISE, based on several empirical and template methods. The best redshift errors are obtained with kernel-density estimation (KDE), as are the lowest biases, which are consistent with zero within statistical noise. The 68th percentiles of the redshift scatter for magnitude-limited samples at r < (15.5, 17.5, 19.5) are (0.014, 0.017, 0.028). In this magnitude range, there are no known ambiguities in the colour-redshift map, consistent with a small rate of redshift outliers. In the fainter regime, the KDE method produces p(z) estimates per galaxy that represent unbiased and accurate redshift frequency expectations. The p(z) sum over any subsample is consistent with the true redshift frequency plus Poisson noise. Further improvements in redshift precision at r < 20 would mostly be expected from filter sets with narrower passbands to increase the sensitivity of colours to small changes in redshift.

  7. Isothermal electric field-tuning of Exchange bias training in Cr2O3/PdCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtenkamp, Will; Binek, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Voltage-controlled exchange bias (EB) is investigated in a Cr2O3/PdCo EB heterosystem where a ferromagnetic and perpendicular anisotropic Pd/Co multilayer has been deposited on a (0001) Cr2O3 (chromia) single crystal. The EB of the system arises from chromia's electrically controllable boundary magnetization (BM) which is switched isothermally and at room temperature by magnetoelectric means. The BM couples to the bulk AF order parameter and follows the latter during switching. In the work reported here, we electrically and isothermally tune chromia into distinct AF multi-domain states. As a result, exchange bias training, which originates from triggered rearrangements of the AF domain state of the pinning system during consecutively cycled hysteresis loops, can be tuned in a controlled manner between zero and sizable effects. We quantify the training effect through best fits of our Landau-Khalatnikov analytic expression to the EB vs loop number. The electric field dependence of the fitting parameters is interpreted in terms of the hysteretic E-field dependence of the AF order parameter. This work is supported through the Nebraska Research Initiative (NRI) and by the MRSEC Program of the NSF.

  8. Whole-body vibration combined with extra-load training for enhancing the strength and speed of track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Han; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen; Huang, Mao-Ying; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-body vibration (WBV) combined with extra-load training can enhance the strength and speed of trained athletes compared with isolated WBV training or loaded training (LT) only. Twenty-one elite male track and field athletes were randomly assigned to a loaded vibration (LV) training group (n = 7), an unloaded vibration (ULV) training group (n = 7), and a LT group (n = 7). During 4 weeks of training, the LV group received the vibration stimulus (30 Hz and 4 mm) accompanied by a load comprising 75% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the ULV group received the same vibration stimulus without any load, and the LT group received only a load of 75% MVC without any vibration stimulus. The knee extensor isometric strength, and the concentric and eccentric strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 300°·s at a 30-m sprint speed before and after the training period. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance (time × group) was used to analyze the differences. Significant time × group interactions were observed for all the dependent variables (p ≤ 0.05). Regarding the post hoc analysis results, the LV group exhibited significant improvements for all the dependent variables after training (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the ULV group exhibited significantly reduced sprint speeds (p ≤ 0.05). The LV group demonstrated significantly superior eccentric strength compared with the ULV and LT groups after training (p ≤ 0.05), and the LV group also produced significantly superior sprint speeds compared with the ULV group after training (p ≤ 0.05). Vibration combined with extra-load training for 4 weeks significantly increased the muscle strength and speed of the elite male track and field athletes.

  9. A Case Study of an Academia-Industry Partnership to Meet the Education and Training Needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph Carl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to provide a description of the characteristics of an academia-industry partnership that works together with industry to meet the education and training needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) field. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, U.S. pursued efforts to compete in STEM fields on…

  10. A Case Study of an Academia-Industry Partnership to Meet the Education and Training Needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph Carl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to provide a description of the characteristics of an academia-industry partnership that works together with industry to meet the education and training needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) field. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, U.S. pursued efforts to compete in STEM fields on…

  11. [Epidemiologic profile of uveitis: about 105 cases].

    PubMed

    Souley, Abdoul Salam Youssoufou; Abdellah, Hamed Ould Mohamed; Khmamouche, Mehdi; Naji, Alwan Alsubari; Elasri, El Ouatassi Narjis Fouad; Reda, Karim; Oubaaz, Abdelbarre

    2016-01-01

    The multiplicity of causes of uveitis makes diagnosis difficult. Determining epidemiological factors associated with uveitis allows better diagnostic orientation and facilitates therapeutic management. This is a retrospective study spanning four years from January 2012 to December 2015. We collected 105 cases with uveitis and studied its epidemiological, clinical and etiological aspects. The average age was 42 years, the most affected age group was 40-50 years. Men were more affected (57.14%) than women (42.86%). Uveitis was unilateral in 60.95% of cases. Anterior uveitis was found in 35.24%, intermediate uveitis in 5.71%, posterior uveitis in 10.48% and panuveitis in 48.57%. Etiologies were dominated by Behçet's disease, sarcoidosis and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. The origin remained unknown in 43.81% of cases. The evolution was variable. Uveitis is an intraocular inflammation which may represent a real threat to vision. The approach to discover its cause needs to be codified and based on several steps. Our results are relatively close to those found in the literature. Uveitis is a clinical entity where ophthalmology and internal medicine meet. The field of its causes and investigations for the diagnosis is extensive or even unlimited. This study highlighted the clinical challenges and emphasized the limitations of our clinical training in the management of uveitis.

  12. Can trained field Community Workers identify stroke using a stroke symptom questionnaire as well as neurologists?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Maria; Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Islam, Muhammad; Azam, Iqbal; Virk, Azam; Nasir, Alia; Rehman, Hasan; Arif, Anita; Jan, Muhammad; Akhtar, Anjum; Mawani, Minaz; Razzak, Junaid Abdul; Pasha, Omrana

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a paucity of data from South Asia where stroke is highly prevalent. Validated tools administrable by Community Health Workers (CHWs) are required to identify stroke in the community in a resource strapped region such as this. Methods The study was conducted in a transitional slum in Karachi, Pakistan. Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS) was adapted and translated into Urdu. Two CHWs, trained by a neurologist, selected 322 community dwelling subjects using purposive sampling. Each CHW collected data independently which was validated by a vascular neurologist who directly examined each participant. To assess the effect of audit and feedback, data from the final 10% of the subjects was collected following a second training session for the CHWs. Sensitivity, specificity and Cohen’s kappa was determined for the CHW administered questionnaire against neurovascular assessment. Results Mean age of participants was 56.5 years with 71% of participants being women. The sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire of detecting stroke was 77.1% (CI: 64.1%–86.9%) and 85.8% (CI: 83.5%–87.5%). The chance corrected agreement using the Cohen’s Kappa statistic was 0.51 (CI: 0.38–0.60). Kappa ranged from 0.37 to 0.58 for each of the seven stroke symptoms. Hemianesthesia (72.9%) and hemiplegia (64.6%) were the most sensitive symptoms. The performance and agreement improved from moderate to substantial after audit and feedback. Conclusion We found a reasonable sensitivity and specificity and moderate agreement between CHW administered QVSFS and assessment by a vascular neurologist. Study Registration Number NCT02073955 PMID:25440346

  13. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  14. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  15. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  16. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  17. Trained in Science-Base Field: Change of Specialization among Educated Women in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Suhaida Mohd; Satar, Nurulhuda Mohd; Yap, Su Fei

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical model for economic development states that development in science and technology is the key to increased productivity. Upon realizing this, the Malaysian government has targeted 60 to 40 per cent of students for Science to Arts field at the tertiary level of education. However the rate of participation in science-based programs…

  18. International Field Studies in Norwegian Teacher Training Courses: Perspectives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Odd Inge

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been done on instructing student teachers by means of field studies in developing countries. Herein, I argue that sending geography students on such expeditions provides them with valuable perspectives, connections and improved knowledge, especially if they experience personal involvement and participation in addition to…

  19. Useful Measures in the Field of Time and Dimensional Rationalisation of Manual Training Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosnaric, Samo; Planinsec, Jurij

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwork, especially lessons in manual skills is often associated with various ergonomics stresses. These stresses are the result not only of school obligations but also of the physical working environment and inadequate lesson planning. Much can be done in this field if certain approaches are taken into consideration at the work planning stage.…

  20. Useful Measures in the Field of Time and Dimensional Rationalisation of Manual Training Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosnaric, Samo; Planinsec, Jurij

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwork, especially lessons in manual skills is often associated with various ergonomics stresses. These stresses are the result not only of school obligations but also of the physical working environment and inadequate lesson planning. Much can be done in this field if certain approaches are taken into consideration at the work planning stage.…

  1. Ethical Challenges of In-The-Field Training: A Surgical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Mark; Knifed, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of professions in which technical and manual acts combined with excellent judgment are used to enhance the safety of people, poses challenges to educators. Book learning combined with mock or simulated situations goes a long way, but ultimately "in-the-field" instruction and learning is necessary to qualify trainees for many…

  2. The crew of STS-116 leave from Ellington Field for KSC for prelaunch training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-13

    JSC2006-E-49052 (13 Nov. 2006) --- Astronaut Joan E. Higginbotham, STS-116 mission specialist, photographed in the rear station of a NASA T-38 trainer jet at Ellington Field near Johnson Space Center, prepares for a flight to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  3. The crew of STS-116 leave from Ellington Field for KSC for prelaunch training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-13

    JSC2006-E-49040 (13 Nov. 2006) --- Astronaut Joan E. Higginbotham, STS-116 mission specialist, looks over a directory in the check-out facility at Ellington Field near Johnson Space Center prior to a flight in a NASA T-38 trainer jet to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  4. Field Heat Treatment Technician: Competency Profile. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 20908.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The graduate of the Field Heat Treatment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able: (1) use heat treatment equipment to apply heat to materials in order to change a material's properties; (2) Use their knowledge of the properties of heat, industry codes and specifications to determine how heat treatment will…

  5. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  6. Field studies of safety security rescue technologies through training and response activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.; Stover, Sam

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the field-oriented philosophy of the Institute for Safety Security Rescue Technology (iSSRT) and summarizes the activities and lessons learned during calendar year 2005 of its two centers: the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue and the NSF Safety Security Rescue industry/university cooperative research center. In 2005, iSSRT participated in four responses (La Conchita, CA, Mudslides, Hurricane Dennis, Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Wilma) and conducted three field experiments (NJTF-1, Camp Hurricane, Richmond, MO). The lessons learned covered mobility, operator control units, wireless communications, and general reliability. The work has collectively identified six emerging issues for future work. Based on these studies, a 10-hour, 1 continuing education unit credit course on rescue robotics has been created and is available. Rescue robots and sensors are available for loan upon request.

