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Sample records for field epidemiology training

  1. Training and service in public health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  2. Training and Service in Public Health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  3. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development.

    PubMed

    López, Augusto; Cáceres, Victor M

    2008-01-01

    The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.

  4. Public health laboratory systems development in East Africa through training in laboratory management and field epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Mosha, Fausta; Oundo, Joseph; Mukanga, David; Njenga, Kariuki; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Laboratories are integral to the delivery of quality health care and for public health functions; however laboratory systems and services are often neglected in resource-poor settings such as the East African region. In order to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in resource-poor countries, there is a need to train laboratory personnel to work in clinical as well as public health laboratories. In 2004,Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan began training public health laboratory workers jointly with field epidemiologists in the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), and later through the Tanzania FELTP, as a strategy to strengthen public health laboratories. These programs train laboratory epidemiologists through a two-year public health leadership development course, and also offer various types of short course training for frontline staff. The FELTP laboratory graduates in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and South Sudan are working in their respective countries to strengthen public health laboratory systems while the short course participants provide a pool of frontline implementers with the capacity to support the lower tiers of health systems, as well as serve as surge capacity for the regions and the national level. Through training competent public health laboratory workers, the East African ministries of health, in collaboration with other regional partners and stakeholders are now engaged in developing and implementing a holistic approach that will guarantee an overall strengthening of the health system by using well-trained public health laboratory leaders to drive the process. Strengthening public health laboratory medicine in East Africa is critical to improve health-care systems. The experience with the FELTP model in East Africa is a step in the right direction towards ensuring a stronger role for the laboratory in public health. PMID:22359702

  5. [Field epidemiology and social epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Segura del Pozo, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of changing epistemological, methodological and practice grounds, beginning with field epidemiologists teaching programmes. Field epidemiology would tend to act in an absent theoretical frame. On the other hand, social epidemiology would tend to prioritize theoretical developments (thinking and research about social determinants) without correspondent action, because of the limits to change public policies. Other differences are found at intervention level (micro-macrospace), its aim (outbreak control vs. inequalities control) and the way to communicate with society. They are similar in the methodological concern, the predominance of orientation based on positivism and framed through statistic methods, but in process of epistemological opening, the stress experienced between the alternative relationship to a virtual world of data bases or to the real society, their peripherical situation in relation of the political, social, institutional and professional system and the tendency to professional frustration. Finally, we ask ten questions to the field epidemiologists related with their present practice, in order to consider if they are developing social epidemiology, and propose some changes in epidemiologist teaching and practice.

  6. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model. PMID:22916854

  7. Ebola virus disease outbreak; the role of field epidemiology training programme in the fight against the epidemic, Liberia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lubogo, Mutaawe; Donewell, Bangure; Godbless, Lucas; Shabani, Sasita; Maeda, Justin; Temba, Herilinda; Malibiche, Theophil C; Berhanu, Naod

    2015-01-01

    The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to supporting Ministries of Health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. The goal for the establishment of FETP and FELTP was and still is to produce highly competent multi-disciplinary public health professionals who would assume influential posts in the public health structures and tackle emerging and re-emerging communicable and non-communicable diseases. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, African Union Support for the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa (ASEOWA) supported FETP graduates from Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Tanzania for the investigation and control of the EVD outbreak in Liberia. The graduates were posted in different counties in Liberia where they lead teams of other experts conduct EVD outbreak investigations, Infection Control and Prevention trainings among health workers and communities, Strengthening integrated disease surveillance, developing Standard Operating Procedures for infection control and case notification in the Liberian setting as well as building capacity of local surveillance officers’ conduct outbreak investigation and contact tracing. The team was also responsible for EVD data management at the different Counties in Liberia. The FETP graduates have been instrumental in the earlier successes registered in various counties in

  8. Applied field epidemiology programme in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez Navarro, J F; Herrera, D; Sanchez Barco, C

    2001-03-01

    In 1994, the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII; Carlos III Health Institute) of the Spanish Ministry of Health and the Consumer (MSC) created the Programa de Epidemiología Aplicada de Campo (PEAC; Applied Field Epidemiology Programme). The programme is managed by the Centro Nacional de Epidemiología (National Epidemiological Centre) in collaboration with the Escuela Nacional de Sanidad (National School of Health), and supported by General Direction for Health and Consumer of MSC and the Health Councils (Consejerías de Sanidad) of the autonomous regions. The PEAC runs a masters degree programme in applied field epidemiology, in which degrees are conferred by the National School of Health. As PEAC is a national programme, it forms a part of the European Program for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) and is a member of the Network Training for Epidemiology Public Health Intervention (TEPHINET), the association of 27 regional and national programmes of the acting Intervention Epidemiology Training Programs.

  9. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Steve E; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Scott, James C; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED) at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and statistics--this exercise

  10. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010: need, the process, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Nsubuga, Peter; Johnson, Kenneth; Tetteh, Christopher; Oundo, Joseph; Weathers, Andrew; Vaughan, James; Elbon, Suzanne; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Ndugulile, Faustine; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Evering-Watley, Michele; Mosha, Fausta; Oleribe, Obinna; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Preacely, Nykiconia; Luce, Richard; Antara, Simon; Imara, Hiari; Ndjakani, Yassa; Doyle, Timothy; Espinosa, Yescenia; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Ngulefac, John; Njenga, Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    As of 2010 sub-Saharan Africa had approximately 865 million inhabitants living with numerous public health challenges. Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems is necessary to build upon and sustain these successes and to address other public health problems. Sub-Saharan Africa appears to have weathered the recent global economic downturn remarkably well and its increasing middle class may soon demand stronger public health systems to protect communities. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been the backbone of public health surveillance and response in the US during its 60 years of existence. EIS has been adapted internationally to create the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) in several countries. In the 1990s CDC and the Rockefeller Foundation collaborated with the Uganda and Zimbabwe ministries of health and local universities to create 2-year Public Health Schools Without Walls (PHSWOWs) which were based on the FETP model. In 2004 the FETP model was further adapted to create the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) in Kenya to conduct joint competency-based training for field epidemiologists and public health laboratory scientists providing a master's degree to participants upon completion. The FELTP model has been implemented in several additional countries in sub-Saharan Africa. By the end of 2010 these 10 FELTPs and two PHSWOWs covered 613 million of the 865 million people in sub-Saharan Africa and had enrolled 743 public health professionals. We describe the process that we used to develop 10 FELTPs covering 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010 as a

  11. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer

    2011-01-01

    The lack of highly trained field epidemiologists in the public health system in Ghana has been known since the 1970s when the Planning Unit was established in the Ghana Ministry of Health. When the Public Health School was started in 1994, the decision was taken to develop a 1 academic-year general MPH course. The persisting need for well-trained epidemiologists to support the public health surveillance, outbreak investigation and response system made the development of the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP) a national priority. The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for serving Ghana Health Service staff. The success of the short courses led to development of the FELTP. By October 2007, the new FELTP curriculum for the award of a Masters of Philosophy in Applied Epidemiology and Disease Control was approved by the Academic Board of the University of Ghana and the programme started that academic year. Since then five cohorts of 37 residents have been enrolled in the two tracks of the programme. They consist of 12 physicians, 12 veterinarians and 13 laboratory scientists. The first two cohorts of 13 residents have graduated. The third cohort of seven has submitted dissertations and is awaiting the results. The fourth cohort has started the second year of field placement while the fifth cohort has just started the first semester. The field activities of the graduates have included disease outbreak investigations and response, evaluation of disease surveillance systems at the national level and analysis of datasets on diseases at the regional level. The residents have made a total of 25 oral presentations and 39 poster presentations at various regional and global

  12. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer

    2011-01-01

    The lack of highly trained field epidemiologists in the public health system in Ghana has been known since the 1970s when the Planning Unit was established in the Ghana Ministry of Health. When the Public Health School was started in 1994, the decision was taken to develop a 1 academic-year general MPH course. The persisting need for well-trained epidemiologists to support the public health surveillance, outbreak investigation and response system made the development of the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP) a national priority. The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for serving Ghana Health Service staff. The success of the short courses led to development of the FELTP. By October 2007, the new FELTP curriculum for the award of a Masters of Philosophy in Applied Epidemiology and Disease Control was approved by the Academic Board of the University of Ghana and the programme started that academic year. Since then five cohorts of 37 residents have been enrolled in the two tracks of the programme. They consist of 12 physicians, 12 veterinarians and 13 laboratory scientists. The first two cohorts of 13 residents have graduated. The third cohort of seven has submitted dissertations and is awaiting the results. The fourth cohort has started the second year of field placement while the fifth cohort has just started the first semester. The field activities of the graduates have included disease outbreak investigations and response, evaluation of disease surveillance systems at the national level and analysis of datasets on diseases at the regional level. The residents have made a total of 25 oral presentations and 39 poster presentations at various regional and global

  13. Charting a Future for Epidemiologic Training

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Chavez, Gilbert F.; Davies, Megan M.; Galea, Sandro; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hornung, Carlton A.; Khoury, Muin J.; Koo, Denise; Mays, Vickie M.; Remington, Patrick; Yarber, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify macro level trends that are changing the needs of epidemiologic research and practice and to develop and disseminate a set of competencies and recommendations for epidemiologic training that will be responsive to these changing needs. Methods There were three stages to the project: 1) assembly of a working group of senior epidemiologists from multiple sectors, 2) Identifying relevant literature, and 3) conducting key informant interviews with 15 experienced epidemiologists. Results Twelve macro trends were identified along with associated actions for the field and educational competencies. The macro trends include: 1) “Big Data”/ informatics, 2) the changing health communication environment, 3) the Affordable Care Act/health care system reform, 4) shifting demographics, 5) globalization, 6) emerging high throughput technologies (“omics”), 7) a greater focus on accountability, 8) privacy changes, 9) a greater focus on “upstream” causes of disease, 10) the emergence of translational sciences, 11) the growing centrality of team and trans-disciplinary science, and 12) the evolving funding environment. Conclusion Addressing these issues through curricular change is needed to allow the field of epidemiology to more fully reach and sustain its full potential to benefit population health and remain a scientific discipline that makes critical contributions to ensuring clinical, social, and population health. PMID:25976024

  14. Setting Research Priorities for HIV/AIDS-related research in a post-graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme scientific workshop

    PubMed Central

    Poggensee, Gabriele; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick Mboya; Fawole, Olufunmilayo Ibitola; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria the current prevalence of HIV is 4.1% with over 3.5 million infected and estimated 1.5 million in need of anti-retroviral treatment. Epidemiological and implementation studies are necessary for monitoring and evaluation of interventions. To define research areas which can be addressed by participants of the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Training Programme (NFELTP) a workshop was held in April 2013 in Abuja, Nigeria. Priority research areas were identified using criteria lists for ranking of the relevance of research questions. Based on a research matrix, NFELTP residents developed the aims and objectives, study design for HIV-related research proposals. This workshop was the first workshop held by the NFELTP to establish an inventory of research questions which can be addressed by the residents within their training period. This inventory will help to increase HIV/AIDS-related activities of NFELTP which are in accordance with research needs in Nigeria and PEPFAR objectives. PMID:25426209

  15. Strengthening field-based training in low and middle-income countries to build public health capacity: Lessons from Australia's Master of Applied Epidemiology program

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mahomed S; Phillips, Christine B

    2009-01-01

    Background The International Health Regulations (2005) and the emergence and global spread of infectious diseases have triggered a re-assessment of how rich countries should support capacity development for communicable disease control in low and medium income countries (LMIC). In LMIC, three types of public health training have been tried: the university-based model; streamed training for specialised workers; and field-based programs. The first has low rates of production and teaching may not always be based on the needs and priorities of the host country. The second model is efficient, but does not accord the workers sufficient status to enable them to impact on policy. The third has the most potential as a capacity development measure for LMIC, but in practice faces challenges which may limit its ability to promote capacity development. Discussion We describe Australia's first Master of Applied Epidemiology (MAE) model (established in 1991), which uses field-based training to strengthen the control of communicable diseases. A central attribute of this model is the way it partners and complements health department initiatives to enhance workforce skills, health system performance and the evidence-base for policies, programs and practice. Summary The MAE experience throws light on ways Australia could collaborate in regional capacity development initiatives. Key needs are a shared vision for a regional approach to integrate training with initiatives that strengthen service and research, and the pooling of human, financial and technical resources. We focus on communicable diseases, but our findings and recommendations are generalisable to other areas of public health. PMID:19358710

  16. Communicable disease epidemiology training in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Aavitsland, P; Andresen, S

    2001-03-01

    The five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have a long tradition of collaboration in communicable disease epidemiology and control. The state epidemiologists and the immunisation programme managers have met regularly to discuss common challenges and exchange experiences in surveillance and control of communicable diseases. After the three Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) regained independence in 1991 and the Soviet Union dissolved, contacts were made across the old iron curtain in several areas, such as culture, education, business, military and medicine. Each of the Nordic communicable disease surveillance institutes started projects with partners in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania or the Russian Federation. The projects were in such diverse areas as HIV surveillance and prevention, vaccination programmes and antibiotic resistance. PMID:11682716

  17. Mentoring in epidemiology and public health training.

    PubMed

    Davis, Faith G

    2013-08-01

    In the past, mentoring was the job of one senior researcher in which the mentor molded the mentee in his/her own image. With public health being a very multidisciplinary field, mentoring may need to evolve to facilitate the needs of emerging scientists-including epidemiologists. The mentoring relationship can begin at many education stages, including high school. Involving students at all education levels acts as a way to recruit and nurture interest in public health. On the basis of the experience in the medical sciences, mentoring programs also can be used to recruit and retain high-quality professionals in our discipline. Mentoring functions nurture a young mentee with the bonus of greater workplace satisfaction for the mentor. Nevertheless, more understanding of what constitutes successful mentoring and how to develop programs that create great mentors is needed.

  18. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  19. The genesis and evolution of the African Field Epidemiology Network.

    PubMed

    Mukanga, David; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Wurapa, Frederick; Binka, Fred; Serwada, David; Bazeyo, William; Pariyo, George; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gitta, Sheba; Chungong, Stella; Trostle, Murray; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to contain the frequently devastating epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa launched the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in an effort to strengthen surveillance and response. However, 36 sub-Saharan African countries have been described as experiencing a human resource crisis by the WHO. Given this human resource situation, the challenge remains for these countries to achieve, among others, the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper describes the process through which the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) was developed, as well as how AFENET has contributed to addressing the public health workforce crisis, and the development of human resource capacity to implement IDSR in Africa. AFENET was established between 2005 and 2006 as a network of Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) and Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in Africa. This resulted from an expressed need to develop a network that would advocate for the unique needs of African FETPs and FELTPs, provide service to its membership, and through which programs could develop joint projects to address the public health needs of their countries. A total of eight new programs have been developed in sub-Saharan Africa since 2006. Programs established after 2006 represent over 70% of current FETP and FELTP enrolment in Africa. In addition to growth in membership and programs, AFENET has recorded significant growth in external partnerships. Beginning with USAID, CDC and WHO in 2004-2006, a total of at least 26 partners have been added by 2011. Drawing from lessons learnt, AFENET is now a resource that can be relied upon to expand public health capacity in Africa in an efficient and practical manner. National, regional and global health actors can leverage it to meet health-related targets at all levels. The AFENET story is one that continues to be driven

  20. Rheumatology in India: a Bird's Eye View on Organization, Epidemiology, Training Programs and Publications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    India is home to the world's second largest population. Rheumatology is an emerging specialty in India. We reviewed organization, epidemiology and training facilities for Rheumatology in India. Also, we also looked at publications in the field of rheumatology from India from over the past six years using Scopus and Medline databases. Despite rheumatologic disorders affecting 6%-24% of the population, rheumatology in India is still in its infancy. Till recently, there were as few as two centers in the country training less than five fellows per year. However, acute shortage of specialists and increasing patient numbers led to heightened awareness regarding the need to train rheumatologists. Subsequently, six new centers have now started 3-year training programs in rheumatology. The epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in India is being actively studies under the Community Oriented Programme for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) initiative. The most number of publications on rheumatic diseases from India are on rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and osteoporosis, many of which have been widely cited. Major collaborators worldwide are USA, UK and France, whereas those from Asia are Japan, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. The Indian Rheumatology Association (IRA) is the national organization of rheumatologists. The flagship publication of the IRA, the Indian Journal of Rheumatology, is indexed in Scopus and Embase. To conclude, rheumatology in India is an actively expanding and productive field with significant contributions to world literature. There is a need to train more personnel in the subject in India. PMID:27365996

  1. Rheumatology in India: a Bird's Eye View on Organization, Epidemiology, Training Programs and Publications.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Agarwal, Vikas; Negi, Vir Singh

    2016-07-01

    India is home to the world's second largest population. Rheumatology is an emerging specialty in India. We reviewed organization, epidemiology and training facilities for Rheumatology in India. Also, we also looked at publications in the field of rheumatology from India from over the past six years using Scopus and Medline databases. Despite rheumatologic disorders affecting 6%-24% of the population, rheumatology in India is still in its infancy. Till recently, there were as few as two centers in the country training less than five fellows per year. However, acute shortage of specialists and increasing patient numbers led to heightened awareness regarding the need to train rheumatologists. Subsequently, six new centers have now started 3-year training programs in rheumatology. The epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in India is being actively studies under the Community Oriented Programme for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) initiative. The most number of publications on rheumatic diseases from India are on rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and osteoporosis, many of which have been widely cited. Major collaborators worldwide are USA, UK and France, whereas those from Asia are Japan, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. The Indian Rheumatology Association (IRA) is the national organization of rheumatologists. The flagship publication of the IRA, the Indian Journal of Rheumatology, is indexed in Scopus and Embase. To conclude, rheumatology in India is an actively expanding and productive field with significant contributions to world literature. There is a need to train more personnel in the subject in India.

  2. EPIZOO: software for veterinary epidemiology training and problem-solving.

    PubMed Central

    Kouba, V.

    1995-01-01

    Described is a computer software package, EPIZOO, which has been developed specifically for undergraduate and postgraduate education, self-training, problem-solving, and simulation studies in veterinary epidemiology. The program is based on action-oriented animal population health/disease analyses and programming. EPIZOO runs on IBM-compatible personal computers and can be used for any animal population diseases, including those transmissible to man. The software comprises an integral system of selected indicators contained in twelve modules, with about 200 widely applicable methods used in epizootiology. It is user-friendly and includes general methods related to the following: animal population characteristics of health/disease importance; analysis of animal population health and disease situations, structures, dynamics, diagnoses, and consequences; preparation, cost, and evaluation of animal population health programmes; and selected statistical techniques. PMID:7704930

  3. Epidemiology training for primary health care: the use of computer-assisted distance learning.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, S B; Cuevas, L E; Moody, J B; Russell, W B; Schlecht, B J

    1996-10-01

    The Liverpool Epidemiology Programme, based in the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, has designed a series of computer-based modules for use in distance learning. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the role of computers in training health workers in epidemiology in developing countries. The aim of the modules is to provide health workers with solutions to problems which they face in their everyday work. The modules are written in hypertext software for IBM compatible machines and interact with the epidemiological software Epi Info. Four modules are described: LEP-Nut which deals with nutritional surveillance, LEP-Ref which looks at the role of epidemiology within a refugee health care programme, LEP-Surv dealing with health surveillance and LEP-Rap which introduces the concept of rapid appraisal. They are also easily distributed, particularly with the development of the Internet. The modules are carefully evaluated before and after distribution. Issues related to their evaluation and subsequent revision are discussed, in particular is the content important, adequate, communicated and useful? A major advantage of computer-based learning materials is that they can be easily updated with new advancements of knowledge and experience from the field. PMID:8936951

  4. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: The epidemiologic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, M.N. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence that low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by alternating current may be cause of cancer. Studies examining residential exposures of children and adults and studies of electrical and electronics workers are reviewed. Using conventional epidemiologic criteria for inferring causal associations, including strength and consistency of the relationship, biological plausibility, and the possibility of bias as an explanation, it is concluded that the evidence is strongly suggestive that such radiation is carcinogenic. The evidence is strongest for brain and central nervous system cancers in electrical workers and children. Weaker evidence supports an association with leukemia in electrical workers. Some evidence also exists for an association with melanoma in electrical workers. Failure to find consistent evidence of a link between residential exposures and adult cancers may be attributable to exposure misclassification. Studies so far have used imperfect surrogates for any true biologically effective magnetic field exposure. The resulting exposure misclassification has produced relative risk estimates that understate any true risk.

  5. Training in Infectious Disease Epidemiology through the Emerging Infections Program Sites

    PubMed Central

    Meek, James I.; Danila, Richard N.; Jones, Timothy F.; Schaffner, William; Baumbach, Joan; Lathrop, Sarah; Farley, Monica M.; Tobin-D’Angelo, Melissa; Miller, Lisa; Harrison, Lee H.; Bennett, Nancy M.; Cieslak, Paul R.; Cartter, Matthew L.; Reingold, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    One objective of the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to provide training opportunities in infectious disease epidemiology. To determine the extent of training performed since the program's inception in 1995, we reviewed training efforts at the 10 EIP sites. By 2015, all sites hosted trainees (most were graduate public health students and physicians) who worked on a variety of infectious disease surveillance and epidemiologic projects. Trainee projects at all sites were used for graduate student theses or practicums. Numerous projects resulted in conference presentations and publications in peer-reviewed journals. Local public health and health care partners have also benefitted from EIP presentations and training. Consideration should be given to standardizing and documenting EIP training and to sharing useful training initiatives with other state and local health departments and academic institutions. PMID:26291924

  6. The Singapore Field Epidemiology Service: Insights Into Outbreak Management

    PubMed Central

    Seetoh, Theresa; Cutter, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    Field epidemiology involves the implementation of quick and targeted public health interventions with the aid of epidemiological methods. In this article, we share our practical experiences in outbreak management and in safeguarding the population against novel diseases. Given that cities represent the financial nexuses of the global economy, global health security necessitates the safeguard of cities against epidemic diseases. Singapore's public health landscape has undergone a systemic and irreversible shift with global connectivity, rapid urbanization, ecological change, increased affluence, as well as shifting demographic patterns over the past two decades. Concomitantly, the threat of epidemics, ranging from severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza A (H1N1) to the resurgence of vector-borne diseases as well as the rise of modern lifestyle-related outbreaks, have worsened difficulties in safeguarding public health amidst much elusiveness and unpredictability. One critical factor that has helped the country overcome these innate and man-made public health vulnerabilities is the development of a resilient field epidemiology service, which includes our enhancement of surveillance and response capacities for outbreak management, and investment in public health leadership. We offer herein the Singapore story as a case study in meeting the challenges of disease control in our modern built environment. PMID:23091652

  7. [Intervention epidemiology training programs in Germany and Europe. An investment in our future].

    PubMed

    Bremer, Viviane; Alpers, Katharina; Krause, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases such as SARS and influenza can have a profound impact on society. Therefore, training epidemiologists in infectious diseases control is of crucial importance. The German Postgraduate training in Applied Epidemiology (PAE) at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) are striving to meet these challenges. Currently, 27 and 12 persons of German origin have joined PAE and EPIET, respectively. A total of 17 out of the 36 alumni started working at the RKI, regional or local German health authorities after completing their training. Since 2006, the number of yearly admitted fellows increased from 3 to 6 in PAE, and 9 to 19 in EPIET and 5 state health departments have been added as training sites. The collaboration between EPIET and PAE has been strengthened and diversified in recent years. Alumni of these programs will play a key role in the control of infectious diseases in Germany and Europe. PMID:19214461

  8. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  9. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response, public health informatics, vaccine preventable diseases, immunization, outbreak investigation, Millennium Development Goals, Non-Communicable Diseases, and public health surveillance. The theme for the 5th AFENET Scientific Conference was; “Addressing Public Health Priorities in Africa through FELTPs.” Previous AFENET Scientific conferences have been held in: Accra, Ghana (2005), Kampala, Uganda (2007), Mombasa, Kenya (2009) and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2011). PMID:26491534

  10. Field Test of an Epidemiology Curriculum for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark A.; Huebner, Wendy W.; Nicolich, Mark J.; Kimbrough, Maudellyn L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a middle school epidemiology curriculum called Detectives in the Classroom. The curriculum presents epidemiology as the science of public health, using health-related issues that capture the interest of young students and help prepare them to make evidence-based health-related decisions.…

  11. The next generation of large-scale epidemiologic research: implications for training cancer epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Margaret R; Lam, Tram Kim; Schully, Sheri D; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-11-15

    There is expanding consensus on the need to modernize the training of cancer epidemiologists to accommodate rapidly emerging technological advancements and the digital age, which are transforming the practice of cancer epidemiology. There is also a growing imperative to extend cancer epidemiology research that is etiological to that which is applied and has the potential to affect individual and public health. Medical schools and schools of public health are recognizing the need to develop such integrated programs; however, we lack the data to estimate how many current training programs are effectively equipping epidemiology students with the knowledge and tools to design, conduct, and analyze these increasingly complex studies. There is also a need to develop new mentoring approaches to account for the transdisciplinary team-science environment that now prevails. With increased dialogue among schools of public health, medical schools, and cancer centers, revised competencies and training programs at predoctoral, doctoral, and postdoctoral levels must be developed. Continuous collection of data on the impact and outcomes of such programs is also recommended.

  12. Training and calibration of interviewers for oral health literacy using the BREALD-30 in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Vilella, Karina Duarte; Assunção, Luciana Reichert da Silva; Junkes, Mônica Carmem; Menezes, José Vitor Nogara Borges de; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Ferreira, Fernanda de Morais

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe an interviewer training and calibration method to evaluate oral health literacy using the Brazilian Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30) in epidemiological studies. An experienced researcher (gold standard) conducted all training sessions. The interviewer training and calibration sessions included three different phases: theoretical training, practical training, and calibration. In the calibration phase, six interviewers (dentists) independently assessed 15 videos of individuals who had different levels of oral health literacy. Accuracy and reproducibility were evaluated using the kappa coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The percentage of agreement for each word in the instrument was also calculated. After training, the kappa values were higher than 0.911 and 0.893 for intra- and inter-rater agreement, respectively. When the results were analyzed separately for the different levels of literacy, the lowest agreement rate was found when evaluating the videos of individuals with low literacy (K = 0.871), but still within the range considered to be near-perfect agreement. The ICC values were higher than 0.990 and 0.975 for intra- and inter-rater agreement, respectively. The lowest percentage of agreement was 86.6% for the word "hipoplasia" (hypoplasia). This interviewer training and calibration method proved to be feasible and effective. Therefore, it can be used as a methodological tool in studies assessing oral health literacy using the BREALD-30. PMID:27556679

  13. Improving epidemiologic surveillance and health promoter training in rural Latin America through information and communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Andrés; López, Diego M; Sáez, Alberto; Seoane, Joaquín; Rendón, Alvaro; Shoemaker, Richard; Fernández, Ignacio

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents two technological developments oriented to increase the efficiency of the epidemiologic surveillance system and to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of the rural establishments with only e-mail connectivity through wireless systems. The Telematics Department of the University of Cauca has developed a computerized epidemiologic surveillance system for the collecting, sending, processing, visualization, and feedback of epidemiologic information at national level. The use of the system in a pilot area has solved the problems of subregister, increasing the volume of data collection in 15%. The complete epidemiologic system is currently being implemented in 22 health care establishments in the Department of Cauca in Colombia. Likewise, the Technical University and Carlos III University of Madrid have developed a distance training system with a high-usability interface both for students and teachers. The system includes authoring, distribution, tracking, and visualization of courses synchronized through electronic mail messages in a clear way for the user. Both systems use a creative combination of e-mail and XML (eXtensible Markup Language)-based technologies, ready to be used through slow, intermittent, and asynchronous communication systems.

  14. The role of veterinary epidemiology in combating infectious animal diseases on a global scale: the impact of training and outreach programs.

    PubMed

    Salman, M D

    2009-12-01

    The effectiveness of detection and control of highly contagious animal diseases is dependent on a solid understanding of their nature and implementation of scientifically sound methods by people who are well trained. The implementation of specific detection methods and tools requires training and application in natural as well as field conditions. The aim of this paper is to present the design and implementation of training in disease investigation and basic veterinary epidemiology in selected countries using the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 Asia strain as a disease detection model. Indonesia, Egypt, Nigeria, Turkey, and Vietnam were each identified as either a priority country where AI was spreading rapidly or a country at risk for infection. In each of these countries, a training program on epidemiological concepts, field investigation methodology, and detection of H5N1 Asia strain cases was conducted. This report includes the impact of these training sessions on national animal health programs, including follow-up activities of animal health officers who went through these training sessions.

  15. Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Heath, C W

    1983-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY. PMID:6825633

  16. Selected epidemiological aspects of fresh whole blood application in the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Adam; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Lass, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Minimisation of blood transmitted diseases is a basic element of all blood transfusion strategies. Civilian health service standards used in peacetime may be difficult to implement in a battlefield. The risk of blood-borne diseases depends on the applied donor qualification procedures and the epidemiological situation in the areas of military operations. The authors discuss various epidemiological aspects considered when selecting potential donors of fresh whole blood for a Walking Blood Bank at the Polish Field Hospital in Afghanistan.

  17. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis at a swimming club--can rapid field epidemiology limit the spread of illness?

    PubMed

    McCann, R; Jones, R; Snow, J; Cleary, P; Burgess, S; Bothra, V; Chalmers, R M

    2014-01-01

    In September 2010, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis affected members of a swimming club. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the number affected and risk factors for infection. Of 101 respondents, 48 met the case definition for probable cryptosporidiosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a strong and highly significant association between illness and attendance at a training session on 13 September 2010 (adjusted odds ratio 28, P < 0.0001). No faecal incidents were reported and pool monitoring parameters were satisfactory. The competitive nature of club swimming requires frequent training and participation in galas, potentially facilitating contamination into other pools and amplification of outbreaks among wider groups of swimmers. There was a lack of awareness of the 2-week exclusion rule among swimmers and coaches, and a high level of underreporting of illness. The study demonstrates the benefits of rapid field epidemiology in identifying the true burden of illness, the source of infection and limiting spread.

  18. Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

  19. Corporate U. Takes the Job Training Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Discusses corporations such as Sears, Motorola, Saturn, and Intel that have created their own corporate universities to train and retrain their workers. Highlights Motorola, the largest of the corporate universities. (JOW)

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Theileria parva in the field.

    PubMed

    Geysen, D; Bishop, R; Skilton, R; Dolan, T T; Morzaria, S

    1999-09-01

    Molecular tools based on seminested RFLP-PCR techniques to characterize field parasites in bloodspots dried on filter paper permitted investigation of the extent and the dynamics of diversity of Theileria parva populations in the field. Parallel molecular studies explored the long-term genome stability of various isolates by probing Southern blots of EcoRI digested total genomic DNA with four different reference nucleic acid probes. Three polymorphic single copy loci encoding for antigen genes were developed for seminested PCR detection in order to apply them for a multilocus approach in population genetic studies. Seven alleles were identified for the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) locus by using restriction enzymes, and 4 alleles each for the p150 and p104 loci. A simple DNA extraction method gave good results in amplifying these loci from carrier animals using samples of blood dried on filter papers. Results from probing Southern blots of cultures taken at sequential timepoints indicate relative genome stability in T. parva in comparison to other parasitic protozoa such as Plasmodium. Comparatively homogeneous profiles in sympatric isolates from Zambia were identified using all four probes and PCR amplified products which contrasted with the variety found amongst Kenyan stocks. Preliminary characterization of T. parva field samples from the Southern Province of Zambia strongly suggest clonal expansion of one of the components of a non-Zambian trivalent vaccine used on a limited scale in the Province from 1985 until 1992. PMID:10540308

  1. NAGT-USGS Cooperative Summer Field Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Thomas E.; Hanshaw, Penelope M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the National Association of Geology Teachers and the United States Geological Survey's Cooperative Summer Field Training Program. Reviews its origins, eligibility requirements, nomination and selection criteria, and includes summaries of participant evaluation of the 1985 program. (ML)

  2. Epidemic intelligence service of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 50 years of training and service in applied epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Thacker, S B; Dannenberg, A L; Hamilton, D H

    2001-12-01

    The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) was established in 1951 at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, as a combined training and service program in the practice of applied epidemiology. Since then, nearly 2,500 professionals have served in this 2-year program of the US Public Health Service. The experience of an EIS Officer has been modified because of the increased need for more sophisticated analytical methods and the use of microcomputers, as well as CDC's expanded mission into chronic diseases, environmental health, occupational health, and injury control. Officers who have entered the EIS in the past 20 years are more likely than their predecessors to stay in public health either at the federal level or in state and local health departments. The EIS Program continues to be a critical source for health professionals trained to respond to the demand for epidemiologic services both domestically and internationally.

  3. Introductory Epidemiology. An Instructor Resource Guide. Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Stephen H.; Myer, Donna Foster

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with teaching a course in introductory epidemiology. Covered in the first section of the guide are the role of epidemiology in rural health promotional training, general…

  4. [Significance of field epidemiologic study to identification of chronic arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Qin; Jin, Yin-Long

    2005-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning has serious and extensive impact on human health, which attracts wide attention worldwide. Bases on vast public survey, this article introduces recent field studies on chronic arsenic poisoning from three aspects: exposure history, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences, and also explains the meaning of each index to the determination of chronic arsenic poisoning, then bring forward some considerations on further epidemiological studies on chronic arsenic poisoning. PMID:16329618

  5. [Significance of field epidemiologic study to identification of chronic arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Qin; Jin, Yin-Long

    2005-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning has serious and extensive impact on human health, which attracts wide attention worldwide. Bases on vast public survey, this article introduces recent field studies on chronic arsenic poisoning from three aspects: exposure history, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences, and also explains the meaning of each index to the determination of chronic arsenic poisoning, then bring forward some considerations on further epidemiological studies on chronic arsenic poisoning.

  6. Computer Based Training: Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronaut training has traditionally been conducted at specific sites with specialized facilities. Because of its size and nature the training equipment is generally not portable. Efforts are now under way to develop training tools that can be taken to remote locations, including into orbit. Two of these efforts are the Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality projects. Field Deployable Trainer NASA has used the recent shuttle mission by astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian space station, Mir, as an opportunity to develop and test a prototype of an on-orbit computer training system. A laptop computer with a customized user interface, a set of specially prepared CD's, and video tapes were taken to the Mir by Ms. Lucid. Based upon the feedback following the launch of the Lucid flight, our team prepared materials for the next Mir visitor. Astronaut John Blaha will fly on NASA/MIR Long Duration Mission 3, set to launch in mid September. He will take with him a customized hard disk drive and a package of compact disks containing training videos, references and maps. The FDT team continues to explore and develop new and innovative ways to conduct offsite astronaut training using personal computers. Shared Virtual Reality Training NASA's Space Flight Training Division has been investigating the use of virtual reality environments for astronaut training. Recent efforts have focused on activities requiring interaction by two or more people, called shared VR. Dr. Bowen Loftin, from the University of Houston, directs a virtual reality laboratory that conducts much of the NASA sponsored research. I worked on a project involving the development of a virtual environment that can be used to train astronauts and others to operate a science unit called a Biological Technology Facility (BTF). Facilities like this will be used to house and control microgravity experiments on the space station. It is hoped that astronauts and instructors will ultimately be able to share

  7. Field Relations in Educational Administration Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daresh, John C.; LaPlant, James C.

    In response to ongoing needs for improved preservice field experiences for prospective administrators, more stringent state certification standards, and technical support for practitioners, mutually beneficial alliances are being formed between universities and local schools. This paper describes part of a continuing University Council for…

  8. Epidemiologic Issues in Audiology: Impact on Professional Training and Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Thomas H.

    1997-01-01

    The benefits and disadvantages in conducting universal infant hearing screening and in the transition of audiology from a master's to a doctoral level profession are discussed from an epidemiological point of view. Epidemiologic strategies which may inform decision making in these two important and controversial areas are presented. (Author/CR)

  9. Land Application Training Center - A Field Based Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Jonathan; Lindbo, David L.; McLaughlin, Rich

    2015-04-01

    More and more professionals have to be licensed or certified to perform activities related to soil and the environment. Many certification programs have been solely based on classroom instruction with no field experience. We saw this as a gap in training that could lead to problems with implementation and job performance. As a result we developed a field based training center to assist with both certification training and continuing education of environmental professionals. The center broke ground in 1997 and has expanded over the years to include soils and waste application, wetland restoration, and sediment and erosion control demonstrations. This presentation describes the individual components and outlines the courses offered at the training center.

  10. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures.

    PubMed

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed.

  11. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures.

    PubMed

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed. PMID:22818862

  12. Status of epidemiology in the WHO South-East Asia region: burden of disease, determinants of health and epidemiological research, workforce and training capacity

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Preet K; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Arora, Narendra K; Mathur, Prashant; Maskey, Mahesh; Sukirna, Ratna Djuwita; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2012-01-01

    Background The South-East Asia region (SEAR) accounts for one-quarter of the world's population, 40% of the global poor and ∼30% of the global disease burden, with a disproportionately large share of tuberculosis (35%), injuries (30%), maternal (33%) and <5-year-old mortality (30%). In this article, we describe the disease burden and status of epidemiological research and capacity in the SEAR to understand, analyse and develop capacity in response to the diverse burdens of diseases in the region. Methods Data on morbidity, mortality, risk factors, social determinants, research capacity, health education, workforce and systems in the SEAR were obtained using global data on burden of disease, peer-reviewed journals, World Health Organization (WHO) technical and advisory reports, and where available, validated country reports and key informants from the region. Results SEAR countries are afflicted with a triple burden of disease—infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases and injuries. Of the seven WHO regions, SEAR countries account for the highest proportion of global mortality (26%) and due to relatively younger ages at death, the second highest percentage of total years of life lost (30%). The SEAR exceeds the global average annual mortality rate for all three broad cause groupings—communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (334 vs 230 per 100 000); non-communicable diseases (676 vs 573 per 100 000); and injuries (101 vs 78 per 100 000). Poverty, education and other social determinants of health are strongly linked to inequities in health among SEAR countries and within socio-economic subgroups. India, Thailand and Bangladesh produce two-thirds of epidemiology publications in the region. Significant efforts to increase health workforce capacity, research and training have been undertaken in the region, yet considerable heterogeneity in resources and capacity remains. Conclusions Health systems, statistics and surveillance

  13. Out-of-School Field on Hunt for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    As out-of-school programs--and the expectations for them--grow, the field is struggling to identify the kind of training staff members need to meet those expectations. A variety of efforts have sprung up across the country to define and improve the quality of after-school staff, some of which bear resemblance to the quest to improve the…

  14. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Graham, PL; Poulos, RG

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  15. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lystad, R P; Graham, P L; Poulos, R G

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo.

  16. Putting Life into Computer-Based Training: The Creation of an Epidemiologic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathany, Nancy C.; Stehr-Green, Jeanette K.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the design of "Pharyngitis in Louisiana," a computer-based epidemiologic case study that was created to teach students how to conduct disease outbreak investigations. Topics discussed include realistic content portrayals; graphics; interactive teaching methods; interaction between the instructional designer and the medical expert; and…

  17. Collaborative field research and training in occupational health and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1998-01-01

    Networking collaborative research and training in Asian developing countries includes three types of joint activities: field studies of workplace potentials for better safety and health, intensive action training for improvement of working conditions in small enterprises, and action-oriented workshops on low-cost improvements for managers, workers, and farmers. These activities were aimed at identifying workable strategies for making locally adjusted improvements in occupational health and ergonomics. Many improvements have resulted as direct outcomes. Most these improvements were multifaceted, low-cost, and practicable using local skills. Three common features of these interactive processes seem important in facilitating realistic improvements: 1) voluntary approaches building on local achievements; 2) the use of practical methods for identifying multiple improvements; and 3) participatory steps for achieving low-cost results first. The effective use of group work tools is crucial. Stepwise training packages have thus proven useful for promoting local problem-solving interventions based on voluntary initiatives.

  18. Design and implementation of epidemiological field investigation method based on mobile collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Dongchuan; Huang, Mingxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Fang, Liqun; Cao, Wuchun

    2008-10-01

    With the development of mobile technologies and the integration with the spatial information technologies, it becomes possible to provide a potential to develop new techno-support solutions to Epidemiological Field Investigation especially for the disposal of emergent public health events. Based on mobile technologies and virtual geographic environment, the authors have designed a model for collaborative work in four communication patterns, namely, S2S (Static to Static), M2S (Mobile to Static), S2M (Static to Mobile), and M2M (Mobile to Mobile). Based on the model mentioned above, this paper stresses to explore mobile online mapping regarding mobile collaboration and conducts an experimental case study of HFRS (Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome) fieldwork, and then develops a prototype system of emergent response disposition information system to test the effectiveness and usefulness of field survey based on mobile collaboration.

