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Sample records for field evolved spinosad

  1. Mis-Spliced Transcripts of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α6 Are Associated with Field Evolved Spinosad Resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Simon W.; Chen, Mao; Dawson, Anna; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Vogel, Heiko; Shelton, Anthony M.; Heckel, David G.; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of insecticide resistance is a global constraint to agricultural production. Spinosad is a new, low-environmental-risk insecticide that primarily targets nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and is effective against a wide range of pest species. However, after only a few years of application, field evolved resistance emerged in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, an important pest of brassica crops worldwide. Spinosad resistance in a Hawaiian population results from a single incompletely recessive and autosomal gene, and here we use AFLP linkage mapping to identify the chromosome controlling resistance in a backcross family. Recombinational mapping with more than 700 backcross progeny positioned a putative spinosad target, nAChR alpha 6 (Pxα6), at the resistance locus, PxSpinR. A mutation within the ninth intron splice junction of Pxα6 results in mis-splicing of transcripts, which produce a predicted protein truncated between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Additional resistance-associated Pxα6 transcripts that excluded the mutation containing exon were detected, and these were also predicted to produce truncated proteins. Identification of the locus of resistance in this important crop pest will facilitate field monitoring of the spread of resistance and offer insights into the genetic basis of spinosad resistance in other species. PMID:20062520

  2. Dissipation and residue of spinosad in zucchini under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Sun, Haibin; Wang, Siwei

    2013-08-01

    The dissipation and residue of the insecticide spinosad in zucchini were investigated. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical method was developed for spinosad analysis. The half-lives of spinosad were 3.5-3.9 days in zucchini and 3.6-4.1 days in soil. The results showed that the dissipation rate of spinosad was fast, and it is suggested that a combination of rapid growth of zucchini, photodecomposition and the activity of soil microorganisms affected the dissipation rate of spinosad. The terminal residues of spinosad in zucchini were all below the quantification limit. No residue limit currently exists for spinosad in zucchini in China and other countries. Thus, the results can be useful in establishing a maximum residue limit.

  3. Susceptibility of field populations of Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae) to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Nasirian, H; Ladonni, H; Aboulhassani, M; Limoee, M

    2011-09-15

    The German cockroach is an important household insect pest worldwide and acts as a mechanical vector and reservoir for pathogenic agents. The aim of this study was to examine the basic laboratory toxicity of Blattella germanica to spinosad. The M, T, A22, AZAR4, BOOSTAN7 and ABAN21 strains were collected from field populations of six infested kitchen student dormitories and the SAMAN strain was collected from a residential area after insecticide spraying control failure in Tehran, Iran. Technical grade spinosad was delivered in 0.5 microL acetone to the first abdominal sternum of briefly CO2-anesthetize adult male cockroaches by topical application bioassay. Treated males monitored for mortality. Mortality data from the replicates was assessed by probit analysis. The average LD50 of susceptible strain was 494.3, 148.8 and 55.1 ng per insect after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The LD50 of spinosad decreased with time in the field population strains. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility or lower tolerance (1.6-folds) for spinosad compared with the susceptible laboratory strain and the steep slopes of dose-response curves indicated that the field population of these German cockroach strains was homogenous in response to spinosad. These results indicated that the spinosad was relatively slow-acting in topical application bioassay, with LD50 values decreasing until 72 h and becoming stable thereafter. The effectiveness of spinosad against susceptible and the field population German cockroach strains in laboratory condition showed that spinosad probably could be useful for the control of the German cockroach.

  4. Impacts of spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin on spider communities in cabbage fields in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T-X; Irungu, R W; Dean, D A; Harris, M K

    2013-04-01

    Spiders are a principal arthropod group that preys on numerous pests of vegetables and other crops. In this study, we determined the effects of the two most commonly used insecticides, spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin, on diversity of spiders on cabbage in south Texas. In two seasons (fall 2008 and spring 2009), we collected a total of 588 spiders belonging to 53 species in 11 families from spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin-treated cabbages and the untreated control plants. A great majority of spiders were collected from the pitfall traps (554) where only a few (34) were collected from the blower/vacuum sampling. In the insecticide-treated plots, there were significantly fewer spider individuals, species and families than in untreated fields. Spinosad had significantly less effect on spiders in total individuals, number of species and families than λ-cyhalothrin. The effects of the two insecticides were further demonstrated by the Shannon-Weiner index (H') and the hierarchical richness index (HRI). Spider diversity in the spinosad-treated plots were not significantly different from that in the untreated fields but were greater than those in λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots in both seasons when measured by H' values. In contrast, the H' values of spider's diversity in the λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots were significantly lower than spinosad-treated and untreated plots. High values of HRI for spider richness in the spinosad-treated plots suggested that spinosad had less effect on spiders than λ-cyhalothrin. We concluded that spinosad was more compatible with spiders on cabbage compared to λ-cyhalothrin and that this information should be used when developing insecticide resistance management strategies.

  5. Susceptibility of laboratory and field strains of four stored-product insect species to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fangneng; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Toews, Michael D

    2004-12-01

    Two field strains of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); and lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and one field strain of the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), were collected from hard red winter wheat stored on farms in northeastern Kansas. Fifty eggs of P. interpunctella and 25 beetle adults of each species were exposed to 100 g of untreated wheat or wheat treated with various rates of spinosad, to determine susceptibility of the field and corresponding insecticide-susceptible laboratory strains. Mortality of beetle adults and P. interpunctella larvae was assessed after 7 and 21 d postinfestation, respectively. Field strains of P. interpunctella, C. ferrugineus, and T. castaneum were less susceptible to spinosad than the corresponding laboratory strains. The LD50 and LD95 values for P. interpunctella and C. ferrugineus field strains were 1.7-2.5 times greater than values for corresponding laboratory strains. Adults of both laboratory and field strains of T. castaneum were tolerant to spinosad, resulting in <88% mortality at 8 mg/kg. The LD50 and LD95 values for the field strains of T. castaneum were 2.0-7.5 times greater compared with similar values for the laboratory strain. The field and laboratory strains of R. dominica were highly susceptible to spinosad, and one of the field strains was relatively less susceptible to spinosad than the laboratory strain. Our results confirm a range of biological variability in field populations, which is consistent with findings for other compounds, and underscores the need to adopt resistance management programs with stored grain insect pests. The baseline data generated on the susceptibility of the four insect species to spinosad will be useful for monitoring resistance development and for setting field rates.

  6. Genetics, cross-resistance and mechanism of resistance to spinosad in a field strain of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2014-02-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their management. In the present study, we investigated the genetics of spinosad resistance, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides by selecting a field strain with a commercial spinosad formulation. Bioassays with the field strain, before selection with spinosad, gave resistance ratios (RRs) of 4, 5, 66, 21 and 5 fold for spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, imidacloprid and deltamethrin, respectively, in comparison to a laboratory susceptible (Lab-susceptible) strain. After continuous selection of the field strain (Spin-SEL) with spinosad, the RR was increased up to 155 fold; however, the resistance was unstable (RR decreased 1.43 fold) when this strain was not exposed to spinosad for five generations. The Spin-SEL strain did not show cross-resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb or deltamethrin, but showed negative cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Crosses between the Spin-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to spinosad. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model based on Chi-square analysis revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one gene. Moreover, the resistance was neither overcome with the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide nor with S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate. Lack of cross-resistance and instability of resistance suggest that rotation with spinosad could be an effective resistance management strategy.

  7. Laboratory and field evaluation of spinosad formulation Natular T30 against immature Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Tianyun; Cheng, Min-Lee; Thieme, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    Spinosad consisting of spinosyn A and D is derived from a naturally occurring, soil-dwelling bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosyns are neurotoxins that activate postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and cause rapid excitation of the insect nervous system and ultimately exhaustion and death of the targets. During the past 30 yr, numerous spinosad-based formulations have been developed and applied to control various arthropod pests of agricultural importance. Natular T-30 is a new slow-release formulation containing 8.33% spinosad for use in mosquito larval control programs. High-level larvicidal activity, as indicated by low LC50 and LC90 levels, was demonstrated against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Larvicidal efficacy was evaluated in semifield microcosms, field mesocosms, and underground storm drains. Fair performance against larval populations of Culex spp. and other mosquito species was achieved, although low efficacy during the initial few days posttreatment was encountered. This slow-release formulation will play an important role in controlling mosquitoes in persistent breeding sources.

  8. Spinosad Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Spinosad suspension is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and ... Topical spinosad comes as a suspension (liquid) to apply to the scalp and hair. It is usually applied to the scalp and hair in one or sometimes ...

  9. Susceptibility of field-collected houseflies to spinosad before and after a season of use

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spinosad is a new and highly promising insecticide with a novel mode of action, and it was first available for house fly control in the United States in 2005. To maintain the effectiveness of this new insecticide, it will be important to monitor populations for the evolution of resistance. We comp...

  10. Population-level effects of spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna: comparison of laboratory and field microcosm exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Duchet, Claire; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès; Franquet, Evelyne; Lagneau, Christophe; Lagadic, Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Because exposure to toxicants not only results in mortality but also in multiple sublethal effects, the use of life-table data appears particularly suitable to assess global effects on exposed populations. The present study uses a life table response approach to assess population-level effects of two insecticides used against mosquito larvae, spinosad (8 μg/l) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti, 0.5 μl/l), on two non target species, Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera), under laboratory versus field microcosms conditions. Population growth rates were inferred from life table data and Leslie matrices under a model with resource limitation (ceiling). These were further used to estimate population risks of extinction under each tested condition, using stochastic simulations. In laboratory conditions, analyses performed for each species confirmed the significant negative effect of spinosad on survival, mean time at death, and fecundity as compared to controls and Bti-treated groups; for both species, population growth rate λ was lower under exposure to spinosad. In field microcosms, 2 days after larvicide application, differences in population growth rates were observed between spinosad exposure conditions, and control and Bti exposure conditions. Simulations performed on spinosad-exposed organisms led to population extinction (minimum abundance = 0, extinction risk = 1), and this was extremely rapid (time to quasi-extinction = 4.1 one-week long steps, i.e. one month). Finally, D. magna was shown to be more sensitive than D. pulex to spinosad in the laboratory, and the effects were also detectable through field population demographic simulations.

  11. Magnetic fields around evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.

    2014-04-01

    A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.

  12. Variation in susceptibility of field strains of three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Blossom; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H; Gill, Bikram S

    2013-08-01

    Spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin efficacy at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat were evaluated against 11 field strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); six strains of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), collected mostly from farm-stored grain in Kansas. Adults were exposed to wheat treated with spinosad at 1 mg (active ingredient)/kg or chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin at three plus 0.5 mg (active ingredient)/kg. Adult mortality was assessed after 7 and 14 d and progeny production after 42 d. Spinosad did not provide complete mortality or progeny suppression of T. castaneum and O. surinamensis field strains, but was effective against R. dominica strains. Chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin produced complete mortality and progeny suppression of field strains all three species. The two least susceptible T. castaneum and O. surinamensis strains and the two R. dominica strains were chosen for dose-response tests only with spinosad. The LD99 values for T. castaneum and R. dominica field strains were similar to that of the corresponding laboratory strains. Corresponding values for the two O. sturinamensis field strains were significantly greater (approximately 6 times) than the laboratory strain. The effective dose for progeny reduction (ED99) of only one R. dominica field strain was significantly greater (approximately 2 times) than the laboratory strain. The baseline susceptibility data of field strains of three insect species to spinosad will be useful for monitoring resistance development when this product is commercially released as a grain protectant.

  13. Field evaluation of pyriproxyfen and spinosad mixture for the control of insecticide resistant Aedes aegypti in Martinique (French West Indies)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The resistance of Ae. aegypti to insecticides is already widespread and continues to develop. It represents a serious problem for programmes aimed at the control and prevention of dengue in tropical countries. In the light of this problem measures to control Ae. aegypti are being orientated towards how best to use existing insecticides, notably by combining those that have different modes of action. Results In this study we evaluated the operational efficiency of a mixture composed of pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator) and spinosad (a biopesticide) against a population of Ae. aegypti from Martinique resistant to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides. The first step consisted of evaluating the efficacy of pyriproxyfen and spinosad when used alone, or in combination, against Ae. aegypti larvae under simulated conditions. The results showed that the mixture of pyriproxyfen+spinosad remained active for at least 8 months, compared with 3 months for spinosad alone, and 5 months for pyriproxyfen alone. In a second step in containers experiencing natural conditions, pyriproxyfen and spinosad, maintained the rate of adult emergence at 20% for 3 weeks and 3.5 months, respectively. Following the same criteria of evaluation, the mixture pyriproxyfen+spinosad remained effective for 4.5 months, showing that the combination of the two larvicides with different modes of action acted to increase the residual activity of the treatment. Conclusion The mixture of pyriproxyfen and spinosad kills larvae and pupae giving it a broader range of action than either insecticide. This mixture could preserve the utility of both insecticides in public health programs. PMID:20843383

  14. Spinosad: in pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2011-10-01

    Spinosad 0.9% suspension is a topical treatment for head-lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) that has been approved in the US as a prescription medicine. Spinosad is a natural mixture of the pediculicidal tetracyclic macrolides spinosyn A and spinosyn D. Spinosad 0.9% mainly interferes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in insects, thereby producing neuronal excitation that results in paralysis of lice from neuromuscular fatigue after extended periods of hyperexcitation. Spinosad 0.9% kills both permethrin-susceptible and permethrin-resistant populations of lice. It is also ovicidal, killing both eggs (nits) and lice. Systemic absorption was not detectable after a single topical application of spinosad 1.8% for 10 minutes in children. In randomized, evaluator-blind, multicenter clinical trials, topical spinosad 0.9% without nit combing was significantly more effective than permethrin 1% with nit combing in the eradication of head lice assessed 14 days after one or two treatments. The majority of subjects treated with spinosad 0.9% without nit combing required only a single treatment to eradicate head lice, while the majority of those treated with permethrin 1% with nit combing required two treatments. Spinosad was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with no severe or serious adverse events. Cutaneous and ocular irritation were the most common adverse events.

  15. Application of spinosad increases the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Lambkin, Trevor A; Furlong, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of spinosad exposure on the susceptibility of pyrethroid- and organophosphate-resistant populations of lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to insecticides was investigated in broiler house farm and laboratory studies. A field pyrethroid- and organophosphate-resistant population showed a 3.6-fold increase in susceptibility to gamma-cyhalothrin following spinosad treatment. Overall, cyfluthrin- and fenitrothion-resistant field populations were more susceptible to these insecticides following spinosad treatments, but populations that were not resistant showed no change in susceptibility following spinosad treatment. In a related study, three broiler farm beetle populations with very similar levels of cyfluthrin and gamma-cyhalothrin resistance and similar susceptibilities to spinosad were used to investigate temporal effects of spinosad field treatments on the susceptibility to pyrethroids. Farm insecticide regimes applied at the start of each flock differed: the control broiler house received no insecticide applications, another house was systematically treated with cyfluthrin at the start of each study flock, and the third house was systematically treated with spinosad at the start of five flocks. Afterwards, treatments reverted to cyfluthrin on all farms. At the end of flocks, beetles were tested with cyfluthrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, and spinosad. The control and cyfluthrin house beetles did not change susceptibility to pyrethroids over the period of the study. In the spinosad house, spinosad had no effect on spinosad susceptibility but dramatically increased cyfluthrin and gamma-cyhalothrin susceptibilities. These new susceptibilities were maintained while spinosad applications continued, but pyrethroid susceptibility declined once spinosad applications ceased. This study provides evidence of a synergistic interaction between spinosad and pyrethroids in pyrethroid-resistant beetles. This evidence has significant

  16. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and treatment of intestinal nematode infections in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brad; Schnitzler, Beate; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2015-01-15

    Two separate randomised, blinded, multicentre field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) (Trifexis(®), Elanco Animal Health) in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and intestinal nematode infections in European dogs. Treatments using Trifexis(®) and each control veterinary product (CVP) were administered once on Day 0 in both field studies. In the flea field trial, 11 veterinary clinics in France participated in the study. On Day 0, whole body flea comb counts were conducted on all dogs being evaluated for enrolment. Dogs with ≥7 fleas on Day 0 were enrolled, treated once on Day 0 with spinosad/MO or the CVP (Stronghold(®); selamectin) and then underwent post-treatment flea counts on Days 14 and 30. There were 150 spinosad/MO treated dogs and 71 CVP treated dogs included in the flea effectiveness population. Effectiveness against fleas (% reduction in geometric means; GM) was 98.97% and 97.37% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs, and 97.43% and 93.96% for the CVP dogs on Days 14 and 30, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment baseline flea counts. Of the spinosad/MO dogs, 89.3% and 80.0% had no live fleas on Days 14 and 30, compared to 77.5% and 70.4% of the CVP dogs, respectively. In the nematode field trial, data from 10 veterinary clinics in France and 19 in Ireland were pooled. Faecal samples from dogs at each clinic were analysed. A positive result at screening (parasite eggs from Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum) allowed for enrolment. Dogs were randomised to spinosad/MO or the CVP (Milbemax(®); MO/praziquantel). On Day 8, a post-treatment faecal sample was taken and analysed. Of 2333 dogs screened for nematode eggs, 238 dogs were positive with one or more of these nematodes, and 229 were enrolled in the study. Of the 229 dogs, 151 were treated with a single dose of spinosad/MO, and 77 were treated with

  17. Resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in greenhouses of south-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Bielza, Pablo; Quinto, Vicente; Contreras, Josefina; Torné, María; Martín, Alberto; Espinosa, Pedro J

    2007-07-01

    Susceptibility to spinosad of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), from south-eastern Spain was determined. LC(50) values of the field populations without previous exposure to spinosad collected in Murcia in 2001 and 2002 ranged from 0.005 to 0.077 mg L(-1). The populations collected in Almeria in 2003 in greenhouses were resistant to spinosad (LC(50) > 54 mg L(-1)) compared with the authors' highly susceptible laboratory strain. The highly sensitive laboratory strain leads to very high resistance ratios for the field populations (>13 500), but these ratios do not necessarily mean resistance problems and control failures (spinosad field rate 90-120 mg L(-1)). The populations collected in Murcia from some greenhouses in 2004 were also resistant to spinosad (RF > 3682). Spinosad overuse, with more than ten applications per crop, produced these resistant populations in some greenhouses. Spinosad showed no cross-resistance to acrinathrin, formetanate or methiocarb in laboratory strains selected for resistance towards each insecticide. Correlation analysis indicated no cross-resistance among spinosad and the other three insecticides in 13 field populations and in nine laboratory strains. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and diethyl maleate (DEM) did not enhance the toxicity of spinosad to the resistant strains, indicating that metabolic-mediated detoxification was not responsible for the spinosad resistance. These findings suggest that rotation with spinosad may be an effective resistance management strategy.

  18. Evolving Dynamics of the Supergranular Flow Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, M. L.; Lisle, J. P.; Toomre, J.

    2000-05-01

    We study several large (45-degree square) fields of supergranules for as long as they remain visible on the solar disk (about 6 days) to characterize the dynamics of the supergranular flow field and its interaction with surrounding photospheric magnetic field elements. These flow fields are determined by applying correlation tracking methods to time series of mesogranules seen in full-disk SOI-MDI velocity images. We have shown previously that mesogranules observed in this way are systematically advected by the larger scale supergranular flow field in which they are embedded. Applying correlation tracking methods to such time series yields the positions of the supergranular outflows quite well, even for locations close to disk center. These long-duration datasets contain several instances where individual supergranules are recognizable for time scales as long as 50 hours, though most cells persist for about 25 hours that is often quoted as a supergranular lifetime. Many supergranule merging and splitting events are observed, as well as other evolving flow patterns such as lanes of converging and diverging fluid. By comparing the flow fields with the corresponding images of magnetic fields, we confirm the result that small-scale photospheric magnetic field elements are quickly advected to the intercellular lanes to form a network between the supergranular outflows. In addition, we characterize the influence of larger-scale regions of magnetic flux, such as active regions, on the flow fields. Furthermore, we have measured even larger-scale flows by following the motions of the supergranules, but these flow fields contain a high noise component and are somewhat difficult to interpret. This research was supported by NASA through grants NAG 5-8133 and NAG 5-7996, and by NSF through grant ATM-9731676.

  19. Evaluation of spinosad for the oral treatment and control of flea infestations on cats in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Franc, M.; Bouhsira, E.; Böhm, C.; Wolken, S.; Wolf, O.; Löhlein, W.; Wiseman, S.; Hayes, B.; Schnitzler, B.; Fisher, M.

    2014-01-01

    Methods An ectoparasiticide containing spinosad was evaluated as an oral formulation for cats. Two European laboratory studies and a European multicentre field efficacy and safety study assessed the use of a chewable tablet formulation of spinosad at a dose range of 50–75 mg/kg for treatment and control of flea infestations on cats. Results The studies with experimentally infested cats consistently demonstrated persistent activity against Ctenocephalides felis with >98 per cent efficacy at four weeks post-treatment. In the field study with naturally infested client-owned cats from 18 clinics across Germany and Italy, two monthly doses of spinosad were administered; selamectin was the comparator product. Safety was evaluated in 226 cats, each receiving at least one dose of spinosad or selamectin; both products were well tolerated. 113 spinosad-treated cats and 71 selamectin-treated cats showed >97 per cent reductions in geometric mean flea counts within 14 days post-treatment and at 60 days post-treatment efficacy was >98 per cent in both groups. Analysis of success rates showed 96 per cent in spinosad-treated cats compared with 90.9 per cent in selamectin-treated cats at day 60. The spinosad tablets were successfully administered to over 98 percent of cats. These studies indicate that this formulation of spinosad is safe and efficacious for treatment and prevention of flea infestations in cats. PMID:26392879

  20. Evaluation of spinosad for the oral treatment and control of flea infestations on cats in Europe.

    PubMed

    Franc, M; Bouhsira, E; Böhm, C; Wolken, S; Wolf, O; Löhlein, W; Wiseman, S; Hayes, B; Schnitzler, B; Fisher, M

    2014-01-01

    An ectoparasiticide containing spinosad was evaluated as an oral formulation for cats. Two European laboratory studies and a European multicentre field efficacy and safety study assessed the use of a chewable tablet formulation of spinosad at a dose range of 50-75 mg/kg for treatment and control of flea infestations on cats. The studies with experimentally infested cats consistently demonstrated persistent activity against Ctenocephalides felis with >98 per cent efficacy at four weeks post-treatment. In the field study with naturally infested client-owned cats from 18 clinics across Germany and Italy, two monthly doses of spinosad were administered; selamectin was the comparator product. Safety was evaluated in 226 cats, each receiving at least one dose of spinosad or selamectin; both products were well tolerated. 113 spinosad-treated cats and 71 selamectin-treated cats showed >97 per cent reductions in geometric mean flea counts within 14 days post-treatment and at 60 days post-treatment efficacy was >98 per cent in both groups. Analysis of success rates showed 96 per cent in spinosad-treated cats compared with 90.9 per cent in selamectin-treated cats at day 60. The spinosad tablets were successfully administered to over 98 percent of cats. These studies indicate that this formulation of spinosad is safe and efficacious for treatment and prevention of flea infestations in cats.

  1. A review of spinosad as a natural product for larval mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Mark B; Mavrotas, Costas; Jousseaume, Christian; Lysandrou, Michael; Thompson, Gary D; Jany, William; Ritchie, Scott A

    2010-03-01

    The effectiveness of spinosad for larval mosquito control is summarized based on available published literature and some heretofore unpublished studies. Spinosad is highly active against larvae of all mosquito species tested thus far. It is effective at similar dosages for all larval mosquito instars, with peak cumulative mortality occurring at 72 h posttreatment. More studies are needed to fully define spinosad's ovicidal properties and its impact on the pupal stage. High levels of organic matter and full sunlight are both factors that can negatively impact spinosad efficacy and longevity and should be considered when making use rate and retreatment decisions. Studies clearly show that spinosad technical active ingredient and current crop formulations are suboptimal for larval mosquito control and underrepresent spinosad's true activity. A series of spinosad formulations specialized for larval mosquito control will be sold commercially. Prior to its launch and widespread use, there is a need for additional baseline studies to clarify the natural geographic variation in susceptibility of field mosquito populations. Spinosad represents a new and effective natural product for the integrated management of larval mosquitoes. It possesses a unique mode of action not shared by any other insecticide and is shown to be minimally disruptive to most nontarget species tested thus far at its proposed field use rates.

  2. Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2010-02-01

    The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin.

  3. Variation in susceptibility of field strains of three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin efficacy at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat was evaluated against 11 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); six strains of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grai...

  4. Systemic use of spinosad to control the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomatoes grown in rockwool.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, T; Dermauw, W; van de Veire, M; Tirry, L

    2005-01-01

    Spinosad is a reduced-risk insecticide derived as a fermentation product from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. It is toxic by ingestion and contact and has a unique mode of action on the insect nervous system. Spinosad exhibits a high degree of selective toxicity towards the insect orders Lepidoptera, Diptera and Thysanoptera, but is less toxic to many beneficial arthropods. To determine if spinosad could be valuable as an alternative acaricide for the control of Tetranychus urticae, laboratory toxicity experiments with leaf-disk bio-assays were performed on a laboratory susceptible and several resistant strains. LC50 values were rather high in comparison with newly developed commercial acaricides. Surprisingly, when spinosad was applied to the roots of tomato plants in rock wool, excellent control of spider mites was obtained. Apparently, spinosad has systemic properties and quantities as low as 1 mg/plant could protect tomato plants from mite infestation. Different substrates with varying percentage of clay and organic matter were tested in comparison with rockwool and showed that sufficient control was restricted to the rockwool substrate. Consequently, a dose-response experiment with tomato plants grown in rockwool was set up. The persistence of spinosad toxicity when applied via the roots was determined, and pointed to a long lasting control (up to 30 DAT). Spinosad amounts in leaves after systemic application were determined with an immunological technique to quantify spinosad uptake. Correlations between mite control, spinosad uptake and leaf concentrations can be helpful to determine the necessary dose in field situations.

  5. 21 CFR 520.2134 - Spinosad and milbemycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 140 milligrams (mg) spinosad and 2.3 mg milbemycin oxime, 270 mg spinosad and 4.5 mg milbemycin oxime, 560 mg spinosad and 9.3 mg milbemycin oxime, 810 mg spinosad and 13.5 mg milbemycin oxime, or 1,620 mg spinosad and 27 mg milbemycin oxime. (b) Sponsor. See...

  6. Metallomics - An Interdisciplinary and Evolving Field

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2007-09-14

    In an editorial earlier this year (JAAS, 22, 111, 2007), we opined that metallomics, the study of metals in biological systems, would be an increasingly important topic in elemental analysis in general and for this journal in particular . This issue of the journal, co-edited by the two of us, is a second special issue covering the subject of Metallomics (the first issue was JAAS, 19/1, 2004). The present issue is comprised of technique, application, and perspective papers that address this emerging field of study and show how atomic spectrometry is contributing to the understanding of biological systems. The subjects covered range from metal binding in plants through investigations of metal and metalloids in samples of biological fluids to the study of food supplements and drug interactions in cells. The issue includes two Critical Reviews. Yuxi Gao and colleagues discuss advanced nuclear analytical techniques for the emerging field of metalloproteomics. While Laura Liermann and her colleagues consider how micro-organisms extract metals from minerals in the environment for utilization in metabolic processes. The content of some of these papers stretches the traditional boundaries and scope of this journal, as echoed by the reviewers of some of the papers. This discussion about scope requires perhaps further debate. However, it is our view that while the Journal must remain true to its core aims, it must also strive to accommodate and motivate a wider authorship and readership. Metallomics is a field that transcends biology and microbiology, biochemistry, clinical chemistry, environmental chemistry, geochemistry, and yes, atomic spectroscopy. If JAAS aspires to be a leading force in metallomics, the Journal must expand its horizons beyond traditional analytical spectroscopy per se. Accordingly, in this special issue you will find papers that have a heavy clinical emphasis, which speak to complementary (non-atomic) spectroscopic techniques, and that provide

  7. Horizontal Transfer of Spinosad in Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Bhatta, D; Henderson, G

    2016-08-01

    Slow-acting and nonrepellent termiticides are possible candidates for nestmate to nestmate transfer called horizontal transfer. For the horizontal transfer study of spinosad, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was released in sand and soil at 1, 25, and 50 ppm Entrust(®) for 1 h and then mixed with healthy untreated termites for 21 d at the ratio of 1:1. Donor and recipient termites began to contact and groom each other immediately after release. Mortality of termites was recorded at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d after treatment. Spinosad was more effectively transferred in sand than in soil. In sand at 25 and 50 ppm, significantly high mortality of donors and recipients was observed after 7 d. When termites were exposed to treated soil at day 21, all three concentrations resulted in significantly higher mortality compared to the control. In our laboratory study, spinosad was effectively transferred by donor termites. Transfer of spinosad depended on its bioavailability and concentration. Further study is needed to address its effects against C. formosanus under field conditions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Toxicity of spinosad to temephos-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Dias, Luciana; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa Macoris; Otrera, Vanessa Camargo Garbeloto; Dias, Adriana dos Santos; Bauzer, Luiz Guilherme Soares da Rocha; Rodovalho, Cynara de Melo; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2017-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of different arboviruses and represents a major public health problem. Several Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti have developed resistance to temephos, the most used organophosphate larvicide. New tools which are less harmful to the environment and safer for humans are becoming increasingly important to control this insect vector. Spinosad, an aerobic fermentation product of a soil actinobacteria, has a favorable environmental profile. It presents selective insecticide properties, a mechanism of action that differs from those of many synthetic chemical insecticides. The toxicity of spinosad and temephos to Aedes aegypti populations from Brazil, which were previously exposed to temephos, were investigated in this study. Larval susceptibility (LC50) to temephos varied from 3μg/L for Rockefeller up to 260 μg/L for Santana do Ipanema field derived population. Larval susceptibility (LC50) to spinosad varied from 23μg/L for Rockefeller up to 93μg/L for Marilia field derived population. In addition, a semi-field trial was performed to evaluate spinosad (NatularTM DT) initial efficacy and persistence toward four field-derived lineages and the Rockefeller lineage, used as an internal control. Spinosad was tested at 0.5mg active ingredient/L in 200L capacity water tanks. Mortality was recorded each 24 hours after exposition and tanks were further recolonized once per week with mortality being recorded daily for eight weeks. Spinosad provided a level equal or superior to 80% mortality during a seven to eight week evaluation period. The assessed populations did not present cross-resistance between spinosad and temephos in laboratory conditions. It demonstrates that spinosad may be a promising larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti, especially for populations in which resistance to temephos has been detected. PMID:28301568

  9. Toxicity of spinosad to temephos-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Dias, Luciana; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa Macoris; Otrera, Vanessa Camargo Garbeloto; Dias, Adriana Dos Santos; Bauzer, Luiz Guilherme Soares da Rocha; Rodovalho, Cynara de Melo; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2017-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of different arboviruses and represents a major public health problem. Several Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti have developed resistance to temephos, the most used organophosphate larvicide. New tools which are less harmful to the environment and safer for humans are becoming increasingly important to control this insect vector. Spinosad, an aerobic fermentation product of a soil actinobacteria, has a favorable environmental profile. It presents selective insecticide properties, a mechanism of action that differs from those of many synthetic chemical insecticides. The toxicity of spinosad and temephos to Aedes aegypti populations from Brazil, which were previously exposed to temephos, were investigated in this study. Larval susceptibility (LC50) to temephos varied from 3μg/L for Rockefeller up to 260 μg/L for Santana do Ipanema field derived population. Larval susceptibility (LC50) to spinosad varied from 23μg/L for Rockefeller up to 93μg/L for Marilia field derived population. In addition, a semi-field trial was performed to evaluate spinosad (NatularTM DT) initial efficacy and persistence toward four field-derived lineages and the Rockefeller lineage, used as an internal control. Spinosad was tested at 0.5mg active ingredient/L in 200L capacity water tanks. Mortality was recorded each 24 hours after exposition and tanks were further recolonized once per week with mortality being recorded daily for eight weeks. Spinosad provided a level equal or superior to 80% mortality during a seven to eight week evaluation period. The assessed populations did not present cross-resistance between spinosad and temephos in laboratory conditions. It demonstrates that spinosad may be a promising larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti, especially for populations in which resistance to temephos has been detected.

  10. A field trial of spinosad for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in shepherd dogs living in close proximity to flea-infested sheep.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Chatzis, Manolis K; Petanides, Theodoros; Papadopoulos, Elias

    2015-06-12

    Three flea species, Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides canis and C. felis parasitize shepherd dogs living on sheep farms in Greece. The aim of this randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of spinosad, when administered three times every 4 weeks, as the only intervention to treat and prevent flea infestations in shepherd dogs living on sheep farms. Thirty dogs living on sheep farms and infested by at least 24 fleas were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A dogs received spinosad (45-70 mg/kg body weight), every 4 weeks for three administrations, whereas Group B dogs were placebo-treated. Flea counting was performed at the beginning of the trial (day 0) and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days. The first five fleas from each dog and 2-6 fleas collected from 5-11 sheep were used for species identification. The percentage of dogs with zero flea counts was significantly higher in group A than in group B at days 14, 28, 56 and 84 and flea counts were significantly lower in group A than in group B at days 14, 28, 56 and 84. In group A, flea counts were significantly lower at days 14, 28, 56 and 84 compared to day 0 whereas there were no changes in flea counts of group B dogs. The percent efficacy of spinosad for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation was higher than 98% (arithmetic means) or higher than 99% (geometric means) throughout the study. No adverse reactions were recorded. C. canis was the predominant flea species of dogs at day 0. In group A the relative abundance of C. felis increased at day14 whereas in group B the relative abundance of P. irritans increased at days 14, 28, 56 and 84. Spinosad is safe and effective for the treatment of C. canis and C. felis infestations and for the prevention of P. irritans, C. canis and C. felis infestations in shepherd dogs living in close proximity to sheep.

  11. Genetics, realized heritability and preliminary mechanism of spinosad resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): an invasive pest from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-12-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has gained recognition as a key pest due to its invasive nature throughout the world. The P. solenopsis has a wide range of host plants and damages the cotton crop in various parts of the world. In view of the economic importance of this pest, a study on selection, inheritance and mechanism of spinosad resistance was conducted on P. solenopsis. Selection of field collected P. solenopsis for seven generations with spinosad resulted in a high resistance ratio of 282.45-fold. Genetic studies of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis indicated that maternal effects are not involved in spinosad resistance; and resistance development is an autosomal and incompletely dominant trait. The number of genes involved in spinosad resistance was determined to be more than one, suggesting that resistance is controlled by multiple loci. The realized heritability (h (2)) value for spinosad resistance was 0.94. Synergism bioassays of spinosad with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate showed that spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis could be due to esterase only. The study provides the basic information for implementation of effective resistance management strategies to control P. solenopsis.

  12. Residual control and lethal concentrations of GF-120 (spinosad) for Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Gomez, Luis E; Montoya, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between residual time of GF-120 (spinosad) treatment and mortality in three species of Anastrepha Schiner. Concentrations of 96, 72, 48, and 24 ppm were aged on mango leaves under field conditions for 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 d after application. We found that Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, and A. serpentina were highly sensitive to spinosad. The effects of spinosad were not reduced over the 4 d after the initial application, even at a concentration of 24 ppm. Mortality at 14 d after the application of 72 and 96 ppm of spinosad was similar in each of the three fruit fly species. In addition, we found that 24 ppm of spinosad was consumed the most by each species even though no direct relationship between the rate of consumption per female and the dose of the product was observed, in this test, higher consumption of active ingredient was observed at a concentration of 72 ppm, for A. ludens, 48 ppm for A. obliqua, and 96 ppm for A. serpentina. Our results suggest that a spinosad concentration of 72 ppm may effectively control these pests for at least 10 d under field conditions.

  13. Spinosad for treatment of head lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Cole, Sabrina W; Lundquist, Lisa M

    2011-07-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and safety profile of spinosad 0.9% topical lotion, a recently approved pediculicide for treatment of head lice infestation. English-language articles indexed in MEDLINE (1948-May 2011), Toxline, Google Scholar, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-May 2011), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1981-May 2011) were identified, using the search terms spinosad, head lice, and pediculosis capitis. Available English-language articles were reviewed. In the studies that were reviewed, the percentage of patients who were lice free 14 days after the last treatment was significantly higher in the spinosad groups compared to the permethrin groups (84.6% vs 44.9% and 86.7% vs 42.9%, respectively; p < 0.001 for both studies). Additionally, the proportion of all primary and nonprimary participants determined to be lice free following only 1 treatment with the study medication was higher among patients in the spinosad groups compared with those in the permethrin groups. Application-site erythema was observed in patients in both treatment groups; however, it was more common in patients in the permethrin groups compared with those receiving spinosad (6.8% vs 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.007). No serious adverse effects were reported by patients receiving spinosad. Adherence was higher in the spinosad groups compared with the permethrin groups, although adherence overall was high in both studies. These data suggest that spinosad is a safe and effective treatment for the eradication of head lice, and the ease of administration and improved adherence with spinosad could offer an advantage over currently available treatment options. Because of its established efficacy, favorable safety profile, and ease of application, spinosad can be considered a convenient and effective treatment for head lice in patients aged 4 years and older.

  14. Biofabrication: reappraising the definition of an evolving field.

    PubMed

    Groll, Jürgen; Boland, Thomas; Blunk, Torsten; Burdick, Jason A; Cho, Dong-Woo; Dalton, Paul D; Derby, Brian; Forgacs, Gabor; Li, Qing; Mironov, Vladimir A; Moroni, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Makoto; Shu, Wenmiao; Takeuchi, Shoji; Vozzi, Giovanni; Woodfield, Tim B F; Xu, Tao; Yoo, James J; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-08

    Biofabrication is an evolving research field that has recently received significant attention. In particular, the adoption of Biofabrication concepts within the field of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine has grown tremendously, and has been accompanied by a growing inconsistency in terminology. This article aims at clarifying the position of Biofabrication as a research field with a special focus on its relation to and application for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Within this context, we propose a refined working definition of Biofabrication, including Bioprinting and Bioassembly as complementary strategies within Biofabrication.

  15. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h2 = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = −0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  16. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  17. 21 CFR 520.2130 - Spinosad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chewable tablet contains 140, 270, 560, 810, or 1620 milligrams (mg) spinosad. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000986... month at a recommended minimum dosage of 13.5 mg per pound (30 mg per kilogram) of body weight....

  18. 21 CFR 520.2130 - Spinosad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chewable tablet contains 140, 270, 560, 810, or 1620 milligrams (mg) spinosad. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000986... month at a recommended minimum dosage of 13.5 mg per pound (30 mg per kilogram) of body weight....

  19. Toxicity, persistence, and efficacy of spinosad, chlorfenapyr, and thiamethoxam on eggplant when applied against the eggplant flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    McLeod, Paul; Diaz, Francisco J; Johnson, Donn T

    2002-04-01

    A laboratory bioassay was developed for determining the toxicity of spinosad, chlorfenapyr, and thiamethoxam against the eggplant flea beetle, Epitrix fuscula Crotch, on eggplant foliage. Four days after initial exposure, LC50 values were 1.99, 2.50, and 0.88 ppm for spinosad, chlorfenapyr, and thiamethoxam, respectively. By dividing the recommended field rate in ppm by the LC50 value, a field toxicity ratio was determined and ranged from 13.5 for spinosad to 73.9 for thiamethoxam. The high ratios suggest that field rates for all three insecticides could likely be reduced. This was supported by field studies in 2000 in which reduced rates of spinosad and thiamethoxam significantly reduced flea beetle numbers on eggplant. Mortality produced by thiamethoxam occurred more quickly than that for the other tested materials as shown with LT50 values of 1.8, 3.0, and 3.6 and days for thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and spinosad, respectively. Persistence studies indicated that while all three of the tested compounds initially produced high levels of mortality, chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam produced 50% or greater mortality after 6 d. Our data suggest that future management strategies for E. fuscula on eggplant can be successfully altered to meet the changing needs of the producer. Spinosad was recently registered, is effective against the E. fuscula, and offers a viable alternative to carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides. Thiamethoxam and chlorfenapyr offer high levels of toxicity to E. fuscula and upon registration will offer additional effective tools for management.

  20. Fitness Trade-Off Associated With Spinosad Resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wan, Yanran; Yuan, Guangdi; Hussain, Sabir; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Wu, Qingjun

    2017-08-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an economically important pest of agricultural crops. High resistance has been detected in field populations of F. occidentalis against the insecticide spinosad. In this study, we compared life history traits, body sizes, and feeding behaviors (recorded via an electrical penetration graph) of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and spinosad-resistant (NIL-R) near-isogenic lines of F. occidentalis. Life table analysis showed that NIL-R had reduced female longevity and reduced fecundity. The relative fitness of NIL-R (0.43) was less than half that of Ivf03. NIL-R individuals were smaller than Ivf03 individuals, both in body length and body width at every stage. The number and duration of feeding activities were significantly reduced in NIL-R, with the exception of total duration of long-ingestion probes. These results suggest that there is a fitness trade-off associated with spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis, and that the development of resistance in this pest species may be reduced by rotating spinosad with other pesticides lacking cross-resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Evolving magnetic fields and the conservation of magnetic moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Wolfgang

    It is shown that the magnetic moment is a conserved quantity not only in MHD, but also in general electrodynamics under certain not very restrictive conditions. The propagation of magnetic moment from a regionD with an evolving current system (e.g., due to dynamo action) is discussed for the two cases of vacuum and a conducting medium, respectively, surrounding D. In the case of vacuum, the MHD approximation no longer holds and the weak electromagnetic wave emitted from D is important, as was pointed out by Sokoloff (1997). In the case of an unbounded conducting medium, the classical definition of is generalised and is shown to propagate diffusively, undisturbed by the newly generated magnetic field.

  2. High-level of resistance to spinosad, emamectin benzoate and carbosulfan in populations of Thrips tabaci collected in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Galina; Abo-Moch, Fauzi; Gafni, Guy; Ben-Yakir, David; Ghanim, Murad

    2013-02-01

    The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a major pest of several crop plants in the genus Allium, such as onions, garlic and chives. In Israel, these crops are grown in open fields and in protected housing. This thrips is usually controlled by the application of chemical insecticides. In recent years, spinosad, emamectin benzoate and carbosulfan have been the major insecticides used for the control of the onion thrips. In the last 4 years, growers of chives and green onion from several regions of Israel have reported a significant decrease in the efficacy of insecticides used to control the onion thrips. The susceptibility of 14 populations of the onion thrips, collected mainly from chives between the years 2007 and 2011, to spinosad, emamectin benzoate and carbosulfan was tested using a laboratory bioassay. The majority of the populations showed significant levels of resistance to at least one of the insecticides. LC(50) values calculated for two of the studied populations showed that the resistance factor for spinosad compared with the susceptible population is 21 393, for carbosulfan 54 and for emamectin benzoate 36. Only two populations, collected from organic farms, were susceptible to the insecticides tested. This is the first report of a high resistance level to spinosad, the major insecticide used to control the onion thrips. Resistance cases to spinosad were associated with failures to control the pest. Populations resistant to spinosad also had partial or complete resistance to other insecticides used for controlling the onion thrips. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. In vivo functional analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Dα6 using the insecticide spinosad.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jason; Nguyen, Joseph; Lumb, Chris; Batterham, Phil; Perry, Trent

    2015-09-01

    The vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used to identify and manipulate insecticide resistance genes. The advancement of genome engineering technology and the increasing availability of pest genome sequences has increased the predictive and diagnostic capacity of the Drosophila model. The Drosophila model can be extended to investigate the basic biology of the interaction between insecticides and the proteins they target. Recently we have developed an in vivo system that permits the expression and study of key insecticide targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), in controlled genetic backgrounds. Here this system is used to study the interaction between the insecticide spinosad and a nAChR subunit, Dα6. Reciprocal chimeric subunits were created from Dα6 and Dα7, a subunit that does not respond to spinosad. Using the in vivo system, the Dα6/Dα7 chimeric subunits were tested for their capacity to respond to spinosad. Only the subunits containing the C-terminal region of Dα6 were able to respond to spinosad, thus confirming the importance this region for spinosad binding. A new incompletely dominant, spinosad resistance mechanism that may evolve in pest species is also examined. First generated using chemical mutagenesis, the Dα6(P146S) mutation was recreated using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, the first use of this technology to introduce a resistant mutation into a controlled genetic background. Both alleles present with the same incompletely dominant, spinosad resistance phenotype, proving the P146S replacement to be the causal mutation. The proximity of the P146S mutation to the conserved Cys-loop indicates that it may impair the gating of the receptor. The results of this study enhance the understanding of nAChR structure:function relationships. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of spinosad on bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson).

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; Winston, Mark L; Franklin, Michelle T; Abbott, Virginia A

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments of new families of pesticides and growing awareness of the importance of wild pollinators for crop pollination have stimulated interest in potential effects of novel pesticides on wild bees. Yet pesticide toxicity studies on wild bees remain rare, and few studies have included long-term monitoring of bumble bee colonies or testing of foraging ability after pesticide exposure. Larval bees feeding on exogenous pollen and exposed to pesticides during development may result in lethal or sub-lethal effects during the adult stage. We tested the effects of a naturally derived biopesticide, spinosad, on bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony health, including adult mortality, brood development, weights of emerging bees and foraging efficiency of adults that underwent larval development during exposure to spinosad. We monitored colonies from an early stage, over a 10-week period, and fed spinosad to colonies in pollen at four levels: control, 0.2, 0.8 and 8.0 mg kg(-1), during weeks 2 through 5 of the experiment. At concentrations that bees would likely encounter in pollen in the wild (0.2-0.8 mg kg(-1)) we detected minimal negative effects to bumble bee colonies. Brood and adult mortality was high at 8.0 mg kg(-1) spinosad, about twice the level that bees would be exposed to in a 'worst case' field scenario, resulting in colony death two to four weeks after initial pesticide exposure. At more realistic concentrations there were potentially important sub-lethal effects. Adult worker bees exposed to spinosad during larval development at 0.8 mg kg(-1) were slower foragers on artificial complex flower arrays than bees from low or no spinosad treated colonies. Inclusion of similar sub-lethal assays to detect effects of pesticides on pollinators would aid in development of environmentally responsible pest management strategies.

  5. Activity of spinosad on stored-tobacco insects and persistence on cured tobacco stripst.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Michel P; Panighini, Cécile; Gadani, Ferruccio; Rossi, Luca

    2004-11-01

    Every year raw tobacco and manufactured tobacco products are lost to two major storage pests, the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F) and the tobacco moth, Ephestia elutella (Hiibner). Post-harvest management of both insects is achieved through sanitation, insect monitoring and fumigation with phosphine. However, insect resistance to phosphine and control failures have been reported, and fumigants are under constant regulatory pressure. Here we report the evaluation of spinosad, a bioinsecticide derived from the fermentation of the soil micro-organism Saccharopolyspora spinosa Mertz & Yao. Spinosad was first registered in 1997 and is now widely used as a field pest control agent on many crops, including tobacco. The insecticidal activity of the fermentation product (technical spinosad, TS) was measured by diet incorporation assays against L serricorne and E elutella larvae. Mortality levels were determined on newly hatched larvae and over the whole insect life cycle. For both species, no emergence of adult insects was observed in cured tobacco sprayed with 50mg TS kg(-1) and inoculated with eggs or newly hatched larvae. These results indicated that spinosad has potential for the control of both species in stored tobacco, since 100% control of both pests could be achieved at 50 mg TS kg(-1), and with almost full control (90-95%) at 10 mg kg(-1). We also monitored the stability of the product on cured tobacco. The original concentration of the main active component of TS, spinosyn A, did not change significantly over 18 months, indicating no loss of spinosad during a typical leaf storage period of time. Bioassays against larvae confirmed that the bioinsecticidal activity of spinosad was retained.

  6. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.; Kelley, N.; Jonkman, B.; Frehlich, R.

    2012-01-01

    is the spatial averaging caused by the LIDAR's sampling volume. However, by introducing wind evolution, the dominant source of error for large preview distances was found to be the coherence loss caused by evolving turbulence. Different measurement geometries were compared using the bandwidth for which the measurement coherence remained above 0.5 and also the area under the measurement coherence curve. Results showed that, by increasing the intensity of wind evolution, the measurement coherence decreases. Using the coherence bandwidth metric, the optimal preview distance for a fixed-scan radius remained almost constant for low and moderate amounts of wind evolution. For the wind field with the simple wind evolution model introduced, the optimal preview distance for a scan radius of 75% blade span (47.25 meters) was found to be 80 meters. Using the LES wind field, the optimal preview distance was 65 meters. When comparing scan geometries using the area under the coherence curve, results showed that, as the intensity of wind evolution increases, the optimal preview distance decreases.