  7. Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation during Stressful Military Training: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Field Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Kettermann A, Longo DL, Metter EJ, Carter HB. 2010. Serum testosterone is associated with aggressive prostate cancer in older men: Results from the... exercise , after which they participated in a highly realistic mock-captivity scenario. Salivary hormones and dissociative symptoms were assessed again...to self-administer accord- ing to the same daily regimen while in the field. At some point during the evasion exercise , each subject was “captured”. At

  8. Phase-field modeling of epitaxial growth: Applications to step trains and island dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengzheng; Lowengrub, John S.; Wise, Steven M.; Voigt, Axel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new phase-field model including combined effects of edge diffusion, the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier, deposition and desorption to simulate epitaxial growth. A new free energy function together with a correction to the initial phase variable profile is used to efficiently capture the morphological evolution when a large deposition flux is imposed. A formal matched asymptotic analysis is performed to show the reduction of the phase-field model to the classical sharp interface Burton-Cabrera-Frank model for step flow when the interfacial thickness vanishes. The phase-field model is solved by a semi-implicit finite difference scheme, and adaptive block-structured Cartesian meshes are used to dramatically increase the efficiency of the solver. The numerical scheme is used to investigate the evolution of perturbed circularly shaped small islands. The effect of edge diffusion is investigated together with the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier. We also investigate the linear and nonlinear regimes of a step meandering instability. We reproduce the predicted scaling law for the growth of the meander amplitude, which was based on an analysis of a long wavelength regime. New nonlinear behavior is observed when the meander wavelength is comparable to the terrace width. In particular, a previously unobserved regime of coarsening dynamics is found to occur when the meander wavelength is comparable to the terrace width.

  9. Simulators for Mariner Training and Licensing. Phase 3: Investigation of Horizontal Field of View Requirements for Simulator-Based Training of Maritime Cadets,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    that he can simulate at-sea mate-master communications (e.g., when the master is in his cabin). The remote observation station also provided an excellent ...training aids to be employed during each training session, was developed "for the training program. The basic format for the classroom session was...proper maneuvering technique for each scenario. 9 Positive guidance by the instructor on the proper maneuvering technique for each scenario. The basic

  10. The Response to and Recovery From Maximum-Strength and -Power Training in Elite Track and Field Athletes.

    PubMed

    Howatson, Glyn; Brandon, Raphael; Hunter, Angus M

    2016-04-01

    There is a great deal of research on the responses to resistance training; however, information on the responses to strength and power training conducted by elite strength and power athletes is sparse. To establish the acute and 24-h neuromuscular and kinematic responses to Olympic-style barbell strength and power exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite track and field athletes completed a series of 3 back-squat exercises each consisting of 4 × 5 repetitions. These were done as either strength or power sessions on separate days. Surface electromyography (sEMG), bar velocity, and knee angle were monitored throughout these exercises and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), jump height, central activation ratio (CAR), and lactate were measured pre, post, and 24 h thereafter. Repetition duration, impulse, and total work were greater (P < .01) during strength sessions, with mean power being greater (P < .01) after the power sessions. Lactate increased (P < .01) after strength but not power sessions. sEMG increased (P < .01) across sets for both sessions, with the strength session increasing at a faster rate (P < .01) and with greater activation (P < .01) by the end of the final set. MVC declined (P < .01) after the strength and not the power session, which remained suppressed (P < .05) 24 h later, whereas CAR and jump height remained unchanged. A greater neuromuscular and metabolic demand after the strength and not power session is evident in elite athletes, which impaired maximal-force production for up to 24 h. This is an important consideration for planning concurrent athlete training.

  11. [Requirements for graduates of training courses from the viewpoint of various specialty fields].

    PubMed

    Grosch, E V

    1993-11-01

    Against the background of rehabilitation as practised within the legal German framework of statutory and compulsory old age pension insurance--this rehabilitation scheme having developed continually, getting more and more differentiated for the last 40 years--we welcome the post-graduates of the specialised training curriculae in Public Health. The post-graduates are expected not only to acquire differentiated knowledge of the various spheres of activities of the different statutory social insurance and welfare bodies, but also to possess so to say a "sixth sense" regarding the "quality" of the individual spheres. Governed by the concepts of economy of means, triftiness and efficiency it is always imperative to ensure that the best possible care is offered to an individual in need and to plan further developments. The postgraduate must therefore be capable of becoming integrated within a team and to appreciate the expectations of members of other professions in order to eventually participate in creating feasible solutions within the framework of the hierarchically preferential demands inherent in the various spheres.

  12. [The effects of pedagogical training on university teaching in the field of health].

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Lozada, María L; Cárdenas-Muñoz, María L; Rojas-Soto, Edgar

    2010-06-01

    Evaluating changes in teaching adopted by teachers after participating in the Pedagogical Health Science Formation extension course taught by the National University of Colombia's Pedagogical Support and Teaching Formation Group from the Medicine Faculty. This was a part-time course; it dealt with topics such as didactics, curriculum, evaluation and the teacher's role. A qualitative, exploratory study was carried out, involving a personal interview formulated by the investigators; this was held in each participant's place of work. Fifty teachers who had taken the course between 2003 and 2004 were interviewed. The questionnaire consisted of ten semi-structured questions. After taking the course, 82 % of the participants considered that the quality of their communication with students was one of their most valued qualities, having understood that learning is a process which must be shared by both teachers and students. 64 % of the participants stated that they had acquired new concepts about evaluation and had increased their use of more participative pedagogical strategies. Teaching training courses had a positive effect on teaching, reflected in the quality of communication, teacher-student relationships and the pedagogic strategies used, all being very important elements in constructivist-orientated pedagogical models. The study's results agreed with other investigators' prior experience. The university must encourage this kind of intervention which will promote its own academic development by improving its teachers' performance.

  13. [A health education program based on training and support of stakeholders in the field].

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Education Santé Territoire (EST) is a health education programme for children and adolescents. It was developed on the basis of the international literature and the results of interventional studies conducted in France. It is based on local resources and develops a territorial approach centered on the school as the reference site of the "perceived territory" of children and adolescents. It therefore comprises a local environment approach (school and college) and a territorial approach, as it is centered on participation and is designed to mobilize local stakeholders involved in the education of young people. It concerns educational activities (in the schoolroom, in the institution, in the context of extracurricular activities, in leisure centres, in sports clubs); the school-community relationship; the quality of life of children and adolescents. The available results show major changes in practices and a wide range of modalities of participation. Factors that determine participation are essentially related to individual determinants (adhesion to the underlying values of the programme, compatibility of representations, perception of the relevance of the content) and contextual factors (numbers, school environment, social environment). Training and the history of involvement in the programme appear to be key elements determining participation.

  14. Nudging healthy food choices: a field experiment at the train station.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Marchiori, David R; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-06-01

    Recognizing the mindless nature of many food decisions, it has been suggested that attempts to increase healthy eating should not focus on convincing people what is 'right' but rather aim to adjust the environment such that people are automatically directed toward healthy choices. This study investigated a nudge aiming to promote healthy food choices in train station snack shops. The nudge involved a repositioning of food products: healthy foods were placed at the cash register desk, while keeping unhealthy products available elsewhere in the shop. Three snack shops were included: a control condition; a nudge condition repositioning healthy products and a nudge + disclosure condition employing the same nudge together with an explanatory sign. Next to examining its effectiveness during 1 week, the study assessed customers' acceptance of the nudge. Controlling for a baseline week, more healthy (but not fewer unhealthy) products were sold in both nudge conditions, with no difference between the nudge and the nudge + disclosure condition. A majority of customers reported positive attitudes toward the nudge. Repositioning healthy foods is a simple, effective and well-accepted nudge to increase healthy purchases. Moreover, disclosing its purpose does not impact on effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Training, teaching and research for a policy of national reconstruction in the health field. 1973].

    PubMed

    Testa, Mario

    2012-12-01

    This text reproduces a speech given by Dr. Mario Testa on June 28, 1973 in the main hall of the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad de Buenos Aires. The words of introduction preceding the text, written by Testa himself, provide the context of not only the historical moment the university was experiencing, just days after Rodolfo Puiggrós took office as the rector within the university's political overhaul, but also the meaning given to the project of pedagogical renovation. This project proposed redefining the relationship between the university and society, originating such projects such as the Instituto de Medicina del Trabajo (Institute of Occupational Medicine), the Instituto de la Madre y el Niño (Mother and Child Institute) and the Instituto de Patología Regional (Regional Pathology Institute) in the Faculty of Medicine; the Centro de Producción de Medicamentos de Base (the Center for Basic Drug Production) in the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry; and the Centro de Erradicación de Villas de Emergencia (Center for the Eradication of Shantytowns) in the Faculty of Architecture, among many others. Republishing these words, spoken almost 40 years ago, is a way of continuing to put into discussion the type of education and training health professionals receive with public funds.