  19. Future needs of occupational epidemiology of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kheifets, L; Bowman, J D; Checkoway, H; Feychting, M; Harrington, J M; Kavet, R; Marsh, G; Mezei, G; Renew, D C; van Wijngaarden, E

    2009-02-01

    The occupational epidemiological literature on extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and health encompasses a large number of studies of varying design and quality that have addressed many health outcomes, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, depression and suicide, and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). At a 2006 workshop we reviewed studies of occupational EMF exposure with an emphasis on methodological weaknesses, and proposed analytical ways to address some of these. We also developed research priorities that we hope will address remaining uncertainties. Broadly speaking, extensive epidemiological research conducted during the past 20 years on occupational EMF exposure does not indicate strong or consistent associations with cancer or any other health outcomes. Inconsistent results for many of the outcomes may be attributable to numerous shortcomings in the studies, most notably in exposure assessment. There is, however, no obvious correlation between exposure assessment quality and observed associations. Nevertheless, for future research, the highest priorities emerge in both the areas of exposure assessment and investigation of ALS. To better assess exposure, we call for the development of a more complete job-exposure matrix that combines job title, work environment and task, and an index of exposure to electric fields, magnetic fields, spark discharge, contact current, and other chemical and physical agents. For ALS, we propose an international collaborative study capable of illuminating a reported association with electrical occupations by disentangling the potential roles of electric shocks, magnetic fields and bias. Such a study will potentially lead to evidence-based measures to protect public health.

  20. Molecular Pathologic Epidemiology of Colorectal Neoplasia: An Emerging Transdisciplinary and Interdisciplinary Field

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a complex disease resulting from somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations, including locus-specific CpG island methylation and global DNA or LINE-1 hypomethylation. Global molecular characteristics such as microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), global DNA hypomethylation, and chromosomal instability cause alterations of gene function in a genome-wide scale. Activation of oncogenes including KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA affects intracellular signaling pathways and has been associated with CIMP and MSI. Traditional epidemiology research has investigated various factors in relation to an overall risk of colon and/or rectal cancer. However, colorectal cancers comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases with different sets of genetic and epigenetic alterations. To better understand how a particular exposure influences the carcinogenic process, somatic molecular changes and tumor biomarkers have been studied in relation to the exposure of interest. Moreover, an investigation of interactive effects of tumor molecular changes and the exposures of interest on tumor behavior (prognosis or clinical outcome) can lead to a better understanding of tumor molecular changes, which may be prognostic or predictive tissue biomarkers. These new research efforts represent “Molecular Pathologic Epidemiology”, which is a multidisciplinary field of investigations of the interrelationship between exogenous and endogenous (e.g., genetic) factors, tumoral molecular signatures and tumor progression. Furthermore, integrating genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with molecular pathologic investigation is a promising area. Examining the relationship between susceptibility alleles identified by GWAS and specific molecular alterations can help elucidate the function of these alleles and provide insights into whether susceptibility alleles are truly causal. Although there are challenges, molecular pathologic epidemiology has unique strengths

  1. Development and Evaluation for Active Learning Instructional Design of Epidemiology in Nursing Informatics Field.

    PubMed

    Majima, Yukie

    2016-01-01

    Nursing education classes are classifiable into three types: lectures, classroom practice, and clinical practice. In this study, we implemented a class that incorporated elements of active learning, including clickers, minutes papers, quizzes, and group work and presentation, in the subject of "epidemiology", which is often positioned in the field of nursing informatics and which is usually taught in conventional knowledge-transmission style lectures, to help students understand knowledge and achieve seven class goals. Results revealed that the average scores of the class achievement (five levels of evaluation) were 3.6-3.9, which was good overall. The highest average score of the evaluation of teaching materials by students (five levels of evaluation) was 4.6 for quizzes, followed by 4.2 for announcement of test statistics, 4.1 for clickers, and 4.0 for news presentation related to epidemiology. We regard these as useful tools for students to increase their motivation. One problem with the class was that it took time to organize the class: creation of tests, class preparation and marking, such as things to be returned and distribution of clickers, and writing comments on small papers. PMID:27332214

  2. Epidemiological typing of Flavimonas oryzihabitans by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, P Y; Shi, Z Y; Lau, Y J; Hu, B S; Shyr, J M; Tsai, W S; Lin, Y H; Tseng, C Y

    1996-01-01

    Flavimonas oryzihabitans has emerged as a potential nosocomial pathogen in recent years. The typing method for characterization of this species has never been reported before. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based PCR were used to generate DNA fingerprints for 14F. oryzihabitans isolates obtained from eight episodes of nosocomial infections during a 2-year period. Both techniques successfully classified these clinical isolates into eight distinct genotypes, thus indicating that all of these episodes of infections were independent. In contrast, repeated isolates from the same patient were assigned to identical genotypes. The reproducibility of both techniques was good. Therefore, we conclude that both PFGE and ERIC-PCR have comparable reproducible and discriminatory powers for the typing of F. oryzihabitans and may be useful for clarifying the epidemiology of this species; however, ERIC-PCR has the advantages of both speed and simplicity.

  3. Epidemiological typing of Flavimonas oryzihabitans by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, P Y; Shi, Z Y; Lau, Y J; Hu, B S; Shyr, J M; Tsai, W S; Lin, Y H; Tseng, C Y

    1996-01-01

    Flavimonas oryzihabitans has emerged as a potential nosocomial pathogen in recent years. The typing method for characterization of this species has never been reported before. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based PCR were used to generate DNA fingerprints for 14F. oryzihabitans isolates obtained from eight episodes of nosocomial infections during a 2-year period. Both techniques successfully classified these clinical isolates into eight distinct genotypes, thus indicating that all of these episodes of infections were independent. In contrast, repeated isolates from the same patient were assigned to identical genotypes. The reproducibility of both techniques was good. Therefore, we conclude that both PFGE and ERIC-PCR have comparable reproducible and discriminatory powers for the typing of F. oryzihabitans and may be useful for clarifying the epidemiology of this species; however, ERIC-PCR has the advantages of both speed and simplicity. PMID:8748275

  4. Epidemiologic studies of electric and magnetic fields and cancer: Strategies for extending knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.

    1993-12-01

    Epidemiologic research concerning electric and magnetic fields in relation to cancer has focused on the potential etiologic roles of residential exposure on childhood cancer and occupational exposure on adult leukemia and brain cancer. Future residential studies must concentrate on exposure assessment that is enhanced by developing models of historical exposure, assessment of the relation between magnetic fields and wire codes, and consideration of alternate exposure indices. Study design issues deserving attention include possible biases in random digit dialing control selection, consideration of the temporal course of exposure and disease, and acquisition of the necessary information to assess the potential value of ecologic studies. Highest priorities are comprehensive evaluation of exposure patterns and sources and examination of the sociology and geography of residential wire codes. Future occupational studies should also concentrate on improved exposure assessment with increased attention to nonutility worker populations and development of historical exposure indicators that are superior to job titles alone. Potential carcinogens in the workplace that could act as confounders need to be more carefully examined. The temporal relation between exposure and disease and possible effect modification by other workplace agents should be incorporated into future studies. The most pressing need is for measurement of exposure patterns in a variety of worker populations and performance of traditional epidemiologic evaluations of cancer occurrence. The principal source of bias toward the null is nondifferential misclassification of exposure with improvements expected to enhance any true etiologic association that is present. Biases away from the null might include biased control selection in residential studies and chemical carcinogens acting as confounders in occupational studies. 51 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Human adverse reproductive outcomes and electromagnetic field exposures: review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, G M; Croen, L A

    1993-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding a relation between residential and occupational electromagnetic (EM) field exposures and adverse reproductive effects. This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this possible relation, including some pertinent methodologic issues, notes relevant findings from the experimental literature, and discusses areas for future research. Evidence is lacking for a strong association between a woman's use of a video display terminal (VDT) during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. The evidence for a strong association between a women's use of a VDT and other adverse reproductive endpoints is also lacking, with some suggestive findings for congenital malformations and too few data to reach a conclusion about other endpoints. With respect to low-level EM field exposures other than VDTs, the paucity of data prevents one from determining whether there are reproductive health risks associated with such exposures. Therefore, this is an area that needs further investigation. Given that altered growth may be an underlying biologic effect of EM field exposures, endpoints that might be pursued in future studies include congenital malformations not associated with chromosomal anomalies, intrauterine growth retardation, and chromosomally normal spontaneous abortions. PMID:8206019

  6. Waveform magnetic field survey in Russian DC and Swiss AC powered trains: a basis for biologically relevant exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Ptitsyna, N G; Kopytenko, Y A; Villoresi, G; Pfluger, D H; Ismaguilov, V; Iucci, N; Kopytenko, E A; Zaitzev, D B; Voronov, P M; Tyasto, M I

    2003-12-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a link between transport magnetic fields (MF) and certain adverse health effects. We performed measurements in workplaces of engineers on Russian DC and Swiss AC powered (16.67 Hz) electric trains using a computer based waveform capture system with a 200 Hz sampling rate. MF in DC and AC trains show complex combinations of static and varying components. The most probable levels of quasistatic MF (0.001-0.03 Hz) were in the range 40 microT. Maximum levels of 120 microT were found in DC powered locomotives. These levels are much higher than the geomagnetic field at the site of measurements. MF encountered both in DC and AC powered rail systems showed irregular temporal variability in frequency composition and amplitude characteristics across the whole frequency range studied (0-50 Hz); however, more than 90% of the magnetic field power was concentrated in frequencies field intensity of about 44 microT; moreover, a significant contribution (about 15%) is due to components below the fundamental frequency. In Russian DC powered trains amplitudes of field variations sharply decrease from static to approximately 3-4 Hz fields; for higher frequencies a tendency of slow decrease is observed up to 50 Hz. For frequencies higher than 1 Hz average amplitudes of magnetic field variations are less than 1 microT; maximum levels reach tens of microtesla. At frequencies lower than 15 Hz, the average magnetic field generated by Swiss AC powered locomotives was approximately 10 times greater than fields observed in Russian DC powered trains.

  7. Toward better research practice--shortcomings decreasing the significance of epidemiological studies in the toxicological field.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Baron, Monika; Schäper, Michael; van Thriel, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Neurobehavioral studies do not always gain the impact they should have, neither in the scientific nor in the regulatory field of neurotoxicology. Among others, shortcomings and inconsistencies across epidemiological studies may contribute to this situation. Examples were compiled to increase awareness of obstacles for conclusions. Meta-analyses were exploited since they sometimes allow the detection of deficits that are not obvious from individual studies. Exposure assessment, performance measures, and confounding were scrutinized among 98 primary studies included in meta-analyses on mercury, solvents, manganese and pesticides. Inconsistent and hardly comparable markers of exposure were found; figures, units or sampling periods were not always provided. The contribution of test materials to differences in test outcomes across studies could sometimes not be evaluated due to the insufficient description of the employed tests. Hypotheses for the selection of performance variables often remained undisclosed. Matching procedures prevailed with respect to the confounder age; the comparability of groups with respect to intelligence and gender remained more elusive. 8% and 16% of the studies did not even mention confounding from intelligence and gender, respectively. Only one third of the studies provided adjusted means for group comparisons; the proportion was slightly larger for studies published 2000-2010. While 50% of the studies considered confounders for their dose-response assessment, only 29% reported results for the total of test variables. The outlined deficits impede, among others, the assessment of exposure-effect relationships and confounding across studies; thereby they limit the use of the studies for toxicological risk assessment and future prevention. Some shortcomings also impede a deeper insight into the mechanisms of toxicity: tests like the Digit Symbol show that something is affected, but not what is affected. Thorough description of measures employed

  8. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  9. Epidemiology and Herd Health Training in the School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, L. F.; Hagstad, H. V.

    1978-01-01

    At Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, training in preventive medicine is incorporated into all four years of the curriculum. The curriculum is described with focus on the fourth year practical course that involves problem solving, using various herds in the area. (JMD)

  10. [New approaches to visual rehabilitation training for patients with visual field defects].

    PubMed

    Li, Mengwei; Zhu, Wenqing; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-07-01

    In clinical practice, maculopathy and neurological eye disorders often cause visual field defects. Once the defects are formed, treatment and rehabilitation are confronted with the bottleneck due to irreversibility. With the transformation of medical patterns and people's higher needs for rehabilitation, new approaches to visual training for these diseases with visual field defects are emerging. Currently, visual rehabilitation training for patients with visual field defects focuses on two directions: central visual field defects and hemianopia / peripheral visual field defects. Patients' fine vision is mainly affected by central visual field defects, the rehabilitation training for which can be divided into eccentric viewing training, eye movement training and perceptual learning training. Patients' visual exploration, orientation, walking and reading are largely influenced by hemianopia and peripheral visual field defects, the rehabilitation training for which can be separated into visual restoration strategy and eye movement compensatory strategy. PMID:26310260

  11. [New approaches to visual rehabilitation training for patients with visual field defects].

    PubMed

    Li, Mengwei; Zhu, Wenqing; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-07-01

    In clinical practice, maculopathy and neurological eye disorders often cause visual field defects. Once the defects are formed, treatment and rehabilitation are confronted with the bottleneck due to irreversibility. With the transformation of medical patterns and people's higher needs for rehabilitation, new approaches to visual training for these diseases with visual field defects are emerging. Currently, visual rehabilitation training for patients with visual field defects focuses on two directions: central visual field defects and hemianopia / peripheral visual field defects. Patients' fine vision is mainly affected by central visual field defects, the rehabilitation training for which can be divided into eccentric viewing training, eye movement training and perceptual learning training. Patients' visual exploration, orientation, walking and reading are largely influenced by hemianopia and peripheral visual field defects, the rehabilitation training for which can be separated into visual restoration strategy and eye movement compensatory strategy.

  12. Problems and priorities in epidemiologic research on human health effects related to wiring code and electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, J

    1993-01-01

    Because of a reported excess of cancers among children living near power lines, there is some concern that electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) induced by electric power sources may affect human health, and this possibility has provoked considerable controversy. The scientific question of whether there are such health effects is far from resolved. Building upon a set of detailed reviews of the available evidence, this paper proposes research priorities and places particular emphasis on epidemiologic research. The most pressing need is to verify the validity of the claim that childhood cancer risk is affected by the type of wiring code in the vicinity of the household. More useful work can be done to verify this in the areas in which such studies have already been carried out, and additional studies should be done elsewhere. Methodological investigation of the interrelationships among different measures and proxies for EMF is needed, and this could feed back to influence the type of EMF measures used in epidemiologic studies. Studies of cancer among adults in relation to EMFs in the work place are needed. Of lower priority are studies of adverse reproductive outcomes in relation to parental EMF exposure and studies of the neurobehavioral impact of chronic EMF exposure. This article also discusses the structural impediments of conducting environmental epidemiology research and argues that bold, large-scale epidemiologic monitoring systems are needed. There is a discussion of the interface between epidemiology and public policy in a topic area as controversial as EMFs. PMID:8206022

  13. Overview of epidemiologic research on electric and magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A. )

    1993-04-01

    This overview of epidemiologic research addresses the potential role of 60 Hertz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in the etiology of cancer. The key findings are summarized with notation of the methodological challenges with which investigators must content. Although exposure is ubiquitous, long-term average EMF is influenced primarily by the background levels in homes, use of selected electric appliances such as electric blankets, and workplace exposures to energized equipment. Studies of residential exposure have focused on childhood cancer, starting with the report of an excess of wire configurations associated with elevated magnetic fields near the homes of children who developed cancer compared to healthy children. Several subsequent studies have tended to confirm that association, although the evidence falls short of demonstrating a causal association between magnetic fields and cancer. Exposures from electric appliances have been less extensively pursued, with some suggestions of an association with childhood cancer. A more extensive literature has evaluated the association between workplace exposure to EMF, based on job titles of electrical workers and cancer. Across many different study designs and settings, certain groups of electrical workers show elevated occurrence of leukemia and brain cancer. The consistency of findings is notable, but the key question is whether the association with job title is due to EMF or some other agent in the workplace. Future research would benefit from specification of testable challenges to a causal association between EMF exposure in the home or workplace and cancer, along with continued efforts to improve our understanding and measurement of EMF exposure. 64 refs.

  14. What's so different about big data?. A primer for clinicians trained to think epidemiologically.

    PubMed

    Iwashyna, Theodore J; Liu, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    The Big Data movement in computer science has brought dramatic changes in what counts as data, how those data are analyzed, and what can be done with those data. Although increasingly pervasive in the business world, it has only recently begun to influence clinical research and practice. As Big Data draws from different intellectual traditions than clinical epidemiology, the ideas may be less familiar to practicing clinicians. There is an increasing role of Big Data in health care, and it has tremendous potential. This Demystifying Data Seminar identifies four main strands in Big Data relevant to health care. The first is the inclusion of many new kinds of data elements into clinical research and operations, in a volume not previously routinely used. Second, Big Data asks different kinds of questions of data and emphasizes the usefulness of analyses that are explicitly associational but not causal. Third, Big Data brings new analytic approaches to bear on these questions. And fourth, Big Data embodies a new set of aspirations for a breaking down of distinctions between research data and operational data and their merging into a continuously learning health system.

  15. What's so different about big data?. A primer for clinicians trained to think epidemiologically.

    PubMed

    Iwashyna, Theodore J; Liu, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    The Big Data movement in computer science has brought dramatic changes in what counts as data, how those data are analyzed, and what can be done with those data. Although increasingly pervasive in the business world, it has only recently begun to influence clinical research and practice. As Big Data draws from different intellectual traditions than clinical epidemiology, the ideas may be less familiar to practicing clinicians. There is an increasing role of Big Data in health care, and it has tremendous potential. This Demystifying Data Seminar identifies four main strands in Big Data relevant to health care. The first is the inclusion of many new kinds of data elements into clinical research and operations, in a volume not previously routinely used. Second, Big Data asks different kinds of questions of data and emphasizes the usefulness of analyses that are explicitly associational but not causal. Third, Big Data brings new analytic approaches to bear on these questions. And fourth, Big Data embodies a new set of aspirations for a breaking down of distinctions between research data and operational data and their merging into a continuously learning health system. PMID:25102315

  16. Field epidemiology of an outbreak of dengue fever in Charters Towers, Queensland: are insect screens protective?

    PubMed

    Murray-Smith, S; Weinstein, P; Skelly, C

    1996-10-01

    Between March and July 1993 a dengue virus epidemic swept through Charters Towers, a rural North Queensland mining community of 10,000. This clearly delineated outbreak provided an ideal opportunity to carry out one of the few field epidemiological studies of dengue in Australia. The epicurve was consistent with that of a point source outbreak, 18 weeks in duration and peaking at four weeks. A basic reproduction number for the dengue epidemic of 1.99 indicates a similar rate of spread to that found in dengue epidemics overseas. A female-to-male sex ratio of 1.7:1 was obtained for the 238 cases identified. An age- and sex-matched retrospective case-control study showed that cases were significantly more likely to live in unscreened houses than were controls (McNemar chi 2 = 56.1 df, P < 0.0001). Despite being generally accepted, an association between insect screens and a reduced incidence of mosquito-borne diseases has not previously been demonstrated in Australia. We speculate that unscreened housing facilitates the initial spread of a dengue epidemic.

  17. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    PubMed

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Magnetic fields and childhood cancer: an epidemiological investigation of the effects of high-voltage underground cables.

    PubMed

    Bunch, K J; Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence of increased risks for childhood leukaemia from magnetic fields has implicated, as one source of such fields, high-voltage overhead lines. Magnetic fields are not the only factor that varies in their vicinity, complicating interpretation of any associations. Underground cables (UGCs), however, produce magnetic fields but have no other discernible effects in their vicinity. We report here the largest ever epidemiological study of high voltage UGCs, based on 52,525 cases occurring from 1962-2008, with matched birth controls. We calculated the distance of the mother's address at child's birth to the closest 275 or 400 kV ac or high-voltage dc UGC in England and Wales and the resulting magnetic fields. Few people are exposed to magnetic fields from UGCs limiting the statistical power. We found no indications of an association of risk with distance or of trend in risk with increasing magnetic field for leukaemia, and no convincing pattern of risks for any other cancer. Trend estimates for leukaemia as shown by the odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval) per unit increase in exposure were: reciprocal of distance 0.99 (0.95-1.03), magnetic field 1.01 (0.76-1.33). The absence of risk detected in relation to UGCs tends to add to the argument that any risks from overhead lines may not be caused by magnetic fields.

  19. An Internal Evaluation of a Field-Based Training Component for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Joseph W.

    Project ROME-FOCUS (Field-Oriented Competency Utilization System), a competency-based, field-oriented, training program for school administrators was field tested at Valdosta State College, Valdosta, Georgia, January - May, 1976. An internal evaluation conducted by the instructional staff suggested that principals preferred ROME-FOCUS training to…

  20. Competency in health care management: a training model in epidemiologic methods for assessing and improving the quality of clinical practice through evidence-based decision making.

    PubMed

    Hudak, R P; Jacoby, I; Meyer, G S; Potter, A L; Hooper, T I; Krakauer, H

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a training model that focuses on health care management by applying epidemiologic methods to assess and improve the quality of clinical practice. The model's uniqueness is its focus on integrating clinical evidence-based decision making with fundamental principles of resource management to achieve attainable, cost-effective, high-quality health outcomes. The target students are current and prospective clinical and administrative executives who must optimize decision making at the clinical and managerial levels of health care organizations.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in 100 Patients With Tuberculosis Using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Pooideh, Mohammad; Jabbarzadeh, Ismail; Ranjbar, Reza; Saifi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a widespread infectious disease. Today, TB has created a public health crisis in the world. Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is useful for surveying the dynamics of TB infection, identifying new outbreaks, and preventing the disease. Different molecular methods for clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates have been used. Objectives: During a one year study of genotyping, 100 M. tuberculosis isolates from patients referred to Pasteur Institute of Iran were collected and their genotyping was accomplished using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Materials and Methods: Identification of all M. tuberculosis isolates was accomplished using standard biochemical and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using proportional method. After preparing PFGE plaques for each isolate of M. tuberculosis, XbaI restriction enzyme was applied for genome digestion. Finally, the digested DNA fragments were separated on 1% agarose gel and analyzed with GelCompar II software. Results: Genotyping of the studied isolates in comparison with the molecular weight marker revealed two common types; pulsotype A with 71 isolates and one multidrug resistant mycobacterium (MDR) case, and pulsotype B including 29 isolates and three MDR cases. No correlation between the antibiotypes and pulsotypes was observed. Conclusions: Molecular epidemiology studies of infectious diseases have been useful when bacterial isolates have been clustered in a period of time and in different geographical regions with variable antibiotic resistance patterns. In spite of high geographical differences and different antibiotic resistant patterns, low genetic diversity among the studied TB isolates may refer to the low rate of mutations in XbaI restriction sites in the mycobacterial genome. We also identified three MDR isolates in low-incidence pulsotype B, which could be disseminated and is highly

  2. CIP Training Manual: Collaborative Information Portal Advance Training Information for Field Test Participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, John; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Collaborative Information Portal (CIP) is a web-based information management and retrieval system. Its purpose is to provide users at MER (Mars Exploration Rover) mission operations with easy access to a broad range of mission data and products and contextual information such as the current operations schedule. The CIP web-server provides this content in a user customizable web-portal environment. Since CIP is still under development, only a subset of the full feature set will be available for the EDO field test. The CIP web-portal will be accessed through a standard web browser. CIP is intended to be intuitive and simple to use, however, at the training session, users will receive a one to two page reference guide, which should aid them in using CIP. Users must provide their own computers for accessing CIP during the field test. These computers should be configured with Java 1.3 and a Java 2 enabled browser. Macintosh computers should be running OS 10.1.3 or later. Classic Mac OS (OS 9) is not supported. For more information please read section 7.3 in the FIASCO Rover Science Operations Test Mission Plan. Several screen shots of the Beta Release of CIP are shown on the following pages.

  3. The Master of Science in clinical epidemiology degree program of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania: a model for clinical research training.

    PubMed

    Strom, Brian L; Kelly, Thomas O; Norman, Sandra A; Farrar, John T; Kimmel, Stephen E; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Feldman, Harold I

    2012-01-01

    An innovative training program to provide clinical research training for clinicians was created in 1979 at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, now the Perelman School of Medicine. The program's principal and continuing aim is to provide trainees mentored experiences and the training needed to become skilled independent investigators able to conduct clinical research and develop academic careers as independent clinical investigators.The authors identify the vision that led to the creation of the master of science in clinical epidemiology (MSCE) degree program and describe today's training program, including administration, oversight, participating faculty, and trainees. They also describe the program's core curriculum, elective options, seminars on ongoing research, training in the responsible conduct of research, professional development activities, and the development and completion of a closely mentored clinical research project.Approximately 35 new trainees enter the two- to three-year program annually. Funding is provided primarily by National Institutes of Health-funded training programs and supplemented by private industry, private foundations, and employee-based benefits. More than 500 individuals have received or are currently receiving training through the MSCE program. A large percentage of former trainees maintain full-time positions in academic medicine today.The authors identify some challenges that have been met and insights regarding funding, faculty, trainees, and curriculum. Ongoing challenges include recruiting trainees from some selected highly paid, procedure-oriented specialties, maintaining sufficient mentors for the continually increasing numbers of trainees, and distinguishing applicants who truly desire a primary research career from others.

  4. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  5. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  6. South-to-North, cross-disciplinary training in global health practice: ten years of lessons learned from an infectious disease field course in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Henroy P; Nisbett, Richard A; Stoler, Justin; Bain, Brendan C; Bhatta, Madhav P; Castle, Trevor; Harbertson, Judith; Brodine, Stephanie K; Vermund, Sten H

    2011-09-01

    Global commerce, travel, and emerging and resurging infectious diseases have increased awareness of global health threats and opportunities for collaborative and service learning. We review course materials, knowledge archives, data management archives, and student evaluations for the first 10 years of an intensive summer field course in infectious disease epidemiology and surveillance offered in Jamaica. We have trained 300 students from 28 countries through collaboration between the University of the West Indies and U.S. partner universities. Participants were primarily graduate students in public health, but also included health professionals with terminal degrees, and public health nurses and inspectors. Strong institutional synergies, committed faculty, an emphasis on scientific and cultural competencies, and use of team-based field research projects culminate in a unique training environment that provides participants with career-developing experiences. We share lessons learned over the past decade, and conclude that South-to-North leadership is critical in shaping transdisciplinary, cross-cultural, global health practice.

  7. Industrial Waste Treatment. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This operations manual represents a continuation of operator training manuals developed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in response to the technological advancements of wastewater treatment and the changing needs of the operations profession. It is intended to be used as a home-study course manual (using the concepts…

  8. Advanced Waste Treatment. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This operations manual represents a continuation of operator training manuals developed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in response to the technological advancements of wastewater treatment and the changing needs of the operations profession. It is intended to be used as a home-study course manual (using the concepts…

  9. Recruiting and Training Undergraduate Research Assistants for Longitudinal Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a research training project for undergraduate psychology students in the development, administration, and evaluation of strategies to deter addictive smoking in adolescents. Students worked closely with faculty and graduate student researchers and became aware of the constraints of institutional regulations and logistical problems…

  10. Aviation Pilot Training I & II. Flight Syllabus. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot training I and II begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. The syllabus is designed to be used concurrently with the ground school program. A minimum of 29 flights are scheduled with a minimum of 40 hours total flight time. Tasks/competencies are categorized into five concept/duty…

  11. A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

    This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

  12. Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

  13. The Role of Professional Journals and Societies in the Future of a Field: A Reflection on the Partnership Between the American Journal of Epidemiology and the Society for Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Kristen A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    On this, the 100th anniversary of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, we take the opportunity to reflect on the ties between the School, the American Journal of Epidemiology, and the Society for Epidemiologic Research. We discuss briefly the intersection of the School, the Journal, and the Society throughout their histories, with the aim of providing some insight into how the Journal and the Society have contributed to the evolution of the field. In so doing, we articulate the challenges that the Journal and the Society jointly face today, with an eye to finding opportunities in these challenges that can be helpful in coming decades. PMID:26841948

  14. The Role of Professional Journals and Societies in the Future of a Field: A Reflection on the Partnership Between the American Journal of Epidemiology and the Society for Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Kristen A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    On this, the 100th anniversary of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, we take the opportunity to reflect on the ties between the School, the American Journal of Epidemiology, and the Society for Epidemiologic Research. We discuss briefly the intersection of the School, the Journal, and the Society throughout their histories, with the aim of providing some insight into how the Journal and the Society have contributed to the evolution of the field. In so doing, we articulate the challenges that the Journal and the Society jointly face today, with an eye to finding opportunities in these challenges that can be helpful in coming decades.

  15. How Long Should a Training Program Be? A Field Study of "Rules-of-Thumb"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the question of how long a behavioral skills training program should be in order to result in measurable behavioral change. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical field study was conducted to compare two different lengths of time for a managerial skills training program aimed at achieving behavioral change.…

  16. Effects of Field Instructor Training on Student Competencies and the Supervisory Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Kathleen Holtz; Bennett, Susanne; Mohr, Jonathan; Hwang, Jeongha

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study of a field instructor (FI) training model, offered at two universities, focused on the relationship between student competencies, the supervisory alliance, and students' attachment styles. Method: The study used a pretest-posttest follow-up design of 100 randomly assigned FIs (training group = 48; control group = 52) and 64…

  17. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  1. The Training of Multicompetent Allied Health Professionals Using a Combined-Fields Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Robert E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the training of multicompetent health care providers by combining one or more aspects of their respective curricula. Three methods--intra-, across-, and extra-field combinations--of melding two historically separate fields are described. An example of an across-field combination--the Baylor College of Medicine Physician…

  2. Graduate Medical Education Training in Clinical Epidemiology, Critical Appraisal, and Evidence-Based Medicine: A Critical Review of Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    A study systematically reviewed published literature on graduate medical-education curricula in clinical epidemiology, critical appraisal, and evidence-based medicine (EBM). The 18 reports found in the search provide useful guidelines for medical educators but many suffer from incomplete descriptions and inadequate curriculum evaluations.…

  3. Jumping on the Train of Personalized Medicine: A Primer for Non-Geneticist Clinicians: Part 2. Fundamental Concepts in Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aihua; Meyre, David

    2014-01-01

    With the decrease in sequencing costs, personalized genome sequencing will eventually become common in medical practice. We therefore write this series of three reviews to help non-geneticist clinicians to jump into the fast-moving field of personalized medicine. In the first article of this series, we reviewed the fundamental concepts in molecular genetics. In this second article, we cover the key concepts and methods in genetic epidemiology including the classification of genetic disorders, study designs and their implementation, genetic marker selection, genotyping and sequencing technologies, gene identification strategies, data analyses and data interpretation. This review will help the reader critically appraise a genetic association study. In the next article, we will discuss the clinical applications of genetic epidemiology in the personalized medicine area. PMID:25598767

  4. Mechanisms of geomagnetic field influence on gene expression using influenza as a model system: basics of physical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Zaporozhan, Valeriy; Ponomarenko, Andriy

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies demonstrate distinct changes in gene expression in cells exposed to a weak magnetic field (MF). Mechanisms of this phenomenon are not understood yet. We propose that proteins of the Cryptochrome family (CRY) are "epigenetic sensors" of the MF fluctuations, i.e., magnetic field-sensitive part of the epigenetic controlling mechanism. It was shown that CRY represses activity of the major circadian transcriptional complex CLOCK/BMAL1. At the same time, function of CRY, is apparently highly responsive to weak MF because of radical pairs that periodically arise in the functionally active site of CRY and mediate the radical pair mechanism of magnetoreception. It is known that the circadian complex influences function of every organ and tissue, including modulation of both NF-kappaB- and glucocorticoids- dependent signaling pathways. Thus, MFs and solar cycles-dependent geomagnetic field fluctuations are capable of altering expression of genes related to function of NF-kappaB, hormones and other biological regulators. Notably, NF-kappaB, along with its significant role in immune response, also participates in differential regulation of influenza virus RNA synthesis. Presented data suggests that in the case of global application (example-geomagnetic field), MF-mediated regulation may have epidemiological and other consequences. PMID:20617011

  5. Field Training Activities for Hydrologic Science in West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustina, C.; Fajri, P. N.; Fathoni, F.; Gusti, T. P.; Harifa, A. C.; Hendra, Y.; Hertanti, D. R.; Lusiana, N.; Rohmat, F. I.; Agouridis, C.; Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Pandjaitan, N.; Santoso, R.; Suharyanto, A.

    2013-12-01

    In hydrologic science and engineering, one challenge is establishing a common framework for discussion among workers from different disciplines. As part of the 'Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology: Helping Hydrologic Outreach (BOOST H2O)' project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of State, nine current or recent graduate students from four Indonesian universities participated in a week of training activities during June 2013. Students had backgrounds in agricultural engineering, civil and environmental engineering, water resources engineering, natural resources management, and soil science. Professors leading the training, which was based at Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) in west Java, included an agricultural engineer, civil engineers, and geologists. Activities in surface-water hydrology included geomorphic assessment of streams (measuring slope, cross-section, and bed-clast size) and gauging stream flow (wading with top-setting rods and a current meter for a large stream, and using a bucket and stopwatch for a small stream). Groundwater-hydrology activities included measuring depth to water in wells, conducting a pumping test with an observation well, and performing vertical electrical soundings to infer hydrostratigraphy. Students also performed relatively simple water-quality measurements (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and alkalinity) in streams, wells, and springs. The group analyzed data with commercially-available software such as AQTESOLV for well hydraulics, freeware such as the U.S. Geological Survey alkalinity calculator, and Excel spreadsheets. Results were discussed in the context of landscape position, lithology, and land use.

  6. The impact of immersion training on complementing organizational goals and accelerating culture change - a field study

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.M.

    1996-02-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a national defense laboratory with a history of working in seclusion and secrecy, scientists and engineers have received an important new mission to partner with industry. The scientists and engineers need to expand their skill base beyond science and understand the business of innovation to be successful in this new environment. An administrative field experiment of conducting intensive, immersion training about the commercialization process was piloted at Los Alamos in September, 1992. This Field Research Project addresses the following research question: {open_quotes}Does {open_quotes}immersion{close_quotes} commercialization training complement organizational goals and does the method accelerate cultural change?{close_quotes} The field experiment first began as a pilot Commercialization Workshop conducted for twelve scientists in September, 1992. The objective was to create commercialization action plans for promising environmental technologies. The immersion method was compared to the indoctrination method of training also. The indoctrination training was a one-day lecture style session conducted for one hundred and fifty scientists in July, 1993. The impact of the training was measured by perceived attitude change and the amount of subsequent industrial partnerships that followed the training. The key management question addressed on the job was, {open_quotes}With a limited budget, how do we maximize the impact of training and achieve the best results?{close_quotes}

  7. Training Probation and Parole Officers to Provide Substance Abuse Treatment: A Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, John A.; Herie, Marilyn; Martin, Garth; Turner, Bonnie J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of field-testing a substance-abuse treatment protocol are reported. Ten probation and parole officers were trained in Structured Relapse Prevention, and 55 clients were treated. Incentives and barriers to treatment are highlighted. The use of this type of field test as a dissemination technique is discussed. (EMK)

  8. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  9. The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of Mycoplasma bovis in French calf feedlots.

    PubMed

    Arcangioli, Marie-Anne; Aslan, Hamidé; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Le Grand, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major cause of respiratory outbreaks in cattle feedlots. In this study pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to trace field strains and provide information on M. bovis patterns of spread in calf feedlots. The suitability of KpnI, MluI and SmaI restriction enzymes was assessed on different sets of strains. The discriminative power of the first two enzymes was first assessed using 28 epidemiologically unrelated strains; stability was 100% on multiple isolates from in vivo experimental infection. Thirty-nine field isolates from six feedlots were then evaluated. In contrast to the unique fingerprints displayed by the unrelated strains, the isolates from the feedlots showed identical patterns at the time of the outbreak of respiratory disease and 4 weeks later. The PFGE typing results suggest that M. bovis strains follow a clonal epidemic spread pattern at the herd level and that the same strain persists in calves of the herd after the clinical signs have disappeared.

  10. TRAINING-INDUCED CHANGES IN DRAG-FLICK TECHNIQUE IN FEMALE FIELD HOCKEY PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, M.; Martín-Casado, L.; Navarro, E.

    2012-01-01

    The penalty corner is one of the most important goal plays in field hockey. The drag-flick is used less by women than men in a penalty corner. The aim of this study was to describe training-induced changes in the drag-flick technique in female field hockey players. Four female players participated in the study. The VICON optoelectronic system (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) measured the kinematic parameters of the drag-flick with six cameras sampling at 250 Hz, prior to and after training. Fifteen shots were captured for each subject. A Wilcoxon test assessed the differences between pre-training and post-training parameters. Two players received specific training twice a week for 8 weeks; the other two players did not train. The proposed drills improved the position of the stick at the beginning of the shot (p < 0.05), the total distance of the shot (p < 0.05) and the rotation radius at ball release (p < 0.01). It was noted that all players had lost speed of the previous run. Further studies should include a larger sample, in order to provide more information on field hockey performance. PMID:24868116

  11. The impact of a sports vision training program in youth field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Sebastian; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a sports vision training program improves the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training. The choice reaction time task at the D2 board (Learning Task I), the functional field of view task (Learning Task II) and the multiple object tracking (MOT) task (Transfer Task) were assessed before and after the intervention and again six weeks after the second test. Analyzes showed significant differences between the two groups for the choice reaction time task at the D2 board and the functional field of view task, with significant improvements for the intervention group and none for the control group. For the transfer task, we could not find statistically significant improvements for either group. The results of this study are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications. Key pointsPerceptual training with youth field hockey playersCan a sports vision training program improve the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training?The intervention was performed in the "VisuLab" as DynamicEye(®) SportsVision Training at the German Sport University Cologne.We ran a series of 3 two-factor univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on both within subject independent variables (group; measuring point) to examine the effects on central perception, peripheral perception and choice reaction time.The present study shows an improvement of certain visual abilities with the help of the sports vision training program.

  12. The Impact of a Sports Vision Training Program in Youth Field Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Sebastian; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a sports vision training program improves the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training. The choice reaction time task at the D2 board (Learning Task I), the functional field of view task (Learning Task II) and the multiple object tracking (MOT) task (Transfer Task) were assessed before and after the intervention and again six weeks after the second test. Analyzes showed significant differences between the two groups for the choice reaction time task at the D2 board and the functional field of view task, with significant improvements for the intervention group and none for the control group. For the transfer task, we could not find statistically significant improvements for either group. The results of this study are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications. Key pointsPerceptual training with youth field hockey playersCan a sports vision training program improve the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training?The intervention was performed in the “VisuLab” as DynamicEye® SportsVision Training at the German Sport University Cologne.We ran a series of 3 two-factor univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on both within subject independent variables (group; measuring point) to examine the effects on central perception, peripheral perception and choice reaction time.The present study shows an improvement of certain visual abilities with the help of the sports vision training program. PMID:24150071

  13. A Comment on Results of Recent Pooled Analyses of Epidemiological Papers Related to Cancer and Power-Line Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Yoshifumi

    In June 2001, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified ELF magnetic fields as a possible human carcinogen based on the results of two recent pooled analyses by Ahlbom et al. and Greenland et al. on epidemiological papers for childhood leukemia. Examining the data displayed by them, this author succeeded to read the other informations than theirs: in the paper of Ahlbom et al., for instance, 9 cases were prepared for verifying the hypothesis that magnetic fields are associated with childhood leukemia, and this author considers that the general conclusion derived by inductive inference is that the hypothesis is not supported, because 2 cases out of 9 support the hypothesis and 7 cases do not support the hypothesis, although the hypothesis has been believed by many people for about twenty years; furthermore, the author does not consider that the IARC’s evaluation that risk doubles in excess of 3 or 4 mG is based on the general conclusion, because it comes from pooling two kinds of data, one of which is of 7 cases bringing the ‘general conclusion’, and the other of the remained 2 cases being the ‘particular facts’.

  14. Wave trains induced by circularly polarized electric fields in cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Juan-Mei; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, cardiac fibrillation caused by spiral and turbulent waves can be terminated by globally resetting electric activity in cardiac tissues with a single high-voltage electric shock, but it is usually associated with severe side effects. Presently, a promising alternative uses wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a sequence of low-voltage uniform electric field pulses. Nevertheless, this method can only emit waves locally near obstacles in turbulent waves and thereby requires multiple obstacles to globally synchronize myocardium and thus to terminate fibrillation. Here we propose a new approach using wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a low-voltage circularly polarized electric field (i.e., a rotating uniform electric field). We find that, this approach can generate circular wave trains near obstacles and they propagate outwardly. We study the characteristics of such circular wave trains and further find that, the higher-frequency circular wave trains can effectively suppress spiral turbulence.

  15. Wave trains induced by circularly polarized electric fields in cardiac tissues

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Juan-Mei; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, cardiac fibrillation caused by spiral and turbulent waves can be terminated by globally resetting electric activity in cardiac tissues with a single high-voltage electric shock, but it is usually associated with severe side effects. Presently, a promising alternative uses wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a sequence of low-voltage uniform electric field pulses. Nevertheless, this method can only emit waves locally near obstacles in turbulent waves and thereby requires multiple obstacles to globally synchronize myocardium and thus to terminate fibrillation. Here we propose a new approach using wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a low-voltage circularly polarized electric field (i.e., a rotating uniform electric field). We find that, this approach can generate circular wave trains near obstacles and they propagate outwardly. We study the characteristics of such circular wave trains and further find that, the higher-frequency circular wave trains can effectively suppress spiral turbulence. PMID:26302781

  16. Evaluating exposure cutpoint bias in epidemiologic studies of electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wartenberg, D.; Savitz, D.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologists who study the association between exposure to electric or magnetic fields and adverse health outcomes often classify their subjects as exposed and unexposed, and they report results based on an odds ratio. The exposure classification rule--or dichotomy rule--is typically based on a priori assumptions or arbitrary considerations. We show that results may vary substantially with selection of different cutpoints by which to dichotomize exposure. Further, interpretation and comparison of studies is dependent on the choice of cutpoint. We suggest the use of probability plots as a more informative method of data representation. To demonstrate the utility of probability plots, we re-analyze data reported by Savitz et al. [1988, Am J Epidemiol 128:21-38]. Using a higher exposure cutpoint than that of the original analysis, we obtained larger odds ratios, two of which achieved statistical significance. More important, probability plots of these data showed (1) consistency of results with measures of magnetic fields in both low- and high-power-use situations, and (2) discordance with results based on measures of electric fields. Given these observations, we recommend further study, especially that focused on the most highly exposed individuals.