  7. Increased efficacy and extended shelf life of spinosad formulated in phagostimulant granules against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Tamayo-Mejía, Fernando; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Damas, Gabriela; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes S; Ek-Ramos, Maria J; Williams, Trevor

    2017-06-30

    Spinosad is recommended for control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae; its application with phagostimulants may reduce the quantity of active ingredient required for effective pest control. Spinosad (Tracer®) was formulated in maize flour matrix granules and three field tests compared 10-100 ppm a.i. granules (equivalent to 0.24-2.4 g a.i. ha(-1) ) with Tracer as an aqueous spray (200 ppm a.i.; 60 g a.i. ha(-1) ), and the recommended application rates of Bacillus thuringiensis, a chemical and an untreated controls were performed. The 100 ppm spinosad granules resulted in similar S. frugiperda mortality compared with the chemical treatments in all three field trials, and resulted in a significantly higher maize grain yield compared with unformulated and control treatments (4141 vs. 2857 and 2407 kg ha(-1) , respectively) that was similar to the chemical treatment (3778 kg ha(-1) ). Bioassays of granules stored at room and cold temperatures showed that after 5 years, ∼ 70% of the original activity remained (OAR) of spinosad when formulated as granules. Nevertheless, after 9 years, efficacy was reduced (26.2% and 48.5% OAR) at both room (25 °C) and refrigerated temperatures (4 °C). Spinosad, in the granular phagostimulant formulations evaluated in this study, had advantages measured as high efficacy and long shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Efficacy of two formulations of the bioinsecticide spinosad against Culex quinquefasciatus in India.

    PubMed

    Sadanandane, C; Boopathi Doss, P S; Jambulingam, P; Zaim, M

    2009-03-01

    Spinosad 12% suspension concentrate (SC) and 0.5% granular (G) formulations were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus immatures at 3 dosages--50, 100, and 150 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2--in cesspits, street drains, and disused wells in comparison with temephos 1% G at 1 part per million. The 2 formulations reduced the density of pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus by 80-100% for 7-14 days in cesspits, 7-18 days in drains, and 33-69 days in disused wells at the 3 dosages tested. The 12% SC and 0.5% G formulations were equally effective in suppressing the larval and pupal populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus in all the habitats treated. At 100 mg AI/m2 in drains and cesspits, the efficacy of spinosad 0.5% G was greater than that of temephos (1% G) and that of spinosad 12% SC was comparable to that of temephos (1% G) applied to the 2 habitats. In disused wells, both the formulations lasted longer than temephos. Based on the small-scale trial, the rate of 150 mg AI/m2 of spinosad was selected for field application to cesspits and drains and 50 mg AI/m2 for application to disused wells. The efficacy observed in medium-scale trials was in agreement with that of small-scale trials. The trial showed that the 2 formulations of spinosad can be used for larval control of Cx. quinquefasciatus, at 50 mg AI/m2, applied at weekly intervals to cesspits and street drains and at monthly intervals to disused wells. At the higher dose of 150 mg AI/m2, the 2 formulations were effective in suppressing the pupal population for 2 wk in cesspits and street drains and for 2 months in disused wells.

  9. ALIGNMENT OF THE SCALAR GRADIENT IN EVOLVING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sur, Sharanya; Scannapieco, Evan; Pan, Liubin E-mail: evan.scannapieco@asu.edu

    2014-07-20

    We conduct simulations of turbulent mixing in the presence of a magnetic field, grown by the small-scale dynamo. We show that the scalar gradient field, ∇C, which must be large for diffusion to operate, is strongly biased perpendicular to the magnetic field, B. This is true both early on, when the magnetic field is negligible, and at late times, when the field is strong enough to back react on the flow. This occurs because ∇C increases within the plane of a compressive motion, but B increases perpendicular to it. At late times, the magnetic field resists compression, making it harder for scalar gradients to grow and likely slowing mixing.

  10. Coming of Age: The Evolving Field of Adventure Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandoroff, Scott, Ed.; Newes, Sandra, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Coming of Age" brings together a group of articles arising from the third International Adventure Therapy Conference held in Victoria, British Columbia, in April 2003. Together, they offer an overview of the field of Adventure Therapy in the new millennium, boasting a strong collection from the field's leading international figures:…

  11. Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Hertlein, Mark; Neto, Agenor Mafra; Coler, Reginald; Piñero, Jaime C

    2008-06-01

    Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) "attract-and-kill" sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared with other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively. Field tests were conducted with three different dispensers (Min-U-Gel, Acti-Gel, and SPLAT) and two different insecticides (naled and spinosad). SPLAT ME with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel ME with naled formulation up to 12 wk. SPLAT C-L with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel C-L with naled formulation during weeks 7 to12, but not during weeks 1-6. In subsequent comparative trials, SPLAT ME + spinosad compared favorably with the current standard of Min-U-Gel ME + naled for up to 6 wk, and it was superior from weeks 7 to 12 in two separate tests conducted in a papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchard and a guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard, respectively. In outdoor paired weathering tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers (SPLAT + spinosad, SPLAT + naled, and Min-U-Gel + naled) were effective up to 70 d. Weathered ME dispensers with SPLAT + spinosad compared favorably with SPLAT + naled and Min-U-Gel + naled, and they were equal to fresh dispensers for 21-28 d, depending on location. Our current studies indicate that SPLAT ME and SPLAT C-L sprayable attract-and-kill dispensers containing spinosad are a promising substitute for current liquid organophosphate insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.

  12. 40 CFR 180.495 - Spinosad; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... spinosad in or on the food commodities in the table to this paragraph. Spinosad is a fermentation product..., tops 3.5 Pineapple 0.02 Pineapple, process residue 0.08 Pistachio 0.10 Pomegranate 0.30 Poultry, fat 1...

  13. 40 CFR 180.495 - Spinosad; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... spinosad in or on the food commodities in the table to this paragraph. Spinosad is a fermentation product..., tops 3.5 Pineapple 0.02 Pineapple, process residue 0.08 Pistachio 0.10 Pomegranate 0.30 Poultry, fat 1...

  14. 40 CFR 180.495 - Spinosad; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... spinosad in or on the food commodities in the table to this paragraph. Spinosad is a fermentation product..., tops 3.5 Pineapple 0.02 Pineapple, process residue 0.08 Pistachio 0.10 Pomegranate 0.30 Poultry, fat 1...

  15. 40 CFR 180.495 - Spinosad; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... spinosad in or on the food commodities in the table to this paragraph. Spinosad is a fermentation product..., tops 3.5 Pineapple 0.02 Pineapple, process residue 0.08 Pistachio 0.10 Pomegranate 0.30 Poultry, fat 1...

  16. 40 CFR 180.495 - Spinosad; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... spinosad in or on the food commodities in the table to this paragraph. Spinosad is a fermentation product..., tops 3.5 Pineapple 0.02 Pineapple, process residue 0.08 Pistachio 0.10 Pomegranate 0.30 Poultry, fat 1...

  17. Efficacy of ground spray application of bait sprays with malathion or spinosad on Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Texas citrus.

    PubMed

    Conway, Hugh E; Forrester, O Thomas

    2011-04-01

    An important component in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), eradication program is bait spray application to knock down localized A. ludens infestations enhancing the sterile to wild fly ratio and increasing the effectiveness of the sterile insect release program. Efficacy tests were conducted using spray equipment that applies ultralow application rates of malathion NU-LURE or GF-120 spinosad by ground into citrus. Trapit Dome traps located in fields treated with malathion NU-LURE and GF-120 spinosad high rate caught significantly fewer flies than the control in all replications. Treatments reduced the Mexican fruit fly populations by 99.1 and 92.5% with malathion and 98.2 and 89.9% with GF-120 spinosad high rate. Traps in plots with lower rates of GF-120 reduced fly populations by 76.3 and 74.3% in winter and summer test, respectively. There was no indication of fly repulsion from either malathion or GF-120 spinosad during this test. The bait spray option using ground spray equipment to apply ultra-low rates of either malathion NU-LURE or GF-120 spinosad high rate is a viable cost effective treatment method to treat small acreages for A. ludens. For organic growers, the ground spray equipment is effective in applying GF-120 spinosad at the labeled rates.

  18. Optimum Vessel Performance in Evolving Nonlinear Wave Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    information collected by the radar with a seakeeping model that determines a path that minimizes the RMS vessel motion and incorporates a trade-off...analytic solution. A dynamic programming model was developed for the optimal routing and control that integrates the detailed wave-field information ... information collected by the radar into the path planning process. We were able to integrate our earlier results for a stationary sea into the DP model

  19. Comparison of aeration and spinosad for suppressing insects in stored wheat.

    PubMed

    Flinn, P W; Subramanyam, Bh; Arthur, F H

    2004-08-01

    Field studies were conducted from July 2002 to January 2003 for evaluating the effects of controlled aeration and a commercial biological insecticide, spinosad, in suppressing insect populations in stored wheat. Six cylindrical steel bins were filled with newly harvested (2002 crop year) hard red winter wheat on 9 and 10 July 2002. Each bin contained 30.7 metric tons (1,100 bu) of wheat. Wheat in two bins was left untreated (control), whereas wheat in two bins was treated with spinosad, and in another two bins was subjected to aeration by using aeration controllers. Spinosad was applied to wheat at the time of bin filling to obtain a rate of 1 mg ([AI])/kg. Aeration controllers were set to run the fans when ambient air temperature fell below 23.9, 18.3, and 7.2 degrees C for the first, second, and third cooling cycles, respectively. We added 400 adults each of the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), to the grain at monthly intervals between July and October 2002. Insect density in the bins was estimated monthly by taking 3-kg grain samples from 21 locations within each bin by using a pneumatic grain sampler. No live T. castaneum or C. ferrugineus and very low densities of R. dominica (<0.008 adults per kilogram) were found in wheat treated with spinosad during the 6-mo sampling period. Density of C. ferrugineus and T. castaneum in aerated bins did not exceed two adults per kilogram (the Federal Grain Inspection Service standard for infested wheat), whereas R. dominica increased to 12 adults per kilogram in November 2002, which subsequently decreased to three adults per kilogram in January 2003. In the untreated (control) bins, R. dominica density increased faster than that of C. ferrugineus or T. castaneum. Density of R. dominica peaked at 58 adults per kilogram in October 2002 and decreased subsequently, whereas T. castaneum density was 10 adults

  20. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  1. Planetary Nebulae: Reviews and Previews of a Rapidly Evolving Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Observational results from the ground and space in the past decade and covering the entire spectrum have jolted and energized research into the nature, the formation, and the evolution of planetary nebulae (PNs). The 101-level bubble structure of PNs turned out to be a pleasant but misleading fantasy as observations by HST and ALMA revealed basic details of their infancy. Some combination of close geriatric binary stars (the precusrors of SN Ia's) and magnetic fields dredged into the dusty winds appear to play vital roles in the ejection and collimation of AGB atmospheres. As a result, PNe and their antecedents, AGB stars and prePNs, are providing an array of new opportunities to study asymmetric wind formation, complex gas dynamics, CNO production rates in various galactic environments, and galaxy structure and evolution. I shall review the highlights of recent results, summarize their interpretations, and show some of the observational opportunities to monitor in the next decade, many of which couple strongly to research to related fields.This talk is dedicated to the career of Olivier Chesneau (1972-2014) who pioneered new high-resolution imaging methods that peered into the deep inner cores of nascent planetary nebulae. We remember Olivier as everyone's enthusiastic friend and colleague whose career ended in full stride.

  2. In vitro and in vivo acaricidal activity and residual toxicity of spinosad to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Shiel, R S; Appleby, W G C; Knox, A; Guy, J H

    2010-10-29

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to examine the acaricidal potential of spinosad against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens. Spinosad is a natural product derived from the fermentation of the micro-organism Saccharopolyspora spinosa. In vitro testing confirmed that, when applied to a galvanised metal plate to the point of run-off, spinosad was toxic to adult female D. gallinae and suggested that at an application rate of 3.88 g/L a significant residual toxicity of spinosad could be achieved for up to 21 days. A subsequent in vivo experiment in a conventional cage housing system for laying hens demonstrated the acaricidal activity and residual toxicity to D. gallinae of a single application of spinosad when applied at either 1.94 or 3.88 g/L. Residual toxicity of spinosad at both of these application rates was maintained throughout the course of the 28 day post-spray study period, with a peak in product efficacy seen 14 days after spraying. The results suggest that the greater the D. gallinae population the greater will be the toxic effect of spinosad. Although the exact reasons for this are unclear, it can be speculated that conspecifics spread the product between each other more efficiently at higher mite population densities. However, further study is warranted to confirm this possibility. Application of spinosad in vivo had no effect on hen bodyweight or egg production parameters (number and weight), suggesting that this product could be used to effectively control D. gallinae infestations whilst birds are in lay. This paper also describes a novel method for effectively and efficiently achieving replication of treatments in a single poultry house, previously unpopulated with D. gallinae. Individual groups of conventional cages were stocked with hens, seeded with D. gallinae and used as replicates. Independence of replicates was achieved by isolating cage groups from one another using a

  3. The evolving field of kinase inhibitors in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Marotta, V; Sciammarella, C; Vitale, M; Colao, A; Faggiano, A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the genetic events implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer (TC) involve genes with kinase activity. Thus, kinase inhibitors (KIs) are very relevant in this field. KIs are considered the most suitable treatment for patients with iodine-refractory differentiated TC; these patients comprise the subgroup with the poorer prognosis. To date, only sorafenib has been approved for this indication, but promising results have been reported with several other KIs. In particular, lenvatinib has demonstrated excellent efficacy, with both progression-free survival and objective tumour response being better than with sorafenib. Despite being considered to be well tolerated, both sorafenib and lenvatinib have shown a remarkable toxicity, which has led to dose reductions in the majority of patients and to treatment discontinuation in a significant proportion of cases. The role of KIs in differentiated TC may be revolutionised by the finding that selumetinib may restore a clinical response to radioactive iodine (RAI). Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of advanced, progressive medullary TC (MTC). Nevertheless, the toxicity of both compounds suggests their selective use in those patients with strong disease progression. Treatment with the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus, alone or in combination with somatostatin analogues, should be studied in metastatic MTC patients with slow progression of disease, these representing the vast majority of patients. KIs did not significantly impact on the clinical features of anaplastic TC (ATC).

  4. A systematic review of differential rate of use of the word "evolve" across fields.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nina; Sit, Matthew T; Schutte, Marissa K; Chan, Gabriel E; Aldana, Jeyson E; Cervantes, Diana; Himmelstein, Clyde H; Yeh, Pamela J

    2017-01-01

    Although evolution is the driving force behind many of today's major public health and agriculture issues, both journalists and scientific researchers often do not use the term "evolve" in discussions of these topics. In a total of 1,066 articles and 716 papers selected from 25 US newspapers and 34 scientific journals, we assess usage of the word "evolve" and its substitute words in the contexts of cancer tumor drug resistance, HIV drug resistance, mosquito insecticide resistance, and weed pesticide resistance. We find significant differences in the use of "evolve" among fields and sources. "Evolve" is used most when discussing weed pesticide resistance (25.9% in newspapers, 52.4% in journals) and least when discussing cancer tumor drug resistance (3.9% in newspapers, 9.8% in journals). On average, scientific journals use "evolve" more often (22.2%) than newspapers (7.8%). Different types of journals (general science, general clinical, cancer specific, and drug resistance specific) show significantly different "evolve" usages when discussing cancer tumor drug resistance. We examine potential explanations of these findings, such as the relatively recent framing of cancer in evolutionary terms, before looking at consequences of low "evolve" usage and of differential "evolve" usage across fields. Use of the word "evolve" may not reflect current understanding of the problems we examine. However, given that our ability to tackle resistance issues relies upon accurate understandings of what causes and exacerbates resistance, use of the word "evolve" when called for may help us confront these issues in the future.

  5. Toxicity of indoxacarb and spinosad to the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), via three routes of exposure.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Tederson L; Koch, Robert L; Hutchison, William D

    2006-09-01

    The use of selective insecticides may improve conservation of natural enemies and therefore contribute to the success of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. In this study, the toxicity of two commonly used selective insecticides, indoxacarb and spinosad, to the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), was evaluated. Third instars and adults of H. axyridis were exposed to indoxacarb at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), to spinosad at 100% FR and to water (untreated check) under laboratory conditions via three routes of exposure. Treatments were applied directly on insects (i.e., topical application), on Petri dishes (i.e., residues), or on soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumara (i.e., treated prey). Mortality of exposed individuals in each life stage was recorded 2 and 7 days after treatment. Logistic regression indicated that indoxacarb at 100% FR, followed by indoxacarb at 50% FR, was more insecticidal than spinosad to third instars. Mortality was higher when H. axyridis were exposed to both insecticides via residues followed by treated prey. Indoxacarb at 100 or 50% FR was insecticidal to adults. Adults were tolerant to spinosad via all routes of exposure. The present results suggest that indoxacarb may decrease H. axyridis field populations by causing mortality to larvae and adults via all routes of exposure. Implications of the toxicity of indoxacarb to H. axyridis within an IPM context and possible reasons for the differences in susceptibility of H. axyridis for each route of exposure are discussed. Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Monitoring of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J Z; Collins, H L; Li, Y X; Mau, R F L; Thompson, G D; Hertlein, M; Andaloro, J T; Boykin, R; Shelton, A M

    2006-02-01

    Six to nine populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were collected annually from fields of crucifer vegetables in the United States and Mexico from 2001 to 2004 for baseline susceptibility tests and resistance monitoring to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate. A discriminating concentration for resistance monitoring to indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was determined based on baseline data in 2001 and was used in the diagnostic assay for each population in 2002-2004 together with a discriminating concentration for spinosad determined previously. Most populations were susceptible to all three insecticides, but a population from Hawaii in 2003 showed high levels of resistance to indoxacarb. Instances of resistance to spinosad occurred in Hawaii (2000), Georgia (2001), and California (2002) as a consequence of a few years of extensive applications in each region. The collaborative monitoring program between university and industry scientists we discuss in this article has provided useful information to both parties as well as growers who use the products. These studies provide a baseline for developing a more effective resistance management program for diamondback moth.

  7. Toxicological assessment of spinosad: Implications for integrated control of Aedes aegypti using larvicides and larvivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Caixeta, Evelyn Siqueira; Freitas, Priscila Costa; Santos, Vanessa Santana Vieira; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Campos, Carlos Fernando; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Rodrigues, Tamiris Sabrina; Morelli, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Integration of larvivorous fish and biolarvicides at low concentrations to control of mosquito larvae in field situations may result in a safer and more effective tool. However, the usefulness of integrated approach depends upon survival and ecological fitness of fish employed. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the genotoxic effects of combining different sublethal concentrations of spinosad, a naturally occurring neurotoxic insecticide, with male adult poecilid larvivorous guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus) fish on Aedes larvae mosquitos. Both fish species have been used for biological control of Aedes larvae in Brazil. Sublethal spinosad exposures were predetermined based on CL50-96hr. Nuclear abnormalities (NA) and micronucleus (MN) frequency in gill cells were measured after 14 d of exposure. Behavioral changes were monitored over 96 h. Although genotoxic effects were not markedly different from control, behavioral changes evaluated based upon the no-observable-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC). Adverse effects were noted at concentrations of 12.6 mg/L (NOEC) and 25.3 mg/L (LOEC) spinosad. Therefore, these insecticide concentrations may be considered as being safe to these fish species and have important implications for integrated approach to control Aedes larvae using natural larvicides and larvivorous fish.

  8. Spinosad for the treatment of head lice infestations.

    PubMed

    Villegas, S C

    2012-09-01

    Head lice infestations continue to be an issue in today's society, with an increase in economic cost and resistance. Spinosad 0.9% topical suspension was recently introduced in the U.S. market as a novel agent with both pediculicidal and ovicidal activity, approved in children 4 years of age and older for the treatment of head lice infestations. In clinical trials, it has demonstrated effectiveness against head lice with permethrin resistance. In two clinical trials comparing spinosad to permethrin, efficacy was observed in the spinosad-treated groups at 84.6% and 86.7%, respectively, when compared to the permethrin-treated groups (respective values of 44.9% and 42.9%; P < 0.001). Overall, spinosad was well tolerated in clinical trials.

  9. Dissipation kinetics and effect of different decontamination techniques on the residues of emamectin benzoate and spinosad in cowpea pods.

    PubMed

    Vijayasree, V; Bai, Hebsy; Mathew, Thomas Biju; George, Thomas; Xavier, George; Kumar, N Pratheesh; Visalkumar, S

    2014-07-01

    Dissipation and decontamination of the semisynthetic macrolide emamectin benzoate and the natural insecticide spinosad on cowpea pods were studied following field application at single and double doses of 11.0 and 22 and 73 and 146 g ai ha(-1), respectively. Residues of these naturalytes were estimated using LC-MS/MS. The initial deposit of 0.073 and 0.153 mg kg(-1) of emamectin benzoate dissipated below quantitation level on the fifth and seventh day at single and double dosage, respectively. For spinosad, the initial deposits of 0.94 and 1.90 mg kg(-1) reached below quantitation level on the 7th day and 15th day at single and double dosage, respectively. The half-life of emamectin benzoate and spinosad was 1.13-1.49 and 1.05-1.39 days with the calculated safe waiting period of 2.99-6.12 and 1.09-3.25 days, respectively, for single and double dosage. Processing of the harvestable pods with different decontamination techniques resulted in 33.82 to 100 % removal 2 h after the application of emamectin benzoate and 100 % removal 3 days after spraying, while the removal was 42.05 to 87.46 % 2 h after the application of spinosad and 38.05 to 68.08 % 3 days after application.

  10. First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Agrochemicals have been widely used in Pakistan for several years. This exposes mosquito populations, particularly those present around agricultural settings, to an intense selection pressure for insecticide resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of representative agrochemicals against various populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) collected from three different regions from 2008-2010. Results For organophosphates and pyrethroids, the resistance ratios compared with susceptible Lab-PK were in the range of 157-266 fold for chlorpyrifos, 24-52 fold for profenofos, 41-71 fold for triazofos, and 15-26 fold for cypermethrin, 15-53 fold for deltamethrin and 21-58 fold for lambdacyhalothrin. The resistance ratios for carbamates and new insecticides were in the range of 13-22 fold for methomyl, 24-30 fold for thiodicarb, and 41-101 fold for indoxacarb, 14-27 fold for emamectin benzoate and 23-50 fold for spinosad. Pair wise comparisons of the log LC50s of insecticides revealed correlation among several insecticides, suggesting a possible cross resistance mechanism. Moreover, resistance remained stable across 3 years, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place for various populations of Ae. albopictus. Conclusion Moderate to high level of resistance to agrochemicals in Pakistani field populations of Ae. albopictus is reported here first time. The geographic extent of resistance is unknown but, if widespread, may lead to problems in future vector control. PMID:21781290

  11. Efficacy and non-target impact of spinosad, Bti and temephos larvicides for control of Anopheles spp. in an endemic malaria region of southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The larvicidal efficacy of the naturally derived insecticide spinosad, for control of immature stages of Anopheles albimanus and associated culicids, was compared to that of synthetic and biological larvicides. Effects on non-target insects were also determined. Methods A field trial was performed in replicated temporary pools during the rainy season, in southern Mexico. Pools were treated with 10 ppm a.i. spinosad (Tracer 480SC), Bti granules applied at 2 kg/ha (VectoBac WDG, ABG-6511), and 100 ml/ha temephos (50 EC), or an untreated control. Numbers of immature mosquitoes, and aquatic insects in pools were monitored for 20 weeks. Results Samples of immature mosquitoes comprised approximately 10% An. albimanus, 70% Culex spp. (mostly Cx. melanoconion and Cx. coronator) and 20% Uranotaenia lowii. The most effective larvicides were spinosad and temephos that eliminated An. albimanus in 16 out of 20 post-treatment samples, or 9 weeks of continuous control of immature stages, respectively. These larvicides resulted in 15 and 5 weeks of elimination of Culex spp., respectively, or 20 and 4 weeks of continuous elimination of U. lowii, respectively. Bti treatment provided little consistent control. Aquatic insects were recorded comprising 3 orders, 20 families, 40 genera and 44 species. Shannon diversity index values (H’) for aquatic insects were highest in the control (0.997) and Bti (0.974) treatments, intermediate in the spinosad treatment (0.638) and lowest in the temephos treatment (0.520). Severely affected non-target insects in the spinosad and temephos treated pools were predatory Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata, which in the case of spinosad was likely due to the high concentration applied. Bti had little effect on aquatic insects. Conclusions The spinosad treatment retained larvicidal activity for markedly longer than expected. Spinosad is likely to be an effective tool for control of anopheline and other pool-breeding mosquitoes in tropical

  12. MOVES - I. The evolving magnetic field of the planet-hosting star HD189733

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, R.; Bourrier, V.; Vidotto, A. A.; Moutou, C.; Jardine, M. M.; Zarka, P.; Helling, Ch.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Llama, J.; Louden, T.; Wheatley, P. J.; Ehrenreich, D.

    2017-10-01

    HD189733 is an active K dwarf that is, with its transiting hot Jupiter, among the most studied exoplanetary systems. In this first paper of the Multiwavelength Observations of an eVaporating Exoplanet and its Star (MOVES) programme, we present a 2-yr monitoring of the large-scale magnetic field of HD189733. The magnetic maps are reconstructed for five epochs of observations, namely 2013 June-July, 2013 August, 2013 September, 2014 September and 2015 July, using Zeeman-Doppler imaging. We show that the field evolves along the five epochs, with mean values of the total magnetic field of 36, 41, 42, 32 and 37 G, respectively. All epochs show a toroidally dominated field. Using previously published data of Moutou et al. and Fares et al., we are able to study the evolution of the magnetic field over 9 yr, one of the longest monitoring campaigns for a given star. While the field evolved during the observed epochs, no polarity switch of the poles was observed. We calculate the stellar magnetic field value at the position of the planet using the potential field source surface extrapolation technique. We show that the planetary magnetic environment is not homogeneous over the orbit, and that it varies between observing epochs, due to the evolution of the stellar magnetic field. This result underlines the importance of contemporaneous multiwavelength observations to characterize exoplanetary systems. Our reconstructed maps are a crucial input for the interpretation and modelling of our MOVES multiwavelength observations.

  13. Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: definition, theory, and data.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Van Rensburg, J B J; Carrière, Yves

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect pest control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we review the definition of field-evolved resistance, the relationship between resistance and field control problems, the theory underlying strategies for delaying resistance, and resistance monitoring methods. We also analyze resistance monitoring data from five continents reported in 41 studies that evaluate responses of field populations of 11 lepidopteran pests to four Bt toxins produced by Bt corn and cotton. After more than a decade since initial commercialization of Bt crops, most target pest populations remain susceptible, whereas field-evolved resistance has been documented in some populations of three noctuid moth species: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) to Cry1F in Bt corn in Puerto Rico, Busseola fusca (Fuller) to CrylAb in Bt corn in South Africa, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) to CrylAc and Cry2Ab in Bt cotton in the southeastern United States. Field outcomes are consistent with predictions from theory, suggesting that factors delaying resistance include recessive inheritance of resistance, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants, and two-toxin Bt crops deployed separately from one-toxin Bt crops. The insights gained from systematic analyses of resistance monitoring data may help to enhance the durability of transgenic insecticidal crops. We recommend continued use of the longstanding definition of resistance cited here and encourage discussions about which regulatory actions, if any, should be triggered by specific data on the magnitude, distribution, and impact of field-evolved resistance.

  14. Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm: predictions from the laboratory and effects in the field.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Aaron J

    2012-07-01

    Crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide an effective management tool for many key insect pests. However, pest species have repeatedly demonstrated their ability to adapt to management practices. Results from laboratory selection experiments illustrate the capacity of pest species to evolve Bt resistance. Furthermore, resistance has been documented to Bt sprays in the field and greenhouse, and more recently, by some pests to Bt crops in the field. In 2009, fields were discovered in Iowa (USA) with populations of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, that had evolved resistance to maize that produces the Bt toxin Cry3Bb1. Fields with resistant insects in 2009 had been planted to Cry3Bb1 maize for at least three consecutive years and as many as 6years. Computer simulation models predicted that the western corn rootworm might evolve resistance to Bt maize in as few as 3years. Laboratory and field data for interactions between western corn rootworm and Bt maize indicate that currently commercialized products are not high-dose events, which increases the risk of resistance evolution because non-recessive resistance traits may enhance survival on Bt maize. Furthermore, genetic analysis of laboratory strains of western corn rootworm has found non-recessive inheritance of resistance. Field studies conducted in two fields identified as harboring Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm found that survival of western corn rootworm did not differ between Cry3Bb1 maize and non-Bt maize and that root injury to Cry3Bb1 maize was higher than injury to other types of Bt maize or to maize roots protected with a soil insecticide. These first cases of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm provide an early warning and point to the need to apply better integrated pest management practices when using Bt maize to manage western corn rootworm.

  15. Diverse genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in cotton bollworm from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haonan; Tian, Wen; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Jun; Liu, Chunhui; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Wu, Kongming; Cui, Jinjie; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Yidong

    2012-01-01

    Evolution of pest resistance reduces the efficacy of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used in sprays or in transgenic crops. Although several pests have evolved resistance to Bt crops in the field, information about the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops has been limited. In particular, laboratory-selected resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac based on recessive mutations in a gene encoding a toxin-binding cadherin protein has been identified in three major cotton pests, but previous work has not determined if such mutations are associated with field-selected resistance to Bt cotton. Here we show that the most common resistance alleles in field populations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, selected with Bt cotton in northern China, had recessive cadherin mutations, including the deletion mutation identified via laboratory selection. However, unlike all previously studied cadherin resistance alleles, one field-selected cadherin resistance allele conferred nonrecessive resistance. We also detected nonrecessive resistance that was not genetically linked with the cadherin locus. In field-selected populations, recessive cadherin alleles accounted for 75–84% of resistance alleles detected. However, most resistance alleles occurred in heterozygotes and 59–94% of resistant individuals carried at least one nonrecessive resistance allele. The results suggest that resistance management strategies must account for diverse resistance alleles in field-selected populations, including nonrecessive alleles. PMID:22689968

  16. Diverse genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in cotton bollworm from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haonan; Tian, Wen; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Jun; Liu, Chunhui; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Wu, Kongming; Cui, Jinjie; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Yidong

    2012-06-26

    Evolution of pest resistance reduces the efficacy of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used in sprays or in transgenic crops. Although several pests have evolved resistance to Bt crops in the field, information about the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops has been limited. In particular, laboratory-selected resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac based on recessive mutations in a gene encoding a toxin-binding cadherin protein has been identified in three major cotton pests, but previous work has not determined if such mutations are associated with field-selected resistance to Bt cotton. Here we show that the most common resistance alleles in field populations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, selected with Bt cotton in northern China, had recessive cadherin mutations, including the deletion mutation identified via laboratory selection. However, unlike all previously studied cadherin resistance alleles, one field-selected cadherin resistance allele conferred nonrecessive resistance. We also detected nonrecessive resistance that was not genetically linked with the cadherin locus. In field-selected populations, recessive cadherin alleles accounted for 75-84% of resistance alleles detected. However, most resistance alleles occurred in heterozygotes and 59-94% of resistant individuals carried at least one nonrecessive resistance allele. The results suggest that resistance management strategies must account for diverse resistance alleles in field-selected populations, including nonrecessive alleles.

  17. Transport equations for low-energy solar particles in evolving interplanetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Two new forms of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation are derived for the transport of low-energy solar energetic particles in an evolving interplanetary magnetic field, carried by a variable radial solar wind. An idealized solution suggests that the 'invariant' anisotropy direction reported by Allum et al. (1974) may be explained within the conventional theoretical framework. The equations may be used to relate studies of solar particle propagation to solar wind transients, and vice versa.

  18. Transport equations for low-energy solar particles in evolving interplanetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Two new forms of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation are derived for the transport of low-energy solar energetic particles in an evolving interplanetary magnetic field, carried by a variable radial solar wind. An idealized solution suggests that the 'invariant' anisotropy direction reported by Allum et al. (1974) may be explained within the conventional theoretical framework. The equations may be used to relate studies of solar particle propagation to solar wind transients, and vice versa.

  19. Time-dependent Suppression of Oscillatory Power in Evolving Solar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Prasad, S.; Jess, D. B.; Jain, R.; Keys, P. H.

    2016-05-01

    Oscillation amplitudes are generally smaller within magnetically active regions like sunspots and plage when compared to their surroundings. Such magnetic features, when viewed in spatially resolved power maps, appear as regions of suppressed power due to reductions in the oscillation amplitudes. Employing high spatial- and temporal-resolution observations from the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) in New Mexico, we study the power suppression in a region of evolving magnetic fields adjacent to a pore. By utilizing wavelet analysis, we study for the first time how the oscillatory properties in this region change as the magnetic field evolves with time. Image sequences taken in the blue continuum, G-band, Ca ii K, and Hα filters were used in this study. It is observed that the suppression found in the chromosphere occupies a relatively larger area, confirming previous findings. Also, the suppression is extended to structures directly connected to the magnetic region, and is found to get enhanced as the magnetic field strength increased with time. The dependence of the suppression on the magnetic field strength is greater at longer periods and higher formation heights. Furthermore, the dominant periodicity in the chromosphere was found to be anti-correlated with increases in the magnetic field strength.

  20. Fitness costs associated with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-02-01

    Increasing adoption of transgenic crops expressing cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) represents an augmented risk for development of insect resistance. While fitness costs can greatly influence the rate of resistance evolution, most available data related to Bt resistance have been obtained from laboratory-selected insect strains. In this article, we test the existence of fitness costs associated with high levels of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize event TC1507 in a strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) originated from maize fields in Puerto Rico. Fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda were evaluated by comparing biological performance to susceptible insects when reared on meridic diet, maize or soybean leaf tissue, or cotton reproductive tissues. Parameters monitored included larval survival, larval and pupal weights, developmental time (larval and pupal), adult longevity, reproductive traits (fecundity and fertility), and sex ratio. We found that all monitored parameters were influenced to a similar extent by the host, independently of susceptibility to Bt maize. The only parameter that significantly differed between strains for all hosts was a longer larval developmental period in resistant S. frugiperda, which resulted in emergence asynchrony between susceptible and resistant adults. To test the relevance of fitness costs in resistant S. frugiperda, we performed a selection experiment to monitor the stability of resistance in a heterogeneous strain through 12 generations of rearing on meridic diet. Our data demonstrate lack of fitness costs relevant to stability of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize and help explain reported stability of field-evolved resistance in Puerto Rican populations of S. frugiperda.

  1. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and spinosad on adult emergence of the non-biting midges Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Lagadic, Laurent; Lagneau, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    To optimize their efficacy, some insecticides used for mosquito control are introduced into aquatic ecosystems where mosquito larvae develop (marshes, ponds, sanitation devices) and cannot escape from the treated water. However, this raises the question of possible effects of mosquito larvicides on non-target aquatic species. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), which is well-known for its selectivity for Nematocera dipterans, is widely used for mosquito control all over the world. Spinosad, a mixture of spinosyns A and D known as fermentation products of a soil actinomycete (Saccharopolyspora spinosa), is a biological neurotoxic insecticide with a broader action spectrum. It is a candidate larvicide for mosquito control, but some studies showed that it may be toxic to beneficial or non-target species, including non-biting midges. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the impact of Bti and spinosad on natural populations of Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in field enclosures implemented in Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Unlike Bti, spinosad had a strong lethal effect on P. nubifer and seems to affect T. curticornis at presumed recommended rates for field application. Differences in the sensitivity of these two species to spinosad confirm that population dynamics need to be known for a proper assessment of the risk encountered by chironomids in wetlands where larvicide-based mosquito control occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of the bioinsecticide Spinosad for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Romi, R; Proietti, S; Di Luca, M; Cristofaro, M

    2006-03-01

    Spinosad, a naturally occurring product of the fermentation of the bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa, is a highly effective bioinsecticide against a broad range of agriculturally important insect pests, and this agent has an excellent environmental and mammalian toxicological profile. In this study the efficacy of a Spinosad-based product (Laser 4.8% emulsifiable concentrate) was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against laboratory-reared mosquito strains of 3 species of medical importance: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens. Spinosad was particularly effective against larval Aedes and Culex, with a less marked activity against anophelines (24-h median lethal concentration = 0.0096, 0.0064, and 0.039 mg/liter, respectively), showing a persistence of the insecticide action of about 6 wk in laboratory containers. The activity of the Spinosad-based product against adult mosquitoes (toxicity by ingestion and a possible irritant or repellent effect on gravid females) also was evaluated. Results are discussed and compared with those available in the literature.

  3. Magnetic field in IRC+10216 and other C-rich evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthu, A.; Herpin, F.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Baudry, A.; Lèbre, A.; Paubert, G.

    2017-07-01

    Context. During the transition from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to planetary nebulae (PN), the circumstellar geometry and morphology change dramatically. Another characteristic of this transition is the high mass-loss rate, that can be partially explained by radiation pressure and a combination of various factors, such as the stellar pulsation, the dust grain condensation, and opacity in the upper atmosphere. The magnetic field can also be one of the main ingredients that shapes the stellar upper atmosphere and envelope. Aims: Our main goal is to investigate for the first time the spatial distribution of the magnetic field in the envelope of IRC+10216. More generally we intend to determine the magnetic field strength in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of C-rich evolved stars, compare this field with previous studies for O-rich stars, and constrain the variation of the magnetic field with r the distance to the star's centre. Methods: We use spectropolarimetric observations of the Stokes V parameter, collected with Xpol on the IRAM-30 m radiotelescope, observing the Zeeman effect in seven hyperfine components of the CN J = 1-0 line. We use the Crutcher et al. (1996, ApJ, 456, 217) method to estimate the magnetic field. For the first time, the instrumental contamination is investigated, through dedicated studies of the power patterns in Stokes V and I in detail. Results: For C-rich evolved stars, we derive a magnetic field strength (B) between 1.6 and 14.2 mG while B is estimated to be 6 mG for the proto-PN (PPN) AFGL618, and an upper value of 8 mG is found for the PN NGC 7027. These results are consistent with a decrease of B as 1/r in the environment of AGB objects, that is, with the presence of a toroidal field. But this is not the case for PPN and PN stars. Our map of IRC+10216 suggests that the magnetic field is not homogeneously strong throughout or aligned with the envelope and that the morphology of the CN emission might have changed with time.

  4. Permethrin-resistant head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae) in Argentina are susceptible to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Mougabure Cueto, G; Zerba, E N; Picollo, M I

    2006-05-01

    The insecticidal activity of spinosad was evaluated against susceptible and permethrin-resistant human lice. In a permethrin-susceptible strain of the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Anoplura: Pediculidae), the toxicity of spinosad was similar to that established for permethrin, with an LD50 value of 1.2 ng/insect and 2.4 ng/insect, respectively. Topical application of spinosad to populations of permethrin-resistant head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), showed that susceptibility to spinosad was independent of resistance to permethrin. The effectiveness of spinosad against human lice and the low mammalian toxicity reported in the literature suggest that spinosad could be useful for the management of permethrin-resistant human lice.

  5. Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time

    DOE PAGES

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Guo, Hanqi; Peterka, Tom; ...

    2016-02-19

    In type-II superconductors, the dynamics of magnetic flux vortices determine their transport properties. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, vortices correspond to topological defects in the complex order parameter field. Earlier, we introduced a method for extracting vortices from the discretized complex order parameter field generated by a large-scale simulation of vortex matter. With this method, at a fixed time step, each vortex [simplistically, a one-dimensional (1D) curve in 3D space] can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field. Here we extend this method as a function of time as well. A vortex now corresponds to a 2Dmore » space-time sheet embedded in 4D space time that can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field over both space and time. Vortices that interact by merging or splitting correspond to disappearance and appearance of holes in the connected graph in the time direction. This method of tracking vortices, which makes no assumptions about the scale or behavior of the vortices, can track the vortices with a resolution as good as the discretization of the temporally evolving complex scalar field. In addition, even details of the trajectory between time steps can be reconstructed from the connected graph. With this form of vortex tracking, the details of vortex dynamics in a model of a superconducting materials can be understood in greater detail than previously possible.« less

  6. Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Guo, Hanqi; Peterka, Tom; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Glatz, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    In type-II superconductors, the dynamics of magnetic flux vortices determine their transport properties. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, vortices correspond to topological defects in the complex order parameter field. Earlier, in Phillips et al. [Phys. Rev. E 91, 023311 (2015)], we introduced a method for extracting vortices from the discretized complex order parameter field generated by a large-scale simulation of vortex matter. With this method, at a fixed time step, each vortex [simplistically, a one-dimensional (1D) curve in 3D space] can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field. Here we extend this method as a function of time as well. A vortex now corresponds to a 2D space-time sheet embedded in 4D space time that can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field over both space and time. Vortices that interact by merging or splitting correspond to disappearance and appearance of holes in the connected graph in the time direction. This method of tracking vortices, which makes no assumptions about the scale or behavior of the vortices, can track the vortices with a resolution as good as the discretization of the temporally evolving complex scalar field. Additionally, even details of the trajectory between time steps can be reconstructed from the connected graph. With this form of vortex tracking, the details of vortex dynamics in a model of a superconducting materials can be understood in greater detail than previously possible.

  7. Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Guo, Hanqi; Peterka, Tom; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Glatz, Andreas

    2016-02-19

    In type-II superconductors, the dynamics of magnetic flux vortices determine their transport properties. In the Ginzburg-Landau theory, vortices correspond to topological defects in the complex order parameter field. Earlier, we introduced a method for extracting vortices from the discretized complex order parameter field generated by a large-scale simulation of vortex matter. With this method, at a fixed time step, each vortex [simplistically, a one-dimensional (1D) curve in 3D space] can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field. Here we extend this method as a function of time as well. A vortex now corresponds to a 2D space-time sheet embedded in 4D space time that can be represented as a connected graph extracted from the discretized field over both space and time. Vortices that interact by merging or splitting correspond to disappearance and appearance of holes in the connected graph in the time direction. This method of tracking vortices, which makes no assumptions about the scale or behavior of the vortices, can track the vortices with a resolution as good as the discretization of the temporally evolving complex scalar field. In addition, even details of the trajectory between time steps can be reconstructed from the connected graph. With this form of vortex tracking, the details of vortex dynamics in a model of a superconducting materials can be understood in greater detail than previously possible.

  8. Magnetic fields around evolved stars: further observations of H2O maser polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ferreira, M. L.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.

    2013-06-01

    strength on the surface of the star is found to be between 15.8 and ~1945 G. The magnetic energy of our sources is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy in the H2O maser region of this class of objects. This leads us to conclude that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping the outflows of evolved stars. Table 7 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Thiamethoxam acts as a target-site synergist of spinosad in resistant strains of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Juan; Bielza, Pablo

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the resistance mechanism towards spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an altered target site. Like the neonicotinoids, the spinosyns act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in insects, but at a distinct site. The changes in nAChRs related to spinosad resistance in thrips might involve interaction with neonicotinoids. In this study, the efficacy of spinosad and neonicotinoids, alone and in combination, was evaluated in susceptible and spinosad-resistant thrips strains. The neonicotinoids tested were imidacloprid, thiacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin. No cross-resistance was shown between spinosad and any of the neonicotinoids. However, an increased toxicity was observed when a mixture of spinosad with thiamethoxam or clothianidin was tested. No synergism was found in the susceptible strains. The more spinosad-resistant the thrips strain, the stronger was the synergism. Data suggest that spinosad and thiamethoxam may interact at the nAChRs in spinosad-resistant thrips, facilitating enhanced insecticidal action. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  11. High Level of Spinosad Production in the Heterologous Host Saccharopolyspora erythraea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Zhen; Li, Mei-Hong; Wang, Ji-Dong; Bai, Hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinosad, a highly effective insecticide, has an excellent environmental and mammalian toxicological profile. Global market demand for spinosad is huge and growing. However, after much effort, there has been almost no improvement in the spinosad yield from the original producer, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Here, we report the heterologous expression of spinosad using Saccharopolyspora erythraea as a host. The native erythromycin polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in S. erythraea were replaced by the assembled spinosad gene cluster through iterative recombination. The production of spinosad could be detected in the recombinant strains containing the whole biosynthesis gene cluster. Both metabolic engineering and UV mutagenesis were applied to further improve the yield of spinosad. The final strain, AT-ES04PS-3007, which could produce spinosad with a titer of 830 mg/liter, has significant potential in industrial applications. IMPORTANCE This work provides an innovative and promising way to improve the industrial production of spinosad. At the same time, it also describes a successful method of heterologous expression for target metabolites of interest by replacing large gene clusters. PMID:27401975

  12. Impact of spray application methodology on the development of resistance to cypermethrin and spinosad by fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith).

    PubMed

    Al-Sarar, Ali; Hall, Franklin R; Downer, Roger A

    2006-11-01

    The development of resistance to an insecticide under various types of application method has yet to be reported in the literature. Five fall armyworm Spodoptera armigera (JE Smith) colonies were reared in a chamber for ten generations before starting topical application bioassays. From each colony, 200-500 third-fourth-instar larvae were fed for 72 h on corn plants sprayed with cypermethrin or spinosad at minimum application rate (20 g ha(-1)) using a small droplet size nozzle XR8001VS (volume median diameter D(v0.5) = 163 microm) or a large droplet size nozzle XR8008VS (D(v0.5) = 519 microm). Surviving larvae were transferred to untreated corn leaves to complete their life cycle. Next-generation third-instar larvae of each colony were topically dosed with technical cypermethrin or spinosad at 1 microL per larva, and mortality was recorded 24 h post-treatment. The results indicated that cypermethrin demonstrated an insecticidal activity greater than that of spinosad, and the cypermethrin regression lines moved to the right faster than those for spinosad, indicating an increased tolerance of cypermethrin. Generally, larvae from all generations (F1-F7) under the XR8008VS treatments were less susceptible to cypermethrin and developed resistance faster and to higher levels than larvae from the XR8001VS treatments. The confidence limits (95%) of LD(50) for all spinosad treatments indicated that there was no significant difference from the LD(50) value of the susceptible reference strain. The results are a first indication that application technology/insecticide reaction may affect the rapidity of resistance development in certain pest/plant scenarios, but field studies are needed to confirm this conclusion. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Field-evolved resistance by western corn rootworm to multiple Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in transgenic maize.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Aaron J; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Clifton, Eric H; Dunbar, Mike W; Hoffmann, Amanda M; Ingber, David A; Keweshan, Ryan S

    2014-04-08

    The widespread planting of crops genetically engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) places intense selective pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Western corn rootworm is a key pest of maize, and in continuous maize fields it is often managed through planting of Bt maize. During 2009 and 2010, fields were identified in Iowa in which western corn rootworm imposed severe injury to maize producing Bt toxin Cry3Bb1. Subsequent bioassays revealed Cry3Bb1 resistance in these populations. Here, we report that, during 2011, injury to Bt maize in the field expanded to include mCry3A maize in addition to Cry3Bb1 maize and that laboratory analysis of western corn rootworm from these fields found resistance to Cry3Bb1 and mCry3A and cross-resistance between these toxins. Resistance to Bt maize has persisted in Iowa, with both the number of Bt fields identified with severe root injury and the ability western corn rootworm populations to survive on Cry3Bb1 maize increasing between 2009 and 2011. Additionally, Bt maize targeting western corn rootworm does not produce a high dose of Bt toxin, and the magnitude of resistance associated with feeding injury was less than that seen in a high-dose Bt crop. These first cases of resistance by western corn rootworm highlight the vulnerability of Bt maize to further evolution of resistance from this pest and, more broadly, point to the potential of insects to develop resistance rapidly when Bt crops do not achieve a high dose of Bt toxin.

  14. Safety and efficacy of spinosad chewable tablets for treatment of flea infestations of cats.

    PubMed

    Paarlberg, Tandy E; Wiseman, Scott; Trout, Candace M; Kee, Elizabeth A; Snyder, Daniel E

    2013-04-15

    To compare safety and efficacy of spinosad and selamectin and determine effects of those products on flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) in cats. Randomized clinical trial. Animals-211 client-owned cats. Cats with ≥ 5 fleas evaluated at 8 veterinary clinics were allocated to receive spinosad (50 to 100 mg/kg [22.7 to 45.5 mg/lb], PO; n = 139) or selamectin (≥ 6 mg/kg [≥ 2.7 mg/lb], topically; 72) once per month. Flea comb counts and FAD scores were determined on day -1, between days 27 and 33, and between days 85 and 95 (evaluations 1, 2, and 3, respectively); day 0 was the first day of drug administration. The most common adverse event was vomiting (14.3% and 2.4% of spinosad- and selamectin-treated cats, respectively). Evaluation 2 and 3 geometric mean flea counts for spinosad-treated cats were significantly lower than those for selamectin-treated cats. Percentage reductions in flea counts for the spinosad and selamectin groups were 97.5% and 88.8% (evaluation 2) and 99.3% and 97.7% (evaluation 3), respectively. At evaluations 2 and 3, 70.6% and 92.6% of spinosad-treated cats and 29.4% and 64.7% of selamectin-treated cats were free of fleas, respectively. Weighted FAD scores for spinosad- and selamectin-treated cats decreased 94.2% and 80.0% during the study, respectively. Spinosad tablets were successfully administered during 98.1% of treatments. Results of this study indicated spinosad and selamectin both reduced flea counts and FAD scores for cats, although spinosad was more effective. Monthly oral administration of spinosad may be practical for treatment of flea infestations and FAD in cats.