  16. Field bioassessments for selecting test systems to evaluate military training lands in tallgrass prairie. Ecosystem health. V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, D. J.; Seastedt, T. R.; Gibson, D. J.; Hartnett, D. C.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; James, S. W.; Kaufman, D. W.; Schwab, A. P.; Herricks, E. E.; Novak, E. W.

    1990-01-01

    Ecosystem responses to physical or chemical stress may vary from changes in single organisms to alteration of the structure and function of the ecosystem. These responses to stress cannol be predicted exactly. Ecosystems repeatedly exposed to physical and/or chemical stress can be used to study the separate and combined environmental effects of stress. Such studies also allow the development of procedures to select test systems for the analysis of stress in ecosystems. A preliminary field survey of six military training sites at Fort Riley, Kansas, USA, was conducted to identify and verify ecological test systems for evaluating ecosystem responses to physical and/or chemical stress. Comparisons of these data with data collected concurrently from Konza Prairie Research Natural Area reference sites showed that soil microarthropods, some species of macroarthropods, small mammals, and native earthworm species were negatively affected by stress. In contrast, plant species diversity, plant foliage biomass, soil mycorrhizae, and many soil characteristics were within the boundaries of nominal variations observed on “pristine” Konza Prairie. Introduced European earthworms appeared to be positively affected by training activities. This study provided a test of systematic procedures to support impact analysis, ecological toxicology, and ecosystem risk assessments.

  17. [Spatiotemporal characteristics, of the heart electrical field at the period of ventricular depolarization in athletes training endurance and strength].

    PubMed

    Strel'nikova, S V; Panteleeva, N I; Roshchevskaia, I M

    2014-01-01

    As a result of haemodynamic and structural changes occurring in athletes' heart under the influence of systematic physical loads, myocardial electrical activity changes that is reflected on the electric field being formed on the body surface. The heart electrical activity during ventricular depolarization at rest has been investigated in the highly skilled athletes who train to develop physical characteristics--endurance and strength by a method of electrocardiotopography. In the investigated sportsmen under uniformity of the character of the movement of positive and negative cardioelectric potential zones and localization of extrema, and general depolarization duration, the significant distinctions of: 1) amplitude of the maximum negative extremum, 2) the time of the beginning and end of the first inversion, 3) duration of the second inversion, the initial stage and the stability period between inversions, 4) the relative location of the zones of positive and negative cardiopotentials were revealed.

  18. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    PubMed

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  19. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology: Form and function

    PubMed Central

    Lopman, Ben A

    2004-01-01

    Emerging Themes in Epidemiology is a new, online Open Access journal. This editorial – which coincides with the Journal's launch – describes its unique review and publication model. The editorial board and review process of ETE will be managed by research degree students and will therefore be a training ground for students (though final editorial control rests with senior faculty Associate Editors). With our mix of Open Access publishing and the strong involvement of students in editing and reviewing, we believe that Emerging Themes in Epidemiology will be a progressive medium for promoting new ideas in epidemiology. PMID:15679903

  20. A Standardized System of Training Intensity Guidelines for the Sports of Track and Field and Cross Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Christopher P.; Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate quantification of training intensity is an essential component of a training program (Rowbottom, 2000). A training program designed to optimize athlete performance abilities cannot be practically planned or implemented without a valid and reliable indication of training intensity and its effect on the physiological mechanisms of the human…

  1. A Cosmic Train Wreck: JVLA Radio Observations of the HST Frontier Fields Cluster Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Connor; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Ogrean, Georgiana A.; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Kraft, Ralph P.; Dawson, William; Brüggen, Marcus; Roediger, Elke; Bulbul, Esra; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The galaxy cluster mergers observed in the HST Frontier Fields represent some of the most energetic events in the Universe. Major cluster mergers leave distinct signatures in the ICM in the form of shocks, turbulence, and diffuse cluster radio sources. These diffuse radio sources, so-called radio relics and halos, provide evidence for the acceleration of relativistic particles and the presence of large scale magnetic fields in the ICM. Observations of these halos and relics allow us to (i) study the physics of particle acceleration and its relation with shocks and turbulence in the ICM and (ii) constrain the dynamical evolution of the merger eventsWe present Jansky Very Large Array 1-4 GHz observations of the Frontier cluster Abell 2744. We confirm the presence of the known giant radio halo and radio relic via our deep radio images. Owing to the much greater sensitivity of the JVLA compared to previous observations, we are able to detect a previously unobserved long Mpc-size filament of synchrotron emission to the south west of the cluster core. We also present a radio spectral index image of the diffuse cluster emission to test the origin of the radio relic and halo, related to the underlying particle acceleration mechanism. Finally, we carry out a search for radio emission from the 'jellyfish' galaxies in A2744 to estimate their star formation rate. These highly disturbed galaxies are likely influenced by the cluster merger event, although the precise origin of these galaxies is still being debated.

  2. Interdisciplinary Graduate Training in Polar Environmental Change: Field-based learning in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, R. A.; Holm, K.; Whitecloud, S.; Levy, L.; Kelly, M. A.; Feng, X.; Grenoble, L.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the NSF-funded Integrative Graduate Education Research Traineeship (IGERT) program at Dartmouth College is to develop a new cohort of environmental scientists and engineers with an interdisciplinary understanding of polar regions and their importance to global environmental change. The Dartmouth IGERT challenges Ph.D. students to consider the broader dimensions of their research and to collaborate with scientists from other disciplines, educators, and policy makers. IGERT students will focus on research questions that are relevant to the needs of local people experiencing climate change and on understanding the ethical responsibilities and benefits of conducting research in partnership with northern residents and institutions. Seven Ph.D. students from the departments of Earth Sciences, Engineering, and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Dartmouth College make up the first IGERT cohort for the five-year program. The Dartmouth IGERT curriculum will focus on three main components of polar systems responding to recent climate change: the cryosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycles. The integrating experience of the core curriculum is the Greenland Field Seminar that will take place in Kangerlussuaq (terrestrial and aquatic systems), Summit Camp (snow and ice) and Nuuk, Greenland (human dimensions of change). In Nuuk, IGERT students will share their science and develop partnerships with students, educators, and policy makers at the University of Greenland, the Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), and other Greenlandic institutions. In summer 2009 the authors conducted preliminary fieldwork near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland to develop aspects of the science curriculum for the 2010 Greenland Field Seminar and to explore research topics for IGERT Fellows (Levy and Whitecloud). Examples of results presented here are designed to develop field-based learning activities. These include soil and vegetation relationships as a function of aspect

  3. Q&A: Muin Khoury on cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Rose, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    Muin J. Khoury, MD, PhD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office of Public Health Genomics and head of the National Cancer Institute's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, talks about challenges and opportunities in cancer epidemiology research and efforts in the epidemiology community to transform the field.

  4. Social Work Field Training for the Community: A Student Self-Directed Approach in the Environmental Domain in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Makhamreh, Sahar; Alnabulsi, Hana; Asfour, Hana

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines innovative field training methods that foster the abilities of undergraduate social work students so that they are able to empower the local community and raise awareness of environmental issues. In this study, students were engaged in a local community assessment that sought to understand their views on environmental and community impacts of the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) Project on the lives of the host village's residents. A students' self-directed approach was applied for the fieldwork out of which interventions were developed ( Garrison, 1997). Quantitative data were gathered by eighteen students through a survey of 361 questionnaires targeting Allan society. In addition to students' field notes, pre and post focus groups were used to collect qualitative information. Study findings highlighted the effectiveness of students' self-directed projects in cultivating culturally competent practices; ensuring sustainable development; and providing evidence-based knowledge on social work practice involving environmental issues. PMID:27559202

  5. A full-spectrum analysis of high-speed train interior noise under multi-physical-field coupling excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xu; Hao, Zhiyong; Wang, Xu; Mao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    High-speed-railway-train interior noise at low, medium, and high frequencies could be simulated by finite element analysis (FEA) or boundary element analysis (BEA), hybrid finite element analysis-statistical energy analysis (FEA-SEA) and statistical energy analysis (SEA), respectively. First, a new method named statistical acoustic energy flow (SAEF) is proposed, which can be applied to the full-spectrum HST interior noise simulation (including low, medium, and high frequencies) with only one model. In an SAEF model, the corresponding multi-physical-field coupling excitations are firstly fully considered and coupled to excite the interior noise. The interior noise attenuated by sound insulation panels of carriage is simulated through modeling the inflow acoustic energy from the exterior excitations into the interior acoustic cavities. Rigid multi-body dynamics, fast multi-pole BEA, and large-eddy simulation with indirect boundary element analysis are first employed to extract the multi-physical-field excitations, which include the wheel-rail interaction forces/secondary suspension forces, the wheel-rail rolling noise, and aerodynamic noise, respectively. All the peak values and their frequency bands of the simulated acoustic excitations are validated with those from the noise source identification test. Besides, the measured equipment noise inside equipment compartment is used as one of the excitation sources which contribute to the interior noise. Second, a full-trimmed FE carriage model is firstly constructed, and the simulated modal shapes and frequencies agree well with the measured ones, which has validated the global FE carriage model as well as the local FE models of the aluminum alloy-trim composite panel. Thus, the sound transmission loss model of any composite panel has indirectly been validated. Finally, the SAEF model of the carriage is constructed based on the accurate FE model and stimulated by the multi-physical-field excitations. The results show

  6. Relationships between rating-of-perceived-exertion- and heart-rate-derived internal training load in professional soccer players: a comparison of on-field integrated training sessions.