  17. Effects of sprint and plyometrics training on field sport acceleration technique.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D

    2014-07-01

    The mechanisms for speed performance improvement from sprint training and plyometrics training, especially relating to stance kinetics, require investigation in field sport athletes. This study determined the effects of sprint training and plyometrics training on 10-m sprint time (0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m intervals), step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and stance kinetics (first, second, and last contact relative vertical [VF, VI], horizontal [HF, HI], and resultant [RF, RI] force and impulse; resultant ground reaction force angle [RFθ]; ratio of horizontal to resultant force [RatF]) during a 10-m sprint. Sixteen male field sport athletes were allocated into sprint training (ST) and plyometrics training (PT) groups according to 10-m sprint time; independent samples t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) indicated no between-group differences. Training involved 2 sessions per week for 6 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) determined within- and between-subject differences. Both groups decreased 0-5 and 0-10 m time. The ST group increased step length by ∼15%, which tended to be greater than step length gains for the PT group (∼7%). The ST group reduced first and second contact RFθ and RatF, and second contact HF. Second contact HI decreased for both groups. Results indicated a higher post-training emphasis on VF production. Vertical force changes were more pronounced for the PT group for the last contact, who increased or maintained last contact VI, RF, and RI to a greater extent than the ST group. Sprint and plyometrics training can improve acceleration, primarily through increased step length and a greater emphasis on VF.

  18. Quantitative and molecular epidemiology of bacterial blight of onion in seed production fields.

    PubMed

    Humeau, L; Roumagnac, P; Picard, Y; Robène-Soustrade, I; Chiroleu, F; Gagnevin, L; Pruvost, O

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT Onion, a biennial plant species, is threatened by the emerging, seed-borne, and seed-transmitted Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii. Bacterial blight epidemics were monitored in seed production fields over two seasons. Temporal disease progress was different between the two seasons, with final incidence ranging from 0.04 to 0.06 in 2003 and from 0.44 to 0.61 in 2004. The number of hours with temperatures above 24 degrees C was the best descriptor for predicting the number of days after inoculation for bacterial blight development on inoculated plants. Fitting the beta-binomial distribution and binary power law analysis indicated aggregated patterns of disease incidence data. The beta-binomial distribution was superior to the binomial distribution for 97% of the examined data sets. Spatial dependency ranged from 5.9 to 15.2 m, as determined by semivariance analysis. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, it was concluded that plots predominantly were infected by the inoculated haplotype. A single other haplotype was identified by AFLP in all plots over the 2 years, and its detection in the field always followed wind-driven rains. X. axonopodis pv. allii-contaminated seed were detected by semiselective isolation and a nested polymerase chain reaction assay at levels up to 0.05% when final disease incidence was 0.61. Contaminated seed originated from both diseased and asymptomatic plants.

  19. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  20. Vaccine epidemiology: A review.

    PubMed

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  1. Epidemiological investigation of Salmonella tilene by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Chandar M; Fonseca, Kevin; Longmore, Ken; Rennie, Robert; Chui, Linda; Lingley, Mike; Woodward, David

    1997-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DNA fingerprinting by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on 11 isolates of Salmonella tilene. Five strains were from a cluster of human patients, six from sugar gliders and pygmy hedgehogs kept as family pets or from local pet retailers, and one isolate from the first North American case of S tilene described in Washington State in 1994. The PFGE restriction patterns showed all isolates to be similar. However, PCR using primers to the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Escherichia coli demonstrated that the Washington State isolate differed from the rest of the other isolates, which were all similar based upon their DNA fingerprint. This study indicates that reliance on one technique alone may be insufficient to show nuances between strains that are, in many respects, closely related. PMID:22346526

  2. Intercomparison of passive radon-detectors under field conditions in epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreienbrock, L. ); Poffijn, A. ); Tirmarche, M. ); Feider, M. ); Kies, A. ); Darby, S.C. )

    1999-05-01

    The Ardennes and Eifel region is a geologically distinct area covering parts of Germany, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg where enhanced concentrations of radon occur in some houses and other buildings. An international case-control study is being conducted to examine the role of radon in the etiology of lung cancer in this area. The radon detectors used are issued by different laboratories involving a variety of detector types and processes. A series of intercomparisons in houses was therefore conducted under similar conditions of exposure in the field. In most situations the different detectors gave similar results. Nevertheless, in some situations open and closed detectors yielded different results. Therefore, estimates of radon exposure have to be adjusted if results are to be pooled.

  3. The use of total simulator training in transitioning air-carrier pilots: A field evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Tanner, T. A.; Hamerman, J. A.; Showalter, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which the performance of air carrier transitioning pilots who had landing training in a landing maneuver approved simulator was compared with the performance of pilots who had landing training in the aircraft. Forty-eight trainees transitioning to the B-727 aircraft and eighty-seven trainees transitioning to the DC-10 were included in the study. The study results in terms of both objectively measured performance indicants and observer and check-pilot ratings did not demonstrate a clear distinction between the two training groups. The results suggest that, for these highly skilled transitioning pilots, a separate training module in the aircraft may be of dubious value.

  4. A Delphi Study on Staff Bereavement Training in the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Truesdale, Jesslyn

    2015-01-01

    The Delphi technique was used to obtain expert panel consensus to prioritize content areas and delivery methods for developing staff grief and bereavement curriculum training in the intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) field. The Delphi technique was conducted with a panel of 18 experts from formal and informal disability caregiving,…

  5. Barriers to Employer Sponsored Training in Ontario. Results of a Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Edward B.

    Results of a field survey of Canadian companies, trade unions, employer associations, educational establishments, and government agencies regarding the extent and possibilities of employer-sponsored training for workers are compiled in this report. Concentrating on the forty-nine companies in the survey sample, with collateral data from the…

  6. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  7. Cost-Effective Training Strategy at Field Level Strengthens Influence of Extension Agents in Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Philip

    1981-01-01

    Communications for Social Development, a regional training program designed by UNICEF to teach field extension agents in developing countries about interpersonal and group communications, is described in the lead article in this issue of Development Communication Report. The strategy employed in the development of this program involves a simple…

  8. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  9. A Field-Based Deaf Education Teacher Training Model: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadadian, Azar; Koch, Kourtland; Merbler, John

    2012-01-01

    This article provides professional perspective of a teacher-training model which relies heavily on an intensive, culturally immersive field experience for the teacher of the Deaf and hard of hearing. Survey results were based upon 21 past participants concerning their perceptions during their one-year internship experience at Indiana School for…

  10. The Field Manager as Change Agent: A "New Think" Approach to an Old Training Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard K.

    The focus of this paper is methods for training middle and lower managers, especially those in the field. It is helpful to regard those managers as change agents who must implement decisions coming from the top of the organization, usually in an authoritarian way. Periods of change in an organization can be the time for most effective development…

  11. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  12. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  13. Childhood Trauma Training in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Field Visit Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobayed, Mamoun

    2004-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder is the psychological reaction to various traumas. It is common among children living in war zones or conflict regions. This paper describes a field visit to train mental health professionals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on how to help traumatised children.

  14. A Descriptive Analysis of the Experience Based Training and Development Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Todd

    This article describes and analyzes the field of experience-based training and development (EBTD) in an attempt to determine its scope, goals, activities, participants, providers, and philosophical bases. EBTD is a process that uses hands-on challenge or adventure, usually in the outdoors, combined with review and feedback, to improve work place…

  15. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.

    2015-01-01

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology. PMID:26628513

  16. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J

    2015-12-15

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology.

  17. High efficiency for prostate biopsy qualification with full-field OCT after training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Ricco, R.; Sisk, A.; Duc, A.; Sibony, M.; Beuvon, F.; Dalimier, E.; Delongchamps, N. B.

    2016-02-01

    Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) offers a fast and non-destructive method of obtaining images of biological tissues at ultrahigh resolution, approaching traditional histological sections. In the context of prostate cancer diagnosis involving multiple biopsies, FFOCT could be used to validate the cores just after they are obtained in order to guide the number of biopsies to be performed. The aim of the study was to define and test a training protocol for efficient FFOCT prostate biopsy assessment. Three readers (a pathologist with previous experience with FFOCT, a pathologist new to FFOCT, and a urologist new to FFOCT) were trained to read FFOCT images of prostate biopsies on a set of 20 commented zooms (1 mm field of view) and 25 complete images. They were later tested on a set of 115 anonymized and randomized images of prostate biopsies. The results showed that an extra 30 images were necessary for more complete training as compared to prior studies. After training, pathologists obtained 100% sensitivity on high-grade cancer detection and 96% overall specificity; the urologist obtained 88% sensitivity on high-grade cancer and 89% overall specificity. Overall, the readers obtained a mean of 93% accuracy of qualifying malignancy on prostate biopsies. Moreover, the two pathologists showed a steeper learning curve than the urologist. This study demonstrates that a training protocol for such a new imaging modality may be implemented and yield very high efficiency for the pre-histologic detection of malignancy on prostate biopsies.

  18. Pesticide safety training and access to field sanitation among migrant farmworker mothers from Starr County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Shipp, E M; Cooper, S P; Burau, K D; Bolin, J N

    2005-02-01

    Very little published research describes employer compliance with EPA-mandated Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide safety training and the OSHA Field Sanitation Standard among farmworker women in general and mothers specifically. A goal of both standards is limiting farmworkers' exposure to potentially hazardous agricultural pesticides. Data from a NIOSH-supported cohort study ("Injury and Illness Surveillance in Migrant Farmworker Families") allowed for examining these issues. The cohort included 267 migrant farmworker families who usually reside along the Texas-Mexico border (Starr County, Texas). Data were collected in Starr County during in-home interviews. Of 102 mothers who participated in migrant farm work during summer 2001, 57 (55.9%) reported having ever received training/instruction in the safe use of pesticides, while 47 (46.1%) reported having received training within the previous five years, as required by WPS. Of trained mothers, 91.5% to 93.6% reported that their training covered key WPS areas: (1) entry into a recently treated field, (2) pesticide related injuries/illnesses, and (3) where to go and who to contact for emergency care following exposure. Regarding access to field sanitation, 67.5% to 84.2% of 77 mothers who worked outside Texas reported employer-provided decontamination supplies (e.g., soap, wash water, towels, and toilet facilities). However, a strikingly smaller proportion (12% to 28%) of 25 mothers who worked within Texas reported access to the same resources, suggesting discrepancies in compliance across the U.S. Due to the low level of employer compliance with both WPS and OSHA mandated standards, increased enforcement and an alternate delivery of pesticide training is recommended. PMID:15782888

  19. The future of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease). PMID:19858828

  20. Field reliability of the SAVRY with juvenile probation officers: Implications for training.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Gina M; Guy, Laura S; Fusco, Samantha L; Gershenson, Bernice G

    2012-06-01

    Two complimentary studies were conducted to investigate the inter-rater reliability and performance of juvenile justice personnel when conducting the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk for Youth (SAVRY). Study 1 reports the performance on four standardized vignettes of 408 juvenile probation officers (JPOs) and social workers rating the SAVRY as part of their training. JPOs had high agreement with the expert consensus on the SAVRY rating of overall risk and total scores, but those trained by a peer master trainer outperformed those trained by an expert. Study 2 examined the field reliability of the SAVRY on 80 young offender cases rated by a JPO and a trained research assistant. In the field, intra-class correlation coefficients were 'excellent' for SAVRY total and most domain scores, and were 'good' for overall risk ratings. Results suggest that the SAVRY and structured professional judgment can be used reliably in the field by juvenile justice personnel and is comparable to reliability indices reported in more lab-like research studies; however, replication is essential. PMID:22667812

  1. Use of automated riboprinter and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiological studies of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Siu, L K; Chen, M K; Yu, Y L; Lin, F M; Ho, M; Chu, M L

    2001-03-01

    A total of 87 invasive isolates of Haemophilus influenzae isolated throughout Taiwan from 1994 to 1998 was collected; 57 were from children <14 years old. In all, 60.9% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin and produced beta-lactamase. Ribotyping revealed six different profiles in 55 isolates of type b, nine profiles in 10 isolates of non-type b and 12 profiles in 22 isolates of non-typable H. influenzae. Among isolates from 35 cases of meningitis, 30 (86%) were in ribogroups 1, 2 and 3 with >90% genetic similarity. Compared with all the other ribogroups, ribogroups 1, 2 and 3, which encompassed all H. influenzae type b, were significantly more prevalent as a cause of meningitis in children <14 years old. Further subtyping of the predominant ribogroup by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified differences of 0-6 bands among these isolates of ribogroup 1, which indicated distant relatedness. Automated ribotyping was found to be a useful method and was less time-consuming for molecular epidemiology studies of H. influenzae. PFGE is suggested as an addition to ribotyping to improve discrimination if H. influenzae type b is involved. Differentiating ribogroups between type b and non-type b H. influenzae by genotyping may help to understand the molecular characteristics of outbreaks, endemicity and value of vaccination. According to the results of ribotyping and PFGE, it seems possible that spread of invasive H. influenzae type b had occurred and ribotyping confirmed that there was no clonal spread of non-type b H. influenzae in Taiwan.

  2. Epidemiologic analysis of sporadic Salmonella typhi isolates and those from outbreaks by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Thong, K L; Cheong, Y M; Puthucheary, S; Koh, C L; Pang, T

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to compare and analyze 158 isolates of Salmonella typhi from five well-defined outbreaks of typhoid fever in Malaysia and also isolates involved in sporadic cases of typhoid fever occurring during the same period. Digestion of chromosomal DNAs from these S. typhi isolates with the restriction endonucleases XbaI (5'-TCTAGA-3'), SpeI (5'-ACTAGT-3'), and AvrII (5'-CCTAGG-3') and then PFGE produced restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) patterns consisting of 11 to 24 DNA fragments ranging in size from 20 to 630 kbp. Analysis of the REA patterns generated by PFGE after digestion with XbaI and SpeI indicated that the S. typhi isolates obtained from sporadic cases of infection were much more heterogeneous (at least 13 different REA patterns were detected; Dice coefficient, between 0.73 and 1.0) than those obtained during outbreaks of typhoid fever. The clonal nature and the close genetic identities of isolates from outbreaks in Alor Setar, Penang, Kota Kinabalu, Johor Bahru, and Kota Bahru were suggested by the fact that only a limited number of REA patterns, which mostly differed by only a single band, were detected (one to four patterns; Dice coefficient, between 0.82 and 1.0), although a different pattern was associated with each of these outbreaks. Comparison of REA patterns with ribotyping for 18 S. typhi isolates involved in sporadic cases of infection showed a good correlation, in that 72% of the isolates were in the same group. There was no clear correlation of phage types with a specific REA pattern. We conclude that PFGE of s. typhi chromosomal DNA digested with infrequently cutting restriction endonucleases is a useful method for comparing and differentiating S. typhi isolates for epidemiological purposes. Images PMID:7914202

  3. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Megan M.; Jetly, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field training settings may be an important adjunct to traditional military ethics education and training. We make the case as to why this approach will enhance ethical operational preparation for soldiers, supporting their psychological well-being as well as mission effectiveness. PMID:25206947

  4. Commentary: Epidemiology in the era of big data.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-05-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called "three V's": variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field's future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future.

  5. Mean-field thalamocortical modeling of longitudinal EEG acquired during intensive meditation training.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Manish; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-07-01

    Meditation training has been shown to enhance attention and improve emotion regulation. However, the brain processes associated with such training are poorly understood and a computational modeling framework is lacking. Modeling approaches that can realistically simulate neurophysiological data while conforming to basic anatomical and physiological constraints can provide a unique opportunity to generate concrete and testable hypotheses about the mechanisms supporting complex cognitive tasks such as meditation. Here we applied the mean-field computational modeling approach using the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) collected at three assessment points from meditating participants during two separate 3-month-long shamatha meditation retreats. We modeled cortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic interactions to generate a simulation of EEG signals recorded across the scalp. We also present two novel extensions to the mean-field approach that allow for: (a) non-parametric analysis of changes in model parameter values across all channels and assessments; and (b) examination of variation in modeled thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) connectivity over the retreat period. After successfully fitting whole-brain EEG data across three assessment points within each retreat, two model parameters were found to replicably change across both meditation retreats. First, after training, we observed an increased temporal delay between modeled cortical and thalamic cells. This increase provides a putative neural mechanism for a previously observed reduction in individual alpha frequency in these same participants. Second, we found decreased inhibitory connection strength between the TRN and secondary relay nuclei (SRN) of the modeled thalamus after training. This reduction in inhibitory strength was found to be associated with increased dynamical stability of the model. Altogether, this paper presents the first computational approach, taking core aspects of physiology and

  6. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields from trams, trains and hybrid cars.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Abeyrathne, Chathurika D; Mendis, Priyan

    2010-10-01

    Electricity is used substantially and sources of electric and magnetic fields are, unavoidably, everywhere. The transportation system is a source of these fields, to which a large proportion of the population is exposed. Hence, investigation of the effects of long-term exposure of the general public to low-frequency electromagnetic fields caused by the transportation system is critically important. In this study, measurements of electric and magnetic fields emitted from Australian trams, trains and hybrid cars were investigated. These measurements were carried out under different conditions, locations, and are summarised in this article. A few of the measured electric and magnetic field strengths were significantly lower than those found in prior studies. These results seem to be compatible with the evidence of the laboratory studies on the biological effects that are found in the literature, although they are far lower than international levels, such as those set up in the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection guidelines.

  7. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields from trams, trains and hybrid cars.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Abeyrathne, Chathurika D; Mendis, Priyan

    2010-10-01

    Electricity is used substantially and sources of electric and magnetic fields are, unavoidably, everywhere. The transportation system is a source of these fields, to which a large proportion of the population is exposed. Hence, investigation of the effects of long-term exposure of the general public to low-frequency electromagnetic fields caused by the transportation system is critically important. In this study, measurements of electric and magnetic fields emitted from Australian trams, trains and hybrid cars were investigated. These measurements were carried out under different conditions, locations, and are summarised in this article. A few of the measured electric and magnetic field strengths were significantly lower than those found in prior studies. These results seem to be compatible with the evidence of the laboratory studies on the biological effects that are found in the literature, although they are far lower than international levels, such as those set up in the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection guidelines. PMID:20554578

  8. Impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    DEHGHANI, MOHAMMADREZA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; SOLTANi, BEHROUZ; AGHAKHANI, NADER; HAGHPANAH, SEZANEH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obtaining clinical competency in clinical education is one of the problems in nursing and use of the new methods of clinical training is very important. Clinical supervision is one of the methods used as a mechanism to promote knowledge and skill for promoting professional performance in nursing students. This study is carried out to determine the impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Methods In the present experimental study, 32 nursing students were enrolled in the study based on census and randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control by block randomization. Clinical supervision was used in the experimental group and the control group received routine clinical trainings in the field. The students’ clinical skills were assessed using a researcher-made checklist, the validity of which was confirmed through content validity method by 13 faculty members and its reliability was approved by test-retest method on 20 nursing students in the form of a pilot study and through Cronbach’s alpha (87%). Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 14. Results ‍There was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in clinical skills such as recognition and administration of medication, team participation,  patients and their relatives’ education, considering the safety,  infection prevention and  nursing process (p<0.005). Conclusion The study demonstrated that in clinical supervision process, students have a better communication and cooperation with their instructor and with each other and their confidence and understanding and the amount of learning in practical skills was enhanced more than routine clinical training. The implementation of this clinical training method for students of nursing and other fields of medical sciences is recommendable. PMID:27104203

  9. Circular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kuller, L H

    1999-11-01

    Circular epidemiology can be defined as the continuation of specific types of epidemiologic studies beyond the point of reasonable doubt of the true existence of an important association or the absence of such an association. Circular epidemiology is an extreme example of studies of the consistency of associations. A basic problem for epidemiology is the lack of a systematic approach to acquiring new knowledge to reach a goal of improving public health and preventive medicine. For epidemiologists, research support unfortunately is biased toward the continued study of already proven hypotheses. Circular epidemiology, however, freezes at one point in the evolution of epidemiologic studies, failing to move from descriptive to analytical case-control and longitudinal studies, for example, to experimental, clinical trials. Good epidemiology journals are filled with very well-conducted epidemiologic studies that primarily repeat the obvious or are variations on the theme.

  10. Recreational and occupational field exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria – a review of anecdotal and case reports, epidemiological studies and the challenges for epidemiologic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Webb, Penelope M; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are common inhabitants of freshwater lakes and reservoirs throughout the world. Under favourable conditions, certain cyanobacteria can dominate the phytoplankton within a waterbody and form nuisance blooms. Case reports and anecdotal references dating from 1949 describe a range of illnesses associated with recreational exposure to cyanobacteria: hay fever-like symptoms, pruritic skin rashes and gastro-intestinal symptoms are most frequently reported. Some papers give convincing descriptions of allergic reactions while others describe more serious acute illnesses, with symptoms such as severe headache, pneumonia, fever, myalgia, vertigo and blistering in the mouth. A coroner in the United States found that a teenage boy died as a result of accidentally ingesting a neurotoxic cyanotoxin from a golf course pond. This death is the first recorded human fatality attributed to recreational exposure to cyanobacteria, although uncertainties surround the forensic identification of the suspected cyanotoxin in this case. We systematically reviewed the literature on recreational exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria. Epidemiological data are limited, with six studies conducted since 1990. Statistically significant increases in symptoms were reported in individuals exposed to cyanobacteria compared to unexposed counterparts in two Australian cohort studies, though minor morbidity appeared to be the main finding. The four other small studies (three from the UK, one Australian) did not report any significant association. However, the potential for serious injury or death remains, as freshwater cyanobacteria under bloom conditions are capable of producing potent toxins that cause specific and severe dysfunction to hepatic or central nervous systems. The exposure route for these toxins is oral, from ingestion of recreational water, and possibly by inhalation. A range of freshwater microbial agents may cause acute conditions that present with features that resemble

  11. South-to-North, Cross-Disciplinary Training in Global Health Practice: Ten Years of Lessons Learned from an Infectious Disease Field Course in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Scarlett, Henroy P.; Nisbett, Richard A.; Stoler, Justin; Bain, Brendan C.; Bhatta, Madhav P.; Castle, Trevor; Harbertson, Judith; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Vermund, Sten H.

    2011-01-01

    Global commerce, travel, and emerging and resurging infectious diseases have increased awareness of global health threats and opportunities for collaborative and service learning. We review course materials, knowledge archives, data management archives, and student evaluations for the first 10 years of an intensive summer field course in infectious disease epidemiology and surveillance offered in Jamaica. We have trained 300 students from 28 countries through collaboration between the University of the West Indies and U.S. partner universities. Participants were primarily graduate students in public health, but also included health professionals with terminal degrees, and public health nurses and inspectors. Strong institutional synergies, committed faculty, an emphasis on scientific and cultural competencies, and use of team-based field research projects culminate in a unique training environment that provides participants with career-developing experiences. We share lessons learned over the past decade, and conclude that South-to-North leadership is critical in shaping transdisciplinary, cross-cultural, global health practice. PMID:21896794

  12. South-to-North, cross-disciplinary training in global health practice: ten years of lessons learned from an infectious disease field course in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Henroy P; Nisbett, Richard A; Stoler, Justin; Bain, Brendan C; Bhatta, Madhav P; Castle, Trevor; Harbertson, Judith; Brodine, Stephanie K; Vermund, Sten H

    2011-09-01

    Global commerce, travel, and emerging and resurging infectious diseases have increased awareness of global health threats and opportunities for collaborative and service learning. We review course materials, knowledge archives, data management archives, and student evaluations for the first 10 years of an intensive summer field course in infectious disease epidemiology and surveillance offered in Jamaica. We have trained 300 students from 28 countries through collaboration between the University of the West Indies and U.S. partner universities. Participants were primarily graduate students in public health, but also included health professionals with terminal degrees, and public health nurses and inspectors. Strong institutional synergies, committed faculty, an emphasis on scientific and cultural competencies, and use of team-based field research projects culminate in a unique training environment that provides participants with career-developing experiences. We share lessons learned over the past decade, and conclude that South-to-North leadership is critical in shaping transdisciplinary, cross-cultural, global health practice. PMID:21896794

  13. Efficacy of a Four-Week Uphill Sprint Training Intervention in Field Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Jakeman, John R; McMullan, Judith; Babraj, John A

    2016-10-01

    Jakeman, JR, McMullan, J, and Babraj, JA. Efficacy of a four-week uphill sprint training intervention in field hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2761-2766, 2016-Current evidence increasingly suggests that very short, supramaximal bouts of exercise can have significant health and performance benefits. Most research conducted in the area, however, uses laboratory-based protocols, which can lack ecological validity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a high-intensity sprint training program on hockey-related performance measures. Fourteen semiprofessional hockey players either completed a 4-week high-intensity training (HIT) intervention, consisting of a total of 6 sessions of HIT, which progressively increased in volume (n = 7), or followed their normal training program (Con; n = 7). Straight-line sprint speed, with and without a hockey stick and ball, and slalom sprint speed, with and without a hockey stick and ball, were used as performance indicators. Maximal sprint speed over 22.9 m was also assessed. On completion of the 4-week intervention, straight-line sprint speed improved significantly in the HIT group (∼3%), with no changes in performance for the Con group. Slalom sprint speed, both with and without a hockey ball, was not significantly different after the training program in either group. Maximal sprint speed improved significantly (12.1%) in the HIT group, but there was no significant performance change in the Con group. The findings of this study indicate that a short period of HIT can significantly improve hockey-related performance measures and could be beneficial to athletes and coaches in field settings.

  14. Perceptual-cognitive skill training and its transfer to expert performance in the field: future research directions.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, David P; Causer, Joe; Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual-cognitive skills training provides a potentially valuable method for training athletes on key skills, such as anticipation and decision-making. It can be used when athletes are unable to physically train or are unable to experience repeated key situations from their sport. In this article, we review research on perceptual-cognitive skills training and describe future research areas focusing on a number of key theories and principles. The main aim of any training intervention should be the efficacy of retention and transfer of learning from training to field situations, which should be the key consideration when designing the representative tasks used in perceptual-cognitive skills training. We review the principles that seek to create practice tasks that replicate those found in the field, so as to increase the amount of transfer that occurs. These principles are perception-action coupling, the contextual interference effect and contextual information, which suggest there should be a high level of similarity between training and real-life performance when designing perceptual-cognitive skills training. In the final section, we discuss the transfer of retained skill acquisition from perceptual-cognitive skills training to field performance, which we suggest to be the key area for future research in this area. PMID:25252156

  15. Perceptual-cognitive skill training and its transfer to expert performance in the field: future research directions.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, David P; Causer, Joe; Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual-cognitive skills training provides a potentially valuable method for training athletes on key skills, such as anticipation and decision-making. It can be used when athletes are unable to physically train or are unable to experience repeated key situations from their sport. In this article, we review research on perceptual-cognitive skills training and describe future research areas focusing on a number of key theories and principles. The main aim of any training intervention should be the efficacy of retention and transfer of learning from training to field situations, which should be the key consideration when designing the representative tasks used in perceptual-cognitive skills training. We review the principles that seek to create practice tasks that replicate those found in the field, so as to increase the amount of transfer that occurs. These principles are perception-action coupling, the contextual interference effect and contextual information, which suggest there should be a high level of similarity between training and real-life performance when designing perceptual-cognitive skills training. In the final section, we discuss the transfer of retained skill acquisition from perceptual-cognitive skills training to field performance, which we suggest to be the key area for future research in this area.

  16. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  17. Generation of spatiotemporally correlated spike trains and local field potentials using a multivariate autoregressive process.

    PubMed

    Gutnisky, Diego A; Josić, Kresimir

    2010-05-01

    Experimental advances allowing for the simultaneous recording of activity at multiple sites have significantly increased our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns in neural activity. The impact of such patterns on neural coding is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The simulation of spike trains with predetermined activity patterns is therefore an important ingredient in the study of potential neural codes. Such artificially generated spike trains could also be used to manipulate cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. Here, we propose a method to generate spike trains with given mean firing rates and cross-correlations. To capture this statistical structure we generate a point process by thresholding a stochastic process that is continuous in space and discrete in time. This stochastic process is obtained by filtering Gaussian noise through a multivariate autoregressive (AR) model. The parameters of the AR model are obtained by a nonlinear transformation of the point-process correlations to the continuous-process correlations. The proposed method is very efficient and allows for the simulation of large neural populations. It can be optimized to the structure of spatiotemporal correlations and generalized to nonstationary processes and spatiotemporal patterns of local field potentials and spike trains. PMID:20032244

  18. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  19. Contextual effects on activity profiles of domestic field hockey during competition and training.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew D; MacFarlane, Niall G

    2015-04-01

    Game context is widely accepted to influence performance but most data available is 'categorical' and addresses performance rather than activity. This study assessed direct effects of opposition and team ranking in field hockey to establish influences on activity. One hundred and eight (n=108) female field hockey players (age 16-39 years) participated, giving 186 competition and 48 training analyses. Team average distance (mean ± SD) observed in a mid-ranked team during competition ranged from 5,949 ± 611 to 7,719 ± 257 m demonstrating an opposition rank effect (Pearson's r=.71; adjusted R(2)=.42). However, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated a stronger relationship in lower ranked teams (Pearson's r=.99; adjusted R(2)=.97 through 3-9). In contrast, no team rank effect was observed during randomly monitored competition where team average distance ranged from 5,177 ± 444 to 7,316 ± 241 m (Pearson's r=.15 and adjusted R(2)=.12). In training, however, a team rank effect was observed in distance-related performance indicators where team average distance during small-sided games ranged from 5,877 ± 188 to 3,551 ± 193 m drill (per 70 min) with Pearson's r=.95 and adjusted R(2)=.87. The presence of contextual effects has significant practical implications for team sports where the training load assumed from competition may be overestimated.

  20. [The importance of sports medicine field tests as a means of training control in northern endurance sports].

    PubMed

    Baumgartl, P; Aigner, A

    1985-05-31

    In endurance sports heart frequency at the aerobic threshold (2 mmol/l lactate) is recommended for extensive training and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold (4 mmol/l lactate) for intensive training. Both values could be estimated by means of exercise tests in the laboratory as well as in the field. However for training-recommendations only data estimated on a specific exercise procedure should be used.

  1. New training tools for new epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Arts, Ilja C W; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2013-08-01

    Molecular epidemiology is moving from an era of single marker studies to omics-driven population-based studies, made possible by recent rapid technological advances in high-throughput laboratory assays. The use of these assays in large, observational, epidemiologic studies poses major methodological challenges. The traditional, reductionist approach that most epidemiologists have been taught is no longer sufficient with the introduction of omics data into epidemiology. However, basic epidemiological principles, such as confounding, must still be addressed. In order to successfully implement these tools into molecular epidemiology, scientists in the required disciplines must be able to effectively communicate. We propose an interdisciplinary, three-level, problem-based approach to training in molecular epidemiology. This approach requires interdisciplinary teaching teams that appeal to students coming from diverse backgrounds. First, concepts from each field necessary for molecular epidemiology must be addressed at a basic level, with a specific focus on biological, epidemiological, and statistical concepts. Second, state-of the art methods applied in molecular epidemiology should be covered (e.g., omics technologies, smart study designs, statistical modeling, and biological interpretation). Third, the application of omics technologies in population studies calls for awareness of issues related to biobanking, ethics, legislation, and public health. Problem-based learning is a useful tool for teaching when students need to apply complex concepts to complex situations as is the case in molecular epidemiology. Using this approach, students from diverse backgrounds work together to analyze problems, discuss, and exchange knowledge in modern molecular epidemiology. Training tools characterized by this approach will shape the molecular epidemiologists of the future.

  2. Effects of Field of View and Visual Complexity on Virtual Reality Training Effectiveness for a Visual Scanning Task

    DOE PAGES

    Ragan, Eric D.; Bowman, Doug A.; Kopper, Regis; Stinson, Cheryl; Scerbo, Siroberto; McMahan, Ryan P.

    2015-02-13

    Virtual reality training systems are commonly used in a variety of domains, and it is important to understand how the realism of a training simulation influences training effectiveness. The paper presents a framework for evaluating the effects of virtual reality fidelity based on an analysis of a simulation’s display, interaction, and scenario components. Following this framework, we conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of fidelity on training effectiveness for a visual scanning task. The experiment varied the levels of field of view and visual realism during a training phase and then evaluated scanning performance with the simulator’s highestmore » level of fidelity. To assess scanning performance, we measured target detection and adherence to a prescribed strategy. The results show that both field of view and visual realism significantly affected target detection during training; higher field of view led to better performance and higher visual realism worsened performance. Additionally, the level of visual realism during training significantly affected learning of the prescribed visual scanning strategy, providing evidence that high visual realism was important for learning the technique. The results also demonstrate that task performance during training was not always a sufficient measure of mastery of an instructed technique. That is, if learning a prescribed strategy or skill is the goal of a training exercise, performance in a simulation may not be an appropriate indicator of effectiveness outside of training—evaluation in a more realistic setting may be necessary.« less

  3. Effects of Field of View and Visual Complexity on Virtual Reality Training Effectiveness for a Visual Scanning Task

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric D.; Bowman, Doug A.; Kopper, Regis; Stinson, Cheryl; Scerbo, Siroberto; McMahan, Ryan P.

    2015-02-13

    Virtual reality training systems are commonly used in a variety of domains, and it is important to understand how the realism of a training simulation influences training effectiveness. The paper presents a framework for evaluating the effects of virtual reality fidelity based on an analysis of a simulation’s display, interaction, and scenario components. Following this framework, we conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of fidelity on training effectiveness for a visual scanning task. The experiment varied the levels of field of view and visual realism during a training phase and then evaluated scanning performance with the simulator’s highest level of fidelity. To assess scanning performance, we measured target detection and adherence to a prescribed strategy. The results show that both field of view and visual realism significantly affected target detection during training; higher field of view led to better performance and higher visual realism worsened performance. Additionally, the level of visual realism during training significantly affected learning of the prescribed visual scanning strategy, providing evidence that high visual realism was important for learning the technique. The results also demonstrate that task performance during training was not always a sufficient measure of mastery of an instructed technique. That is, if learning a prescribed strategy or skill is the goal of a training exercise, performance in a simulation may not be an appropriate indicator of effectiveness outside of training—evaluation in a more realistic setting may be necessary.

  4. Training effects induced by cycling of magnetic field in ferromagnetic rich phase-separated nanocomposite manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have carried out an experimental investigation of magneto-transport and magnetic properties of charge-ordered Pr0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (PCMO) and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) nanoparticles along with a nanocomposite consisting of those two types of nanoparticles. From the magneto-transport measurements, clear irreversibility is observed in the field dependence of resistance due to magnetic field cycling in the case of PCMO nanoparticles. The value of resistance increases during such a field cycling. However such an irreversibility is absent in the case of LSMO nanoparticles as well as nanocomposites. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate the gradual growth of antiferromagnetic phases in all samples leading to a decrease in magnetization. These inconsistencies between magneto-transport and magnetic behaviors are attributed to the magnetic training effects.

  5. The Undergraduate Field-Research Experience in Global Health: Study Abroad, Service Learning, Professional Training or "None of the Above"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kearsley A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in short-term international placements in global health training for U.S.-based medical students is growing; the trend is mirrored for global health undergraduate students. Best practices in field-based global health training can increase success for medical students, but we lack a critical framework for the undergraduate global health…

  6. The Impact of Pre-Service Field Training Sessions on the Probability of Future Teachers Using ICT in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larose, Francois; Grenon, Vincent; Morin, Marie-Pier; Hasni, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Most industrialised countries have adopted training strategies for pre-service teachers that place experienced teacher guidance centre stage, particularly within the context of regular pre-service field training sessions. In this article, after analysing the data taken from a longitudinal survey on the computer skills and attitudes of students…

  7. Changes in Nonprofessional Mental Health Workers' Response Preferences and Attitudes As A Function of Training and Supervised Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorr, Darwin; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Nonprofessional mental health workers in a program for early detection and prevention of school maladaptation in children were compared to similar controls on changes in attitude and clinical response style after 12 didactic training sessions and supervised field experience. Some combination of training, experience, and supervision increased aide…

  8. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412

  9. Forty Days after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Field Research Investigating Community Engagement and Traumatic Stress Screening in a Post-Disaster Community Mental Health Training

    PubMed Central

    Tuerk, Peter W.; Hall, Brian; Nagae, Nobukazu; McCauley, Jenna L.; Yoder, Matthew; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Acierno, Ron; Dussich, John

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes the results of posttraumatic stress educational outreach and screening offered to 141 citizens of Japan who attended a public-service mental health training regarding post-disaster coping 40 days after a 6.8 Richter Scale earthquake, local and regional deaths, and an ongoing nuclear radiation threat. Attendees were given access to anonymous questionnaires that were integrated into the training as a tool to help enhance mental health literacy and bridge communication gaps. Questionnaires were turned in by a third of those in attendance. Among respondents, multiple exposures to potentially-traumatic events were common. More than a quarter of respondents met criteria for probable PTSD. Physical health and loss of sense of community were related to PTSD symptoms. Associations and diagnosis rates represented in these data are not generalizable to the population as a whole or intended for epidemiological purposes; rather, they are evidence of a potentially useful approach to post-disaster clinical screening, education, and engagement. Results are presented in the context of previous findings in Japan and ecologically-supportive post-disaster field research is discussed. PMID:23977819

  10. Forty days after the Great East Japan Earthquake: field research investigating community engagement and traumatic stress screening in a post-disaster community mental health training.

    PubMed

    Tuerk, Peter W; Hall, Brian; Nagae, Nobukazu; McCauley, Jenna L; Yoder, Matthew; Rauch, Sheila A M; Acierno, Ron; Dussich, John

    2013-01-01

    The current article describes the results of posttraumatic stress educational outreach and screening offered to 141 citizens of Japan who attended a public-service mental health training regarding post-disaster coping 40 days after a 6.8 Richter Scale earthquake, local and regional deaths, and an ongoing nuclear radiation threat. Attendees were given access to anonymous questionnaires that were integrated into the training as a tool to help enhance mental health literacy and bridge communication gaps. Questionnaires were turned in by a third of those in attendance. Among respondents, multiple exposures to potentially-traumatic events were common. More than a quarter of respondents met criteria for probable PTSD. Physical health and loss of sense of community were related to PTSD symptoms. Associations and diagnosis rates represented in these data are not generalizable to the population as a whole or intended for epidemiological purposes; rather, they are evidence of a potentially useful approach to post-disaster clinical screening, education, and engagement. Results are presented in the context of previous findings in Japan and ecologically-supportive post-disaster field research is discussed.

  11. A review of safety practices and safety training for the explosives field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershkowitz, J.

    1985-02-01

    Various safety practices and the content of selected training programs emphasized at several major installations involved with explosives and explosive devices are reported herein. The report is divided into independent sections, each of which addresses a commonly encountered facet of explosives safety. Supplemented by a safety file consisting of regulations, references, documents, videotapes, and cassettes (all listed in an appendix) and suggestions for presentation and demonstrations (also included as an appendix), the report can be used as the basis for a modular training course. It is being used in this mode by the Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) in the production of a video training tape which, ultimately, will be made available to those working in the field of explosives. Although the report provides the reader with a comprehensive view of many of the safety practices currently in use at representative installations, it is not an endorsement of any of the safety practices described nor does it supersede existing safety regulations at any installation. In all cases, the safety regulations at the individual installations continue in effect until formally altered.

  12. One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J

    2006-10-01

    Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields showed prominent bilateral P100m, N250m, P320m and N450m peaks. Significant change in the peak latencies of all components except P100m was observed over time. Larger P100m and N450m amplitude as well as more rapid change of N250m amplitude and latency was associated with the violin rather than the noise stimuli. Larger P100m and P320m peak amplitudes in the left hemisphere than in the right are consistent with left-lateralized cortical development in this age group. A clear musical training effect was expressed in a larger and earlier N250m peak in the left hemisphere in response to the violin sound in musically trained children compared with untrained children. This difference coincided with pronounced morphological change in a time window between 100 and 400 ms, which was observed in musically trained children in response to violin stimuli only, whereas in untrained children a similar change was present regardless of stimulus type. This transition could be related to establishing a neural network associated with sound categorization and/or involuntary attention, which can be altered by music learning experience.