  15. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn

    PubMed Central

    Dively, Galen P.; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    sweet corn provide strong evidence of field-evolved resistance in H. zea populations to multiple Cry toxins. The high adoption rate of Bt field corn and cotton, along with the moderate dose expression of Cry1Ab and related Cry toxins in these crops, and decreasing refuge compliance probably contributed to the evolution of resistance. Our results have important implications for resistance monitoring, refuge requirements and other regulatory policies, cross-resistance issues, and the sustainability of the pyramided Bt technology. PMID:28036388

  16. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996-2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010-2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab-event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2-event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt sweet corn provide strong evidence of field-evolved resistance in H

  17. 76 FR 12563 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Spinosad and Milbemycin Oxime

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... prescription use of chewable tablets containing spinosad and milbemycin oxime in dogs for the treatment and... veterinary prescription use of TRIFEXIS (spinosad and milbemycin oxime) Chewable Tablets in dogs for the... Sec. 510.600 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs--(1) Amount. Administer once a month at a...

  18. Conceptualization and measurement of health-related quality of life: comments on an evolving field.

    PubMed

    Ware, John E

    2003-04-01

    This article summarizes personal views on the rapidly evolving field of functional health assessment and comments on their implications for advances in assessment methods used in rehabilitation medicine. Topics of strategic importance included (1). a new formulation of the structure of health status designed to distinguish role participation from the physical and mental components of health for purposes of international studies; (2). applications of item response theory that offer advantages in constructing better functional health measures and cross-calibrating their underlying metrics; (3). computerized dynamic assessment technology, well proven in education and psychology, which may lead to more practical assessments and more precise score estimates across a wide range of functional health levels; and (4). intellectual property issues involved in standardizing and promoting readily available assessment tools, ensuring their scientific validity, and achieving the best possible partnership between the scientific community and those developing commercial applications. Promising results from preliminary attempts to standardize and improve the metrics of functional health assessment constitute grounds for optimism regarding their potential usefulness in rehabilitation medicine. Someday, all tools used to measure each functional health concept, including the best single-item measure and the most precise computerized dynamic health assessment, will be scored on the same metric and their results will be directly comparable. To achieve this goal in rehabilitation medicine, we have much work to do.

  19. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm

    PubMed Central

    Dively, Galen P.

    2017-01-01

    Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop–pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996–2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage to corn ears, kernel area consumed, mean instars and proportion of late instars in Bt varieties increased with Bt adoption and temperature anomaly, through additive or interactive effects. Risk of Bt-resistant H. zea spreading is high given extensive Bt adoption, and the expected increase in overwintering and migration. Our study highlights the challenges posed by climate change for Bt biotechnology-based agricultural pest management, and the need to incorporate evolutionary processes affected by climate change into Bt-resistance management programmes. PMID:28680673

  20. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Dively, Galen P

    2017-06-01

    Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop-pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996-2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage to corn ears, kernel area consumed, mean instars and proportion of late instars in Bt varieties increased with Bt adoption and temperature anomaly, through additive or interactive effects. Risk of Bt-resistant H. zea spreading is high given extensive Bt adoption, and the expected increase in overwintering and migration. Our study highlights the challenges posed by climate change for Bt biotechnology-based agricultural pest management, and the need to incorporate evolutionary processes affected by climate change into Bt-resistance management programmes.

  1. Mean-field approach to evolving spatial networks, with an application to osteocyte network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-King, Jake P.; Basanta, David; Chapman, S. Jonathan; Porter, Mason A.

    2017-07-01

    We consider evolving networks in which each node can have various associated properties (a state) in addition to those that arise from network structure. For example, each node can have a spatial location and a velocity, or it can have some more abstract internal property that describes something like a social trait. Edges between nodes are created and destroyed, and new nodes enter the system. We introduce a "local state degree distribution" (LSDD) as the degree distribution at a particular point in state space. We then make a mean-field assumption and thereby derive an integro-partial differential equation that is satisfied by the LSDD. We perform numerical experiments and find good agreement between solutions of the integro-differential equation and the LSDD from stochastic simulations of the full model. To illustrate our theory, we apply it to a simple model for osteocyte network formation within bones, with a view to understanding changes that may take place during cancer. Our results suggest that increased rates of differentiation lead to higher densities of osteocytes, but with a smaller number of dendrites. To help provide biological context, we also include an introduction to osteocytes, the formation of osteocyte networks, and the role of osteocytes in bone metastasis.

  2. Susceptibility of field populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to a selection of insecticides in Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Mao, Kaikai; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a globally distributed and important economic pest. Chemical control is the primary approach to regulate populations of this pest. However, resistance to insecticides evolves following heavy and frequent use. Therefore, the insecticide resistance in field populations of P. xylostella collected from Central China from 2013 to 2014 was determined with a leaf-dipping method. Based on the results of the monitoring, P. xylostella has developed high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio=69.76-335.76-fold), Bt (WG-001) (RR=35.43-167.36), and chlorfluazuron (RR=13.60-104.95) and medium levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR=1.19-14.26), chlorfenapyr (RR=4.22-13.44), spinosad (RR=5.89-21.45), indoxacarb (RR=4.01-34.45), and abamectin (RR=23.88-95.15). By contrast, the field populations of P. xylostella remained susceptible to or developed low levels of resistance to diafenthiuron (RR=1.61-8.05), spinetoram (RR=0.88-2.35), and cyantraniliprole (RR=0.4-2.15). Moreover, the LC50 values of field populations of P. xylostella were highly positively correlated between chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (r=0.88, P=0.045), chlorantraniliprole and spinosad (r=0.66, P=0.039), spinosad and diafenthiuron (r=0.57, P=0.0060), and chlorfenapyr and diafenthiuron (r=0.51, P=0.016). Additionally, the activities of detoxification enzymes in field populations of P. xylostella were significantly positively correlated with the log LC50 values of chlorantraniliprole and spinosad. The results of this study provide an important base for developing effective and successful strategies to manage insecticide resistance in P. xylostella.

  3. Evaluation of sarolaner and spinosad oral treatments to eliminate fleas, reduce dermatologic lesions and minimize pruritus in naturally infested dogs in west Central Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Niedfeldt, Emily; Kinnon, Amanda; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Foley, Kaitlin M; Smith, Vicki; Bress, Todd S; Smith, Nicole; Endrizzi, Mike; Login, Joyce

    2017-08-17

    An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30. Products were administered by study personnel according to label directions. Flea populations on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and flea infestations in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and once between days 28-30, 40-45, and 56-60. Assessments of dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly during the study and severity of pruritus was evaluated throughout the study on the same schedule as flea counts were conducted. Concurrent treatments for existing skin disease were not allowed. The administration of sarolaner or spinosad reduced flea populations on dogs by 99.0% and 97.3%, respectively within 7 days. Flea infestations on the sarolaner- and spinosad-treated dogs were reduced by > 99% at every counting period from day 14 post-treatment through the end of the 8-week study. At the end of the study 96.4 and 92.0% of the dogs treated with sarolaner and spinosad, respectively were flea-free. Flea populations in the indoor premises were also markedly reduced the end of the study, with 100 and 99.8% reductions in flea trap counts in the sarolaner and spinosad treatment groups, respectively. FAD lesion scores, atopic dermatitis lesions scores (CADESI-4) and pruritus severity scores were also markedly improved with both formulations. An in-home clinical field study conducted during the summer of 2016 in subtropical Florida demonstrated that two-monthly administrations of either sarolaner or spinosad chewables almost

  4. Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Jefferson; Castro, Matthieu; Petit, Pascal; do Nascimento, José-Dias, Jr.

    2015-08-01

    It is know that lithium is element easily destroyed in stellar interior, the existence of lithium rich stars means a great challenge in stellar evolution. In this context our observations ravels the serendipitous discovery of an unusually high lithium abundance star. This is a K0III HD 150050, which has strong deepening on lithium line (6707.8 Å) this means lithium abundance of 2.81 0.2 dex, therefore this star belong a rare group called super Li-Rich stars. A possible source of the non-standard episodes required to produce Li-rich stars were identified in magneto-thermohaline mixing accounted by models of extra-mixing induced by magnetic buoyancy. However to better understand this is necessary more observational data. In last three decades several studies has showed that late type red giant stars presents a remarkable modifications in these outer atmosphere layers when they become late type star in HR diagram. These changes are founded through X-ray, Ultraviolet, and Chromospheric activity analyses, and then we can establish the called “Dividing lines”. We made spectropalarimetric observations with ESPaDOnS@CFHT to achieve two main objectives: analyze the influence of magnetic field in the Li-rich giant stars, and understand how works the magnetic field in late type giants and supergiants across the “dividing line”.

  5. Spinosad affects chemical communication in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica (L).

    PubMed

    Habbachi, Wafa; Bensafi, Hanene; Adjami, Yasmine; Ouakid, Mohamed L; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Everaerts, Claude

    2009-12-01

    Spinosad is a biopesticide, derived from fermentation by the soil-dwelling actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, which is used to control a variety of insects. Spinosad kills a wide range of insect pests when ingested or topically applied, by overexciting the nervous system, yet is harmless to mammals and many predatory insects. Other modes of action of this insecticide have not been documented. Here, we report that a non-lethal dose of spinosad causes adult male and female German cockroach, Blattella germanica, to exhibit altered responses to their aggregation pheromone as well as to have a changed cuticular hydrocarbon profile.

  6. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize are susceptible to Bt pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-10-01

    Field-evolved resistance to maize event TC1507 expressing the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was detected in populations of Spodoptera frugiperda from Puerto Rico. We tested for cross-resistance to purified Cry1A toxins and commercial Bt pesticides in susceptible (Benzon) and TC1507-resistant (456) strains of S. frugiperda. Larvae from the 456 strain exhibited cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins, while no differences in susceptibility to XenTari WG and DiPel ES pesticides were detected. These data support cross-resistance to toxins that share binding sites with Cry1Fa and no cross-resistance to Bt pesticides in S. frugiperda with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize.

  7. Phase-field simulations of the interaction between a grain boundary and an evolving second-phase particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kunok; Moelans, Nele

    2015-04-01

    We performed phase-field simulations to analyse the interaction of a migrating grain boundary with an evolving second-phase particle. It is found that depending on the difference between the interfacial energies of the particle-matrix interface for the two grain orientations involved and the driving force for grain boundary movement, particles with a particle size well above the critical limit can dissolve due to passage of the boundary.

  8. Efficacy of Spinosad in Layer-Treated Wheat Against Five Stored-Product Insect Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biological insecticide spinosad was evaluated in laboratory bioassays as a surface treatment in wheat to control adult Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and three psocid species, Liposcelis paeta (Pearman), L. bostrychophila (Badonnel), and Lepinotus reticulatus (Enderlein). Spi...

  9. Spinosad induces autophagy of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells and the activation of AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingjun; Hao, Youwu; Gao, Jufang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Wenping; Tao, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Spinosad, a high-selectivity neural toxin, has been widely used in agricultural production. However, the mode of action of spinosad on insect non-neural cells is not yet clear and hence requires further investigation. Therefore, to reveal the cytotoxic mechanisms of spinosad, we investigated whether and how it can induce autophagic cell death. After treating Sf9 cells with spinosad, the resulting autophagosome was observed by transmission electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine staining. Interestingly, spinosad induced the accumulation of Beclin-1, degradation of p62, and intensification of LC3-B formation and translocation and thus autophagy, whereas, 3-MA treatment reverted the phenotype. Under ATP depletion conditions, spinosad induced autophagy of Sf9 cells and activation of the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

  10. Long-term persistence and efficacy of spinosad against Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in wheat.

    PubMed

    Daglish, Gregory J; Nayak, Manoj K

    2006-02-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to determine the persistence and efficacy of spinosad against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) in wheat stored for 9 months at 30 degrees C and 55 and 70% relative humidity. The aim was to investigate the potential of spinosad for protecting wheat from R. dominica during long-term storage in warm climates. Wheat was treated with spinosad at 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1) grain and sampled after 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 months of storage for bioassays and residue analyses. Residues were estimated to have declined by 30% during 9 months of storage at 30 degrees C and there was no effect of relative humidity. Spinosad applied at 0.5 or 1 mg kg(-1) was completely effective for 9 months, with 100% adult mortality after 14 days of exposure and no live F1 adults produced. Adult mortality was <100% in some samples of wheat treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of spinosad, and live progeny were produced in all samples treated at this level. The results show that spinosad is likely to be an effective grain protectant against R. dominica in wheat stored in warm climates.

  11. Lack of genotoxic potential of pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankita; Kesari, V P

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil are widely used both in residential and agricultural environments because of its broad spectrum insecticidal activity and effectiveness. The present study was undertaken to estimate genotoxicity of formulations of some pesticides in mice. Three pesticides of diverse group studied were spinosad (45% w/v), imidacloprid (17.8%, w/v) and neem oil. Animals were exposed 37, 4.5 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ b.wt. for spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil, respectively, through oral gavage for 5 consecutive days. A vehicle control group and one positive control (cyclophosphamide; 20 mg kg⁻¹ b. wt.) were also selected. The results showed that cyclophosphamide produced 1.12% micronuclei in mice, as against 0.18 in vehicle control, 0.30 in spinosad, 0.28 in imidacloprid and 0.22% in neem oil, respectively. The gross percentage of chromosomal aberration in mice were 28.5% in cyclophosphamide against 6.5% in vehicle control, 8.0% in spinosad, 9.5% in imidacloprid and 7.0% in neem oil, respectively. The overall findings of the present study revealed that all the three pesticide formulations, imidacloprid, spinosad and neem oil at tested dose did not show any genotoxic effect in mice.

  12. The correspondence between small-scale coronal structures and the evolving solar magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.; Moses, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Solar coronal bright points, first identified in soft X-rays as X-ray Bright Points (XBPs), are compact, short-lived and associated with small bipolar magnetic flux. Coordinated data obtained during recent X-ray sounding rocket flights on August 15 and December 11, 1987 are used to determine the correspondence of XBPs with time-series, ground-based observations of evolving bipolar magnetic structures, He-I dark points, and the network. The results are consistent with the view that coronal bright points are more likely to be associated with the annihilation of preexisting flux than with emerging flux.

  13. Global Evolving Models of Photospheric Flux as Driven by Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRosa, Marc L.; Cheung, Mark; Kazachenko, Maria D.; Fisher, George H.

    2017-08-01

    We present a novel method for modeling the global radial magnetic field that is based on the incorporation of time series of photospheric electric fields. The determination of the electric fields is the result of a recently developed method that uses as input various data products from SDO/HMI, namely vector magnetic fields and line-of-sight Doppler images. For locations on the sphere where electric field data are unavailable, we instead use electric fields that are consistent with measurements of the mean differential rotation, meridional flow, and flux dispersal profiles. By combining these electric fields, a full-Sun model of the photospheric radial magnetic field can be advanced forward in time via Faraday's Law.

  14. Spinosad toxicity to Simulium spp. larvae and associated aquatic biota in a coffee-growing region of Veracruz State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Infante-Rodríguez, Dennis A; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Mercado, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    Spinosad is a naturally derived insecticide that has shown potential as a mosquito larvicide. To determine the activity of spinosad against blackflies, late-instar larvae from a community comprising Simulium triittatum (63.6%) and seven other species, including three known vectors of onchocerciasis in Mexico (S. metallicum, S. ochraceum, and S. callidum), were subjected to concentration-mortality laboratory bioassays following World Health Organization guidelines. Cephalic capsule measurements confirmed the relatively homogeneous distribution of experimental larvae. The 50% lethal concentration of spinosad was estimated at 1.48 ppm spinosad (95% confidence interval: 1.07-2.33) for a 10-min exposure period, whereas larvae treated with 0.05 ppm of the organophosphate temephos experienced 61% mortality. Immature aquatic insects were identified to genus and tested for their susceptibility to spinosad in the laboratory. After exposure to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min, ephemeropterans, odonates, trichopterans, and hemipterans did not experience significantly increased mortality over that of untreated controls, whereas a significant increase in mortality was observed in spinosad-treated Plecoptera (P < 0.001). Tilapia and trout fry exposed to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min did not experience increased mortality at 24-h postexposure over that of the controls. We conclude that spinosad is less toxic than temephos to these blackfly species, but is likely to have a low impact on nontarget members of the aquatic community.

  15. The correspondence between small-scale coronal structures and the evolving solar magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.; Moses, J. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Solar coronal bright points, first identified in soft X-rays as X-ray Bright Points (XBPs), are compact, short lived and associated with small bipolar magnetic flux. Contradictory studies have suggested that XBPs are either a primary signature of the emerging flux spectrum of the quiet Sun, or that they are representative of the disappearance of pre-existing flux. Results are presented using coordinated data obtained during recent X-ray sounding rocket flights on 15 August and 11 December 1987 to determine the correspondence of XBPs with time-series, ground based observations of evolving bipolar magnetic structures, He-I dark points, and the network. The results are consistent with the view that coronal bright points are more likely to be associated with the annihilation of pre-existing flux than with emerging flux.

  16. An Evolving Field: Contrasts in Children's Development: An Interview with Nancy Robinson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    The transcript of an interview with Nancy Robinson, an expert on gifted education, children at risk, and violent youth, examines her movement from the field of mental retardation to gifted education, similarities and differences of these two fields, longitudinal studies of young gifted children, her personal development, gifted women, and her…

  17. Early detection of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming; Wu, Yidong

    2012-07-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some major insect pests, but pests can evolve resistance and thereby reduce the effectiveness of such Bt crops. The main approach for slowing pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, several countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. This strategy is designed for cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), which attacks many crops and is the primary target of Bt cotton in China, but it does not apply to pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we review evidence of field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by cotton bollworm in northern China and by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. For both pests, results of laboratory diet bioassays reveal significantly decreased susceptibility of field populations to Cry1Ac, yet field control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported. The early detection of resistance summarized here may spur countermeasures such as planting Bt cotton that produces two or more distinct toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rahul; Hasler, James; Meagher, Robert; Nagoshi, Rodney; Hietala, Lucas; Huang, Fangneng; Narva, Kenneth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2017-09-07

    Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a devastating pest of corn in the Western Hemisphere initially controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein (event TC1507). However field-evolved resistance to TC1507 was observed in Puerto Rico in 2007 and has subsequently been reported in a number of locations in North and South America. Early studies on Puerto Rico fall armyworm populations found that the resistance phenotype was associated with reduced expression of alkaline phosphatase. However, in this work we show that field-evolved resistance to Cry1Fa Bt corn in Puerto Rico is closely linked to a mutation in an ATP Binding Cassette subfamily C2 (ABCC2) gene that functions as a Cry1Fa receptor in susceptible insects. Furthermore, we report a DNA-based genotyping test used to demonstrate the presence of the resistant (SfABCC2mut) allele in Puerto Rico populations in 2007, coincident with the first reports of damage to TC1507 corn. These DNA-based field screening data provide strong evidence that resistance to TC1507 in fall armyworm maps to the SfABCC2 gene and provides a useful molecular marker for detecting the SfABCC2mut allele in resistant fall armyworm.

  19. EHWPACK: An evolvable hardware environment using the SPICE simulator and the Field Programmable Transistor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, D.; Klimeck, G.; Zebulum, R.; Stoica, A.; Jin, Y.; Lazaro, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the EHW development system, a tool that performs the evolutionary synthesis of electronic circuits, using the SPICE simulator and the Field Programmable Transistor Array hardware (FPTA) developed at JPL.

  20. Direct Nanoscale Imaging of Evolving Electric Field Domains in Quantum Structures

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Rudra Sankar; Razavipour, Seyed Ghasem; Dupont, Emmanuel; Xu, Chao; Laframboise, Sylvain; Wasilewski, Zbig; Hu, Qing; Ban, Dayan

    2014-01-01

    The external performance of quantum optoelectronic devices is governed by the spatial profiles of electrons and potentials within the active regions of these devices. For example, in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), the electric field domain (EFD) hypothesis posits that the potential distribution might be simultaneously spatially nonuniform and temporally unstable. Unfortunately, there exists no prior means of probing the inner potential profile directly. Here we report the nanoscale measured electric potential distribution inside operating QCLs by using scanning voltage microscopy at a cryogenic temperature. We prove that, per the EFD hypothesis, the multi-quantum-well active region is indeed divided into multiple sections having distinctly different electric fields. The electric field across these serially-stacked quantum cascade modules does not continuously increase in proportion to gradual increases in the applied device bias, but rather hops between discrete values that are related to tunneling resonances. We also report the evolution of EFDs, finding that an incremental change in device bias leads to a hopping-style shift in the EFD boundary – the higher electric field domain expands at least one module each step at the expense of the lower field domain within the active region. PMID:25431158

  1. Direct nanoscale imaging of evolving electric field domains in quantum structures.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Rudra Sankar; Razavipour, Seyed Ghasem; Dupont, Emmanuel; Xu, Chao; Laframboise, Sylvain; Wasilewski, Zbig; Hu, Qing; Ban, Dayan

    2014-11-28

    The external performance of quantum optoelectronic devices is governed by the spatial profiles of electrons and potentials within the active regions of these devices. For example, in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), the electric field domain (EFD) hypothesis posits that the potential distribution might be simultaneously spatially nonuniform and temporally unstable. Unfortunately, there exists no prior means of probing the inner potential profile directly. Here we report the nanoscale measured electric potential distribution inside operating QCLs by using scanning voltage microscopy at a cryogenic temperature. We prove that, per the EFD hypothesis, the multi-quantum-well active region is indeed divided into multiple sections having distinctly different electric fields. The electric field across these serially-stacked quantum cascade modules does not continuously increase in proportion to gradual increases in the applied device bias, but rather hops between discrete values that are related to tunneling resonances. We also report the evolution of EFDs, finding that an incremental change in device bias leads to a hopping-style shift in the EFD boundary--the higher electric field domain expands at least one module each step at the expense of the lower field domain within the active region.

  2. Currents in Environmental Education: Mapping a Complex and Evolving Pedagogical Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauve, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring to light and celebrate the richness of the environmental education field, thereby paying homage to the pedagogical creativity of its architects over the course of the last thirty years, as well as to their contribution in reflecting on the meaning, problems and possibilities of our relationship to the…

  3. The environmental and genetic regulation of obake expressivity: morphogenetic fields as evolvable systems.

    PubMed

    Atallah, Joel; Dworkin, Ian; Cheung, Una; Greene, Aisha; Ing, Bryant; Leung, Lisa; Larsen, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    The morphogenetic field, a fundamental concept of classical embryology, is once again being invoked to describe developmental processes. Because the evolution of adult structures requires the modification of development, the ways in which morphogenetic fields can change over time may yield insights into evolutionary possibilities. We considered how the duplication/multiplication of a morphogenetic field in fruit flies, caused by the previously described obake (obk) mutation, is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Mutations of genes in the canonical antenna-producing imaginal disc pathway suppressed duplication as expected, although the results suggested that other pathways might also be involved. Overgrowth mutations, expected to increase duplication, actually suppressed it. Mutations in the heat-shock protein gene Hsp83 did not uniformly enhance obk expressivity as hypothesized. Using third chromosomes extracted from wild-derived lines, natural genetic variation for modifiers of obk function was found to be extensive. Larval crowding suppressed the obk phenotype, but there was no evidence of trade-offs between body or head size and arista number. Our results suggest that a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the regulation of fields may be responsible for ample natural variation in the expressivity of adult phenotypes, affording multiple opportunities for selection and evolutionary modification.

  4. Speed of flea knockdown of spinosad compared to afoxolaner, and of spinosad through 28 days post-treatment in controlled laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Rumschlag, Anthony J; Young, Lisa Marie; Ryan, William G

    2015-11-09

    The speed of flea knockdown by different products and their duration of effectiveness are factors which affect veterinarian prescribing decisions. To further validate the month-long pulicidal effectiveness of spinosad and determine its rate of flea knockdown to that of afoxolaner, three studies were conducted in two laboratories in the United States, utilizing flea infestations from colonies which are regularly refreshed through introduction of locally caught fleas. All study assessors were blinded, dogs were ranked by pre-study flea counts and randomized accordingly, and treatments administered on Day 0. All studies included a negative control group; two also included an afoxolaner group. In one study, flea challenges for treated and control dogs (10 per group) were completed 21 and 28 days after treatment and counts were performed 24 h later. In each of two speed-of-knockdown (SOK) studies, 36 dogs were randomized, six dogs per group, to: untreated controls; administered oral afoxolaner (2.6-6.2 mg/kg); or oral spinosad (32.1-59.2 mg/kg). In the SOK studies, live fleas from Day -1 infestations were counted after being combed off at 1 and 3 h after treatment, and after reinfestations on Day 7. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Spinosad was 98.6% effective at 28 days post treatment. For SOK, geometric mean live flea counts for afoxolaner were not different from controls at any assessment. For spinosad, all mean counts were significantly lower than in controls (p ≤ 0.0128) except at 1 h post treatment in both studies. Spinosad was significantly more effective than afoxolaner in both studies at 3 h post treatment (p ≤ 0.0065) and post-Day 7 infestation (p ≤ 0.0054), and at 1 h post treatment (p = 0.0276) and post-Day 7 infestation in one study. These data validate spinosad's faster onset of flea knockdown than afoxolaner against infestations present at the time of treatment, and faster residual speed of flea knockdown for at least

  5. NON-EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY OF DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING PRESTELLAR CORES. II. IONIZATION AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Willacy, Karen; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J.

    2012-07-20

    We study the effect that non-equilibrium chemistry in dynamical models of collapsing molecular cloud cores has on measurements of the magnetic field in these cores, the degree of ionization, and the mean molecular weight of ions. We find that OH and CN, usually used in Zeeman observations of the line-of-sight magnetic field, have an abundance that decreases toward the center of the core much faster than the density increases. As a result, Zeeman observations tend to sample the outer layers of the core and consistently underestimate the core magnetic field. The degree of ionization follows a complicated dependence on the number density at central densities up to 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} for magnetic models and 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} in non-magnetic models. At higher central densities, the scaling approaches a power law with a slope of -0.6 and a normalization which depends on the cosmic-ray ionization rate {zeta} and the temperature T as ({zeta}T){sup 1/2}. The mean molecular weight of ions is systematically lower than the usually assumed value of 20-30, and, at high densities, approaches a value of 3 due to the asymptotic dominance of the H{sup +}{sub 3} ion. This significantly lower value implies that ambipolar diffusion operates faster.

  6. Genetic toxicity of dillapiol and spinosad larvicides in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Aciole, Eliezer H Pires; Guimarães, Nilza N; Silva, Andre S; Amorim, Erima M; Nunomura, Sergio M; Garcia, Ana Cristina L; Cunha, Kênya S; Rohde, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    Higher rates of diseases transmitted from insects to humans led to the increased use of organophosphate insecticides, proven to be harmful to human health and the environment. New, more effective chemical formulations with minimum genetic toxicity effects have become the object of intense research. These formulations include larvicides derived from plant extracts such as dillapiol, a phenylpropanoid extracted from Piper aduncum, and from microorganisms such as spinosad, formed by spinosyns A and D derived from the Saccharopolyspora spinosa fermentation process. This study investigated the genotoxicity of dillapiol and spinosad, characterising and quantifying mutation events and chromosomal and/or mitotic recombination using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wings of Drosophila melanogaster. Standard cross larvae (72 days old) were treated with different dillapiol and spinosad concentrations. Both compounds presented positive genetic toxicity, mainly as mitotic recombination events. Distilled water and doxorubicin were used as negative and positive controls respectively. Spinosad was 14 times more genotoxic than dillapiol, and the effect was found to be purely recombinogenic. However, more studies on the potential risks of insecticides such as spinosad and dillapiol are necessary, based on other experimental models and methodologies, to ensure safe use. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Dissipation kinetics of spinosad on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis. L.) under subtropical conditions of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Kousik; Jyot, Gagan; Singh, Balwinder

    2009-12-01

    Residues of spinosad were estimated in cauliflower curds using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Following three application of spinosad (Success 2.5 SC) at 15 and 30 g a.i. ha−1, the average initial deposits of spinosad were observed to be 0.57 and 1.34 mg kg−1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.02 mg kg−1 after 10 days at both the dosages. The half-life values (T 1/2) of spinosad were worked out to be 1.20 and 1.58 days, respectively, at recommended and double the recommended dosages. Thus, a waiting period of 6 days is suggested for the safe consumption of spinosad treated cauliflower.

  8. How Is My Field Evolving? - Network Based Analysis of Biomedical Scientific Discourse.

    PubMed

    Spreckelsen, Cord; Kabino, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Gaining overview on a biomedical field of research becomes challenging due to the increasing amount of publications. Computer-supported discourse analysis based on bibliometric data could help scientists to identify focal points and trends. The project aimed at implementing an automatic processing pipeline starting from a PubMed query and leading to a suitable visualization of the thematic evolution of a domain fostering meaningful interpretation. The four-step processing pipeline includes bibliographic data acquisition, preprocessing, network-based analysis of co-occurring keywords (degree and betweenness centrality), and its visualization by heatmap diagrams. Applying the implemented workflow we analyzed the field of clinical decision support systems based on 5.094 PubMed results yielding a total of 174.663 inter-keyword links. The resulting heatmap shows e.g. increased relevance of electronic health record and (patients') age. Network-based discourse analysis can be implemented using an efficient processing pipeline and may add valuable insight on the thematic evolution of scientific domains.

  9. Behavior of cylindrical liquid jets evolving in a transverse acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, Jean-Baptiste; Baillot, Françoise; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Dumouchel, Christophe

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and an experimental investigation of low-velocity cylindrical liquid jets submitted to transverse planar acoustic waves. For this purpose, the behavior of a liquid jet traversing the section of a Kundt tube was examined. Experiments reported that the liquid jet could be either deviated from its trajectory or deformed as a succession of lobes oriented in space and whose length and width depend on the jet acoustic environment. Furthermore, for a sufficient acoustic velocity, the jet deformation increases in such proportion that a premature and vivid atomization mechanism disintegrates the liquid flow. Theoretical models are proposed to understand these behaviors. The first one calls out for acoustic radiation pressure to explain the jet deviation. The second one consists in a modal analysis of the vibrations of a jet when submitted to a transverse stationary acoustic field. As a first approach, a simplified two-dimensional model is proposed. This model reports that a sudden exposition of the jet to an acoustic field triggers two jet eigenmodes. One of them induces jet deformations that were not experimentally observed. This part of the solution emerges due to theoretical deficiencies. However, the second mode reproduces the lobe formation and leads to atomization criteria in good agreement with the experimental results. The paper ends with an extension of the mathematical development in three dimensions in order to provide a basis to a more consistent model.

  10. Field-Evolved Resistance of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Carbodiimide and Neonicotinoids in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Rashid A

    2017-03-03

    The evolution of resistance to carbodiimide (a toxic metabolite of diafenthiuron) and four neonicotinoids imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and thiacloprid in the Pakistani populations of sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) was monitored from 1996 to 2015 using a leaf-dip bioassay. Diafenthiuron, imidacloprid, and acetamiprid were introduced into Pakistani agriculture in mid-1990s and heavily used since then, because B. tabaci resistance and consequently control failures to conventional insecticides such as organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids were widespread during the 1990s. According to the current studies, resistance to carbodiimide, imidacloprid, and acetamiprid during 1996-2010 and to thiamethoxam during 1999-2007 remained very low, but then it rose sharply, and by the year 2015, the B. tabaci resistance increased to very high levels. Among neonicotinoids, thiacloprid was the latest introduction in Pakistan in 2002. There was no thiacloprid resistance in 2002 and 2003, a low to moderate resistance during 2004-2006, and a very high resistance during 2007-2010 that even exceeded resistance to previous neonicotinoids. We may conclude that diafenthiuron and neonicotinoids remained effective against B. tabaci for 15 yr following their intensive use under field conditions, before a significant resistance, leading to their field failures, occurred in Pakistan.

  11. Contribution of contact toxicity and wheat condition to mortality of stored-product insects exposed to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Toews, Michael D; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2003-05-01

    Spinosad, a reduced-risk commercial insecticide derived from a bacterial fermentation product, possesses both contact and oral toxicities against insects. Contact toxicity of spinosad to adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F), Sitophilus oryzae (L), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was evaluated by exposure for 24 or 48 h to treated glass Petri dishes. Adults were exposed to different deposits (0.001-0.79 mg cm(-2)) of spinosad in 24-h tests and to deposits of 0, 0.0016 and 0.016mg cm(-2) in 48-h tests. Rhyzopertha dominica was most susceptible to spinosad in 24- and 48-h tests, followed by S. oryzae, and T. castaneum. The 24-h LD50 values were 0.0004, 0.077 and 0.189mg cm(-2) for R. dominica, S. oryzae, and T. castaneum, respectively. All R. dominica adults were dead following 48 h exposure to both spinosad deposits, whereas mortality of S. oryzae and T. castaneum ranged from 10 to 85% and 12 to 48%, respectively. Rhyzopertha dominica, T. castaneum, and O. surinamensis adults were exposed for 14 days to whole wheat, cracked wheat and wheat flour treated with 0, 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) of spinosad. Rhyzopertha dominica adults were highly susceptible to spinosad, followed by O. surinamensis and T. castaneum. Immatures (eggs and larvae) of T. castaneum and O. surinamensis exposed for 14 days were more susceptible on spinosad-treated whole wheat than on treated cracked wheat and wheat flour. This is the first report documenting contact activity of spinosad, and the effect of grain condition on spinosad toxicity, to stored-product insects.

  12. Lower Crustal Seismicity, Volatiles, and Evolving Strain Fields During the Initial Stages of Cratonic Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, C.; Muirhead, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Kianji, G.; Mulibo, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    The volcanically active East African rift system in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania transects thick cratonic lithosphere, and comprises several basins characterized by deep crustal seismicity. The US-French-Tanzania-Kenya CRAFTI project aims to understand the role of magma and volatile movement during the initiation and evolution of rifting in cratonic lithosphere. Our 38-station broadband network spans all or parts of fault-bounded rift segments, enabling comparison of lithospheric structure, fault kinematics, and seismogenic layer thickness with age and proximity to the deeply rooted Archaen craton. Seismicity levels are high in all basins, but we find profound differences in seismogenic layer thickness along the length of the rift. Seismicity in the Manyara basin occurs almost exclusively within the lower crust, and in spatial clusters that have been active since 1990. In contrast, seismicity in the ~ 5 My older Magadi basin is localized in the upper crust, and the long border fault bounding the west side of the basin is seismically inactive. Between these two basins lies the Natron rift segment, which shows seismicity between ~ 20 and ~2 km depth, and high concentrations at Oldoinyo Lengai and Gelai volcanoes. Older volcanoes on the uplifted western flank (e.g., Ngorongoro) experience swarms of activity, suggesting that active magmatism and degassing are widespread. Focal mechanisms of the frequent earthquakes recorded across the array are spatially variable, and indicate a stress field strongly influenced by (1) Holocene volcanoes, (2) mechanical interactions between adjacent rift basins, and (3) a far-field ESE-WNW extensional stress regime. We explore the spatial correlation between zones of intense degassing along fault systems and seismicity, and examine the influence of high gas pressures on lower and upper crustal seismicity in this youthful cratonic rift zone.

  13. Embryonic development of human lice: rearing conditions and susceptibility to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-05-01

    The embryonic development of human lice was evaluated according to the changes in the morphology of the embryo observed through the transparent chorion. Based on ocular and appendage development, three stages of embryogenesis were established: early, medium, and late. Influence of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the laboratory rearing of Pediculus humanus capitis eggs was assessed. The optimal ranges for temperature and RH were 27-31 degrees C and 45-75%. The susceptibility of head [corrected] louse eggs to insecticide spinosad (a macrocyclic lactone) was assessed by immersion method. The results showed similar susceptibility to spinosad in early, medium, and late stages of head lice eggs. In addition, this study showed similar susceptibility of head and body lice eggs to spinosad, an insecticide that has not been used as pediculicide in Argentina (lethal concentration 50: 0.01%).

  14. Distinct Impacts of Aerosols on an Evolving Continental Cloud System during the RACORO Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, R.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions have been investigated extensively but still remain high uncertainty due to the complexity of cloud microphysical processes under various dynamic and thermodynamic environments. Cloud-resolving Weather Research and Forecast (CR-WRF) model implemented with a two-moment bulk microphysics and a modified Goddard radiation scheme is employed to investigate aerosol effects on different cloud regimes and their transitions associated with a continental cloud system occurring from 25 May to 27 May, 2009 during the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. The simulated cloud properties and precipitation for the three different cloud regimes, including shallow cumuli, a deep convective cloud (DCC), and a stratus exhibit overall agreements with airborne and ground-based observations. Sensitivity studies with different aerosol scenarios reveal that the responses of cloud micro- and macrophysics to aerosol loading depend on the cloud regimes with monotonic or non-monotonic trend. Aerosol radiative effects modify the atmospheric thermodynamic condition and change the atmospheric stability, which induce different response from aerosol indirect effects. Our results also indicate that the overall aerosol effects on a cloud complex are distinct from those of the individual cloud types. The aerosol-cloud interaction for the different cloud regimes should be evaluated to assess the aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings on regional and global climate.

  15. Release and Degradation of Microencapsulated Spinosad and Emamectin Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin Bin; Zhang, Shao Fei; Chen, Peng Hao; Wu, Gang

    2017-09-07

    The dynamics of release and degradation of the microencapsulation formulation containing spinosad (SP) and emamectin benzoate (EM) were evaluated in the present study. SP and EM were microencapsulated using biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA) as the wall material. Their release from and degradation within the prepared SP and EM microspheres (SP-EM-microspheres) were studied. It was found that the encapsulation significantly prolonged the insecticide release. The release could be further extended if the external aqueous phase was pre-saturated with the insecticides and the microspheres were additionally coated with gelatin. On the other hand, increasing the water content of the emulsion or the hydrophilic polycaprolactone (PCL) content in the PLA/PCL mixture accelerated the release. Due to the photolysis and hydrolysis of SP and EM by sunlight, the toxicity of the non-encapsulated insecticides in water declined continuously from 0 through the 9(th) day (d), and dissipated in 13 d. In contrast, an aqueous suspension containing 5% SP-EM-microspheres maintained a mostly constant toxicity to Plutella xylostella for 17 d. The biodegradable SP-EM-microspheres showed significantly higher long-term toxicity to P. xylostella due to lower release, reduced photolysis and hydrolysis of the encapsulated insecticides, which were affected by the varied preparation conditions.

  16. Dominant Inheritance of Field-Evolved Resistance to Fipronil in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingliang; Wu, Shuwen; Gao, Weiyue; Wu, Yidong

    2016-02-01

    A field-collected strain (HF) of Plutella xylostella (L.) showed 420-fold resistance to fipronil compared with a susceptible laboratory strain (Roth). The HF-R strain, derived from the HF strain by 25 generations of successive selection with fipronil in the laboratory, developed 2,200-fold resistance to fipronil relative to the Roth strain. The F(1) progeny of the reciprocal crosses between HF-R and Roth showed 640-fold (R♀ × S♂) and 1,380-fold (R♂ × S♀) resistance to fipronil, indicating resistance is inherited as an incompletely dominant trait. Analysis of progeny from a backcross (F1♂ × S♀) suggests that resistance is controlled by one major locus. The LC(50) of the R♂ × S♀ cross F(1) progeny is slightly but significantly higher than that of the R♀ × S♂ cross F(1) progeny, suggesting a minor resistance gene on the Z chromosome. Sequence analysis of PxGABARα1 (an Rdl-homologous GABA receptor gene of P. xylostella) from the HF-R strain identified two mutations A282S and A282G (corresponding to the A302S mutation of the Drosophila melanogaster Rdl gene), which have been previously implicated in fipronil resistance in several insect species including P. xylostella. PxGABARα1 was previously mapped to the Z chromosome of P. xylostella. In conclusion, fipronil resistance in the HF-R strain of P. xylostella was incompletely dominant, and controlled by a major autosomal locus and a sex-linked minor gene (PxGABARα1) on the Z chromosome. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ppm (mg a.i./liter) provided 6–8 weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes. PMID:22608138

  18. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marina, Carlos F; Bond, J Guillermo; Muñoz, José; Valle, Javier; Chirino, Nelva; Williams, Trevor

    2012-05-19

    Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ppm (mg a.i./liter) provided 6-8 weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.

  19. Magnetic Fields in Evolved Stars: Imaging the Polarized Emission of High-frequency SiO Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Franco-Hernández, R.

    2011-02-01

    We present Submillimeter Array observations of high-frequency SiO masers around the supergiant VX Sgr and the semi-regular variable star W Hya. The J = 5-4, v = 128SiO and v = 029SiO masers of VX Sgr are shown to be highly linearly polarized with a polarization from ~5% to 60%. Assuming the continuum emission peaks at the stellar position, the masers are found within ~60 mas of the star, corresponding to ~100 AU at a distance of 1.57 kpc. The linear polarization vectors are consistent with a large-scale magnetic field, with position and inclination angles similar to that of the dipole magnetic field inferred in the H2O and OH maser regions at much larger distances from the star. We thus show for the first time that the magnetic field structure in a circumstellar envelope can remain stable from a few stellar radii out to ~1400 AU. This provides further evidence supporting the existence of large-scale and dynamically important magnetic fields around evolved stars. Due to a lack of parallactic angle coverage, the linear polarization of masers around W Hya could not be determined. For both stars, we observed the 28SiO and 29SiO isotopologues and find that they have a markedly different distributions and that they appear to avoid each other. Additionally, emission from the SO 55-44 line was imaged for both sources. Around W Hya, we find a clear offset between the red- and blueshifted SO emission. This indicates that W Hya is likely host to a slow bipolar outflow or a rotating disk-like structure.

  20. Proton evolved local field solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance using Hadamard encoding: theory and application to membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, T; Mote, Kaustubh R; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2011-08-21

    NMR anisotropic parameters such as dipolar couplings and chemical shifts are central to structure and orientation determination of aligned membrane proteins and liquid crystals. Among the separated local field experiments, the proton evolved local field (PELF) scheme is particularly suitable to measure dynamically averaged dipolar couplings and give information on local molecular motions. However, the PELF experiment requires the acquisition of several 2D datasets at different mixing times to optimize the sensitivity for the complete range of dipolar couplings of the resonances in the spectrum. Here, we propose a new PELF experiment that takes the advantage of the Hadamard encoding (HE) to obtain higher sensitivity for a broad range of dipolar couplings using a single 2D experiment. The HE scheme is obtained by selecting the spin operators with phase switching of hard pulses. This approach enables one to detect four spin operators, simultaneously, which can be processed into two 2D spectra covering a broader range of dipolar couplings. The advantages of the new approach are illustrated for a U-(15)N NAL single crystal and the U-(15)N labeled single-pass membrane protein sarcolipin reconstituted in oriented lipid bicelles. The HE-PELF scheme can be implemented in other multidimensional experiments to speed up the characterization of the structure and dynamics of oriented membrane proteins and liquid crystalline samples.

  1. Disruption of the naturally evolved N conservation strategy in soil under grassland at a sports field in York, UK.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Ambreen; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2014-11-01

    Water- and KCl-extractable ammonium-N and nitrate-N concentrations have been monitored at approximately monthly intervals over a year in soils from 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths under permanent grass at a sports field in York, UK. Measurements were made on both fresh, field-moist soils and after the same soils had been incubated for 7 days at ambient outdoor temperatures, to assess seasonal changes in the capacity of the soils to produce mineral-N species in the absence of plant uptake and other effects. Water extracts allowed potential mobility of N species to be assessed. Comparison of seasonal trends in mineral-N species concentrations in pre- and post-incubation soils confirmed depletion of exchangeable ammonium-N from the winter to summer. Mineral-N in fresh and incubated soils displayed summer minima and also low production in winter, associated with the effects of low temperature on nitrate production and probably microbial immobilization of nitrate produced by residual senescent plant litter with a higher C:N ratio from the previous autumn. The results support the concept that plant/soil systems co-evolved under more pristine conditions to conserve soil N by matching the dynamics of soil mineral N production and plant N uptake, but now N pollution has resulted in a dynamic mismatch. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Metabolomics analysis of the effect of dissolved oxygen on spinosad production by Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunzhe; Yin, Jing; Zhao, Fanglong; Li, Feng; Lu, Wenyu

    2017-05-01

    Spinosad, a universal bio-pesticide, is obtained from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Dissolved oxygen, an important contributing factor in aerobic microbial fermentation, however, is not always available in sufficient amounts. To alleviate oxygen limitation in spinosad production, three different oxygen vectors, namely oleic acid, toluene, and n-dodecane, were added into early fermentation. Results indicated that n-dodecane was the optimal oxygen vector. Spinosad yield was increased by 44.2% compared to that in the control group in the presence of 0.5% n-dodecane, added after 120 h of incubation. Yields of the test group reached 6.52 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW), while that of the control group was limited to 4.52 mg/g DCW. Metabolomics analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was performed to demonstrate the metabolism mechanism in the presence and absence of oxygen vector. In total, 78 principal intracellular metabolites in S. spinosa were detected and quantified in the presence and absence of n-dodecane. Levels of some metabolites that were related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway varied significantly. Aspartic acid and glucose-1-phosphate levels varied significantly and contributed most in the distinction of the fermentation conditions and phases. The above findings give new insights into the improvement and the metabolomic characteristics of industrial spinosad production.

  3. Control of Radopholus similis in anthurium with spinosad, spirotetramat, and thiophanate-methyl

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radopholus similis is an endoparasitic migratory nematode that causes anthurium decline. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of spinosad, spirotetramat, and thiophanate-methyl for the control of R. similis in anthurium. Plants were weighed, transplanted into 15-cm-d clay pots filled with cin...

  4. Spinosad in the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata: regrettable non-target toxicity of a bioinsecticide.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Hudson Vaner V; Barbosa, Wagner F; Martins, Gustavo F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2015-04-01

    The risks imposed by novel insecticides, mainly bioinsecticides, are largely unknown despite their increased use and their perceived environmental safety, which is based on their natural origin. Furthermore, unlike honeybees, native pollinator species have received little attention. In the present study, the lethal and sublethal effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the bioinsecticide spinosad were assessed in the stingless bee species Meliponaquadrifasciata, an important native pollinator in the Neotropical region. The adult stingless bee workers exhibited high oral insecticide susceptibility, with LD50s of 23.54 and 12.07 ng a.i./bee for imidacloprid and spinosad, respectively. Imidacloprid also impaired worker respiration and overall group activity and flight, while spinosad significantly impaired only worker flight despite exhibiting higher oral toxicity to adult workers than imidacloprid. These findings indicate the hazardous nature not only of imidacloprid but also the bioinsecticide spinosad to adult workers of the native pollinator M. quadrifasciata. Therefore, bioinsecticides should not be exempted from risk assessment analysis due to their lethal and sublethal components.

  5. Effects of spinosad and neem on the efficacy of a nucleopolyhedrovirus on pickleworm larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A neem formulation (Neemix® 4.5) and spinosad (SpinTor® 2SC) were tested for their effects when mixed with the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus virus (AgMNPV) from the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), for control of pickleworm larvae, Diaphania nitidalis...

  6. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Duchet, C; Caquet, Th; Franquet, E; Lagneau, C; Lagadic, L

    2010-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 microg L(-1)) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 microL L(-1)) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of pyriproxyfen and spinosad, alone and in combination, against Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Darriet, Frederic; Corbel, Vincent

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen and spinosad, alone and in combination, was evaluated against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.). Larval bioassays were carried out on susceptible mosquito larvae to determine the concentration-mortality responses of mosquitoes exposed to each insecticide alone and in mixture. Synergism between pyriproxyfen and spinosad was determined by the calculation of a combination index (CI) by using the isobologram method. For pyriproxyfen, LC50 and LC95 were 1.1 x 10(-4) (1.0 x 10(-4)-1.1 x 10(-4)) and 3.2 x 10(-4) (2.9 x 10(-4)-3.6 x 10(-4)) mg/liter, respectively. Pyriproxyfen acted at very low concentrations by inhibiting the adult emergence of Ae. aegypti (97% inhibition rates at 3.3 x 10(-4) mg/liter). Spinosad activity was -500 times lower than that of pyriproxyfen against the Bora strain, with LC50 and LC95 values estimated at 0.055 (0.047-0.064) and 0.20 (0.15-0.27) mg/liter, respectively. A binary mixture of pyriproxyfen and spinosad was realized at the ratio 1:500 by considering the values of the LC50 obtained for each product. The LC50 and LC95 of the mixture were 0.019 (0.016 - 0.022) and 0.050 (0.040 - 0.065) mg/liter, respectively. The mixture combined both the larvicidal activity of spinosad and the juvenoid action of pyriproxyfen. From the LC70 to LC99 a significant synergism effect was observed between the two insecticides (CI ranged from 0.74 to 0.31). This strong synergism observed at high concentrations allows a reduction by five and nine-fold of pyriproxyfen and spinosad amounts to kill almost 100% mosquitoes. Combination of pyriproxyfen and spinosad may then represent a promising strategy to improve mosquito control in situations with insecticide-resistant Aedes dengue vectors.