    PubMed

    Campos-Vazquez, Miguel Angel; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Gonzalez-Jurado, Jose Antonio; León-Prados, Juan Antonio; Santalla, Alfredo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To describe the internal training load (ITL) of common training sessions performed during a typical week and to determine the relationships between different indicators of ITL commonly employed in professional football (soccer). Session-rating-of-perceived-exertion TL (sRPE-TL) and heart-rate- (HR) derived measurements of ITL as Edwards TL and Stagno training impulses (TRIMPMOD) were used in 9 players during 3 periods of the season. The relationships between them were analyzed in different training sessions during a typical week: skill drills/circuit training + small-sided games (SCT+SSGs), ball-possession games+technical-tactical exercises (BPG+TTE), tactical training (TT), and prematch activation (PMa). HR values obtained during SCT+SSGs and BPG+TTE were substantially greater than those in the other 2 sessions, all the ITL markers and session duration were substantially greater in SCT+SSGs than in any other session, and all ITL measures in BPG+TTE were substantially greater than in TT and PMa sessions. Large relationships were found between HR>80% HRmax and HR>90% HRmax vs sRPE-TL during BPG+TTE and TT sessions (r=.61-.68). Very large relationships were found between Edwards TL and sRPE-TL and between TRIMPMOD and sRPE-TL in sessions with BPG+TTE and TT (r=.73-.87). Correlations between the different HR-based methods were always extremely large (r=.92-.98), and unclear correlations were observed for other relationships between variables. sRPE-TL provided variable-magnitude within-individual correlations with HR-derived measures of training intensity and load during different types of training sessions typically performed during a week in professional soccer. Caution should be applied when using RPE- or HR-derived measures of exercise intensity/load in soccer training interchangeably.

  7. Minimal important difference in field walking tests in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis following exercise training.

    PubMed

    Lee, A L; Hill, C J; Cecins, N; Jenkins, S; McDonald, C F; Burge, A T; Rautela, L; Stirling, R G; Thompson, P J; Holland, A E

    2014-09-01

    The 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD) are clinically meaningful measures of exercise capacity in people with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, but the change in walking distance which constitutes clinical benefit is undefined. This study aimed to determine the minimal important difference for the 6MWD and ISWD in non-CF bronchiectasis. Thirty-seven participants with mean FEV1 70% predicted completed both field walking tests before and after an 8-week exercise program. The minimal important difference was calculated using a distribution-based and anchor-based method, with the global rating of change scale used. The mean change in 6MWD in participants who reported themselves to be unchanged was 10 m, compared to 36 m (small change) and 45 m (substantial change) (p = 0.01). For the ISWD, the mean change in participants who reported themselves to be unchanged was 33 m, compared to 54 m (small change) and 73 m (substantial change) (p = 0.04). The anchor-based method defined the minimal important difference for 6MWD as 24.5 m (AUC 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.91) and for ISWD as 35 m (AUC 0.88, 95% CI 0.73-0.99), based on participant's global rating of change. The distribution-based method indicated a value of 22.3 m for the 6MWD and 37 m for the ISWD. There was excellent agreement between the two methods for the 6MWD (kappa = 0.91) and the ISWD (kappa = 0.92). Small changes in 6MWD and ISWD may represent clinically important benefits in people with non-CF bronchiectasis. These data are likely to assist in the interpretation of change in exercise capacity following intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility Computer Applications to Mission-Oriented Training in the Aircraft Armament Systems Specialist Career-Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    as was the training itself, to determine the feasibility of applying state-of-the-art computer technology to the problems of management and...and unit OJT capability and capacity should lead to better management of the total technical training system. Advancements in computer technology ... technology relevant to the management and/or training of OJT students. 3. Conduct a detailed training systems analysis for the weapon system most

  9. Conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics: Part II: Android Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The growth of Android in the mobile sector and the interest to investigate these devices from a forensic point of view has rapidly increased. Many companies have security problems with mobile devices in their own IT infrastructure. To respond to these incidents, it is important to have professional trained staff. Furthermore, it is necessary to further train their existing employees in the practical applications of mobile forensics owing to the fact that a lot of companies are trusted with very sensitive data. Inspired by these facts, this paper - a continuation of a paper of January 2012 [1] which showed the conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics - addresses training approaches and practical exercises to investigate Android mobile devices.

  10. Proceedings of the second international molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) meeting.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Shuji; Campbell, Peter T; Nishihara, Reiko; Phipps, Amanda I; Beck, Andrew H; Sherman, Mark E; Chan, Andrew T; Troester, Melissa A; Bass, Adam J; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Irizarry, Rafael A; Kelsey, Karl T; Nan, Hongmei; Peters, Ulrike; Poole, Elizabeth M; Qian, Zhi Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Zhang, Xuehong; Giovannucci, Edward L; van den Brandt, Piet A; Rosner, Bernard A; Wang, Molin; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Begg, Colin B

    2015-07-01

    Disease classification system increasingly incorporates information on pathogenic mechanisms to predict clinical outcomes and response to therapy and intervention. Technological advancements to interrogate omics (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, interactomics, etc.) provide widely open opportunities in population-based research. Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) represents integrative science of molecular pathology and epidemiology. This unified paradigm requires multidisciplinary collaboration between pathology, epidemiology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. Integration of these fields enables better understanding of etiologic heterogeneity, disease continuum, causal inference, and the impact of environment, diet, lifestyle, host factors (including genetics and immunity), and their interactions on disease evolution. Hence, the Second International MPE Meeting was held in Boston in December 2014, with aims to: (1) develop conceptual and practical frameworks; (2) cultivate and expand opportunities; (3) address challenges; and (4) initiate the effort of specifying guidelines for MPE. The meeting mainly consisted of presentations of method developments and recent data in various malignant neoplasms and tumors (breast, prostate, ovarian and colorectal cancers, renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and leukemia), followed by open discussion sessions on challenges and future plans. In particular, we recognized need for efforts to further develop statistical methodologies. This meeting provided an unprecedented opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration, consistent with the purposes of the Big Data to Knowledge, Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology, and Precision Medicine Initiative of the US National Institute of Health. The MPE meeting series can help advance transdisciplinary population science and optimize training and education systems for twenty-first century medicine and

  11. Conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics, part III: network forensics and penetration testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. From year to year, incidents and crimes increase that target IT systems or were done with their help. More and more companies and authorities have security problems in their own IT infrastructure. To respond to these incidents professionally, it is important to have well trained staff. The fact that many agencies and companies work with very sensitive data make it necessary to further train the own employees in the field of network forensics and penetration testing. Motivated by these facts, this paper - a continuation of a paper of January 2012 [1], which showed the conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics - addresses the practical implementation important relationships of network forensic and penetration testing.

  12. Epidemiology 101: toward an educated citizenry.

    PubMed

    Marantz, Paul R

    2008-09-01

    Epidemiology, as the core science underpinning public health, encompasses methods and concepts that are fundamental to understanding health-related information and health policy. Thus, understanding these concepts would enhance the lay public's ability to make informed decisions with respect to health and prevention, and teaching epidemiology at the undergraduate level would be consistent with the goal of creating an educated citizenry. While epidemiology has traditionally been taught largely within graduate schools, there has been experience at the undergraduate level as well. This experience has demonstrated that such courses are popular and effective. While there may be some challenges inherent to teaching Epidemiology 101 at every college and university, this is a worthy and important goal, and most challenges can be successfully overcome with creativity and effort. Perhaps the greatest barrier is instinctive resistance to this idea, since most faculty with epidemiology training received such training in graduate schools. It is up to us to cast off those preconceptions; if one explores the notion of undergraduate epidemiology teaching with an open and unbiased mind, the logic, feasibility, and importance of this effort becomes clear.

  13. The Degree of Applying the Theoretical Frameworks of Child-Raising Specialty Courses in the Field of Training among the Female Students of Princess Alia University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweeikat, Mashhour Mohammad; AL-Kaddah, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying to what extent the female students in Child Education department at Princess Alia University College manage to apply the theoretical part in field training program. The data, which is the scope of this study, consists of 42 staff members and 36 educational supervisors responsible for the program. The two researchers…

  14. Epidemiological typing of isolates from an outbreak of infection with multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae by repetitive extragenic palindromic unit b1-primed PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z Y; Liu, P Y; Lau, Y J; Lin, Y H; Hu, B S

    1996-01-01

    An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae infection lasted for 4 months in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Forty-six isolates from the NICU and 20 epidemiologically unrelated strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and repetitive extragenic palindromic unit b1-primed PCR (REPUb1-PCR) typing. The PFGE patterns after XbaI restriction of the bacterial DNA were analyzed by computer software (Gelcompar) using the UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) clustering method and the Dice coefficient. The 46 isolates from the NICU were classified by PFGE typing into five clusters: A (further classified into 7 subtypes, A1 to A7), B, C, D, and E. This outbreak was attributed to multiple genetically related strains of cluster A which had a similarity of 85.8% +/- 4.6%. The minor band differences among strains of cluster A were probably due to minor genetic mutations. The type A1 and A3 strains were isolated from the clinical specimens of patients and hands of nurses. It was probable that these outbreak strains were transmitted among patients via the hands of personnel. REPUb1-PCR typing of the 46 isolates also demonstrated five types, in agreement with results obtained by the PFGE technique, but could not detect the minor mutations among the cluster A strains. Twenty epidemiologically unrelated strains were well distinguished by both PFGE and REPUb1-PCR typing. We conclude that PFGE is a highly discriminatory but time-consuming method for epidemiological typing of E. cloacae and that REPUb1-PCR is a more rapid method with good reproducibility and discriminatory power comparable to that of PFGE. PMID:8897183

  15. Development of a web-based epidemiological surveillance system with health system response for improving maternal and newborn health: Field-testing in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Prappre, Tagoon; Pairot, Pakamas; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Islam, Monir

    2017-06-01

    Surveillance systems are yet to be integrated with health information systems for improving the health of pregnant mothers and their newborns, particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to develop a web-based epidemiological surveillance system for maternal and newborn health with integration of action-oriented responses and automatic data analysis with results presentations and to assess the system acceptance by nurses and doctors involved in various hospitals in southern Thailand. Freeware software and scripting languages were used. The system can be run on different platforms, and it is accessible via various electronic devices. Automatic data analysis with results presentations in the forms of graphs, tables and maps was part of the system. A multi-level security system was incorporated into the program. Most doctors and nurses involved in the study felt the system was easy to use and useful. This system can be integrated into country routine reporting system for monitoring maternal and newborn health and survival.