  13. Nutrition education training of health workers and other field staff to support chronically deprived communities.

    PubMed

    Calderon, T A

    2001-12-01

    This paper focuses on the provision of adequate training in nutrition education to health and other community development workers for their improved performance and achievement. The difficulties encountered and special care needed when dealing with low-income, chronically deprived communities are raised. A brief analysis of past and present trends in nutrition education is presented to show the progress made from restricted, authoritative and not very successful proposals to more comprehensive and participatory approaches. The need to train and update regional and field-level personnel on the new approaches, theories and models offered by nutrition education is highlighted, but the scant availability of resources for training activities may be a great limitation for this undertaking. The contribution of educational, social, psychological and communication sciences, as well as marketing, in improving and broadening the performance of health and nutrition education is recognised. Some successful nutrition education projects, implemented in different regions, using various approaches, have managed to improve the nutrition situation of low-income groups and could be used as good examples to be followed. Recommendations for implementing nutrition education projects or activities need to consider some prerequisites, such as good knowledge and analysis of the nutrition situation, careful selection of the strategies and methods, careful planning and implementation, and clear definition of the procedures and instruments for follow-up and evaluation.

  14. Repeated sprints, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

  15. Enhancing Foster Parent Training with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Janczewski, Colleen E.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research indicates that foster parents often do not receive sufficient training and support to help them meet the demands of caring for foster children with emotional and behavioral disturbances. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a clinically efficacious intervention for child externalizing problems, and it also has been shown to mitigate parenting stress and enhance parenting attitudes and behaviors. However, PCIT is seldom available to foster families, and it rarely has been tested under intervention conditions that are generalizable to community-based child welfare service contexts. To address this gap, PCIT was adapted and implemented in a field experiment using 2 novel approaches—group-based training and telephone consultation—both of which have the potential to be integrated into usual care. Method This study analyzes 129 foster-parent-child dyads who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) waitlist control, (b) brief PCIT, and (c) extended PCIT. Self-report and observational data were gathered at multiple time points up to 14 weeks post baseline. Results Findings from mixed-model, repeated measures analyses indicated that the brief and extended PCIT interventions were associated with a significant decrease in self-reported parenting stress. Results from mixed-effects generalized linear models showed that the interventions also led to significant improvements in observed indicators of positive and negative parenting. The brief course of PCIT was as efficacious as the extended PCIT intervention. Conclusions The findings suggest that usual training and support services can be improved upon by introducing foster parents to experiential, interactive PCIT training. PMID:26977251

  16. BOOST H2O - Field Training Activities for Hydrologic Science near Lake Iznik, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derin, Y.; Hatipoglu, E.; Sunnetci, M. O.; Tanyas, H.; Unal Ercan, H.; Aktuna, Z.; Agouridis, C.; Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Schroeder, P.; Ece, O. I.; Yilmaz, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Field activities are often the best pedagogy for reinforcing principles learned in the classroom. As part of the 'Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology: Helping Hydrologic Outreach (BOOST H2O)' project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of State, six graduate students from three Turkish universities, four U.S. professors, and two Turkish professors participated in a week of training activities during May-June 2013. Field activities took place in the Lake Iznik region in western Turkey. The lake basin is geologically complex, with fault-controlled hydrogeology, and land use is dominated by agriculture, particularly olive cultivation. Professors trained the students (four females and two males) on concepts and techniques in surface-water and groundwater hydrology, water quality, and related computer software. Activities included stream gauging (using top-setting rods and a current meter), geomorphic assessment of streams (slope, cross-sections, and bed-clast size), measuring depth to water in wells, and collection of water samples from springs, wells, and the lake. Measurements of pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and alkalinity were performed along with sampling for stable isotope (oxygen and hydrogen) analysis. The students visited local villages, farms, surface-water intakes, and recreational springs for a holistic approach towards integrated water resource management. Results were discussed in the context of lithology, tectonics, land use, and other human impacts.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  18. Epidemiologic study of electric utility workers exposed to magnetic fields. Volume 2: Extended results, tables, and peer-reviewed manuscripts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Loomis, D.P.

    1996-06-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies, including several focused on electric utility workers, have suggested that occupational exposure to magnetic fields may be associated with increased leukemia and brain cancer risk. This study examined mortality, especially leukemia and brain cancer mortality, among nearly 139,000 men employed at five US electric utility companies between 1950 and 1988. The study included a detailed assessment of magnetic field exposure accumulated over each worker`s career, as well as estimates of concomitant exposures to solvents and PCBs. The electric utility workers` mortality from all causes and from all types of cancer combined was substantially below that of the US male population. Analysis of mortality patterns in relation to magnetic field exposure supported the hypothesis that magnetic field exposure increases the risk of brain cancer. Brain cancer risk increased with increasing magnetic field exposure, and was highest among those with the highest cumulative exposure. The study did not support the hypothesized association between magnetic field exposure and leukemia. Volume 1 of this report contains principals results, an in-depth presentation of study methods, detailed tables of results, conclusions, and interpretation of results. Volume 2 contains additional tables of results and other peer-reviewed manuscripts.

  19. The effect of water maze spatial training on posterior parietal cortex transcallosal evoked field potentials in the rat.

    PubMed

    Beiko, J; Cain, D P

    1998-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the principal model of synaptic plasticity often used to explain the changes that occur in the brain as a result of learning and memory. In this experiment the relationship between rat posterior parietal cortex (PPC) transcallosal evoked field potentials (TCEPs) and spatial training in the water maze was examined to determine if LTP-like changes (i.e. learning-induced LTP) in PPC TCEPs occur as a result of spatial training. Spatial training consisted of 10 trials per day for 10 consecutive days. The location of the hidden platform was changed over the course of spatial training to ensure the rats' acquisition of several different platform positions. TCEPs were taken 1 and 23 h after each training session. Upon completion of all water maze training, the animals were administered LTP-inducing trains to ensure that the recording arrangement and procedure was capable of detecting LTP. The results showed that the rats quickly acquired the water maze task and that the recording arrangement and procedure were capable of detecting LTP, even after the first session of induction. However, despite robust place learning, the TCEPs taken after water maze training did not differ from those taken before water maze training. Although the present results failed to provide any evidence for a role of neocortical LTP in learning and memory, further studies of this nature are required to determine if the present results generalize to different behavioural tasks and/or cortical areas.

  20. The new epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field. PMID:26088071

  1. Electromagnetic field analysis and modeling of a relative position detection sensor for high speed maglev trains.

    PubMed

    Xue, Song; He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP) is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT) and the New Equivalent Source (NES) method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor.

  2. Electromagnetic Field Analysis and Modeling of a Relative Position Detection Sensor for High Speed Maglev Trains

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Song; He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP) is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT) and the New Equivalent Source (NES) method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor. PMID:22778652

  3. Electromagnetic field analysis and modeling of a relative position detection sensor for high speed maglev trains.

    PubMed

    Xue, Song; He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP) is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT) and the New Equivalent Source (NES) method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor. PMID:22778652

  4. Epidemiological fingerprinting of Enterobacter cloacae by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic restriction fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Haertl, R; Bandlow, G

    1993-01-01

    A cluster of infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae was observed among preterm neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a pediatric hospital in Osnabrück, Germany. The presence of similar antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among the bacterial isolates prompted an investigation to determine whether a limited spread of a single strain existed. All 12 E. cloacae isolates from the NICU and 50 nonrelated strains were fingerprinted by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis (SF-REA) of EcoRI DNA digests. Selected isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI- or XbaI-generated genomic restriction fragments. Epidemiologically unrelated strains were clearly discriminated by both methods. Results achieved by SF-REA and PFGE revealed that of the 12 isolates from the NICU, 11 belonged to the same genotypic cluster. Since all reagents and equipment for both techniques are commercially available, DNA fingerprinting by SF-REA or PFGE is proposed as a useful tool in the microbiology laboratory for investigating the epidemiological relatedness of E. cloacae strains of clinical and environmental origin. Images PMID:8093251

  5. Analysis of international competition and training in men's field hockey by global positioning system and inertial sensor technology.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew D; MacFarlane, Niall G

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the relative demands of elite field hockey training and competition to determine whether familiar exercise prescription strategies provide an appropriate training stimulus. Sixteen elite male field hockey players (age, 25 ± 4 years; body mass, 70.9 ± 6.6 kg; and maximal oxygen consumption, 61.0 ± 2.1 ml·kg·min [mean ± SD]) participated in the study. Seventy-five elite level competition and 37 training analyses from 8 games and 4 training sessions were obtained. Training duration was longer than competition and covered a greater total distance (109 ± 2.5 vs. 74 ± 0.3 minutes and 7318 ± 221 vs. 5868 ± 75 m; p < 0.001 in both). The distance covered sprinting and running at high intensity was not different between training and competition (114 ± 6 vs. 116 ± 9 m when sprinting and 457 ± 6 vs. 448 ± 7 m for high-intensity running). More high-intensity accelerations were performed during training than in competition (37 ± 3 vs. 20 ± 2). Despite having lower predicted aerobic capacity and covering less distance in competition than in some previous studies, these data support the suggestion that it is high-intensity activity that differentiates international level competition and further suggests that international players can replicate the intensity of competition during small-sided games.

  6. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  7. Preceptors' Influence on Athletic Training Students' Development of Excitement and Commitment to the Field of Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students (ATS) who are excited about their chosen profession are likely to persist to graduation. Preceptors exert significant influence on ATS; however, little is known about the methods that preceptors use to help ATS develop their own professional commitments. Objective: To investigate the methods used by preceptors…

  8. Vocational Training for Women Refugees in Africa: Guide-lines from Selected Field Projects. Training Discussion Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eve

    In addition to describing how training programs for African refugees fail to meet the needs of women (who along with children are the majority of refugees), this document offers guidelines for improving the programs and, thus, the productivity and incomes of women refugees. The first section, called "Women Refugees: The Overlooked Majority,"…

  9. Field monitoring of a LID-BMP treatment train system in China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Haifeng; Wang, Xiangwen; Ti, Chaopu; Zhai, Yanyun; Field, Richard; Tafuri, Anthony N; Cai, Huihua; Yu, Shaw L

    2015-06-01

    In order to assess the urban runoff control effectiveness of a low-impact development best management practice (LID-BMP) treatment train system, a field test of selected LID-BMPs was conducted in China. The LID-BMPs selected include three grassed swales, a buffer strip, a bioretention cell, two infiltration pits, and a constructed wetland. The test site is in a campus in southern China. The LID-BMPs, connected in a series, received stormwater runoff from four tennis courts with an area of 2808 m(2) and eight basketball courts with an area of 4864 m(2). Construction of the LID-BMPs was completed in early spring of 2012, and the sampling was conducted during May of 2012 to September of 2013. During the sampling effort, besides the performance evaluations of grassed swales and the bioretention cell in controlling runoff quantity as well as quality, the emphasis was also on determining the performance of the LID-BMP treatment train system. A total of 19 storm events were monitored, with nine producing no runoff and ten producing runoff. Data collected from the ten storm events were analyzed for estimating runoff quantity (peak flow rate and total runoff volume) and quality reduction by the LID-BMPs. The sum of loads (SOL) method was used for calculating the water quality performance of LID-BMPs. Results indicated that, for peak flow rate, a bioretention cell reduction of 50-84 % was obtained, and grassed swale reduction was 17-79 %, with a runoff volume reduction of 47-80 and 9-74 %, respectively. For water quality, the bioretention cell in general showed good removal for zinc (nearly 100 %), copper (69 %), NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen) (51 %), and total nitrogen (TN) (49 %); fair removal for chemical oxygen demand (COD) (18 %); and poor removal for total suspended solids (TSS) (-11 %) and total phosphorus (TP) (-21 %). And its performance effectiveness for pollutant removal increased in the second year after 1 year of stabilizing. When considering the aggregated effect of

  10. Iron Metabolism in Field Hockey Players During an Annual Training Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Podgórski, Tomasz; Kryściak, Jakub; Konarski, Jan; Domaszewska, Katarzyna; Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Strzelczyk, Ryszard; Pawlak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Post-physical training changes in iron metabolism in the human body often occur. To fully describe these processes, fifteen male Polish National Team field hockey players (age 27.7 ± 5.2 years, body mass 72.8 ± 7.6 kg and body height 177.1 ± 5.7 cm) were examined in three phases of an annual training cycle: preparatory (T1), competitive (T2) and transition (T3). To assess aerobic fitness, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated. Based on the iron concentration, the changes in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) and other selected haematological indicators (haemoglobin, erythrocytes, mean corpuscular haemoglobin - MCH) in iron metabolism were estimated. The average values of maximum oxygen uptake increased from 54.97 ± 3.62 ml·kg−1·min−1 in T1 to 59.93 ± 3.55 ml·kg−1·min−1 in T2 (p<0.05) and then decreased to 56.21 ± 4.56 ml·kg−1·min−1 in T3 (p<0.05). No statistically significant changes in the erythrocyte count were noted. The MCH and haemoglobin concentration decreased between T1 and T2. The maximal exercise test caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the plasma iron concentration during the competition and transition phases. Progressive but non-significant increases in resting iron concentration, TIBC and UIBC in the analysed annual training cycle were noted. To show global changes in iron metabolism in the human body, it is necessary to determine additional variables, i.e. UIBC, TIBC, haemoglobin, MCH or the erythrocyte count. The direction of changes in iron metabolism depends on both the duration and intensity of the physical activity and the fitness level of the subjects. Dietary intake of iron increases the level of this trace element and prevents anaemia associated with training overloads. PMID:26557195

  11. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  12. The Future of Biofeedback Training in the Field of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    The use of biofeedback training with special education students is reviewed. Relaxation training to lower anxiety levels of hyperactive children, academic skill remediation, neuromuscular training with cerebral palsied and physically handicapped children, and central nervous system functioning with epileptics are among research topics cited. (CL)

  13. Retesting The Validity Of A Specific Field Test For Judo Training

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luis; González, Vicente; Iscar, Marta; Brime, Juan I.; Fernández-Río, Javier; Rodríguez, Blanca; Montoliu, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this research project was to retest the validity of a specifically designed judo field test (Santos Test) in a different group of judokas. Eight (n=8) national-level male judokas underwent laboratory and field testing. The mean data (mean +/− SD) obtained in the laboratory tests was: HRmax: 200 ± 4.0 beats × min−1, VO2 max: 52.8 ± 7.9 ± ml × kg−1 × min−1, lactate max: 12 ± 2.5 mmol × l−1, HR at the anaerobic threshold: 174.2 ± 9.4 beats × min−1, percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 87 ± 3.6 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l−1, and RPE: 17.2 ± 1.0. The mean data obtained in the field test (Santos) was: HRmax: 201.3 ± 4.1 beats × min−1, VO2 max: 55.6 ± 5.8 ml × kg−1 × min−1, lactate max: 15.6 ± 2.8 mmol × l−1, HR at the anaerobic threshold: 173.2 ± 4.3 beats × min−1, percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 86 ± 2.5 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l−1, and RPE: 16.7 ± 1.0. There were no significant differences between the data obtained on both tests in any of the parameters, except for maximum lactate concentration. Therefore, the Santos test can be considered a valid tool specific for judo training. PMID:23486994

  14. A cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator using a novel torque-field controller for human motion training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weihai; Cui, Xiang; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    Rehabilitation technologies have great potentials in assisted motion training for stroke patients. Considering that wrist motion plays an important role in arm dexterous manipulation of activities of daily living, this paper focuses on developing a cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator (CDWRR) for motion training or assistance to subjects with motor disabilities. The CDWRR utilizes the wrist skeletal joints and arm segments as the supporting structure and takes advantage of cable-driven parallel design to build the system, which brings the properties of flexibility, low-cost, and low-weight. The controller of the CDWRR is designed typically based on a virtual torque-field, which is to plan "assist-as-needed" torques for the spherical motion of wrist responding to the orientation deviation in wrist motion training. The torque-field controller can be customized to different levels of rehabilitation training requirements by tuning the field parameters. Additionally, a rapidly convergent parameter self-identification algorithm is developed to obtain the uncertain parameters automatically for the floating wearable structure of the CDWRR. Finally, experiments on a healthy subject are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the controller and the feasibility of the CDWRR on wrist motion training or assistance.

  15. A cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator using a novel torque-field controller for human motion training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weihai; Cui, Xiang; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-06-01

    Rehabilitation technologies have great potentials in assisted motion training for stroke patients. Considering that wrist motion plays an important role in arm dexterous manipulation of activities of daily living, this paper focuses on developing a cable-driven wrist robotic rehabilitator (CDWRR) for motion training or assistance to subjects with motor disabilities. The CDWRR utilizes the wrist skeletal joints and arm segments as the supporting structure and takes advantage of cable-driven parallel design to build the system, which brings the properties of flexibility, low-cost, and low-weight. The controller of the CDWRR is designed typically based on a virtual torque-field, which is to plan "assist-as-needed" torques for the spherical motion of wrist responding to the orientation deviation in wrist motion training. The torque-field controller can be customized to different levels of rehabilitation training requirements by tuning the field parameters. Additionally, a rapidly convergent parameter self-identification algorithm is developed to obtain the uncertain parameters automatically for the floating wearable structure of the CDWRR. Finally, experiments on a healthy subject are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the controller and the feasibility of the CDWRR on wrist motion training or assistance.

  16. Field synopsis and meta-analyses of genetic epidemiological evidence for Kashin-Beck disease, an endemic osteoarthropathy in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Liu, Huan; Wang, Xi; Guo, Xiong; Lammi, Mikko J

    2016-10-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic degenerative osteoarthropathy with unclear etiology. To provide current evidence supporting a genetic predisposition for KBD, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature on the genetic epidemiology of KBD. The PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wan Fang Data were searched up to August 2015 for articles published in English and Chinese. Genome-wide and exome sequencing, linkage, and case-control association studies for any genetic variants associated with KBD were included. Meta-analysis was performed for all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were evaluated in two or more studies. The effect size was summarized as odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) by fixed and random effects models. A total of 24 articles were systematically reviewed. Eleven short tandem repeats on chromosomes 2, 11 and 12, 34 SNPs in 12 genes, as well as copy number variant 452 were identified as KBD susceptibility factors in individual studies. The meta-analysis of the GPX1 rs1050450, DIO2 rs225014, TrxR2 rs5748469 and HLA-DRB1 rs7745040 failed to reveal any associations with KBD. However, the meta-analysis of HLA-DRB1 rs9275295 allele A was associated with KBD (OR = 1.737, 95 % CI: 1.002-3.012). In addition, seven haplotypes in GPX1, GPX4, HLA-DRB1 and GDF5 genes also showed significant associations with KBD. In conclusions, our study could identify a number of genetic markers associated with KBD. However, the evidence does not currently support a strong association between the specific variants and KBD because of the limited number of studies, and in the future, more rigorous studies are needed to confirm KBD's links with these variants. PMID:27256326

  17. Polygenic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Much of the genetic basis of complex traits is present on current genotyping products, but the individual variants that affect the traits have largely not been identified. Several traditional problems in genetic epidemiology have recently been addressed by assuming a polygenic basis for disease and treating it as a single entity. Here I briefly review some of these applications, which collectively may be termed polygenic epidemiology. Methodologies in this area include polygenic scoring, linear mixed models, and linkage disequilibrium scoring. They have been used to establish a polygenic effect, estimate genetic correlation between traits, estimate how many variants affect a trait, stratify cases into subphenotypes, predict individual disease risks, and infer causal effects using Mendelian randomization. Polygenic epidemiology will continue to yield useful applications even while much of the specific variation underlying complex traits remains undiscovered. PMID:27061411

  18. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  19. Polygenic Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Dudbridge, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Much of the genetic basis of complex traits is present on current genotyping products, but the individual variants that affect the traits have largely not been identified. Several traditional problems in genetic epidemiology have recently been addressed by assuming a polygenic basis for disease and treating it as a single entity. Here I briefly review some of these applications, which collectively may be termed polygenic epidemiology. Methodologies in this area include polygenic scoring, linear mixed models, and linkage disequilibrium scoring. They have been used to establish a polygenic effect, estimate genetic correlation between traits, estimate how many variants affect a trait, stratify cases into subphenotypes, predict individual disease risks, and infer causal effects using Mendelian randomization. Polygenic epidemiology will continue to yield useful applications even while much of the specific variation underlying complex traits remains undiscovered. PMID:27061411

  20. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-06-01

    A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power. PMID:21912294

  1. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-06-01

    A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power.

  2. Mindfulness Training and Reductions in Teacher Stress and Burnout: Results from Two Randomized, Waitlist-Control Field Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeser, Robert W.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Jha, Amishi; Cullen, Margaret; Wallace, Linda; Wilensky, Rona; Oberle, Eva; Thomson, Kimberly; Taylor, Cynthia; Harrison, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers' occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were…

  3. Ethics and Accreditation in Addictions Counselor Training: Possible Field Placement Issues for CACREP-Accredited Addictions Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors have long been practicing in alcohol and drug treatment settings. However, only recently has the counseling field offered formal recognition of addictions counseling as a specialization through the implementation of accreditation standards for addiction counseling training programs. With the passage of the 2009 standards,…

  4. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Development of Master's Level Counseling Supervisors Who Were Trained in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semivan, Suzanne Gibson

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the experience of eight Master's level supervisors who received their counselor supervision training within the field. The research focused on the lived experiences of becoming a supervisor and strived to understand meaningful and formative influences, as well as the technical and supportive nature of those forces…

  5. Human Resource Development and Training Strategies: The Experience and Results of the Eurotecnet Programme. Four Priority Fields of Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    The EUROTECNET program has been refocused to concentrate more on continuing vocational education as the area of greatest need across the European Community. Four priority fields or domains of innovative activity have been defined for the final 2 years of EUROTECNET. Priority domain 1 is innovative training needs analysis with a special focus on…

  6. The Effects of Compensatory Scanning Training on Mobility in Patients with Homonymous Visual Field Defects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Gera A.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Tucha, Oliver; Heutink, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are a common consequence of postchiasmatic acquired brain injury and often lead to mobility-related difficulties. Different types of compensatory scanning training have been developed, aimed at decreasing consequences of the HVFD by changing visual scanning. Aim The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of a compensatory scanning training program using horizontal scanning on mobility-related activities and participation in daily life. Method The main interest of this study is to assess the effectiveness of training on mobility-related activities and participation in daily life. Visual scanning tests, such as dot counting and visual search, and control measures for visual functions and reading have been included as well. First, it is examined how performance on scanning and mobility-related measures is affected in patients with HVFD by comparing scores with scores of a healthy control group (n = 25). Second, the effect of training is assessed using an RCT design, in which performance of 26 patients before and after training is compared to performance of 23 patients in a waiting list control group. Results Self-reported improvements after training were found, accompanied by improvements in detecting peripheral stimuli and avoiding obstacles during walking, especially in dual task situations in which a second task limits the attentional capacity available for compensatory scanning. Training only improved mobility-related activities in which detection of peripheral stimuli is important, while no improvement was found on tests that require other visual skills, such as reading, visual counting and visual search. Conclusion This is the first RCT to evaluate the effects of a compensatory scanning training that is based on a systematic horizontal scanning rhythm. This training improved mobility-related activities. The results suggest that different types of compensatory scanning strategies are appropriate for

  7. [Epidemiology between ethics and politics].

    PubMed

    Saracci, R

    1999-01-01

    Over the last two decades ethics in epidemiology has been the subject of a substantial number of conferences, books, articles, guidelines as well as training courses. The relevance of ethics for epidemiology does not make the ethical approach sufficient to exhaust the analysis of the relationship between epidemiology and society: on one side the ethical assessment of an epidemiological investigation is not self-sufficient but depends on the evaluation of the scientific worth of the study (a planned study involving humans is automatically unethical if scientifically unsound) and, on the other side, to be of practical value it needs expanding as to its policy implications. A few remarks on two issues, ethics committees and human reproductive cloning, support the general contention that translating knowledge into effective public health actions may be grounded in ethical considerations but necessitates a substantial development at political level.

  8. Improvements Needed in the Army's Program for Developing Extension Training Materials for Use by Soldiers in Field Units. Report to the Secretary of the Army.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses three major issues concerning the Army's program for developing extension training materials: (1) indications of low usage of Army Training Extension Course lessons by soldiers in the field; (2) improvements needed in the process for developing extension training materials; and (3) the need for further evaluation before the…

  9. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  10. Impact of E4 Training and Field Auditing of GSA Heartland Region Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Gowri, Krishnan; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.

    2012-04-01

    To assess the impact of energy efficiency expert evaluation (E4) training and field audits performed since 2007, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) undertook a follow-up study on the implementation of E4 recommendations and an analysis of energy savings. The building property manager and O and M contractor of each facility were interviewed to obtain feedback and implementation status of the E4 recommendations. Overall, there were more than 160 recommendations documented in the E4 reports; about 50% of these recommendations were fully implemented and the remaining 50% either partially implemented or not implemented. In four buildings, the E4 recommendations were aligned with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) projects replacing HVAC equipment or upgrading the building control system. The E4 recommendations were not followed-up in two buildings because of uncertainty of the long-term use of the facility or personnel changes. Results of this followon study are reported in this document.

  11. Numerical simulations of LNG vapor dispersion in Brayton Fire Training Field tests with ANSYS CFX.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ruifeng; Ng, Dedy; Cormier, Benjamin R; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-11-15

    Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses the ANSYS CFX CFD code to model LNG vapor dispersion in the atmosphere. Discussed are important parameters that are essential inputs to the ANSYS CFX simulations, including the atmospheric conditions, LNG evaporation rate and pool area, turbulence in the source term, ground surface temperature and roughness height, and effects of obstacles. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to illustrate uncertainties in the simulation results arising from the mesh size and source term turbulence intensity. In addition, a set of medium-scale LNG spill tests were performed at the Brayton Fire Training Field to collect data for validating the ANSYS CFX prediction results. A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dense gas behavior of LNG vapor cloud, and its prediction results of downwind gas concentrations close to ground level were in approximate agreement with the test data. PMID:20692092

  12. Psychological first aid training for Lebanese field workers in the emergency context of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Akoury-Dirani, Leyla; Sahakian, Tina S; Hassan, Fahed Y; Hajjar, Ranya V; El Asmar, Khalil

    2015-11-01

    The Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon required a fast and efficient comprehensive rescue strategy. Professionals working in emergency response were neither prepared to provide psychological first aid nor prepared to screen for mental health disorders in child refugees. This article examines the efficacy of a national training program in psychological first aid (PFA) to enhance the readiness of mental health field workers in the Syrian refugee response. Participant (N = 109) were recruited from Lebanese ministries and nongovernmental organizations. They received a 2.5-day training on PFA and on screening for mental health disorders in children. Their knowledge and perceived readiness were assessed before the training, immediately after the training, and 1 month after the training using 2 evaluation forms. Evaluation Form A was a multiple choice questionnaire composed of 20 questions and created on the basis of the content of the training, and Evaluation Form B was a Likert-type scale of 20 items created based on the core components of PFA. The data of 60 participants were analyzed. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge and readiness, specifically on the components related to the principles and techniques of PFA. PMID:25866960

  13. NEW FIELDS OF EMPLOYMENT AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OLDER WORKERS. PANEL AND WORKSHOP V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASH, LANE; AND OTHERS

    OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRAINING OLDER ADULTS IN NEW OCCUPATIONS HAVE BEEN MADE POSSIBLE BY RECENT FEDERAL LEGISLATION. UNDER THE SPONSORSHIP OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, PROGRAMS WERE STARTED IN 20 RURAL COMMUNITIES TO TRAIN OLDER WOMEN AS VISITING HOMEMAKERS. LOCAL AGENCIES ORGANIZED THE COURSE AND RECRUITED THE TRAINEES, THE HOME ECONOMICS AGENT…

  14. Vocational Education and Training--The European Research Field. Background Report. Volume II. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This document contains 10 papers on vocational education and training and related research that were developed for a 1998 European research report titled "Training for a Changing Society." The following papers are included: "Research on Transition" (B. Clasquin, F. Gerardin, V. Toresse); "Objectives, Realisation and Organisation of Continuing…

  15. Strategic Planning for Education and Training: A Report from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Teri B.; Barksdale, Susan B.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on the state of strategic planning for education and training in service industries, manufacturing, retailing, and entertainment organizations. A questionnaire surveyed 200 training managers in organizations of over 5,000 employees headquartered primarily in the Pacific Northwest and revealed that strategic planning is becoming a priority.…

  16. Online Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Software Training through the Behavioral Modeling Approach: A Longitudinal Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie C.; Shaw, Ruey-shiang

    2006-01-01

    The continued and increasing use of online training raises the question of whether the most effective training methods applied in live instruction will carry over to different online environments in the long run. Behavior Modeling (BM) approach--teaching through demonstration--has been proven as the most effective approach in a face-to-face (F2F)…

  17. Vocational Education and Training--The European Research Field. Background Report. Volume I. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This document contains 12 papers on vocational education and training (VET) and related research that were developed for a 1998 European research report titled "Training for a Changing Society." The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Stavros Stavrou, Manfred Tessaring); "Institutional Framework Conditions and Regulation of Initial…

  18. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  19. Conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-06-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. From year to year, incidents and crimes increase that target IT systems or was done with their help. More and more companies and authorities have security problems in their own IT infrastructure. To respond to these incidents professionally, it is important to have well trained staff. The fact that many agencies and companies work with very sensitive data makes it necessary to further train the own employees in the field of IT forensics. Motivated by these facts, a training concept, which allows the creation of practical exercises, is presented in this paper. The focus is on the practical implementation of forensic important relationships.

  20. Field/Lab Training Workshops in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology for Secondary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A.; Newsom, H.; Hoehler, T.; Tsairides, C.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Kiefer, W.; Kadel, S.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Aubele, J.; Crumpler, L.

    2003-12-01

    Thematic field-lab-classroom workshops can be successful in training secondary teachers in planetary geology and astrobiology, from the LPI's 4 years experience. A typical workshop includes ˜4 days of field study and ˜3 days of related classroom/lab lectures and exercises. Up to 30 teachers have participated at once, and the staff averages 5 researchers and educators. The 2003 workshop, The Great Desert, focused on geology and life in the Colorado Plateau as analogs for Mars. Specific emphases were on geologic processes exemplified in the Grand Canyon, Sunset Crater and Meteor Crater, and on biotic communities in desert soils and hot springs. The classroom portion, hosted by UNM, included lectures, lab work, and teaching exercises keyed to the field experience and its extensions to Mars. Formal followups: non-directive exit questionnaires; email list-serves for participants; websites with images, presentations, and exercises from the workshop, and links to related materials (e.g., http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/EPO/yellowstone2002/index.html); and interviews for six-month retrospective. Graduate and continuing education credit are available. Past workshops, all relevant to Mars, have targeted: geology and extremophiles of Yellowstone NP, geology of the Cascade volcanos; and giant floods and lava flows of central Washington. The greatest benefit of this workshop format is the teachers' intense, deep experience, emphasizing scientific content. They learn from field, classroom, and laboratory perspectives, and work with PhD level researchers who contribute their excitement, demonstrate and teach critical thought processes, and provide authoritative background and answers. The small group size permits personal interactions (among teachers and presenters) that complement each other's understanding and appreciation of the subject. They log ˜65 contact hours with the staff, in small groups or one-on-one. Teachers return to the classroom with personal experiences

  1. German students' current choice of profession in the field of psychotherapy: Reasons for or against engaging in psychoanalytic training.

    PubMed

    Lebiger-Vogel, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The psychoanalytic societies in Germany as in many other countries are concerned by a decline in the number of candidates for full psychoanalytic training. While this situation is partly attributable to changes both in society and in educational and healthcare systems, it is questionable whether psychoanalytic training institutions have yet found adequate responses to it. Under the banner of 'evidence-based treatment', behaviour therapy has come to be widely disseminated, with major implications for the teaching of different psychotherapy paradigms at universities. To investigate the determinants of this trend in the specific German situation, a large-scale, multi-method exploratory study supported by IPA's DPPT programme was undertaken, focusing on the reasons given by a population (N = 679) of German psychology, medical, and education students for embarking on training in psychoanalysis or behaviour therapy. The results suggest that behaviour therapy is more compatible with the prevailing scientific understanding and with current societal and cultural trends, owing in part to inadequacies or bias in university teaching of the various paradigms of psychotherapy. While most of the psychology students expressed a preference for behavioural training, the psychotherapy option proved less attractive for their counterparts in the fields of medicine and education. Semi-standardized qualitative interviews were used to gain a deeper understanding of the students' decisions for or against training in a specific paradigm, and led to the identification of seven decision-making prototypes. Possible reasons for the students' decisions are discussed, and concrete proposals and recommendations are presented. PMID:26751021

  2. [Significance of the transference-countertransference constellation in motivation for participation in an epidemiologic field study of psychogenic disorders: a report of experiences].

    PubMed

    Sollors-Mossler, B; Reister, G

    1992-01-01

    The present article deals mainly with problems arising from the motivation of individuals for the participation in an epidemiological field study and their solutions on the basis of psychological-psychiatric findings. Subsequent to a more detailed survey of the research project in question formal and technical aspects of the motivational efforts (home visits, phone contacts) which had to be performed by the research group are mentioned. In the following the authors focus on the scientific concepts and orientations of their motivation work including the specific attention paid to the constellation of transference and countertransference. Particular importance is attributed to the presentation of several case studies which illustrate the influence of different psychoanalytical character traits on the motivational process. Finally the authors concentrate on specific problems regarding the sex of the probands as well as on their experiences with so-called hesitators i.e. individuals who for a longer period of time cannot decide whether to participate in the study or not.

  3. Epidemiological analysis of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis isolates in Japan by phage-typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Terajima, J.; Nakamura, A.; Watanabe, H.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates of phage types (PTs) PT1, PT4, PT13a and PT22 derived from sporadic cases and outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan during 1994 and 1995 were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). While PT1 strains from 5 different outbreaks showed 14 PFGE patterns, 5 PFGE patterns were observed among PT4 isolates from 5 different outbreaks and 6 independent isolates from imported chicken. Interestingly, 8 out of 9 PT4 strains associated with foreign travel to Southeast Asia were indistinguishable in PFGE pattern from 5 independent isolates of imported chicken from England. Although both PT13a and PT22 were first reported in Japan in 1994, PT22 showed various PFGE patterns compared to PT13a which had the same pattern within an outbreak, unlike PT1. These results could indicate that multiple clonal lines of PT1 and PT22 had already spread while relatively fewer clonal lines of PT4 and PT13a might exist in Japan. PMID:9692599

  4. Exploring the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice: stories from the field.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Teresa; Howie, Linsey

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses interested in extending their interpersonal and psychotherapeutic skills sometimes undertake postgraduate training in gestalt therapy. Little is known about how this new knowledge and psychotherapeutic skill base informs their practice. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that aimed to explore the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice. Within a framework of narrative inquiry, four psychiatric nurses trained in gestalt therapy were invited to tell their stories of training in a gestalt approach to therapy, and recount their experiences of how it influenced their practice. In keeping with narrative analysis methods, the research findings were presented as a collection of four stories. Eight themes were derived from a thematic analysis conducted within and across the four stories. The discussion of the themes encapsulates the similarities and differences across the storied collection, providing a community and cultural context for understanding the individual stories. PMID:21429062

  5. Exploring the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice: stories from the field.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Teresa; Howie, Linsey

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses interested in extending their interpersonal and psychotherapeutic skills sometimes undertake postgraduate training in gestalt therapy. Little is known about how this new knowledge and psychotherapeutic skill base informs their practice. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that aimed to explore the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice. Within a framework of narrative inquiry, four psychiatric nurses trained in gestalt therapy were invited to tell their stories of training in a gestalt approach to therapy, and recount their experiences of how it influenced their practice. In keeping with narrative analysis methods, the research findings were presented as a collection of four stories. Eight themes were derived from a thematic analysis conducted within and across the four stories. The discussion of the themes encapsulates the similarities and differences across the storied collection, providing a community and cultural context for understanding the individual stories.

  6. Major Workforce and Workplace Trends Influencing the Training and Development Field in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, William J.; Kolb, Judith A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes six key work force and workplace trends facing human resource managers and implications for training and development: technology, globalization, cost containment, speed of market change, importance of knowledge capital, and change itself. (SK)

  7. Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Binary Typing as Tools in Veterinary Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis of Bovine and Human Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zadoks, Ruth; van Leeuwen, Willem; Barkema, Herman; Sampimon, Otlis; Verbrugh, Henri; Schukken, Ynte Hein; van Belkum, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-eight bovine mammary Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse clinical, temporal, and geographical origins were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion of prokaryotic DNA and by means of binary typing using 15 strain-specific DNA probes. Seven pulsed-field types and four subtypes were identified, as were 16 binary types. Concordant delineation of genetic relatedness was documented by both techniques, yet based on practical and epidemiological considerations, binary typing was the preferable method. Genotypes of bovine isolates were compared to 55 previously characterized human S. aureus isolates through cluster analysis of binary types. Genetic clusters containing strains of both human and bovine origin were found, but bacterial genotypes were predominantly associated with a single host species. Binary typing proved an excellent tool for comparison of S. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, derived from different host species and from different databases. For 28 bovine S. aureus isolates, detailed clinical observations in vivo were compared to strain typing results in vitro. Associations were found between distinct genotypes and severity of disease, suggesting strain-specific bacterial virulence. Circumstantial evidence furthermore supports strain-specific routes of bacterial dissemination. We conclude that PFGE and binary typing can be successfully applied for genetic analysis of S. aureus isolates from bovine mammary secretions. Binary typing in particular is a robust and simple method and promises to become a powerful tool for strain characterization, for resolution of clonal relationships of bacteria within and between host species, and for identification of sources and transmission routes of bovine S. aureus. PMID:10790124

  8. Accuracy of industry and occupation on death certificates of electric utility workers: implications for epidemiologic studies of magnetic fields and cancer.

    PubMed

    Andrews, K W; Savitz, D A

    1999-12-01

    A substantial epidemiologic literature has relied on occupation and industry information from death certificates to make inferences about the association of electric and magnetic field exposure with cancer, but the validity of the occupational data on death certificates is questionable. We compared occupation and industry information from death certificates to company work histories for 793 electric utility workers who died from brain cancer (n=143), leukemia (n=156), lung cancer (n=246, randomly sampled), and non-cancer causes (n=248, randomly sampled). Nearly 75% of death certificates correctly indicated utility industry employment and of those, 48% matched the longest held occupation derived from company work histories. Hence, only 36% matched on both industry and occupation. We computed odds ratios relating occupations involving magnetic field exposure to brain cancer and leukemia both for the occupation listed on the death certificate and for the longest-held occupation based on company records in order to examine the impact of exposure misclassification based on reliance on the death certificate information. For brain cancer, the odds ratio was 1.2 based on death certificates and 1.7 based on company work history, suggesting some attenuation due to misclassification. For leukemia, death certificate information yielded an odds ratio of 0.9, whereas company work histories yielded an odds ratio of 1.3. Although work histories are limited to the period of employment in a specific company, these data suggest that there is substantial misclassification in use of death certificate information on industry and occupation of utility workers, as found in other industries. The limited quality of occupation and industry information on death certificates argues against relying on such information to evaluate modest associations with mortality.

  9. The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: A Brief History of a Century of Epidemiologic Discovery.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Alfred

    2016-03-01

    During its first century, the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health has been home to several faculty members who have played leading roles in defining and expanding the field and science of epidemiology. They have done so by training leaders in the field, creating new methods and applications, and making relevant discoveries in the worlds of infectious and chronic diseases. These methodologic innovations and discoveries underlie many of today's major health policies and practices.

  10. Aviation Pilot Training I and Aviation Technician I: Task Analyses. Semester I. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot and aviation technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aviation career opportunities; comprehending the history of aviation; understanding classes, categories, and types of aircraft;…

  11. The Roles of Evaluation for Vocational Education and Training. Plain Talk on the Field of Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton; Ryan, Paul

    This book posits that "plain talk" is needed on the subject of evaluation in vocational education and training. In the first chapter, conceptual issues are discussed. Chapter 2 focuses on the reasons for, and methods of, evaluation. Chapter 3 presents and assesses the value of a broad range of evaluation techniques, including outcome measures,…

  12. A Randomized Field Trial of the Fast ForWord Language Computer-Based Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Benson, James G.; Overman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an independent assessment of the Fast ForWord Language computer-based training program developed by Scientific Learning Corporation. Previous laboratory research involving children with language-based learning impairments showed strong effects on their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech…

  13. A Competency Based Assessment Approach to Training and Job Performance in the Field of Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Dennis A.; Ottenheimer, Howard M.