  8. B field in OB stars (BOB): The outstandingly strong magnetic field in the evolved He-strong star CPD -62° 2124

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, N.; Fossati, L.; Hubrig, S.; Järvinen, S. P.; Przybilla, N.; Nieva, M.-F.; Ilyin, I.; Carroll, T. A.; Schöller, M.; Langer, N.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Morel, T.; Butler, K.; BOB Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The origin and evolution of magnetism in OB stars is far from being well understood. With approximately 70 magnetic OB stars known, any new object with unusual characteristics may turn out to be a key piece of the puzzle. We report the detection of an exceptionally strong magnetic field in the He-strong B2IV star CPD -62° 2124. Spectropolarimetric FORS2 and HARPSpol observations were analysed by two independent teams and procedures, concluding on a strong longitudinal magnetic field of approximately 5.2 kG. The quantitative characterisation of the stellar atmosphere yields an effective temperature of 23 650 ± 250 K, a surface gravity of 3.95 ± 0.10 dex and a surface helium fraction of 0.35 ± 0.02 by number. The metal composition is in agreement with the cosmic abundance standard, except for Mg, Si and S, which are slightly non-solar. The strong and broad ( 300 km s-1) disc-like emission displayed by the Hα line suggests a centrifugal magnetosphere supported by the strong magnetic field. Our results imply that CPD -62° 2124 is an early B-type star hosting one of the strongest magnetic fields discovered to date, and one of the most evolved He-strong stars known, with a fractional main-sequence lifetime of approximately 0.6. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories under programme ID 191.D-0255(G,I).

  9. Passively Evolving Early-Type Galaxies at 1.4 <~ z <~ 2.5 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Pirzkal, N.; Cimatti, A.; Malhotra, S.; Stiavelli, M.; Xu, C.; Pasquali, A.; Rhoads, J. E.; Brusa, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Moustakas, L. A.; Panagia, N.; Windhorst, R. A.

    2005-06-01

    We report on a complete sample of seven luminous early-type galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) with spectroscopic redshifts between 1.39 and 2.47, and to KAB<23. Using the BzK selection criterion, we have preselected a set of objects over the UDF, which fulfill the photometric conditions for being passively evolving galaxies at z>1.4. Low-resolution spectra of these objects have been extracted from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS grism data taken over the UDF by the Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) project. Redshifts for the seven galaxies have been identified based on the UV feature at rest frame 2640<λ<2850 Å. This feature is mainly due to a combination of Fe II, Mg I, and Mg II absorptions, which are characteristic of stellar populations dominated by stars older than ~0.5 Gyr. The redshift identification and the passively evolving nature of these galaxies is further supported by the photometric redshifts and by the overall spectral energy distribution (SED), with the ultradeep HST ACS NICMOS imaging revealing compact morphologies typical of elliptical/early-type galaxies. From the SED we derive stellar masses of >~1011 Msolar and ages of ~1 Gyr. Their space density at =1.7 appears to be roughly a factor of 2-3 smaller than that of their local counterparts, further supporting the notion that such massive and old galaxies are already ubiquitous at early cosmic times. Much smaller effective radii are derived for some of the objects, compared to local massive ellipticals, which may be due to morphological K-corrections, evolution, or the presence of a central pointlike source. Nuclear activity is indeed present in a subset of the galaxies, as revealed by the fact that they are hard X-ray sources, which suggests that active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity may have played a role in discontinuing star formation. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute

  10. Efficacy of spinosad and methoprene, applied alone or in combination, against six stored-product insect species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficacy of the insecticides spinosad and methoprene, applied alone or in combination to wheat, was evaluated against six stored-product insect species, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, S. granarius, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, and Liposcelis bostrychophila. The conc...

  11. Insecticidal effect of spinosad dust, in combination with diatomaceous earth, against two stored-grain beetle species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficacy of the biological insecticide spinosad applied alone and combination with diatomaceous earth (DE) was determined through laboratory bioassays with adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val...

  12. Transcripts of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene Pxylα6 with premature stop codons are associated with spinosad resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony M; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2010-11-01

    The cDNA sequence of the α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) was cloned and sequenced. Transcripts were similar between the spinosad-susceptible G88 and Wapio strains. All transcripts from the spinosad-resistant Pearl-Sel strain contained premature stop codons, and most transcripts have not been previously reported. None of these truncated transcripts were seen in the spinosad-susceptible strains. Proteins made from these transcripts would likely have no, or greatly altered, receptor function. An F(2) backcross and spinosad bioassay showed that all spinosad bioassay survivors produced truncated α6 transcripts. Thus, it appears that spinosad resistance in diamondback moth is due to a mutation(s) that results in no functional Pxylα6 being produced.

  13. Combined treatments of spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl for management of resistant psocid pests (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) of stored grain.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Manoj K; Daglish, Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    The combined efficacy of spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl was determined against four storage psocid pests belonging to genus Liposcelis. This research was undertaken because of the increasing importance of these psocids in stored grain and the problem of finding grain protectants to control resistant strains. Firstly, mortality and reproduction were determined for adults exposed to wheat freshly treated with either spinosad (0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1)) or chlorpyrifos-methyl (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) or combinations of spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl at 30 degrees C and 70% RH. There were significant effects of application rate of spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl, both individually and in combination, on adult mortality and progeny reduction of all four psocids. Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and L. decolor (Pearman) responded similarly, with incomplete control of adults and progeny at both doses of spinosad but complete control in all chlorpyrifos-methyl and combined treatments. In L. entomophila (Enderlein) and L. paeta Pearman, however, complete control of adults and progeny was only achieved in the combined treatments, with the exception of spinosad 0.5 mg kg(-1) plus chlorpyrifos-methyl 2.5 mg kg(-1) against L. entomophila. Next, combinations of spinosad (0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) in bioassays after 0, 1.5 and 3 months storage of treated wheat were evaluated. The best treatment was 1 mg kg(-1) of spinosad plus 10 mg kg(-1) of chlorpyrifos-methyl, providing up to 3 months of protection against infestations of all four Liposcelis spp. on wheat.

  14. Temperature-Mediated Kill and Oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Presence of Spinosad.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2016-02-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the efficacy of spinosad can be useful for improving fly control. Here, the major objective was to determine if temperature mediates kill and oviposition of R. indifferens in the presence of low spinosad coverage in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted by placing flies in cages with cherries and with a Petri dish containing 3-12 small spots of dry spinosad at 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4°C. Effects of spinosad rates were also determined. More flies were killed at 23.9 and 29.4°C than at 18.3°C by 1-7 d post exposure. More flies were killed at 29.4 than 23.9°C by 1 d post exposure. However, flies laid more eggs at these temperatures than at 18.3°C. Higher spinosad rates increased kill and decreased oviposition, but even within the highest rate, oviposition was greater at 29.4 than 18.3°C. More flies walked over 5-min observation periods at 29.4 and 23.9°C than 18.3°C, suggesting higher temperatures up to 29.4°C increase kill by increasing fly contact with spinosad as well as increase oviposition rate. Results suggest that spinosad rates in sprays used against R. indifferens should be greater at higher than lower ambient temperatures.

  15. Spinosad induces programmed cell death involves mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome C release in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingjun; Wang, Bo; Gao, Jufang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Wenping; Tao, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Spinosad, a reduced-risk insecticide, acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor in the nervous system of target insects. However, its mechanism of action in non-neural insect cells is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate mitochondrial functional changes associated with spinosad in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Our results indicate that in Sf9 cells, spinosad induces programmed cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction through enhanced reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, eventually leading to cytochrome C release and apoptosis. The cytochrome C release induced by spinosad treatment was partly inhibited by the mPTP inhibitors cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid. Subsequently, we found that spinosad downregulated Bcl-2 expression and upregulated p53 and Bax expressions, activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and triggered PARP cleavage in Sf9 cells. These findings suggested that spinosad-induced programmed cell death was modulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome C release.

  16. Environmental fate of spinosad. 1. Dissipation and degradation in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Cheryl B; Bormett, Gary A; Saunders, Donald G; Powers, Fred L; McGibbon, Alec S; Reeves, Graham L; Rutherford, Laura; Balcer, Jesse L

    2002-05-22

    Spinosad is a bacterially derived insect control agent consisting of two active compounds, spinosyns A and D. The objective of this paper is to describe the environmental fate of spinosad in aquatic systems. To this end, several studies performed to meet regulatory requirements are used to study the fate and degradation in individual environmental media. Specifically, investigations of abiotic (hydrolysis and photolysis) and biotic (aerobic and anaerobic aquatic) processes are described. Understanding developed from the laboratory-based studies has been tested and augmented by an outdoor microcosm study. Understanding of aquatic fate is a building block for a complete environmental safety assessment of spinosad products (Cleveland, C. B.; Mayes, M. A.; Cryer, S. A. Pest Manag. Sci. 2001, 58, 70-84). From individual investigations, the following understanding of dissipation emerges: (1) Aqueous photolysis of spinosad is rapid (observed half-lives of <1 up to 2 days in summer sunlight) and will be the primary route of degradation in aquatic systems exposed to sunlight. (2) Biotic transformations contribute to spinosad's dissipation, but less so than photolysis; they will be of primary importance only in the absence of light. (3) Spinosad partitions rapidly (within a few days) from water to organic matter and soil/sediment in aquatic systems but not so rapidly as to replace sunlight as the primary route of dissipation. (4) Abiotic hydrolysis is relatively unimportant compared to other dissipation routes, except under highly basic (artificial) conditions and even then observed half-lives are approximately 8 months. Degradation pathways are understood are follows: (1) Degradation primarily proceeds by loss of the forosamine sugar and reduction of the 13,14-bond on the macrolide ring under aqueous photolytic conditions. (2) Degradation to several other compounds occurs through biotic degradation. Degradation under anaerobic conditions primarily involves changes and

  17. Alternative splicing and highly variable cadherin transcripts associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm to bt cotton in India.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Singh, Amar; Tanwar, Raj K; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop.

  18. Alternative Splicing and Highly Variable Cadherin Transcripts Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance of Pink Bollworm to Bt Cotton in India

    PubMed Central

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Singh, Amar; Tanwar, Raj K.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Yelich, Alex J.; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. PMID:24840729

  19. Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) Control by Nigella sativa, Thyme and Spinosad Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Aboelhadid, Shawky Mohamed; Mahran, Hesham A; El-Hariri, Hazem M; Shokier, Khalid Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study. Methods: The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or absolute ethyl alcohol only), 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions), 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa) preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions), and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions). The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials. Results: The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% concentration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations ≥10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2 % to 100% by concentration ≥5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic preparations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10–20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol) resulted in no mortality. All differences were statistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ≥10% and alcoholic ≥5%) and in spinosad (aqueous≥25%). The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%. Conclusion: Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20%) that could achieve the highest lethal (100%) effect in shortest time (12 hours). Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae. PMID:27308273

  20. Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) Control by Nigella sativa, Thyme and Spinosad Preparations.

    PubMed

    Aboelhadid, Shawky Mohamed; Mahran, Hesham A; El-Hariri, Hazem M; Shokier, Khalid Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study. The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or absolute ethyl alcohol only), 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions), 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa) preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions), and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions). The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials. The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% concentration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations ≥10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2 % to 100% by concentration ≥5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic preparations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10-20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol) resulted in no mortality. All differences were statistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ≥10% and alcoholic ≥5%) and in spinosad (aqueous≥25%). The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%. Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20%) that could achieve the highest lethal (100%) effect in shortest time (12 hours). Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae.

  1. Toxicity and Nonrepellency of Spinosad and Spinetoram on Formosan Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Bhatta, D; Henderson, G; Gautam, B K

    2016-04-22

    Spinosyn products, spinosad and spinetoram, are widely used to control various agricultural pests. Spinosad has been tested on Kalotermitidae and Termitidae but not on Rhinotermitidae, the most destructive of termite families. In this study, we tested the effect of spinosad and spinetoram on Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Both no-choice and choice tests were conducted using three concentrations, 1 ppm, 25 ppm, and 50 ppm, of the spinosyn products Entrust, Tracer, and Radiant on three substrates, sand, soil, and filter paper. In the no-choice test in sand, >85% mortality was observed at 25 and 50 ppm after 1 d of exposure followed by 100% mortality at 7 d. Similarly, after 7 d at 25 and 50 ppm in soil and filter paper, 100% mortality was observed, but compared to sand at 1 d, mortality was low. In the two-choice test, observations before the onset of termite mortality showed that none of the products or concentrations was repellent. Likewise, in the multiple-choice test, there was no repellency or preference of termites among 1 ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm, control, and release chamber at all three concentrations, and the tunnel area in the control and treated choices were not significantly different. These findings support the nonrepellent attribute of spinosyns on C. formosanus.

  2. Hepato- and nephrotoxicity in male albino rats exposed to malathion and spinosad in stored wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Nour El-Hoda A

    2015-06-01

    Adult male albino rats were fed on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with malathion and spinosad at both 8 and 16 ppm for 90 consecutive days to evaluate their hepatic and renal toxicity. The activity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both tested pesticides. Biochemical parameters of liver functions [i.e., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, as well as total protein, albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol levels] were severely affected especially at higher concentration. Malathion and spinosad elevated the activity of ALT, AST, ALP and ACP in rats treated with the higher concentration. Also, total and direct bilirubin levels increased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both pesticides. On the contrary, both pesticides decreased total protein and albumin levels in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, malathion was found to be hyperglycemic. Kidney function parameters (i.e., urea and creatinine levels) were increased in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The above mentioned effects were supported by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. The obtained results indicated also that malathion was able to cause a more pronounced hepato- and renal toxicity in rats than spinosad.

  3. Physiological response of a spinosad-producing strain saccharopolyspora spinosa to space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiheng

    This study explored the physiological response of spinosad-producing strain Saccharopolyspora spinosa to space flight environment. The production strain was carried into space by a manned spaceship, `Shenzhou VII' (Divine Vessel VII) and compared with identical ground control strains. The results showed that space flight could induce a significant response in the phys-iological characteristics of S. spinosa, including change of productivity and morphology. The spinosad yield of the mutants increased more than 95% comparing to the original strains. And in the mutant library, a peculiar morphologic strain, F-200, was found. F-200 produced no spinosad, and was much larger than normal ones and spores were lilac, while the others remain white. During fermentation, the color of the entire broth of F-200 had completely changed to purple, whereas the broth of the ground control Zu8 remained yellow. The results demonstrated that the space flight can induce physiological changes of S. spinosa and could potentially serve as mutagenesis tools to improve commercial-significant microbial metabolites.

  4. Field-evolved resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), from India.

    PubMed

    Dhurua, Sanyasi; Gujar, Govind T

    2011-08-01

    The pink bollworm is one of the most destructive pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac or a combination of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 has been used effectively against this pest. However, some other insects have evolved resistance to Bt toxins in the field. During the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons, pink bollworm populations in India were surveyed to evaluate their responses to Cry1Ac and seed powder containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2. The results provide evidence that resistance to Cry1Ac had evolved by 2008 in a population sampled from non-Bt cotton in the Amreli district of Gujarat in western India. The median lethal concentration of Cry1Ac for five-day-old larvae (LC50 ) was significantly higher for insects derived in 2008 from Amreli than for any of the other field populations tested from four locations in India. For Cry1Ac, the mean LC50 for the strain derived from Amreli in 2008 was 44 times higher than for the most susceptible population. However, for seed powder of Bollgard II containing primarily Cry2Ab2, the 2008 Amreli population was only slightly less susceptible than the most susceptible population. The data reported here constitute the first evidence of field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm to Cry1Ac. This initial evidence spurred more extensive evaluations during the 2009-2010 growing season, which confirmed field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac in Amreli. The lack of cross-resistance to Cry2Ab2 suggests that plants producing this toxin are likely to be more effective against resistant populations than plants producing only Cry1Ac. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Quantum radiation from an inertial scalar charge evolving in the de Sitter universe: Weak-field limit

    SciTech Connect

    Blaga, Robert

    2015-12-07

    We investigate the energy radiated by an inertial scalar charge evolving in the expanding Poincaré patch of de Sitter spacetime, in the framework of scalar QED perturbation theory. We approximate the transition amplitude in the small expansion parameter limit and show that the leading contribution to the radiated energy has the form of the energy radiated by an accelerated particle in Minkowski space.

  6. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane point mutation (G275E) associated with resistance to spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Puinean, Alin M; Lansdell, Stuart J; Collins, Toby; Bielza, Pablo; Millar, Neil S

    2013-01-01

    High levels of resistance to spinosad, a macrocyclic lactone insecticide, have been reported previously in western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, an economically important insect pest of vegetables, fruit and ornamental crops. We have cloned the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α6 subunit from F. occidentalis (Foα6) and compared the nucleotide sequence of Foα6 from susceptible and spinosad-resistant insect populations (MLFOM and R1S respectively). A single nucleotide change has been identified in Foα6, resulting in the replacement of a glycine (G) residue in susceptible insects with a glutamic acid (E) in resistant insects. The resistance-associated mutation (G275E) is predicted to lie at the top of the third α-helical transmembrane domain of Foα6. Although there is no direct evidence identifying the location of the spinosad binding site, the analogous amino acid in the C. elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel lies in close proximity (4.4 Å) to the known binding site of ivermectin, another macrocyclic lactone pesticide. The functional consequences of the resistance-associated mutation have been examined in the human nAChR α7 subunit. Introduction of an analogous (A272E) mutation in α7 abolishes the modulatory effects of spinosad whilst having no significant effect upon activation by acetylcholine, consistent with spinosad having an allosteric mechanism of action. PMID:23016960

  7. Determination of the mineral stability field of evolving groundwater in the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater and surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Yvonne Sena Akosua; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Addai, Millicent Obeng; Asiedu, Daniel Kwadwo

    2016-09-01

    Conventional graphical techniques, mass balance geochemical modelling, and multivariate statistical methods were jointly applied to hydrogeochemical data of groundwater from the fractured rock aquifer system, and surface water in the Bosumtwi and surrounding areas to reveal evolutionary trends and the characteristics of evolving groundwater in the area. Four clusters distinguished from the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) comprised three main groundwater associations and one surface water group (lake water). Although both water resources are of low mineralization (TDS < 1000 mg/l), it was observed that the groundwater from the upper catchment with hydrochemical facies dominated by Nasbnd Mgsbnd HCO3-, evolves to Casbnd Mgsbnd and mixed cations HCO3- water types at the lower reaches. The lake water on the other hand is Nasbnd HCO3- water type. Results from principal component analyses (PCA) and other geochemical interpretations distinguished three sources of variations in the hydrochemistry. Saturation indices of possible reactive mineral phases show groundwater undersaturation relative to albite, anorthite, aragonite, barite, calcite, chlorite, chrysotile, dolomite, gypsum, k-felspar and talc, and supersaturation with respect to gibbsite, kaolinite, Ca-montmorillonite and k-mica in the area. The PCA and other geochemical interpretation identify weathering of feldspars and carbonate mineral dissolution as predominantly influencing the hydrochemistry of the groundwater. Hydrolysis of the aluminosilicates causes the groundwater to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. In addition to dissolution of silicates, the chemical composition of the lake water has been influenced by evaporation and consequent carbonate saturation.

  8. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A; Alzahrani, Abdullah M; Elmenshawy, Omar M; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators.

  9. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah M.; Elmenshawy, Omar M.; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators. PMID:28076286

  10. Cage study of spinosad-based bait efficacy on Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, and Dacus demmerezi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Douraguia, Elisabeth; Atiama-Nurbel, Toulassi; Chiroleu, Fréderic; Quilici, Serge

    2012-08-01

    On Reunion Island, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Dacus ciliatus (Loew), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi) cause severe damage to Cucurbit crops. The aim of the study was to test in field cages the effectiveness of Synéis-appât (Dow AgroSciences), a spinosad-based bait (0.02% of spinosad) on both attraction and mortality of young adults (6-9 d old) of these three species. The effects of gender were also evaluated for all species whereas the effects of protein deprivation were tested with B. cucurbitae only. For the first 15 min after application, significantly more B. cucurbitae adults (21.7 +/- 1.8%) were attracted to the bait than D. demmerezi (7.6 +/- 2.4%) and D. ciliatus (2.7 +/- 1.4%); the subsequent response (30-75 min after bait application) of D. demmerezi was statistically similar to that recorded for B. cucurbitae; whereas the response ofD. ciliatus to the bait was consistently significantly lower. Adult mortality was significantly higher for B. cucurbitae (94.6 +/- 0.7%) than for D. demmerezi (85.7 +/- 2.1%), and was significantly higher for the latter than for D. ciliatus (60.4 +/- 4.4%). Sex had no significant effect on the mortality rate for each species. The efficiency of the bait was the same for B. cucurbitae adults regardless whether or not the diet included proteins. Overall, Synéis-appât appears to be more effective against B. cucurbitae and B. demmerezi than against D. ciliatus. In Reunion Island, this bait could constitute a useful component in the framework of Integrated Pest Management.

  11. Current-density functional theory study of the H2 molecule evolving under a strong ultrashort magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikas, Hash(0xb7f6e60)

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen molecule in a strong ultrashort magnetic field is investigated through a current-density functional theory (CDFT) and quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based approach employing current-density dependent vector exchange-correlation potential and energy density functional derived with a vorticity variable. The numerical computations through the CDFT based approach are performed for the H2 molecule, starting initially from its field-free ground state, in a parallel internuclear axis and magnetic field-axis configuration with the internuclear separation R ranging from 0.1 a.u. to 14.0 a.u., and the strength of the time-dependent (TD) magnetic field varying between 0-1011 G over a few femtoseconds. The numerical results are compared with that obtained using an approach based on the current-density independent approximation under similar computational constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on the electronic charge-density alone. The current-density based approach yields exchange- and correlation energy as well as electronic charge-density of the H2 molecule drastically different from that obtained using current-independent approach, in particular, at TD magnetic field-strengths >109 G during a typical time-period of the field when the magnetic-field had attained maximum applied field-strength and is switched to a decreasing ramp function. This nonadiabatic behavior of the TD electronic charge-density is traced to the TD vorticity-dependent vector exchange-correlation potential of the CDFT based approach. The interesting electron dynamics of the H2 molecule in strong TD magnetic field is further elucidated by treating electronic charge-density as an `electron-fluid'. The present work also reveals interesting real-time dynamics on the attosecond time-scale in the electronic charge-density distribution of the hydrogen molecule.

  12. Knockdown and mortality comparisons among spinosad-, imidacloprid-, and methomyl-containing baits against susceptible Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    White, W Hunter; McCoy, Christine M; Meyer, Jeffery A; Winkle, Joseph R; Plummer, Philip R; Kemper, Connie J; Starkey, Robert; Snyder, Daniel E

    2007-02-01

    The activity of spinosad, imidacloprid, and methomyl baits and technical actives were assessed against susceptible house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). In a feeding assay, imidacloprid affected flies more rapidly than methomyl or spinosad, but spinosad was 2.7 times more potent than methomyl and 8 times more potent than imidacloprid. The profile of technical actives correlated with their respective fly bait formulations in laboratory assays. Although having the most rapid onset of activity in laboratory tests, up to 50% of flies remained alive after exposure to imidacloprid bait. In contrast, <5% of flies survived 24-h exposure to spinosad or methomyl baits. High temperature reduced the knockdown activity of imidacloprid bait and slowed the speed of kill for spinosad and methomyl baits over a 24-h exposure period. Spinosad and methomyl baits were also superior to imidacloprid when applied to the floors of environmentally controlled rooms at label recommended rates, providing good fly control for up to 21 d. The fact that a significant percentage of flies exposed to imidacloprid were rapidly knocked down but subsequently remained alive in all of the assays suggested that flies were recovering from initial exposure to this compound. Given its favorable safety profile, a high degree of initial and residual activity comparable with methomyl and lack of cross-resistance to other chemistries, spinosad bait may be a valuable component of house fly control programs to help control or delay the emergence of resistant populations.

  13. Evolving Complex Networks Analysis of Space-Time Multi-Scale Wavelike Fields: Application to African Rainfall Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluoch, Kevin; Marwan, Norbert; Trauth, Martin; Kurths, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    Evolving complex networks analysis is a very recent and very promising attempt to describe, in the most realistic ways, complex systems or multi-system dynamics. The Earth system is comprised of many attractors that are multi-scaled, multi-complexity non-linear systems of systems. Space time propagations responsible for precipitation is one example in which the interactions between the aforementioned properties of complex systems can be applied; especially the spatio-temporal wave likeness of spatial patterning and temporal recurrences representative of the underlying dynamics. Tobler's first law of geography states: "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things" (Waldo Tobler, 1970 Economic Geography 46: 234-40). Most time-series analysis are pairwise correlations and even when faced with gridded data, the neighborhood characteristics is never used as an input variable. In our point of view, such analysis ignore vital information on the multi-scale non-linear spatial patterns of the continuities and singularities possibly resulting from underlying random processes. This work in progress is an application, mainly inspired by wave theory and non-linear dynamics. It is a systematic method of methods, which exploits the nonlinear multi-scale wave nature of virtually everything in nature including financial data, disease dynamics et cetera and applies it to climate through complex network analysis of rainfall data. The method uses a continuous spatial wavelet transform for non-linear multi-scale decomposition. Such an output carries all vital information pertaining the singularity structures in the data. Similarity measures are obtained by considering the multi-fractal nature of the distribution of discontinuities. The more similar the point-wise generalized dimensions are in-terms of their continuity, fractal, entropy, information and correlation dimensions, the higher the chance that they characterize similar

  14. A ligand field chemistry of oxygen generation by the oxygen-evolving complex and synthetic active sites.

    PubMed

    Betley, Theodore A; Surendranath, Yogesh; Childress, Montana V; Alliger, Glen E; Fu, Ross; Cummins, Christopher C; Nocera, Daniel G

    2008-03-27

    Oxygen-oxygen bond formation and O2 generation occur from the S4 state of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Several mechanistic possibilities have been proposed for water oxidation, depending on the formal oxidation state of the Mn atoms. All fall under two general classifications: the AB mechanism in which nucleophilic oxygen (base, B) attacks electrophilic oxygen (acid, A) of the Mn4Ca cluster or the RC mechanism in which radical-like oxygen species couple within OEC. The critical intermediate in either mechanism involves a metal oxo, though the nature of this oxo for AB and RC mechanisms is disparate. In the case of the AB mechanism, assembly of an even-electron count, high-valent metal-oxo proximate to a hydroxide is needed whereas, in an RC mechanism, two odd-electron count, high-valent metal oxos are required. Thus the two mechanisms give rise to very different design criteria for functional models of the OEC active site. This discussion presents the electron counts and ligand geometries that support metal oxos for AB and RC O-O bond-forming reactions. The construction of architectures that bring two oxygen functionalities together under the purview of the AB and RC scenarios are described.

  15. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  16. Truncated transcripts of nicotinic acetylcholine subunit gene bdalpha6 are associated with spinosad resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated spinosad resistance mechanisms of a Bactocera dorsalis strain from Taiwan. Resistance levels were 901-fold, and there was no cross resistance against imidacloprid or fipronil Combined biochemical and synergistic data indicated that target site insensitivity is the major resistance co...

  17. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  18. Mortality of Rhagoletis indifferens exposed to hydrolyzed protein baits and spinosad in the absence and presence of yeast extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is the major quarantine pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.), in the Pacific Northwest of the USA and in British Columbia in Canada. Although spinosad bait (GF-120 NF Naturalyte® Fruit Fly Bait, Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN, USA) ...

  19. Effects of Short Exposures to Spinosad-Treated Wheat or Maize on Four Stored-Grain Insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat and maize was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insects: the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the psocid Lepinotus reti...

  20. Toxicity and feeding response of adult corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to an organic spinosad formulation in sucrose solution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), feeds on plant exudates soon after emergence from pupa in their natural habitat, and thereafter disperses to suitable host plants for reproduction. The intent of this study was to determine if Entrust™, an organic formulation of spinosad, could be used i...

  1. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  2. Sucrose mixed with spinosad enhances kill and reduces oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under low-food conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...

  3. Efficacy of Spinosad Tablets Administered to a Colony of 15 Indoor Cats Naturally Infested with Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Cadiergues, Marie-Christine; Pressanti, Charline

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were (i) to describe adult fleas distribution in a strictly indoor cat colony composed of cats with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) and non-FAD cats and (ii) to evaluate the efficacy of spinosad used alone. Skin lesions were scored according to the SCORing Feline Allergic Dermatitis lesion severity scale (SCORFAD) on days 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90. Cats were combed prior to the treatment (days 0, 30, and 60) and on days 15, 45, and 90; collected fleas were replaced on the animals. All cats received flavored spinosad tablets (Comfortis) at a dosage of 50–75 mg/kg on days 0, 30, and 60. Cats were fed immediately afterwards. On day 0, a total of 60 fleas were collected (mean: 4 ± 4). Cats with FAD had a SCORFAD of 6, 8, 12, and 13 and harbored 0, 2, 1, and 0 fleas, respectively. Tablets were taken voluntarily by 8, 11, and 12 cats on days 0, 30, and 60, respectively. No adverse event was recorded. From day 15 to day 90, no fleas could be collected. SCORFAD was reduced by 40%, 71%, 80%, 89%, and 98% on days 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, respectively. PMID:24977046

  4. Evaluation of the evolving stress field of the Yellowstone volcanic plateau, 1988 to 2010, from earthquake first-motion inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, E.; Waite, G. P.; Tibaldi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Although the last rhyolite eruption occurred around 70 ka ago, the silicic Yellowstone volcanic field is still considered active due to high hydrothermal and seismic activity and possible recent magma intrusions. Geodetic measurements document complex deformation patterns in crustal strain and seismic activity likewise reveal spatial and temporal variations in the stress field. We use earthquake data recorded between 1988 and 2010 to investigate these variations and their possible causes in more detail. Earthquake relocations and a set of 369 well-constrained, double-couple, focal mechanism solutions were computed. Events were grouped according to location and time to investigate trends in faulting. The majority of the events have normal-faulting solutions, subordinate strike-slip kinematics, and very rarely, reverse motions. The dominant direction of extension throughout the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera is nearly ENE, consistent with the perpendicular direction of alignments of volcanic vents within the caldera, but our study also reveals spatial and temporal variations. Stress-field solutions for different areas and time periods were calculated from earthquake focal mechanism inversion. A well-resolved rotation of σ3 was found, from NNE-SSW near the Hebgen Lake fault zone, to ENE-WSW near Norris Junction. In particular, the σ3 direction changed throughout the years around Norris Geyser Basin, from being ENE-WSW, as calculated in the study by Waite and Smith (2004), to NNE-SSW, while the other σ3 directions are mostly unchanged over time. The presence of ;chocolate tablet; structures, with two sets of nearly perpendicular normal faults, was identified in many stages of the deformation history both in the Norris Geyser Basin area and inside the caldera.

  5. Chemical abundances and kinematics of 257 G-, K-type field giants. Setting a base for further analysis of giant-planet properties orbiting evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Benamati, L.; Santos, N. C.; Alves, S.; Lovis, C.; Udry, S.; Israelian, G.; Sousa, S. G.; Tsantaki, M.; Mortier, A.; Sozzetti, A.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    We performed a uniform and detailed abundance analysis of 12 refractory elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Co, Sc, Mn, and V) for a sample of 257 G- and K-type evolved stars from the CORALIE planet search programme. To date, only one of these stars is known to harbour a planetary companion. We aimed to characterize this large sample of evolved stars in terms of chemical abundances and kinematics, thus setting a solid base for further analysis of planetary properties around giant stars. This sample, being homogeneously analysed, can be used as a comparison sample for other planet-related studies, as well as for different type of studies related to stellar and Galaxy astrophysics. The abundances of the chemical elements were determined using an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis relative to the Sun, with the spectral synthesis code MOOG and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 atmospheres. To separate the Galactic stellar populations, both a purely kinematical approach and a chemical method were applied. We confirm the overabundance of Na in giant stars compared to the field FGK dwarfs. This enhancement might have a stellar evolutionary character, but departures from LTE may also produce a similar enhancement. Our chemical separation of stellar populations also suggests a `gap' in metallicity between the thick-disc and high-α metal-rich stars, as previously observed in dwarfs sample from HARPS. The present sample, as most of the giant star samples, also suffers from the B - V colour cut-off, which excludes low-log g stars with high metallicities, and high-log g star with low [Fe/H]. For future studies of planet occurrence dependence on stellar metallicity around these evolved stars, we suggest to use a subsample of stars in a `cut-rectangle' in the log g-[Fe/H] diagram to overcome the aforementioned issue.

  6. Real-space phase field investigation of evolving magnetic domains and twin structures in a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. H.; Pramanick, A.; Ke, Y. B.; Wang, X.-L.

    2016-11-01

    A real-space phase field model combining Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation is developed to investigate the evolution of ferromagnetic domains and martensitic twin structures in a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy at different lengthscales. Both domain and twin structures are obtained by simultaneously solving for minimization of magnetic, elastic, and magnetoelastic coupling energy terms via a nonlinear finite element method. The model is applied to simulate magneto-structural evolution within a nanoparticle and a bulk single-crystal of the alloy Ni2MnGa, which are subjected to mechanical strains. It is shown that a nanoparticle contains magnetic vortex structures within a single twin variant, whereas for a bulk crystal both 90° and 180° domain structures are present within multiple twin variants.

  7. Disgust: Evolved Function and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Lieberman, Debra; Kurzban, Robert; DeScioli, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and that of information processing. Although there is…

  8. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bifenthrin in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) Populations in Western Nebraska and Kansas.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriano E; Wang, Haichuan; Zukoff, Sarah N; Meinke, Lance J; French, B Wade; Siegfried, Blair D

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control larvae or adults of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, a key pest of field corn in the United States. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroids in WCR management programs in southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas the present research was designed to establish a baseline of susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, using susceptible laboratory populations and to compare this baseline with susceptibility of field populations. Concentration-response bioassays were performed to estimate the baseline susceptibility. From the baseline data, a diagnostic concentration (LC99) was determined and used to test adults of both laboratory and field populations. Larval susceptibility was also tested using both laboratory and field populations. Significant differences were recorded in adult and larval susceptibility among WCR field and laboratory populations. The highest LC50 for WCR adults was observed in populations from Keith 2 and Chase Counties, NE, with LC50s of 2.2 and 1.38 μg/vial, respectively, and Finney County 1, KS, with 1.43 μg/vial, as compared to a laboratory non-diapause population (0.24 μg/vial). For larvae, significant differences between WCR field and laboratory populations were also recorded. Significant differences in mortalities at the diagnostic bifenthrin concentration (LC99) were observed among WCR adult populations with western Corn Belt populations exhibiting lower susceptibility to bifenthrin, especially in southwestern Nebraska and southwestern Kansas. This study provides evidence that resistance to bifenthrin is evolving in field populations that have been exposed for multiple years to pyrethroid insecticides. Implications to sustainable rootworm management are discussed.

  9. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bifenthrin in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) Populations in Western Nebraska and Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Adriano E.; Wang, Haichuan; Zukoff, Sarah N.; Meinke, Lance J.; French, B. Wade; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control larvae or adults of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, a key pest of field corn in the United States. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroids in WCR management programs in southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas the present research was designed to establish a baseline of susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, using susceptible laboratory populations and to compare this baseline with susceptibility of field populations. Concentration-response bioassays were performed to estimate the baseline susceptibility. From the baseline data, a diagnostic concentration (LC99) was determined and used to test adults of both laboratory and field populations. Larval susceptibility was also tested using both laboratory and field populations. Significant differences were recorded in adult and larval susceptibility among WCR field and laboratory populations. The highest LC50 for WCR adults was observed in populations from Keith 2 and Chase Counties, NE, with LC50s of 2.2 and 1.38 μg/vial, respectively, and Finney County 1, KS, with 1.43 μg/vial, as compared to a laboratory non-diapause population (0.24 μg/vial). For larvae, significant differences between WCR field and laboratory populations were also recorded. Significant differences in mortalities at the diagnostic bifenthrin concentration (LC99) were observed among WCR adult populations with western Corn Belt populations exhibiting lower susceptibility to bifenthrin, especially in southwestern Nebraska and southwestern Kansas. This study provides evidence that resistance to bifenthrin is evolving in field populations that have been exposed for multiple years to pyrethroid insecticides. Implications to sustainable rootworm management are discussed. PMID:26566127

  10. How simple autonomous decisions evolve into robust behaviours? A review from neurorobotics, cognitive, self-organized and artificial immune systems fields.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A; Acosta, Gerardo G; Rozenfeld, Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Researchers in diverse fields, such as in neuroscience, systems biology and autonomous robotics, have been intrigued by the origin and mechanisms for biological robustness. Darwinian evolution, in general, has suggested that adaptive mechanisms as a way of reaching robustness, could evolve by natural selection acting successively on numerous heritable variations. However, is this understanding enough for realizing how biological systems remain robust during their interactions with the surroundings? Here, we describe selected studies of bio-inspired systems that show behavioral robustness. From neurorobotics, cognitive, self-organizing and artificial immune system perspectives, our discussions focus mainly on how robust behaviors evolve or emerge in these systems, having the capacity of interacting with their surroundings. These descriptions are twofold. Initially, we introduce examples from autonomous robotics to illustrate how the process of designing robust control can be idealized in complex environments for autonomous navigation in terrain and underwater vehicles. We also include descriptions of bio-inspired self-organizing systems. Then, we introduce other studies that contextualize experimental evolution with simulated organisms and physical robots to exemplify how the process of natural selection can lead to the evolution of robustness by means of adaptive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic characterization of field-evolved resistance to phosphine in the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Laemophloeidae: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, Rajeswaran; Collins, Patrick J; Nayak, Manoj K; Schlipalius, David I; Ebert, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    Inheritance of resistance to phosphine fumigant was investigated in three field-collected strains of rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Susceptible (S-strain), Weakly Resistant (Weak-R) and Strongly Resistant (Strong-R). The strains were purified for susceptibility, weak resistance and strong resistance to phosphine, respectively, to ensure homozygosity of resistance genotype. Crosses were established between S-strain×Weak-R, S-strain×Strong-R and Weak-R×Strong-R, and the dose mortality responses to phosphine of these strains and their F1, F2 and F1-backcross progeny were obtained. The fumigations were undertaken at 25°C and 55% RH for 72h. Weak-R and Strong-R showed resistance factors of 6.3× and 505× compared with S-strain at the LC50. Both weak and strong resistances were expressed as incompletely recessive with degrees of dominance of -0.48 and -0.43 at the LC50, respectively. Responses of F2 and F1-backcross progeny indicated the existence of one major gene in Weak-R, and at least two major genes in Strong-R, one of which was allelic with the major factor in Weak-R. Phenotypic variance analyses also estimated that the number of independently segregating genes conferring weak resistance was 1 (nE=0.89) whereas there were two genes controlling strong resistance (nE=1.2). The second gene, unique to Strong-R, interacted synergistically with the first gene to confer a very high level of resistance (~80×). Neither of the two major resistance genes was sex linked. Despite the similarity of the genetics of resistance to that previously observed in other pest species, a significant proportion (~15 to 30%) of F1 individuals survived at phosphine concentrations higher than predicted. Thus it is likely that additional dominant heritable factors, present in some individuals in the population, also influenced the resistance phenotype. Our results will help in understanding the process of selection for phosphine resistance in the field which will inform

  12. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of saccharopolyspora spinosa SP06081 and PR2 strains reveals the differentially expressed proteins correlated with the increase of spinosad yield

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Saccharopolyspora spinosa produces the environment-friendly biopesticide spinosad, a mixture of two polyketide-derived macrolide active ingredients called spinosyns A and D. Therefore considerable interest is in the improvement of spinosad production because of its low yield in wild-type S. spinosa. Recently, a spinosad-hyperproducing PR2 strain with stable heredity was obtained from protoplast regeneration of the wild-type S. spinosa SP06081 strain. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed on the two strains during the first rapid growth phase (RG1) in seed medium (SM) by using label-free quantitative proteomics to investigate the underlying mechanism leading to the enhancement of spinosad yield. Results In total, 224 proteins from the SP06081 strain and 204 proteins from the PR2 strain were unambiguously identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, sharing 140 proteins. A total of 12 proteins directly related to spinosad biosynthesis were identified from the two strains in RG1. Comparative analysis of the shared proteins revealed that approximately 31% of them changed their abundance significantly and fell in all of the functional groups, such as tricarboxylic acid cycles, glycolysis, biosynthetic processes, catabolic processes, transcription, translation, oxidation and reduction. Several key enzymes involved in the synthesis of primary metabolic intermediates used as precursors for spinosad production, energy supply, polyketide chain assembly, deoxysugar methylation, and antioxidative stress were differentially expressed in the same pattern of facilitating spinosad production by the PR2 strain. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that four of five selected genes showed a positive correlation between changes at the translational and transcriptional expression level, which further confirmed the proteomic analysis. Conclusions The present study is the first comprehensive and

  13. [O II] emitters at z ˜ 4.6 in the GOODS field: a homogeneous measure of evolving star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, K. D.; McMahon, R. G.; Venemans, B. P.; Banerji, M.; Lewis, J. R.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of a high-redshift, z = 4.6, survey of [O II] λ3727 emission line galaxies in the GOODS-S field. The survey uses deep near-infrared data in the NB2090 (λc = 2.095 μm, Δ λ = 0.02 μm) and Ks (λc = 2.146 μm, Δ λ = 0.324 μm) filters taken with the European Southern Observatory instrument, HAWK-I. The images reach an emission line flux limit (5σ) of 3.16 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm -2. At z = 4.6, the survey probes a comoving volume of ˜6680 Mpc3. Three [O II] emission line candidates at z ˜ 4.6 are selected using the Lyman-break criteria. Photometric redshift analysis supports the conclusion that these are genuine [O II] emitters, ruling out a z < 3 solution entirely for one of the candidates. In the analysis presented in this paper, two scenarios are considered: first, all three candidates are genuine [O II] emitters and secondly, only the most likely candidate is a genuine [O II] emitter. We use the line fluxes of these objects to place confidence limits on the star formation rate density (SFRD) in bright (log(L[O ii ])>42.0) [O II] emission line galaxies. Assuming an observed [O II]/Hα line ratio of 0.45 and A(Hα) = 1.0 mag, we report an SFRD of ρdot*(log(L[O ii ])>42.0)=0.058 M yr -1 Mpc -3 in our objects. Using small number statistics, we then place a 50 per cent confidence interval on the global star formation rate of ρdot;*(log(L[O ii ])>42.0)=0.058±0.013 M yr -1 Mpc -3. By combining our results with those from low-z surveys, we compile the first homogeneous set of measurements of the SFRD in bright [O II] emitters from z = 0 to 4.6. From this, we conclude that there was an increase in the SFRD in the brightest [O II] emitters of at least a factor of 2 between z = 4.6 and 1.85.

  14. Culture evolves

    PubMed Central

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

  15. Culture evolves.

    PubMed

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A; Laland, Kevin N; Stringer, Christopher B

    2011-04-12

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission.

  16. Four-stage dissolved oxygen strategy based on multi-scale analysis for improving spinosad yield by Saccharopolyspora spinosa ATCC49460.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Fan, Pei; Zhu, Yuan-Min; Tong, Yao; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important influencing factor in the process of aerobic microbial fermentation. Spinosad is an aerobic microbial-derived secondary metabolite. In our study, spinosad was used as an example to establish a DO strategy by multi-scale analysis, which included a reactor, cell and gene scales. We changed DO conditions that are related to the characteristics of cell metabolism (glucose consumption rate, biomass accumulation and spinosad production). Consequently, cell growth was promoted by maintaining DO at 40% in the first 24 h and subsequently increasing DO to 50% in 24 h to 96 h. In an in-depth analysis of the key enzyme genes (gtt, spn A, spn K and spn O), expression of spinosad and specific Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), the spinosad yield was increased by regulating DO to 30% within 96 h to 192 h and then changing it to 25% in 192 h to 240 h. Under the four-phase DO strategy, spinosad yield increased by 652.1%, 326.1%, 546.8%, and 781.4% compared with the yield obtained under constant DO control at 50%, 40%, 30%, and 20% respectively. The proposed method provides a novel way to develop a precise DO strategy for fermentation.

  17. Assessment of Inheritance and Fitness Costs Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Maize by Western Corn Rootworm.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Aubrey R; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2017-05-11

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.

  18. Dissipation behaviour of spinosad in polyhouse grown tomato under mid-hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Lokender; Sharma, Duni Chand; Anil

    2015-03-01

    An established analytical method was further standardized for the estimation of spinosad residue in tomato grown under naturally ventilated polyhouse situated in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh, India. Spinosad was sprayed on hybrid tomato cv. Avtar at the recommended and double the recommended dosages at 15 and 30 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively, to control the lepidopterous pests and the residue were analysed from tomato fruits at different intervals after second spray. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile-water mixture (8:2), partitioned into dichloromethane, methanol and anhydrous sodium hydroxide. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum and cleaned up with silica solid phase extraction cartridge. Further, the samples were analysed in high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV/visible detector at λ = 250 nm and C18 reversed-phase column. Consistent recoveries ranging from 80.6 ± 1.1 to 91.4 ± 1.2 % were observed when samples were spiked at fortification range of 0.01 to 0.20 mg kg(-1). The limit of quantification of the method was worked out to be 0.02 mg kg(-1). The half-life values of spinosad were determined to be 1.20 and 1.60 days at recommended and double the recommended dosage, respectively. The safety interval for spinosad sprayed tomato fruit was determined to be 1.92 and 3.88 days at application rate of 15 and 30 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively.

  19. Influence of Temperature and Humidity on the Efficacy of Spinosad Against Four Stored-Grain Beetle Species

    PubMed Central

    Athanassiou, Christos G.; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Yiatilis, Alcebiades E.; Vayias, Basileios J.; Mavrotas, Constantin S.; Tomanović, Željko

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, we examined the insecticidal effect of spinosad, against adults of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat and the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on maize. The dose rates used were 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 ppm. The bioassays were carried out at three temperatures, 20, 25 and 30°C and two relative humidity levels, 55 and 75%. Mortality of R. dominica and S. oryzae was high even at 0.01 ppm of spinosad, reaching 100% at 55% relative humidity and 30° after 21 days of exposure. Generally, mortality of R. dominica, increased with temperature while for S. oryzae mortality increased with temperature and with the decrease of relative humidity. Moreover, for S. oryzae, mortality was low at 20°C. In the case of T. confusum, mortality was low at doses between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm even after 21 days of exposure. At 1 ppm, mortality exceeded 90% only at 30°C and only after 21 days of exposure. Mortality of P. truncatus was low on maize treated with 0.01 ppm, but increasing the dose to 0.1 ppm resulted in > 87% mortality after 14 days of exposure. In several combinations tested, spinosad efficacy notably varied according to the temperature and humidity regimes. Of the species tested, R. dominica and P. truncatus were very susceptible to spinosad, followed by S. oryzae, while T. confusum was the least susceptible. PMID:20302538

  20. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J.; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S.; Wu, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. PMID:26855198

  1. Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Resistance in Spinosad- and Neonicotinoid-Resistant Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) Strains

    PubMed Central

    Højland, Dorte H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The housefly is a global pest that has developed resistance to most insecticides applied against it. Resistance of the spinosad-resistant strain 791spin and the neonicotinoid-resistant 766b strain is believed to be due to metabolism. We investigate differentially expressed genes in these two resistant strains related to metabolism in comparison with an insecticide-susceptible reference strain. Results Genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics were primarily up-regulated in resistant flies with some differences between resistant strains. The cyp4g98 and cyp6g4 genes proved interesting in terms of neonicotinoid resistance, while cyp4d9 was overexpressed in 791spin compared to spinosad-susceptible strains. GSTs, ESTs and UGTs were mostly overexpressed, but not to the same degree as P450s. We present a comprehensive and comparative picture of gene expression in three housefly strains differing significantly in their response to insecticides. High differential expression of P450s and genes coding for cuticle protein indicates a combination of factors involved in metabolic neonicotinoid and spinosad resistance. Conclusion Resistance in these strains is apparently not linked to the alteration of a single gene but is composed of several changes including differential expression of genes encoding metabolic detoxification enzymes. PMID:28125739

  2. Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Resistance in Spinosad- and Neonicotinoid-Resistant Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) Strains.

    PubMed

    Højland, Dorte H; Kristensen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The housefly is a global pest that has developed resistance to most insecticides applied against it. Resistance of the spinosad-resistant strain 791spin and the neonicotinoid-resistant 766b strain is believed to be due to metabolism. We investigate differentially expressed genes in these two resistant strains related to metabolism in comparison with an insecticide-susceptible reference strain. Genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics were primarily up-regulated in resistant flies with some differences between resistant strains. The cyp4g98 and cyp6g4 genes proved interesting in terms of neonicotinoid resistance, while cyp4d9 was overexpressed in 791spin compared to spinosad-susceptible strains. GSTs, ESTs and UGTs were mostly overexpressed, but not to the same degree as P450s. We present a comprehensive and comparative picture of gene expression in three housefly strains differing significantly in their response to insecticides. High differential expression of P450s and genes coding for cuticle protein indicates a combination of factors involved in metabolic neonicotinoid and spinosad resistance. Resistance in these strains is apparently not linked to the alteration of a single gene but is composed of several changes including differential expression of genes encoding metabolic detoxification enzymes.