  16. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  17. Acute whole body vibration training increases vertical jump and flexibility performance in elite female field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, D J; Stannard, S R

    2005-11-01

    To quantify the acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on arm countermovement vertical jump (ACMVJ), grip strength, and flexibility performance. Eighteen female elite field hockey players each completed three interventions of WBV, control, and cycling in a balanced random manner. WBV was performed on a Galileo machine (26 Hz) with six different exercises being performed. For the control, the same six exercises were performed at 0 Hz, whilst cycling was performed at 50 W. Each intervention was 5 min in duration with ACMVJ, grip strength, and flexibility measurements being conducted pre and post intervention. There was a positive interaction effect (intervention x pre-post) of enhanced ACMVJ (p<0.001) and flexibility (p<0.05) parameters following WBV; however no changes were observed after the control and cycling interventions. There was no interaction effect for grip strength following the three interventions. Acute WBV causes neural potentiation of the stretch reflex loop as shown by the improved ACMVJ and flexibility performance. Additionally, muscle groups less proportionally exposed to vibration do not exhibit physiological changes that potentiate muscular performance.

  18. Acute whole body vibration training increases vertical jump and flexibility performance in elite female field hockey players

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, D; Stannard, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on arm countermovement vertical jump (ACMVJ), grip strength, and flexibility performance. Methods: Eighteen female elite field hockey players each completed three interventions of WBV, control, and cycling in a balanced random manner. WBV was performed on a Galileo machine (26 Hz) with six different exercises being performed. For the control, the same six exercises were performed at 0 Hz, whilst cycling was performed at 50 W. Each intervention was 5 min in duration with ACMVJ, grip strength, and flexibility measurements being conducted pre and post intervention. Results: There was a positive interaction effect (interventionxpre-post) of enhanced ACMVJ (p<0.001) and flexibility (p<0.05) parameters following WBV; however no changes were observed after the control and cycling interventions. There was no interaction effect for grip strength following the three interventions. Conclusions: Acute WBV causes neural potentiation of the stretch reflex loop as shown by the improved ACMVJ and flexibility performance. Additionally, muscle groups less proportionally exposed to vibration do not exhibit physiological changes that potentiate muscular performance. PMID:16244199

  19. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  20. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  1. Epidemiology of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... IBD? Projects and Partners Data and Statistics Resources Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  2. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  3. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  4. Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-01-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called ‘3 Vs’: variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that, while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field’s future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future. PMID:25756221

  5. [Dermato-epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, C J; Diepgen, T L; Weisshaar, E

    2011-11-01

    Dermato-epidemiology is an important scientific discipline which investigates skin diseases using epidemiological methods. Epidemiology is the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in specified populations. We describe fundamental terms of dermato-epidemiology (measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk), different study types (observational studies, interventional studies), the selection of statistical tests, bias and confounding as well as the principles of evidence-based dermatology, and give illustrative examples.

  6. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  7. Promotion of Cooperation among Research and Development Organizations in the Field of Vocational Training. Scenario of the Vocational Training Systems in the Federal Republic of Germany to 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1986

    A forward-looking scenario for the vocational training system extending to the year 1995 is composed of two parts. The first comprises a forecast, with both optimistic and pessimistic variants, relating to the economic, technical, political, and demographic contextual aspects that play a major role in determining the profile of the vocational…

  8. The Effects of Compensatory Scanning Training on Mobility in Patients with Homonymous Visual Field Defects: Further Support, Predictive Variables and Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Tucha, Oliver; Heutink, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People with homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) often report difficulty detecting obstacles in the periphery on their blind side in time when moving around. Recently, a randomized controlled trial showed that the InSight-Hemianopia Compensatory Scanning Training (IH-CST) specifically improved detection of peripheral stimuli and avoiding obstacles when moving around, especially in dual task situations. Method The within-group training effects of the previously reported IH-CST are examined in an extended patient group. Performance of patients with HVFD on a pre-assessment, post-assessment and follow-up assessment and performance of a healthy control group are compared. Furthermore, it is examined whether training effects can be predicted by demographic characteristics, variables related to the visual disorder, and neuropsychological test results. Results Performance on both subjective and objective measures of mobility-related scanning was improved after training, while no evidence was found for improvement in visual functions (including visual fields), reading, visual search and dot counting. Self-reported improvement did not correlate with improvement in objective mobility performance. According to the participants, the positive effects were still present six to ten months after training. No demographic characteristics, variables related to the visual disorder, and neuropsychological test results were found to predict the size of training effect, although some inconclusive evidence was found for more improvement in patients with left-sided HVFD than in patients with right-sided HFVD. Conclusion Further support was found for a positive effect of IH-CST on detection of visual stimuli during mobility-related activities specifically. Based on the reports given by patients, these effects appear to be long-term effects. However, no conclusions can be drawn on the objective long-term training effects. PMID:27935973

  9. The Relationship between Training and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the Health Care Field. [and] Invited Reaction--The Relationship between Training and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the Health Care Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Kenneth R.; Klein, Howard J.

    2001-01-01

    Using social exchange theory as a framework, Bartlett's study of 337 nurses found that perceived access to and support for training, learning motivation, and perceived training benefits are positively related to organizational commitment, especially affective commitment. Contains 67 references. Klein's reaction addresses conceptual and…

  10. Linking hospital epidemiology and quality assurance: seasoned concepts in a new role.

    PubMed

    Crede, W; Hierholzer, W J

    1988-01-01

    In this initial presentation, certain concepts central to infection control epidemiology have been discussed and related to the evaluation of noninfectious events in medical care. While most of the examples have focused on parallels in noninfectious hazards of hospital care, a more global evaluation of the functional benefit(s) and cost-effectiveness of medical care intervention using similar epidemiologic principles is possible and of equal value. These issues will be discussed in future presentations. It will be our continuing thesis that the current infection control practitioner and hospital epidemiologist will need to become more involved in the quality assurance and risk management activities of their institutions and that training in all fields of medical care evaluation will need to be founded in epidemiology. Programs in quality assurance and risk management must adopt the use of these standard methods and must generate the databases to allow variations from norms in clinical practice to be evaluated. Those in infection control will need to broaden their expertise to include more sophisticated statistical methods, newer strategies in the observational studies of clinical care, the fundamentals of clinical information systems and data handling, and the appropriate national and regional sources of comparative clinical data. Future articles in the Topics series will provide reviews in these areas and serve as a forum for issues in the changing field of hospital epidemiology. The editors welcome comments on the series or manuscripts for review for possible publication.

  11. Mobile Mental Wellness Training for Stress Management: Feasibility and Design Implications Based on a One-Month Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahtinen, Aino; Välkkynen, Pasi; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Vanhala, Toni; Ermes, Miikka; Sairanen, Essi; Myllymäki, Tero; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevention and management of work-related stress and related mental problems is a great challenge. Mobile applications are a promising way to integrate prevention strategies into the everyday lives of citizens. Objective The objectives of this study was to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of a mobile mental wellness training application among working-age individuals, and to derive preliminary design implications for mobile apps for stress management. Methods Oiva, a mobile app based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), was designed to support active learning of skills related to mental wellness through brief ACT-based exercises in the daily life. A one-month field study with 15 working-age participants was organized to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of Oiva. The usage of Oiva was studied based on the usage log files of the application. Changes in wellness were measured by three validated questionnaires on stress, satisfaction with life (SWLS), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) at the beginning and at end of the study and by user experience questionnaires after one week’s and one month’s use. In-depth user experience interviews were conducted after one month’s use to study the acceptance and user experiences of Oiva. Results Oiva was used actively throughout the study. The average number of usage sessions was 16.8 (SD 2.4) and the total usage time per participant was 3 hours 12 minutes (SD 99 minutes). Significant pre-post improvements were obtained in stress ratings (mean 3.1 SD 0.2 vs mean 2.5 SD 0.1, P=.003) and satisfaction with life scores (mean 23.1 SD 1.3 vs mean 25.9 SD 0.8, P=.02), but not in psychological flexibility. Oiva was perceived easy to use, acceptable, and useful by the participants. A randomized controlled trial is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of Oiva on working-age individuals with stress problems. Conclusions A feasibility study of Oiva mobile mental wellness training app showed good

  12. Mobile mental wellness training for stress management: feasibility and design implications based on a one-month field study.