    1979-01-01

    Competency based education is a model which can be utilized for training and evaluating alcohol and drug abuse personnel. An identification and assessment process is described relating to the development and implementation of a competency based bachelor's degree program for students majoring in alcohol and drug abuse related areas. (Author/BEF)

  14. Do Training Programs Work? An Assessment of Pharmacists Activities in the Field of Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Valerie G.; Brock, Tina Penick; Ahn, Jungeun

    2001-01-01

    Seeks to determine if pharmacists who attended a chemical dependency training program were performing more chemical dependency related activities. Results reveal that participants were more likely to perform the following activities: lecture to community groups about chemical dependency; participate in a pharmacists' recovery program; provide…

  15. Aviation Pilot Training II. Task Analyses: [Year II.] Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot II training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aircraft staffs and procedures for safe recovery; understanding procedures for constant altitude turns; understanding procedures for traffic pattern…

  16. The Future of Biofeedback Training in the Field of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Wilbur T.

    Biofeedback training (a process of feeding back to an organism information pertaining to its physiological functions using signals transmitted through sensory receptors) stands as one method to better educate and treat handicapped children. Recent research establishes that it is possible to influence automatic processes (such as breathing)…

  17. Aviation Technician Training I and Task Analyses: Semester II. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 16 concept/duty areas: understanding technical symbols and abbreviations; understanding mathematical terms, symbols, and formulas; computing decimals; computing fractions; computing ratio…

  18. How Precise Are Evaluations of Employment and Training Programs: Evidence from a Field Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLonde, Robert; Maynard, Rebecca

    1987-01-01

    Two studies used experimental data to evaluate nonexperimental methods of program evaluation for employment and training programs. Results of both studies indicated that the nonexperimental methods might not accurately replicate the experimental estimates. Also, new methods for constructing comparison groups yielded little improvement over…

  19. Aviation Pilot Training I. Task Analyses: Semester II. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 12 concept/duty areas: understanding safe procedures in the flight environment; understanding safe procedures in the airport environment; understanding Federal Aviation Regulations concerning…

  20. A Field Test of the Impact of an Inservice Training Program on Health Sciences Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowers, Jo-Ann; Smith, Martha R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Health Sciences Faculty Education Project at Oregon Health & Science University was to enhance the capacity of health science programs and faculty to admit, teach, accommodate, and graduate students with disabilities. Multiple approaches were implemented to achieve this goal. A key strategy was an inservice training program…

  1. Dual Mission: An Innovative Field Model for Training Social Work Students for Work with Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selber, Katherine; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive article explores a collaborative model that blends the dual missions of training social work students to work with military personnel, veterans, and their families while serving student veterans on campus. The model consists of 2 main components: (1) a nationally recognized service component for providing academic, health and…

  2. International Strategy for Action in the Field of Environmental Education and Training for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This document is the result of discussion, additions, amendments, and approval of a working document submitted for this purpose to the Unesco-UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) International Congress on Environmental Education and Training (Moscow, USSR, August 1987). Part 1 seeks to highlight certain needs and priorities in respect to…

  3. Field-Based Pre-Cooling for On-Court Tennis Conditioning Training in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Rob; Bird, Stephen P.; Ballard, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of pre-cooling for on- court, tennis-specific conditioning training in the heat. Eight highly-trained tennis players performed two on-court conditioning sessions in 35°C, 55% Relative Humidity. Sessions were randomised, involved either a pre-cooling or control session, and consisted of 30-min of court- based, tennis movement drills. Pre-cooling involved 20-min of an ice-vest and cold towels to the head/neck and legs, followed by warm-up in a cold compression garment. On-court movement distance was recorded by 1Hz Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) devices, while core temperature, heart rate and perceptual exertion and thermal stress were also recorded throughout the session. Additionally, mass and lower-body peak power during repeated counter-movement jumps were measured before and after each session. No significant performance differences were evident between conditions, although a moderate-large effect (d = 0.7-1.0; p > 0.05) was evident for total (2989 ± 256 v 2870 ± 159m) and high-intensity (805 ± 340 v 629 ± 265m) distance covered following pre-cooling. Further, no significant differences were evident between conditions for rise in core temperature (1.9 ± 0.4 v 2. 2 ± 0.4°C; d > 0.9; p > 0.05), although a significantly smaller change in mass (0.9 ± 0.3 v 1. 3 ± 0.3kg; p < 0.05) was present following pre-cooling. Perceived thermal stress and exertion were significantly lower (d > 1.0; p < 0.05) during the cooling session. Finally, lower-body peak power did not differ between conditions before or after training (d < 0.3; p > 0.05). Conclusions: Despite trends for lowered physiological load and increased distances covered following cooling, the observed responses were not significantly different or as explicit as previously reported laboratory-based pre-cooling research. Key points Pre-cooling did not significantly enhance training performance or reduce physiological load for tennis training in the heat

  4. Free-living amoebae, a training field for macrophage resistance of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Salah, I B; Ghigo, E; Drancourt, M

    2009-10-01

    Mycobacterium species evolved from an environmental recent common ancestor by reductive evolution and lateral gene transfer. Strategies selected through evolution and developed by mycobacteria resulted in resistance to predation by environmental unicellular protists, including free-living amoebae. Indeed, mycobacteria are isolated from the same soil and water environments as are amoebae, and experimental models using Acanthamoeba spp. and Dictyostelium discoideum were exploited to analyse the mechanisms for intracellular survival. Most of these mechanisms have been further reproduced in macrophages for mycobacteria regarded as opportunistic and obligate pathogens. Amoebal cysts may protect intracellular mycobacteria against adverse conditions and may act as a vector for mycobacteria. The latter hypothesis warrants further environmental and clinical studies to better assess the role of free-living amoebae in the epidemiology of infections caused by mycobacteria.

  5. Muscle Oxygen Changes following Sprint Interval Cycling Training in Elite Field Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ben; Hamilton, David K.; Cooper, Chris E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Sprint Interval Cycling (SIT) on muscle oxygenation kinetics and performance during the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT). Twenty-five women hockey players of Olympic standard were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP) and a control group (CON). The EXP group performed six additional SIT sessions over six weeks in addition to their normal training program. To explore the potential training-induced change, EXP subjects additionally completed 5 x 30s maximal intensity cycle testing before and after training. During these tests near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measured parameters; oxyhaemoglobin + oxymyoglobin (HbO2+ MbO2), tissue deoxyhaemoglobin + deoxymyoglobin (HHb+HMb), total tissue haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation (TSI %) were taken. In the EXP group (5.34±0.14 to 5.50±0.14m.s-1) but not the CON group (pre = 5.37±0.27 to 5.39±0.30m.s-1) significant changes were seen in the 30-15IFT performance. EXP group also displayed significant post-training increases during the sprint cycling: ΔTSI (−7.59±0.91 to −12.16±2.70%); ΔHHb+HMb (35.68±6.67 to 69.44±26.48μM.cm); and ΔHbO2+ MbO2 (−74.29±13.82 to −109.36±22.61μM.cm). No significant differences were seen in ΔtHb (−45.81±15.23 to −42.93±16.24). NIRS is able to detect positive peripheral muscle oxygenation changes when used during a SIT protocol which has been shown to be an effective training modality within elite athletes. PMID:25807517

  6. Ethnological Field Training in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico. Papers from the Ixmiquilpan Field Schools in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Michael, Ed.; Bernard, H. Russell, Ed.

    Thirteen papers by graduate students who participated in a 1971 summer field program in Hidalgo, Mexico, are presented. Twelve of the papers are presented in the English language and one is presented in Spanish. Research for seven of the papers was undertaken in established Otomi Indian villages or hamlets. Research for the remaining six papers…

  7. Routine programs of health care systems as an opportunity toward communication skills training for family physicians: A randomized field trial

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Ahmad Reza; Motamedi, Narges; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Background: To have high-quality primary health care services, an adequate doctor–patient communication is necessary. Because of time restrictions and limited budget in health system, an effective, feasible, and continuous training approach is important. The aim of this study is to assess the appropriateness of a communication skills training program simultaneously with routine programs of health care system. Materials and Methods: It was a randomized field trial in two health network settings during 2013. Twenty-eight family physicians through simple random sampling and 140 patients through convenience sampling participated as intervention and control group. The physicians in the intervention group (n = 14) attended six educational sessions, simultaneous organization meeting, with case discussion and peer education method. In both the groups, physicians completed communication skills knowledge and attitude questionnaires, and patients completed patient satisfaction of medical interview questionnaire at baseline, immediately after intervention, and four months postintervention. Physicians and health network administrators (stakeholders), completed a set of program evaluation forms. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test, t-test, and repeated measure analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Use of routine program as a strategy of training was rated by stakeholders highly on “feasibility” (80.5%), “acceptability” (93.5%), “educational content and method appropriateness” (80.75%), and “ability to integrating in the health system programs” (approximate 60%). Significant improvements were found in physicians’ knowledge (P < 0.001), attitude (P < 0.001), and patients’ satisfaction (P = 0.002) in intervention group. Conclusions: Communication skills training program, simultaneous organization meeting was successfully implemented and well received by stakeholders, without considering extra time and manpower. Therefore it can be

  8. Temperature and thermal stress fields during the pulse train of long-pulse laser irradiating aluminium alloy plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jin, Guangyong; Gu, Xiu-ying

    2014-12-01

    Based on Von Mises yield criterion and elasto-plastic constitutive equations, an axisymmetric finite element model of a Gaussian laser beam irradiating a metal substrate was established. In the model of finite element, the finite difference hybrid algorithm is used to solve the problem of transient temperature field and stress field. Taking nonlinear thermal and mechanical properties into account, transient distributions of temperature field and stress fields generated by the pulse train of long-pulse laser in a piece of aluminium alloy plate were computed by the model. Moreover,distributions as well as histories of temperature and stress fields were obtained. Finite element analysis software COMSOL is used to simulate the Temperature and thermal stress fields during the pulse train of long-pulse laser irradiating 7A04 aluminium alloy plate. By the analysis of the results, it is found that Mises equivalent stress on the target surface distribute within the scope of the center of a certain radius. However, the stress is becoming smaller where far away from the center. Futhermore, the Mises equivalent stress almost does not effect on stress damage while the Mises equivalent stress is far less than the yield strength of aluminum alloy targets. Because of the good thermal conductivity of 7A04 aluminum alloy, thermal diffusion is extremely quick after laser irradiate. As a result, for the multi-pulsed laser, 7A04 aluminum alloy will not produce obvious temperature accumulation when the laser frequency is less than or equal to 10 Hz. The result of this paper provides theoretical foundation not only for research of theories of 7A04 aluminium alloy and its numerical simulation under laser radiation but also for long-pulse laser technology and widening its application scope.

  9. [Epidemiologic profile of uveitis: about 105 cases].

    PubMed

    Souley, Abdoul Salam Youssoufou; Abdellah, Hamed Ould Mohamed; Khmamouche, Mehdi; Naji, Alwan Alsubari; Elasri, El Ouatassi Narjis Fouad; Reda, Karim; Oubaaz, Abdelbarre

    2016-01-01

    The multiplicity of causes of uveitis makes diagnosis difficult. Determining epidemiological factors associated with uveitis allows better diagnostic orientation and facilitates therapeutic management. This is a retrospective study spanning four years from January 2012 to December 2015. We collected 105 cases with uveitis and studied its epidemiological, clinical and etiological aspects. The average age was 42 years, the most affected age group was 40-50 years. Men were more affected (57.14%) than women (42.86%). Uveitis was unilateral in 60.95% of cases. Anterior uveitis was found in 35.24%, intermediate uveitis in 5.71%, posterior uveitis in 10.48% and panuveitis in 48.57%. Etiologies were dominated by Behçet's disease, sarcoidosis and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. The origin remained unknown in 43.81% of cases. The evolution was variable. Uveitis is an intraocular inflammation which may represent a real threat to vision. The approach to discover its cause needs to be codified and based on several steps. Our results are relatively close to those found in the literature. Uveitis is a clinical entity where ophthalmology and internal medicine meet. The field of its causes and investigations for the diagnosis is extensive or even unlimited. This study highlighted the clinical challenges and emphasized the limitations of our clinical training in the management of uveitis. PMID:27642436

  10. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course

    PubMed Central

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Jason D.; Morel, Samantha; Cheung, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography, with a larger number of courses incorporating psychobiographical and/or narrative elements. With regard to psychobiography dissertations, the majority focused on artists, pioneering psychologists, and political leaders. Theories undergirding psychobiographical studies were most frequently psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Methodologically, a majority of the dissertations were anchored in constructivist (discovery-oriented) qualitative procedures, with a minority incorporating mixed methods designs. The authors highlight the value of psychobiographical training to psychology students and present avenues and models for incorporating psychobiography into psychology curriculums. PMID:27247670

  11. High-intensity track and field training in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Kathleen; Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Berbarie, Rafic F

    2012-01-01

    A 65-year-old male athlete with coronary artery disease enrolled in our cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program after successful coronary artery bypass graft surgery following an acute myocardial infarction. Unlike the typical sedentary cardiac patient in his age group, he loved to participate in hurdle events at masters division track meets (competitions for athletes aged 30 years and older). He expressed a strong desire to return to his sport, so we designed a sport-specific, symptom-limited exercise program that enabled him to train safely but at a higher intensity than is typically allowed in conventional CR programs. Although his measured peak heart rates during the sport-specific sessions were significantly higher than the calculated maximum heart rate limits usually imposed on patients during conventional CR exercise training, the patient had no adverse events and safely reached his fitness goal. When developing a CR plan, health care professionals should consider the patient's goals, not just his or her age.

  12. Epidemiology, austerity, and innovation.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M; Ness, Roberta B

    2012-05-15

    In considering the state of epidemiologic research, these are the "best" and the "worst" of times-the "best" from the perspective of scientific opportunities and the "worst" from the perspective of funding. In this commentary, the authors address this time of funding austerity from the points of view of individual researchers and research institutions. For researchers, the new tools of "-omics," large databases, communication by means of the World Wide Web, and global access offer ever-expanding scientific opportunities. The authors comment on research directions for which there is an enhanced likelihood of funding success: clinical and translational research, outcomes and effectiveness research, and global health research. The authors emphasize the need to be innovative and not bound by the conventional. For institutions, the authors suggest attention to innovation and impact, social networking, and finding the "right size" for training programs. Academic institutions also need to invest, supporting researchers and their ideas. Epidemiologists need to be true to their mission and prove that they can use innovation to advance health and welfare in a measurable way. Doing so will ensure that over the long term, epidemiologic research will remain a cornerstone for advancing population health.

  13. The Emergence of a Field: Research and Training in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education as a field of study emerged as universities became complex institutions requiring data and interpretation for effective management and governance. The field expanded in the mid-20th century, and now includes many research and other journals, books, and other reports and publications. Academic departments and centers have been…

  14. Teacher Training in Urban Settings: Inquiry, Efficacy, and Culturally Diverse Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlamery, Sheryl L.; Franks, Bridget A.; Shillingstad, Saundra L.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes two years of findings with a unique field experience (teaching science inquiry activities to African-American girls in a summer STEM camp) for preservice elementary education majors. It reports on the effects of the field experience, in conjunction with blocked science and mathematics methods courses, on preservice teachers'…

  15. Longitudinal field investigation of the moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between training and newcomer adjustment.

    PubMed

    Saks, A M

    1995-04-01

    A longitudinal field study examined the moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between training and the adjustment of newcomers during their 1st year of employment. The results provided some support for the hypothesis that initial self-efficacy moderates the relationship between training and adjustment. Training was more strongly related to posttraining self-efficacy, ability to cope, job performance, and intention to quit the profession for newcomers with low levels of initial self-efficacy mediates the relationship between training and adjustment; however, evidence of complete mediation was found only for ability to cope. Posttraining self-efficacy partially mediated the relationships between training and job satisfaction, organizational and professional commitment, and intention to quit the organization and the profession. Research and practical implications of these findings for the training and the socialization of newcomers are discussed.

  16. Electromagnetic fields and health effects--epidemiologic studies of cancer, diseases of the central nervous system and arrhythmia-related heart disease.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    This epidemiologic investigation comprised separate studies of the risk of cancer, cause-specific mortality rates, risks for neurodegenerative diseases, and the risk of arrhythmia-related heart disease among employees exposed to extremely low-frequency (50-Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the Danish utility industry. All the employees in this industry were followed-up in several registers. The risk of disease was analyzed in relation to occupational exposure to EMF, latency, and duration of employment. A specific job-exposure matrix was developed and validated by comparison with direct measurements of EMF during a workday. Linkage with the Danish Cancer Register did not identify increased risks for the cancers suggested a priori to be associated with exposure to EMF, including leukemia, brain tumors, and breast cancer. Significantly increased risks for lung cancer and mesothelioma were identified for workers highly exposed to asbestos. Linkage with the National Mortality Register revealed a significantly increased overall mortality rate from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with an increasing trend with duration of employment and EMF exposure. In addition, a significantly increased mortality rate from electric accidents was observed. It was hypothesized that the observation of increased mortality from ALS was associated with exposure to EMF or electric shocks. No increased mortality rate from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease was observed. Linkage with the National Hospital Register also revealed an increased risk of ALS and, thereby confirmed the finding of an increased mortality rate for this disease in the previous study. Linkage of the cohort with the Multiple Sclerosis Register revealed an increased risk of multiple sclerosis, which was not, however, significant. Linkage with the Pacemaker Register showed no increased risk of severe arrhythmia-related heart disease. The second part of the study included the establishment of a large, nationwide

  17. Whole-body vibration combined with extra-load training for enhancing the strength and speed of track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Han; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen; Huang, Mao-Ying; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-body vibration (WBV) combined with extra-load training can enhance the strength and speed of trained athletes compared with isolated WBV training or loaded training (LT) only. Twenty-one elite male track and field athletes were randomly assigned to a loaded vibration (LV) training group (n = 7), an unloaded vibration (ULV) training group (n = 7), and a LT group (n = 7). During 4 weeks of training, the LV group received the vibration stimulus (30 Hz and 4 mm) accompanied by a load comprising 75% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the ULV group received the same vibration stimulus without any load, and the LT group received only a load of 75% MVC without any vibration stimulus. The knee extensor isometric strength, and the concentric and eccentric strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 300°·s at a 30-m sprint speed before and after the training period. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance (time × group) was used to analyze the differences. Significant time × group interactions were observed for all the dependent variables (p ≤ 0.05). Regarding the post hoc analysis results, the LV group exhibited significant improvements for all the dependent variables after training (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the ULV group exhibited significantly reduced sprint speeds (p ≤ 0.05). The LV group demonstrated significantly superior eccentric strength compared with the ULV and LT groups after training (p ≤ 0.05), and the LV group also produced significantly superior sprint speeds compared with the ULV group after training (p ≤ 0.05). Vibration combined with extra-load training for 4 weeks significantly increased the muscle strength and speed of the elite male track and field athletes.

  18. Pattern of Hepatitis A Virus Epidemiology in Nursing Students and Adherence to Preventive Measures at Two Training Wards of a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Campagna, Marcello; Maria Mereu, Noemi; Mulas, Lucia; Pilia, Roberta; Francesca Piazza, Maria; Spada, Laura; Lai, Alberto; Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Masia, Giuseppina; Restivo, Angelo; Mura, Paolo; Finco, Gabriele; Cristina Coppola, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Nursing students can be exposed to patients with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and can represent a vehicle of transmission both for health personnel, patients and relatives. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the risk of HAV infection in nursing students during their internship. Patients and Methods A seroprevalence survey on HAV infection was performed on nursing students at the Cagliari university-hospital, together with the assessment of the compliance to preventive measures to decrease the risk of infection during their internship. Blood specimens were obtained from 253 students. All serum samples were tested for anti-HAV antibodies (IgG) by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compliance to preventive measures was recorded by trained personnel. Results Overall HAV seropositivity in nursing students (mean age 24, range 17 - 45 years) was 3%. Compliance to preventive measures was not uniform (6% - 76%) and extremely low in some specific measures targeted to decrease the oral-fecal transmission. Conclusions The high proportion of susceptible nursing students can contribute to an increase in the risk of nosocomial transmission, especially when specific preventive measures are not completely applied. Nursing education packages, before starting medical internship, should be implemented in order to increase their compliance to preventive measures, especially in wards at higher risk. Vaccination should be considered in wards at higher risk. PMID:27195012

  19. Cold and heat strain during cold-weather field training with nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Sirkka; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the thermal strain of soldiers wearing nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing during short-term field training in cold conditions. Eleven male subjects performed marching exercises at moderate and heavy activity levels for 60 minutes. Rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperatures, and heart rate were monitored. Ambient temperature (Ta) varied from -33 to 0 degrees C. Tre was affected by changes in metabolism, rather than in Ta. Tre increased above 38 degrees during heavy exercise even at -33 degrees C. The mean skin temperature decreased to tolerance level (25 degrees C) at Ta below -25 degrees C with moderate exercise. Finger temperature decreased below 15 degrees C (performance degradation) at Ta of -15 degrees C or cooler. The present results from the field confirm the previous results based on laboratory studies and show that risk of both heat and cold strain is evident, with cooling of extremities being most critical, while wearing nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing during cold-weather training.

  20. Field camp: Using traditional methods to train the next generation of petroleum geologists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckette, J.O.; Suneson, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The summer field camp experience provides many students with their best opportunity to learn the scientific process by making observations and collecting, recording, evaluating, and interpreting geologic data. Field school projects enhance student professional development by requiring cooperation and interpersonal interaction, report writing to communicate interpretations, and the development of project management skills to achieve a common goal. The field school setting provides students with the opportunity to observe geologic features and their spatial distribution, size, and shape that will impact the student's future careers as geoscientists. The Les Huston Geology Field Camp (a.k.a. Oklahoma Geology Camp) near Ca??on City, Colorado, focuses on time-tested traditional methods of geological mapping and fieldwork to accomplish these goals. The curriculum consists of an introduction to field techniques (pacing, orienteering, measuring strike and dip, and using a Jacob's staff), sketching outcrops, section measuring (one illustrating facies changes), three mapping exercises (of increasing complexity), and a field geophysics project. Accurate rock and contact descriptions are emphasized, and attitudes and contacts are mapped in the field. Mapping is done on topographic maps at 1:12,000 and 1:6000 scales; air photos are provided. Global positioning system (GPS)-assisted mapping is allowed, but we insist that locations be recorded in the field and confirmed using visual observations. The course includes field trips to the Cripple Creek and Leadville mining districts, Floris-sant/Guffey volcano area, Pikes Peak batholith, and the Denver Basin. Each field trip is designed to emphasize aspects of geology that are not stressed in the field exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to accurately describe geologic features and gather evidence to support their interpretations of the geologic history. Concise reports are a part of each major exercise. Students are grouped

  1. A Case Study of an Academia-Industry Partnership to Meet the Education and Training Needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph Carl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to provide a description of the characteristics of an academia-industry partnership that works together with industry to meet the education and training needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) field. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, U.S. pursued efforts to compete in STEM fields on…

  2. Q&A: Muin Khoury on cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Rose, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    Muin J. Khoury, MD, PhD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office of Public Health Genomics and head of the National Cancer Institute's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, talks about challenges and opportunities in cancer epidemiology research and efforts in the epidemiology community to transform the field.

  3. Trained in Science-Base Field: Change of Specialization among Educated Women in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Suhaida Mohd; Satar, Nurulhuda Mohd; Yap, Su Fei

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical model for economic development states that development in science and technology is the key to increased productivity. Upon realizing this, the Malaysian government has targeted 60 to 40 per cent of students for Science to Arts field at the tertiary level of education. However the rate of participation in science-based programs…

  4. Useful Measures in the Field of Time and Dimensional Rationalisation of Manual Training Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosnaric, Samo; Planinsec, Jurij

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwork, especially lessons in manual skills is often associated with various ergonomics stresses. These stresses are the result not only of school obligations but also of the physical working environment and inadequate lesson planning. Much can be done in this field if certain approaches are taken into consideration at the work planning stage.…

  5. Field Heat Treatment Technician: Competency Profile. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 20908.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The graduate of the Field Heat Treatment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able: (1) use heat treatment equipment to apply heat to materials in order to change a material's properties; (2) Use their knowledge of the properties of heat, industry codes and specifications to determine how heat treatment will…

  6. Ethical Challenges of In-The-Field Training: A Surgical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Mark; Knifed, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of professions in which technical and manual acts combined with excellent judgment are used to enhance the safety of people, poses challenges to educators. Book learning combined with mock or simulated situations goes a long way, but ultimately "in-the-field" instruction and learning is necessary to qualify trainees for many…

  7. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume III, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  8. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  9. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  10. International Field Studies in Norwegian Teacher Training Courses: Perspectives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Odd Inge

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been done on instructing student teachers by means of field studies in developing countries. Herein, I argue that sending geography students on such expeditions provides them with valuable perspectives, connections and improved knowledge, especially if they experience personal involvement and participation in addition to…

  11. Evaluating the usefulness of spa typing, in comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, for epidemiological typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a low-prevalence region in Sweden 2000-2004.

    PubMed

    Petersson, A C; Olsson-Liljequist, B; Miörner, H; Haeggman, S

    2010-05-01

    The usefulness of spa typing was evaluated in relation to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), as a tool for epidemiological typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a low-prevalence region in southern Sweden. Bacterial isolates from 216 MRSA cases, newly identified in 2000-2004, were studied. The isolates were obtained from infected patients (31%), and from colonized individuals found by screening (69%). In total, 49 spa types and 73 PFGE patterns were identified. The discriminatory power of spa typing was lower (94.9 +/- 1.8%) than that of PFGE (97.3 +/- 1.2%). For two spa types (t002 and t008) the Panton-Valentine leukocidin results added useful discriminatory information. The most common spa types were t044 (n = 31; four PFGE patterns), t002 (n = 24; 10 PFGE patterns), t067 (n = 12; four PFGE patterns), t050 (n = 12; one PFGE pattern), and t324 (n = 11; one PFGE pattern). Epidemiological investigations identified 91 single cases and 39 transmission chains, each involving two to 13 cases. All the transmission chains were held together both by spa and PFGE typing. Among the 91 single-case isolates, 33 spa types and 50 PFGE patterns were unique (matchless) at the time of identification. The low prevalence of MRSA, the low number of outbreaks, and the wide spectrum of strains due to frequent acquisitions abroad (49% of the cases), makes spa typing a useful complement to epidemiological investigations in our setting. However, we still recommend the continued use of PFGE for further discrimination of isolates with identical spa types when epidemiological data can not exclude possible transmission.

  12. A Standardized System of Training Intensity Guidelines for the Sports of Track and Field and Cross Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Christopher P.; Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate quantification of training intensity is an essential component of a training program (Rowbottom, 2000). A training program designed to optimize athlete performance abilities cannot be practically planned or implemented without a valid and reliable indication of training intensity and its effect on the physiological mechanisms of the human…

  13. The Social Dialogue in the Member States of the European Community in the Field of Vocational Training and Continuing Training--Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, B.; And Others

    This document describes the current links between the world of work (employees, employers, industrial sectors, and companies) and the world of vocational training (in-company, inter-company, and school-based training bodies) in member states of the European Community; and the degree and nature of the involvement of the social partners in the…

  14. [A health education program based on training and support of stakeholders in the field].

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Education Santé Territoire (EST) is a health education programme for children and adolescents. It was developed on the basis of the international literature and the results of interventional studies conducted in France. It is based on local resources and develops a territorial approach centered on the school as the reference site of the "perceived territory" of children and adolescents. It therefore comprises a local environment approach (school and college) and a territorial approach, as it is centered on participation and is designed to mobilize local stakeholders involved in the education of young people. It concerns educational activities (in the schoolroom, in the institution, in the context of extracurricular activities, in leisure centres, in sports clubs); the school-community relationship; the quality of life of children and adolescents. The available results show major changes in practices and a wide range of modalities of participation. Factors that determine participation are essentially related to individual determinants (adhesion to the underlying values of the programme, compatibility of representations, perception of the relevance of the content) and contextual factors (numbers, school environment, social environment). Training and the history of involvement in the programme appear to be key elements determining participation.

  15. Field studies of safety security rescue technologies through training and response activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.; Stover, Sam

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the field-oriented philosophy of the Institute for Safety Security Rescue Technology (iSSRT) and summarizes the activities and lessons learned during calendar year 2005 of its two centers: the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue and the NSF Safety Security Rescue industry/university cooperative research center. In 2005, iSSRT participated in four responses (La Conchita, CA, Mudslides, Hurricane Dennis, Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Wilma) and conducted three field experiments (NJTF-1, Camp Hurricane, Richmond, MO). The lessons learned covered mobility, operator control units, wireless communications, and general reliability. The work has collectively identified six emerging issues for future work. Based on these studies, a 10-hour, 1 continuing education unit credit course on rescue robotics has been created and is available. Rescue robots and sensors are available for loan upon request.

  16. Phase-field modeling of epitaxial growth: Applications to step trains and island dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengzheng; Lowengrub, John S.; Wise, Steven M.; Voigt, Axel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new phase-field model including combined effects of edge diffusion, the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier, deposition and desorption to simulate epitaxial growth. A new free energy function together with a correction to the initial phase variable profile is used to efficiently capture the morphological evolution when a large deposition flux is imposed. A formal matched asymptotic analysis is performed to show the reduction of the phase-field model to the classical sharp interface Burton-Cabrera-Frank model for step flow when the interfacial thickness vanishes. The phase-field model is solved by a semi-implicit finite difference scheme, and adaptive block-structured Cartesian meshes are used to dramatically increase the efficiency of the solver. The numerical scheme is used to investigate the evolution of perturbed circularly shaped small islands. The effect of edge diffusion is investigated together with the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier. We also investigate the linear and nonlinear regimes of a step meandering instability. We reproduce the predicted scaling law for the growth of the meander amplitude, which was based on an analysis of a long wavelength regime. New nonlinear behavior is observed when the meander wavelength is comparable to the terrace width. In particular, a previously unobserved regime of coarsening dynamics is found to occur when the meander wavelength is comparable to the terrace width.

  17. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  18. Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-01-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called ‘3 Vs’: variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that, while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field’s future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future. PMID:25756221

  19. A Cosmic Train Wreck: JVLA Radio Observations of the HST Frontier Fields Cluster Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Connor; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Ogrean, Georgiana A.; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Kraft, Ralph P.; Dawson, William; Brüggen, Marcus; Roediger, Elke; Bulbul, Esra; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The galaxy cluster mergers observed in the HST Frontier Fields represent some of the most energetic events in the Universe. Major cluster mergers leave distinct signatures in the ICM in the form of shocks, turbulence, and diffuse cluster radio sources. These diffuse radio sources, so-called radio relics and halos, provide evidence for the acceleration of relativistic particles and the presence of large scale magnetic fields in the ICM. Observations of these halos and relics allow us to (i) study the physics of particle acceleration and its relation with shocks and turbulence in the ICM and (ii) constrain the dynamical evolution of the merger eventsWe present Jansky Very Large Array 1-4 GHz observations of the Frontier cluster Abell 2744. We confirm the presence of the known giant radio halo and radio relic via our deep radio images. Owing to the much greater sensitivity of the JVLA compared to previous observations, we are able to detect a previously unobserved long Mpc-size filament of synchrotron emission to the south west of the cluster core. We also present a radio spectral index image of the diffuse cluster emission to test the origin of the radio relic and halo, related to the underlying particle acceleration mechanism. Finally, we carry out a search for radio emission from the 'jellyfish' galaxies in A2744 to estimate their star formation rate. These highly disturbed galaxies are likely influenced by the cluster merger event, although the precise origin of these galaxies is still being debated.

  20. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  1. Interdisciplinary Graduate Training in Polar Environmental Change: Field-based learning in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, R. A.; Holm, K.; Whitecloud, S.; Levy, L.; Kelly, M. A.; Feng, X.; Grenoble, L.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the NSF-funded Integrative Graduate Education Research Traineeship (IGERT) program at Dartmouth College is to develop a new cohort of environmental scientists and engineers with an interdisciplinary understanding of polar regions and their importance to global environmental change. The Dartmouth IGERT challenges Ph.D. students to consider the broader dimensions of their research and to collaborate with scientists from other disciplines, educators, and policy makers. IGERT students will focus on research questions that are relevant to the needs of local people experiencing climate change and on understanding the ethical responsibilities and benefits of conducting research in partnership with northern residents and institutions. Seven Ph.D. students from the departments of Earth Sciences, Engineering, and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Dartmouth College make up the first IGERT cohort for the five-year program. The Dartmouth IGERT curriculum will focus on three main components of polar systems responding to recent climate change: the cryosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycles. The integrating experience of the core curriculum is the Greenland Field Seminar that will take place in Kangerlussuaq (terrestrial and aquatic systems), Summit Camp (snow and ice) and Nuuk, Greenland (human dimensions of change). In Nuuk, IGERT students will share their science and develop partnerships with students, educators, and policy makers at the University of Greenland, the Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), and other Greenlandic institutions. In summer 2009 the authors conducted preliminary fieldwork near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland to develop aspects of the science curriculum for the 2010 Greenland Field Seminar and to explore research topics for IGERT Fellows (Levy and Whitecloud). Examples of results presented here are designed to develop field-based learning activities. These include soil and vegetation relationships as a function of aspect

  2. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  3. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  4. Social Work Field Training for the Community: A Student Self-Directed Approach in the Environmental Domain in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Makhamreh, Sahar; Alnabulsi, Hana; Asfour, Hana

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines innovative field training methods that foster the abilities of undergraduate social work students so that they are able to empower the local community and raise awareness of environmental issues. In this study, students were engaged in a local community assessment that sought to understand their views on environmental and community impacts of the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) Project on the lives of the host village's residents. A students' self-directed approach was applied for the fieldwork out of which interventions were developed ( Garrison, 1997). Quantitative data were gathered by eighteen students through a survey of 361 questionnaires targeting Allan society. In addition to students' field notes, pre and post focus groups were used to collect qualitative information. Study findings highlighted the effectiveness of students' self-directed projects in cultivating culturally competent practices; ensuring sustainable development; and providing evidence-based knowledge on social work practice involving environmental issues. PMID:27559202

  5. A full-spectrum analysis of high-speed train interior noise under multi-physical-field coupling excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xu; Hao, Zhiyong; Wang, Xu; Mao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    High-speed-railway-train interior noise at low, medium, and high frequencies could be simulated by finite element analysis (FEA) or boundary element analysis (BEA), hybrid finite element analysis-statistical energy analysis (FEA-SEA) and statistical energy analysis (SEA), respectively. First, a new method named statistical acoustic energy flow (SAEF) is proposed, which can be applied to the full-spectrum HST interior noise simulation (including low, medium, and high frequencies) with only one model. In an SAEF model, the corresponding multi-physical-field coupling excitations are firstly fully considered and coupled to excite the interior noise. The interior noise attenuated by sound insulation panels of carriage is simulated through modeling the inflow acoustic energy from the exterior excitations into the interior acoustic cavities. Rigid multi-body dynamics, fast multi-pole BEA, and large-eddy simulation with indirect boundary element analysis are first employed to extract the multi-physical-field excitations, which include the wheel-rail interaction forces/secondary suspension forces, the wheel-rail rolling noise, and aerodynamic noise, respectively. All the peak values and their frequency bands of the simulated acoustic excitations are validated with those from the noise source identification test. Besides, the measured equipment noise inside equipment compartment is used as one of the excitation sources which contribute to the interior noise. Second, a full-trimmed FE carriage model is firstly constructed, and the simulated modal shapes and frequencies agree well with the measured ones, which has validated the global FE carriage model as well as the local FE models of the aluminum alloy-trim composite panel. Thus, the sound transmission loss model of any composite panel has indirectly been validated. Finally, the SAEF model of the carriage is constructed based on the accurate FE model and stimulated by the multi-physical-field excitations. The results show

  6. Conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics: Part II: Android Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The growth of Android in the mobile sector and the interest to investigate these devices from a forensic point of view has rapidly increased. Many companies have security problems with mobile devices in their own IT infrastructure. To respond to these incidents, it is important to have professional trained staff. Furthermore, it is necessary to further train their existing employees in the practical applications of mobile forensics owing to the fact that a lot of companies are trusted with very sensitive data. Inspired by these facts, this paper - a continuation of a paper of January 2012 [1] which showed the conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics - addresses training approaches and practical exercises to investigate Android mobile devices.

  7. Needs Assessment for Performance Improvement of Personnel in Charge of Epidemiological Surveillance in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Priotto, Gerardo; Rguig, Ahmed; Ziani, Moncef; Berger, Anouk; Nabeth, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background In line with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), the Morocco health surveillance system has been reinforced via infrastructure strengthening and decentralization in its regions. To plan for personnel capacity reinforcement actions, a national workforce needs assessment was conducted by the National Epidemiological Surveillance Service and the World Health Organization. Methods The assessment used an ad-hoc method comprising two stages: (1) A survey via a standardized electronic questionnaire, administered to all staff in regional and provincial surveillance teams. Data collected included demographics, basic qualification, complementary training, perceived training needs, and preferred training modalities. Individuals were asked to grade, on a nine-point scale, their perception of importance of a given list of tasks and of their capacity to perform them. The gap between perceptions was quantified and described. (2) Field visits to national, regional and provincial sites for direct observation and opinion gathering on broader issues such as motivators, barriers, and training needs from the local perspective. Results Questionnaire respondents were 122/158 agents at 78 surveillance units countrywide. Mean age was 43.6 years and job longevity 5.7 years. Only 53% (65/122) had epidemiology training, posted in 62% (48/78) of the structures. Self-assessed capacity varied by basic qualification and by structure level (regional vs. provincial). The gap between the importance granted to a task and the perceived capacity to perform it was sizable, showing an uneven distribution across competency domains, regions, surveillance level and staff's basic qualification. From the opinions gathered, a problem of staff demotivation and high turnover emerged clearly. Conclusions Our method was successful in revealing specific details of the training needs countrywide. A national strategy is needed to ensure rational planning of training, personnel motivation and

  8. The Checkered History of American Psychiatric Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-01-01

    Context American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. Methods This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. Findings The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Conclusion Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. PMID:22188350

  9. Conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics, part III: network forensics and penetration testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. From year to year, incidents and crimes increase that target IT systems or were done with their help. More and more companies and authorities have security problems in their own IT infrastructure. To respond to these incidents professionally, it is important to have well trained staff. The fact that many agencies and companies work with very sensitive data make it necessary to further train the own employees in the field of network forensics and penetration testing. Motivated by these facts, this paper - a continuation of a paper of January 2012 [1], which showed the conception of a course for professional training and education in the field of computer and mobile forensics - addresses the practical implementation important relationships of network forensic and penetration testing.

  10. The importance of sensitive detection of malaria parasites in the human and insect hosts in epidemiological studies, as shown by the analysis of field samples from Guinea Bissau.

    PubMed

    Snounou, G; Pinheiro, L; Gonçalves, A; Fonseca, L; Dias, F; Brown, K N; do Rosario, V E

    1993-01-01

    A method based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for highly sensitive detection and identification of human malaria parasites was applied to blood and mosquito samples obtained from a village in Guinea Bissau. The prevalence of parasites in the human population was shown to be greatly underestimated by microscopical examination. In particular, a high incidence of Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale parasites was revealed only by the PCR assay. Preliminary evidence was obtained to show that the distribution of P. malariae infections within the village was non-random. This was supported by analysis of the parasite species infecting the mosquito vector. The implication of these results for the design and interpretation of epidemiological surveys is discussed.

  11. The Degree of Applying the Theoretical Frameworks of Child-Raising Specialty Courses in the Field of Training among the Female Students of Princess Alia University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweeikat, Mashhour Mohammad; AL-Kaddah, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying to what extent the female students in Child Education department at Princess Alia University College manage to apply the theoretical part in field training program. The data, which is the scope of this study, consists of 42 staff members and 36 educational supervisors responsible for the program. The two researchers…

  12. Graduate Credit Needs Assessment for Western Washington University Contract Trainings in the Division of Economic and Medical Field Services. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeretzke, Dale

    This report presents results of a survey of 354 Economic and Medical Field Services (EMFS) division social workers in Washington State. The survey investigated their needs for graduate level academic credit from professional training provided by Western Washington University (WWU), as well as matters of credit utility and institutional and…

  13. A Survey of Epidemiology and Biostatistical Offerings in Health Education Professional Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Jacquie L.; Lewers, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed college and university health education degree granting programs to investigate the status of training in epidemiology and biostatistics for health education students. Surveys of all schools from a national directory of programs indicated that programs were offering training in epidemiology and biostatistics for community/public health…

  14. AIS training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Barancik, J.I.

    1989-05-01

    This Training Manual was developed by the Injury Prevention and Analysis Group (IPAG) as part of a training program in AIS 85 and AIS-EM (Epidemiological Modifications) coding. The IPAG Program is designed primarily to train medical record and other health professionals from diverse backgrounds and experience levels in the use of AIS 85 and AIS 85-EM. The Manual is designed to be used as a reference text after completion of the Program and includes copies of visual projection materials used during the training sessions.