  3. COLOR AND STELLAR POPULATION GRADIENTS IN PASSIVELY EVOLVING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2 FROM HST/WFC3 DEEP IMAGING IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cassata, Paolo; Salimbeni, Sara; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman A.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Dickinson, Mark; Renzini, Alvio; Papovich, Casey; Tundo, Elena; Fontana, Adriano

    2011-07-01

    We report the detection of color gradients in six massive (stellar mass (M{sub star}) > 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}) and passively evolving (specific star formation rate <10{sup -11} yr{sup -1}) galaxies at redshift 1.3 < z < 2.5 identified in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using ultra-deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFC3/IR images. After carefully matching the different point-spread functions, we obtain color maps and multi-band optical/near-IR photometry (BVizYJH) in concentric annuli, from the smallest resolved radial distance ({approx}1.7 kpc) up to several times the H-band effective radius. We find that the inner regions of these galaxies have redder rest-frame UV-optical colors (U - V, U - B, and B - V) than the outer parts. The slopes of the color gradient have no obvious dependence on the redshift and on the stellar mass of the galaxies. They do mildly depend, however, on the overall dust obscuration (E(B - V)) and rest-frame (U - V) color, with more obscured or redder galaxies having steeper color gradients. The z {approx} 2 color gradients are also steeper than those of local early-type ones. The gradient of a single parameter (age, extinction, or metallicity) cannot fully explain the observed color gradients. Fitting the spatially resolved HST seven-band photometry to stellar population synthesis models, we find that, regardless of assumptions on the metallicity gradient, the redder inner regions of the galaxies have slightly higher dust obscuration than the bluer outer regions, implying that dust partly contributes to the observed color gradients, although the magnitude depends on the assumed extinction law. Due to the age-metallicity degeneracy, the derived age gradient depends on the assumptions for the metallicity gradient. We discuss the implications of a number of assumptions for metallicity gradients on the formation and evolution of these galaxies. We find that the evolution of the mass-size relationship from z {approx} 2

  4. Color and Stellar Population Gradients in Passively Evolving Galaxies at z ~ 2 from HST/WFC3 Deep Imaging in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cassata, Paolo; Ferguson, Henry C.; Dickinson, Mark; Renzini, Alvio; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman A.; Papovich, Casey; Tundo, Elena; Fontana, Adriano; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Salimbeni, Sara

    2011-07-01

    We report the detection of color gradients in six massive (stellar mass (M star) > 1010 M ⊙) and passively evolving (specific star formation rate <10-11 yr-1) galaxies at redshift 1.3 < z < 2.5 identified in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using ultra-deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFC3/IR images. After carefully matching the different point-spread functions, we obtain color maps and multi-band optical/near-IR photometry (BVizYJH) in concentric annuli, from the smallest resolved radial distance (≈1.7 kpc) up to several times the H-band effective radius. We find that the inner regions of these galaxies have redder rest-frame UV-optical colors (U - V, U - B, and B - V) than the outer parts. The slopes of the color gradient have no obvious dependence on the redshift and on the stellar mass of the galaxies. They do mildly depend, however, on the overall dust obscuration (E(B - V)) and rest-frame (U - V) color, with more obscured or redder galaxies having steeper color gradients. The z ~ 2 color gradients are also steeper than those of local early-type ones. The gradient of a single parameter (age, extinction, or metallicity) cannot fully explain the observed color gradients. Fitting the spatially resolved HST seven-band photometry to stellar population synthesis models, we find that, regardless of assumptions on the metallicity gradient, the redder inner regions of the galaxies have slightly higher dust obscuration than the bluer outer regions, implying that dust partly contributes to the observed color gradients, although the magnitude depends on the assumed extinction law. Due to the age-metallicity degeneracy, the derived age gradient depends on the assumptions for the metallicity gradient. We discuss the implications of a number of assumptions for metallicity gradients on the formation and evolution of these galaxies. We find that the evolution of the mass-size relationship from z ~ 2 to the present cannot be driven by in situ

  5. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  6. Field assessments of control agents for lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) using litter sampling.

    PubMed

    Lambkin, Trevor A; Swain, Anthony J; Rice, Steven J; Bartlett, Justin S; Zalucki, Myron P

    2012-06-01

    Spinosad, diatomaceous earth, and cyfluthrin were assessed on two broiler farms at Gleneagle and Gatton in southeastern Queensland, Australia in 2004-2005 and 2007-2009, respectively to determine their effectiveness in controlling lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Insecticide treatments were applied mostly to earth or 'hard' cement floors of broiler houses before the placement of new bedding. Efficacy of each agent was assessed by regular sampling of litter and counting of immature stages and adult beetles, and comparing insect counts in treatments to counts in untreated houses. Generally, the lowest numbers of lesser mealworm were recorded in the house with hard floors, these numbers equalling the most effective spinosad applications. The most effective treatment was a strategic application of spinosad under feed supply lines on a hard floor. In compacted earth floor houses, mean numbers of lesser mealworms for two under-feed-line spinosad treatments (i.e., 2-m-wide application at 0.18 g of active insecticide (g [AI]) in 100-ml water/m2, and 1-m-wide application at 0.11 g ([AI] in 33-ml water/m2), and an entire floor spinosad treatment (0.07 g [AI] in 86-ml water/m2) were significantly lower (i.e., better control) than those numbers for cyfluthrin, and no treatment (controls). The 1-m-wide under-feed-line treatment was the most cost-effective dose, providing similar control to the other two most effective spinosad treatments, but using less than half the active component per broiler house. No efficacy was demonstrated when spinosad was applied to the surface of bedding in relatively large volumes of water. All applications of diatomaceous earth, applied with and without spinosad, and cyfluthrin at the label rate of 0.02 g (AI)/100-ml water/m2 showed no effect, with insect counts not significantly different to untreated controls. Overall, the results of this field assessment indicate that cyfluthrin (the Australian

  7. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  8. Field Characterization of the Mineralogy and Organic Chemistry of Carbonates from the 2010 Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition by Evolved Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdam, A. C.; Ten Kate, I. L.; Stern, J. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Blake, D. F.; Morris, R. V.; Steele, A.; Amundson, H. E. F.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE) investigated two geologic settings using methodologies and techniques being developed or considered for future Mars missions, such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), ExoMars, and Mars Sample Return. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) [1] instrument suite, which will be on MSL, consists of a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), a gas chromatograph (GC), and a tunable laser mass spectrometer (TLS); all will be applied to analyze gases created by pyrolysis of samples. During AMASE, a Hiden Evolved Gas Analysis-Mass Spectrometer (EGA-MS) system represented the EGA-MS capability of SAM. Another MSL instrument, CheMin, will use x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to perform quantitative mineralogical characterization of samples [e.g., 2]. Field-portable versions of CheMin were used during AMASE. AMASE 2010 focused on two sites that represented biotic and abiotic analogs. The abiotic site was the basaltic Sigurdfjell vent complex, which contains Mars-analog carbonate cements including carbonate globules which are excellent analogs for the globules in the ALH84001 martian meteorite [e.g., 3, 4]. The biotic site was the Knorringfjell fossil methane seep, which featured carbonates precipitated in a methane-supported chemosynthetic community [5]. This contribution focuses on EGA-MS analyses of samples from each site, with mineralogy comparisons to CheMin team results. The results give insight into organic content and organic-mineral associations, as well as some constraints on the minerals present.

  9. Field efficacy of new larvicide products for control of multi-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Martinique (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Darriet, Frédéric; Agnew, Philip; Etienne, Manuel; Yp-Tcha, Marie-Michelle; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    World-wide dengue vector control is hampered by the spread of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. We report the resistance status of a wild Ae. aegypti population from Martinique (Vauclin) to conventional larvicides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis [Bti] and temephos) and potential alternatives (spinosad, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen). The efficacy and residual activity of these insecticides were evaluated under simulated and field conditions. The Vauclin strain exhibited a high level of resistance to temephos, a tolerance to insect growth regulators, and full susceptibility to spinosad and Bti. In simulated trials, pyriproxyfen and Bti showed long residual activities in permanent breeding containers (28 and 37 weeks), whereas under field conditions they failed to curtail Ae. aegypti populations after four weeks. Conversely, diflubenzuron and spinosad showed a residual efficacy of 16 weeks, suggesting that these chemicals may be promising alternatives to Bti and temephos for controlling insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations.

  10. Field Efficacy of New Larvicide Products for Control of Multi-Resistant Aedes aegypti Populations in Martinique (French West Indies)

    PubMed Central

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Darriet, Frédéric; Agnew, Philip; Etienne, Manuel; Yp-Tcha, Marie-Michelle; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    World-wide dengue vector control is hampered by the spread of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. We report the resistance status of a wild Ae. aegypti population from Martinique (Vauclin) to conventional larvicides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis [Bti] and temephos) and potential alternatives (spinosad, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen). The efficacy and residual activity of these insecticides were evaluated under simulated and field conditions. The Vauclin strain exhibited a high level of resistance to temephos, a tolerance to insect growth regulators, and full susceptibility to spinosad and Bti. In simulated trials, pyriproxyfen and Bti showed long residual activities in permanent breeding containers (28 and 37 weeks), whereas under field conditions they failed to curtail Ae. aegypti populations after four weeks. Conversely, diflubenzuron and spinosad showed a residual efficacy of 16 weeks, suggesting that these chemicals may be promising alternatives to Bti and temephos for controlling insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations. PMID:21212213

  11. Confirmation of the efficacy of a combination tablet of spinosad and milbemycin oxime against naturally acquired infections of canine intestinal nematode parasites.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Beate; Hayes, Brad; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2012-03-23

    Four separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination to dogs for the treatment and control of naturally acquired infections of adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) and ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina). Dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment quantitative nematode egg counts of each species of interest to one of two treatment groups of 10 or 11 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, was given orally to dogs using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A corresponding vehicle control group was treated similarly in each individual study. Dogs were necropsied post-treatment on Day 7/8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract collected at necropsy were identified and counted by species and stage. The spinosad and MO combination group demonstrated significantly different adult intestinal nematode efficacy in each individual study as compared to the vehicle control group. Efficacy values for whipworm, hookworm, T. canis and T. leonina were 100%, 99.8%, 100%, 93.3%, respectively. Minor non-serious adverse events were observed in a small number of control and treated dogs that were attributed primarily to the natural nematode infections. In summary, flavored spinosad and MO combination tablets administered orally to dogs were both safe and highly efficacious delivering >93% up to 100% adult intestinal nematode control in naturally infected dogs.

  12. The Effect of Application Rate of GF-120 (Spinosad) and Malathion on the Mortality of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foragers.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Marín, Nina Vanessa; Liedo, Pablo; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial organisms like the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are heavily affected by pest control practices that incorporate insecticides. Safer alternatives as the spinosad-based formulation GF-120 have been developed to overcome this issue. Though both the low concentration of spinosad and the ultra-low-volume application rate of GF-120 are supposed to have a low acute toxicity in honey bee foragers, to our knowledge such claims have not been explicitly proven. We thus carried out a series of experiments to assess the effect of GF-120, malathion, and Spintor (spinosad) on honey bee foragers when applied at two concentrations (80 and 1,500 ppm) and two application rates (low density rate [LDR]—80 drops of 5 mm diameter per square meter; high density rate [HDR]—thousands of 200 -µm-diameter droplets per square meter). Interestingly, the three pesticides caused low mortality on foragers when applied at LDR-80, LDR-1,500, or HDR-80. However, HDR-1,500 caused a very high mortality. Based upon these results, we developed a computer program to estimate the average number of foragers that are exposed at LDR and HDR. We found that more foragers receive a lethal dose when exposed at HDR than at the other rates. Our results support the hypothesis that the impact of GF-120 and malathion upon honey bees is minimal when applied at LDR and that computer simulation can help greatly in understanding the effects of pesticides upon nontarget species.

  13. Dose confirmation and non-interference evaluations of the oral efficacy of a combination of milbemycin oxime and spinosad against the dose limiting parasites, adult cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), in dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Wiseman, Scott

    2012-03-23

    Two separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose and non-interference of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination or alone to dogs for the treatment and control of experimentally induced flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis) and adult hookworm infections (Ancylostoma caninum). For each study, dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment adult flea and hookworm egg counts to one of four treatment groups of 10 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient, or individually alone using the full dose range, were given orally to dogs on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A placebo control was treated similarly. In one study, on Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 28 and 35 each dog was infested with approximately 100 unfed adult C. felis obtained from the investigator's established flea colony. All dogs were infested via the same method. Forty-eight hour post-infestation flea comb counts were conducted on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 37 and were used to determine the knockdown and residual flea activity. In the second study, on Day -27 each of 48 dogs were experimentally inoculated with 100 third-stage infective larvae of the hookworm, A. caninum. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and necropsied on Day 7 or Day 8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract were collected on Day 7 or Day 8, identified and counted by species and stage. Post-treatment, the geometric mean live flea counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad/MO combination and the spinosad only treatment groups as compared to the vehicle control group. The flea counts in the MO only group and the control group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group and the spinosad only treatment group demonstrated significantly different knockdown (100

  14. Feeding and attraction of non-target flies to spinosad-based fruit fly bait.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Messing, Russell H

    2006-10-01

    A spinosad-based fruit fly bait, GF-120, has recently become a primary tool for area-wide suppression or eradication of pest tephritid fruit flies. The present study assessed the attraction and feeding of five non-target fly species to GF-120 in Hawaii. These non-target flies include three beneficial tephritid species [Eutreta xanthochaeta (Aldrich), Tetreuaresta obscuriventris (Loew), Ensina sonchi (L.)] introduced for weed biological control, an endemic Hawaiian tephritid [Trupanea dubautiae (Bryan)] (all Diptera: Tephritidae) and the cosmopolitan Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). All five non-target fly species were susceptible to GF-120, as was the target pest Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Feeding on, or even brief tasting of, GF-120 killed all fly species within 2 h. When individual flies were provided with a choice of GF-120 or honey solution, there was no difference in the frequency of first food encounter by E. xanthochaeta, D. melanogaster or C. capitata. The other three non-target species approached honey more often than GF-120 in their first food encounter. Feeding times on GF-120 and honey were not significantly different for D. melanogaster and C. capitata, while the other four non-target species fed longer on honey than on GF-120. There was no significant difference in feeding time on honey versus GF-120 between males and females of each species. These results suggest that area-wide treatment using GF-120 for the purpose of eradication of pest fruit flies has potential negative impacts on these and other non-target fly species in Hawaii.

  15. Efficacy of spinosad against acaricide-resistant and -susceptible Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and acaricide-susceptible Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various acaricide-resistant strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, representative of the major resistance mechanisms found in Mexico and Brazil were exposed to spinosad using the FAO-Larval Packet Test and FAO-Adult Immersion Test (AIT). Larvae of all strains tested were found to be suscep...

  16. A comparison of bioinsecticide, Spinosad, the semi-synthetic insecticide, Spinetoram and synthetic insecticides as soil drenches for control of Tephritid fruit flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight insecticides, including the natural bioinsecticide spinosad and the semi-synthetic insecticide spinetoram, as well as two synthetic pyrethroids, an insect growth regulator, an anthranilic diamide, and an organophosphate were evaluated as soil drench treatments for control of three economically...

  17. Control of Rhagoletis indifferents using Thiamethoxam and Spinosad baits under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis indifferens Curran) using thiamethoxam in sucrose bait and spinosad bait in cherry orchards under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity were studied in Washington and Utah in 2010 and 2011. Thiamethoxam ...

  18. Evaluation of SPLAT with Spinosad and Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure for "Attract-and-Kill" of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    SPLAT(TM) ME (methyl eugenol) and C-L (cue-lure) “attract and kill” sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared to other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, respectively. Fie...

  19. Food Deprivation Effects on Carbohydrate Levels and Their Relation to Mortality of Western Cherry Fruit Fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Exposed to Spinosad Bait

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nutritional state of tephritid fruit flies affects various behaviors. The objectives of this study were to determine food deprivation effects on carbohydrate levels and their relation to feeding responses to spinosad bait (GF-120® Naturalyte® Fruit Fly Bait), measured indirectly by mortality, i...

  20. Determination of spinosad and its metabolites in citrus crops and orange processed commodities by HPLC with UV detection.

    PubMed

    West, S D; Turner, L G

    2000-02-01

    Spinosad is an insect control agent that is derived from a naturally occurring organism and is effective on a wide variety of crops, including citrus crops. A method is described for the determination of spinosad and its metabolites in citrus crops and orange processed commodities. The method determines residues of the active ingredients (spinosyns A and D) and three minor metabolites (spinosyn B, spinosyn K, and N-demethylspinosyn D). For dried orange pulp and orange oil, the method has a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.02 microg/g and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.006 microg/g. For all other sample matrices (whole fruit, edible fruit, juice, and peel), the method has an LOQ of 0.01 microg/g and an LOD of 0.003 microg/g. The analytes are extracted from the various sample types using appropriate solvents, and the extracts are purified by liquid-liquid partitioning and/or solid-phase extraction. All five analytes are determined simultaneously in the purified extracts by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 250 nm.

  1. Emplacement and geochemical evolution of highly evolved syenites investigated by a combined structural and geochemical field study: The lujavrites of the Ilímaussaq complex, SW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratschbacher, Barbara C.; Marks, Michael A. W.; Bons, Paul D.; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    Structural mapping and the combined study of magmatic to solid-state deformation textures and mineral compositions in highly evolved nepheline syenites (lujavrites) of the alkaline to peralkaline Ilímaussaq complex (South Greenland) reveal detailed insight into the emplacement and geochemical evolution of the melts they crystallized from. Based on magmatic to solid-state flow textures such as foliations and lineations, we propose that the investigated rock sequence forms a sill-like structure with a steep feeder zone that flattens out over a short distance and intrudes into less evolved overlying units as sub-horizontal sheets by roof uplift. Systematic compositional variation of early-magmatic eudialyte-group minerals (EGM) in the investigated rock sequence monitors the geochemical evolution of the lujavrite-forming melt(s). The chlorine contents of EGM decrease successively upwards within the rock sequence, which probably indicates a successive increase of water activity during differentiation, consistent with a change from sodic pyroxene (aegirine) to sodic amphibole (arfvedsonite) in the mineral assemblage. Both REE contents and Fe/Mn ratios of EGM are promising differentiation indicators, which increase and decrease, respectively, upwards within the sequence due to fractional crystallization. This closed-system evolution is interrupted by a shift towards less evolved melt compositions in one lujavrite unit, for which we assume magma recharge. Our study demonstrates the strength of a combined structural and petrological approach to understand the petrogenesis of an igneous body in more detail and highlights their close connection.

  2. The efficacy of spinosad against the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, and its impact on associated biological control agents on greenhouse cucumbers in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Jones, Terri; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia; Harris, Ron; Shipp, Les; Harris, Brenda

    2005-02-01

    Insecticides are the most commonly used tactic to control western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on greenhouse cucumber. However, WFT has developed resistance to several of the insecticides presently in use. In addition, some of these insecticides adversely affect greenhouse biological control agents used to control WFT, resulting in subsequent pest resurgence. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel insecticides with unique modes of action for use in integrated pest management (IPM) programs to effectively control WFT with minimal impact on associated biological control agents. In laboratory bioassays conducted in 2001, immature and adult WFT and three associated greenhouse biological control agents: Amblyseius cucumeris Oudemans (Acarina: Phytoseiidae), Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were exposed to direct, direct/residual, and residual contact applications of the novel biopesticide, spinosad (Conserve 120 SC), and the industry standard for whitefly control, endosulfan (Thiodan 50 WP). In all three types of assay, spinosad was effective against immature and adult WFT life stages. It showed low toxicity to A. cucumeris, moderate toxicity to O. insidiosus and high toxicity to E formosa. Greenhouse studies involving exposure of immature and adult WFT and adult biological control agents to cucumber leaves sprayed previously with spinosad supported the laboratory data. Spinosad showed low toxicity to A. cucumeris exposed to leaves 1 day after treatment (DAT), moderate toxicity to O. insidiosus 1 and 8 DAT, and high toxicity to E. formosa up to 28 DAT. These data, along with spinosad's unique mode of action, suggest it would be a valuable reduced-risk control agent for greenhouse cucumber IPM programs.

  3. Efficacies of spinosad and a combination of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin against phosphine-resistant Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, N S; Opit, George P; Talley, J; Jones, C L

    2013-10-01

    Highly phosphine-resistant populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have recently been found in Oklahoma grain storage facilities. These findings necessitate development of a phosphine resistance management strategy to ensure continued effective use of phosphine. Therefore, we investigated the efficacies of two grain insecticides, namely, spinosad applied at label rate of 1 ppm and a mixture of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin applied at label rates of 3 and 0.5 ppm, respectively, against highly phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum. Adult mortality and progeny production suppression of spinosad- or chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture-treated wheat that had been stored for 2, 84, 168, 252, and 336 d posttreatment were assessed. We found that both spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin were effective against phosphine-resistant R. dominica and caused 83-100% mortality and also caused total progeny production suppression for all storage periods. Spinosad was not effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum; the highest mortality observed was only 3% for all the storage periods. Chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum only in treated wheat stored for 2 and 84 d, where it caused 93-99% mortality. However, chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective and achieved total suppression of progeny production in T. castaneum for all the storage periods. Spinosad was not as effective as chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture at suppressing progeny production of phosphine-resistant T. castaneum. These two insecticides can be used in a phosphine resistance management strategy for R. dominica and T. castaneum in the United States.

  4. Evolvable Hardware for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason; Globus, Al; Hornby, Gregory; Larchev, Gregory; Kraus, William

    2004-01-01

    This article surveys the research of the Evolvable Systems Group at NASA Ames Research Center. Over the past few years, our group has developed the ability to use evolutionary algorithms in a variety of NASA applications ranging from spacecraft antenna design, fault tolerance for programmable logic chips, atomic force field parameter fitting, analog circuit design, and earth observing satellite scheduling. In some of these applications, evolutionary algorithms match or improve on human performance.

  5. The evolution of crack seal vein and fracture networks in an evolving stress field: Insights from Discrete Element Models of fracture sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, Simon; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.

    2014-12-01

    Veins are ubiquitous in upper and middle crustal rocks. Due to strength and stiffness contrast to the host rock, veins can influence crack propagation. Here we present Discrete Element Models to investigate crack-vein interactions by simulating cycles of fracturing of a rock mass, sealing the cracks to form veins, and refracturing the rock mass after rotating the stress field. We observe different styles of interaction between new fractures and existing veins, depending on the strength ratio between vein and host rock and on the changes in the stress field between the different deformation stages. If the orientation of stress field does not change between deformation stages, ataxial crack seal veins are produced if the veins are weak and a bundle of subparallel microveins if the veins are strong. If the stress field is rotated between deformation stages, the interactions include reactivation, fracture deflection, and crosscutting. Reactivation of weak veins occurs even if the vein orientation is highly unfavorable relative to the stress field. Relays of fractures between reactivated veins form at a higher angle to the veins than expected. This demonstrates that the orientation of secondary veins does not reflect the regional stress field in a simple manner and that veins can strongly influence fracture connectivity, with implications for paleostress analysis and basin modeling. Simulation results compare well with field examples of multiphase vein networks in carbonates from Jebel Akhdar, Oman.

  6. Effect of the natural pesticide spinosad (GF-120 formulation) on the foraging behavior of Plebeia moureana (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, D; De J Solórzano, E; Liedo, P; Vandame, R

    2012-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the effects of the biorational pesticide, Spinosad (GF-120 formulation), on foraging behavior in the stingless bee Plebeia moureana (Ayala). Several foragers were individually trained to collect an unscented 1.0 M sucrose solution (31% sucrose wt:wt) from a blue plate in one arm of a Y-tube maze. The other arm offered plain water on a yellow plate. After 20-30 visits to the setup, the sucrose solution was exchanged for a sucrose solution mixed with one of five concentrations of GF-120 and 30 consecutive choices of each bee were recorded. Interestingly, the foragers collected the sucrose solution with GF-120 at all concentrations. Our results show that: 1) the GF-120 formulation, when applied at the recommended concentration and mixed with food, does not discourage engaged foragers and, 2) foraging behavior over time is not significantly impaired by the continuous collection of GF-120.

  7. Genomic medicine: evolving science, evolving ethics

    PubMed Central

    Soden, Sarah E; Farrow, Emily G; Saunders, Carol J; Lantos, John D

    2012-01-01

    Genomic medicine is rapidly evolving. Next-generation sequencing is changing the diagnostic paradigm by allowing genetic testing to be carried out more quickly, less expensively and with much higher resolution; pushing the envelope on existing moral norms and legal regulations. Early experience with implementation of next-generation sequencing to diagnose rare genetic conditions in symptomatic children suggests ways that genomic medicine might come to be used and some of the ethical issues that arise, impacting test design, patient selection, consent, sequencing analysis and communication of results. The ethical issues that arise from use of new technologies cannot be satisfactorily analyzed until they are understood and they cannot be understood until the technologies are deployed in the real world. PMID:23173007

  8. Rapid evolution and gene expression: a rapidly evolving Mendelian trait that silences field crickets has widespread effects on mRNA and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, S; Liu, X; Ly, T; Fang, Y; Rockliffe, N; Paterson, S; Shirran, S L; Botting, C H; Bailey, N W

    2016-06-01

    A major advance in modern evolutionary biology is the ability to start linking phenotypic evolution in the wild with genomic changes that underlie that evolution. We capitalized on a rapidly evolving Hawaiian population of crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to test hypotheses about the genomic consequences of a recent Mendelian mutation of large effect which disrupts the development of sound-producing structures on male forewings. The resulting silent phenotype, flatwing, persists because of natural selection imposed by an acoustically orienting parasitoid, but it interferes with mate attraction. We examined gene expression differences in developing wing buds of wild-type and flatwing male crickets using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics. Most differentially expressed (DE) transcripts were down-regulated in flatwing males (625 up vs. 1716 down), whereas up- and down-regulated proteins were equally represented (30 up and 34 down). Differences between morphs were clearly not restricted to a single pathway, and we recovered annotations associated with a broad array of functions that would not be predicted a priori. Using a candidate gene detection test based on homology, we identified 30% of putative Drosophila wing development genes in the cricket transcriptome, but only 10% were DE. In addition to wing-related annotations, endocrine pathways and several biological processes such as reproduction, immunity and locomotion were DE in the mutant crickets at both biological levels. Our results illuminate the breadth of genetic pathways that are potentially affected in the early stages of adaptation. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Establishing the role of detoxifying enzymes in field-evolved resistance to various insecticides in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in South India.

    PubMed

    Malathi, Vijayakumar Maheshwari; Jalali, Sushil K; Gowda, Dandinashivara K Sidde; Mohan, Muthugounder; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam

    2017-02-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the major pests of rice throughout Asia. Extensive use of insecticides for suppressing N. lugens has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance leading to frequent control failures in the field. The aim of the present study was to evaluate resistance in the field populations of N. lugens from major rice growing states of South India to various insecticides. We also determined the activity of detoxifying enzymes (esterases [ESTs], glutathione S-transferases [GSTs], and mixed-function oxidases [MFOs]). Moderate levels of resistance were detected in the field populations to acephate, thiamethoxam and buprofezin (resistance factors 1.05-20.92 fold, 4.52-14.99 fold, and 1.00-18.09 fold, respectively) as compared with susceptible strain while there were low levels of resistance to imidacloprid (resistance factor 1.23-6.70 fold) and complete sensitivity to etofenoprox (resistance factor 1.05-1.66 fold). EST activities in the field populations were 1.06 to 3.09 times higher than the susceptible strain while for GST and MFO the ratios varied from 1.29 to 3.41 and 1.03 to 1.76, respectively. The EST activity was found to be correlated to acephate resistance (r = 0.999, P ≥ 0.001). The high selection pressure of organophosphate, neonicotinoid, and insect growth regulator (IGR) in the field is likely to be contributing for resistance in BPH to multiple insecticides, leading to control failures. The results obtained will be beneficial to IPM recommendations for the use of effective insecticides against BPH. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Performance of Methyl Eugenol + Matrix + Toxicant combinations under field conditions in Hawaii and California for trapping B. dorsalis (Diptera:Tephritidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New solid formulations containing methyl eugenol and either naled or DDVP toxicants were compared to the standard formulations on cotton wicks in large scale field evaluation in Hawaii. Two “reduced risk” toxicants (spinosad and Rynaxypyr®) were also evaluated. In one test the solid lure-toxicant-ma...

  11. An Evolving Astrobiology Glossary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, K. J.; Dolci, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    One of the resources that evolved from the Bioastronomy 2007 meeting was an online interdisciplinary glossary of terms that might not be universally familiar to researchers in all sub-disciplines feeding into astrobiology. In order to facilitate comprehension of the presentations during the meeting, a database driven web tool for online glossary definitions was developed and participants were invited to contribute prior to the meeting. The glossary was downloaded and included in the conference registration materials for use at the meeting. The glossary web tool is has now been delivered to the NASA Astrobiology Institute so that it can continue to grow as an evolving resource for the astrobiology community.

  12. The 'E' factor -- evolving endodontics.

    PubMed

    Hunter, M J

    2013-03-01

    Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.

  13. Evidence for Field-Evolved Resistance of Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1F Bacillus thuringiensis Protein and Transgenic Corn Hybrids in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, J L; Lepping, M D; Rule, D M; Farhan, Y; Schaafsma, A W

    2017-09-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a pest of corn (Zea mays L.) that has recently expanded its range into Ontario, Canada. Control of S. albicosta damage to corn hybrids containing event TC1507-expressing Cry1F Bacillus thuringiensis protein alone or pyramided with event MON 89034 expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 Bt proteins was tested in 2011-2015 in Ontario in small- and large-scale field plots with natural infestation. In 2011, significantly lower incidence and severity of kernel damage was sustained by Cry1F × Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 corn compared with a non-Bt near-isogenic hybrid. However, from 2012 to 2015, there was no difference in incidence or severity of damage comparing non-Bt hybrids with Cry1F hybrids alone or pyramided with Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 planted as a pure stand or with an integrated refuge (95% Bt: 5% non-Bt seeds). In 2015, neonate larvae derived from Ontario field-collections were tested in concentration-response diet-overlay bioassays with lyophilized Cry1F protein at concentrations up to 75 µg cm-2. The concentrations at which mortality of 50% (LC50) of the collections occurred ranged from approximately 10 µg cm-2 (F0) to >28 µg cm-2 (F1) in a 7-d bioassay, indicating relative insensitivity to Cry1F. Results from field experiments, laboratory bioassays, and the history of exposure to Cry1F in corn show that S. albicosta in Ontario are not controlled by Cry1F-expressing corn hybrids and provide evidence for the conclusion that the evolution of resistance to Cry1F has occurred. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Methods Evolved by Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  15. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jakka, Siva R. K.; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J.; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:26637593

  16. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression.

    PubMed

    Jakka, Siva R K; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L

    2015-12-04

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. The Evolving Leadership Path of Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Kluse, Michael; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2012-01-02

    This is a requested book chapter for an internationally authored book on visual analytics and related fields, coordianted by a UK university and to be published by Springer in 2012. This chapter is an overview of the leadship strategies that PNNL's Jim Thomas and other stakeholders used to establish visual analytics as a field, and how those strategies may evolve in the future.

  18. Efficacy of milbemycin oxime in combination with spinosad in the treatment of larval and immature adult stages of Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2014-09-15

    Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis are two important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The primary objective of these studies were to confirm the oral effectiveness of milbemycin oxime (MO) and spinosad in dogs experimentally infected with immature (L4 and immature adult) stages of T. canis or A. caninum. Both trials were conducted as randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled dose confirmation studies. Treatments using the intended European commercial tablet formulation of Trifexis were administered in a timeframe relative to inoculation so that effectiveness could be assessed against specific immature stages of A. caninum or T. canis. In each study on Day 0, each of 32, 3-4 month old dogs were inoculated with 250 infective eggs of T. canis or 300 infective L3 of the hookworm, A. caninum. All dogs were weighed before their scheduled treatment, randomized to 1 of the 4 treatment groups in each study (8 dogs/group). All dogs were fed just prior to dosing. For T. canis, dogs were treated orally with an MO/spinosad tablet on Day 14 or Day 24. For A. caninum, dogs were treated orally with an MO/spinosad tablet on Day 7 or Day 11. Corresponding control groups in each study received a placebo tablet. Dogs were necropsied 5 or 6 days after their respective treatments. The digestive tract was removed and processed to recover, count, and identify all stages. The GM worm count for the MO/spinosad tablet on Day 14 (L4 T. canis) was 0.0, with efficacy calculated as 100%; however, only 3 of 8 control dogs had adequate infections. The GM worm count for the MO/spinosad tablet on Day 24 (immature adult stage) was 0.30; efficacy calculated at 96.15%. This is based on 5 of the 8 control dogs with adequate infections. In the two A. caninum studies, GM worm counts for the MO/spinosad tablets on Day 7 (L4 efficacy) was 2.37 and 0.8 with efficacy calculated as 98.92% and 99.25%, respectively. The GM count for the group treated with the MO/spinosad combination on Day 11 (immature adult) was 6

  19. Updating Watson & Marks (1971): How Has Our Understanding of the Mechanisms of Extinction Learning Evolved and Where Is Our Field Going Next?

    PubMed

    Asnaani, Anu; McLean, Carmen P; Foa, Edna B

    2016-09-01

    J. P. Watson and I. M. Marks published a seminal article in Behavior Therapy entitled "Relevant and Irrelevant Fear in Flooding-A Crossover Study of Phobic Patients" in 1971 that paved the way for important theoretical developments and empirical studies that examined the mechanisms underlying extinction learning. Indeed, in the 44 years since their article was published, our knowledge about how exposure therapy works has increased considerably. In this review, we explore the progress our field has made in understanding extinction learning and how Watson and Marks' important work has influenced this progress. We provide a brief summary of the design and major findings of the Watson and Marks (1971) study, followed by a brief description of several theoretical conceptualizations of fear extinction that were developed following the article's publication. We also review empirical studies that illustrate the "state of the science" with regard to the following key issues that were explored in Watson and Marks' paper: (a) the effect of specificity of exposure stimuli content in exposure therapy on outcome; (b) fear activation as a mechanism of exposure; and (c) the associations between within- and between-session extinction learning and treatment outcome. The major findings of these three issues over the past 4 decades are summarized and discussed.

  20. Self Evolving Modular Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Kazuhiro; Kawabata, Nobuyuki; Furukawa, Tetsuo

    We propose a novel modular network called the Self-Evolving Modular Network (SEEM). The SEEM has a modular network architecture with a graph structure and these following advantages: (1) new modules are added incrementally to allow the network to adapt in a self-organizing manner, and (2) graph's paths are formed based on the relationships between the models represented by modules. The SEEM is expected to be applicable to evolving functions of an autonomous robot in a self-organizing manner through interaction with the robot's environment and categorizing large-scale information. This paper presents the architecture and an algorithm for the SEEM. Moreover, performance characteristic and effectiveness of the network are shown by simulations using cubic functions and a set of 3D-objects.

  1. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    PubMed

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda.

  2. Evolvable Neural Software System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  3. Highly-evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The ways in which the IUE has proved useful in studying highly evolved stars are reviewed. The importance of high dispersion spectra for abundance analyses of the sd0 stars and for studies of the wind from the central star of NGC 6543 and the wind from the 0 type component of Vela X-1 is shown. Low dispersion spectra are used for absolute spectrophotometry of the dwarf nova, Ex Hya. Angular resolution is important for detecting and locating UV sources in globular clusters.

  4. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry; Cooper, Bonnie; Allen, Carlton; Ming, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) is a high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument for determining the mineralogical composition and reactivity of soil samples. REGA provides key mineralogical and reactivity data that is needed to understand the soil chemistry of an asteroid, which then aids in determining in-situ which materials should be selected for return to earth. REGA is capable of conducting a number of direct soil measurements that are unique to this instrument. These experimental measurements include: (1) Mass spectrum analysis of evolved gases from soil samples as they are heated from ambient temperature to 900 C; and (2) Identification of liberated chemicals, e.g., water, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine. REGA would be placed on the surface of a near earth asteroid. It is an autonomous instrument that is controlled from earth but does the analysis of regolith materials automatically. The REGA instrument consists of four primary components: (1) a flight-proven mass spectrometer, (2) a high-temperature furnace, (3) a soil handling system, and (4) a microcontroller. An external arm containing a scoop or drill gathers regolith samples. A sample is placed in the inlet orifice where the finest-grained particles are sifted into a metering volume and subsequently moved into a crucible. A movable arm then places the crucible in the furnace. The furnace is closed, thereby sealing the inner volume to collect the evolved gases for analysis. Owing to the very low g forces on an asteroid compared to Mars or the moon, the sample must be moved from inlet to crucible by mechanical means rather than by gravity. As the soil sample is heated through a programmed pattern, the gases evolved at each temperature are passed through a transfer tube to the mass spectrometer for analysis and identification. Return data from the instrument will lead to new insights and discoveries including: (1) Identification of the molecular masses of all of the gases

  5. Speed of kill efficacy and efficacy of flavored spinosad tablets administered orally to cats in a simulated home environment for the treatment and prevention of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Meyer, Katherine A; Wiseman, Scott; Trout, Candace M; Young, David R

    2013-09-23

    The efficacy of spinosad against adult fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on cats was evaluated in two separate controlled, blinded studies-one to determine flea knockdown and speed of flea kill (SOFK) on experimentally infested cats, another to assess the ability of spinosad to prevent flea infestations in a simulated home environment (SHE) study design. In each study, pre-treatment live flea counts were used as a blocking factor to randomize cats to treatment, and treated in the fed state, with flavored tablets containing either no active ingredient (control) or spinosad (50-100mg/kg in the SOFK study; 50-75 mg/kg body weight in the SHE study). In the SOFK study, 6 cats per group were infested with unfed adult fleas on Day -1. Groups 1-5 received control tablets; groups 6-10 received spinosad tablets. Flea counts were conducted at 0.5, 2, 4, 8 and 24h post-dosing. In the SHE study, 12 flea-free cats per group, treated on Days 0, 30 and 60, were maintained in solid-sided cages with solid carpeted floors. Each cat was infested on Days 1, 7 and 14 with 100 unfed adult fleas. Individual flea comb counts were performed on Days 3, 9, 16, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 95. After each count, except Day 95, up to 300 live fleas were replaced on each cat. To augment flea challenge, the carpeted area in each cage was sprinkled weekly with larval flea growth media (dried blood, yeast). In the SOFK study, reductions in mean flea counts in the spinosad groups were observed at all post-treatment assessments, beginning at 0.5h post-infestation with significant differences (p<0.0001) from vehicle-treated cats from 2h post-treatment when efficacy was >90%, through the final flea counts 24h post-infestation when no fleas were found on spinosad treated cats. In the SHE study, GM post-treatment flea counts in the control group ranged between 38.9 and 107.0 (arithmetic means 58.8-118.1); no live fleas were combed from spinosad-treated cats (100% effectiveness) at any time

  6. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  7. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  8. Speech processing: An evolving technology

    SciTech Connect

    Crochiere, R.E.; Flanagan, J.L.

    1986-09-01

    As we enter the information age, speech processing is emerging as an important technology for making machines easier and more convenient for humans to use. It is both an old and a new technology - dating back to the invention of the telephone and forward, at least in aspirations, to the capabilities of HAL in 2001. Explosive advances in microelectronics now make it possible to implement economical real-time hardware for sophisticated speech processing - processing that formerly could be demonstrated only in simulations on main-frame computers. As a result, fundamentally new product concepts - as well as new features and functions in existing products - are becoming possible and are being explored in the marketplace. As the introductory piece to this issue, the authors draw a brief perspective on the evolving field of speech processing and assess the technology in the the three constituent sectors: speech coding, synthesis, and recognition.

  9. Comparative in vitro evaluation of contact activity of fluralaner, spinosad, phoxim, propoxur, permethrin and deltamethrin against the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum.

    PubMed

    Mullens, Bradley A; Murillo, Amy C; Zoller, Hartmut; Heckeroth, Anja R; Jirjis, Faris; Flochlay-Sigognault, Annie

    2017-08-03

    Northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of both feral birds and poultry, particularly chicken layers and breeders. They complete their entire life-cycle on infested birds while feeding on blood. Infestations of O. sylviarum are difficult to control and resistance to some chemical classes of acaricides is a growing concern. The contact susceptibility of O. sylviarum to a new active ingredient, fluralaner, was evaluated, as well as other compounds representative of the main chemical classes commonly used to control poultry mite infestations in Europe and the USA. Six acaricides (fluralaner, spinosad, phoxim, propoxur, permethrin, deltamethrin) were dissolved and serially diluted in butanol:olive oil (1:1) to obtain test solutions used for impregnation of filter paper packets. A carrier-only control was included. Thirty adult northern fowl mites, freshly collected from untreated host chickens, were inserted into each packet for continuous compound exposure. Mite mortality was assessed after incubation of the test packets for 48 h at 75% relative humidity and a temperature of 22 °C. Adult mite LC50 /LC99 values were 2.95/8.09 ppm for fluralaner, 1587/3123 ppm for spinosad, 420/750 ppm for phoxim and 86/181 ppm for propoxur. Permethrin and deltamethrin LC values could not be calculated due to lack of mortality observed even at 1000 ppm. Northern fowl mites were highly sensitive to fluralaner after contact exposure. They were moderately sensitive to phoxim and propoxur, and less sensitive to spinosad. Furthermore, the tested mite population appeared to be resistant to the pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin, despite not being exposed to acaricides for at least 10 years.

  10. Chitobiase activity as an indicator of altered survival, growth and reproduction in Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) exposed to spinosad and diflubenzuron.

    PubMed

    Duchet, Claire; Mitie Inafuku, Marília; Caquet, Thierry; Larroque, Michel; Franquet, Evelyne; Lagneau, Christophe; Lagadic, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Chitobiase is involved in exoskeleton degradation and recycling during the moulting process in arthropods. In aquatic species, the moulting fluid is released into the aqueous environment, and chitobiase activity present therein can be used to follow the dynamics of arthropod populations. Here, chitobiase activity was used for monitoring the impact of mosquito candidate larvicides on Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna under laboratory conditions. Both species were exposed to spinosad (2, 4, 8 μg L(-1)) and diflubenzuron (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 μg L(-1)) for 14 days. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti; 0.25, 0.5, 1 μL L(-1)) was used as the reference larvicide. Chitobiase activity, adult survival, individual growth and fecundity, expressed as the number of neonates produced, were measured every 2 days. Average Exposure Concentrations of spinosad were ten-fold lower than the nominal concentrations, whereas only a slight deviation was observed for diflubenzuron. In contrast to Bti, spinosad and diflubenzuron significantly affected both species in terms of adult survival, and production of neonates. As compared to D. pulex, D. magna was more severely affected by diflubenzuron, at low and medium concentrations, with reduced adult growth and much lower chitobiase activity. Chitobiase activity was positively correlated with the individual body length, number of neonates produced between two consecutive observation dates, and number of females and neonates. In addition, the significant positive correlations between chitobiase activity measured on the last sampling date before the first emission of neonates and the cumulative number of neonates produced during the whole observation period strongly support the potential of the activity of this chitinolytic enzyme as a proxy for assessing the dynamics of arthropod populations exposed to larvicides used for mosquito control.

  11. Our evolving universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    Our Evolving Universe is a lucid, non-technical and infectiously enthusiastic introduction to current astronomy and cosmology. Highly illustrated throughout with the latest colour images from the world's most advanced telescopes, it also provides a colourful view of our Universe. Malcolm Longair takes us on a breathtaking tour of the most dramatic recent results astronomers have on the birth of stars, the hunt for black holes and dark matter, on gravitational lensing and the latest tests of the Big Bang. He leads the reader right up to understand the key questions that future research in astronomy and cosmology must answer. A clear and comprehensive glossary of technical terms is also provided. For the general reader, student or professional wishing to understand the key questions today's astronomers and cosmologists are trying to answer, this is an invaluable and inspiring read.

  12. Why did heterospory evolve?

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kurt B; Burd, Martin

    2016-10-11

    The primitive land plant life cycle featured the production of spores of unimodal size, a condition called homospory. The evolution of bimodal size distributions with small male spores and large female spores, known as heterospory, was an innovation that occurred repeatedly in the history of land plants. The importance of desiccation-resistant spores for colonization of the land is well known, but the adaptive value of heterospory has never been well established. It was an addition to a sexual life cycle that already involved male and female gametes. Its role as a precursor to the evolution of seeds has received much attention, but this is an evolutionary consequence of heterospory that cannot explain the transition from homospory to heterospory (and the lack of evolutionary reversal from heterospory to homospory). Enforced outcrossing of gametophytes has often been mentioned in connection to heterospory, but we review the shortcomings of this argument as an explanation of the selective advantage of heterospory. Few alternative arguments concerning the selective forces favouring heterospory have been proposed, a paucity of attention that is surprising given the importance of this innovation in land plant evolution. In this review we highlight two ideas that may lead us to a better understanding of why heterospory evolved. First, models of optimal resource allocation - an approach that has been used for decades in evolutionary ecology to help understand parental investment and other life-history patterns - suggest that an evolutionary increase in spore size could reach a threshold at which small spores yielding small, sperm-producing gametophytes would return greater fitness per unit of resource investment than would large spores and bisexual gametophytes. With the advent of such microspores, megaspores would evolve under frequency-dependent selection. This argument can account for the appearance of heterospory in the Devonian, when increasingly tall and complex

  13. Effectiveness of spinosad bait sprays (GF-120) in controlling mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Benin.

    PubMed

    Vayssieres, Jean-François; Sinzogan, Antonio; Korie, Sam; Ouagoussounon, Issa; Thomas-Odjo, Agnès

    2009-04-01

    Effectiveness of GF-120 (Dow Chemical) Fruit Fly Bait containing the insecticide spinosad in controlling mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed by comparing treated orchards with untreated orchards. Twelve mango, Mangifera indica L., plantations located in six villages (two similar orchards per village: one orchard treated and orchard untreated) scattered in the Borgou department (northern Benin) were monitored weekly with fly traps, and the fruit was sampled twice for larval infestation at the beginning and in the middle of May in both 2006 and 2007. The two main mango fruit fly pests are Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, an invasive species that recently spread throughout West Africa. In both the 2006 and 2007 seasons, C. cosyra had the earliest peak of abundance, and the difference between treated and untreated orchards, in terms of mean number of flies trapped per week and per trap, was significant only in 2007. B. invadens populations quickly increased with the onset of the rains, from mid-May onward, with no significant difference between treated and untreated orchards. In 2006 and 2007, the larval infestation by B. invadens was significantly lower in plots treated with GF-120 than in untreated control plots. GF-120 provided an 81% reduction in the number of pupae per kilogram of fruit after weekly applications for 7 wk in 2006 and an 89% reduction after 10 wk of weekly applications in 2007. The possibility of integrating GF120 bait sprays in an integrated pest management package is discussed in relation to market requirements.

  14. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Takuro; Archibald, John M

    2012-04-24

    The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles.The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis--the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy--and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  15. Communicability across evolving networks.

    PubMed

    Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark C; Higham, Desmond J; Estrada, Ernesto

    2011-04-01

    Many natural and technological applications generate time-ordered sequences of networks, defined over a fixed set of nodes; for example, time-stamped information about "who phoned who" or "who came into contact with who" arise naturally in studies of communication and the spread of disease. Concepts and algorithms for static networks do not immediately carry through to this dynamic setting. For example, suppose A and B interact in the morning, and then B and C interact in the afternoon. Information, or disease, may then pass from A to C, but not vice versa. This subtlety is lost if we simply summarize using the daily aggregate network given by the chain A-B-C. However, using a natural definition of a walk on an evolving network, we show that classic centrality measures from the static setting can be extended in a computationally convenient manner. In particular, communicability indices can be computed to summarize the ability of each node to broadcast and receive information. The computations involve basic operations in linear algebra, and the asymmetry caused by time's arrow is captured naturally through the noncommutativity of matrix-matrix multiplication. Illustrative examples are given for both synthetic and real-world communication data sets. We also discuss the use of the new centrality measures for real-time monitoring and prediction.