    PubMed

    Ahtinen, Aino; Mattila, Elina; Välkkynen, Pasi; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Vanhala, Toni; Ermes, Miikka; Sairanen, Essi; Myllymäki, Tero; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2013-07-10

    Prevention and management of work-related stress and related mental problems is a great challenge. Mobile applications are a promising way to integrate prevention strategies into the everyday lives of citizens. The objectives of this study was to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of a mobile mental wellness training application among working-age individuals, and to derive preliminary design implications for mobile apps for stress management. Oiva, a mobile app based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), was designed to support active learning of skills related to mental wellness through brief ACT-based exercises in the daily life. A one-month field study with 15 working-age participants was organized to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of Oiva. The usage of Oiva was studied based on the usage log files of the application. Changes in wellness were measured by three validated questionnaires on stress, satisfaction with life (SWLS), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) at the beginning and at end of the study and by user experience questionnaires after one week's and one month's use. In-depth user experience interviews were conducted after one month's use to study the acceptance and user experiences of Oiva. Oiva was used actively throughout the study. The average number of usage sessions was 16.8 (SD 2.4) and the total usage time per participant was 3 hours 12 minutes (SD 99 minutes). Significant pre-post improvements were obtained in stress ratings (mean 3.1 SD 0.2 vs mean 2.5 SD 0.1, P=.003) and satisfaction with life scores (mean 23.1 SD 1.3 vs mean 25.9 SD 0.8, P=.02), but not in psychological flexibility. Oiva was perceived easy to use, acceptable, and useful by the participants. A randomized controlled trial is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of Oiva on working-age individuals with stress problems. A feasibility study of Oiva mobile mental wellness training app showed good acceptability, usefulness, and engagement among the

  13. Phosporus-31 Solid-State NMR in High-Field Gradients: Prospects for Imaging Bone Using the Long Echo-Train Summation Technique (LETS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, D. G.; Newling, B.; Randall, E. W.

    2001-08-01

    Stray-field techniques are reported for 31P studies of solids for a variety of compounds including bone, bone meal and calcium hydroxyapatite. Long Hahn echo trains produced by the application of many pulses were used as in the long echo-train summation technique. Double-resonance enhancements of 31P by use of both direct and indirect experiments were attempted on a sample of NH4PF6:31P{19F} double resonance produced, at most, a 26% increase in the initial level of the 31P echo signal.

  14. Needs assessment for performance improvement of personnel in charge of epidemiological surveillance in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Priotto, Gerardo; Rguig, Ahmed; Ziani, Moncef; Berger, Anouk; Nabeth, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In line with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), the Morocco health surveillance system has been reinforced via infrastructure strengthening and decentralization in its regions. To plan for personnel capacity reinforcement actions, a national workforce needs assessment was conducted by the National Epidemiological Surveillance Service and the World Health Organization. The assessment used an ad-hoc method comprising two stages: (1) A survey via a standardized electronic questionnaire, administered to all staff in regional and provincial surveillance teams. Data collected included demographics, basic qualification, complementary training, perceived training needs, and preferred training modalities. Individuals were asked to grade, on a nine-point scale, their perception of importance of a given list of tasks and of their capacity to perform them. The gap between perceptions was quantified and described. (2) Field visits to national, regional and provincial sites for direct observation and opinion gathering on broader issues such as motivators, barriers, and training needs from the local perspective. Questionnaire respondents were 122/158 agents at 78 surveillance units countrywide. Mean age was 43.6 years and job longevity 5.7 years. Only 53% (65/122) had epidemiology training, posted in 62% (48/78) of the structures. Self-assessed capacity varied by basic qualification and by structure level (regional vs. provincial). The gap between the importance granted to a task and the perceived capacity to perform it was sizable, showing an uneven distribution across competency domains, regions, surveillance level and staff's basic qualification. From the opinions gathered, a problem of staff demotivation and high turnover emerged clearly. Our method was successful in revealing specific details of the training needs countrywide. A national strategy is needed to ensure rational planning of training, personnel motivation and long-term sustainability. In terms of

  15. Needs Assessment for Performance Improvement of Personnel in Charge of Epidemiological Surveillance in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Priotto, Gerardo; Rguig, Ahmed; Ziani, Moncef; Berger, Anouk; Nabeth, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background In line with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), the Morocco health surveillance system has been reinforced via infrastructure strengthening and decentralization in its regions. To plan for personnel capacity reinforcement actions, a national workforce needs assessment was conducted by the National Epidemiological Surveillance Service and the World Health Organization. Methods The assessment used an ad-hoc method comprising two stages: (1) A survey via a standardized electronic questionnaire, administered to all staff in regional and provincial surveillance teams. Data collected included demographics, basic qualification, complementary training, perceived training needs, and preferred training modalities. Individuals were asked to grade, on a nine-point scale, their perception of importance of a given list of tasks and of their capacity to perform them. The gap between perceptions was quantified and described. (2) Field visits to national, regional and provincial sites for direct observation and opinion gathering on broader issues such as motivators, barriers, and training needs from the local perspective. Results Questionnaire respondents were 122/158 agents at 78 surveillance units countrywide. Mean age was 43.6 years and job longevity 5.7 years. Only 53% (65/122) had epidemiology training, posted in 62% (48/78) of the structures. Self-assessed capacity varied by basic qualification and by structure level (regional vs. provincial). The gap between the importance granted to a task and the perceived capacity to perform it was sizable, showing an uneven distribution across competency domains, regions, surveillance level and staff's basic qualification. From the opinions gathered, a problem of staff demotivation and high turnover emerged clearly. Conclusions Our method was successful in revealing specific details of the training needs countrywide. A national strategy is needed to ensure rational planning of training, personnel motivation and

  16. The Checkered History of American Psychiatric Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-01-01

    Context American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. Methods This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. Findings The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Conclusion Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. PMID:22188350

  17. The checkered history of American psychiatric epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-12-01

    American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  18. The CDC/Council of state and territorial epidemiologists applied epidemiology fellowship program: evaluation of the first 9 years.

    PubMed

    Dick, Virginia R; Masters, Amanda E; McConnon, Patrick J; Engel, Jeffrey P; Underwood, Valerie N; Harrison, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) implemented the Applied Epidemiology Fellowship (AEF) in 2003 to train public health professionals in applied epidemiology and strengthen applied epidemiology capacity within public health institutions to address the identified challenges. The CSTE recently evaluated the outcomes of the fellowship across the last 9 years. To review the findings from the outcome evaluation of the first nine classes of AEF alumni with particular attention to how the fellowship affected alumni careers, mentors' careers, host site agency capacity, and competencies of the applied epidemiology workforce. The mixed-methods evaluation used surveys and administrative data. Administrative data were gathered over the past 9 years and the surveys were collected in late 2013 and early 2014. Descriptive statistics and qualitative thematic analysis were conducted in early 2014 to examine the data from more than 130 alumni and 150 mentors. More than half the alumni (67%) indicated the fellowship was essential to their long-term career. In addition, 79% of the mentors indicated that participating in the fellowship had a positive impact on their career. Mentors also indicated significant impacts on host site capacity. A majority (88%) of alumni had worked for at least 1 year or more in government public health environments after the fellowship. Evaluation findings support previous research indicating need for competency-based field-based training programs that include a strong mentoring component. These characteristics in a field-based training program can increase applied epidemiology capacity in various ways. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining the Training Process of a New Teacher Educator in the Field of the Education of the Hearing Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurgur, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Training of beginning teacher educators has become a popular topic in the literature. This study aimed to investigate the training procedures of a new teacher educator who would be working in the division of the hearing impaired. The study was designed as action research and a new teacher educator, an experienced teacher educator and an academic…

  20. Organizational and Pedagogical Fundamentals of Professional Training of Engineers in the Field of Nanoelectronics in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykhailiuk, Maryna

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the organizational and pedagogical principles of the professional training of future nanoelectronics engineers in UK universities. There has been substantiated a number of general didactic and specific principles of the professional training of future nanoelectronics engineers, which facilitate the concretization of content,…

  1. Field Note-Developing Suicide Risk Assessment Training for Hospital Social Workers: An Academic-Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharff, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Abigail M.; Lambert, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes 1 large urban pediatric hospital's partnership with a university to provide suicide assessment and management training within its social work department. Social work administrators conducted a department-wide needs assessment and implemented a 2-session suicide assessment training program and evaluation. Respondents…

  2. Organizational and Pedagogical Fundamentals of Professional Training of Engineers in the Field of Nanoelectronics in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykhailiuk, Maryna

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the organizational and pedagogical principles of the professional training of future nanoelectronics engineers in UK universities. There has been substantiated a number of general didactic and specific principles of the professional training of future nanoelectronics engineers, which facilitate the concretization of content,…

  3. Field Note-Developing Suicide Risk Assessment Training for Hospital Social Workers: An Academic-Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharff, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Abigail M.; Lambert, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes 1 large urban pediatric hospital's partnership with a university to provide suicide assessment and management training within its social work department. Social work administrators conducted a department-wide needs assessment and implemented a 2-session suicide assessment training program and evaluation. Respondents…

  4. Improvement in dynamic balance and core endurance after a 6-week core-stability-training program in high school track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Sandrey, Michelle A; Mitzel, Jonathan G

    2013-11-01

    Core training specifically for track and field athletes is vague, and it is not clear how it affects dynamic balance and core-endurance measures. To determine the effects of a 6-week core-stabilization-training program for high school track and field athletes on dynamic balance and core endurance. Test-retest. High school in north central West Virginia. Thirteen healthy high school student athletes from 1 track and field team volunteered for the study. Subjects completed pretesting 1 wk before data collection. They completed a 6-wk core-stabilization program designed specifically for track and field athletes. The program consisted of 3 levels with 6 exercises per level and lasted for 30 min each session 3 times per week. Subjects progressed to the next level at 2-wk intervals. After 6 wk, posttesting was conducted The subjects were evaluated using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions; abdominal-fatigue test (AFT); back-extensor test (BET); and side-bridge test (SBT) for the right and left sides. Posttest results significantly improved for all 3 directions of the SEBT (PM, M, and AM), AFT, BET, right SBT, and left SBT. Effect size was large for all variables except for PM and AM, where a moderate effect was noted. Minimal-detectable-change scores exceeded the error of the measurements for all dependent variables. After the 6-wk core-stabilization-training program, measures of the SEBT, AFT, BET, and SBT improved, thus advocating the use of this core-stabilization-training program for track and field athletes.