  15. Social Determinants of Dementia and Caregivers’ Perspectives in the Field Practice Villages of Rural Health Training Centre, Thiruvennainallur

    PubMed Central

    Gurukartick, J; Dongre, Amol R; Shah, Dharav

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To find out the prevalence of dementia in the study population and its social determinants. (2) To explore the family caregivers’ perceptions and their support needs. Materials and Methods - Study Setting: This study was undertaken in the field practice area of 55 villages of three Primary Health Centres in Villupuram District of Tamil Nadu. Study Design: An exploratory mixed-methods study design, where a qualitative method (key informant interview) was followed by a quantitative method (survey). Sample Size: A representative sample of 1300 respondents was selected by two-stage sampling. Analysis: Manual content analysis was done for qualitative data. Multiple logistic regression was performed on quantitative data. Results: The prevalence of dementia among study sample was found to be 3.1%. The determinants for dementia were age, sex, socioeconomic status, and previous involvement in family decision making and cardiovascular risk factors. The family caregivers strongly felt that caregiving interferes with their personal and professional life; they also felt that caregiving is an integral part of Indian culture, and the elderly prefer home-based care. Caregivers preferred government owned public health facility for medical care. All the responding caregivers strongly felt that they are not adequately trained in caregiving. Conclusions and Recommendations: Routine screening of elderly for early identification of dementia and its medical and social risk factors should be initiated in primary health care facility. Care of caregivers should be seen as an integral part of dementia care program. PMID:26962277

  16. Mobile Mental Wellness Training for Stress Management: Feasibility and Design Implications Based on a One-Month Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahtinen, Aino; Välkkynen, Pasi; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Vanhala, Toni; Ermes, Miikka; Sairanen, Essi; Myllymäki, Tero; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevention and management of work-related stress and related mental problems is a great challenge. Mobile applications are a promising way to integrate prevention strategies into the everyday lives of citizens. Objective The objectives of this study was to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of a mobile mental wellness training application among working-age individuals, and to derive preliminary design implications for mobile apps for stress management. Methods Oiva, a mobile app based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), was designed to support active learning of skills related to mental wellness through brief ACT-based exercises in the daily life. A one-month field study with 15 working-age participants was organized to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of Oiva. The usage of Oiva was studied based on the usage log files of the application. Changes in wellness were measured by three validated questionnaires on stress, satisfaction with life (SWLS), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) at the beginning and at end of the study and by user experience questionnaires after one week’s and one month’s use. In-depth user experience interviews were conducted after one month’s use to study the acceptance and user experiences of Oiva. Results Oiva was used actively throughout the study. The average number of usage sessions was 16.8 (SD 2.4) and the total usage time per participant was 3 hours 12 minutes (SD 99 minutes). Significant pre-post improvements were obtained in stress ratings (mean 3.1 SD 0.2 vs mean 2.5 SD 0.1, P=.003) and satisfaction with life scores (mean 23.1 SD 1.3 vs mean 25.9 SD 0.8, P=.02), but not in psychological flexibility. Oiva was perceived easy to use, acceptable, and useful by the participants. A randomized controlled trial is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of Oiva on working-age individuals with stress problems. Conclusions A feasibility study of Oiva mobile mental wellness training app showed good

  17. Mapping epidemiology's past to inform its future: metaknowledge analysis of epidemiologic topics in leading journals, 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Galea, Sandro

    2015-07-15

    An empiric perspective on what epidemiology has studied over time might inform discussions about future directions for the discipline. We aimed to identify the main areas of epidemiologic inquiry and determine how they evolved over time in 5 high-impact epidemiologic journals. We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 20,895 articles that were published between 1974 and 2013. In 5 time periods that reflected approximately equal numbers of articles, we identified the main topics by clustering terms based on co-occurrence. Infectious disease and cardiovascular disease epidemiology were the prevailing topics over the 5 periods. Cancer epidemiology was a major topic from 1974 to 2001 but disappeared thereafter. Nutritional epidemiology gained relative importance from 1974 to 2013. Environmental epidemiology appeared during 1996-2001 and continued to be important, whereas 2 clusters related to methodology and meta-analysis in genetics appeared during 2008-2013. Several areas of epidemiology, including injury or psychiatric epidemiology, did not make an appearance as major topics at any time. In an ancillary analysis of 6 high-impact general medicine journals, we found patterns of epidemiologic articles that were overall consistent with the findings in epidemiologic journals. This metaknowledge investigation allowed identification of the dominant topics in and conversely those that were absent from 5 major epidemiologic journals. We discuss implications for the field.

  18. Mapping epidemiology's past to inform its future: metaknowledge analysis of epidemiologic topics in leading journals, 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Galea, Sandro

    2015-07-15

    An empiric perspective on what epidemiology has studied over time might inform discussions about future directions for the discipline. We aimed to identify the main areas of epidemiologic inquiry and determine how they evolved over time in 5 high-impact epidemiologic journals. We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 20,895 articles that were published between 1974 and 2013. In 5 time periods that reflected approximately equal numbers of articles, we identified the main topics by clustering terms based on co-occurrence. Infectious disease and cardiovascular disease epidemiology were the prevailing topics over the 5 periods. Cancer epidemiology was a major topic from 1974 to 2001 but disappeared thereafter. Nutritional epidemiology gained relative importance from 1974 to 2013. Environmental epidemiology appeared during 1996-2001 and continued to be important, whereas 2 clusters related to methodology and meta-analysis in genetics appeared during 2008-2013. Several areas of epidemiology, including injury or psychiatric epidemiology, did not make an appearance as major topics at any time. In an ancillary analysis of 6 high-impact general medicine journals, we found patterns of epidemiologic articles that were overall consistent with the findings in epidemiologic journals. This metaknowledge investigation allowed identification of the dominant topics in and conversely those that were absent from 5 major epidemiologic journals. We discuss implications for the field. PMID:25977517

  19. [Epidemiology of Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease, in particular in Japan, were summarized. There were three aspects of the epidemiology: (1) frequency(descriptive epidemiology), (2) risk factors(e.g. case-control studies), and (3) natural history(follow-up studies). The nationwide surveys, which was established in 1970, revealed the epidemiologic features of the disease. The number of patients and incidence rate have elevated since mid-1990s. Descriptive features indicates the association between disease onset and both infection and the hosts' factors. A follow-up study over 20 years has been conducted, but it should be continued till all the participants pass away.

  20. The use of direct sequencing of dengue virus cDNA from individual field-collected Aedes aegypti for surveillance and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Romero-Vivas, C M; Sutherland, C J; Falconar, A K

    2000-03-01

    The relative efficiencies of four methods to extract viral RNA from individual dengue-2 virus (D-2V)-infected mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), were compared. The most efficient of these methods was then used to extract viral RNA for the preparation of cDNA from the abdomens of six engorged D-2V-infected mosquitoes and sera from three dengue fever (DF) patients collected in an isolated rural town in Colombia. Comparisons of viral envelope (E) gene sequences from each of these strongly suggested that the D-2V population which circulated in this study area was a homogeneous genotype which was unrelated to any of the D-2 viruses isolated from elsewhere in the world. When coupled with our rapid method to identify viruses in individual mosquitoes (Romero-Vivas et al. (1998) Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 12, 101-105), the methodology we describe should be useful for epidemiological and surveillance studies of dengue viruses and other arboviruses.

  1. [Molecular epidemiology in the epidemiological transition].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiological transition describes the changes in the health profile of populations where infectious diseases are substituted by chronic or non-communicable diseases. Even in industrialized countries, infectious diseases emerge as important public health problems and with a very important association with several type of neoplasm. Molecular epidemiology brings in new tools for the study of the epidemiological transition by discovering infectious agents as etiology of diseases, neither of both new. Much has been advanced in the understanding of the virulence and resistance mechanism of different strains, or improving the knowledge on transmission dynamics and dissemination pathways of infectious diseases. As to the non-communicable diseases, molecular epidemiology has enhanced the identification of endogenous risk factors link to alterations, molecular changes in genetic material, that will allow a more detail definition of risk and the identification of individual and groups at risk of several diseases. The potential impact of molecular epidemiology in other areas as environmental, lifestyles and nutritional areas are illustrated with several examples. PMID:9504120

  2. Field Note-Developing Suicide Risk Assessment Training for Hospital Social Workers: An Academic-Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharff, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Abigail M.; Lambert, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article describes 1 large urban pediatric hospital's partnership with a university to provide suicide assessment and management training within its social work department. Social work administrators conducted a department-wide needs assessment and implemented a 2-session suicide assessment training program and evaluation. Respondents…

  3. Summary of Field Test and Outcome Milestone Report for Preparing Educational Training Consultants: Consulting (PETC-II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Catherine A.; Murray, Stephen L.

    Preparing Educational and Training Consultants (PECT-II) is the second in a series of three cumulative and sequential instructional systems designed to help a cadre of educators acquire process training and consulting skills. The PETC-II graduate should be capable of forming a temporary relationship with a small group or major subsystem of an…

  4. Examining the Training Process of a New Teacher Educator in the Field of the Education of the Hearing Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurgur, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Training of beginning teacher educators has become a popular topic in the literature. This study aimed to investigate the training procedures of a new teacher educator who would be working in the division of the hearing impaired. The study was designed as action research and a new teacher educator, an experienced teacher educator and an academic…

  5. Constitution and monitoring of an epidemiological surveillance network with sentinel general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, P

    1994-08-01

    The Réseau National Télé-informatique de surveillance et d'information sur les Maladies Transmissibles (RNTMT) (French communicable diseases computerised surveillance network) comprises a network of sentinel general practitioners (SGP). These benevolent volunteers are responsible for the weekly epidemiological surveillance. Since its creation, 1,700 SGPs have participated in the RNTMT, representing a total of more than 120,000 connections to the RNTMT telematic service center. The principal motivation of these benevolent SGPs was to 'actively participate in public health', although only a minority of them (17.6%) had any training in this field. Such a system, based on the benevolent and voluntary activity of SGPs, requires a good understanding of SGPs' attitudes towards epidemiological surveillance in general and the tool used, in order to quantitatively and qualitatively follow their participation and to provide regular and useful feedback to the surveillance actors.

  6. Understanding the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.

    PubMed

    Klein, Joern

    2009-03-01

    The use of molecular epidemiology is an important tool in understanding and consequently controlling FMDV. In this review I will present basic information about the disease, needed to perform molecular epidemiology. I will give a short introduction to the history and impact of foot-and-mouth disease, clinical picture, infection route, subclinical and persistent infections, general aspects of the transmission of FMDV, serotype-specific epidemiological characteristics, field epidemiology of FMDV, evolution and molecular epidemiology of FMDV. This is followed by two chapters describing the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in global surveillance and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in outbreak investigation.

  7. "Epidemiological criminology": coming full circle.

    PubMed

    Akers, Timothy A; Lanier, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose "epidemiological criminology" as a bridging framework.

  8. [Curricular design of health postgraduate programs: the case of Masters in epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, J L; Lozano, R; Bobadilla, C

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the need to create specific programs for the training of researchers in epidemiology, a field that has traditionally been ignored by the graduate programs in public health. This is due, in part, to the emphasis that has been placed on the training of professionals in other areas of public health. The paper also includes the results of a consensus exercise developed during the curricular design of the Masters Program in Epidemiology of the School of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The technique used during the consensus exercise was the TKJ, which allows the presentation of ideas and possible solutions for a specific problem. This is probably the first published experience in the use of such a technique for the design of an academic curriculum. Taking as a base the general characteristics of the students, the substantive, disciplinary and methodological subjects were chosen. The results showed a need for a multidisciplinary approach based on modern methodologies of statistics and epidemiology. The usefulness of the results of the curricular design and the superiority of this method to reach consensus is also discussed.

  9. [Curricular design of health postgraduate programs: the case of Masters in epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, J L; Lozano, R; Bobadilla, C

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the need to create specific programs for the training of researchers in epidemiology, a field that has traditionally been ignored by the graduate programs in public health. This is due, in part, to the emphasis that has been placed on the training of professionals in other areas of public health. The paper also includes the results of a consensus exercise developed during the curricular design of the Masters Program in Epidemiology of the School of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The technique used during the consensus exercise was the TKJ, which allows the presentation of ideas and possible solutions for a specific problem. This is probably the first published experience in the use of such a technique for the design of an academic curriculum. Taking as a base the general characteristics of the students, the substantive, disciplinary and methodological subjects were chosen. The results showed a need for a multidisciplinary approach based on modern methodologies of statistics and epidemiology. The usefulness of the results of the curricular design and the superiority of this method to reach consensus is also discussed. PMID:1948431

  10. Recruiting minorities into the profession of epidemiology. Surveying the applicants' mail. American College of Epidemiology Committee on Minority Affairs.

    PubMed

    Morssink, C B; Kumanyika, S; Tell, G S; Schoenbach, V J

    1996-01-01

    The underrepresentation in epidemiology of members of racial/ethnic minority groups is greater than in medicine and health fields in general. Using printed recruitment materials, we evaluated the impression that epidemiology programs might make on prospective minority students. Mainstream recruitment materials were solicited from all identifiable U.S. epidemiology programs (n = 70) by requesting copies of typical mailings to prospective students. Of 51 respondents, 46 sent materials that could be analyzed by tabulating and evaluating minority-related content in text and pictures. Materials reflected a generally low-key approach to epidemiology student recruitment. Most minority-related text referred to affirmative action or financial aid and was at the school level rather than specific to the epidemiology programs. Few minority-related epidemiology course titles or research interests were identified. We recommend including more information about epidemiology and its relevance to minority health in mainstream recruitment materials as one possible strategy for increasing the number of minority applicants.

  11. Risk Factors for Low Back Disorders in Saskatchewan Farmers: Field-based Exposure Assessment to Build a Foundation for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Johnson, Peter W; Teschke, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of many geographical settings and agricultural commodities show that low back disorders are an important public health issue among farmers, who represent a special rural population. However, few studies have examined the impact of low back disorders on farmers’ work or the strategies that they adopt to avoid associated pain and disability. Objective This study protocol will investigate 3 issues related to low back disorders in Saskatchewan farmers: (1) the vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures farmers encounter during their work that might contribute to low back disorders; (2) the impact low back disorders have on farmers in terms of their ability to work; and (3) the types of preventative measures and solutions that farmers implement to reduce the occurrence of low back pain. Methods To answer these questions, researchers will travel to 30 farms to make measurements of vibration, lifting, and posture during the farmers’ regular work tasks. Farmers will be interviewed about any pain and/or disability using standardized interview questions. Farmers will also be asked about safety measures they have implemented at their farm, such as modified tools or equipment, to reduce the occurrence of low back disorders or pain. Results Data collection is currently underway for this study, with the intention to complete all data collection and analysis by the end of 2018. Conclusions Occupational determinants of health such as vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures are important in the development and progression of low back disorders, and the results of this study will allow for cost-effective epidemiological studies of these determinants in the future. In identifying prevention strategies, this study will also facilitate future research evaluating the effectiveness of safety measures. PMID:27286748

  12. Impact Evaluation of Training Natural Leaders during a Community-Led Total Sanitation Intervention: A Cluster-Randomized Field Trial in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Jonny; Abodoo, Elvis; Asamani, Daniel; Domapielle, William; Gyapong, Benedict; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-08-16

    We used a cluster-randomized field trial to evaluate training natural leaders (NLs) as an addition to a community-led total sanitation (CLTS) intervention in Ghana. NLs are motivated community members who influence their peers' behaviors during CLTS. The outcomes were latrine use and quality, which were assessed from surveys and direct observation. From October 2012, Plan International Ghana (Plan) implemented CLTS in 60 villages in three regions in Ghana. After 5 months, Plan trained eight NLs from a randomly selected half of the villages, then continued implementing CLTS in all villages for 12 more months. The NL training led to increased time spent on CLTS by community members, increased latrine construction, and a 19.9 percentage point reduction in open defecation (p < 0.001). The training had the largest impact in small, remote villages with low exposure to prior water and sanitation projects, and may be most effective in socially cohesive villages. For both interventions, latrines built during CLTS were less likely to be constructed of durable materials than pre-existing latrines, but were equally clean, and more often had handwashing materials. CLTS with NL training contributes to three parts of Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals: eliminating open defecation, expanding capacity-building, and strengthening community participation.

  13. Impact Evaluation of Training Natural Leaders during a Community-Led Total Sanitation Intervention: A Cluster-Randomized Field Trial in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We used a cluster-randomized field trial to evaluate training natural leaders (NLs) as an addition to a community-led total sanitation (CLTS) intervention in Ghana. NLs are motivated community members who influence their peers’ behaviors during CLTS. The outcomes were latrine use and quality, which were assessed from surveys and direct observation. From October 2012, Plan International Ghana (Plan) implemented CLTS in 60 villages in three regions in Ghana. After 5 months, Plan trained eight NLs from a randomly selected half of the villages, then continued implementing CLTS in all villages for 12 more months. The NL training led to increased time spent on CLTS by community members, increased latrine construction, and a 19.9 percentage point reduction in open defecation (p < 0.001). The training had the largest impact in small, remote villages with low exposure to prior water and sanitation projects, and may be most effective in socially cohesive villages. For both interventions, latrines built during CLTS were less likely to be constructed of durable materials than pre-existing latrines, but were equally clean, and more often had handwashing materials. CLTS with NL training contributes to three parts of Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals: eliminating open defecation, expanding capacity-building, and strengthening community participation. PMID:27428399

  14. Impact Evaluation of Training Natural Leaders during a Community-Led Total Sanitation Intervention: A Cluster-Randomized Field Trial in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Jonny; Abodoo, Elvis; Asamani, Daniel; Domapielle, William; Gyapong, Benedict; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-08-16

    We used a cluster-randomized field trial to evaluate training natural leaders (NLs) as an addition to a community-led total sanitation (CLTS) intervention in Ghana. NLs are motivated community members who influence their peers' behaviors during CLTS. The outcomes were latrine use and quality, which were assessed from surveys and direct observation. From October 2012, Plan International Ghana (Plan) implemented CLTS in 60 villages in three regions in Ghana. After 5 months, Plan trained eight NLs from a randomly selected half of the villages, then continued implementing CLTS in all villages for 12 more months. The NL training led to increased time spent on CLTS by community members, increased latrine construction, and a 19.9 percentage point reduction in open defecation (p < 0.001). The training had the largest impact in small, remote villages with low exposure to prior water and sanitation projects, and may be most effective in socially cohesive villages. For both interventions, latrines built during CLTS were less likely to be constructed of durable materials than pre-existing latrines, but were equally clean, and more often had handwashing materials. CLTS with NL training contributes to three parts of Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals: eliminating open defecation, expanding capacity-building, and strengthening community participation. PMID:27428399

  15. Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N

    1996-01-01

    There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

  16. Extinction procedure induces pruning of dendritic spines in CA1 hippocampal field depending on strength of training in rats

    PubMed Central

    Garín-Aguilar, María E.; Díaz-Cintra, Sofía; Quirarte, Gina L.; Aguilar-Vázquez, Azucena; Medina, Andrea C.; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous reports indicate that learning and memory of conditioned responses are accompanied by genesis of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, although there is a conspicuous lack of information regarding spine modifications after behavioral extinction. There is ample evidence that treatments that typically produce amnesia become innocuous when animals are submitted to a procedure of enhanced training. We now report that extinction of inhibitory avoidance (IA), trained with relatively low foot-shock intensities, induces pruning of dendritic spines along the length of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons. When animals are trained with a relatively high foot-shock there is a high resistance to extinction, and pruning in the proximal and medial segments of the apical dendrite are seen, while spine count in the distal dendrite remains normal. These results indicate that pruning is involved in behavioral extinction, while maintenance of spines is a probable mechanism that mediates the protecting effect against amnesic treatments produced by enhanced training. PMID:22438840

  17. Characterization of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from four continents by use of multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ahmed; Evans, Benjamin A; Towner, Kevin J; Amyes, Sebastian G B

    2010-07-01

    This study used a diverse collection of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to compare the robustness of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, based on conserved regions of seven housekeeping genes, gltA, gdhB, recA, cpn60, rpoD, gyrB, and gpi, with that of sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes (SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes). The data obtained by analysis of MLST and SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes were compared to the data generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The topologies of the phylogenetic trees generated for the gyrB and gpi genes showed evidence of recombination and were inconsistent with those of the trees generated for the other five genes. MLST identified 24 sequence types (STs), of which 19 were novel, and 5 novel alleles. Clonality was demonstrated by eBURST analysis and standardized index of association values of >1 (P < 0.001). MLST data revealed that all isolates harboring the major bla(OXA-51-like) alleles OXA-66, OXA-69, and OXA-71 fell within the three major European clonal lineages. However, the MLST data were not always in concordance with the PFGE data, and some isolates containing the same bla(OXA-51-like) allele demonstrated <50% relatedness by PFGE. It was concluded that the gyrB and gpi genes are not good candidates for use in MLST analysis and that a SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) gene scheme produced results comparable to those produced by MLST for the identification of the major epidemic lineages, with the advantage of having a significantly reduced sequencing cost and time. It is proposed that studies of A. baumannii epidemiology could involve initial screening of bla(OXA-51-like) alleles to identify isolates belonging to major epidemic lineages, followed by MLST analysis to categorize isolates from common lineages, with PFGE being reserved for fine-scale typing.

  18. Dehydration and hyponatremia in professional rugby union players: a cohort study observing english premiership rugby union players during match play, field, and gym training in cool environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin L; OʼHara, John P; Till, Kevin; King, Roderick F G J

    2015-01-01

    Fluid and sodium balance is important for performance and health; however, limited data in rugby union players exist. The purpose of the study was to evaluate body mass (BM) change (dehydration) and blood[Na] change during exercise. Data were collected from 10 premiership rugby union players, over a 4-week period. Observations included match play (23 subject observations), field (45 subject observations), and gym (33 subject observations) training sessions. Arrival urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, and samples during exercise were analyzed for [Na]. Body mass and blood[Na] were determined pre- and postexercise. Sweat[Na] was analyzed from sweat patches worn during exercise, and fluid intake was measured during exercise. Calculations of fluid and Na loss were made. Mean arrival urine osmolality was 423 ± 157 mOsm·kg, suggesting players were adequately hydrated. After match play, field, and gym training, BM loss was 1.0 ± 0.7, 0.3 ± 0.6, and 0.1 ± 0.6%, respectively. Fluid loss was significantly greater during match play (1.404 ± 0.977 kg) than field (1.008 ± 0.447 kg, p = 0.021) and gym training (0.639 ± 0.536 kg, p < 0.001). Fluid intake was 0.955 ± 0.562, 1.224 ± 0.601, and 0.987 ± 0.503 kg during match play, field, and gym training, respectively. On 43% of observations, players were hyponatremic when BM increased, 57% when BM was maintained, and 35% when there was a BM loss of 0.1-0.9%. Blood[Na] was the representative of normonatremia when BM loss was >1.0%. The findings demonstrate that rugby union players are adequately hydrated on arrival, fluid intake is excessive compared with fluid loss, and some players are at risk of developing hyponatremia.

  19. The epidemiology of favism.

    PubMed

    Belsey, M A

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism.

  20. The epidemiology of favism

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism. PMID:4541143

  1. The epidemiology workforce: are we planning for the future?

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Alice R; Bennett, Catherine M

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology has a central role in public health practice, education and research, and is arguably the only discipline unique to public health. A strong perception exists among epidemiologists in Australia that there is a substantial shortage in epidemiological capacity within the health workforce and health research, and that there are few graduates with sufficient high-level epidemiological training to fill the educational and leadership roles that will be essential to building this capacity. It was this concern that led the Australasian Epidemiological Association (AEA)--the peak professional body for epidemiologists in Australia and New Zealand--to convene a working group in 2007 to assess and address these concerns. This article summarises the key training challenges and opportunities discussed within this group, and the larger organisation, with the intention of stimulating greater public debate of these issues.

  2. Epidemiological studies in psychosomatic medicine.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, M R

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiological triad of host, agent and environment used conceptually in infectious disease may serve as a model for psychosomatic disorders, despite the involvement of many more variables. There are major problems with diagnosis and measurement, however, and the term "psychosomatic" has several meanings. The two main senses are "specific" psychosomatic disorders and an ecological view of illness. The association between psychiatric and physical disorder has been examined in a variety of settings and the findings have suggested that there is a positive relationship. Despite considerable methodological and sampling difficulties in epidemiological research into psychosomatic illness, recent efforts have been made to overcome these. The results of ecological studies appear to be more consistent that those dealing with "specific" psychosomatic disorders and suggest that man has a general psychophysical propensity to disease. Although physical and mental illness do seem to be intimately linked, the reasons for "vulnerability" to illness and "clustering" of illness are obscure. The clarification of these areas appears to be the main task ahead for epidemiology in the field of psychosomatic medicine. PMID:773850

  3. Epidemiology of Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sandler, R S; Golden, A L

    1986-04-01

    Although our current understanding is limited, epidemiologic investigation of Crohn's disease holds great promise. Certain aspects of the epidemiology are clear. The incidence of Crohn's disease, which has increased over the past few decades, may have reached a plateau. The disease has its peak onset in early life, with a second peak among the elderly. It is more common in the developed countries and among Jews. Whether the disease is related to occupation, social class, marital status, stress, infection, diet, smoking, and oral contraceptives is less certain. This paper reviews the epidemiology of Crohn's disease and proposes areas in which further research is needed.

  4. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology.

  5. Proceedings of The Second International Molecular Pathological Epidemiology (MPE) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Shuji; Campbell, Peter T.; Nishihara, Reiko; Phipps, Amanda I.; Beck, Andrew H.; Sherman, Mark E.; Chan, Andrew T.; Troester, Melissa A.; Bass, Adam J.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Nan, Hongmei; Peters, Ulrike; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Zhang, Xuehong; Giovannucci, Edward L.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wang, Molin; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Begg, Colin B.

    2015-01-01

    Disease classification system increasingly incorporates information on pathogenic mechanisms to predict clinical outcomes and response to therapy and intervention. Technological advancements to interrogate omics (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, interactomics, etc.) provide widely-open opportunities in population-based research. Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) represents integrative science of molecular pathology and epidemiology. This unified paradigm requires multidisciplinary collaboration between pathology, epidemiology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. Integration of these fields enables better understanding of etiologic heterogeneity, disease continuum, causal inference, and the impact of environment, diet, lifestyle, host factors (including genetics and immunity), and their interactions on disease evolution. Hence, the Second International MPE Meeting was held in Boston in December 2014, with aims to: (1) develop conceptual and practical frameworks; (2) cultivate and expand opportunities; (3) address challenges; and (4) initiate the effort of specifying guidelines for MPE. The meeting mainly consisted of presentations of method developments and recent data in various malignant neoplasms and tumors (breast, prostate, ovarian and colorectal cancers, renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and leukemia), followed by open discussion sessions on challenges and future plans. In particular, we recognized need for efforts to further develop statistical methodologies. This meeting provided an unprecedented opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration, consistent with the purposes of the BD2K (Big Data to Knowledge), GAME-ON (Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology), and Precision Medicine Initiatives of the U.S.A. National Institute of Health. The MPE Meeting Series can help advance transdisciplinary population science, and optimize training and education systems for 21st century

  6. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

  7. [DOHaD: epidemiological researches].

    PubMed

    Delpierre, Cyrille; Lepeule, Johanna; Cordier, Sylvaine; Slama, Remy; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological researches in the field of DOHaD are in favor of a role of early environment, including chemical (pesticides), physical (air pollution), nutritional or psychosocial environment, on child and adult health. Disentangling the different factors of environment that may affect health, especially over time, and identifying critical periods of exposure remains a major challenge. The biological mechanisms involved remain elusive in human beings. Nevertheless, it seems that whatever the nature of the exposure, epigenetic mechanisms are currently discussed to explain how the environment may alter biological systems over time.

  8. Schizophrenia: from Epidemiology to Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Bhat, Krishna M; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: We discuss recent evidences about schizophrenia (frequency, onset, course, risk factors and genetics) and their influences to some epidemiological myths about schizophrenia diffuse between psychiatric and psychopathology clinicians. The scope is to evaluate if the new acquisitions may change the rehabilitation approaches to schizophrenia modifying the balance about the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia accepting that the cognitive deficits are produced by errors during the normal development of the brain (neurodevelopmental hypothesis) that remains stable in the course of illness and the neurodegenerative hypothesis according of which they derived from a degenerative process that goes on inexorably. Research Method/Design: A review of the literature about epidemiology of schizophrenia has been performed and the contributions of some of these evidence to neurodevelopmental hypothesis and to rehabilitation has been described. Results: It cannot be definitively concluded for or against the neurodevelopmental or degenerative hypothesis, but efforts in understanding basis of schizophrenia must go on. Until now, rehabilitation programs are based on the vulnerability-stress model: supposing an early deficit that go on stable during the life under favorable circumstances. So, rehabilitation approaches (as neuro-cognitive approaches, social skill training, cognitive-emotional training) are focused on the individual and micro-group coping skills, aiming to help people with schizophrenia to cope with environmental stress factors. Conclusions/Implications: Coping of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may represents the starting-point for further research on schizophrenia, cohort studies and randomized trials are necessary to defined the range of effectiveness and the outcome of the treatments. PMID:22962559

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  10. Epidemiology of varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Delouya, Guila; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common problem in reproductive medicine practice. A varicocele is identified in 15% of healthy men and up to 35% of men with primary infertility. The exact pathophysiology of varicoceles is not very well understood, especially regarding its effect on male infertility. We have conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the epidemiology of varicocele in the general population and in men presenting with infertility. In this article, we have identified some of the factors that can influence the epidemiological aspects of varicoceles. We also recognize that varicocele epidemiology remains incompletely understood, and there is a need for well-designed, large-scale studies to fully define the epidemiological aspects of this condition. PMID:26763551

  11. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  12. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  13. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  14. [Molecular and genetic epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Kang, D H

    2001-04-21

    Molecular epidemiology is defined as "the use of biological markers in epidemiologic research" and genetic epidemiology is defined as "the study of the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in epidemiologic research". Traditional epidemiologic approaches defined as "the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human population" could not address the importance of genetic susceptibility of humans in disease occurrence. However, the use of biological or genetic markers identified and characterized by the help of advance in molecular biology and human genetics now can provide us better understanding of multi-factorial or multistep disease occurrence in humans. Biological markers used in molecular epidemiology are classified into three groups: biomarkers of exposure (i.e., carcinogen metabolites in human urine, DNA-adducts, etc.), biomarkers of effects (i.e., oncoproteins, tumor markers, etc.), and biomarkers of susceptibility (i.e., genetic polymorphisms of carcinogen metabolism enzymes, DNA repair, etc.). Susceptibility genes involved in disease pathogenesis are categorized into two groups: high penetrance genes (i.e., BRAC1, RB, etc.) and low penetrance genes (i.e., GSTs, XRCC1, etc.). This paper will address the usefulnesses of bomarkers in edpidemiologic research and will show the examples of the use of selected low penetrance genes involved in human carcinogenesis. The importance of multidisciplinary approaches among epidemiologists, molecular biologists, and human geneticists will also be discussed.

  15. The Cultural Training Semester: A Model Field-Based Program in Multi-Cultural Education for Non-Urban Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shirley S.; And Others

    Following a decade of growth in the size and variety of Wisconsin's ethnic minority communities, a study by the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh (UW-O) indicated need for a program to train teachers and human service professionals in the culture, traditions, and values of ethnic minority groups. Under a 1-year Ethnic Heritage Grant, UW-O…

  16. Just for Fun: Using Programming Games in Software Programming Training and Education--A Field Study of IBM Robocode Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Ju

    2007-01-01

    Improving learning effectiveness has always been a constant challenge in software education and training. One of the primary tasks educators face is to motivate learners to perform to their best abilities. Using computer games is one means to encourage learners to learn (Klawe, 1994). When games are used in general education, they could enhance…

  17. An Examination of the Career, Salary and Training Expectations of Information Technology Professionals Working in the Help Desk Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, William C.

    2013-01-01

    The Information Technology (IT) help desk positions serve as the gateway between the IT department and users. Although IT is one of the most employable job categories, and crucial for business, staffing these positions with properly trained and certified IT personnel and retaining them is a major challenge for IT help desk managers. What are the…

  18. How I-BEST Works: Findings from a Field Study of Washington State's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachen, John; Jenkins, Davis; Van Noy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) is an innovative program and strategy developed by the Washington (WA) State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) in conjunction with the state's 29 community colleges and five technical colleges. Its goal is to increase the rate at which adult basic education and…

  19. Epidemiological study by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a geriatric hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Gouby, A; Neuwirth, C; Bourg, G; Bouziges, N; Carles-Nurit, M J; Despaux, E; Ramuz, M

    1994-01-01

    Twelve cases of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBla)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were reported between August 1991 and March 1993 in the Geriatric Department of the Nimes University Hospital, where these bacterial had not been previously isolated. Restriction profiles of total genomic DNAs cleaved by XbaI and SpeI were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The strains that were tested included the 12 isolates from K. pneumoniae-infected patients, strains recovered from rectal swabs of asymptomatic patients in the same ward, and strains isolated in other hospitals in Nîmes at the same time. The restriction profiles of the 12 isolates and those recovered from asymptomatic patients in the same ward were very similar. Over a period of more than 1 year, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were not detected in K. pneumoniae isolates with restriction patterns different from that of the epidemic strain. It seems, therefore, that there was no transfer of a plasmid or a gene coding for ESBla to strains of K. pneumoniae that were different from the epidemic strain. At the same time, ESBla-producing K. pneumoniae isolates exhibiting restriction endonuclease profiles very different from that of the epidemic strain were isolated from other hospitals in Nîmes. None of these strains caused an outbreak. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, which allows precise characterization of strains beyond the species level, is a useful tool for studying the ESBla-producing K. pneumoniae strains involved in nosocomial outbreaks. Images PMID:8150938

  20. [Two decades of bridging activities between pharmacology, epidemiology and public health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Morales, Pol; García, Laura; Bosch, Fèlix

    2015-01-01

    Unsurprisingly, disciplines such as epidemiology, public health and pharmacology have points of confluence. Consequently, in Spain, both professionals and organizations from these disciplines have collaborated on many different activities altogether. This article compiles two decades of shared initiatives among these fields, coordinated by the Esteve Foundation. We discuss 20 collaborations, including face-to-face activities and joint publications. These activities involved numerous institutions and over 1,000 professionals. Among other activities, we would like to stress the training activities in scientific writing and editing. In particular, we highlight the 32 editions of a training workshop on how to write a scientific article, which has been running since 2004 to the present day. We conclude that collaborations between different institutions and professionals have acted and will continue to act as a bridge between disciplines and to contribute to scientific progress from a multidisciplinary perspective.

  1. Regional training in public health surveillance: how far are we? An SPC perspective.

    PubMed

    Kiedrzynski, T

    2000-09-01

    "Training in applied epidemiology and public health surveillance" is one of the five strategies of Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network (PPHSN). It aims to develop a regional pool of experts in public health surveillance and response for the Pacific Islands. In 1996, the idea of a modular training programme with field-based components, involving universities, health development agencies and professional associations came up. This programme should be accredited by a training institution. From 1998 to 2001, SPC made a first move in that direction and ran two different series of subregional training sessions in surveillance, outbreak investigation and the use of Epi Info 6 software for surveillance activities. The overall objective of these training sessions was to build a critical mass of health professionals who share a common set of tools and methods for public health surveillance. SPC can also provide attachment and hands-on field training opportunities for trainees in public health practice. A memorandum of understanding was signed between SPC and FSM in 1999. The article suggests the areas of future FSM/SPC collaboration in public health surveillance: the accreditation of SPC courses by FSM; the addition of a microbiology component; the identification of opportunities for field training; and the evaluation and harmonisation of the training programme(s).

  2. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  3. Recognizing Excellence in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology: The 2014 National MCH Epidemiology Awards

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Jones, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of programs, policies, and practices developed by professionals in the field of maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiology is highlighted biennially by 16 national MCH agencies and organizations, or the Coalition for Excellence in MCH Epidemiology. Description In September 2014, multiple leading agencies in the field of MCH partnered to host the national CityMatCH Leadership and MCH Epidemiology Conference in Phoenix, Arizona. The conference offered opportunities for peer exchange; presentation of new scientific methodologies, programs, and policies; dialogue on changes in the MCH field; and discussion of emerging MCH issues relevant to the work of local, state, and national MCH professionals. During the conference, the National MCH Epidemiology Awards were presented to individuals, teams, institutions, and leaders for significantly contributing to the improved health of women, children, and families. Assessment During the conference, the Coalition presented seven deserving health researchers and research groups with national awards in the areas of advancing knowledge, effective practice, outstanding leadership, young professional achievement, and lifetime achievement. The article highlights the accomplishments of these national-level awardees. Conclusion Recognition of deserving professionals strengthens the field of MCH epidemiology, and sets the standard for exceptional research, mentoring, and practice. PMID:26723200

  4. How mathematical epidemiology became a field of biology: a commentary on Anderson and May (1981) ‘The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts’

    PubMed Central

    Heesterbeek, J. A. P.; Roberts, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the context, content and importance of the paper ‘The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts’, by R. M. Anderson and R. M. May, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society as a stand-alone issue in 1981. We do this from the broader perspective of the study of infectious disease dynamics, rather than the specific perspective of the dynamics of insect pathogens. We argue that their 1981 paper fits seamlessly in the systematic study of infectious disease dynamics that was initiated by the authors in 1978, combining effective use of simple mathematical models, firmly rooted in biology, with observable or empirically measurable ingredients and quantities, and promoting extensive capacity building. This systematic approach, taking ecology and biology rather than applied mathematics as the motivation for advance, proved essential for the maturation of the field, and culminated in their landmark textbook of 1991. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750231

  5. High-intensity intermittent training in hypoxia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled field study in youth football players.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Faiss, Raphael; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 5 weeks (∼60 minutes per training, 2 d·wk) of run-based high-intensity repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and explosive strength/agility/sprint training in either normobaric hypoxia repeated sprints in hypoxia (RSH; inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2] = 14.3%) or repeated sprints in normoxia (RSN; FIO2 = 21.0%) on physical performance in 16 highly trained, under-18 male footballers. For both RSH (n = 8) and RSN (n = 8) groups, lower-limb explosive power, sprinting (10-40 m) times, maximal aerobic speed, repeated-sprint (10 × 30 m, 30-s rest) and repeated-agility (RA) (6 × 20 m, 30-s rest) abilities were evaluated in normoxia before and after supervised training. Lower-limb explosive power (+6.5 ± 1.9% vs. +5.0 ± 7.6% for RSH and RSN, respectively; both p < 0.001) and performance during maximal sprinting increased (from -6.6 ± 2.2% vs. -4.3 ± 2.6% at 10 m to -1.7 ± 1.7% vs. -1.3 ± 2.3% at 40 m for RSH and RSN, respectively; p values ranging from <0.05 to <0.01) to a similar extent in RSH and RSN. Both groups improved best (-3.0 ± 1.7% vs. -2.3 ± 1.8%; both p ≤ 0.05) and mean (-3.2 ± 1.7%, p < 0.01 vs. -1.9 ± 2.6%, p ≤ 0.05 for RSH and RSN, respectively) repeated-sprint times, whereas sprint decrement did not change. Significant interactions effects (p ≤ 0.05) between condition and time were found for RA ability-related parameters with very likely greater gains (p ≤ 0.05) for RSH than RSN (initial sprint: 4.4 ± 1.9% vs. 2.0 ± 1.7% and cumulated times: 4.3 ± 0.6% vs. 2.4 ± 1.7%). Maximal aerobic speed remained unchanged throughout the protocol. In youth highly trained football players, the addition of 10 repeated-sprint training sessions performed in hypoxia vs. normoxia to their regular football practice over a 5-week in-season period was more efficient at enhancing RA ability (including direction changes), whereas it had no additional effect on improvements in lower-limb explosive power, maximal sprinting, and RSA

  6. High-intensity intermittent training in hypoxia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled field study in youth football players.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Faiss, Raphael; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 5 weeks (∼60 minutes per training, 2 d·wk) of run-based high-intensity repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and explosive strength/agility/sprint training in either normobaric hypoxia repeated sprints in hypoxia (RSH; inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2] = 14.3%) or repeated sprints in normoxia (RSN; FIO2 = 21.0%) on physical performance in 16 highly trained, under-18 male footballers. For both RSH (n = 8) and RSN (n = 8) groups, lower-limb explosive power, sprinting (10-40 m) times, maximal aerobic speed, repeated-sprint (10 × 30 m, 30-s rest) and repeated-agility (RA) (6 × 20 m, 30-s rest) abilities were evaluated in normoxia before and after supervised training. Lower-limb explosive power (+6.5 ± 1.9% vs. +5.0 ± 7.6% for RSH and RSN, respectively; both p < 0.001) and performance during maximal sprinting increased (from -6.6 ± 2.2% vs. -4.3 ± 2.6% at 10 m to -1.7 ± 1.7% vs. -1.3 ± 2.3% at 40 m for RSH and RSN, respectively; p values ranging from <0.05 to <0.01) to a similar extent in RSH and RSN. Both groups improved best (-3.0 ± 1.7% vs. -2.3 ± 1.8%; both p ≤ 0.05) and mean (-3.2 ± 1.7%, p < 0.01 vs. -1.9 ± 2.6%, p ≤ 0.05 for RSH and RSN, respectively) repeated-sprint times, whereas sprint decrement did not change. Significant interactions effects (p ≤ 0.05) between condition and time were found for RA ability-related parameters with very likely greater gains (p ≤ 0.05) for RSH than RSN (initial sprint: 4.4 ± 1.9% vs. 2.0 ± 1.7% and cumulated times: 4.3 ± 0.6% vs. 2.4 ± 1.7%). Maximal aerobic speed remained unchanged throughout the protocol. In youth highly trained football players, the addition of 10 repeated-sprint training sessions performed in hypoxia vs. normoxia to their regular football practice over a 5-week in-season period was more efficient at enhancing RA ability (including direction changes), whereas it had no additional effect on improvements in lower-limb explosive power, maximal sprinting, and RSA

  7. Epidemiology and the scientific method.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, A F

    1982-01-01

    This article refutes the claim that the field of epidemiology and community health would benefit from the application of the scientific method. It is argued that the methods of physics are not appropriate for other disciplines. When applied to the social sciences, positivism is a conservatizing force, causing theory to become based on a mere description of social phenomenon. Since it cannot lead to a deep understanding of social phenomena, positivism is incapable of revealing ways in which society could be radically changed. Moreover, such theory is far from neutral. Rather, it is formed and influenced by the forms of life experienced and practiced in the society. This is illustrated by an analysis of the origin of modern physics at the time when society was changing from a feudal to capitalist form of organization. It is concluded that advances will be made in epidemiology and community health when this field breaks from its focus on the individual and incorporates class into its analysis. However, given the interconnection between social structure and social theory, resistance to such a radical change can be expected. PMID:7141777

  8. Characterization of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from four continents by use of multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ahmed; Evans, Benjamin A; Towner, Kevin J; Amyes, Sebastian G B

    2010-07-01

    This study used a diverse collection of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to compare the robustness of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, based on conserved regions of seven housekeeping genes, gltA, gdhB, recA, cpn60, rpoD, gyrB, and gpi, with that of sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes (SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes). The data obtained by analysis of MLST and SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes were compared to the data generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The topologies of the phylogenetic trees generated for the gyrB and gpi genes showed evidence of recombination and were inconsistent with those of the trees generated for the other five genes. MLST identified 24 sequence types (STs), of which 19 were novel, and 5 novel alleles. Clonality was demonstrated by eBURST analysis and standardized index of association values of >1 (P < 0.001). MLST data revealed that all isolates harboring the major bla(OXA-51-like) alleles OXA-66, OXA-69, and OXA-71 fell within the three major European clonal lineages. However, the MLST data were not always in concordance with the PFGE data, and some isolates containing the same bla(OXA-51-like) allele demonstrated <50% relatedness by PFGE. It was concluded that the gyrB and gpi genes are not good candidates for use in MLST analysis and that a SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) gene scheme produced results comparable to those produced by MLST for the identification of the major epidemic lineages, with the advantage of having a significantly reduced sequencing cost and time. It is proposed that studies of A. baumannii epidemiology could involve initial screening of bla(OXA-51-like) alleles to identify isolates belonging to major epidemic lineages, followed by MLST analysis to categorize isolates from common lineages, with PFGE being reserved for fine-scale typing. PMID:20421437

  9. Maximal and functional aerobic capacity as assessed by two graduated field methods in comparison to laboratory exercise testing in moderately trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Ahmaidi, S; Collomp, K; Caillaud, C; Préfaut, C

    1992-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which of the two commonly used field tests, the 20-meter shuttle run test (20-MST) or the University of Montreal track test (UM-TT), provides the most accurate assessment of maximal and functional aerobic capacity in moderately trained athletes. Eleven male subjects aged from 18 to 30 years were studied in triple incremental and continuous running tests carried out until exhaustion both in laboratory and field conditions. They underwent a laboratory treadmill test and completed the outdoor 20-MST and UM-TT. During the three randomly assigned tests, maximal velocity (Vmax), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), and post-exercise peak blood lactate (P[La]) measurements were made. The results indicate a significant difference in the mean Vmax (F = 9.26, p less than 0.001). Vmax determined by the 20-MST revealed a lower value than by treadmill (16.3%) and the UM-TT (19.3%). In contrast, there was no difference with regard to VO2max (F = 2.95, p = 0.06), HRmax (F = 2.72, p = 0.08), and P[La] (F = 2.79, p = 0.07). These results confirm that the UM-TT is a valid field test of maximal and functional aerobic capacity in moderately trained subjects and suggest that it can be additionally used for exercise prescription.