  16. Evolving Concepts of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792

  17. Evolving synergetic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Arranz, Jordi; Du, Jinming; Zhou, Da; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Cooperators forgo their own interests to benefit others. This reduces their fitness and thus cooperators are not likely to spread based on natural selection. Nonetheless, cooperation is widespread on every level of biological organization ranging from bacterial communities to human society. Mathematical models can help to explain under which circumstances cooperation evolves. Evolutionary game theory is a powerful mathematical tool to depict the interactions between cooperators and defectors. Classical models typically involve either pairwise interactions between individuals or a linear superposition of these interactions. For interactions within groups, however, synergetic effects may arise: their outcome is not just the sum of its parts. This is because the payoffs via a single group interaction can be different from the sum of any collection of two-player interactions. Assuming that all interactions start from pairs, how can such synergetic multiplayer games emerge from simpler pairwise interactions? Here, we present a mathematical model that captures the transition from pairwise interactions to synergetic multiplayer ones. We assume that different social groups have different breaking rates. We show that non-uniform breaking rates do foster the emergence of synergy, even though individuals always interact in pairs. Our work sheds new light on the mechanisms underlying such synergetic interactions. PMID:27466437

  18. Abatement of spinosad and indoxacarb residues in pure water by photocatalytic treatment using binary and ternary oxides of Zn and Ti.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, J; Vela, N; Garrido, I; Pérez-Lucas, G; Navarro, S

    2014-11-01

    The photodegradation of indoxacarb, a broad spectrum foliar insecticide and spinosad, a natural insecticide containing two active ingredients, spinosyn A (major component) and spinosyn D (minor component), was studied in aqueous suspensions of binary (ZnO and TiO2) and ternary (Zn2TiO4 and ZnTiO3) oxides under artificial light (300-460 nm) irradiation. As expected, the influence of the semiconductor materials on the degradation of both was very significant in all cases. Photocatalytic experiments showed that the addition of semiconductors in tandem with Na2S2O8 as electron acceptor strongly improved the removal of indoxacarb and spinosad in water compared with the photolytic tests. The reaction rates significantly increased, especially for the ZnO/Na2S2O8 and TiO2/Na2S2O8 systems. The first-order equation (monophasic model) satisfactorily explained the disappearance process, although it offered no explanation for the small concentrations remaining in the process.

  19. Evolving Science in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Albert, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Ellis et al. bring an evolutionary perspective to bear on adolescent risky behavioral development, clinical practice, and public policy. They offer important insights that: 1) some risky behaviors may be adaptive for the individual and the species by being hard-wired due to fitness benefits; and 2) interventions might be more successful if they move with, rather than against, the natural tendencies of an adolescent. Ellis et al. criticize the field of developmental psychopathology, but we see the two fields as complementary. Their position would be enhanced by integrating it with contemporary perspectives on dynamic cascades through which normative behavior turns into genuinely maladaptive outcomes, dual processes in adolescent neural development, and adolescent decision-making. Finally, they rightly note that innovation is needed in interventions and policies toward adolescent problem behavior. PMID:22545848

  20. How do drumlin patterns evolve?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Jeremy; Clark, Chris; Spagnolo, Matteo; Hughes, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The flow of a geomorphic agent over a sediment bed creates patterns in the substrate composed of bedforms. Ice is no exception to this, organising soft sedimentary substrates into subglacial bedforms. As we are yet to fully observe their initiation and evolution beneath a contemporary ice mass, little is known about how patterns in subglacial bedforms develop. Here we study 36,222 drumlins, divided into 72 flowsets, left behind by the former British-Irish Ice sheet. These flowsets provide us with 'snapshots' of drumlin pattern development. The probability distribution functions of the size and shape metrics of drumlins within these flowsets were analysed to determine whether behaviour that is common of other patterned phenomena has occurred. Specifically, we ask whether drumlins i) are printed at a specific scale; ii) grow or shrink after they initiate; iii) stabilise at a specific size and shape; and iv) migrate. Our results indicate that drumlins initiate at a minimum size and spacing. After initiation, the log-normal distribution of drumlin size and shape metrics suggests that drumlins grow, or possibly shrink, as they develop. We find no evidence for stabilisation in drumlin length, supporting the idea of a subglacial bedform continuum. Drumlin migration is difficult to determine from the palaeo-record. However, there are some indications that a mixture of static and mobile drumlins occurs, which could potentially lead to collisions, cannibalisation and coarsening. Further images of modern drumlin fields evolving beneath ice are required to capture stages of drumlin pattern evolution.

  1. Control of mosquitoes in catch basins in Connecticut with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, [corrected] and spinosad.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John F; Ferrandino, Francis J; Dingman, Douglas W; Main, Andrew J; Andreadis, Theodore G; Becnel, James J

    2011-03-01

    Catch basins are a major source of Culex pipiens pipiens, Cx. restuans, and Aedes japonicus in northeastern USA. VectoBac CG (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis [Bti]), VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus [Bs]), and VectoBac 12AS (Bti), each applied at maximum label rate of 1.8 g, 1.8 g, and 0.193 ml per catch basin, respectively, significantly reduced the numbers of larvae for 1 wk. The dosages on the labels for treatment of mosquito larvae in catch basins, where mosquito breeding is continuous, are not adequate for providing long-term control in the northeastern USA without the need for frequent retreatment. When applied at 3 times the maximum label rate, VectoLex CG, VectoBac 12AS, and VectoBac CG significantly reduced the numbers of larvae for 5, 4, and 2 wk, respectively. A single application of VectoMax WSP (Bti + Bs) (1 pouch containing 10 g) per catch basin significantly reduced the numbers of 3rd and 4th instars and healthy pupae in catch basins in 2008, but numbers of 3rd and 4th instars in treated catch basins at 21 days after treatment had increased to 40% of the numbers in untreated catch basins. A 2nd treatment of 1 pouch per catch basin reduced the numbers of 3rd and 4th instars and healthy pupae to near zero for the next 4 wk, into the middle of September 2008. In 2009, VectoMax applied as 1 pouch per catch basin on July 1 and again on August 18 significantly reduced the numbers of healthy pupae throughout the summer until the end of September. A 2nd application of VectoMax to catch basins is likely needed during summer, when rainfall averages 13.7 in. (approximately 34.25 cm) during June through September, to keep the numbers of Culex and Ae. japonicus significantly reduced to lower risk of human exposure to West Nile virus. The application of 1 Natular XRT tablet, each weighing approximately 40.5 g (6.25% spinosad), to individual catch basins in 2009 significantly reduced the total numbers of larvae for 5 wk.

  2. Evolving virtual creatures and catapults.

    PubMed

    Chaumont, Nicolas; Egli, Richard; Adami, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    We present a system that can evolve the morphology and the controller of virtual walking and block-throwing creatures (catapults) using a genetic algorithm. The system is based on Sims' work, implemented as a flexible platform with an off-the-shelf dynamics engine. Experiments aimed at evolving Sims-type walkers resulted in the emergence of various realistic gaits while using fairly simple objective functions. Due to the flexibility of the system, drastically different morphologies and functions evolved with only minor modifications to the system and objective function. For example, various throwing techniques evolved when selecting for catapults that propel a block as far as possible. Among the strategies and morphologies evolved, we find the drop-kick strategy, as well as the systematic invention of the principle behind the wheel, when allowing mutations to the projectile.

  3. Attention: an evolving construct.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Arthur; Hrin, Skip

    2015-01-01

    We review the implications of large-scale brain systems on the construct of attention by first focusing on significant theories and discoveries during the previous 150 years and then considering how the comparatively recent discovery of large-scale brain systems may render previous conceptualizations of attention outdated. Seven functional brain networks are briefly reviewed and the implications of emerging principles of brain functioning for test construction and neuropsychological evaluation are considered. To remain a relevant discipline moving into the 21st century, the field of neuropsychology needs to apply the principles that have been discovered about brain networks to better inform our understanding of attention as well as our ever-refining evaluation of this construct.

  4. Craniofacial growth: evolving paradigms.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Gennaro; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Numerous theories about craniofacial growth have been formulated in the last century. The most influential hypotheses were: genetic, synthetic and functional matrix revisited. Moreover, a large number of experts from different fields tried to explain craniofacial growth and its developmental mechanisms, in order to deliver the best treatment possible to orthodontic patients. The aim of this review is to summarize recent concepts on craniofacial growth, overlap these theories with the development of the general scientific knowledge, and suggest a more integrated multidisciplinary person-based approach. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, CINAHL and Google Scholar were screened from inception to February 2014 for relevant papers. Grey literature was considered as part of the search. The influence of new scientific discoveries and intuitions about craniofacial growth produced further insights in orthodontics care, shifting the paradigm from a pre-determined, sectorial treatment to an individualized, multidisciplinary patient-centered approach aiming to enhance the quality of orthodontic assistance.

  5. Spondyloarthritides: evolving therapies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    TNF blockade therapy has substantially advanced the treatment of peripheral spondyloarthritides but revolutionised the treatment of severe ankylosing spondylitis. The capacity of biologic treatment to improve dramatically symptoms and quality of life in patients with spinal disease is undoubted, although important questions remain. Notable amongst these are concerns about skeletal disease modification and the true balance between costs and effectiveness. Guidelines for the biologic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis have been introduced in North America and Europe with considerable consensus. However, the absence of clear criteria for the diagnosis of early disease leaves the issue of biologic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis at the pre-radiographic stage unresolved. Newer biologic agents are entering the field, although superiority over TNF blockers will be difficult to demonstrate. PMID:21205283

  6. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Naresh Kumar, Arjunan; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-02-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder (500 g) of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic solvents of methanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus and then filtered. The crude leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was found in the leaf extract of methanol C. papaya against the first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 440.65 ppm, respectively, and bacterial insecticide, spinosad against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 93.44 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50) = I instar was 55.77 ppm, II instar was 65.77 ppm, III instar was 76.36 ppm, and IV instar was 92.78 ppm, and pupae was 107.62 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The results that the leaves extract of C. papaya and bacterial insecticide, Spinosad is promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal properties of against chikungunya vector, A. aegypti. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of chikungunya vector, A. aegypti as target species of vector control programs.

  7. Insecticide resistance status of field populations of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Che, Wunan; Shi, Tian; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2013-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest of vegetables in China, and its control is heavily dependent on chemical insecticides. The current resistance status of nine insecticides was investigated in 16 field populations collected from seven provinces of China during 2009-2012. Compared with the susceptible strain WH-S, some field populations evolved various levels of resistance to eight of the nine insecticides tested: emamectin benzoate (4- to 348-fold), indoxacarb (2- to 41-fold), spinosad (5- to 38-fold), chlorantraniliprole (2- to 44-fold), tebufenozide (2- to 87-fold), chlorfluazuron (3- to 31-fold), cypermethrin (79- to 1240-fold), and chlorpyrifos (8- to 3,080-fold), but no significant resistance was detected to chlorfenapyr (0.4- to 7-fold). This indicates that chlorfenapyr has no cross-resistance with these other currently used insecticides. Four consecutive years' resistance screening at two places shows that resistance patterns were different between populations from Luhe (Jiangsu Province) and Fengxian (Shanghai), which are approximately 300 km apart. Resistance levels to chlorpyrifos were much higher in populations from Luhe (877- to 3,080-fold) than from Fengxian (8- to 110-fold). Fengxian populations developed moderate levels of resistance to tebufenozide (13- to 87-fold), but no resistance in Luhe populations (2- to 6-fold). However, Luhe populations developed moderate levels of resistance to chlorfluazuron (21- to 31-fold), but there was no resistance in Fengxian populations (3- to 5-fold). It is suggested that local insecticide selection determined resistance patterns although S. exigua has long-distance migratory potential. Adaptive resistance management tactics (such as rotations) should be designed and implemented based on the resistance patterns of S. exigua for each geographic area.

  8. Evidence for negative cross resistance to insecticides in field collected Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) from Lebanon in laboratory bioassays.

    PubMed

    Miles, M; Lysandrou, M

    2002-01-01

    A sample of Spodoptera littoralis pupae were field collected from in Lebanon in November 1999. Approximately 50 healthy pupae were used to initiate a laboratory colony (stain code LEB). As a benchmark for sensitivity to insecticides the susceptible laboratory strain (LET) was used for comparison. The LET stain has been held in laboratory culture for over 10 years and originated from Israel. Three test chemicals were investigated; Spinosad (Tracer, 480 g/L SC), chlorpyrifos (Dursban 480 g/L EC) and cypermethrin (Ambush C 100 g/L EC) representing a range of different modes of actions. To estimate the sensitivity of the LEB strain relative to the LET stain laboratory bioassays, conducted on second instar larvae exposed treated tomato leaves for two days. The method used was based on IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) insecticide susceptibly test number 7. Larvae from the LEB strain were tested in both the F1 and F2 laboratory generations. LC50 values were calculated using a Log-Probit model allowing the susceptibly of each strain to each test item to be compared. The LEB (field) strain were approximately twice as sensitive to spinosad compared with the LET (laboratory) strain. The LEB strain was 6-10 times less sensitive to chlorpyrifos which was within the range expected. However the LEB stain was 250-360 times less sensitive to cypermethrin compared with the LET strain, indicating a high level of resistance to pyrethroids in the field population. This kind of relationship gave a strong indication for negative cross resistance between spinosad and cypermethrin. It was concluded that spinosad had potential as a resistance management tool due to its novel mode of action and negative cross resistance with pyrethroids.

  9. Determination of spinosad at trace levels in bee pollen and beeswax with solid-liquid extraction and LC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Karen P; Martín, María T; Bernal, José L; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports the use of a new LC method with a fused-core analytical column coupled to ESI-MS to determine residues of the biopesticide spinosad in bee pollen and beeswax. The method analyzes the active ingredients, spinosyns A and D, with a simple and efficient sample treatment (recovery between 90 and 105%) consisting of a solid-liquid extraction with acetone (bee pollen) or acetonitrile (beeswax). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, and precision. The LOD and LOQ values ranged between 0.1-0.2 and 0.4-0.7 μg/kg, respectively. Moreover, the precision obtained within the linear concentration range (LOQ 500 μg/kg) was satisfactory (RSD lower than 5%). Finally, the proposed method was applied to analyze bee pollen and beeswax samples collected from apiaries located close to fruit orchards in two Spanish regions.

  10. How did the cilium evolve?

    PubMed

    Satir, Peter; Mitchell, David R; Jékely, Gáspár

    2008-01-01

    The cilium is a characteristic organelle of eukaryotes constructed from over 600 proteins. Bacterial flagella are entirely different. 9 + 2 motile cilia evolved before the divergence of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). This chapter explores, compares, and contrasts two potential pathways of evolution: (1) via invasion of a centriolar-like virus and (2) via autogenous formation from a pre-existing microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). In either case, the intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery that is nearly universally required for the assembly and maintenance of cilia derived from the evolving intracellular vesicular transport system. The sensory function of cilia evolved first and the ciliary axoneme evolved gradually with ciliary motility, an important selection mechanism, as one of the driving forces.

  11. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  12. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-08-15

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes.

  13. Robustness to Faults Promotes Evolvability: Insights from Evolving Digital Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Nolfi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the need to cope with operational faults enables evolving circuits to find more fit solutions. The analysis of the results obtained in different experimental conditions indicates that, in absence of faults, evolution tends to select circuits that are small and have low phenotypic variability and evolvability. The need to face operation faults, instead, drives evolution toward the selection of larger circuits that are truly robust with respect to genetic variations and that have a greater level of phenotypic variability and evolvability. Overall our results indicate that the need to cope with operation faults leads to the selection of circuits that have a greater probability to generate better circuits as a result of genetic variation with respect to a control condition in which circuits are not subjected to faults. PMID:27409589

  14. Robustness to Faults Promotes Evolvability: Insights from Evolving Digital Circuits.

    PubMed

    Milano, Nicola; Nolfi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the need to cope with operational faults enables evolving circuits to find more fit solutions. The analysis of the results obtained in different experimental conditions indicates that, in absence of faults, evolution tends to select circuits that are small and have low phenotypic variability and evolvability. The need to face operation faults, instead, drives evolution toward the selection of larger circuits that are truly robust with respect to genetic variations and that have a greater level of phenotypic variability and evolvability. Overall our results indicate that the need to cope with operation faults leads to the selection of circuits that have a greater probability to generate better circuits as a result of genetic variation with respect to a control condition in which circuits are not subjected to faults.

  15. Time evolving fluid from Vaidya spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Hao, Xin; Zhao, Liu

    2017-08-01

    A time evolving fluid system is constructed on a timelike boundary hypersurface at finite cutoff in Vaidya spacetime. The approach used to construct the fluid equations is a direct extension of the ordinary gravity/fluid correspondence under the constrained fluctuation obeying Petrov type I conditions. The explicit relationships between the time dependent fluctuation modes and the fluid quantities such as density, velocity field and kinematic viscosity parameters are established, and the resulting fluid system is governed by a system of a sourced continuity equation and a compressible Navier-Stokes equation with nontrivial time evolution.

  16. SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  17. Evolving Sensitivity Balances Boolean Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jamie X.; Turner, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of Boolean Networks (BNs) to mutations. We are interested in Boolean Networks as a model of Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs). We adopt Ribeiro and Kauffman’s Ergodic Set and use it to study the long term dynamics of a BN. We define the sensitivity of a BN to be the mean change in its Ergodic Set structure under all possible loss of interaction mutations. Insilico experiments were used to selectively evolve BNs for sensitivity to losing interactions. We find that maximum sensitivity was often achievable and resulted in the BNs becoming topologically balanced, i.e. they evolve towards network structures in which they have a similar number of inhibitory and excitatory interactions. In terms of the dynamics, the dominant sensitivity strategy that evolved was to build BNs with Ergodic Sets dominated by a single long limit cycle which is easily destabilised by mutations. We discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of Stem Cell Differentiation and propose a relationship between pluripotent stem cells and our evolved sensitive networks. PMID:22586459

  18. How evolvable are polarization machines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, Liedewij; Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    In many different cell types proper polarization is essential for cell function. Polarization mechanisms however, differ between cell types and even closely related species use a variety of polarization machines. Budding yeast, for example, depends on several parallel mechanisms to establish polarity. One mechanism (i) depends on reaction and diffusion of proteins in the membrane. Another one (ii) depends on reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. So why does yeast use several mechanisms simultaneously? Can yeast also polarize robustly in the absence of one of them? We addressed these questions by evolving budding yeast in the absence of mechanism (i) or (ii). We deleted a mechanism by deleting one or two genes that are essential for its function. After the deletion of either mechanism the growth rate of cells was highly decreased (2-5 fold) and their cell shape was highly perturbed. Subsequently, we evolved these cells for 10 days. Surprisingly, the evolved cells rapidly overcame most of their polarity defects. They grow at 0.9x wildtype growth rate and their cell shape is signifigantly less perturbed. Now we will study how these cells rescued polarization. Did they fix the deleted mechanism, strengthen other mechanisms or evolve a completely new one?

  19. Slippery Texts and Evolving Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…

  20. Thermal and evolved gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. S.; Boynton, W. V.; James, R. L.; Verts, W. T.; Bailey, S. H.; Hamara, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument will perform calorimetry and evolved gas analysis on soil samples collected from the Martian surface. TEGA is one of three instruments, along with a robotic arm, that form the Mars Volatile and Climate Survey (MVACS) payload. The other instruments are a stereo surface imager, built by Peter Smith of the University of Arizona and a meteorological station, built by JPL. The MVACS lander will investigate a Martian landing site at approximately 70 deg south latitude. Launch will take place from Kennedy Space Center in January, 1999. The TEGA project started in February, 1996. In the intervening 24 months, a flight instrument concept has been designed, prototyped, built as an engineering model and flight model, and tested. The instrument performs laboratory-quality differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC) over the temperature range of Mars ambient to 1400K. Low-temperature volatiles (water and carbon dioxide ices) and the carbonates will be analyzed in this temperature range. Carbonates melt and evolve carbon dioxide at temperatures above 600 C. Evolved oxygen (down to a concentration of 1 ppm) is detected, and C02 and water vapor and the isotopic variations of C02 and water vapor are detected and their concentrations measured. The isotopic composition provides important tests of the theory of solar system formation.

  1. The Evolving Demand for Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Alan

    From a macroeconomic perspective, the evolving demand for skills in the United States has been triggered by the accelerated expansion of computer and information technology, which has, in turn, brought significant changes to the workplace. Technological advances have made some wholly manual jobs obsolete. But even for many other workers, a rapidly…

  2. Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language…

  3. The Evolving Status of Photojournalism Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookman, Claude

    Noting that new technologies are resulting in extensive changes in the field of photojournalism, both as it is practiced and taught, this Digest reviews this rapidly evolving field of education and professional practice. It discusses what digital photography is; the history of digital photography; how digital photography has changed…

  4. Non-uniform Evolving Hypergraphs and Weighted Evolving Hypergraphs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jin-Li; Zhu, Xin-Yun; Suo, Qi; Forrest, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, this paper proposes a non-uniform evolving hypergraph model with nonlinear preferential attachment and an attractiveness. This model allows nodes to arrive in batches according to a Poisson process and to form hyperedges with existing batches of nodes. Both the number of arriving nodes and that of chosen existing nodes are random variables so that the size of each hyperedge is non-uniform. This paper establishes the characteristic equation of hyperdegrees, calculates changes in the hyperdegree of each node, and obtains the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the model by employing the Poisson process theory and the characteristic equation. Secondly, this paper constructs a model for weighted evolving hypergraphs that couples the establishment of new hyperedges, nodes and the dynamical evolution of the weights. Furthermore, what is obtained are respectively the stationary average hyperdegree and hyperstrength distributions by using the hyperdegree distribution of the established unweighted model above so that the weighted evolving hypergraph exhibits a scale-free behavior for both hyperdegree and hyperstrength distributions. PMID:27845334

  5. Coupled oscillators on evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. K.; Bagarti, Trilochan

    2016-12-01

    In this work we study coupled oscillators on evolving networks. We find that the steady state behavior of the system is governed by the relative values of the spread in natural frequencies and the global coupling strength. For coupling strong in comparison to the spread in frequencies, the system of oscillators synchronize and when coupling strength and spread in frequencies are large, a phenomenon similar to amplitude death is observed. The network evolution provides a mechanism to build inter-oscillator connections and once a dynamic equilibrium is achieved, oscillators evolve according to their local interactions. We also find that the steady state properties change by the presence of additional time scales. We demonstrate these results based on numerical calculations studying dynamical evolution of limit-cycle and van der Pol oscillators.

  6. Life cycle planning: An evolving concept

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.J.R.; Gorman, I.G.

    1994-12-31

    Life-cycle planning is an evolving concept in the management of oil and gas projects. BHP Petroleum now interprets this idea to include all development planning from discovery and field appraisal to final abandonment and includes safety, environmental, technical, plant, regulatory, and staffing issues. This article describes in the context of the Timor Sea, how despite initial successes and continuing facilities upgrades, BHPP came to perceive that current operations could be the victim of early development successes, particularly in the areas of corrosion and maintenance. The search for analogies elsewhere lead to the UK North Sea, including the experiences of Britoil and BP, both of which performed detailed Life of Field studies in the later eighties. These materials have been used to construct a format and content for total Life-cycle plans in general and the social changes required to ensure their successful application in Timor Sea operations and deployment throughout Australia.

  7. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  8. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  9. Effects of azadirachtin, abamectin, and spinosad on sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions in the humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prabhat; Poehling, H M

    2007-04-01

    Direct and residual toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S (azadirachtin), Success (spinosad), and abamectin was tested against different life stages of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), under air-conditioned laboratory conditions and in a tropical net greenhouse. NeemAzal-T/S and abamectin deterred the settling of adults on tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (Solanaceae), plants and consequently reduced egg deposition. No such effect was detected for Success. All three pesticides influenced egg hatch. Effects of NeemAzal-T/ S were significantly altered if applied to different-aged eggs (1, 3, and 5 d old). In contrast, abamectin-treated eggs failed to hatch at any given age class. All three products caused heavy mortality of the three nymphal stages of B. tabaci, with the first instars being most susceptible, abamectin-treated nymphs died within 24 h postapplication. In contrast, 100% nymphal mortality with NeemAzal-T/S and Success was reached 6-9 d postapplication. abamectin caused 100% immature mortality at all residue ages (1, 5, 10, and 15 d) in the laboratory and greenhouse as well. Persistence of Success was comparably high in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse a faster decline of activity was evident by increased egg deposition, egg hatch, and reduced rates of immature mortality. Toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S however gradually declined under greenhouse conditions with time (5 d) postapplication. The findings are discussed within the context of integrated management of whitefly under protected cultivation in the humid tropics.

  10. The evolvability of programmable hardware

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Wagner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In biological systems, individual phenotypes are typically adopted by multiple genotypes. Examples include protein structure phenotypes, where each structure can be adopted by a myriad individual amino acid sequence genotypes. These genotypes form vast connected ‘neutral networks’ in genotype space. The size of such neutral networks endows biological systems not only with robustness to genetic change, but also with the ability to evolve a vast number of novel phenotypes that occur near any one neutral network. Whether technological systems can be designed to have similar properties is poorly understood. Here we ask this question for a class of programmable electronic circuits that compute digital logic functions. The functional flexibility of such circuits is important in many applications, including applications of evolutionary principles to circuit design. The functions they compute are at the heart of all digital computation. We explore a vast space of 1045 logic circuits (‘genotypes’) and 1019 logic functions (‘phenotypes’). We demonstrate that circuits that compute the same logic function are connected in large neutral networks that span circuit space. Their robustness or fault-tolerance varies very widely. The vicinity of each neutral network contains circuits with a broad range of novel functions. Two circuits computing different functions can usually be converted into one another via few changes in their architecture. These observations show that properties important for the evolvability of biological systems exist in a commercially important class of electronic circuitry. They also point to generic ways to generate fault-tolerant, adaptable and evolvable electronic circuitry. PMID:20534598

  11. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

    1997-01-01

    The instrument consists of five subsystems: (1) a programmable furnace which can be loaded with samples of regolith, (2) a mass spectrometer which detects and measures atmospheric gases or gases evolved during heating, (3) a tank of pressurized gas which can be introduced to the regolith material while detecting and measuring volatile reaction products, (4) a mechanism for dumping the regolith sample and repeating the experiment on a fresh sample, and (5) a data system which controls and monitors the furnace, gas system, and mass spectrometer.

  12. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

    1997-01-01

    The instrument consists of five subsystems: (1) a programmable furnace which can be loaded with samples of regolith, (2) a mass spectrometer which detects and measures atmospheric gases or gases evolved during heating, (3) a tank of pressurized gas which can be introduced to the regolith material while detecting and measuring volatile reaction products, (4) a mechanism for dumping the regolith sample and repeating the experiment on a fresh sample, and (5) a data system which controls and monitors the furnace, gas system, and mass spectrometer.

  13. Improving Evolvability through Generative Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main limitations of computer automated design systems is the representation used for encoding designs. Using computer programs as an analogy, representations can be thought of as having the properties of combination, control-flow and abstraction. Generative representations are those which have the ability to reuse elements in an encoding through either iteration, a form of control-flow, or abstraction. Here we argue that generative representations improve the evolvability of designs by capturing design dependencies in a way that makes them easier to change, and we support this with examples from two design substrates.

  14. Languages evolve in punctuational bursts.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Meade, Andrew; Venditti, Chris; Greenhill, Simon J; Pagel, Mark

    2008-02-01

    Linguists speculate that human languages often evolve in rapid or punctuational bursts, sometimes associated with their emergence from other languages, but this phenomenon has never been demonstrated. We used vocabulary data from three of the world's major language groups-Bantu, Indo-European, and Austronesian-to show that 10 to 33% of the overall vocabulary differences among these languages arose from rapid bursts of change associated with language-splitting events. Our findings identify a general tendency for increased rates of linguistic evolution in fledgling languages, perhaps arising from a linguistic founder effect or a desire to establish a distinct social identity.

  15. The evolving role of the transfusion practitioner.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristy; Akers, Christine; Davis, Amanda K; Wood, Erica; Hennessy, Clare; Bielby, Linley

    2015-04-01

    Much of the recent work in transfusion practice has shifted to focus on the patient, after efforts over previous decades to ensure the quality and safety of blood products. After the commencement of hemovigilance and transfusion practice improvement programs, the introduction of transfusion practitioners (TP) into health care services and blood centers has continued to increase worldwide. Since this relatively new role was introduced, much work of the TP has focused on patient and staff education, adverse events, transfusion governance, and monitoring of transfusion practices within organizations. The complex nature of the transfusion process makes the TP an integral link in the transfusion chain. Together with hospital transfusion teams and committees, the TP works collaboratively to facilitate the transfusion change management programs and initiatives. Recently, the TP role has evolved to include an emphasis on patient blood management and, to some extent, is shaped by national standards and regulations. These established roles of the TP, together with the ever-changing field of transfusion medicine, provide new opportunities and challenges for a role that is continuing to evolve worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolving Dark Energy with w =/ -1

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori; Oliver, Steven J.

    2005-03-31

    Theories of evolving quintessence are constructed that generically lead to deviations from the w = -1 prediction of non-evolving dark energy. The small mass scale that governs evolution, m_\\phi \\approx 10^-33 eV, is radiatively stable, and the"Why Now?'' problem is solved. These results rest crucially on seesaw cosmology: in broad outline, fundamental physics and cosmology can be understood from only two mass scales, the weak scale, v, and the Planck scale, M. Requiring a scale of dark energy \\rho_DE^1/4 governed by v^2/M, and a radiatively stable evolution rate m_\\phi given by v^4/M^3, leads to a distinctive form for the equation of state w(z) that follows from a cosine quintessence potential. An explicit hidden axion model is constructed. Dark energy resides in the potential of the axion field which is generated by a new QCD-like force that gets strong at the scale \\Lambda \\approx v^2/M \\approx \\rho_DE^1/4. The evolution rate is given by a second seesaw that leads to the axion mass, m_\\phi \\approx \\Lambda^2/f, with f \\approx M.

  17. Netgram: Visualizing Communities in Evolving Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Raghvendra; Langone, Rocco; Suykens, Johan A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Real-world complex networks are dynamic in nature and change over time. The change is usually observed in the interactions within the network over time. Complex networks exhibit community like structures. A key feature of the dynamics of complex networks is the evolution of communities over time. Several methods have been proposed to detect and track the evolution of these groups over time. However, there is no generic tool which visualizes all the aspects of group evolution in dynamic networks including birth, death, splitting, merging, expansion, shrinkage and continuation of groups. In this paper, we propose Netgram: a tool for visualizing evolution of communities in time-evolving graphs. Netgram maintains evolution of communities over 2 consecutive time-stamps in tables which are used to create a query database using the sql outer-join operation. It uses a line-based visualization technique which adheres to certain design principles and aesthetic guidelines. Netgram uses a greedy solution to order the initial community information provided by the evolutionary clustering technique such that we have fewer line cross-overs in the visualization. This makes it easier to track the progress of individual communities in time evolving graphs. Netgram is a generic toolkit which can be used with any evolutionary community detection algorithm as illustrated in our experiments. We use Netgram for visualization of topic evolution in the NIPS conference over a period of 11 years and observe the emergence and merging of several disciplines in the field of information processing systems. PMID:26356538

  18. Transport on randomly evolving trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, L.

    2005-11-01

    The time process of transport on randomly evolving trees is investigated. By introducing the notions of living and dead nodes, a model of random tree evolution is constructed which describes the spreading in time of objects corresponding to nodes. It is assumed that at t=0 the tree consists of a single living node (root), from which the evolution may begin. At a certain time instant τ⩾0 , the root produces ν⩾0 living nodes connected by lines to the root which becomes dead at the moment of the offspring production. In the evolution process each of the new living nodes evolves further like a root independently of the others. By using the methods of the age-dependent branching processes we derive the joint distribution function of the numbers of living and dead nodes, and determine the correlation between these node numbers as a function of time. It is proved that the correlation function converges to 3/2 independently of the distributions of ν and τ when q1→1 and t→∞ . Also analyzed are the stochastic properties of the end nodes; and the correlation between the numbers of living and dead end nodes is shown to change its character suddenly at the very beginning of the evolution process. The survival probability of random trees is investigated and expressions are derived for this probability.

  19. Transport on randomly evolving trees.

    PubMed

    Pál, L

    2005-11-01

    The time process of transport on randomly evolving trees is investigated. By introducing the notions of living and dead nodes, a model of random tree evolution is constructed which describes the spreading in time of objects corresponding to nodes. It is assumed that at t=0 the tree consists of a single living node (root), from which the evolution may begin. At a certain time instant tau> or =0, the root produces v> or =0 living nodes connected by lines to the root which becomes dead at the moment of the offspring production. In the evolution process each of the new living nodes evolves further like a root independently of the others. By using the methods of the age-dependent branching processes we derive the joint distribution function of the numbers of living and dead nodes, and determine the correlation between these node numbers as a function of time. It is proved that the correlation function converges to square root of 3/2 independently of the distributions of v and tau when q1-->1 and t-->infinity. Also analyzed are the stochastic properties of the end nodes; and the correlation between the numbers of living and dead end nodes is shown to change its character suddenly at the very beginning of the evolution process. The survival probability of random trees is investigated and expressions are derived for this probability.

  20. Stability of Evolving Multiagent Systems.

    PubMed

    De Wilde, P; Briscoe, G

    2011-08-01

    A multiagent system is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multiagent systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external user-generated input into the multiagent system. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model multiagent systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at multiagent systems that evolve, i.e., the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control multiagent systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability (entropy of the limit probabilities), which we used to perform a stability analysis. We then investigated the stability of evolving agent populations through simulation and show that the results are consistent with the original definition of stability in nonevolving multiagent systems, proposed by Chli and De Wilde. This paper forms the theoretical basis for the construction of digital business ecosystems, and applications have been reported elsewhere.

  1. Evolving Robust Gene Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Nasimul; Monjo, Taku; Moscato, Pablo; Iba, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Design and implementation of robust network modules is essential for construction of complex biological systems through hierarchical assembly of ‘parts’ and ‘devices’. The robustness of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is ascribed chiefly to the underlying topology. The automatic designing capability of GRN topology that can exhibit robust behavior can dramatically change the current practice in synthetic biology. A recent study shows that Darwinian evolution can gradually develop higher topological robustness. Subsequently, this work presents an evolutionary algorithm that simulates natural evolution in silico, for identifying network topologies that are robust to perturbations. We present a Monte Carlo based method for quantifying topological robustness and designed a fitness approximation approach for efficient calculation of topological robustness which is computationally very intensive. The proposed framework was verified using two classic GRN behaviors: oscillation and bistability, although the framework is generalized for evolving other types of responses. The algorithm identified robust GRN architectures which were verified using different analysis and comparison. Analysis of the results also shed light on the relationship among robustness, cooperativity and complexity. This study also shows that nature has already evolved very robust architectures for its crucial systems; hence simulation of this natural process can be very valuable for designing robust biological systems. PMID:25616055

  2. Primordial evolvability: Impasses and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vasas, Vera; Fernando, Chrisantha; Szilágyi, András; Zachár, István; Santos, Mauro; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-09-21

    While it is generally agreed that some kind of replicating non-living compounds were the precursors of life, there is much debate over their possible chemical nature. Metabolism-first approaches propose that mutually catalytic sets of simple organic molecules could be capable of self-replication and rudimentary chemical evolution. In particular, the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, depicting assemblies of amphiphilic molecules, has received considerable interest. The system propagates compositional information across generations and is suggested to be a target of natural selection. However, evolutionary simulations indicate that the system lacks selectability (i.e. selection has negligible effect on the equilibrium concentrations). We elaborate on the lessons learnt from the example of the GARD model and, more widely, on the issue of evolvability, and discuss the implications for similar metabolism-first scenarios. We found that simple incorporation-type chemistry based on non-covalent bonds, as assumed in GARD, is unlikely to result in alternative autocatalytic cycles when catalytic interactions are randomly distributed. An even more serious problem stems from the lognormal distribution of catalytic factors, causing inherent kinetic instability of such loops, due to the dominance of efficiently catalyzed components that fail to return catalytic aid. Accordingly, the dynamics of the GARD model is dominated by strongly catalytic, but not auto-catalytic, molecules. Without effective autocatalysis, stable hereditary propagation is not possible. Many repetitions and different scaling of the model come to no rescue. Despite all attempts to show the contrary, the GARD model is not evolvable, in contrast to reflexively autocatalytic networks, complemented by rare uncatalyzed reactions and compartmentation. The latter networks, resting on the creation and breakage of chemical bonds, can generate novel ('mutant') autocatalytic loops from a given set of

  3. Evolving phenotype of Marfan's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, K.; Clayton-Smith, J.; Harris, R.

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 20 August 1996
 AIM—To examine evolution of the physical characteristics of Marfan's syndrome throughout childhood.
METHODS—40 children were ascertained during the development of a regional register for Marfan's syndrome. Evolution of the clinical characteristics was determined by repeat evaluation of 10 patients with sporadic Marfan's syndrome and 30 with a family history of the condition. DNA marker studies were used to facilitate diagnosis in those with the familial condition.
RESULTS—Musculoskeletal features predominated and evolved throughout childhood. Gene tracking enabled early diagnosis in children with familial Marfan's syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS—These observations may aid the clinical diagnosis of Marfan's syndrome in childhood, especially in those with the sporadic condition. Gene tracking has a role in the early diagnosis of familial Marfan's syndrome, allowing appropriate follow up and preventive care.

 PMID:9059160

  4. Isotopic Analysis and Evolved Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.; Boynton, William V.; Chutjian, Ara; Hoffman, John H.; Jordan, Jim L.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; McEntire, Richard W.; Nyquist, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Precise measurements of the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary surface material and gases, and observed variations in these compositions, can contribute significantly to our knowledge of the source(s), ages, and evolution of solar system materials. The analyses discussed in this paper are mostly made by mass spectrometers or some other type of mass analyzer, and address three broad areas of interest: (1) atmospheric composition - isotopic, elemental, and molecular, (2) gases evolved from solids, and (3) solids. Current isotopic data on nine elements, mostly from in situ analysis, but also from meteorites and telescopic observations are summarized. Potential instruments for isotopic analysis of lunar, Martian, Venusian, Mercury, and Pluto surfaces, along with asteroid, cometary and icy satellites, surfaces are discussed.

  5. [The evolving of cardiac interventions].

    PubMed

    Billinger, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Treatment modalities for heart diseases have considerable evolved during the last 20 years. Coronary and valvular heart disease are treated increasingly by less invasive percutaneous catheter based procedures instead of open-heart surgery. In addition, new cutting-edge interventions allow to cure heart disease for which until recently only medical treatment options were available. Whilst many patients benefit from these innovative therapies, rapidly developing technologies potentially carry the risk of overtreatment. In order to select patients for the most appropriate treatment, an intensive interdisciplinary teamwork between cardiologists and cardiac surgeons is a mandatory requirement. Additionally, knowledge transfer between cardiologists, their growing subspecialties and practitioners should be encouraged. Finally, timely scientific evaluation of new therapies and subsequent incorporation in guidelines remains crucial.

  6. Rapidly evolving homing CRISPR barcodes.

    PubMed

    Kalhor, Reza; Mali, Prashant; Church, George M

    2017-02-01

    We present an approach for engineering evolving DNA barcodes in living cells. A homing guide RNA (hgRNA) scaffold directs the Cas9-hgRNA complex to the DNA locus of the hgRNA itself. We show that this homing CRISPR-Cas9 system acts as an expressed genetic barcode that diversifies its sequence and that the rate of diversification can be controlled in cultured cells. We further evaluate these barcodes in cell populations and show that they can be used to record lineage history and that the barcode RNA can be amplified in situ, a prerequisite for in situ sequencing. This integrated approach will have wide-ranging applications, such as in deep lineage tracing, cellular barcoding, molecular recording, dissecting cancer biology, and connectome mapping.

  7. The evolving Gleason grading system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ni; Zhou, Qiao

    2016-02-01

    The Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma has evolved from its original scheme established in the 1960s-1970s, to a significantly modified system after two major consensus meetings conducted by the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) in 2005 and 2014, respectively. The Gleason grading system has been incorporated into the WHO classification of prostate cancer, the AJCC/UICC staging system, and the NCCN guidelines as one of the key factors in treatment decision. Both pathologists and clinicians need to fully understand the principles and practice of this grading system. We here briefly review the historical aspects of the original scheme and the recent developments of Gleason grading system, focusing on major changes over the years that resulted in the modern Gleason grading system, which has led to a new "Grade Group" system proposed by the 2014 ISUP consensus, and adopted by the 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the prostate.

  8. The evolving Gleason grading system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ni

    2016-01-01

    The Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma has evolved from its original scheme established in the 1960s–1970s, to a significantly modified system after two major consensus meetings conducted by the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) in 2005 and 2014, respectively. The Gleason grading system has been incorporated into the WHO classification of prostate cancer, the AJCC/UICC staging system, and the NCCN guidelines as one of the key factors in treatment decision. Both pathologists and clinicians need to fully understand the principles and practice of this grading system. We here briefly review the historical aspects of the original scheme and the recent developments of Gleason grading system, focusing on major changes over the years that resulted in the modern Gleason grading system, which has led to a new “Grade Group” system proposed by the 2014 ISUP consensus, and adopted by the 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the prostate. PMID:27041927

  9. Evolving networks by merging cliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Oosawa, Chikoo

    2005-10-01

    We propose a model for evolving networks by merging building blocks represented as complete graphs, reminiscent of modules in biological system or communities in sociology. The model shows power-law degree distributions, power-law clustering spectra, and high average clustering coefficients independent of network size. The analytical solutions indicate that a degree exponent is determined by the ratio of the number of merging nodes to that of all nodes in the blocks, demonstrating that the exponent is tunable, and are also applicable when the blocks are classical networks such as Erdös-Rényi or regular graphs. Our model becomes the same model as the Barabási-Albert model under a specific condition.

  10. Behavioural plasticity in evolving robots.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Jônata Tyska; Nolfi, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we show how the development of plastic behaviours, i.e., behaviour displaying a modular organisation characterised by behavioural subunits that are alternated in a context-dependent manner, can enable evolving robots to solve their adaptive task more efficiently also when it does not require the accomplishment of multiple conflicting functions. The comparison of the results obtained in different experimental conditions indicates that the most important prerequisites for the evolution of behavioural plasticity are: the possibility to generate and perceive affordances (i.e., opportunities for behaviour execution), the possibility to rely on flexible regulatory processes that exploit both external and internal cues, and the possibility to realise smooth and effective transitions between behaviours.

  11. A View from Above: The Evolving Sociological Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, James; Light, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    How has sociology evolved over the last 40 years? In this paper, we examine networks built on thousands of sociology-relevant papers to map sociology's position in the wider social sciences and identify changes in the most prominent research fronts in the discipline. We find first that sociology seems to have traded centrality in the field of…

  12. A Quantitative Approach to Assessing System Evolvability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, John A., III

    2004-01-01

    When selecting a system from multiple candidates, the customer seeks the one that best meets his or her needs. Recently the desire for evolvable systems has become more important and engineers are striving to develop systems that accommodate this need. In response to this search for evolvability, we present a historical perspective on evolvability, propose a refined definition of evolvability, and develop a quantitative method for measuring this property. We address this quantitative methodology from both a theoretical and practical perspective. This quantitative model is then applied to the problem of evolving a lunar mission to a Mars mission as a case study.

  13. Foraging Allocation in the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Tuned by the Presence of the Spinosad-Based Pesticide GF-120.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Marín, N V; Liedo, P; Vandame, R; Sánchez, D

    2015-04-01

    Agroecosystem management commonly involves the use of pesticides. As a result, a heterogeneous landscape is created, in which suitable and unsuitable spaces are defined by the absence/presence of pesticides. In this study, we explored how foragers of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., adapt to such context. We specifically evaluated the effect of GF-120, a spinosad-based fruit fly toxic bait, on the allocation of foragers between food sources under the hypothesis that foragers will move from food sources with GF-120 to food sources without it. We thus carried out three experiments: in experiment 1, a group of foragers was trained to collect honey solution from a feeder; next, this feeder offered a GF-120/honey solution. A minority of foragers continued collecting the GF-120/honey solution. In experiment 2, we trained two groups of foragers from a colony to two food sources equally rewarding. Next, GF-120 was added to one of the food sources. We found that the majority of foragers moved from the GF-120-treated feeder to the feeder without GF-120 and that the minority that continued visiting the GF-120-treated feeder did not collect the GF-120/honey solution. In a third experiment, we wanted to know if foragers in an experimental setup as in experiment 1 would perform waggle dances: none of the foragers that collected GF-120/honey were observed dancing. Our results emphasize the importance of "food refuges" for non-target species, since they minimize the impact of agrochemicals upon them.

  14. Increased longevity evolves from grandmothering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter S; Coxworth, James E; Hawkes, Kristen

    2012-12-22

    Postmenopausal longevity may have evolved in our lineage when ancestral grandmothers subsidized their daughters' fertility by provisioning grandchildren, but the verbal hypothesis has lacked mathematical support until now. Here, we present a formal simulation in which life spans similar to those of modern chimpanzees lengthen into the modern human range as a consequence of grandmother effects. Greater longevity raises the chance of living through the fertile years but is opposed by costs that differ for the sexes. Our grandmother assumptions are restrictive. Only females who are no longer fertile themselves are eligible, and female fertility extends to age 45 years. Initially, there are very few eligible grandmothers and effects are small. Grandmothers can support only one dependent at a time and do not care selectively for their daughters' offspring. They must take the oldest juveniles still relying on mothers; and infants under the age of 2 years are never eligible for subsidy. Our model includes no assumptions about brains, learning or pair bonds. Grandmother effects alone are sufficient to propel the doubling of life spans in less than sixty thousand years.

  15. Circumstellar Crystalline Silicates: Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartar, Josh; Speck, A. K.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most exciting developments in astronomy in the last 15 years was the discovery of crystalline silicate stardust by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board of ISO; discovery of the crystalline grains was indeed one of the biggest surprises of the ISO mission. Initially discovered around AGB stars (evolved stars in the range of 0.8 > M/M¤>8) at far-infrared (IR) wavelengths, crystalline silicates have since been seen in many astrophysical environments including young stellar objects (T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be), comets and Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies. Low and intermediate mass stars (LIMS) comprise 95% of the contributors to the ISM, so study of the formation of crystalline silicates is critical to our understanding of the ISM, which is thought to be primarily amorphous (one would expect an almost exact match between the composition of AGB dust shells and the dust in the ISM). Whether the crystalline dust is merely undetectable or amorphized remains a mystery. The FORCAST instrument on SOFIA as well as the PACS instrument on Herschel will provide exciting observing opportunities for the further study of crystalline silicates.

  16. Multicopy Suppression Underpins Metabolic Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Wayne M.; Quandt, Erik M.; Swartzlander, Dan B.; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the origins of new metabolic functions is based upon anecdotal genetic and biochemical evidence. Some auxotrophies can be suppressed by overexpressing substrate-ambiguous enzymes (i.e., those that catalyze the same chemical transformation on different substrates). Other enzymes exhibit weak but detectable catalytic promiscuity in vitro (i.e., they catalyze different transformations on similar substrates). Cells adapt to novel environments through the evolution of these secondary activities, but neither their chemical natures nor their frequencies of occurrence have been characterized en bloc. Here, we systematically identified multifunctional genes within the Escherichia coli genome. We screened 104 single-gene knockout strains and discovered that many (20%) of these auxotrophs were rescued by the overexpression of at least one noncognate E. coli gene. The deleted gene and its suppressor were generally unrelated, suggesting that promiscuity is a product of contingency. This genome-wide survey demonstrates that multifunctional genes are common and illustrates the mechanistic diversity by which their products enhance metabolic robustness and evolvability. PMID:17884825

  17. Increased longevity evolves from grandmothering

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Coxworth, James E.; Hawkes, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal longevity may have evolved in our lineage when ancestral grandmothers subsidized their daughters' fertility by provisioning grandchildren, but the verbal hypothesis has lacked mathematical support until now. Here, we present a formal simulation in which life spans similar to those of modern chimpanzees lengthen into the modern human range as a consequence of grandmother effects. Greater longevity raises the chance of living through the fertile years but is opposed by costs that differ for the sexes. Our grandmother assumptions are restrictive. Only females who are no longer fertile themselves are eligible, and female fertility extends to age 45 years. Initially, there are very few eligible grandmothers and effects are small. Grandmothers can support only one dependent at a time and do not care selectively for their daughters' offspring. They must take the oldest juveniles still relying on mothers; and infants under the age of 2 years are never eligible for subsidy. Our model includes no assumptions about brains, learning or pair bonds. Grandmother effects alone are sufficient to propel the doubling of life spans in less than sixty thousand years. PMID:23097518

  18. Recommendation in evolving online networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, An; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recommender system is an effective tool to find the most relevant information for online users. By analyzing the historical selection records of users, recommender system predicts the most likely future links in the user-item network and accordingly constructs a personalized recommendation list for each user. So far, the recommendation process is mostly investigated in static user-item networks. In this paper, we propose a model which allows us to examine the performance of the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in evolving networks. We find that the recommendation accuracy in general decreases with time if the evolution of the online network fully depends on the recommendation. Interestingly, some randomness in users' choice can significantly improve the long-term accuracy of the recommendation algorithm. When a hybrid recommendation algorithm is applied, we find that the optimal parameter gradually shifts towards the diversity-favoring recommendation algorithm, indicating that recommendation diversity is essential to keep a high long-term recommendation accuracy. Finally, we confirm our conclusions by studying the recommendation on networks with the real evolution data.