  5. Epidemiological study of sun exposure and visual field damage in children in Primorsko-Goranska County--the risk factors of earlier development of macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Vojniković, Bozo; Synek, Svatopluk; Mićović, Vladimir; Telezar, Mirna; Linsak, Zeljko

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible harmful effects of solar exposure on visual field damage in children living in Primorsko-Goranska County. Our previous work has shown noxious influence on visual field in children with anamnesis long term exposure to sunlight. This is an extended study, including children in Novi Vinodolski and Gorski kotar. We measured possible defect in isopteric visual field and macular-meridian thresholds. In the area of island of Rab these changes were the biggest, subsequently is Novi Vinodolski and at least Gorski kotar with the smallest range of eye complicates according to exposure to sunlight. These damages correlate with the areas of great solar emission. Damages in periphery isopters of visual field have shown the characteristics of periphery defect invagination, while increased macular thresholds in complete visual field was from 5 to 15Asb. We can conclude that there is direct connection between increased sunlight and long-term exposure to sunlight on one side, and on the other side, damages of retinal perception. Increased sun exposure may represent very important factors in early occurrence and develop of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). It is recommended the children protection in summer months, as well as taking derivates of vitamin A and antioxidants. Nowadays, AMD is one of the most important causes of damaged visual field, pretend to be national problem if we don't use the adequate prevention. World Health Organization has to begin with prevention of AMD, including these risk factors.

  6. Genetic Modulation of Training and Transfer in Older Adults: BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism is Associated with Wider Useful Field of View

    PubMed Central

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; van Muijden, Jesse; Band, Guido P. H.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Western society has an increasing proportion of older adults. Increasing age is associated with a general decrease in the control over task-relevant mental processes. In the present study we investigated the possibility that successful transfer of game-based cognitive improvements to untrained tasks in elderly people is modulated by preexisting neuro-developmental factors as genetic variability related to levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neuromodulator underlying cognitive processes. We trained participants, genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, on cognitive tasks developed to improve dynamic attention. Pre-training (baseline) and post-training measures of attentional processes (divided and selective attention) were acquired by means of the useful field of view task. As expected, Val/Val homozygous individuals showed larger beneficial transfer effects than Met/-carriers. Our findings support the idea that genetic predisposition modulates transfer effects. PMID:21909331

  7. Genetic Modulation of Training and Transfer in Older Adults: BDNF ValMet Polymorphism is Associated with Wider Useful Field of View.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van Muijden, Jesse; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Western society has an increasing proportion of older adults. Increasing age is associated with a general decrease in the control over task-relevant mental processes. In the present study we investigated the possibility that successful transfer of game-based cognitive improvements to untrained tasks in elderly people is modulated by preexisting neuro-developmental factors as genetic variability related to levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neuromodulator underlying cognitive processes. We trained participants, genotyped for the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism, on cognitive tasks developed to improve dynamic attention. Pre-training (baseline) and post-training measures of attentional processes (divided and selective attention) were acquired by means of the useful field of view task. As expected, Val/Val homozygous individuals showed larger beneficial transfer effects than Met/-carriers. Our findings support the idea that genetic predisposition modulates transfer effects.

  8. Risk Factors for Low Back Disorders in Saskatchewan Farmers: Field-based Exposure Assessment to Build a Foundation for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Johnson, Peter W; Teschke, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of many geographical settings and agricultural commodities show that low back disorders are an important public health issue among farmers, who represent a special rural population. However, few studies have examined the impact of low back disorders on farmers’ work or the strategies that they adopt to avoid associated pain and disability. Objective This study protocol will investigate 3 issues related to low back disorders in Saskatchewan farmers: (1) the vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures farmers encounter during their work that might contribute to low back disorders; (2) the impact low back disorders have on farmers in terms of their ability to work; and (3) the types of preventative measures and solutions that farmers implement to reduce the occurrence of low back pain. Methods To answer these questions, researchers will travel to 30 farms to make measurements of vibration, lifting, and posture during the farmers’ regular work tasks. Farmers will be interviewed about any pain and/or disability using standardized interview questions. Farmers will also be asked about safety measures they have implemented at their farm, such as modified tools or equipment, to reduce the occurrence of low back disorders or pain. Results Data collection is currently underway for this study, with the intention to complete all data collection and analysis by the end of 2018. Conclusions Occupational determinants of health such as vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures are important in the development and progression of low back disorders, and the results of this study will allow for cost-effective epidemiological studies of these determinants in the future. In identifying prevention strategies, this study will also facilitate future research evaluating the effectiveness of safety measures. PMID:27286748

  9. Impact Evaluation of Training Natural Leaders during a Community-Led Total Sanitation Intervention: A Cluster-Randomized Field Trial in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We used a cluster-randomized field trial to evaluate training natural leaders (NLs) as an addition to a community-led total sanitation (CLTS) intervention in Ghana. NLs are motivated community members who influence their peers’ behaviors during CLTS. The outcomes were latrine use and quality, which were assessed from surveys and direct observation. From October 2012, Plan International Ghana (Plan) implemented CLTS in 60 villages in three regions in Ghana. After 5 months, Plan trained eight NLs from a randomly selected half of the villages, then continued implementing CLTS in all villages for 12 more months. The NL training led to increased time spent on CLTS by community members, increased latrine construction, and a 19.9 percentage point reduction in open defecation (p < 0.001). The training had the largest impact in small, remote villages with low exposure to prior water and sanitation projects, and may be most effective in socially cohesive villages. For both interventions, latrines built during CLTS were less likely to be constructed of durable materials than pre-existing latrines, but were equally clean, and more often had handwashing materials. CLTS with NL training contributes to three parts of Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals: eliminating open defecation, expanding capacity-building, and strengthening community participation. PMID:27428399

  10. Impact Evaluation of Training Natural Leaders during a Community-Led Total Sanitation Intervention: A Cluster-Randomized Field Trial in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Jonny; Abodoo, Elvis; Asamani, Daniel; Domapielle, William; Gyapong, Benedict; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-08-16

    We used a cluster-randomized field trial to evaluate training natural leaders (NLs) as an addition to a community-led total sanitation (CLTS) intervention in Ghana. NLs are motivated community members who influence their peers' behaviors during CLTS. The outcomes were latrine use and quality, which were assessed from surveys and direct observation. From October 2012, Plan International Ghana (Plan) implemented CLTS in 60 villages in three regions in Ghana. After 5 months, Plan trained eight NLs from a randomly selected half of the villages, then continued implementing CLTS in all villages for 12 more months. The NL training led to increased time spent on CLTS by community members, increased latrine construction, and a 19.9 percentage point reduction in open defecation (p < 0.001). The training had the largest impact in small, remote villages with low exposure to prior water and sanitation projects, and may be most effective in socially cohesive villages. For both interventions, latrines built during CLTS were less likely to be constructed of durable materials than pre-existing latrines, but were equally clean, and more often had handwashing materials. CLTS with NL training contributes to three parts of Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals: eliminating open defecation, expanding capacity-building, and strengthening community participation.

  11. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's field hockey injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Dick, Randall; Hootman, Jennifer M; Agel, Julie; Vela, Luzita; Marshall, Stephen W; Messina, Renee

    2007-01-01

    To review 15 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's field hockey and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Field hockey is one of the most popular sports worldwide and is growing in participation in the United States, particularly among women. From 1988-1989 to 2002-2003, participation in NCAA women's field hockey increased 12%, with the largest growth among Division III programs. In 2002- 2003, 253 colleges offered women's field hockey and 5385 women participated. Game injury rates showed a significant average annual 2.5% decline over 15 years, most likely fueled by drops in ankle ligament sprain, knee internal derangement, and finger fracture injuries. Despite this, ankle ligament sprains were common (13.7% of game and 15.0% of practice injuries) and a frequent cause of severe injuries (resulting in 10+ days of time-loss activity). Concussion and head laceration injuries increased over this same time, and the risk of sustaining a concussion in a game was 6 times higher than the risk of sustaining one during practice. Overall, injury rates were twice as high in games as in practices (7.87 versus 3.70 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 2.0, 2.3). Most head/neck/face (71%) and hand/finger/thumb (68%) injuries occurred when the player was near the goal or within the 25-yd line and were caused by contact with the stick or ball (greater than 77% for both body sites); for 34% of head/neck/ face injuries, a penalty was called on the play. Equipment (requiring helmets and padded gloves) and rule changes (to decrease field congestion near the goal) as well as evidence-based injury prevention interventions (eg, prophylactic ankle taping/bracing, neuromuscular balance exercise programs) may be viable prevention initiatives for reducing injury rates in women's collegiate field hockey players.