  10. Shifting epidemiology of Flaviviridae.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lyle R; Marfin, Anthony A

    2005-04-01

    The dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses are important mosquito-borne viruses whose epidemiology is shifting in response to changing societal factors, such as increasing commerce, urbanization of rural areas, and population growth. All four viruses are expanding geographically, as exemplified by the emergence of West Nile virus in the Americas and Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. The large, recent global outbreaks of severe neurological disease caused by West Nile virus, the increasing frequency of dengue hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Americas, and the emergence of yellow fever virus vaccination-associated viscerotropic disease, are new clinical epidemiologic trends. These worrisome epidemiologic trends will probably continue in coming decades, as a reversal of their societal and biological drivers is not in sight. Nevertheless, the substantial reductions in Japanese encephalitis virus incidence resulting from vaccination programs and economic development in some Asian countries provide some encouragement within this overall guarded outlook.

  11. Whose epidemiology, whose health?

    PubMed

    Wing, S

    1998-01-01

    Simplistic claims about the objectivity of science have been challenged from a variety of perspectives. Evaluation of the external context of production of knowledge and the methodological approaches to posing questions and assembling evidence shows that there is no pure "science"; rather, all scientific knowledge is shaped by the social history of its production. Examples are given of how quantitative concepts in modern epidemiology influence the recognition of the causes of disease. The author uses the phenomenon of intensive swine production by vertically integrated agribusiness to illustrate how broad problems such as environmental racism, agricultural determinants of nutrition, loss of natural resources, and conditions conducive to emergence of new diseases are hidden by epidemiological approaches that fit into corporate policy perspectives. It is critically important to ask who produces epidemiological knowledge, and whose health is promoted by that knowledge.

  12. Attracting young academics into the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy in Switzerland--the Zurich 'Study Focus on Psychiatry' and training concept for medical psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Wolfgang; Rufer, Michael; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2013-08-01

    For several years the demand regarding psychiatrists in Switzerland can only be satisfied by recruiting colleagues from other countries. Given the global increase of mental disorders, initiatives encouraging young academics to choose psychiatry as their speciality, and enhancing the attractiveness of our field, are urgently needed. Two projects for the promotion of young academics are presented in this paper, one working with medical students, the other with residents in psychiatry. The Zurich 'Study Focus on Psychiatry' provides medical students with knowledge and key competencies in psychiatry at an early stage of their undergraduate training. This way, students are offered an opportunity to have a thorough look into psychiatry as a clinical specialism and as a science. The three-year psychotherapy training curriculum in medical psychotherapy provides residents in psychiatry and psychotherapy with specific training in either cognitive behavioural, or psychodynamic, or systemic psychotherapy. Additionally, and independent of the psychotherapeutic orientation they have chosen, all trainees attend joint sessions focusing on generic elements of psychotherapy and facilitating a hands-on transfer of psychotherapeutic principles into their clinical routine. These two projects aim at enhancing the attractiveness of psychiatry and psychotherapy as a speciality, and thus contributing to the promotion of young academics.

  13. First Year Teacher of First Year Teachers: A Reflection on Teacher Training in the Field of Piano Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgersma, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    While there is a great deal of scholarly inquiry focusing on student teaching experiences in the field of classroom education, there are few resources devoted to student teaching in the context of the applied music lesson. In this article, a teacher educator in the field of piano pedagogy uses self-study to combine reflection on personal…

  14. An argument for a consequentialist epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro

    2013-10-15

    Epidemiology is the study of the causes and distributions of diseases in human populations so that we may identify ways to prevent and control disease. Although this definition broadly serves us well, I suggest that in recent decades, our discipline's robust interest in identifying causes has come at the expense of a more rigorous engagement with the second part of our vision for ourselves-the intent for us to intervene-and that this approach threatens to diminish our field's relevance. I argue here for a consequentialist epidemiology, a formalization and recalibration of the philosophical foundations of our discipline. I discuss how epidemiology is, at its core, more comfortably a consequentialist, as opposed to a deontological, discipline. A more consequentialist approach to epidemiology has several implications. It clarifies our research priorities, offers a perspective on the place of novel epidemiologic approaches and a metric to evaluate the utility of new methods, elevates the importance of global health and considerations about equity to the discipline, brings into sharp focus our engagement in implementation and translational science, and has implications for how we teach our students. I intend this article to be a provocation that can help clarify our disciplinary intentions. PMID:24022890

  15. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  16. Science, politics and animal health policy: epidemiology in action.

    PubMed

    Hueston, W D

    2003-07-30

    Public policy decisions underlie society's response to current animal health issues ranging from emerging diseases and public health threats to food safety concerns and sustainable animal agriculture strategies. Despite strong calls for "science-based" decisions, animal health policy most commonly emerges at the interface of science and politics. Too often scientists' disdain for politics limits their involvement in formulating policy. By contrast, epidemiologists are ideally qualified to bring scientific skills to complex policy issues through analytical, macro-epidemiological approaches that consider the economic, legal, and cultural context of policy issues as well as the biological and medical aspects. Risk analysis provides a systematic approach to evaluating animal health issues and comparing policy options. Capturing these opportunities for applied epidemiology requires an understanding of the policy-making process as well as the basic principles of epidemiology. Furthermore, epidemiology training programs must incorporate communications skill building and experiential learning opportunities in a team environment.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Conway, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Malaria persists as an undiminished global problem, but the resources available to address it have increased. Many tools for understanding its biology and epidemiology are well developed, with a particular richness of comparative genome sequences. Targeted genetic manipulation is now effectively combined with in vitro culture assays on the most important human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and with in vivo analysis of rodent and monkey malaria parasites in their laboratory hosts. Studies of the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of human malaria have already been influenced by the availability of molecular methods, and analyses of parasite polymorphisms have long had useful and highly informative applications. However, the molecular epidemiology of malaria is currently undergoing its most substantial revolution as a result of the genomic information and technologies that are available in well-resourced centers. It is a challenge for research agendas to face the real needs presented by a disease that largely exists in extremely resource-poor settings, but it is one that there appears to be an increased willingness to undertake. To this end, developments in the molecular epidemiology of malaria are reviewed here, emphasizing aspects that may be current and future priorities. PMID:17223628

  18. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  19. Causality in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Farin

    2012-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to the meaning of causality in epidemiology and methods that epidemiologists use to distinguish causal associations from non-causal ones. Alternatives to causal association are discussed in detail. Hill's guidelines, set forth approximately 50 years ago, and more recent developments are reviewed. The role of religious and philosophic views in our understanding of causality is briefly discussed.

  20. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  1. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage.

    PubMed

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals' HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  2. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  3. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    PubMed

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  4. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  5. EMOST: Report about the application of low-frequency and intensity electromagnetic fields in disaster situation and commando training.

    PubMed

    Bókkon, István; Erdöfi-Szabó, Attila; Till, Attila; Balázs, Róbert; Sárosi, Zoltán; Szabó, Zoltán László; Kolonics, Gábor; Popper, George

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we published our results (Bókkon et al., 2011. Electromagn Biol Med.) regarding the effectiveness of the EMOST (Electro-Magnetic-Own-Signal-Treatment) method for the reduction of phantom limb pain under clinical circumstances. However, EMOST treatments not only significantly reduced phantom pain, but that most of the patients also reported about additional benefits such as improvement of their sleep and mood quality after treatments. Here we report some unusual applications of EMOST method under special situations. That is, we report about our effective EMOST treatments of humans under catastrophic conditions and commando training course. This article points out that it is reasonable to apply biophysical electromagnetic management under unique circumstances. We also report some preliminary experiments on 12 members of our BioLabor regarding the effectiveness of single EMOST treatment on some serum parameters and electrocardiogram.

  6. [Future prospects of molecular epidemiology in tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Iwamoto, Tomotada

    2009-12-01

    easily compare the genotypic data of independent studies between different laboratories. With the advantages, VNTR surpassed IS6110 RFLP and became the first line genotyping method in molecular epidemiology. One of the most attractive potentials on this method is its applicability for establishment of the database of M. tuberculosis genotype which covers not only local area but also world wide scale. This would open the door to "in silico epidemiology" which brings a breakthrough on the current TB control program. The optimization and standardization of the combination of VNTR loci for strain genotyping is the only but hard issue for the development of global database system. Road to the global Mtb genotype database is hard, but we believe, "Yes, We Can!". Another attractive potential of VNTR is its use for phylogenetic analysis, although more intensive research on this with using comprehensive marker sets, such as large sequence polymorphisms and single-nucleotide polymorphisms are required. Again, with the advantages of VNTR analysis, i.e., easy, rapid, specific, and digit-based data, VNTR became the first line method in molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis is expanding its research field from the investigation of TB transmission to more basic science such as evolution and phylogeographic distribution. In this symposium, we have invited four opinion leaders in molecular epidemiology of TB in Japan who are talking about each title as followed. 1. Establishment of the standard VNTR analysis systems for Tuberculosis (TB) and preparation of databases for TB genotyping: Shinji MAEDA and Yoshiro MURASE (Department of Mycobacterium Reference and Research, Research Institute of Tuberculosis, JATA). We have already reported the JATA (12)-VNTR system for TB genotyping in Japan. However, by comparison of cluster formation rate, the discrimination power of JATA (12)-VNTR was lower than that of IS6110 RFLP analysis. Therefore, we improved the JATA (12

  7. [From molecular to genomic and metagenomic epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Zhebrun, A B

    2014-01-01

    The notion "molecular epidemiology" was introduced into scientific literature by Kilburn E. et al. in 1973. The first period of development of infectious diseases molecular epidemiology may be called "genotypic" (1980-1990s). During this period methodology of molecular marking of pathogens for purposes of monitoring of their spread and outbreak detection (novel nomenclature of diphtheria corynebacteria based on ribotyping; international network PulseNet for monitoring food source infections; international database of tuberculosis mycobacteria spoligotypes) was created. The second--"genomic" period started in the 2000s. Molecular epidemiology rapidly went through single markers (genotypes or single genes) to deciphering the whole genome of pathoge "mobileome", "resistome", "virulome" etc. took an important place in the studies of emerging and pandemic infections. Knowledge on genetic mechanisms leading to emergence and global dissemination of novel pathogens give molecular epidemiology its own scientific content and transforms it from a methodical approach to an independent field of epidemiology. The third--"metagenomic" period starts nowadays based on meta-genomic approach that allows to determine the whole set ofgenomes in the studied sample without the cultivation procedure. In the short-term this would lead to a change of a century-long paradigm of diagnostics and control of infections: instead of search of separate (key) pathogens--characteristics of the full specter of microorganisms in the material from patients and environmental samples with its identification up to any taxonomic depth. In the systems of regional and global epidemiologic control a universal monitoring of all known and re-emerging pathogens with construction and maintenance of metagenomic passports of human habitats will be realized. PMID:25286516

  8. [From molecular to genomic and metagenomic epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Zhebrun, A B

    2014-01-01

    The notion "molecular epidemiology" was introduced into scientific literature by Kilburn E. et al. in 1973. The first period of development of infectious diseases molecular epidemiology may be called "genotypic" (1980-1990s). During this period methodology of molecular marking of pathogens for purposes of monitoring of their spread and outbreak detection (novel nomenclature of diphtheria corynebacteria based on ribotyping; international network PulseNet for monitoring food source infections; international database of tuberculosis mycobacteria spoligotypes) was created. The second--"genomic" period started in the 2000s. Molecular epidemiology rapidly went through single markers (genotypes or single genes) to deciphering the whole genome of pathoge "mobileome", "resistome", "virulome" etc. took an important place in the studies of emerging and pandemic infections. Knowledge on genetic mechanisms leading to emergence and global dissemination of novel pathogens give molecular epidemiology its own scientific content and transforms it from a methodical approach to an independent field of epidemiology. The third--"metagenomic" period starts nowadays based on meta-genomic approach that allows to determine the whole set ofgenomes in the studied sample without the cultivation procedure. In the short-term this would lead to a change of a century-long paradigm of diagnostics and control of infections: instead of search of separate (key) pathogens--characteristics of the full specter of microorganisms in the material from patients and environmental samples with its identification up to any taxonomic depth. In the systems of regional and global epidemiologic control a universal monitoring of all known and re-emerging pathogens with construction and maintenance of metagenomic passports of human habitats will be realized.

  9. Feminism meets the "new" epidemiologies: toward an appraisal of antifeminist biases in epidemiological research on women's health.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, M C; Whittle, K L

    2001-09-01

    This essay explores an alternative paradigm for epidemiology, one which is explicitly informed by a feminist perspective. We intend to expand upon recent critiques and debates within the emergent fields of "critical", "popular", and "alternative" epidemiology to examine how epidemiology's conceptual models--which are meant to contribute to the prevention of social inequalities in health, but may instead reinforce social hierarchies based on gender, race, and class--constrain our understanding of health and disease. Specifically, we examine persistent antifeminist biases in contemporary epidemiological research on women's health. Issues highlighted include: problem definition and knowledge production in women's health: biological essentialization of women as reproducers; and decontextualization and depoliticization of women's health risks. As part of this critique, we include suggestions for an emancipatory epidemiology that incorporates an alternative feminist framework.

  10. Feminism meets the "new" epidemiologies: toward an appraisal of antifeminist biases in epidemiological research on women's health.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, M C; Whittle, K L

    2001-09-01

    This essay explores an alternative paradigm for epidemiology, one which is explicitly informed by a feminist perspective. We intend to expand upon recent critiques and debates within the emergent fields of "critical", "popular", and "alternative" epidemiology to examine how epidemiology's conceptual models--which are meant to contribute to the prevention of social inequalities in health, but may instead reinforce social hierarchies based on gender, race, and class--constrain our understanding of health and disease. Specifically, we examine persistent antifeminist biases in contemporary epidemiological research on women's health. Issues highlighted include: problem definition and knowledge production in women's health: biological essentialization of women as reproducers; and decontextualization and depoliticization of women's health risks. As part of this critique, we include suggestions for an emancipatory epidemiology that incorporates an alternative feminist framework. PMID:11478536

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  12. Notes From the Field: Secondary Task Precision for Cognitive Load Estimation During Virtual Reality Surgical Simulation Training.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sebastian R; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter T; Sørensen, Mads S; Andersen, Steven A W

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive load (CL) theory suggests that working memory can be overloaded in complex learning tasks such as surgical technical skills training, which can impair learning. Valid and feasible methods for estimating the CL in specific learning contexts are necessary before the efficacy of CL-lowering instructional interventions can be established. This study aims to explore secondary task precision for the estimation of CL in virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation and also investigate the effects of CL-modifying factors such as simulator-integrated tutoring and repeated practice. Twenty-four participants were randomized for visual assistance by a simulator-integrated tutor function during the first 5 of 12 repeated mastoidectomy procedures on a VR temporal bone simulator. Secondary task precision was found to be significantly lower during simulation compared with nonsimulation baseline, p < .001. Contrary to expectations, simulator-integrated tutoring and repeated practice did not have an impact on secondary task precision. This finding suggests that even though considerable changes in CL are reflected in secondary task precision, it lacks sensitivity. In contrast, secondary task reaction time could be more sensitive, but requires substantial postprocessing of data. Therefore, future studies on the effect of CL modifying interventions should weigh the pros and cons of the various secondary task measurements.

  13. A field guide to real-time culture change: just "rolling out" a training program won't cut it.

    PubMed

    Kusy, Mitchell; Holloway, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Presented as a representative case of how to handle the disruptive behaviors of professionals in healthcare, this article describes the strategies of a systems approach with a five-phase model for culture change. The "large-scale, real-time" culture change process, based on our own evidence-based research on toxic behaviors and the research of others, has been demonstrated to be more effective than one-on-one feedback to change these behaviors. The real-time approach has been applied to other organizational situations--strategy formulation, change management, or service improvement--with more sustainable effects than simply training alone. This article will help your organization with four outcomes: understanding the rationale for a five-phase model for cultural change, describing the advantages of a real-time versus nonreal-time approach to change, identifying the how-to's for application within a systems approach, and articulating a clear evaluation process to sustain successful organizational culture change.

  14. A field guide to real-time culture change: just "rolling out" a training program won't cut it.

    PubMed

    Kusy, Mitchell; Holloway, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Presented as a representative case of how to handle the disruptive behaviors of professionals in healthcare, this article describes the strategies of a systems approach with a five-phase model for culture change. The "large-scale, real-time" culture change process, based on our own evidence-based research on toxic behaviors and the research of others, has been demonstrated to be more effective than one-on-one feedback to change these behaviors. The real-time approach has been applied to other organizational situations--strategy formulation, change management, or service improvement--with more sustainable effects than simply training alone. This article will help your organization with four outcomes: understanding the rationale for a five-phase model for cultural change, describing the advantages of a real-time versus nonreal-time approach to change, identifying the how-to's for application within a systems approach, and articulating a clear evaluation process to sustain successful organizational culture change. PMID:24873126

  15. [Epidemiological situation of Chad].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-10-01

    Chad, the land located in Central Africa nowadays is one of the poorest countries in the world, what is connected with catastrophic demographic indicators and numerous cases of infectious diseases among local population as well as external and internal refugees. Epidemiologic profile is dominated by vector-, water-, food-borne, respiratory, and sexually transmitted diseases. Environmental factors, such as an effect of high temperature, sand and dust storms also pose essential threat. This is related to location of majority of Chad territory in the area of Sahara and Sahel. The article presents information concerning current epidemiological hazards encountered by visitors in this country. This knowledge is essential for Polish health service and armed forces in the context of forming of EUFOR mission in Chad with participation of our soldiers.

  16. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    PubMed Central

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). The other dimension specifies the groups of persons involved in the conflict under consideration (for example: the study-population, individuals who may benefit from the results, the researchers and their personnel, the community at large). The model has been applied to the problem of legitimacy of case-register research and to problems in psychiatric health services research as well as epidemiological research. PMID:1460647

  17. Dengue: update on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact.

  18. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27766137

  19. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  20. 1H stray-field long spin-echo trains and MRI: novel studies on the photopolymerization of a commercial dental resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Teresa G.; Guillot, Geneviève; Pereira, Sónia G.; Pires, Ricardo

    2002-06-01

    Photopolymerization of a commercial dental resin has been investigated by 1H stray-field (STRAFI) magnetic resonance. The resin is a visible light-cured system, included in a new generation adhesive, which is used to bond the restorative material to enamel or dentin. Different methods were used to follow the curing reaction, which involve long and short spin-echo train acquisitions to obtain one-slice and one-dimensional data, respectively. The echo attenuation, in the limit of very short time delays, could be described as the sum of two exponentials. While the intensity of the early echoes in the train appeared mainly governed by spin-spin relaxation, the decay of the last echoes seemed to depend also on spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame. The relative amplitude of the long-time component was found to decrease from 84% to 10% with the photopolymerization progress, and a STRAFI degree of conversion of 74% could thus be suggested. The influence of the curing protocol was observed in STRAFI profiles.

  1. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tomas K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  2. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  3. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  4. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  5. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  6. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  7. Epidemiology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Abramovici, S; Bagić, A

    2016-01-01

    Modern epidemiology of epilepsy maximizes the benefits of advanced diagnostic methods and sophisticated techniques for case ascertainment in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy and representativeness of the cases and cohorts studied, resulting in better comparability of similarly performed studies. Overall, these advanced epidemiologic methods are expected to yield a better understanding of diverse risk factors, high-risk populations, seizure triggers, multiple and poorly understood causes of epilepsy, including the increasing and complex role of genetics, and establish the natural course of treated and untreated epilepsy and syndromes - all of which form the foundation of an attempt to prevent epileptogenesis as the primary prophylaxis of epilepsy. Although data collection continues to improve, epidemiologists still need to overcome definition and coding variability, insufficient documentation, as well as the interplay of socioeconomic factors and stigma. As most of the 65-70 million people with epilepsy live outside of resource-rich countries, extensive underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis, and undertreatment are likely. Epidemiology will continue to provide the necessary information to the medical community, public, and regulators as the foundation for improved health policies, targeted education, and advanced measures of prevention and prognostication of the most common severe brain disorder. PMID:27637958

  8. Building leadership skills and promoting workforce development: evaluation data collected from public health professionals in the field of maternal and child health.

    PubMed

    Kroelinger, Charlan D; Kasehagen, Laurin; Barradas, Danielle T; 'Ali, Zarinah

    2012-12-01

    Professional development, including training and leadership skill building, is important for maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiologists. Current workforce development and training opportunities vary, but lack an emphasis on linking leadership competencies with MCH epidemiology. This paper describes efforts at the annual MCH Epidemiology Conference (the "Conference") to promote leadership activities and workforce development, and recommendations to enhance professional development. An evaluation of attendee opinions on Conference workforce development activities was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 Conferences (70 and 66 % response rates, respectively). Frequencies and percentages were calculated overall and by attendee profession. Qualitative responses to questions regarding workforce and professional development were classified by theme in 2009, and a categorical question was developed for the 2010 evaluation. A combined 38 % of Conference attendees in 2009 and 2010 were MCH epidemiologists and 62 % were other MCH professionals. Attendees recommended more support and access to training, mentoring, and resources including job opportunities. Continuing education (41 %), special knowledge and skills-building training (51 %), and development of online resources for training (57 %) were highly recommended by attendees. Career (47 %) and leadership (49 %) mentoring by senior-level professionals in the field were also highly recommended. Promotion of leadership can be achieved by integrating the concept of leadership into the Conference itself; by publishing and disseminating MCH epidemiologic research in scientific, program, and policy settings; and by communicating the importance of epidemiologic findings to stakeholders and other non-scientific audiences.

  9. Developing national epidemiologic capacity to meet the challenges of emerging infections in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, L. R.; Ammon, A.; Hamouda, O.; Breuer, T.; Kiessling, S.; Bellach, B.; Niemer, U.; Bindert, F. J.; Ostroff, S.; Kurth, R.

    2000-01-01

    In January 1996, the Robert Koch Institute, Germany's national public health institute, began strengthening its epidemiologic capacity to respond to emerging and other infectious diseases. Six integrated strategies were initiated: developing employee training, outbreak investigation, and epidemiologic research programs; strengthening surveillance systems; improving communications to program partners and constituents; and building international collaborations. By December 1999, five employees had completed a 2-year applied epidemiology training program, 186 health department personnel had completed a 2-week training course, 27 outbreak investigations had been completed, eight short-term research projects had been initiated, major surveillance and epidemiologic research efforts for foodborne and nosocomial infections had begun, and 16 scientific manuscripts had been published or were in press. The German experience indicates that, with a concerted effort, considerable progress in building a national applied infectious disease program can be achieved in a short time frame. PMID:11076715

  10. World's simplest electric train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physics of the "world's simplest electric train." The "train" consists of a AA battery with a strong magnet on each end that moves through a helical coil of copper wire. The motion of the train results from the interaction between the magnetic field created by the current in the wire and the magnetic field of the magnets. We calculate the force of this interaction and the terminal velocity of the train due to eddy currents and friction. Our calculations provide a good illustration of Faraday's and Lenz's laws, as well as of the concepts of the Lorentz force and eddy currents.

  11. Training the rivers and exploring the coasts. Knowledge evolution in the Netherlands in two engineering fields between 1800 and 1940

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toussaint, Bert

    In this paper, the author wants to explore the knowledge development in two crucial fields, river management and coast management in the 19th century and first decades of the 20th century. Were there similar characteristics in this development? Which types of knowledge can be distinguished? Who were the principal actors in these processes? Did the knowledge evolution have a Dutch stamp or a rather international flavour? To structure the analysis, the author uses the concept of technology regime, a set of technical rules which shapes the know-how of engineers, their design rules and research processes. The analysis shows that the knowledge development of river management and coastal management followed different evolution paths between 1800 and 1940. In the field of river management, a substantial amount of mathematical and physical theories had been gradually developed since the end of the 17th century. After 1850, the regularization approach met gradually a widespread support. Empirical data, design rules, theoretical knowledge and engineering pivoted around the regularization approach, and a technology regime around this approach emerged. The regularization regime further developed in the 20th century, and handbooks were increasingly shaped by mathematical and physical reasoning and formulas. On the other hand, coastal management was until the 1880s a rather marginal activity. Coastal engineering was an extremely complex and multidimensional field of knowledge which no engineer was able to grasp. The foundation of a Dutch weather institute was a first important step towards a more theoretical approach. The Zuiderzee works (starting in 1925) gave probably the most important stimuli to scientific coastal research. It was also a main factor in setting up scientific institutes by Rijkswaterstaat. So from the 1920s, Rijkswaterstaat became a major producer of scientific knowledge, not only in tidal modelling but also in coastal research. Due to a multidisciplinary

  12. Training maternal and child health epidemiologists: leaders for the twenty first century.

    PubMed

    Handler, Arden; Klaus, Jaime; Rankin, Kristin; Rosenberg, Deborah

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on the structure, implementation and outcomes of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology (MCHEPI) program at the University of Illinois School of Public Health (UIC-SPH) and discusses the successes and challenges in developing MCH Epidemiology leaders for the local, state, and national public health workforce. The MCHEPI program at UIC-SPH offers both the MPH and PhD degree and is based on six key components: integration across school divisions, competency-based training, tailored curricula, practica/dissertations with public health agencies, personal leadership training and development, and socialization. Based on data from the 1998-2012 cohorts, all former and current MCHEPI MPH students (n = 28) have participated in practica with local or state public health agencies and former and current MCHEPI doctoral students at the dissertation stage (12 out of 15) have partnered with local, state or national public health agencies in conducting their dissertations. The alumni of the MCHEPI MPH program (n = 25) appear to serve in higher level positions in their second compared to their first placements post-graduation. All MCHEPI doctoral alumni (n = 8) serve at the emerging senior level or senior scientist level upon graduation, in local, state and federal agencies, or in academe. Explicit linkage of MCHEPI students to practice through tailored curricula, practica, and dissertations with public health agencies, and the development of an identity as a member of the MCHEPI field appear to be important to the generation of epidemiology leaders for the MCH workforce. Leadership development is a lifelong process and as such, snapshots of current students and alumni at any one point in time do not provide the entire picture of the impact of MCH epidemiology training programs. Examining the trajectories of emerging leaders over time is essential for evaluating the true success of Maternal and Child Health Bureau workforce and training investments.

  13. Global foot-and-mouth disease reearch update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  14. Implementation of a prototype training and networking program for minority entrepreneurs and business people in energy-related fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    In line with these responsibilities of the US Department of Energy, Office of Minority Economic Impact, this project was designed to address problems and implement strategies to assist the underprivileged, minority and entrepreneurs in large metropolitan areas. This project addressed the need for women and minorities to gain access to the many opportunities available in the varied energy-related fields. One way for these budding entrepreneurs'' to become associated with energy-related businesses, learn the ropes, and eventually own a similar business is to be exposed to the guidance of an established business. Toward that end, a series of relevant projects have been identified with the assistance of the Small Business Administration (SBA), the private sector, and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, G.

    1996-12-31

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. [Update on the epidemiology of malaria in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Carme, B; Ardillon, V; Girod, R; Grenier, C; Joubert, M; Djossou, F; Ravachol, F

    2009-02-01

    The last study describing the epidemiology of malaria in French Guiana was published 20 years ago. Yet French Guiana in the Americas along with Mayotte in the Indian Ocean is the only French territory with persisting endemic malaria. The purpose of this study is to provide an update based on official malaria surveillance data as well as on information from hospital records and various field surveys that have been carried out in recent years. Due to recurrent problems in collecting thorough, continuous, and consistent data, exact determination of incidence by plasmodium species has always been difficult in French Guiana. These problems include not only the remote location of endemic areas and intense unpredictable migration patterns but also poor data collection methods that do not always ensure consistency and homogeneity. Another factor hindering thorough collection of conventional epidemiological data is the requirement for rapid effective treatment in remote regions. The overall incidence of malaria in French Guiana appears to have remained stable since the beginning of the decade with an average of 3,920 case reports per year for an incidence rate of 20 per thousand, noting that three fourths of the 206,000 inhabitants of French Guiana live outside of endemic areas. Overall involvement of P. falciparum and P. vivax appears to be equal with P. malariae accounting for only 2.6% of cases. Trends in recent years indicate an increase in the number of cases involving P. vivax especially in the eastern zones, i.e. in the Oyapock focus where annual incidences in children have reached up to 500 per thousand and in the whole region located between Saint Georges and Cayenne. Conversely a decrease in endemic levels has been observed in western areas, especially for P. falciparum in the upper and middle focuses of the Maroni. Most zones now causing problems are located near migration points, particularly in relation with clandestine gold panning activities. In the coastal

  17. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya Jatesadapattaya; Philasri, Chutikan; Leksomboon, Ratana; Maneenin, Chanvit; Sirilaph, Samaporn; Pengsaa, Prasit

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species, and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998. In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas. PMID:17072975

  18. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  19. Migraine headache: epidemiologic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Linet, M S; Stewart, W F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that a number of factors are associated with the risk of migraine and precipitation of an attack. However, the degree to which causal associations can be inferred from reported studies is very limited and is a result of the methodological problems discussed throughout this review. The study of migraine in many ways parallels the pattern seen in early investigations of other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, because a number of methodological problems had to be resolved in the study of these conditions before significant progress could be made. To achieve significant advances in the improvement of our understanding of the causes of migraine, a number of related issues must be addressed and resolved in future studies. Most noteworthy among these are Recognition of the probable heterogeneity of migraine, not merely in the manifestation of symptoms but, more importantly, in the existence of distinct etiologic subtypes. A number of findings suggest that some migraine subtypes are sensitive to certain precipitants, some appear to be a part of a more generalized constitutional disorder, and some are accompanied by a higher prevalence of migraine among family members. Efforts should be made in understanding the relationship between specific biochemical markers and traits (such as monoamine oxidase deficiency and tyramine sensitivity); precipitants related to the migraine attack; and epidemiologic characteristics such as age at onset and sex. Creation of a more precise, reliable, and practically useful definition of migraine. Without such a definition, it is difficult, if not impossible, to compare results between studies, to understand the relationship between risk factors and migraine subtypes, to understand properly associations identified in selected clinic populations, and, in general, to understand the epidemiology of migraine. More accurate characterization of the case group under

  20. Genetic Epidemiology in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Matteini, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, aging research has expanded to include not only age-related disease models, and conversely, longevity and disease-free models, but also focuses on biological mechanisms related to the aging process. By viewing aging on multiple research frontiers, we are rapidly expanding knowledge as a whole and mapping connections between biological processes and particular age-related diseases that emerge. This is perhaps most true in the field of genetics, where variation across individuals has improved our understanding of aging mechanisms, etiology of age-related disease, and prediction of therapeutic responses. A close partnership between gerontologists, epidemiologists, and geneticists is needed to take full advantage of emerging genome information and technology and bring about a new age for biological aging research. Here we review current genetic findings for aging across both disease-specific and aging process domains. We then highlight the limitations of most work to date in terms of study design, genomic information, and trait modeling and focus on emerging technology and future directions that can partner genetic epidemiology and aging research fields to best take advantage of the rapid discoveries in each. PMID:19168782

  1. Is there epidemiology in Russia?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.
DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.
MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.
CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.


Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

  2. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology.

  3. Epidemiology of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H; Fishbein, D B

    1991-05-01

    Rickettsial diseases have a diversity of epidemiologic characteristics reflective of the variety of ecologic situations in which the obligate intracellular bacteria are transmitted to humans. For the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi, R. tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii, and the human ehrlichial agent, humans are a dead-end host who plays no role in the maintenance of the organism in nature. All rickettsioses exist as zoonoses. Moreover, all rickettsiae are found in infected arthopods, which generally serve as the natural hosts and can transmit the infection to the next generation of ticks, mites, chiggers, or fleas. From our anthropocentric viewpoint, Q fever aerosol infection from parturient animals and Brill-Zinsser disease ignited epidemics of louse-borne epidemic typhus are exceptions. However, silent cycles of C. burnetii in ticks and R. prowazekii in the flying squirrel flea may have maintained these agents in transovarial or enzootic cycles for eons before humans and their domestic animals arrived on the scene. Thus, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases must be recognized as an unfortunate aberration of the rickettsial economy. Several excellent reviews of rickettsial ecology contain a wealth of useful information. PMID:1884775

  4. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  6. Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

  7. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations.

  8. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Fontham, E T; Greenberg, S D; Jacobs, H L; Correa, P; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) are presented using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program population-based incidence data from 1973 through 1987, along with risk factors from histologically confirmed cases of BAC identified in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Louisiana between 1979 and 1982. Compared to the rising incidence of lung cancer overall, BAC rates have remained relatively constant, accounting for less than 3% of all lung cancer. BAC incidence rates were higher in males, yet it explained proportionately more of the total lung cancer incidence in females. In the case-control study, 21 of the 33 cases originally ascertained from hospital pathology records were histologically confirmed as BAC. Most cases smoked cigarettes, with a 4-fold risk for ever smoking. Risks tended to increase with smoking intensity (reaching 10-fold for more than 1.5 packs/day) and duration (reaching 5-fold for more than 45 years of smoking). Following 10 or more years of employment, there was a 4-fold risk associated with motor freight occupations, along with nonsignificant excesses among construction workers, petroleum manufacturers, and sugar cane farmers. Cases were more likely than controls to have had emphysema or to have had a close family member with lung cancer. Although based on small numbers, this study suggests that BAC shares many of the epidemiological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma.

  9. Epidemiology of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Merav; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Valk, Gerlof D

    2015-01-01

    Formerly named carcinoids, neuroendocrine tumors originate from diffuse endocrine cells, can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas and bronchopulmonary (BP) tree, and have a wide range of malignant potential. This chapter summarizes the data available on the epidemiology of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) from around the world, including the relative frequency according to organ of origin, annual incidence rates (IR) and trends in IR at the various anatomic sites, age and stage at presentation, racial and gender differences in IR and 5-year survival rates. Over time, changes have been made in the classification and registration of NEN, both in the same registry and across the globe, thus confounding the possibility to draw conclusions as to the true rise in IR of NEN that is observed all over the world. BP NEN has become the most common site in many western countries, while NEN of the rectum is more common in the Far East. In some countries, appendiceal NEN is the most common site in females. When compared to adenocarcinoma of the same location, the prognosis of NEN patients is better. Five-year survival rates are highest for NEN originating in the rectum and appendix, but lower in small intestinal and pancreatic NEN. Future research is needed to understand the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to NEN epidemiology. PMID:26303701

  10. Heterologous ("nonspecific") and sex-differential effects of vaccines: epidemiology, clinical trials, and emerging immunologic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, K L; van Crevel, R; Curtis, N; Shann, F; Levy, O

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and immunologic studies indicates that vaccines can influence morbidity and mortality independent of vaccine-specific B-cell or T-cell immunity. For example, the live attenuated measles vaccine and BCG vaccine may reduce mortality from infections other than measles or tuberculosis, respectively. Immunologists call these heterologous effects and epidemiologists have called them nonspecific effects, indicating that they manifest against a broad range of pathogens/disease. These effects differ by sex, can be beneficial or detrimental, and appear to be mediated by mechanisms including innate immune memory (also known as "trained immunity") and cross-reacting lymphocytes. Herein we review recent studies in this emerging field based on a meeting of experts, the recent Optimmunize meeting, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2012. Further characterization of these effects is likely to expand the way vaccines are evaluated and alter the manner and sequence in which they are given.

  11. 6) Epidemiology and Control of Guatemalan Onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the epidemiology and control of Guatemalan onchocerciasis, chiefly made by the Guatemala–Japan Cooperative Project on Onchocerciasis Research and Control, are reviewed. Epidemiological features of Guatemalan onchocerciasis are summarized as to characteristic altitudinal distribution of endemic areas, disease manifestation, vector taxonomy, biology and transmission dynamic of the disease. Extensive insecticide studies in the field and laboratory demonstrate that the characteristic situations of Guatemalan streams where Simulium ochraceum, the main vector of onchocerciasis, breeds require ingenious methods of larviciding. Finally, the feasibility of an area vector control is indicated by the successful control operation in the San Vicente Pacaya Pilot Area, in which a new fixed-dose larviciding method was applied. PMID:26744576

  12. Epidemiology today: Mitigating threats to an ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems comprise all the living and non-living things in a particular area (e.g., rain forest, desert), which interact and maintain equilibrium. Loss of equilibrium (e.g., clear-cutting trees in a rain forest) can mean the decline of the ecosystem, unless it is able to adapt to the new circumstances. The term "knowledge ecosystem" describes an approach to managing knowledge in a particular field; the components of this system include the people, the technological skills and resources, and information or data. Epidemiology can be thought of as a knowledge ecosystem and, like ecological systems, its existence can be threatened, from both internal and external forces that may alter its equilibrium. This paper describes some threats to the epidemiology knowledge ecosystem, how these threats came about, and what responses we can make that may serve to mitigate those threats. PMID:27348106

  13. Epidemiological Criminology”: Coming Full Circle

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose “epidemiological criminology” as a bridging framework. PMID:19150901

  14. Twin Studies: A Unique Epidemiological Tool

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Monalisha; Prasuna, Josyula G

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies are a special type of epidemiological studies designed to measure the contribution of genetics as opposed to the environment, to a given trait. Despite the facts that the classical twin studies are still being guided by assumptions made back in the 1920s and that the inherent limitation lies in the study design itself, the results suggested by earlier twin studies have often been confirmed by molecular genetic studies later. Use of twin registries and various innovative yet complex software packages such as the (SAS) and their extensions (e.g., SAS PROC GENMOD and SAS PROC PHREG) has increased the potential of this epidemiological tool toward contributing significantly to the field of genetics and other life sciences. PMID:27385869

  15. [Epidemiological examples of infectious disease spread].

    PubMed

    Schlüter, H; Kramer, M

    2001-08-01

    The globalisation of trade with animals and animal products and increase of travel transports are very important issues with respect to prevent and control animal diseases or epizootics respectively. The disease control concepts as a complex manner should be established on scientific basis and must be permanently evaluated and updated. Outbreak investigations in order to clarify the source of infection and/or the spread of animal diseases including zoonoses are important fields of activities of veterinary epidemiologists. The application of modern epidemiological methods is the precondition of a successful disease control. On selected examples of animal diseases, the use of these methods is demonstrated. It is urgently necessary to intensify the epidemiological work in applied research and practice.