  19. The evolving defense communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Ann M.; Jones, Walter I.

    1992-05-01

    Command, control, and communications (C3) systems 'help lift the fog of war that adds uncertainty to any military operation.' They multiply the effectiveness of weapon systems and are critical components of our nation's warfighting capability. One of these critical systems is the Defense Communications System (DCS) which evolved over the past 30 years. Several factors drove this evolution, including constrained budgets, the need to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the service provided, compatibility and interoperability, and technological advances. Based on lessons learned from Desert Shield/Desert Storm and the changing environment, force structure, and strategy, it is time to advance the DCS to its next stage. The future DCS must be flexible enough to adapt to any situation anywhere in the world. Mobile, modular building block packages of communications equipment must be available to provide effective communications capability to deployed units immediately upon arrival. Total integration and interoperability among military, commercial, and other government agencies' communication systems is a must if survivable, robust connectivity is going to be available when needed. Integration planning must begin now.

  20. Multiscale modelling of evolving foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saye, R. I.; Sethian, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a set of multi-scale interlinked algorithms to model the dynamics of evolving foams. These algorithms couple the key effects of macroscopic bubble rearrangement, thin film drainage, and membrane rupture. For each of the mechanisms, we construct consistent and accurate algorithms, and couple them together to work across the wide range of space and time scales that occur in foam dynamics. These algorithms include second order finite difference projection methods for computing incompressible fluid flow on the macroscale, second order finite element methods to solve thin film drainage equations in the lamellae and Plateau borders, multiphase Voronoi Implicit Interface Methods to track interconnected membrane boundaries and capture topological changes, and Lagrangian particle methods for conservative liquid redistribution during rearrangement and rupture. We derive a full set of numerical approximations that are coupled via interface jump conditions and flux boundary conditions, and show convergence for the individual mechanisms. We demonstrate our approach by computing a variety of foam dynamics, including coupled evolution of three-dimensional bubble clusters attached to an anchored membrane and collapse of a foam cluster.

  1. Integrated management tactics for Frankliniella thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in field-grown pepper.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Stuart R; Yearby, Erika L; Funderburk, Joseph E; Stavisky, Julianne; Momol, M Timur; Olson, Steve M

    2003-08-01

    In a 2-yr study, the impacts of different plastic soil mulches, insecticides, and predator releases on Frankliniella thrips and their natural enemies were investigated in field-grown peppers. Ultraviolet light (UV)-reflective mulch significantly reduced early season abundance of adult thrips compared with standard black plastic mulch. This difference diminished as the growing seasons progressed. Late season abundance of thrips larvae was higher in UV reflective mulch compared with black mulch plots. The abundance of the predator Orius insidiosus (Say) was significantly lower in UV-reflective mulch compared with black mulch treatments. Infection of plants with tomato spotted wilt virus, a pathogen vectored by Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), was <6%. In the year with the higher disease incidence (2000), UV-reflective mulch plots had significantly less disease (1.9%) compared with black mulch plots (4.4%). Yield was significantly higher in UV-reflective mulch (24,529 kg/ha) compared with black mulch (15,315 kg/ha) during this year. Effects of insecticides varied with species of thrips. Spinosad reduced abundance of F. occidentalis, but not Frankliniella tritici. In contrast, esfenvalerate and acephate reduced numbers of F. tritici and Frankliniella bispinosa, but resulted in higher populations of F. occidentalis. Spinosad was the least disruptive insecticide to populations of O. insidiosus. Releases of O. insidiosus and Geocoris punctipes (Say) reduced populations of thrips immediately after releases; naturally occurring predators probably provided late season control of thrips. Our results suggest that UV-reflective mulch, combined with early season applications of spinosad, can effectively reduce abundance of thrips in field-grown pepper.

  2. Evolving roles of highly successful mentors.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    This article was written groom mentors, old and new, by identifying the evolving roles that highly successful mentors in order to share wisdom with their protégés. First aspiring mentors need to become subject matter experts in their profession by achieving the relevant benchmarks of mastery in their career fields. Next, they must win the coveted role of respected leader by being trustworthy and putting the development of others first. The mastery of knowledge and earning of respect must also be balanced by genuine humility if the mentor is to be effective in sharing what he or she knows. Highly successful mentors are teachers, plain and simple, and they are most effective in this role when they have a deep passion for teaching. By properly using reflection, adroit mentors look back upon their many adventures and carefully select critical stories to share with their protégés. While outstanding mentors have a lot to say, they need to spend most of their time listening to those they mentor to ensure that they understand their protégés' individualized needs and goals. To help protégés through the setbacks and disappointments that can accompany an Army career, high-speed mentors need to don the role of optimistic cheerleaders, encouraging those they mentor and restoring hope. Once a striving mentor has finally reached the summit of mentoring and is a trusted counselor, he or she must continue to nurture and protect this fragile, but most influential role. Lastly, great mentors need to be consummate students of both their profession and mentoring so that they remain vital and responsive to those they mentor. In closing, it is hoped that by considering and embracing these evolving roles, dedicated students of mentoring will derive a deeper satisfaction and have greater success in this critically important leadership responsibility.

  3. Submillimeter observations of evolved stars

    SciTech Connect

    Sopka, R.J.; Hildebrand, R.; Jaffe, D.T.; Gatley, I.; Roellig, T.; Werner, M.; Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B.

    1985-07-01

    Broad-band submillimeter observations of the thermal emission from evolved stars have been obtained with the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. These observations, at an effective wavelength of 400 ..mu..m, provide the most direct method for estimating the mass loss rate in dust from these stars and also help to define the long-wavelength thermal spectrum of the dust envelopes. The mass loss rates in dust that we derive range from 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -6/ M/sub sun/ yr/sup -1/ and are compared with mass loss rates derived from molecular line observations to estimate gas-to-dust ratios in outflowing envelopes. These values are found to be generally compatible with the interstellar gas-to-dust ratio of approx.100 if submillimeter emissivities appropriate to amorphous grain structures are assumed. Our analysis of the spectrum of IRC+10216 confirms previous suggestions that the grain emissivity varies as lambda/sup -1.2/ rather than as lambda/sup -2/ for 10

  4. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evolving concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jay H; Moua, Teng; Daniels, Craig E; Hartman, Thomas E; Yi, Eunhee S; Utz, James P; Limper, Andrew H

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occurs predominantly in middle-aged and older adults and accounts for 20% to 30% of interstitial lung diseases. It is usually progressive, resulting in respiratory failure and death. Diagnostic criteria for IPF have evolved over the years, and IPF is currently defined as a disease characterized by the histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia occurring in the absence of an identifiable cause of lung injury. Understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has shifted away from chronic inflammation and toward dysregulated fibroproliferative repair in response to alveolar epithelial injury. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is likely a heterogeneous disorder caused by various interactions between genetic components and environmental exposures. High-resolution computed tomography can be diagnostic in the presence of typical findings such as bilateral reticular opacities associated with traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis in a predominantly basal and subpleural distribution, along with subpleural honeycombing. In other circumstances, a surgical lung biopsy may be needed. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute deteriorations (acute exacerbation). Although progress continues in unraveling the mechanisms of IPF, effective therapy has remained elusive. Thus, clinicians and patients need to reach informed decisions regarding management options including lung transplant. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed using the search terms idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and usual interstitial pneumonia, limited to human studies in the English language published from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2013, and supplemented by key references published before the year 2000. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Tarter, J. C.; DeVore, E. K.; O'Sullivan, K. A.; Taylor, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a recurring theme in every realm of science: over time, the universe, the planet Earth, life, and human technologies all change, albeit on vastly different scales. Evolution offers scientific explanations for the age-old question, "Where did we come from?" In addition, historical perspectives of science show how our understanding has evolved over time. The complexities of all of these systems will never reveal a "finished" story. But it is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place, and eminently worthy of investigating. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time. Voyages Through Time (VTT), provides teachers with not only background science content and pedagogy, but also with materials and resources for the teaching of evolution. The six modules, Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, Hominid Evolution, and Evolution of Technology, emphasize student inquiry, and promote the nature of science, as recommended in the NSES and BSL. The modules are unified by the overarching theme of evolution and the meta questions: "What is changing?" "What is the rate of change?" and "What is the mechanism of change?" Determination of student outcomes for the project required effective collaboration of scientists, teachers, students and media specialists. The broadest curricula students outcomes are 1) an enjoyment of science, 2) an understanding of the nature of science, especially the understanding of evidence and re-evaluation, and 3) key science content. The curriculum is being developed by the SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences, and San Francisco State University, and is funded by the NSF (IMD 9730693), with support form Hewlett-Packard Company, The Foundation for Microbiology, Combined Federated Charities, NASA Astrobiology Institute, and NASA Fundamental

  6. A slowly evolving host moves first in symbiotic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damore, James; Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Symbiotic relationships, both parasitic and mutualistic, are ubiquitous in nature. Understanding how these symbioses evolve, from bacteria and their phages to humans and our gut microflora, is crucial in understanding how life operates. Often, symbioses consist of a slowly evolving host species with each host only interacting with its own sub-population of symbionts. The Red Queen hypothesis describes coevolutionary relationships as constant arms races with each species rushing to evolve an advantage over the other, suggesting that faster evolution is favored. Here, we use a simple game theoretic model of host- symbiont coevolution that includes population structure to show that if the symbionts evolve much faster than the host, the equilibrium distribution is the same as it would be if it were a sequential game where the host moves first against its symbionts. For the slowly evolving host, this will prove to be advantageous in mutualisms and a handicap in antagonisms. The model allows for symbiont adaptation to its host, a result that is robust to changes in the parameters and generalizes to continuous and multiplayer games. Our findings provide insight into a wide range of symbiotic phenomena and help to unify the field of coevolutionary theory.

  7. Evolving evolutionary algorithms using linear genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Oltean, Mihai

    2005-01-01

    A new model for evolving Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed in this paper. The model is based on the Linear Genetic Programming (LGP) technique. Every LGP chromosome encodes an EA which is used for solving a particular problem. Several Evolutionary Algorithms for function optimization, the Traveling Salesman Problem and the Quadratic Assignment Problem are evolved by using the considered model. Numerical experiments show that the evolved Evolutionary Algorithms perform similarly and sometimes even better than standard approaches for several well-known benchmarking problems.

  8. Acquiring Evolving Technologies: Web Services Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    2006 Carnegie Mellon University Acquiring Evolving Technologies : Web Services Standards Harry L. Levinson Software Engineering Institute Carnegie...Acquiring Evolving Technologies : Web Services Standards 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Acquiring Evolving Technologies : Web Services Standards © 2006 Carnegie Mellon University Acquiring

  9. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  10. Water in evolved lunar rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Katharine Lynn

    The Moon was thought to be completely anhydrous until indigenous water was found in lunar samples in 2008. This discovery raised two fundamental questions about the Moon: how much water is present in the bulk Moon and is water uniformly distributed in the lunar interior? To address these questions, I studied a suite of lunar samples rich in a chemical component called KREEP (K, Rare Earth Elements, P), all of which are incompatible elements. Water behaves as an incompatible element in magmas, so KREEP-rich lunar samples are potentially water rich. In this dissertation, I present the results of a petrologic study of KREEP-rich lunar rocks, measurements of their water contents and deuterium (D) to hydrogen (H) ratios (D/H), and examined where these rocks fit into our understanding of water in the Moon as a whole. We performed a study of highly evolved, KREEP-rich lunar rocks called felsites and determined that they contain quartz. Using cooling rates derived from quartz-Ti thermometry, we show the felsites originated at a minimum pressure of ˜1 kbar, corresponding to a minimum depth of 20-25 km in the lunar crust. We calculate that at that pressure water would have been soluble in the melt, indicating that degassing of H2O from the felsite parental melts was likely minimal and hydrogen isotopes in intrusive rocks are likely unfractionated. We then measured D/H in apatite in KREEP-rich intrusive rocks to clarify the solar system source of the Moon's water. When viewed in the context of other lunar D/H studies, our results indicate there are at least three distinctive reservoirs in the lunar interior, including an ultra-low D reservoir that could represent a primitive component in the Moon's interior. Furthermore, our measurements of residual glass in a KREEP basalt show that the KREEP basaltic magmas contained 10 times less water than the source of the Apollo 17 pyroclastic glass beads, indicating that, though wetter than previously thought, the concentration of

  11. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  12. Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Herridge, Victoria L.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2012-01-01

    The insular dwarfism seen in Pleistocene elephants has come to epitomize the island rule; yet our understanding of this phenomenon is hampered by poor taxonomy. For Mediterranean dwarf elephants, where the most extreme cases of insular dwarfism are observed, a key systematic question remains unresolved: are all taxa phyletic dwarfs of a single mainland species Palaeoloxodon antiquus (straight-tusked elephant), or are some referable to Mammuthus (mammoths)? Ancient DNA and geochronological evidence have been used to support a Mammuthus origin for the Cretan ‘Palaeoloxodon’ creticus, but these studies have been shown to be flawed. On the basis of existing collections and recent field discoveries, we present new, morphological evidence for the taxonomic status of ‘P’. creticus, and show that it is indeed a mammoth, most probably derived from Early Pleistocene Mammuthus meridionalis or possibly Late Pliocene Mammuthus rumanus. We also show that Mammuthus creticus is smaller than other known insular dwarf mammoths, and is similar in size to the smallest dwarf Palaeoloxodon species from Sicily and Malta, making it the smallest mammoth species known to have existed. These findings indicate that extreme insular dwarfism has evolved to a similar degree independently in two elephant lineages. PMID:22572206

  13. Evolving dark energy with w not = -1.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lawrence J; Nomura, Yasunori; Oliver, Steven J

    2005-09-30

    Theories of evolving quintessence are constructed that generically lead to deviations from the w = -1 prediction of nonevolving dark energy. The small mass scale that governs evolution, m(phi) approximately = 10(-33) eV, is radiatively stable, and the "Why now?" problem is solved. These results rest on seesaw cosmology: Fundamental physics and cosmology can be broadly understood from only two mass scales, the weak scale nu and the Planck scale M. Requiring a scale of dark energy rho(DE)(1/4) governed by nu2/M and a radiatively stable evolution rate m(phi) given by nu4/M3 leads to a distinctive form for the equation of state w(z). Dark energy resides in the potential of a hidden axion field that is generated by a new QCD-like force that gets strong at the scale lambda approximately = nu2/M approximately = rho(DE)(1/4). The evolution rate is given by a second seesaw that leads to the axion mass m(phi) approximately = lambda2/f, with f approximately = M.

  14. Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Victoria L; Lister, Adrian M

    2012-08-22

    The insular dwarfism seen in Pleistocene elephants has come to epitomize the island rule; yet our understanding of this phenomenon is hampered by poor taxonomy. For Mediterranean dwarf elephants, where the most extreme cases of insular dwarfism are observed, a key systematic question remains unresolved: are all taxa phyletic dwarfs of a single mainland species Palaeoloxodon antiquus (straight-tusked elephant), or are some referable to Mammuthus (mammoths)? Ancient DNA and geochronological evidence have been used to support a Mammuthus origin for the Cretan 'Palaeoloxodon' creticus, but these studies have been shown to be flawed. On the basis of existing collections and recent field discoveries, we present new, morphological evidence for the taxonomic status of 'P'. creticus, and show that it is indeed a mammoth, most probably derived from Early Pleistocene Mammuthus meridionalis or possibly Late Pliocene Mammuthus rumanus. We also show that Mammuthus creticus is smaller than other known insular dwarf mammoths, and is similar in size to the smallest dwarf Palaeoloxodon species from Sicily and Malta, making it the smallest mammoth species known to have existed. These findings indicate that extreme insular dwarfism has evolved to a similar degree independently in two elephant lineages.

  15. How the gene ontology evolves.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Sabina; Diehl, Alexander D; Christie, Karen R; Harris, Midori A; Lomax, Jane

    2011-08-05

    Maintaining a bio-ontology in the long term requires improving and updating its contents so that it adequately captures what is known about biological phenomena. This paper illustrates how these processes are carried out, by studying the ways in which curators at the Gene Ontology have hitherto incorporated new knowledge into their resource. Five types of circumstances are singled out as warranting changes in the ontology: (1) the emergence of anomalies within GO; (2) the extension of the scope of GO; (3) divergence in how terminology is used across user communities; (4) new discoveries that change the meaning of the terms used and their relations to each other; and (5) the extension of the range of relations used to link entities or processes described by GO terms. This study illustrates the difficulties involved in applying general standards to the development of a specific ontology. Ontology curation aims to produce a faithful representation of knowledge domains as they keep developing, which requires the translation of general guidelines into specific representations of reality and an understanding of how scientific knowledge is produced and constantly updated. In this context, it is important that trained curators with technical expertise in the scientific field(s) in question are involved in supervising ontology shifts and identifying inaccuracies.

  16. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    PubMed

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  17. The Problem of Evolving a Genetic Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woese, Carl R.

    1970-01-01

    Proposes models for the evolution of the genetic code and translation mechanisms. Suggests that the translation process is so complex and precise that it must have evolved in many stages, and that the evolution of the code was influenced by the constraints imposed by the evolving translation mechanism. (EB)

  18. Evolving Technologies: A View to Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamarkin, Molly; Rodrigo, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Technology leaders must participate in strategy creation as well as operational delivery within higher education institutions. The future of higher education--the view to tomorrow--is irrevocably integrated and intertwined with evolving technologies. This article focuses on two specific evolving technologies: (1) alternative IT sourcing; and (2)…

  19. Evolving Technologies: A View to Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamarkin, Molly; Rodrigo, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Technology leaders must participate in strategy creation as well as operational delivery within higher education institutions. The future of higher education--the view to tomorrow--is irrevocably integrated and intertwined with evolving technologies. This article focuses on two specific evolving technologies: (1) alternative IT sourcing; and (2)…

  20. What Technology? Reflections on Evolving Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the members of the EDUCAUSE Evolving Technologies Committee identify and research the evolving technologies that are having--or are predicted to have--the most direct impact on higher education institutions. The committee members choose the relevant topics, write white papers, and present their findings at the EDUCAUSE annual…

  1. Emergent spacetime in stochastically evolving dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2014-12-01

    Changing the dimensionality of the space-time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem) can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of "evolving dimensions" in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger-Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3 + 1)-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3 + 1)-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.

  2. Adapted Minds and Evolved Schools

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology raises questions about how cognitive adaptations might be related to the emergence of formal schooling. Is there a special role for natural domains of cognition such as folk physics, folk psychology and folk biology? These domains may vary from small fragments of reasoning to large integrated systems. This heterogeneity complicates claims about abilities to inhibit folk sciences and about how formal education exploits such inhibitory abilities. Moreover, formal education often needs to build on intuitive knowledge systems rather than inhibit them. Education must also reduce complex information to the right level of granularity and help students appreciate the limits of their understanding. This involves learning how to outsource understanding to other minds and to read intentions. Geary (2008) provides an important focus on these issues by suggesting that educational and evolutionary psychologists ask how the patterns found in each field might inform the other. PMID:19946618

  3. Evolving Magnetic Structures and Their Relation to Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Solar activity regions are frequently concentrated into cluster which persist for many solar rotations. These activity complexes are associated with weak dispersed magnetic fields which are most apparent after the activity itself has ceased. We call this combination of persistent activity and dispersed Evolving Magnetic Structures (EMS). Here we show examples of EMSs and describe the evolution of an EMS associated with major Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and other solar and magnetic disturbances.

  4. Evolved stars at high angular resolution: present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    The late evolutionary stages of stellar evolution are a key ingredient for our understanding in many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution and the enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) via stellar yields. Already the first interferometric campaigns identified evolved stars as the primary targets because of their extended and partially optically thin atmospheres, and the brightness in the infrared. Interferometric studies spanning different wavelength ranges, from visual to mid-infrared, have greatly increased our knowledge of the complex atmospheres of these objects where different dynamic processes are at play. In less than two decades this technique went from measuring simple diameters to produce the first images of stellar surfaces. By scanning the extended atmospheres we constrained theoretical models, learnt about molecular stratification, dust formation, and stellar winds, and there is still a lot to be done. In this contribution I will review the recent results that optical/infrared interferometry has made on our current understanding of cool evolved stars. The presentation will focus on asymptotic giant branch stars, and red supergiants. I will discuss the challenges of image reconstruction, and highlight how this field of research will benefit from the synergy of the current interferometric instrument(s) with the second generation VLTI facilities GRAVITY and MATISSE. Finally I will conclude with a short introspection on applications of a visible interferometer and of the the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) to the field of evolved stars.

  5. Nurse specialist: an evolving need.

    PubMed

    Keith, J M

    1987-11-01

    For too long, to advance their careers and earn higher salaries, nurses have had to veer away from clinical experience, which they knew best, into managerial and other fields. To curb this trend and respond to the need for high-quality care, St. Edward Mercy Medical Center, Fort Smith, AR, instituted the nurse specialist program, in which nurses can develop competency in multiple clinical areas with accompanying financial incentives. In developing the program, which provides a cadre of nurses to augment the regular staff wherever needed, job descriptions and the requirements for selection, recruitment, and training were developed, as was some method to evaluate the program. Requirements for participation included at least one year of hands-on experience at the medical center, good clinical skills, and adherence to the Mercy philosophy of care. Those selected were trained in five specialized clinical areas: intensive care, labor and delivery, emergency services, post-anesthesia recovery, and nursery. The program at first met resistance from other nurses and abuse from nursing supervisors. But this has been replaced by acceptance and appreciation. The nurse specialists are seen as an elite group, meeting patient and staff needs as extra pairs of caring and competent hands, with the potential to calm a stressful clinical environment.

  6. Theories of aging: an ever-evolving field.

    PubMed

    Sergiev, P V; Dontsova, O A; Berezkin, G V

    2015-01-01

    Senescence has been the focus of research for many centuries. Despite significant progress in extending average human life expectancy, the process of aging remains largely elusive and, unfortunately, inevitable. In this review, we attempted to summarize the current theories of aging and the approaches to understanding it.

  7. What to Expect from the Evolving Field of Geriatric Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Susan P.; Orr, Nicole M.; Dodson, John A.; Rich, Michael W.; Wenger, Nanette K.; Blum, Kay; Harold, John Gordon; Tinetti, Mary; Maurer, Mathew S.; Forman, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    The population of older adults is expanding rapidly and aging predisposes to cardiovascular disease. The principle of patient-centered care must respond to the preponderance of cardiac disease that now occurs in combination with complexities of old age. Geriatric cardiology melds cardiovascular perspectives with multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, cognitive decline, and other clinical, social, financial, and psychological dimensions of aging. While some assume a cardiologist may instinctively cultivate some of these skills over the course of a career, we assert that the volume and complexity of older cardiovascular patients in contemporary practice warrants a more direct approach to achieve suitable training and a more reliable process of care. We present a rationale and vision for geriatric cardiology as a melding of primary cardiovascular and geriatrics skills, and thereby infusing cardiology practice with expanded proficiencies in diagnosis, risks, care coordination, communications, end-of-life, and other competences required to best manage older cardiovascular patients. PMID:26361161

  8. Gut Microbiota and Brain Function: An Evolving Field in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jane A; Lyte, Mark; Meyer, Emeran; Cryan, John F

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the importance of gut microbiota to health and disease. This has been driven by advances in sequencing technology and recent findings demonstrating the important role of microbiota in common health disorders such as obesity. Moreover, the potential role of gut microbiota in influencing brain function, behavior, and mental health has attracted the attention of neuroscientists and psychiatrists. At the 29(th) International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) World Congress held in Vancouver, Canada, in June 2014, a group of experts presented the symposium, "Gut microbiota and brain function: Relevance to psychiatric disorders" to review the latest findings in how gut microbiota may play a role in brain function, behavior, and disease. The symposium covered a broad range of topics, including gut microbiota and neuroendocrine function, the influence of gut microbiota on behavior, probiotics as regulators of brain and behavior, and imaging the gut-brain axis in humans. This report provides an overview of these presentations.

  9. The Evolving Field of Biodefence: Therapeutic Developments and Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    that Cyanovirin-N, a carbohydrate-binding protein, might inhibit Ebola virus entry76. Orthopoxviruses, though very different in their surfaces from the...explore whether a putative target, such as furin cleavage site of Ebola virus , is essential for viral infection88. Compared with filoviruses, poxvirus...production of neutralizing antibodies (raised against inactivated virus ) that alone prove insufficient to pre- vent disease and death, but which are

  10. What to Expect From the Evolving Field of Geriatric Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bell, Susan P; Orr, Nicole M; Dodson, John A; Rich, Michael W; Wenger, Nanette K; Blum, Kay; Harold, John Gordon; Tinetti, Mary E; Maurer, Mathew S; Forman, Daniel E

    2015-09-15

    The population of older adults is expanding rapidly, and aging predisposes to cardiovascular disease. The principle of patient-centered care must respond to the preponderance of cardiac disease that now occurs in combination with the complexities of old age. Geriatric cardiology melds cardiovascular perspectives with multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, cognitive decline, and other clinical, social, financial, and psychological dimensions of aging. Although some assume that a cardiologist may instinctively cultivate some of these skills over the course of a career, we assert that the volume and complexity of older cardiovascular patients in contemporary practice warrants a more direct approach to achieve suitable training and a more reliable process of care. We present a rationale and vision for geriatric cardiology as a melding of primary cardiovascular and geriatrics skills, thereby infusing cardiology practice with expanded proficiencies in diagnosis, risks, care coordination, communications, end-of-life, and other competences required to best manage older cardiovascular patients.

  11. Theories of Aging: An Ever-Evolving Field

    PubMed Central

    Sergiev, P. V.; Dontsova, O. A.; Berezkin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    Senescence has been the focus of research for many centuries. Despite significant progress in extending average human life expectancy, the process of aging remains largely elusive and, unfortunately, inevitable. In this review, we attempted to summarize the current theories of aging and the approaches to understanding it. PMID:25926998

  12. The Evolving Field of Wound Measurement Techniques: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Rachel; Jansen, Shirley

    2016-06-01

    Wound healing is a complex and multifactorial process that requires the involvement of a multidisciplinary approach. Methods of wound measurement have been developed and continually refined with the purpose of ensuring precision in wound measurement and documentation as the primary indicator of healing. This review aims to ascertain the efficacies of current wound area measurement techniques, and to highlight any perceived gaps in the literature so as to develop suggestions for future studies and practice. Med- line, PubMed, CliniKey, and CINAHL were searched using the terms "wound/ulcer measurement techniques," "wound assessment," "digi- tal planimetry," and "structured light." Articles between 2000 and 2014 were selected, and secondary searches were carried out by exam- ining the references of relevant articles. Only papers written in English were included. A universal, standardized method of wound as- sessment has not been established or proposed. At present, techniques range from the simple to the more complex - most of which have char- acteristics that allow for applicability in both rural and urban settings. Techniques covered are: ruler measurements, acetate tracings/contact planimetry, digital planimetry, and structured light devices. Conclu- sion. In reviewing the literature, the precision and reliability of digital planimetry over the more conventional methods of ruler measurements and acetate tracings are consistently demonstrated. The advent and utility of the laser or structured light approach, however, is promising, has only been analyzed by a few, and opens up the scope for further evaluation of this technique.

  13. The Evolving Role of the Army Field Support Brigade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    Materiel Integrator (LMI), Theater Provided Equipment ( TPE ), Pre-Deployment Training Equipment (PDTE), Redistribution Property Accountability...Research Project DATE: 15 March 2011 WORD COUNT: 6,873 PAGES: 34 KEY TERMS: Lead Materiel Integrator (LMI), Theater Provided Equipment ( TPE ), Pre...Perform maintenance on Theater Provided Equipment ( TPE ) turned in by units and bring it to 10/20 maintenance standards prior to re-issuing to units

  14. Warning signals evolve to disengage Batesian mimics.

    PubMed

    Franks, Daniel W; Ruxton, Graeme D; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2009-01-01

    Prey that are unprofitable to attack are typically conspicuous in appearance. Conventional theory assumes that these warning signals have evolved in response to predator receiver biases. However, such biases might be a symptom rather than a cause of warning signals. We therefore examine an alternative theory: that conspicuousness evolves in unprofitable prey to avoid confusion with profitable prey. One might wonder why unprofitable prey do not find a cryptic means to be distinct from profitable prey, reducing both their risk of confusion with profitable prey and their rate of detection by predators. Here we present the first coevolutionary model to allow for Batesian mimicry and signals with different levels of detectability. We find that unprofitable prey do indeed evolve ways of distinguishing themselves using cryptic signals, particularly when appearance traits can evolve in multiple dimensions. However, conspicuous warning signals readily evolve in unprofitable prey when there are more ways to look different from the background than to match it. Moreover, the more unprofitable the prey species, the higher its evolved conspicuousness. Our results provide strong support for the argument that unprofitable species evolve conspicuous signals to avoid confusion with profitable prey and indicate that peak shift in conspicuousness-linked traits is a major factor in its establishment.

  15. Towards Evolving Electronic Circuits for Autonomous Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Haith, Gary L.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris

    2000-01-01

    The relatively new field of Evolvable Hardware studies how simulated evolution can reconfigure, adapt, and design hardware structures in an automated manner. Space applications, especially those requiring autonomy, are potential beneficiaries of evolvable hardware. For example, robotic drilling from a mobile platform requires high-bandwidth controller circuits that are difficult to design. In this paper, we present automated design techniques based on evolutionary search that could potentially be used in such applications. First, we present a method of automatically generating analog circuit designs using evolutionary search and a circuit construction language. Our system allows circuit size (number of devices), circuit topology, and device values to be evolved. Using a parallel genetic algorithm, we present experimental results for five design tasks. Second, we investigate the use of coevolution in automated circuit design. We examine fitness evaluation by comparing the effectiveness of four fitness schedules. The results indicate that solution quality is highest with static and co-evolving fitness schedules as compared to the other two dynamic schedules. We discuss these results and offer two possible explanations for the observed behavior: retention of useful information, and alignment of problem difficulty with circuit proficiency.

  16. Neural mechanisms underlying the evolvability of behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of nervous systems alters the evolvability of behaviour. Complex nervous systems are phylogenetically constrained; nevertheless particular species-specific behaviours have repeatedly evolved, suggesting a predisposition towards those behaviours. Independently evolved behaviours in animals that share a common neural architecture are generally produced by homologous neural structures, homologous neural pathways and even in the case of some invertebrates, homologous identified neurons. Such parallel evolution has been documented in the chromatic sensitivity of visual systems, motor behaviours and complex social behaviours such as pair-bonding. The appearance of homoplasious behaviours produced by homologous neural substrates suggests that there might be features of these nervous systems that favoured the repeated evolution of particular behaviours. Neuromodulation may be one such feature because it allows anatomically defined neural circuitry to be re-purposed. The developmental, genetic and physiological mechanisms that contribute to nervous system complexity may also bias the evolution of behaviour, thereby affecting the evolvability of species-specific behaviour. PMID:21690127

  17. Evolvability Characterization in the Context of SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniegas H., Jose L.; Dueñas L., Juan C.

    Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an architectural style which promotes reuse of self-contained services. These self-contained services allow a better consideration of software quality characteristics as they can be independently analyzed. In our work, the evolvability quality characteristic has been considered, due to its impact in the stages of Maintenance and Evolution (M&E) for the software enterprises. Three goals are underlined in this paper: first, the relationship between SOA and quality characteristics focusing on a precise definition of evolvability of a software product from the SOA perspective, second a M&E model for SOA, and finally, some experiences are presented in order to assess evolvability in real software products. Two case studies have been executed: the first one analyzing the evolvability of the OSGi framework. And in the second case, the model is used in local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), where an improvement process has been executed.

  18. Neural mechanisms underlying the evolvability of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Katz, Paul S

    2011-07-27

    The complexity of nervous systems alters the evolvability of behaviour. Complex nervous systems are phylogenetically constrained; nevertheless particular species-specific behaviours have repeatedly evolved, suggesting a predisposition towards those behaviours. Independently evolved behaviours in animals that share a common neural architecture are generally produced by homologous neural structures, homologous neural pathways and even in the case of some invertebrates, homologous identified neurons. Such parallel evolution has been documented in the chromatic sensitivity of visual systems, motor behaviours and complex social behaviours such as pair-bonding. The appearance of homoplasious behaviours produced by homologous neural substrates suggests that there might be features of these nervous systems that favoured the repeated evolution of particular behaviours. Neuromodulation may be one such feature because it allows anatomically defined neural circuitry to be re-purposed. The developmental, genetic and physiological mechanisms that contribute to nervous system complexity may also bias the evolution of behaviour, thereby affecting the evolvability of species-specific behaviour.

  19. Evolving sequence-stratigraphic concepts: Emphasis on siliciclastic systems tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.F. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    During the past five years, rapidly evolving new sequence-stratigraphic concepts have begun to impose significant changes in the application of stratigraphy in petroleum exploration and reservoir development. The growing number and variety of oral and published papers on sequence stratigraphy clearly document this stratigraphic revolution. Not since depositional systems concepts evolved in the 1960s to give rise to seismic stratigraphy in the 1970s has the field of stratigraphy changed so rapidly and so fundamentally. Within the next few years, sequence stratigraphy is destined to play an increasingly important role in the way basins are analyzed, hydrocarbon-play potential is assessed, and prospect and production strategies are devised. Geoscientists worldwide are struggling to keep up with the significance of all of these new ideas and techniques.

  20. BUBBLE DYNAMICS AT GAS-EVOLVING ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Paul J.

    1980-12-01

    Nucleation of bubbles, their growth by diffusion of dissolved gas to the bubble surface and by coalescence, and their detachment from the electrode are all very fast phenomena; furthermore, electrolytically generated bubbles range in size from ten to a few hundred microns; therefore, magnification and high speed cinematography are required to observe bubbles and the phenomena of their growth on the electrode surface. Viewing the action from the front side (the surface on which the bubbles form) is complicated because the most important events occur close to the surface and are obscured by other bubbles passing between the camera and the electrode; therefore, oxygen was evolved on a transparent tin oxide "window" electrode and the events were viewed from the backside. The movies showed that coalescence of bubbles is very important for determining the size of bubbles and in the chain of transport processes; growth by diffusion and by coalescence proceeds in series and parallel; coalescing bubbles cause significant fluid motion close to the electrode; bubbles can leave and reattach; and bubbles evolve in a cycle of growth by diffusion and different modes of coalescence. An analytical solution for the primary potential and current distribution around a spherical bubble in contact with a plane electrode is presented. Zero at the contact point, the current density reaches only one percent of its undisturbed value at 30 percent of the radius from that point and goes through a shallow maximum two radii away. The solution obtained for spherical bubbles is shown to apply for the small bubbles of electrolytic processes. The incremental resistance in ohms caused by sparse arrays of bubbles is given by {Delta}R = 1.352 af/kS where f is the void fraction of gas in the bubble layer, a is the bubble layer thickness, k is the conductivity of gas free electrolyte, and S is the electrode area. A densely populated gas bubble layer on an electrode was modeled as a hexagonal array of

  1. Recent advances in evolvable systems--ICES 96 (International Conference on Evolvable Systems).

    PubMed

    Frank, I; Manderick, B; Higuchi, T

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments in evolvable hardware systems presented at the First International Conference on Evolvable Systems (ICES 96). The main body of the review gives an overview of the 34 papers presented orally, splitting them into three broad groups according to whether they involve (1) evolving a fit solution to a problem as a member of a population of competing candidates, (2) evolving solutions that can individually learn from and adapt to their environments, or (3) the embryonic growth of solutions. We also review the discussion sessions of the conference and give pointers to related upcoming events.

  2. Evolving networks in the human epileptic brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnertz, Klaus; Ansmann, Gerrit; Bialonski, Stephan; Dickten, Henning; Geier, Christian; Porz, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Network theory provides novel concepts that promise an improved characterization of interacting dynamical systems. Within this framework, evolving networks can be considered as being composed of nodes, representing systems, and of time-varying edges, representing interactions between these systems. This approach is highly attractive to further our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological dynamics in human brain networks. Indeed, there is growing evidence that the epileptic process can be regarded as a large-scale network phenomenon. We here review methodologies for inferring networks from empirical time series and for a characterization of these evolving networks. We summarize recent findings derived from studies that investigate human epileptic brain networks evolving on timescales ranging from few seconds to weeks. We point to possible pitfalls and open issues, and discuss future perspectives.

  3. Quantifying evolvability in small biological networks

    SciTech Connect

    Nemenman, Ilya; Mugler, Andrew; Ziv, Etay; Wiggins, Chris H

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a quantitative measure of the capacity of a small biological network to evolve. The measure is applied to a stochastic description of the experimental setup of Guet et al. (Science 2002, 296, pp. 1466), treating chemical inducers as functional inputs to biochemical networks and the expression of a reporter gene as the functional output. The authors take an information-theoretic approach, allowing the system to set parameters that optimise signal processing ability, thus enumerating each network's highest-fidelity functions. All networks studied are highly evolvable by the measure, meaning that change in function has little dependence on change in parameters. Moreover, each network's functions are connected by paths in the parameter space along which information is not significantly lowered, meaning a network may continuously change its functionality without completely losing it along the way. This property further underscores the evolvability of the networks.

  4. Metanetworks of artificially evolved regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danacı, Burçin; Erzan, Ayşe

    2016-04-01

    We study metanetworks arising in genotype and phenotype spaces, in the context of a model population of Boolean graphs evolved under selection for short dynamical attractors. We define the adjacency matrix of a graph as its genotype, which gets mutated in the course of evolution, while its phenotype is its set of dynamical attractors. Metanetworks in the genotype and phenotype spaces are formed, respectively, by genetic proximity and by phenotypic similarity, the latter weighted by the sizes of the basins of attraction of the shared attractors. We find that evolved populations of Boolean graphs form tree-like giant clusters in genotype space, while random populations of Boolean graphs are typically so far removed from each other genetically that they cannot form a metanetwork. In phenotype space, the metanetworks of evolved populations are super robust both under the elimination of weak connections and random removal of nodes.

  5. JavaGenes: Evolving Graphs with Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Atsatt, Sean; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms usually use string or tree representations. We have developed a novel crossover operator for a directed and undirected graph representation, and used this operator to evolve molecules and circuits. Unlike strings or trees, a single point in the representation cannot divide every possible graph into two parts, because graphs may contain cycles. Thus, the crossover operator is non-trivial. A steady-state, tournament selection genetic algorithm code (JavaGenes) was written to implement and test the graph crossover operator. All runs were executed by cycle-scavagging on networked workstations using the Condor batch processing system. The JavaGenes code has evolved pharmaceutical drug molecules and simple digital circuits. Results to date suggest that JavaGenes can evolve moderate sized drug molecules and very small circuits in reasonable time. The algorithm has greater difficulty with somewhat larger circuits, suggesting that directed graphs (circuits) are more difficult to evolve than undirected graphs (molecules), although necessary differences in the crossover operator may also explain the results. In principle, JavaGenes should be able to evolve other graph-representable systems, such as transportation networks, metabolic pathways, and computer networks. However, large graphs evolve significantly slower than smaller graphs, presumably because the space-of-all-graphs explodes combinatorially with graph size. Since the representation strongly affects genetic algorithm performance, adding graphs to the evolutionary programmer's bag-of-tricks should be beneficial. Also, since graph evolution operates directly on the phenotype, the genotype-phenotype translation step, common in genetic algorithm work, is eliminated.

  6. Mechanics of evolving thin film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jim

    In the Stranski-Krastanov system, the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate causes the film to break into islands. During annealing, both the surface energy and the elastic energy drive the islands to coarsen. Motivated by several related studies, we suggest that stable islands should form when a stiff ceiling is placed at a small gap above the film. We show that the role of elasticity is reversed: with the ceiling, the total elastic energy stored in the system increases as the islands coarsen laterally. Consequently, the islands select an equilibrium size to minimize the combined elastic energy and surface energy. In lithographically-induced self-assembly, when a two-phase fluid confined between parallel substrates is subjected to an electric field, one phase can self-assemble into a triangular lattice of islands in another phase. We describe a theory of the stability of the island lattice. The islands select the equilibrium diameter to minimize the combined interface energy and electrostatic energy. Furthermore, we study compressed SiGe thin film islands fabricated on a glass layer, which itself lies on a silicon wafer. Upon annealing, the glass flows, and the islands relax. A small island relaxes by in-plane expansion. A large island, however, wrinkles at the center before the in-plane relaxation arrives. The wrinkles may cause significant tensile stress in the island, leading to fracture. We model the island by the von Karman plate theory and the glass layer by the Reynolds lubrication theory. Numerical simulations evolve the in-plane expansion and the wrinkles simultaneously. We determine the critical island size, below which in-plane expansion prevails over wrinkling. Finally, in devices that integrate dissimilar materials in small dimensions, crack extension in one material often accompanies inelastic deformation in another. We analyze a channel crack advancing in an elastic film under tension, while an underlayer creeps. We use a two

  7. A Stefan problem on an evolving surface

    PubMed Central

    Alphonse, Amal; Elliott, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a Stefan problem on an evolving hypersurface and study the well posedness of weak solutions given L1 data. To do this, we first develop function spaces and results to handle equations on evolving surfaces in order to give a natural treatment of the problem. Then, we consider the existence of solutions for data; this is done by regularization of the nonlinearity. The regularized problem is solved by a fixed point theorem and then uniform estimates are obtained in order to pass to the limit. By using a duality method, we show continuous dependence, which allows us to extend the results to L1 data. PMID:26261364

  8. How the first biopolymers could have evolved.

    PubMed Central

    Abkevich, V I; Gutin, A M; Shakhnovich, E I

    1996-01-01

    In this work, we discuss a possible origin of the first biopolymers with stable unique structures. We suggest that at the prebiotic stage of evolution, long organic polymers had to be compact to avoid hydrolysis and had to be soluble and thus must not be exceedingly hydrophobic. We present an algorithm that generates such sequences for model proteins. The evolved sequences turn out to have a stable unique structure, into which they quickly fold. This result illustrates the idea that the unique three-dimensional native structures of first biopolymers could have evolved as a side effect of nonspecific physicochemical factors acting at the prebiotic stage of evolution. PMID:8570645

  9. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2010-11-04

    The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.

  10. Surveying The Digital Landscape: Evolving Technologies 2004. The EDUCAUSE Evolving Technologies Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Each year, the members of the EDUCAUSE Evolving Technologies Committee identify and research the evolving technologies that are having the most direct impact on higher education institutions. The committee members choose the relevant topics, write white papers, and present their findings at the EDUCAUSE annual conference. This year, under the…

  11. Surveying The Digital Landscape: Evolving Technologies 2004. The EDUCAUSE Evolving Technologies Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Each year, the members of the EDUCAUSE Evolving Technologies Committee identify and research the evolving technologies that are having the most direct impact on higher education institutions. The committee members choose the relevant topics, write white papers, and present their findings at the EDUCAUSE annual conference. This year, under the…

  12. The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H.

    2017-04-01

    We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.

  13. Numerical method for evolving the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

    PubMed

    Blakie, P Blair

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we describe a method for evolving the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (PGPE) for a Bose gas in a harmonic oscillator potential. The central difficulty in solving this equation is the requirement that the classical field is restricted to a small set of prescribed modes that constitute the low energy classical region of the system. We present a scheme, using a Hermite-polynomial based spectral representation, that precisely implements this mode restriction and allows an efficient and accurate solution of the PGPE. We show equilibrium and nonequilibrium results from the application of the PGPE to an anisotropic trapped three-dimensional Bose gas.

  14. Numerical Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, T. B.; Erlebacher, G.

    2002-01-01

    The results from direct numerical simulations of a spatially evolving, supersonic, flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow, with free-stream Mach number of 2.25 are presented. The simulated flow field extends from a transition region, initiated by wall suction and blowing near the inflow boundary, into the fully turbulent regime. Distributions of mean and turbulent flow quantities are obtained and an analysis of these quantities is performed at a downstream station corresponding to Re(sub x)= 5.548 x10(exp 6) based on distance from the leading edge.

  15. Cancer stem cells: constantly evolving and functionally heterogeneous therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Rycaj, Kiera; Liu, Zhong-Min; Tang, Dean G

    2014-06-01

    Elucidating the origin of and dynamic interrelationship between intratumoral cell subpopulations has clear clinical significance in helping to understand the cellular basis of treatment response, therapeutic resistance, and tumor relapse. Cancer stem cells (CSC), together with clonal evolution driven by genetic alterations, generate cancer cell heterogeneity commonly observed in clinical samples. The 2013 Shanghai International Symposium on Cancer Stem Cells brought together leaders in the field to highlight the most recent progress in phenotyping, characterizing, and targeting CSCs and in elucidating the relationship between the cell-of-origin of cancer and CSCs. Discussions from the symposium emphasize the urgent need in developing novel therapeutics to target the constantly evolving CSCs.

  16. Toward an Evolved Concept of Landrace

    PubMed Central

    Casañas, Francesc; Simó, Joan; Casals, Joan; Prohens, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The term “landrace” has generally been defined as a cultivated, genetically heterogeneous variety that has evolved in a certain ecogeographical area and is therefore adapted to the edaphic and climatic conditions and to its traditional management and uses. Despite being considered by many to be inalterable, landraces have been and are in a constant state of evolution as a result of natural and artificial selection. Many landraces have disappeared from cultivation but are preserved in gene banks. Using modern selection and breeding technology tools to shape these preserved landraces together with the ones that are still cultivated is a further step in their evolution in order to preserve their agricultural significance. Adapting historical landraces to present agricultural conditions using cutting-edge breeding technology represents a challenging opportunity to use them in a modern sustainable agriculture, as an immediate return on the investment is highly unlikely. Consequently, we propose a more inclusive definition of landraces, namely that they consist of cultivated varieties that have evolved and may continue evolving, using conventional or modern breeding techniques, in traditional or new agricultural environments within a defined ecogeographical area and under the influence of the local human culture. This includes adaptation of landraces to new management systems and the unconscious or conscious selection made by farmers or breeders using available technology. In this respect, a mixed selection system might be established in which farmers and other social agents develop evolved landraces from the variability generated by public entities. PMID:28228769

  17. Apollo 16 Evolved Lithology Sodic Ferrogabbro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Evolved lunar igneous lithologies, often referred to as the alkali suite, are a minor but important component of the lunar crust. These evolved samples are incompatible-element rich samples, and are, not surprisingly, most common in the Apollo sites in (or near) the incompatible-element rich region of the Moon known as the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT). The most commonly occurring lithologies are granites (A12, A14, A15, A17), monzogabbro (A14, A15), alkali anorthosites (A12, A14), and KREEP basalts (A15, A17). The Feldspathic Highlands Terrane is not entirely devoid of evolved lithologies, and rare clasts of alkali gabbronorite and sodic ferrogabbro (SFG) have been identified in Apollo 16 station 11 breccias 67915 and 67016. Curiously, nearly all pristine evolved lithologies have been found as small clasts or soil particles, exceptions being KREEP basalts 15382/6 and granitic sample 12013 (which is itself a breccia). Here we reexamine the petrography and geochemistry of two SFG-like particles found in a survey of Apollo 16 2-4 mm particles from the Cayley Plains 62283,7-15 and 62243,10-3 (hereafter 7-15 and 10-3 respectively). We will compare these to previously reported SFG samples, including recent analyses on the type specimen of SFG from lunar breccia 67915.

  18. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  19. Evolving Neural Networks for Nonlinear Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-30

    An approach to creating Amorphous Recurrent Neural Networks (ARNN) using Genetic Algorithms (GA) called 2pGA has been developed and shown to be...effective in evolving neural networks for the control and stabilization of both linear and nonlinear plants, the optimal control for a nonlinear regulator

  20. Toward an Evolved Concept of Landrace.

    PubMed

    Casañas, Francesc; Simó, Joan; Casals, Joan; Prohens, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The term "landrace" has generally been defined as a cultivated, genetically heterogeneous variety that has evolved in a certain ecogeographical area and is therefore adapted to the edaphic and climatic conditions and to its traditional management and uses. Despite being considered by many to be inalterable, landraces have been and are in a constant state of evolution as a result of natural and artificial selection. Many landraces have disappeared from cultivation but are preserved in gene banks. Using modern selection and breeding technology tools to shape these preserved landraces together with the ones that are still cultivated is a further step in their evolution in order to preserve their agricultural significance. Adapting historical landraces to present agricultural conditions using cutting-edge breeding technology represents a challenging opportunity to use them in a modern sustainable agriculture, as an immediate return on the investment is highly unlikely. Consequently, we propose a more inclusive definition of landraces, namely that they consist of cultivated varieties that have evolved and may continue evolving, using conventional or modern breeding techniques, in traditional or new agricultural environments within a defined ecogeographical area and under the influence of the local human culture. This includes adaptation of landraces to new management systems and the unconscious or conscious selection made by farmers or breeders using available technology. In this respect, a mixed selection system might be established in which farmers and other social agents develop evolved landraces from the variability generated by public entities.

  1. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  2. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. The Evolving Office of the Registrar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Harold L.