  12. Dehydration and hyponatremia in professional rugby union players: a cohort study observing english premiership rugby union players during match play, field, and gym training in cool environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin L; OʼHara, John P; Till, Kevin; King, Roderick F G J

    2015-01-01

    Fluid and sodium balance is important for performance and health; however, limited data in rugby union players exist. The purpose of the study was to evaluate body mass (BM) change (dehydration) and blood[Na] change during exercise. Data were collected from 10 premiership rugby union players, over a 4-week period. Observations included match play (23 subject observations), field (45 subject observations), and gym (33 subject observations) training sessions. Arrival urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, and samples during exercise were analyzed for [Na]. Body mass and blood[Na] were determined pre- and postexercise. Sweat[Na] was analyzed from sweat patches worn during exercise, and fluid intake was measured during exercise. Calculations of fluid and Na loss were made. Mean arrival urine osmolality was 423 ± 157 mOsm·kg, suggesting players were adequately hydrated. After match play, field, and gym training, BM loss was 1.0 ± 0.7, 0.3 ± 0.6, and 0.1 ± 0.6%, respectively. Fluid loss was significantly greater during match play (1.404 ± 0.977 kg) than field (1.008 ± 0.447 kg, p = 0.021) and gym training (0.639 ± 0.536 kg, p < 0.001). Fluid intake was 0.955 ± 0.562, 1.224 ± 0.601, and 0.987 ± 0.503 kg during match play, field, and gym training, respectively. On 43% of observations, players were hyponatremic when BM increased, 57% when BM was maintained, and 35% when there was a BM loss of 0.1-0.9%. Blood[Na] was the representative of normonatremia when BM loss was >1.0%. The findings demonstrate that rugby union players are adequately hydrated on arrival, fluid intake is excessive compared with fluid loss, and some players are at risk of developing hyponatremia.

  13. Installation Restoration Program. Remedial investigation report. Site 1. Fire Training Area. Volk Field Air National Guard Base, Camp Douglas, Wi. Volume 1. Final remedial investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Volume 1 of this report covers the Remedial Investigation conducted on Site 1, Fire Training Area at Volk Field Air National Guard Base. The remedial work is described and the testing conducted after remediation to insure all contamination has been removed. The study as conducted under the Air National Guard's Installation Restoration Program. Partial contents include: Meteorology; Hydrology; Soils; Water wells; Groundwater; Borings; Samplings; Chemical contamination; Migration; Decontamination.

  14. Extinction procedure induces pruning of dendritic spines in CA1 hippocampal field depending on strength of training in rats

    PubMed Central

    Garín-Aguilar, María E.; Díaz-Cintra, Sofía; Quirarte, Gina L.; Aguilar-Vázquez, Azucena; Medina, Andrea C.; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous reports indicate that learning and memory of conditioned responses are accompanied by genesis of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, although there is a conspicuous lack of information regarding spine modifications after behavioral extinction. There is ample evidence that treatments that typically produce amnesia become innocuous when animals are submitted to a procedure of enhanced training. We now report that extinction of inhibitory avoidance (IA), trained with relatively low foot-shock intensities, induces pruning of dendritic spines along the length of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons. When animals are trained with a relatively high foot-shock there is a high resistance to extinction, and pruning in the proximal and medial segments of the apical dendrite are seen, while spine count in the distal dendrite remains normal. These results indicate that pruning is involved in behavioral extinction, while maintenance of spines is a probable mechanism that mediates the protecting effect against amnesic treatments produced by enhanced training. PMID:22438840

  15. Meta-epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The concept of meta-epidemiology has been introduced with considering the methodological limitations of systematic review for intervention trials. The paradigm of meta-epidemiology has shifted from a statistical method into a new methodology to close gaps between evidence and practice. Main interest of meta-epidemiology is to control potential biases in previous quantitative systematic reviews and draw appropriate evidences for establishing evidence-base guidelines. Nowadays, the network meta-epidemiology was suggested in order to overcome some limitations of meta-epidemiology. To activate meta-epidemiologic studies, implementation of tools for risk of bias and reporting guidelines such as the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) should be done.

  16. A field test of a Web-based substance abuse prevention training program for health promotion professionals.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Tracy L; Cook, Royer F; Back, Anita S; Hersch, Rebekah K; Hendrickson, April

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate a multimedia substance abuse prevention (SAP) training program for health promotion (HP) practitioners designed to provide opportunities for behavioral modeling and skills building and to motivate and build confidence in ability to integrate SAP into HP offerings. Using a posttest only design, 192 practitioners were randomly assigned to receive web-based (experimental group) or print-based (control group) training. Feelings about ability to conduct effective SAP programming, reactions to training materials, and knowledge about substance abuse and how to implement SAP were assessed. The experimental group also rated specific aspects of the web training. The experimental group gave high evaluation ratings, scored significantly higher on self-efficacy items, and gave significantly higher ratings on 12 of 15 reaction items. Web-based training was more engaging, understandable, user-friendly, useful, comprehensive, and motivating than print-based training; it is believed to be more effective in helping to integrate substance abuse prevention; and it will serve as a continuous resource.

  17. Characterization of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from four continents by use of multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ahmed; Evans, Benjamin A; Towner, Kevin J; Amyes, Sebastian G B

    2010-07-01

    This study used a diverse collection of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to compare the robustness of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, based on conserved regions of seven housekeeping genes, gltA, gdhB, recA, cpn60, rpoD, gyrB, and gpi, with that of sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes (SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes). The data obtained by analysis of MLST and SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes were compared to the data generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The topologies of the phylogenetic trees generated for the gyrB and gpi genes showed evidence of recombination and were inconsistent with those of the trees generated for the other five genes. MLST identified 24 sequence types (STs), of which 19 were novel, and 5 novel alleles. Clonality was demonstrated by eBURST analysis and standardized index of association values of >1 (P < 0.001). MLST data revealed that all isolates harboring the major bla(OXA-51-like) alleles OXA-66, OXA-69, and OXA-71 fell within the three major European clonal lineages. However, the MLST data were not always in concordance with the PFGE data, and some isolates containing the same bla(OXA-51-like) allele demonstrated <50% relatedness by PFGE. It was concluded that the gyrB and gpi genes are not good candidates for use in MLST analysis and that a SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) gene scheme produced results comparable to those produced by MLST for the identification of the major epidemic lineages, with the advantage of having a significantly reduced sequencing cost and time. It is proposed that studies of A. baumannii epidemiology could involve initial screening of bla(OXA-51-like) alleles to identify isolates belonging to major epidemic lineages, followed by MLST analysis to categorize isolates from common lineages, with PFGE being reserved for fine-scale typing.

  18. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Field Hockey Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2002–2003

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Randall; Hootman, Jennifer M; Agel, Julie; Vela, Luzita; Marshall, Stephen W; Messina, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 15 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's field hockey and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: Field hockey is one of the most popular sports worldwide and is growing in participation in the United States, particularly among women. From 1988–1989 to 2002–2003, participation in NCAA women's field hockey increased 12%, with the largest growth among Division III programs. In 2002– 2003, 253 colleges offered women's field hockey and 5385 women participated. Main Results: Game injury rates showed a significant average annual 2.5% decline over 15 years, most likely fueled by drops in ankle ligament sprain, knee internal derangement, and finger fracture injuries. Despite this, ankle ligament sprains were common (13.7% of game and 15.0% of practice injuries) and a frequent cause of severe injuries (resulting in 10+ days of time-loss activity). Concussion and head laceration injuries increased over this same time, and the risk of sustaining a concussion in a game was 6 times higher than the risk of sustaining one during practice. Overall, injury rates were twice as high in games as in practices (7.87 versus 3.70 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 2.0, 2.3). Most head/neck/face (71%) and hand/finger/thumb (68%) injuries occurred when the player was near the goal or within the 25-yd line and were caused by contact with the stick or ball (greater than 77% for both body sites); for 34% of head/neck/ face injuries, a penalty was called on the play. Recommendations: Equipment (requiring helmets and padded gloves) and rule changes (to decrease field congestion near the goal) as well as evidence-based injury prevention interventions (eg, prophylactic ankle taping/bracing, neuromuscular balance exercise programs) may be viable prevention initiatives for reducing injury rates in women's collegiate field hockey players

  19. Constitution and monitoring of an epidemiological surveillance network with sentinel general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, P

    1994-08-01

    The Réseau National Télé-informatique de surveillance et d'information sur les Maladies Transmissibles (RNTMT) (French communicable diseases computerised surveillance network) comprises a network of sentinel general practitioners (SGP). These benevolent volunteers are responsible for the weekly epidemiological surveillance. Since its creation, 1,700 SGPs have participated in the RNTMT, representing a total of more than 120,000 connections to the RNTMT telematic service center. The principal motivation of these benevolent SGPs was to 'actively participate in public health', although only a minority of them (17.6%) had any training in this field. Such a system, based on the benevolent and voluntary activity of SGPs, requires a good understanding of SGPs' attitudes towards epidemiological surveillance in general and the tool used, in order to quantitatively and qualitatively follow their participation and to provide regular and useful feedback to the surveillance actors.

  20. Mapping epidemiology's past to inform its future: metaknowledge analysis of epidemiologic topics in leading journals, 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Galea, Sandro

    2015-07-15

    An empiric perspective on what epidemiology has studied over time might inform discussions about future directions for the discipline. We aimed to identify the main areas of epidemiologic inquiry and determine how they evolved over time in 5 high-impact epidemiologic journals. We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 20,895 articles that were published between 1974 and 2013. In 5 time periods that reflected approximately equal numbers of articles, we identified the main topics by clustering terms based on co-occurrence. Infectious disease and cardiovascular disease epidemiology were the prevailing topics over the 5 periods. Cancer epidemiology was a major topic from 1974 to 2001 but disappeared thereafter. Nutritional epidemiology gained relative importance from 1974 to 2013. Environmental epidemiology appeared during 1996-2001 and continued to be important, whereas 2 clusters related to methodology and meta-analysis in genetics appeared during 2008-2013. Several areas of epidemiology, including injury or psychiatric epidemiology, did not make an appearance as major topics at any time. In an ancillary analysis of 6 high-impact general medicine journals, we found patterns of epidemiologic articles that were overall consistent with the findings in epidemiologic journals. This metaknowledge investigation allowed identification of the dominant topics in and conversely those that were absent from 5 major epidemiologic journals. We discuss implications for the field.