  16. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  17. Feedback in Videogame-Based Adaptive Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Iris Daliz

    2010-01-01

    The field of training has been changing rapidly due to advances in technology such as videogame-based adaptive training. Videogame-based adaptive training has provided flexibility and adaptability for training in cost-effective ways. Although this method of training may have many benefits for the trainee, current research has not kept up to pace…

  18. Ethical issues in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Hessel, P A; Fourie, P B

    1987-12-19

    Ethical concerns pervade all aspects of epidemiological investigations. Ethical issues, including planning, carrying out, analysing and presenting the results of a study, are discussed. In southern Africa, where many community-based epidemiological surveys are undertaken, issues relating specifically to the conduct of such studies are especially relevant. These include informed consent, confidentiality and privacy.

  19. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  20. Counting apples as oranges: epidemiology and ethnography in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Heather Schacht

    2004-02-01

    In spite of a history of collaboration between epidemiology and qualitative research, the mix of these two perspectives is not well developed in the substance use field. Part of the reason for the difficult match is that qualitative research often adds issues of context and meaning that complicate the epidemiological data of interest. In the substance use field, epidemiological indicators tend to focus on a single drug, but the context typically involves persons who use multiple illicit and licit substances in a variety of ways that change over time. In this article, the author describes four adolescents in an outpatient substance abuse treatment center to provide context and insight into the lives behind the epidemiological indicators. Studying a site of epidemiological data collection ethnographically is yet another way to build collaboration between epidemiology and qualitative research. PMID:14768460

  1. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  2. [Epidemiological problems of obesity].

    PubMed

    Beiul, E A; Oleneva, V A; Mühr, M; Heller, G M; Popova, Iu P

    1980-01-01

    The results of epidemiological survey of the population living in the middle zone of the Soviet Union and in the GDR are considered. Comparison of the data obtained shows that overweight is a very prevalent abnormal condition among the test population groups in both countries and amounts to 26% (USSR) and 30% (GDR). Excess animal fat consumption in the presence of a decreased quota of vegetable oil has been established and a significant increase in monosaccharides intake noted. Attention is attracted by insufficient quota of fresh vegetables and fruit in the diets of the population of both countries. Qualitative and quantitative nutritional pitfalls were shown to be aggravated in obese people. Violation of dietetic regimens and decreased physical activity play a definite role in the development of overweight. A program on primary and secondary prevention of overweight has been established. It includes a number of measures both common and specific to the GDR and the USSR.

  3. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  4. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    PubMed

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The epidemiological characteristics of paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed and updated. The new endemic areas in Brazil were discussed in the section regarding the geographic distribution of the mycosis. Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. Large case series permitted a comparison of the prevalence of the mycosis in different regions, its estimated incidence and risk factors for the development of the disease. Aspects modulating the expression of the clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are also presented. This review also deals with diseases associated with the mycosis, opportunistic paracoccidioidomycosis, lethality, mortality and infection and disease in animals. PMID:26465364

  6. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015.

  7. Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlie, John E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need for training and education in new skill areas. Points out that the right people often do not get the right training. Too often engineers and skilled workers are trained to the exclusion of supervisors and operators. (JOW)

  8. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  9. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence.

  10. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  11. Training and education for public health: the role of the U.S. Public Health Service.

    PubMed

    Harmon, R G

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 Assistant Secretary for Health Philip R. Lee commissioned an evaluation of U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) activities in training and education for public health (TEPH). Findings revealed significant shortages of professionals and academic faculty in the public health fields of epidemiology, biostatistics, environmental and occupational health, public health nutrition, public health nursing, and preventive medicine. An inventory of PHS activities showed that about $217 million was spent on 151 public health and prevention training programs serving over 141,000 persons in fiscal year 1993. The $217 million amounted to about 18% of the total reported PHS training expenditures of $1.2 billion and about 1% of the total spending of $19.4 billion in fiscal year 1993. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) had the largest training expenditures of $655 and $445 million respectively, but spent only about 7% and 17% on public health and prevention training. Other PHS agencies had larger proportional investments in prevention, but the amounts were smaller. Priority recommendations were provided to Dr. Lee in seven key areas: advanced technology, core public health functions, policy and financing, academic-practice links, educational research, research training, and coordination. Together, these could dramatically increase the PHS proportional investment in TEPH. The PHS has a rich variety of resources for TEPH, but a lack of prioritization, coordination, and planning is causing opportunities to be missed. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): public health, training, education.

  12. Sales Training: Effects of Spaced Practice on Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffeld, Simone; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The benefits of spaced training over massed training practice are well established in the laboratory setting. In a field study design with sales trainings, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of spaced compared with massed practice on transfer quantity and quality, sales competence, and key figures.…

  13. Understanding nutritional epidemiology and its role in policy.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Yu, Edward; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology has recently been criticized on several fronts, including the inability to measure diet accurately, and for its reliance on observational studies to address etiologic questions. In addition, several recent meta-analyses with serious methodologic flaws have arrived at erroneous or misleading conclusions, reigniting controversy over formerly settled debates. All of this has raised questions regarding the ability of nutritional epidemiologic studies to inform policy. These criticisms, to a large degree, stem from a misunderstanding of the methodologic issues of the field and the inappropriate use of the drug trial paradigm in nutrition research. The exposure of interest in nutritional epidemiology is human diet, which is a complex system of interacting components that cumulatively affect health. Consequently, nutritional epidemiology constantly faces a unique set of challenges and continually develops specific methodologies to address these. Misunderstanding these issues can lead to the nonconstructive and sometimes naive criticisms we see today. This article aims to clarify common misunderstandings of nutritional epidemiology, address challenges to the field, and discuss the utility of nutritional science in guiding policy by focusing on 5 broad questions commonly asked of the field.

  14. Understanding Nutritional Epidemiology and Its Role in Policy12

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Yu, Edward; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology has recently been criticized on several fronts, including the inability to measure diet accurately, and for its reliance on observational studies to address etiologic questions. In addition, several recent meta-analyses with serious methodologic flaws have arrived at erroneous or misleading conclusions, reigniting controversy over formerly settled debates. All of this has raised questions regarding the ability of nutritional epidemiologic studies to inform policy. These criticisms, to a large degree, stem from a misunderstanding of the methodologic issues of the field and the inappropriate use of the drug trial paradigm in nutrition research. The exposure of interest in nutritional epidemiology is human diet, which is a complex system of interacting components that cumulatively affect health. Consequently, nutritional epidemiology constantly faces a unique set of challenges and continually develops specific methodologies to address these. Misunderstanding these issues can lead to the nonconstructive and sometimes naive criticisms we see today. This article aims to clarify common misunderstandings of nutritional epidemiology, address challenges to the field, and discuss the utility of nutritional science in guiding policy by focusing on 5 broad questions commonly asked of the field. PMID:25593140

  15. [Epidemiology of basketball injuries].

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Baharav, U; Modan, M

    1990-09-01

    The players of an elite basketball team were followed during the course of a season which included 71 games and 250 training sessions. All injuries were noted and were correlated with age, height and other physical parameters of the players, as well as with degree of fatigue during games and during training sessions. The lower extremity was the most common site of injury. Ligamentous injuries of the knee are more common in basketball than in soccer players, but they have fewer meniscal injuries than the latter. However, the upper extremity, especially the hand, is more frequently injured in basketball than in other sports. The age, height and personality of the player affect the injury pattern.

  16. The Training-Waste Conspiracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Half of the $50 billion spent on training each year is wasted. The training industry is responsible for at least half of that waste because the field is not fully professionalized and too many programs are not based on research on human psychology and behavior. The training industry must improve both the quality of its product and the quality of…

  17. The Context Oriented Training Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavrini, Andrea

    The Context Oriented Training (COT) method is introduced and explored in this paper. COT is a means of improving the training process, beginning with the observation and analysis of current corporate experiences in the field. The learning context lies between the development of professional competencies in training and the operational side in the…

  18. The Training and Field Work Experiences of Community Health Workers conducting non-invasive, population-based screening for Cardiovascular Disease in Four Communities in Low and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Denman, Catalina A.; Montano, Carlos Mendoza; Gaziano, Thomas A.; Levitt, Naomi; Rivera-Andrade, Alvaro; Carrasco, Diana Munguía; Zulu, Jabu; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and is proving difficult to combat due to the emphasis on improving outcomes in maternal and child health and infectious diseases, against a backdrop of severe human resource and infrastructure constraints. Effective task-sharing from physicians or nurses to community health workers (CHWs) to conduct population-based screening for persons at risk, has the potential to mitigate the impact of CVD on vulnerable populations. CHWs in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa were trained to conduct non-invasive population-based screening for persons at high risk for CVD. Objective (s) The objectives of this study were to quantitatively assess the performance of CHWs during training and to qualitatively capture their training and fieldwork experiences while conducting non-invasive screening for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in their communities. Methods Written tests were used to assess CHWs’ acquisition of content knowledge during training, and focus group discussions conducted to capture their training and fieldwork experiences. Results Training was effective at increasing the CHWs’ content knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and this knowledge was largely retained up to six months after the completion of field work. Common themes which need to be addressed when designing task sharing with CHWs in chronic diseases are identified, including language, respect, and compensation. The importance of having intimate knowledge of the community receiving services from design to implementation is underscored. Conclusions Effective training for screening for CVD in community settings should have a strong didactic core that is supplemented with culture-specific adaptations in the delivery of instruction. The incorporation of expert and intimate knowledge of the communities themselves is critical, from the design to implementation phases of training. Challenges such

  19. Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment. PMID:1807619

  20. [Epidemiological data on scorpion envenomation in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Hellal, H; Guerinik, M; Griene, L; Laid, Y; Mesbah, S; Merad, R; Alamir, B

    2012-08-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a major public health problem in Algeria. Given this fact, the Ministry of Health has developed a national strategy for prevention and control based on the training of health personnel, information, education and communication, and standardization of care on the basis of a therapeutic consensus. The monitoring and evaluation activities are carried out by epidemiological indicators through the implementation of an information system based in the services of Epidemiology, INSP (National Institute of Public Health) and Prevention Department of the Health Ministry. The information carriers are report cards implemented in different health facilities that collect data on bites and deaths from scorpion envenomation. Summaries of notifications from the wilayas are collected monthly, and processed by the Epi info software using monitoring indicators. From 1991 to 2010, there has been a stagnation in the number of stings with an average of 50,000 cases per year, but mortality decreased from more than 100 deaths in the last fifty years to 50 nowadays. The higher proportion of stings was recorded during the summer period. The most affected group is from 15 to 49 years which constitute the workforce, but children from 5 to 14 years rank first in terms of mortality. But these rates vary across years and regions. Despite all these efforts, the scorpion envenomation in Algeria remains of concern and our main challenges are to strengthen cross-sectional actions at the local level and improving the quality of care.

  1. [Epidemiological data on scorpion envenomation in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Hellal, H; Guerinik, M; Griene, L; Laid, Y; Mesbah, S; Merad, R; Alamir, B

    2012-08-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a major public health problem in Algeria. Given this fact, the Ministry of Health has developed a national strategy for prevention and control based on the training of health personnel, information, education and communication, and standardization of care on the basis of a therapeutic consensus. The monitoring and evaluation activities are carried out by epidemiological indicators through the implementation of an information system based in the services of Epidemiology, INSP (National Institute of Public Health) and Prevention Department of the Health Ministry. The information carriers are report cards implemented in different health facilities that collect data on bites and deaths from scorpion envenomation. Summaries of notifications from the wilayas are collected monthly, and processed by the Epi info software using monitoring indicators. From 1991 to 2010, there has been a stagnation in the number of stings with an average of 50,000 cases per year, but mortality decreased from more than 100 deaths in the last fifty years to 50 nowadays. The higher proportion of stings was recorded during the summer period. The most affected group is from 15 to 49 years which constitute the workforce, but children from 5 to 14 years rank first in terms of mortality. But these rates vary across years and regions. Despite all these efforts, the scorpion envenomation in Algeria remains of concern and our main challenges are to strengthen cross-sectional actions at the local level and improving the quality of care. PMID:22555670

  2. [Physical therapy education in Brazil: reflections on the expansion of teaching and training models].

    PubMed

    Júnior, José Patrício Bispo

    2009-01-01

    This article on physical therapy education in Brazil focuses on the expansion of teaching, field of activities, and professional profile. The number of PT courses began multiplying rapidly in 1997, but the Sprocess lacked regulation and entailed both privatization of education and a geographic concentration of courses. This increase in both courses and trained physical therapists did not redound in greater access to PT services. The privatist curative-rehabilitation model that has been adopted is not appropriate to the new epidemiological reality or to current healthcare standards. Recent years have seen initiatives to bring change to physical therapy education and build a new professional profile.

  3. Cheerleading injuries: epidemiology and recommendations for prevention.

    PubMed

    LaBella, Cynthia R; Mjaanes, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, cheerleading has increased dramatically in popularity and has evolved from leading the crowd in cheers at sporting events into a competitive, year-round sport involving complex acrobatic stunts and tumbling. Consequently, cheerleading injuries have steadily increased over the years in both number and severity. Sprains and strains to the lower extremities are the most common injuries. Although the overall injury rate remains relatively low, cheerleading has accounted for approximately 66% of all catastrophic injuries in high school girl athletes over the past 25 years. Risk factors for injuries in cheerleading include higher BMI, previous injury, cheering on harder surfaces, performing stunts, and supervision by a coach with low level of training and experience. This policy statement describes the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and provides recommendations for injury prevention.

  4. Optimal Physical Training During Military Basic Training Period.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Pihlainen, Kai; Viskari, Jarmo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    The goal for military basic training (BT) is to create a foundation for physical fitness and military skills of soldiers. Thereafter, more advanced military training can safely take place. Large differences in the initial physical performance of conscripts or recruits have led military units to develop more safe and effective training programs. The purpose of this review article was to describe the limiting factors of optimal physical training during the BT period. This review revealed that the high volume of low-intensity physical activity combined with endurance-type military training (like combat training, prolonged physical activity, and field shooting) during BT interferes with optimal development of maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength of the soldiers. Therefore, more progressive, periodized, and individualized training programs are needed. In conclusion, optimal training programs lead to higher training responses and lower risks for injuries and overloading.

  5. Using an Epidemiological Approach to Examine Outcomes Affecting Young Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…

  6. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  7. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  8. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions.

  9. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  10. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. PMID:25241267

  11. AIDS in women: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, A

    1989-09-01

    Several facts concerning the distribution of AIDS in U.S. female populations are clear. This disease has made significant inroads, in a quantitative sense, into the female segment of our society as documented by AIDS surveillance data, information on pregnant women and parturients, and by screening data from the military. The impact on women in the reproductive years, on the reproductive health of these women, and on the reproductive outcome of their pregnancies is of substantial concern. Monitoring epidemiologic trends in certain groups will require clever and creative strategies like those of Hoff and colleagues. Additional data may be derived from the CDC's Family of Surveys that will examine HIV prevalence in five groups (in addition to the newborn infant survey described above): intravenous drug users, patients admitted to hospitals, sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, women's health and reproductive health clinics, and tuberculosis clinics. It is hoped that the data obtained from these studies, as well as data gathered on college students and Job Corps applicants, will contribute additional information on HIV infection in women. Monitoring the progress of the AIDS epidemic in women will be difficult. Even more difficult will be the effort to respond to the epidemic in the women it most frequently affects: the poor, minority, disenfranchised women who may be involved in illegal activities (drug use, prostitution, illegal immigration) who are not well networked into the medical and social services of our society. PMID:2776374

  12. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  13. Epidemiology of clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Postacchini, Franco; Gumina, Stefano; De Santis, Pierfrancesco; Albo, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all fractures and 44% of those in the shoulder girdle. Most patients were men (68%), and the left side was involved in 61% of cases. Fractures of the middle third of the clavicle, which were the most common (81%), were displaced in 48% of cases and comminuted in 19%. Fractures of the medial third were the least common (2%). The prevalence of midclavicular fractures was found to decrease progressively with age, starting from the first decade of life when they represented 88.2% of all clavicle fractures and were undisplaced in 55.5% of cases. In adults, the incidence of displaced fractures, independent of location, was higher than that of undisplaced fractures. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of the injury. In the period under study, the incidence of fractures showed no significant change over time and no seasonal variation. PMID:12378163

  14. [Epidemiology of teeth hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Lutskaia, I K; Zinovenko, O G; Kovalenko, I P

    2015-01-01

    A clinical examination of 98 patients aged 20 to 75 years was carried out to identifyclinical and epidemiological features of hard tooth tissueshypersensitivity. The survey found out what stimuli (cold, hot, sour, mechanical, chemical) cause the appearance of dental hyperesthesia. The detailed survey of the affected area aimed to determine the presence of dental caries, gingival recession, wedge-shaped defects, erosions, microcracks and chipped enamel, as well as wear of the tooth crown. Forty-threepatients of 98 (43.88%) had tooth sensitivity. Most affected age group was 25-34 years (33%). Among patients studied with hyperesthesia 86% complained of pain. It was establishedthat dental hyperesthesia most often causes an intense, but quickly passing pain response, wherein upon exposure of several types of stimuli. Teeth with high sensitivity showed signs of abrasion (74.1%), most often--on the vestibular surface (44.4%). Patients under 45 years had notable cracks and wedge-shaped defects. In patients 45 years and older cracks and increased abrasion of hard dental tissues was seen. PMID:26271696

  15. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  16. Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems. Magnetic and electric field testing of the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) rail systems. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, September 1992-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.M.; Jacobs, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). A franchise has been awarded to the Texas High Speed Rail Corporation to operate a 200 mph French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle (Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio), with construction to begin in 1995. The report provides the Analysis (Vol. I) of results, and detailed data and statistical summaries (Vol. II, Appendices) of representative electric and magnetic field (EMF) profiles on TGV-A trains between Paris and Tours for two electro-technologies (1.5 KV DC near Paris, and 2x25 KV at 50 Hz AC).

  17. Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems. Magnetic and electric field testing of the French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) rail systems. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report, September 1992-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.M.; Papas, P.N.; Jacobs, W.L.; Ferro, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    The safety of magnetically levitated (maglev) and high speed rail (HSR) trains proposed for application in the United States is the responsibility of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). A franchise has been awarded to the Texas high Speed Rail Corporation to operate a 200 mph French Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) in the Texas Triangle (Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio), with construction to begin in 1995. The report provides the Analysis (Vol. I) of results, and detailed data and statistical summaries (Vol. II, Appendices) of representative electric and magnetic field (EMF) profiles on TGV-A trains between Paris and Tours for two electro-technologies (1.5 KV DC near Paris, and 2x25 KV at 50 Hz AC).

  18. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  19. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  20. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  1. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research. PMID:24229634

  2. Evaluation of a peat moss plus soybean oil (PMSO) technology for reducing explosive residue transport to groundwater at military training ranges under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Schaefer, Charles E; Steffan, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    An evaluation of peat moss plus crude soybean oil (PMSO) for mitigation of explosive contamination of soil at military facilities was performed using large soil lysimeters under field conditions. Actual range soils were used, and two PMSO preparations with different ratios of peat moss:soybean oil (1:1, PO1; 1:2, PO2) were compared to a control lysimeter that received no PMSO. PMSO was applied as a 10 cm layer on top of the soil, and Composition B detonation residues from a 55-mm mortar round were applied at the surface of each of the lysimeters. Dissolution of the residues occurred during natural precipitation events over the course of 18 months. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) emanating from the Composition B residues were significantly reduced by the PO2 PMSO material compared to the untreated control. Soil pore water RDX concentrations and RDX fluxes were reduced over 100-fold compared to the control plots at comparable depths. Residual RDX in the soil profile was also significantly lower in the PMSO treated plots. PO1 PMSO resulted in lower reductions in RDX transport than the PO2 PMSO. The transport of the RDX breakdown product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was also greatly reduced by the PMSO materials. Results were in general agreement with a previously developed fate and transport model describing PMSO effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the inexpensive and environmentally benign PMSO technology for reducing the subsurface loading of explosives at training ranges and other military facilities.

  3. Plasma arginine vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide responses to long-term field training in the heat: effects of fluid ingestion and acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Mudambo, K S; Coutie, W; Rennie, M J

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of blood volume during exercise, especially in a hot environment, is of major importance for continued performance. In order to investigate the relationships between exercise, type and amount of fluid intake and the degree of acclimatization to heat stress and on responses of arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), we studied 24 soldiers during and after jogging/walking exercise both before and after acclimatization to field training at [mean (SE)] 40 (0.7) degrees C and 32 (3)% relative humidity. The running exercise was carried out under three conditions, i.e., (1) without any fluid intake, (2) with intake of water or (3) with intake of a dextrose/electrolyte solution. Venous blood samples were drawn before exercise, at the end of exercise and at 15 min and 60 min afterwards. Acclimatization resulted in significant losses of body mass, total body water, plasma volume, ANP and increases in plasma osmolality, packed cell volume and AVP at rest but without any significant changes in BNP. During exercise with no fluid intake, there was a significant rise in plasma osmolality, Na+ and AVP, but no significant alterations in plasma ANP and BNP were observed. When subjects ingested water or dextrose/electrolyte solution during exercise, ANP rose by 234% and 431% respectively and BNP rose by 398% and 583% respectively without any significant increase in AVP. The results suggest that, during acclimatization, the subjects became slightly dehydrated. Alterations in response to changes in body water status appear to be greater for AVP than ANP or BNP at rest. During exercise in the heat ANP and BNP may play complementary roles. PMID:9088840

  4. Operational Physical Performance and Fitness in Military Women: Physiological, Musculoskeletal Injury, and Optimized Physical Training Considerations for Successfully Integrating Women Into Combat-Centric Military Occupations.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H; Van Arsdale, Stephanie J; Kelly, Karen; Kraemer, William J

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations from a 2014 United States Department of Defense (DoD) Health Affairs Women in Combat symposium addressing physiological, musculoskeletal injury, and optimized physical training considerations from the operational physical performance section. The symposium was held to provide a state-of-the-science meeting on the U.S. DoD's rescinding of the ground combat exclusion policy opening up combat-centric occupations to women. Physiological, metabolic, body composition, bone density, cardiorespiratory fitness, and thermoregulation differences between men and women were briefly reviewed. Injury epidemiological data are presented within military training and operational environments demonstrating women to be at a higher risk for musculoskeletal injuries than men. Physical training considerations for improved muscle strength and power, occupational task performance, load carriage were also reviewed. Particular focus of this article was given to translating physiological and epidemiological findings from the literature on these topics toward actionable guidance and policy recommendations for military leaders responsible for military physical training doctrine: (1) inclusion of resistance training with special emphasis on strength and power development (i.e., activation of high-threshold motor units and recruitment of type II high-force muscle fibers), upper-body strength development, and heavy load carriage, (2) moving away from "field expediency" as the major criteria for determining military physical training policy and training implementation, (3) improvement of load carriage ability with emphasis placed on specific load carriage task performance, combined with both resistance and endurance training, and (4) providing greater equipment resources, coaching assets, and increased training time dedicated to physical readiness training. PMID:26741902

  5. Operational Physical Performance and Fitness in Military Women: Physiological, Musculoskeletal Injury, and Optimized Physical Training Considerations for Successfully Integrating Women Into Combat-Centric Military Occupations.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H; Van Arsdale, Stephanie J; Kelly, Karen; Kraemer, William J

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations from a 2014 United States Department of Defense (DoD) Health Affairs Women in Combat symposium addressing physiological, musculoskeletal injury, and optimized physical training considerations from the operational physical performance section. The symposium was held to provide a state-of-the-science meeting on the U.S. DoD's rescinding of the ground combat exclusion policy opening up combat-centric occupations to women. Physiological, metabolic, body composition, bone density, cardiorespiratory fitness, and thermoregulation differences between men and women were briefly reviewed. Injury epidemiological data are presented within military training and operational environments demonstrating women to be at a higher risk for musculoskeletal injuries than men. Physical training considerations for improved muscle strength and power, occupational task performance, load carriage were also reviewed. Particular focus of this article was given to translating physiological and epidemiological findings from the literature on these topics toward actionable guidance and policy recommendations for military leaders responsible for military physical training doctrine: (1) inclusion of resistance training with special emphasis on strength and power development (i.e., activation of high-threshold motor units and recruitment of type II high-force muscle fibers), upper-body strength development, and heavy load carriage, (2) moving away from "field expediency" as the major criteria for determining military physical training policy and training implementation, (3) improvement of load carriage ability with emphasis placed on specific load carriage task performance, combined with both resistance and endurance training, and (4) providing greater equipment resources, coaching assets, and increased training time dedicated to physical readiness training.

  6. [Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential aproach].

    PubMed

    Hersch-Martínez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems.

  7. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    PubMed

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that. PMID:27303587

  8. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country

    PubMed Central

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that. PMID:27303587

  9. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    PubMed

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.

  10. Genetic Epidemiology and Public Health: The Evolution From Theory to Technology.

    PubMed

    Fallin, M Daniele; Duggal, Priya; Beaty, Terri H

    2016-03-01

    Genetic epidemiology represents a hybrid of epidemiologic designs and statistical models that explicitly consider both genetic and environmental risk factors for disease. It is a relatively new field in public health; the term was first coined only 35 years ago. In this short time, the field has been through a major evolution, changing from a field driven by theory, without the technology for genetic measurement or computational capacity to apply much of the designs and methods developed, to a field driven by rapidly expanding technology in genomic measurement and computational analyses while epidemiologic theory struggles to keep up. In this commentary, we describe 4 different eras of genetic epidemiology, spanning this evolution from theory to technology, what we have learned, what we have added to the broader field of public health, and what remains to be done. PMID:26905340

  11. Genetic Epidemiology and Public Health: The Evolution From Theory to Technology.

    PubMed

    Fallin, M Daniele; Duggal, Priya; Beaty, Terri H

    2016-03-01

    Genetic epidemiology represents a hybrid of epidemiologic designs and statistical models that explicitly consider both genetic and environmental risk factors for disease. It is a relatively new field in public health; the term was first coined only 35 years ago. In this short time, the field has been through a major evolution, changing from a field driven by theory, without the technology for genetic measurement or computational capacity to apply much of the designs and methods developed, to a field driven by rapidly expanding technology in genomic measurement and computational analyses while epidemiologic theory struggles to keep up. In this commentary, we describe 4 different eras of genetic epidemiology, spanning this evolution from theory to technology, what we have learned, what we have added to the broader field of public health, and what remains to be done.

  12. [Opportunity and challenge on molecular epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Duan, G C; Chen, S Y

    2016-08-10

    Molecular epidemiology, a branch of epidemiology, combines the theories and methods, both in epidemiology and molecular biology. Molecular epidemiology mainly focuses on biological markers, describing the distribution, occurrence, development and prognosis of diseases at the molecular level. The completion of Human Genome Project and rapid development of Precision Medicine and Big Data not only offer the new development opportunities but also bring about a higher demand and new challenge for molecular epidemiology. PMID:27539332

  13. Predictors of Collateral Learning Transfer in Continuing Vocational Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Anja-Christina

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change and skill shortages continuing vocational training is of great significance in Germany. However, the training effectiveness is mostly assessed only at the end of a training program or several months after the training. Since in continuing vocational training the two contexts learning field (training)…

  14. High-Impact Training Solutions: Top Issues Troubling Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lisa A., Ed.

    Designed for front-line training professionals, this book addresses the most pressing issues in the training and development field (T&D). "Introduction" (Lisa A. Burke) discusses the importance of viewing training as a subsystem of human resources, training as a systematic process, and indicators of high impact training. "Strategic Training:…

  15. Mistrust of numbers: the difficult development of psychiatric epidemiology in France, 1940-80.

    PubMed

    Henckes, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    This article uses archival as well as published materials to trace the development of psychiatric epidemiology in France from 1945 to 1980. Although a research programme in this field was launched in the early 1960s at the National Institute of Medical Research (INH, later renamed INSERM), psychiatric epidemiology remained an embryonic field in France during the next two decades. French researchers in this field were hampered by limited resources, but their work was primarily characterized by a deep engagement with the epistemological challenges of psychiatric epidemiology. The history of French psychiatric epidemiology in the 1960s and 1970s can be seen as an attempt to create a specifically French way of doing psychiatric epidemiology research. In the first part of this article, the author relates this unique history to internal professional dynamics during the development of psychiatric research and, more broadly, to the biomedical institutional context in which epidemiological work was being done. The next part of this article examines the conditions under which the INH research team framed epidemiological research in psychiatry in the 1960s. The last part focuses on INH's flagship psychiatric epidemiology programme, developed in cooperation with pioneers of French community psychiatry in Paris's 13th arrondissement in the 1960s.

  16. Validation of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method: Recreational Vehicle Service Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    The validity of the Training Benefit Forecasting Method (TBFM) in a recreational vehicle service training setting was studied. Cost-benefit issues were associated with the Onan Service School change from a field-based Recreational Vehicle Generator Set training program to a customer-delivered self-instructional training program. Actual costs and…

  17. Training Public Health Advisors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Pamela A.; Brusuelas, Kristin M.; Baden, Daniel J.; Duncan, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management. PMID:25564995

  18. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  19. Community Residency Programme (CRP)--a tool for research and rural health training for medical students.

    PubMed

    Yadav, H

    2002-12-01

    Rural health training is an important element in the training of medical students in the University of Malaya. There is a need for the undergraduates to be familiar with the rural health infrastructure and to understand the social and economic aspects of the rural poor. The objective of the training is to make the students understand the problems faced by the poor in the rural areas so that when they practice in rural health areas, after graduation, they will understand the problems of the rural poor. They will have the knowledge of the diseases in the rural areas and also understand the community and the environmental factors that contribute to the disease. The training lasts' for 4 weeks, one week for lectures on health survey, two weeks for the field trip and one week of data analysis and presentation of their findings to an expert panel. During the field trip the students are divided into groups and they go to different parts of the country. Each group will do a field survey to find out the socio-demography, environmental, economic, nutritional and health problems in the village. In addition to the survey they also do a research project on any topic. The students also do social work, visit places of public health interest like the water treatment plant, sewage disposal, factory visits and others. Apart from technical skills in statistics and epidemiology, various other managerial skills like leadership, teamwork, communications and public relations are also learnt during the training. In conclusion this rural health training is an important aspect of the medical students training as it imparts several skills to them that are needed as a doctor.

  20. Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Miranda, Jaime J; Figueroa, J Peter; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Munoz, Sergio; Kuri-Morales, P Pablo; Silva, Jarbas B

    2012-01-01

    Background This article analyses the epidemiological research developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It integrates the series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association to all WHO Regions to identify global opportunities to promote the development of epidemiology. Methods Health situations of the regions were analysed based on published data on selected mortality, morbidity and risk factors. Epidemiological publication output by country was estimated by Medline bibliometrics. Internet and literature searches and data provided by key informants were used to describe perspectives on epidemiological training, research and funding. Findings Despite important advances in recent decades, LAC remains the world's most unequal region. In 2010, 10% of the LAC's people still lived in conditions of multidimensional poverty, with huge variation among countries. The region has experienced fast and complex epidemiological changes in past decades, combining increasing rates of non-communicable diseases and injuries, and keeping uncontrolled many existing endemic and emerging diseases. Overall, epidemiological publications per year increased from 160 articles between 1961 and 1970 to 2492 between 2001 and 2010. The increase in papers per million inhabitants in the past three decades varied from 57% in Panama to 1339% in Paraguay. Universities are the main epidemiological training providers. There are at least 34 universities and other institutions in the region that offer postgraduate programmes at the master’s and doctoral levels in epidemiology or public health. Most LAC countries rely largely on external funding and donors to initiate and sustain long-term research efforts. Despite the limited resources, the critical mass of LAC researchers has produced significant scientific contributions. Future needs The health research panorama of the region shows enormous regional discrepancies, but great prospects. Improving research and human resources

  1. 30 CFR 955.12 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training. 955.12 Section 955.12 Mineral... AND ON INDIAN LANDS § 955.12 Training. (a) On-the-job training. Except as provided in § 955.14(c) for... or the equivalent shall: (1) Have received on-the-job training, including practical field...

  2. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3rd African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities. PMID:26523191

  3. Hazmat training.

    PubMed

    Borak, J

    1991-04-01

    Federal laws and regulations require hazardous-materials-response training for EMS personnel and other emergency responders. The requirements, however, aren't entirely clear about the amount of time and topics to be covered for EMS training. EMTs and paramedics should either be trained to the highest level at which they are likely to perform, or their performance levels should be restricted to the highest level to which they have been trained.

  4. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  5. Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003

  6. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    PubMed Central

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  7. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  8. Toilet training.

    PubMed

    Choby, Beth A; George, Shefaa

    2008-11-01

    Toilet training is a developmental task that impacts families with small children. All healthy children are eventually toilet trained, and most complete the task without medical intervention. Most research on toilet training is descriptive, although some is evidence based. In the United States, the average age at which training begins has increased over the past four decades from earlier than 18 months of age to between 21 and 36 months of age. Newer studies suggest no benefit of intensive training before 27 months of age. Mastery of the developmental skills required for toilet training occurs after 24 months of age. Girls usually complete training earlier than boys. Numerous toilet-training methods are available. The Brazelton child-oriented approach uses physiologic maturity, ability to understand and respond to external feedback, and internal motivation to assess readiness. Dr. Spock's toilet-training approach is another popular method used by parents. The American Academy of Pediatrics incorporates components of the child-oriented approach into its guidelines for toilet training. "Toilet training in a day," a method by Azrin and Foxx, emphasizes operant conditioning and teaches specific toileting components. Because each family and child are unique, recommendations about the ideal time or optimal method must be customized. Family physicians should provide guidance about toilet-training methods and identify children who have difficulty reaching developmental milestones.

  9. Training Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" asks the 2011 winners to give their predictions for what training--either in general or specifically at their companies--will look like in the next five to 10 years. Perhaps their "training visions" will spark some ideas in one's organization--or at least help prepare for what might be coming in the next decade or so.

  10. The role of epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Fallin, M Daniele

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiology is the branch of science that investigates the causes and distribution of disease in populations in order to provide preventative measures and promote human health. The fields of genetic and environmental epidemiology primarily seek to identify genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, respectively. Epigenetics is emerging as an important piece of molecular data to include in these studies because it can provide mechanistic insights into genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, identify potential intervention targets, provide biomarkers of exposure, illuminate gene-environment interactions and help localize disease-relevant genomic regions. Here, we describe the importance of including epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology studies, provide a conceptual framework when considering epigenetic data in population-based studies and touch upon the many challenges that lie ahead.

  11. Epidemiology of jumper's knee.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, A

    1986-01-01

    Jumper's knee is a typical functional overload injury because it affects those athletes who submit their knee extensor mechanisms to intense and repeated stress, e.g. volleyball and basketball players, high and long jumpers. According to the classification of Perugia and colleagues, it is an insertional tendinopathy affecting, in order of frequency, the insertion of the patellar tendon into the patella (65% of cases), attachment of the quadriceps tendon to the patella (25%) and the attachment of the patellar tendon to the tibial tuberosity (10%). The frequent occurrence of this injury in athletes led to the study of factors that may contribute to its onset and aggravation. These factors are divided into extrinsic (i.e. kind of sport practised and training methods used) and intrinsic (i.e. connected with the somatic and morphological characteristics of the athletes). On the basis of our experience and after a review of the literature it appears, contrary to what has been repeatedly claimed in the past, the extrinsic factors are more important than the intrinsic in the aetiology of jumper's knee. The effect of traumatic incidents and use of elastic kneecap guards should also be considered negligible. The intrinsic causes of jumper's knee, can be sought in the mechanical properties of tendons (resistance, elasticity and extensibility) rather than in morphological or biomechanical abnormalities of the knee extensor mechanism.

  12. Sustainable agriculture and plant diseases: an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Christopher A

    2008-02-27

    The potential for modern biology to identify new sources for genetical, chemical and biological control of plant disease is remarkably high. Successful implementation of these methods within globally and locally changing agricultural environments demands new approaches to durable control. This, in turn, requires fusion of population genetics and epidemiology at a range of scales from the field to the landscape and even to continental deployment of control measures. It also requires an understanding of economic and social constraints that influence the deployment of control. Here I propose an epidemiological framework to model invasion, persistence and variability of epidemics that encompasses a wide range of scales and topologies through which disease spreads. By considering how to map control methods onto epidemiological parameters and variables, some new approaches towards optimizing the efficiency of control at the landscape scale are introduced. Epidemiological strategies to minimize the risks of failure of chemical and genetical control are presented and some consequences of heterogeneous selection pressures in time and space on the persistence and evolutionary changes of the pathogen population are discussed. Finally, some approaches towards embedding epidemiological models for the deployment of control in an economically plausible framework are presented.

  13. Training and Simulation in Otolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Wiet, Gregory J.; Stredney, Don; Wan, Dinah

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on key issues surrounding the needs and application of simulation technologies for technical skills training in otolaryngology. The discussion includes an overview of key topics in training and learning, the application of these issues in simulation environments, and the subsequent applications of these simulation environments to the field of otolaryngology. Examples of past applications are presented, with discussion of how the interplay of cultural changes in surgical training in general, along with the rapid advancements in technology have shaped and influenced their adoption and adaptation. The authors conclude with emerging trends and potential influences advanced simulation and training will have on technical skills training in otolaryngology. PMID:22032486

  14. Sarcopenia: definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2013-05-01

    The epidemiological trends that characterize our generation are the aging of the population. Aging results in a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength called sarcopenia, which is Greek for 'poverty of flesh'. Sarcopenia could lead to functional impairment, physical disability, and even mortality. Today, sarcopenia is a matter of immense public concern for aging prevention. Its prevalence continues to rise, probably as a result of increasing elderly populations all over the world. This paper addressed the definition and epidemiology of sarcopenia and its underlying pathophysiology. In addition, we summarized the abundant information available in the literature related to sarcopenia, together with results from Korean sarcopenic obesity study (KSOS) that we performed.

  15. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Nakamura-Lopez, Yuko; Vaughan, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission. PMID:23202546

  16. Training compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A.N. )

    1989-02-01

    Legally mandated training to effect compliance with environmental regulations came into prominence with RCRA. Training and its associated recordkeeping requirements were to be in place by May 18, 1981, but, for the most part, this deadline went unnoticed. Whether the lack of response reflected that fact that the RCRA regulations were extremely confusing or that the training requirements were not taken seriously is hard to determine. Ironically, while RCRA facilities were frequently deficient in meeting the training requirements, it was this specific aspect of the regulations that inexperienced inspectors often targeted and cited. Over the years, through a combination of citations and, more importantly, an increasing appreciation of the benefits of training, the attitude toward regulatory compliance training slowly improved. This paper reflects the attitudes of both management and the workers receiving the training.

  17. Suicide on railway networks: epidemiology, risk factors and prevention.

    PubMed

    Krysinska, Karolina; De Leo, Diego

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to review international literature on the incidence of suicide on railway networks, describe risk factors associated with it, and examine existing prevention practices. Searches on Medline and PsycINFO for the period 1966-2007 were performed. Thirty original studies published in English on epidemiology of rail suicide were included in the review along with peer-reviewed articles on risk factors and prevention of rail suicide. Internationally, suicide by collision with a train accounted for 1-12% of all suicides, with up to 94% of all attempts resulting in death. Suicide by train seriously affects not only survivors, but also train drivers and bystanders. Correlations between density of rail network, number of passengers and number of suicides by train have been found. Conflicting data exist on gender ratio of this type of suicide, but studies are homogenous in identifying young adults (20-40 year of age) as those most exposed to train suicide. Documented psychiatric diagnoses were found in up to 83% of cases. Mid-seasonal peaks were also identified, with events occurring mostly during late morning and early afternoon. Limited evidence exists for effective suicide prevention practices. Successful examples are represented by pits and sliding door systems (Singapore Mass Rapid Transit System) and responsible media reporting (Viennese Subway). Suicide by train involves emotional and financial costs to individuals and society as a whole. A combination of different strategies might significantly reduce its effect.

  18. Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field, Phase I. Interim Report Number 1: Survey of Job Characteristics, Manpower Needs and Training Resources, July 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    Phase I of a multiphase research program in progress at the Technical Education Research Center, Inc., was conducted to analyze needs and resources in terms of job performance tasks, career opportunities, and training requirements for nuclear medical technicians. Data were gathered through personal interviews with 203 persons, mostly physicians,…

  19. Paraeducator Entry-Level Training for Supporting Students with Disabilities. Field Test Version 2.0. Instructor's Manual [and] Participant's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CichoskiKelly, Eileen; Backus, Linda; Giangreco, Michael F.; Sherman-Tucker, Priscilla

    These instructor and participant manuals provide a basic training program curriculum for paraeducators supporting students with disabilities in inclusive educational settings. The course requires approximately 18 hours of instruction and 12 hours of practicum, can be offered in a variety of formats (intensively or over a number of weeks), and does…

  20. Yoga for Children in the Mirror of the Science: Working Spectrum and Practice Fields of the Training of Relaxation with Elements of Yoga for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stueck, M.; Gloeckner, N.

    2005-01-01

    The latest research work showed a clear increase in stress consequences for younger children related to experience, behaviour and health (among other things, fear to fail and psychosomatic disorders). In contrast, only a few stress-handling programmes are available specifically for children; a large part covers stress-handling training courses…