    2011-01-01

    A healthy registrar's office will continue to evolve as it considers student, faculty, and institutional needs; staff talents and expectations; technological opportunities; economic realities; space issues; work environments; and where the strategic plan is taking the institution in support of the mission. Several recognized leaders in the field…

  4. A Course Evolves-Physical Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an online physical anthropology course at Palomar College (California) that evolved from online tutorials. Discusses the ability to update materials on the Web more quickly than in traditional textbooks; creating Web pages that are readable by most Web browsers; test security issues; and clarifying ownership of online…

  5. Dust obscuration by an evolving galaxy population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Najita, Joan; Silk, Joseph; Wachter, Kenneth W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of an evolving luminosity function (LF) on the ability of foreground galaxies to obscure background sources is discussed, using the Press-Schechter/CDM standard evolving LF model. Galaxies are modeled as simplified versions of local spirals and Poisson statistics are used to estimate the fraction of sky covered by intervening dusty galaxies and the mean optical depths due to these galaxies. The results are compared to those obtained in the case of nonevolving luminosity function in a low-density universe. It is found that evolution of the galaxy LF does not allow the quasar dust obscuration hypothesis to be sustained for dust disks with plausible sizes. Even in a low-density universe, where evolution at z = less than 10 is unimportant, large disk radii are needed to achieve the desired obscuring effect. The mean fraction of sky covered is presented as a function of the redshift z along with adequate diagram illustrations.

  6. The management of evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Schulzke, Sven M; Pillow, J Jane

    2010-09-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is associated with increased mortality and significant long-term cardiorespiratory and neurodevelopmental sequelae. Treatment of evolving BPD in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is challenging due to the complex interplay of contributing risk factors which include preterm birth per se, supplemental oxygen, positive pressure ventilation, patent ductus arterious, and pre- and postnatal infection. Management of evolving BPD requires a multimodal approach including adequate nutrition, careful fluid management, effective and safe pharmacotherapy, and respiratory support aiming at minimal lung injury. Among pharmacological interventions, caffeine has the best risk-benefit profile. Systemic postnatal corticosteroids should be reserved to ventilated infants at highest risk of BPD who cannot be weaned from the ventilator. Several ongoing randomised trials are evaluating optimal oxygen saturation targets in preterm infants. The most beneficial respiratory support strategy to minimise lung injury remains unclear and requires further investigation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolved gas analysis of secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Williams, E.L. II; Grosjean, E. ); Novakov, T. )

    1994-11-01

    Secondary organic aerosols have been characterized by evolved gas analysis (EGA). Hydrocarbons selected as aerosol precursors were representative of anthropogenic emissions (cyclohexene, cyclopentene, 1-decene and 1-dodecene, n-dodecane, o-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) and of biogenic emissions (the terpenes [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-pinene and d-limonene and the sesquiterpene trans-caryophyllene). Also analyzed by EGA were samples of secondary, primary (highway tunnel), and ambient (urban) aerosols before and after exposure to ozone and other photochemical oxidants. The major features of the EGA thermograms (amount of CO[sub 2] evolved as a function of temperature) are described. The usefulness and limitations of EGA data for source apportionment of atmospheric particulate carbon are briefly discussed. 28 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. [Families and psychiatry: models and evolving links].

    PubMed

    Frankhauser, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    The role of the families of persons with severe psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia in particular) in the care of their relatives has recently evolved: once seen as pathogenic to be kept at a distance, the family is now recognised by professionals as a partner in the care process. The links between families and psychiatric institutions remain complex and marked by ambivalence and paradoxes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EM) as the complexity of the circuit grows. As the circuit becomes more complex, then more components will be required and a longer programming string, L, is required. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, based on L. Our analytical results show that even though the design search space grows as 2L (assuming a binary programming string), the number of circuit evaluations, n*ngen, only grows as O(Lg3), or slightly less than O(L). This makes evolvable techniques a good tool for exploring large design spaces. The major hurdle for intrinsic EHW is evaluation time for each possible circuit. The evaluation time involves downloading the bit string to the device, updating the device configuration, measuring the output and then transferring the output data to the control processor. Each of these steps must be done for each member of the population. The processing time of the computer becomes negligible since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation. Evaluation time presently limits intrinsic evolvable hardware techniques to designing only small or medium-sized circuits. To evolve large or complicated circuits, several researchers have proposed using hierarchical design or reuse techniques where submodules are combined together to form complex circuits. However, these practical approaches limit the search space of available designs and preclude utilizing parasitic coupling or other effects within the programmable device. The practical approaches also raise the issue of why intrinsic EHW techniques do not easily apply to large design spaces, since the analytical results show only an O(L) complexity growth.

  10. The evolving definition of systemic arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ram, C Venkata S; Giles, Thomas D

    2010-05-01

    Systemic hypertension is an important risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease. Hypertension also contributes to excessive morbidity and mortality. Whereas excellent therapeutic options are available to treat hypertension, there is an unsettled issue about the very definition of hypertension. At what level of blood pressure should we treat hypertension? Does the definition of hypertension change in the presence of co-morbid conditions? This article covers in detail the evolving concepts in the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  11. Quantum games on evolving random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawela, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.

  12. Nursing administration research: an evolving science.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz; Scott, Elaine S; Warshawsky, Nora E

    2014-12-01

    The nature and focus of nursing administrative research have evolved over time. Recently, the research agenda has primarily reflected the national health policy agenda. Although nursing research has traditionally been dominated by clinical interests, nursing administrative research has historically addressed the interface of reimbursement, quality, and care delivery systems. This article traces the evolution of nursing administrative research to answer questions relevant to scope, practice, and policy and suggests future directions.

  13. Beyond expressive writing: evolving models of developmental creative writing.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Sophie

    2009-03-01

    Pennebaker's expressive writing paradigm has helped to introduce the benefits of writing to health care. However, research in expressive writing has been largely dominated by an experimental and quantitative approach that does not take into account critical methodologies and approaches in health psychology, the increasingly complex ways in which creative writing is now being used in health care settings or recent research in the broader field of creative writing and personal development, health and well-being (developmental creative writing). This article contrasts expressive writing theories and methodologies with those evolving in the relatively new field of developmental creative writing. It investigates a number of theoretical and methodological problems with the expressive writing model and argues for a more critical approach to future research.

  14. Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C.; Cheung, Ken; Schueller, Stephen M.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Duan, Naihua

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are web-based and mobile interventions intended to support patients and consumers in changing behaviors related to health, mental health, and well-being. BITs are provided to patients and consumers in clinical care settings and commercial marketplaces, frequently with little or no evaluation. Current evaluation methods, including RCTs and implementation studies, can require years to validate an intervention. This timeline is fundamentally incompatible with the BIT environment, where technology advancement and changes in consumer expectations occur quickly, necessitating rapidly evolving interventions. However, BITs can routinely and iteratively collect data in a planned and strategic manner and generate evidence through systematic prospective analyses, thereby creating a system that can “learn.” A methodologic framework, Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies (CEEBIT), is proposed that can support the evaluation of multiple BITs or evolving versions, eliminating those that demonstrate poorer outcomes, while allowing new BITs to be entered at any time. CEEBIT could be used to ensure the effectiveness of BITs provided through deployment platforms in clinical care organizations or BIT marketplaces. The features of CEEBIT are described, including criteria for the determination of inferiority, determination of BIT inclusion, methods of assigning consumers to BITs, definition of outcomes, and evaluation of the usefulness of the system. CEEBIT offers the potential to collapse initial evaluation and postmarketing surveillance, providing ongoing assurance of safety and efficacy to patients and consumers, payers, and policymakers. PMID:24050429

  15. Transistor Level Circuit Experiments using Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) performs research in fault tolerant, long life, and space survivable electronics for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). With that focus, JPL has been involved in Evolvable Hardware (EHW) technology research for the past several years. We have advanced the technology not only by simulation and evolution experiments, but also by designing, fabricating, and evolving a variety of transistor-based analog and digital circuits at the chip level. EHW refers to self-configuration of electronic hardware by evolutionary/genetic search mechanisms, thereby maintaining existing functionality in the presence of degradations due to aging, temperature, and radiation. In addition, EHW has the capability to reconfigure itself for new functionality when required for mission changes or encountered opportunities. Evolution experiments are performed using a genetic algorithm running on a DSP as the reconfiguration mechanism and controlling the evolvable hardware mounted on a self-contained circuit board. Rapid reconfiguration allows convergence to circuit solutions in the order of seconds. The paper illustrates hardware evolution results of electronic circuits and their ability to perform under 230 C temperature as well as radiations of up to 250 kRad.

  16. Continuous evaluation of evolving behavioral intervention technologies.

    PubMed

    Mohr, David C; Cheung, Ken; Schueller, Stephen M; Hendricks Brown, C; Duan, Naihua

    2013-10-01

    Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are web-based and mobile interventions intended to support patients and consumers in changing behaviors related to health, mental health, and well-being. BITs are provided to patients and consumers in clinical care settings and commercial marketplaces, frequently with little or no evaluation. Current evaluation methods, including RCTs and implementation studies, can require years to validate an intervention. This timeline is fundamentally incompatible with the BIT environment, where technology advancement and changes in consumer expectations occur quickly, necessitating rapidly evolving interventions. However, BITs can routinely and iteratively collect data in a planned and strategic manner and generate evidence through systematic prospective analyses, thereby creating a system that can "learn." A methodologic framework, Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies (CEEBIT), is proposed that can support the evaluation of multiple BITs or evolving versions, eliminating those that demonstrate poorer outcomes, while allowing new BITs to be entered at any time. CEEBIT could be used to ensure the effectiveness of BITs provided through deployment platforms in clinical care organizations or BIT marketplaces. The features of CEEBIT are described, including criteria for the determination of inferiority, determination of BIT inclusion, methods of assigning consumers to BITs, definition of outcomes, and evaluation of the usefulness of the system. CEEBIT offers the potential to collapse initial evaluation and postmarketing surveillance, providing ongoing assurance of safety and efficacy to patients and consumers, payers, and policymakers.

  17. Evolving specialization of the arthropod nervous system.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Erin; Bruce, Heather S; Patel, Nipam H

    2012-06-26

    The diverse array of body plans possessed by arthropods is created by generating variations upon a design of repeated segments formed during development, using a relatively small "toolbox" of conserved patterning genes. These attributes make the arthropod body plan a valuable model for elucidating how changes in development create diversity of form. As increasingly specialized segments and appendages evolved in arthropods, the nervous systems of these animals also evolved to control the function of these structures. Although there is a remarkable degree of conservation in neural development both between individual segments in any given species and between the nervous systems of different arthropod groups, the differences that do exist are informative for inferring general principles about the holistic evolution of body plans. This review describes developmental processes controlling neural segmentation and regionalization, highlighting segmentation mechanisms that create both ectodermal and neural segments, as well as recent studies of the role of Hox genes in generating regional specification within the central nervous system. We argue that this system generates a modular design that allows the nervous system to evolve in concert with the body segments and their associated appendages. This information will be useful in future studies of macroevolutionary changes in arthropod body plans, especially in understanding how these transformations can be made in a way that retains the function of appendages during evolutionary transitions in morphology.

  18. eVolver: an optimization engine for evolving protein sequences to stabilize the respective structures.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, Michal

    2013-07-31

    Many structural bioinformatics approaches employ sequence profile-based threading techniques. To improve fold recognition rates, homology searching may include artificially evolved amino acid sequences, which were demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of protein threading in targeting midnight zone templates. We describe implementation details of eVolver, an optimization algorithm that evolves protein sequences to stabilize the respective structures by a variety of potentials, which are compatible with those commonly used in protein threading. In a case study focusing on LARG PDZ domain, we show that artificially evolved sequences have quite high capabilities to recognize the correct protein structures using standard sequence profile-based fold recognition. Computationally design protein sequences can be incorporated in existing sequence profile-based threading approaches to increase their sensitivity. They also provide a desired linkage between protein structure and function in in silico experiments that relate to e.g. the completeness of protein structure space, the origin of folds and protein universe. eVolver is freely available as a user-friendly webserver and a well-documented stand-alone software distribution at http://www.brylinski.org/evolver.

  19. 3D level set methods for evolving fronts on tetrahedral meshes with adaptive mesh refinement

    DOE PAGES

    Morgan, Nathaniel Ray; Waltz, Jacob I.

    2017-03-02

    The level set method is commonly used to model dynamically evolving fronts and interfaces. In this work, we present new methods for evolving fronts with a specified velocity field or in the surface normal direction on 3D unstructured tetrahedral meshes with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The level set field is located at the nodes of the tetrahedral cells and is evolved using new upwind discretizations of Hamilton–Jacobi equations combined with a Runge–Kutta method for temporal integration. The level set field is periodically reinitialized to a signed distance function using an iterative approach with a new upwind gradient. We discuss themore » details of these level set and reinitialization methods. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.« less

  20. 3D level set methods for evolving fronts on tetrahedral meshes with adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.

    2017-05-01

    The level set method is commonly used to model dynamically evolving fronts and interfaces. In this work, we present new methods for evolving fronts with a specified velocity field or in the surface normal direction on 3D unstructured tetrahedral meshes with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The level set field is located at the nodes of the tetrahedral cells and is evolved using new upwind discretizations of Hamilton-Jacobi equations combined with a Runge-Kutta method for temporal integration. The level set field is periodically reinitialized to a signed distance function using an iterative approach with a new upwind gradient. The details of these level set and reinitialization methods are discussed. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.

  1. Evolvability Is an Evolved Ability: The Coding Concept as the Arch-Unit of Natural Selection.

    PubMed

    Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.

  2. Evolvability Is an Evolved Ability: The Coding Concept as the Arch-Unit of Natural Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M.

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.

  3. Production and decay of evolving horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Alex B.; Visser, Matt

    2006-07-01

    We consider a simple physical model for an evolving horizon that is strongly interacting with its environment, exchanging arbitrarily large quantities of matter with its environment in the form of both infalling material and outgoing Hawking radiation. We permit fluxes of both lightlike and timelike particles to cross the horizon, and ask how the horizon grows and shrinks in response to such flows. We place a premium on providing a clear and straightforward exposition with simple formulae. To be able to handle such a highly dynamical situation in a simple manner we make one significant physical restriction—that of spherical symmetry—and two technical mathematical restrictions: (1) we choose to slice the spacetime in such a way that the spacetime foliations (and hence the horizons) are always spherically symmetric. (2) Furthermore, we adopt Painlevé Gullstrand coordinates (which are well suited to the problem because they are nonsingular at the horizon) in order to simplify the relevant calculations. Of course physics results are ultimately independent of the choice of coordinates, but this particular coordinate system yields a clean physical interpretation of the relevant physics. We find particularly simple forms for surface gravity, and for the first and second law of black hole thermodynamics, in this general evolving horizon situation. Furthermore, we relate our results to Hawking's apparent horizon, Ashtekar and co-worker's isolated and dynamical horizons, and Hayward's trapping horizon. The evolving black hole model discussed here will be of interest, both from an astrophysical viewpoint in terms of discussing growing black holes and from a purely theoretical viewpoint in discussing black hole evaporation via Hawking radiation.

  4. Risky prey behavior evolves in risky habitats

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    Longstanding theory in behavioral ecology predicts that prey should evolve decreased foraging rates under high predation threat. However, an alternative perspective suggests that growth into a size refuge from gape-limited predation and the future benefits of large size can outweigh the initial survival costs of intense foraging. Here, I evaluate the relative contributions of selection from a gape-limited predator (Ambystoma opacum) and spatial location to explanations of variation in foraging, growth, and survival in 10 populations of salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum). Salamander larvae from populations naturally exposed to intense A. opacum predation risk foraged more actively under common garden conditions. Higher foraging rates were associated with low survival in populations exposed to free-ranging A. opacum larvae. Results demonstrate that risky foraging activity can evolve in high predation-risk habitats when the dominant predators are gape-limited. This finding invites the further exploration of diverse patterns of prey foraging behavior that depends on natural variation in predator size-selectivity. In particular, prey should adopt riskier behaviors under predation threat than expected under existing risk allocation models if foraging effort directly reduces the duration of risk by growth into a size refuge. Moreover, evidence from this study suggests that foraging has evolved over microgeographic scales despite substantial modification by regional gene flow. This interaction between local selection and spatial location suggests a joint role for adaptation and maladaptation in shaping species interactions across natural landscapes, which is a finding with implications for dynamics at the population, community, and metacommunity levels. PMID:17724339

  5. Risky prey behavior evolves in risky habitats.

    PubMed

    Urban, Mark C

    2007-09-04

    Longstanding theory in behavioral ecology predicts that prey should evolve decreased foraging rates under high predation threat. However, an alternative perspective suggests that growth into a size refuge from gape-limited predation and the future benefits of large size can outweigh the initial survival costs of intense foraging. Here, I evaluate the relative contributions of selection from a gape-limited predator (Ambystoma opacum) and spatial location to explanations of variation in foraging, growth, and survival in 10 populations of salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum). Salamander larvae from populations naturally exposed to intense A. opacum predation risk foraged more actively under common garden conditions. Higher foraging rates were associated with low survival in populations exposed to free-ranging A. opacum larvae. Results demonstrate that risky foraging activity can evolve in high predation-risk habitats when the dominant predators are gape-limited. This finding invites the further exploration of diverse patterns of prey foraging behavior that depends on natural variation in predator size-selectivity. In particular, prey should adopt riskier behaviors under predation threat than expected under existing risk allocation models if foraging effort directly reduces the duration of risk by growth into a size refuge. Moreover, evidence from this study suggests that foraging has evolved over microgeographic scales despite substantial modification by regional gene flow. This interaction between local selection and spatial location suggests a joint role for adaptation and maladaptation in shaping species interactions across natural landscapes, which is a finding with implications for dynamics at the population, community, and metacommunity levels.

  6. Evolvable circuit with transistor-level reconfigurability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian (Inventor); Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos Harold (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An evolvable circuit includes a plurality of reconfigurable switches, a plurality of transistors within a region of the circuit, the plurality of transistors having terminals, the plurality of transistors being coupled between a power source terminal and a power sink terminal so as to be capable of admitting power between the power source terminal and the power sink terminal, the plurality of transistors being coupled so that every transistor terminal to transistor terminal coupling within the region of the circuit comprises a reconfigurable switch.

  7. Present weather and climate: evolving conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoerling, Martin P; Dettinger, Michael; Wolter, Klaus; Lukas, Jeff; Eischeid, Jon K.; Nemani, Rama; Liebmann, Brant; Kunkel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter assesses weather and climate variability and trends in the Southwest, using observed climate and paleoclimate records. It analyzes the last 100 years of climate variability in comparison to the last 1,000 years, and links the important features of evolving climate conditions to river flow variability in four of the region’s major drainage basins. The chapter closes with an assessment of the monitoring and scientific research needed to increase confidence in understanding when climate episodes, events, and phenomena are attributable to human-caused climate change.

  8. Cobalt-phosphate oxygen-evolving compound.

    PubMed

    Kanan, Matthew W; Surendranath, Yogesh; Nocera, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy on a large scale requires efficient storage. Solar-to-fuels has the capacity to meet large scale storage needs as demonstrated by natural photosynthesis. This process uses sunlight to rearrange the bonds of water to furnish O2 and an H2-equivalent. We present a tutorial review of our efforts to develop an amorphous cobalt-phosphate catalyst that oxidizes water to O2. The use of earth-abundant materials, operation in water at neutral pH, and the formation of the catalyst in situ captures functional elements of the oxygen evolving complex of Photosystem II.

  9. An evolving paradigm for the secretory pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The paradigm that the secretory pathway consists of a stable endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, using discrete transport vesicles to exchange their contents, gained important support from groundbreaking biochemical and genetic studies during the 1980s. However, the subsequent development of new imaging technologies with green fluorescent protein introduced data on dynamic processes not fully accounted for by the paradigm. As a result, we may be seeing an example of how a paradigm is evolving to account for the results of new technologies and their new ways of describing cellular processes. PMID:22039065

  10. Mobile computing acceptance grows as applications evolve.

    PubMed

    Porn, Louis M; Patrick, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Handheld devices are becoming more cost-effective to own, and their use in healthcare environments is increasing. Handheld devices currently are being used for e-prescribing, charge capture, and accessing daily schedules and reference tools. Future applications may include education on medications, dictation, order entry, and test-results reporting. Selecting the right handheld device requires careful analysis of current and future applications, as well as vendor expertise. It is important to recognize the technology will continue to evolve over the next three years.

  11. Investigating Evolved Compositions Around Wolf Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lawrence, S. J.; Glotch, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    Wolf crater is an irregularly shaped, approximately 25 km crater in the south-central portion of Mare Nubium on the lunar nearside. While not previously identified as a lunar "red spot", Wolf crater was identified as a Th anomaly by Lawrence and coworkers. We have used data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to determine the area surrounding Wolf crater has composition more similar to highly evolved, non-mare volcanic structures than typical lunar crustal lithology. In this presentation, we will investigate the geomorphology and composition of the Wolf crater and discuss implications for the origin of the anomalous terrain.

  12. Scar State on Time-evolving Wavepacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiya, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuyuki, Hiroyoshi; Kawamura, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Shoichi; Heller, Eric J.

    2015-09-01

    The scar-like enhancement is found in the accumulation of the time-evolving wavepacket in stadium billiard. It appears close to unstable periodic orbits, when the wavepackets are launched along the orbits. The enhancement is essentially due to the same mechanism of the well-known scar states in stationary eigenstates. The weighted spectral function reveals that the enhancement is the pileup of contributions from scar states on the same periodic orbit. The availavility of the weighted spectrum to the semiclassical approximation is also disscussed.

  13. f( R) gravity solutions for evolving wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Subhra; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2017-08-01

    The scalar-tensor f( R) theory of gravity is considered in the framework of a simple inhomogeneous space-time model. In this research we use the reconstruction technique to look for possible evolving wormhole solutions within viable f( R) gravity formalism. These f( R) models are then constrained so that they are consistent with existing experimental data. Energy conditions related to the matter threading the wormhole are analyzed graphically and are in general found to obey the null energy conditions (NEC) in regions around the throat, while in the limit f(R)=R, NEC can be violated at large in regions around the throat.

  14. Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Randal S.; Hintze, Arend; Dyer, Fred C.; Knoester, David B.; Adami, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Swarming behaviours in animals have been extensively studied owing to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition and predator–prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favour the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary model of a predator–prey system, we show that predator confusion provides a sufficient selection pressure to evolve swarming behaviour in prey. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the evolutionary effect of predator confusion on prey could in turn exert pressure on the structure of the predator's visual field, favouring the frontally oriented, high-resolution visual systems commonly observed in predators that feed on swarming animals. Finally, we provide evidence that when prey evolve swarming in response to predator confusion, there is a change in the shape of the functional response curve describing the predator's consumption rate as prey density increases. Thus, we show that a relatively simple perceptual constraint—predator confusion—could have pervasive evolutionary effects on prey behaviour, predator sensory mechanisms and the ecological interactions between predators and prey. PMID:23740485

  15. The emotion system promotes diversity and evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Giske, Jarl; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Fiksen, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Per J.; Aksnes, Dag L.; Mangel, Marc; Jørgensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between the optimal phenotype and its environment have had limited focus on genotype-to-phenotype pathways and their evolutionary consequences. Here, we study how multi-layered trait architecture and its associated constraints prescribe diversity. Using an idealized model of the emotion system in fish, we find that trait architecture yields genetic and phenotypic diversity even in absence of frequency-dependent selection or environmental variation. That is, for a given environment, phenotype frequency distributions are predictable while gene pools are not. The conservation of phenotypic traits among these genetically different populations is due to the multi-layered trait architecture, in which one adaptation at a higher architectural level can be achieved by several different adaptations at a lower level. Our results emphasize the role of convergent evolution and the organismal level of selection. While trait architecture makes individuals more constrained than what has been assumed in optimization theory, the resulting populations are genetically more diverse and adaptable. The emotion system in animals may thus have evolved by natural selection because it simultaneously enhances three important functions, the behavioural robustness of individuals, the evolvability of gene pools and the rate of evolutionary innovation at several architectural levels. PMID:25100697

  16. Early formation of evolved asteroidal crust.

    PubMed

    Day, James M D; Ash, Richard D; Liu, Yang; Bellucci, Jeremy J; Rumble, Douglas; McDonough, William F; Walker, Richard J; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2009-01-08

    Mechanisms for the formation of crust on planetary bodies remain poorly understood. It is generally accepted that Earth's andesitic continental crust is the product of plate tectonics, whereas the Moon acquired its feldspar-rich crust by way of plagioclase flotation in a magma ocean. Basaltic meteorites provide evidence that, like the terrestrial planets, some asteroids generated crust and underwent large-scale differentiation processes. Until now, however, no evolved felsic asteroidal crust has been sampled or observed. Here we report age and compositional data for the newly discovered, paired and differentiated meteorites Graves Nunatak (GRA) 06128 and GRA 06129. These meteorites are feldspar-rich, with andesite bulk compositions. Their age of 4.52 +/- 0.06 Gyr demonstrates formation early in Solar System history. The isotopic and elemental compositions, degree of metamorphic re-equilibration and sulphide-rich nature of the meteorites are most consistent with an origin as partial melts from a volatile-rich, oxidized asteroid. GRA 06128 and 06129 are the result of a newly recognized style of evolved crust formation, bearing witness to incomplete differentiation of their parent asteroid and to previously unrecognized diversity of early-formed materials in the Solar System.

  17. Evolvability of an Optimal Recombination Rate

    PubMed Central

    Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution and maintenance of genetic recombination and its relation to the mutational process is a long-standing, fundamental problem in evolutionary biology that is linked to the general problem of evolution of evolvability. We explored a stochastic model of the evolution of recombination using additive fitness and infinite allele assumptions but no assumptions on the sign or magnitude of the epistasis and the distribution of mutation effects. In this model, fluctuating negative epistasis and predominantly deleterious mutations arise naturally as a consequence of the additive fitness and a reservoir from which new alleles arrive with a fixed distribution of fitness effects. Analysis of the model revealed a nonmonotonic effect of recombination intensity on fitness, with an optimal recombination rate value which maximized fitness in steady state. The optimal recombination rate depended on the mutation rate and was evolvable, that is, subject to selection. The predictions of the model were compatible with the observations on the dependence between genome rearrangement rate and gene flux in microbial genomes. PMID:26660159

  18. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,

  19. Novel cooperation experimentally evolved between species.

    PubMed

    Harcombe, William

    2010-07-01

    Cooperation violates the view of "nature red in tooth and claw" that prevails in our understanding of evolution, yet examples of cooperation abound. Most work has focused on maintenance of cooperation within a single species through mechanisms such as kin selection. The factors necessary for the evolutionary origin of aiding unrelated individuals such as members of another species have not been experimentally tested. Here, I demonstrate that cooperation between species can be evolved in the laboratory if (1) there is preexisting reciprocation or feedback for cooperation, and (2) reciprocation is preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. I used a two species system involving Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and an Escherichia coli mutant unable to synthesize an essential amino acid. In lactose media Salmonella consumes metabolic waste from E. coli, thus creating a mechanism of reciprocation for cooperation. Growth in a spatially structured environment assured that the benefits of cooperation were preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. Salmonella evolved to aid E. coli by excreting a costly amino acid, however this novel cooperation disappeared if the waste consumption or spatial structure were removed. This study builds on previous work to demonstrate an experimental origin of interspecific cooperation, and to test the factors necessary for such interactions to arise.

  20. Shaping the outflows of evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Shazrene

    2015-08-01

    Both hot and cool evolved stars, e.g., red (super)giants and Wolf-Rayet stars, lose copious amounts of mass, momentum and mechanical energy through powerful, dense stellar winds. The interaction of these outflows with their surroundings results in highly structured and complex circumstellar environments, often featuring knots, arcs, shells and spirals. Recent improvements in computational power and techniques have led to the development of detailed, multi-dimensional simulations that have given new insight into the origin of these structures, and better understanding of the physical mechanisms driving their formation. In this talk, I will discuss three of the main mechanisms that shape the outflows of evolved stars:- interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM), i.e., wind-ISM interactions- interaction with a stellar wind, either from a previous phase of evolution or the wind from a companion star, i.e., wind-wind interactions- and interaction with a companion star that has a weak or insignicant outflow (e.g., a compact companion such as a neutron star or black hole), i.e., wind-companion interactions.I will also highlight the broader implications and impact of these stellar wind interactions for other phenomena, e.g, for symbiotic and X-ray binaries, supernovae and Gamma-ray bursts.

  1. Hierarchical decomposition of dynamically evolving regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Ay, Ahmet; Gong, Dihong; Kahveci, Tamer

    2015-05-15

    Gene regulatory networks describe the interplay between genes and their products. These networks control almost every biological activity in the cell through interactions. The hierarchy of genes in these networks as defined by their interactions gives important insights into how these functions are governed. Accurately determining the hierarchy of genes is however a computationally difficult problem. This problem is further complicated by the fact that an intrinsic characteristic of regulatory networks is that the wiring of interactions can change over time. Determining how the hierarchy in the gene regulatory networks changes with dynamically evolving network topology remains to be an unsolved challenge. In this study, we develop a new method, named D-HIDEN (Dynamic-HIerarchical DEcomposition of Networks) to find the hierarchy of the genes in dynamically evolving gene regulatory network topologies. Unlike earlier methods, which recompute the hierarchy from scratch when the network topology changes, our method adapts the hierarchy based on the wiring of the interactions only for the nodes which have the potential to move in the hierarchy. We compare D-HIDEN to five currently available hierarchical decomposition methods on synthetic and real gene regulatory networks. Our experiments demonstrate that D-HIDEN significantly outperforms existing methods in running time, accuracy, or both. Furthermore, our method is robust against dynamic changes in hierarchy. Our experiments on human gene regulatory networks suggest that our method may be used to reconstruct hierarchy in gene regulatory networks.

  2. Evolving MEMS Resonator Designs for Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.; Kraus, William F.; Lohn, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    Because of their small size and high reliability, microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices have the potential to revolution many areas of engineering. As with conventionally-sized engineering design, there is likely to be a demand for the automated design of MEMS devices. This paper describes our current status as we progress toward our ultimate goal of using an evolutionary algorithm and a generative representation to produce designs of a MEMS device and successfully demonstrate its transfer to an actual chip. To produce designs that are likely to transfer to reality, we present two ways to modify evaluation of designs. The first is to add location noise, differences between the actual dimensions of the design and the design blueprint, which is a technique we have used for our work in evolving antennas and robots. The second method is to add prestress to model the warping that occurs during the extreme heat of fabrication. In future we expect to fabricate and test some MEMS resonators that are evolved in this way.

  3. Have plants evolved to self-immolate?

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, David M. J. S.; French, Ben J.; Prior, Lynda D.

    2014-01-01

    By definition fire prone ecosystems have highly combustible plants, leading to the hypothesis, first formally stated by Mutch in 1970, that community flammability is the product of natural selection of flammable traits. However, proving the “Mutch hypothesis” has presented an enormous challenge for fire ecologists given the difficulty in establishing cause and effect between landscape fire and flammable plant traits. Individual plant traits (such as leaf moisture content, retention of dead branches and foliage, oil rich foliage) are known to affect the flammability of plants but there is no evidence these characters evolved specifically to self-immolate, although some of these traits may have been secondarily modified to increase the propensity to burn. Demonstrating individual benefits from self-immolation is extraordinarily difficult, given the intersection of the physical environmental factors that control landscape fire (fuel production, dryness and ignitions) with community flammability properties that emerge from numerous traits of multiple species (canopy cover and litter bed bulk density). It is more parsimonious to conclude plants have evolved mechanisms to tolerate, but not promote, landscape fire. PMID:25414710

  4. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,

  5. The Comet Cometh: Evolving Developmental Systems.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Johannes; Laubichler, Manfred; Callebaut, Werner

    In a recent opinion piece, Denis Duboule has claimed that the increasing shift towards systems biology is driving evolutionary and developmental biology apart, and that a true reunification of these two disciplines within the framework of evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo) may easily take another 100 years. He identifies methodological, epistemological, and social differences as causes for this supposed separation. Our article provides a contrasting view. We argue that Duboule's prediction is based on a one-sided understanding of systems biology as a science that is only interested in functional, not evolutionary, aspects of biological processes. Instead, we propose a research program for an evolutionary systems biology, which is based on local exploration of the configuration space in evolving developmental systems. We call this approach-which is based on reverse engineering, simulation, and mathematical analysis-the natural history of configuration space. We discuss a number of illustrative examples that demonstrate the past success of local exploration, as opposed to global mapping, in different biological contexts. We argue that this pragmatic mode of inquiry can be extended and applied to the mathematical analysis of the developmental repertoire and evolutionary potential of evolving developmental mechanisms and that evolutionary systems biology so conceived provides a pragmatic epistemological framework for the EvoDevo synthesis.

  6. Evolvability of an Optimal Recombination Rate.

    PubMed

    Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-12-10

    Evolution and maintenance of genetic recombination and its relation to the mutational process is a long-standing, fundamental problem in evolutionary biology that is linked to the general problem of evolution of evolvability. We explored a stochastic model of the evolution of recombination using additive fitness and infinite allele assumptions but no assumptions on the sign or magnitude of the epistasis and the distribution of mutation effects. In this model, fluctuating negative epistasis and predominantly deleterious mutations arise naturally as a consequence of the additive fitness and a reservoir from which new alleles arrive with a fixed distribution of fitness effects. Analysis of the model revealed a nonmonotonic effect of recombination intensity on fitness, with an optimal recombination rate value which maximized fitness in steady state. The optimal recombination rate depended on the mutation rate and was evolvable, that is, subject to selection. The predictions of the model were compatible with the observations on the dependence between genome rearrangement rate and gene flux in microbial genomes.

  7. Caterpillars evolved from onychophorans by hybridogenesis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald I

    2009-11-24

    I reject the Darwinian assumption that larvae and their adults evolved from a single common ancestor. Rather I posit that, in animals that metamorphose, the basic types of larvae originated as adults of different lineages, i.e., larvae were transferred when, through hybridization, their genomes were acquired by distantly related animals. "Caterpillars," the name for eruciforms with thoracic and abdominal legs, are larvae of lepidopterans, hymenopterans, and mecopterans (scorpionflies). Grubs and maggots, including the larvae of beetles, bees, and flies, evolved from caterpillars by loss of legs. Caterpillar larval organs are dismantled and reconstructed in the pupal phase. Such indirect developmental patterns (metamorphoses) did not originate solely by accumulation of random mutations followed by natural selection; rather they are fully consistent with my concept of evolution by hybridogenesis. Members of the phylum Onychophora (velvet worms) are proposed as the evolutionary source of caterpillars and their grub or maggot descendants. I present a molecular biological research proposal to test my thesis. By my hypothesis 2 recognizable sets of genes are detectable in the genomes of all insects with caterpillar grub- or maggot-like larvae: (i) onychophoran genes that code for proteins determining larval morphology/physiology and (ii) sequentially expressed insect genes that code for adult proteins. The genomes of insects and other animals that, by contrast, entirely lack larvae comprise recognizable sets of genes from single animal common ancestors.

  8. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2014-01-01

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players’ payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner’s Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions. PMID:25422421

  9. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2014-12-09

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players' payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner's Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions.

  10. Malaria genomics: tracking a diverse and evolving parasite population.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2015-03-01

    Malaria parasites are continually evolving to evade the immune system and human attempts to control the disease. To eliminate malaria from regions where it is deeply entrenched we need ways of monitoring what is going on in the parasite population, detecting problematic changes as soon as they arise, and executing a prompt and effective response based on a deep understanding of this natural evolutionary process. Powerful new tools to address this problem are emerging from the fast-growing field of genomic epidemiology, driven by new sequencing technologies and computational methods that allow parasite genome variation to be studied in much greater detail and in many more samples than was previously considered possible. These new tools will provide a deep understanding of what is going on in the parasite population, generating actionable knowledge for strategic planning of control interventions, for monitoring their effects and steering them for greatest impact, and for raising the alert if things start to go wrong.

  11. Constitutive equations of erythrocyte membrane incorporating evolving preferred configuration.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Skalak, R; Fedorciw, B; Sung, K L; Chien, S

    1984-01-01

    The erythrocyte membrane is modeled as a two-dimensional viscoelastic continuum that evolves under the application of stress. The present analysis of the erythrocyte membrane is motivated by the recent development of knowledge about its molecular structure. The constitutive equations proposed in the present analysis explain in a consistent manner the data on both the deformation and recovery phases of the micropipette experiment. The rheological equations of the present study are applied in a later section to the analysis of a plane membrane deformation that is quantitatively similar to the tank-treading motion of the erythrocytes in a shear field. The computations yield useful information on how the membrane viscosity becomes a more dominant feature in tank-treading motion. The material constants appearing in the proposed constitutive equations may be useful indications of the biochemical state of the membrane in health and disease. PMID:6713066

  12. Microsatellites evolve more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Amos, W.

    1995-12-10

    Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers consisting of varying numbers of tandem repeats. At different loci, these repeats can consist of one to five nucleotides. Microsatellites have been used in many fields of genetics, including genetic mapping, linkage disequilibrium analyses, forensic studies, and population genetics. It is important that we understand their mutational processes better so that they can be exploited optimally for studies of human diversity and evolutionary genetics. We have analyzed 24 microsatellite loci in chimpanzees, East Anglians, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The stepwise-weighted genetic distances between the humans and the chimpanzees and between the two human populations were calculated according to the method described by Deka et al. The ratio of the genetic distances between the chimpanzees and the humans relative to that between the Africans and the East Anglians was more than 10 times smaller than expected. This suggests that microsatellites have evolved more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Malaria genomics: tracking a diverse and evolving parasite population

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites are continually evolving to evade the immune system and human attempts to control the disease. To eliminate malaria from regions where it is deeply entrenched we need ways of monitoring what is going on in the parasite population, detecting problematic changes as soon as they arise, and executing a prompt and effective response based on a deep understanding of this natural evolutionary process. Powerful new tools to address this problem are emerging from the fast-growing field of genomic epidemiology, driven by new sequencing technologies and computational methods that allow parasite genome variation to be studied in much greater detail and in many more samples than was previously considered possible. These new tools will provide a deep understanding of what is going on in the parasite population, generating actionable knowledge for strategic planning of control interventions, for monitoring their effects and steering them for greatest impact, and for raising the alert if things start to go wrong. PMID:25733556

  14. The evolving block universe and the meshing together of times.

    PubMed

    Ellis, George F R

    2014-10-01

    It has been proposed that spacetime should be regarded as an evolving block universe, bounded to the future by the present time, which continually extends to the future. This future boundary is defined at each time by measuring proper time along Ricci eigenlines from the start of the universe. A key point, then, is that physical reality can be represented at many different scales: hence, the passage of time may be seen as different at different scales, with quantum gravity determining the evolution of spacetime itself at the Planck scale, but quantum field theory and classical physics determining the evolution of events within spacetime at larger scales. The fundamental issue then arises as to how the effective times at different scales mesh together, leading to the concepts of global and local times.

  15. A Study of Massive and Evolved Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyeri, H.; Mobasher, B.; Hemmati, S.; De Barros, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Wiklind, T.; Dahlen, T.; Dickinson, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Fontana, A.; Ashby, M.; Barro, G.; Guo, Y.; Hathi, N. P.; Kassin, S.; Koekemoer, A.; Willner, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Paris, D.; Targett, T. A.

    2014-10-01

    We use data taken as part of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) to identify massive and evolved galaxies at 3 < z < 4.5. This is performed using the strength of the Balmer break feature at rest-frame 3648 Å, which is a diagnostic of the age of the stellar population in galaxies. Using the WFC3 H-band-selected catalog for the CANDELS GOODS-S field and deep multi-waveband photometry from optical (HST) to mid-infrared (Spitzer) wavelengths, we identify a population of old and evolved post-starburst galaxies based on the strength of their Balmer breaks (Balmer break galaxies, BBGs). The galaxies are also selected to be bright in rest-frame near-IR wavelengths and hence massive. We identify a total of 16 BBGs. Fitting the spectral energy distribution of the BBGs shows that the candidate galaxies have average estimated ages of ~800 Myr and average stellar masses of ~5 × 1010 M ⊙, consistent with being old and massive systems. Two of our BBG candidates are also identified by the criteria that are sensitive to star-forming galaxies (Lyman break galaxy selection). We find a number density of ~3.2 × 10-5 Mpc-3 for the BBGs, corresponding to a mass density of ~2.0 × 106 M ⊙ Mpc-3 in the redshift range covering the survey. Given the old age and the passive evolution, it is argued that some of these objects formed the bulk of their mass only a few hundred million years after the big bang.

  16. A study of massive and evolved galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Nayyeri, H.; Mobasher, B.; Hemmati, S.; De Barros, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Wiklind, T.; Dahlen, T.; Kassin, S.; Koekemoer, A.; Dickinson, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Fontana, A.; Paris, D.; Ashby, M.; Willner, S.; Barro, G.; Guo, Y.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Targett, T. A.

    2014-10-10

    We use data taken as part of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) to identify massive and evolved galaxies at 3 < z < 4.5. This is performed using the strength of the Balmer break feature at rest-frame 3648 Å, which is a diagnostic of the age of the stellar population in galaxies. Using the WFC3 H-band-selected catalog for the CANDELS GOODS-S field and deep multi-waveband photometry from optical (HST) to mid-infrared (Spitzer) wavelengths, we identify a population of old and evolved post-starburst galaxies based on the strength of their Balmer breaks (Balmer break galaxies, BBGs). The galaxies are also selected to be bright in rest-frame near-IR wavelengths and hence massive. We identify a total of 16 BBGs. Fitting the spectral energy distribution of the BBGs shows that the candidate galaxies have average estimated ages of ∼800 Myr and average stellar masses of ∼5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, consistent with being old and massive systems. Two of our BBG candidates are also identified by the criteria that are sensitive to star-forming galaxies (Lyman break galaxy selection). We find a number density of ∼3.2 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup –3} for the BBGs, corresponding to a mass density of ∼2.0 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} in the redshift range covering the survey. Given the old age and the passive evolution, it is argued that some of these objects formed the bulk of their mass only a few hundred million years after the big bang.

  17. Synchronization in evolving snowdrift game model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Wu, L.; Zhu, S. Q.

    2009-06-01

    The interaction between the evolution of the game and the underlying network structure with evolving snowdrift game model is investigated. The constructed network follows a power-law degree distribution typically showing scale-free feature. The topological features of average path length, clustering coefficient, degree-degree correlations and the dynamical feature of synchronizability are studied. The synchronizability of the constructed networks changes by the interaction. It will converge to a certain value when sufficient new nodes are added. It is found that initial payoffs of nodes greatly affect the synchronizability. When initial payoffs for players are equal, low common initial payoffs may lead to more heterogeneity of the network and good synchronizability. When initial payoffs follow certain distributions, better synchronizability is obtained compared to equal initial payoff. The result is also true for phase synchronization of nonidentical oscillators.

  18. Evolving resistance among Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Munita, Jose M; Bayer, Arnold S; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-09-15

    Antimicrobial therapy is a key component of modern medical practice and a cornerstone for the development of complex clinical interventions in critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance is now recognized as a major public health threat jeopardizing the care of thousands of patients worldwide. Gram-positive pathogens exhibit an immense genetic repertoire to adapt and develop resistance to virtually all antimicrobials clinically available. As more molecules become available to treat resistant gram-positive infections, resistance emerges as an evolutionary response. Thus, antimicrobial resistance has to be envisaged as an evolving phenomenon that demands constant surveillance and continuous efforts to identify emerging mechanisms of resistance to optimize the use of antibiotics and create strategies to circumvent this problem. Here, we will provide a broad perspective on the clinical aspects of antibiotic resistance in relevant gram-positive pathogens with emphasis on the mechanistic strategies used by these organisms to avoid being killed by commonly used antimicrobial agents.

  19. Evolving unipolar memristor spiking neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, David; Bull, Larry; De Lacy Costello, Ben

    2015-10-01

    Neuromorphic computing - brain-like computing in hardware - typically requires myriad complimentary metal oxide semiconductor spiking neurons interconnected by a dense mesh of nanoscale plastic synapses. Memristors are frequently cited as strong synapse candidates due to their statefulness and potential for low-power implementations. To date, plentiful research has focused on the bipolar memristor synapse, which is capable of incremental weight alterations and can provide adaptive self-organisation under a Hebbian learning scheme. In this paper, we consider the unipolar memristor synapse - a device capable of non-Hebbian switching between only two states (conductive and resistive) through application of a suitable input voltage - and discuss its suitability for neuromorphic systems. A self-adaptive evolutionary process is used to autonomously find highly fit network configurations. Experimentation on two robotics tasks shows that unipolar memristor networks evolve task-solving controllers faster than both bipolar memristor networks and networks containing constant non-plastic connections whilst performing at least comparably.

  20. Properties of evolving e-mail networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; de Wilde, Philippe

    2004-12-01

    Computer viruses spread by attaching to an e-mail message and sending themselves to users whose addresses are in the e-mail address book of the recipients. Here we investigate a simple model of an evolving e-mail network, with nodes as e-mail address books of users and links as the records of e-mail addresses in the address books. Within specific periods, some new links are generated and some old links are deleted. We study the statistical properties of this e-mail network and observe the effect of the evolution on the structure of the network. We also find that the balance between the generation procedure and deletion procedure is dependent on different parameters of the model.

  1. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discuss the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EHW) as the complexity of the circuit grows. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, ngen, based on L, the length of the programming string. We show that the processing time of the computer becomes negligible for intrinsic EHW since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation, suggesting there is room for use of more complex evolutionary algorithms m intrinsic EHW. F i y , we review the state of the practice and discuss the notion of a system design approach for intrinsic EHW.

  2. Analysis of an evolving email network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chaopin; Kuh, Anthony; Wang, Juan; de Wilde, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we study an evolving email network model first introduced by Wang and De Wilde, to the best of our knowledge. The model is analyzed by formulating the network topology as a random process and studying the dynamics of the process. Our analytical results show a number of steady state properties about the email traffic between different nodes and the aggregate networking behavior (i.e., degree distribution, clustering coefficient, average path length, and phase transition), and also confirm the empirical results obtained by Wang and De Wilde. We also conducted simulations confirming the analytical results. Extensive simulations were run to evaluate email traffic behavior at the link and network levels, phase transition phenomena, and also studying the behavior of email traffic in a hierarchical network. The methods established here are also applicable to many other practical networks including sensor networks and social networks.

  3. Tracking correlated, simultaneously evolving target populations, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald

    2017-05-01

    This paper is the sixth in a series aimed at weakening the independence assumptions that are typically presumed in multitarget tracking. Earlier papers investigated Bayes …lters that propagate the correlations between two evolving multitarget systems. Last year at this conference we attempted to derive PHD …lter-type approximations that account for both spatial correlation and cardinality correlation (i.e., correlation between the target numbers of the two systems). Unfortunately, this approach required heuristic models of both clutter and target appearance in order to incorporate both spatial and cardinality correlation. This paper describes a fully rigorous approach- provided, however, that spatial correlation between the two populations is ignored and only their cardinality correlations are taken into account. We derive the time-update and measurement-update equations for a CPHD …lter describing the evolution of such correlated multitarget populations.

  4. Evolvement of molecular nanomagnets in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing-Wu; Wang, Xin-Yi; Sun, Hao-Ling; Jiang, Shang-Da; Gao, Song

    2013-10-13

    Molecular nanomagnets have been undergoing development for 20 years since the first single-molecule magnet (SMM), Mn₁₂Ac, was characterized as the molecule-behaved magnet. The multi-disciplinary scientists promoted the magnetic characteristics to be more suitable for use in information science and spintronics. The concept of molecular nanomagnets has also evolved to include single-chain magnets (SCMs), single-ion magnets (SIMs) and even magnetic molecules that showed only slow magnetic relaxation, in addition to the initial cluster-type SMMs. In this review, several aspects, including SMMs, SCMs and SIMs, are introduced briefly through some representative examples. In particular, the contribution of Chinese chemists is highlighted in the design, synthesis and understanding of various types of molecular nanomagnets.

  5. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  6. The distances of highly evolved planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. P.

    2005-02-01

    The central stars of highly evolved planetary nebulae (PNe) are expected to have closely similar absolute visual magnitudes MV. This enables us to determine approximate distances to these sources where one knows their central star visual magnitudes, and levels of extinction. We find that such an analysis implies values of D which are similar to those determined by Phillips; Cahn, Kaler & Stanghellin; Acker, and Daub. However, our distances are very much smaller than those of Zhang; Bensby & Lundstrom, and van de Steene & Zijlstra. The reasons for these differences are discussed, and can be traced to errors in the assumed relation between brightness temperature and radius. Finally, we determine that the binary companions of such stars can be no brighter than MV~ 6mag, implying a spectral type of K0 or later in the case of main-sequence stars.

  7. Modelling of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbjan, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    A single-column model of the evolving stable boundary layer (SBL) is tested for self-similar properties of the flow and effects of ambient forcing. The turbulence closure of the model is diagnostic, based on the K-theory approach, with a semi-empirical form of the mixing length, and empirical stability functions of the Richardson number. The model results, expressed in terms of local similarity scales, are universal functions, satisfied in the entire SBL. Based on similarity expression, a realizability condition is derived for the minimum allowable turbulent heat flux in the SBL. Numerical experiments show that the development of "horse-shoe" shaped, fixed-elevation hodographs in the interior of the SBL around sunrise is controlled by effects imposed by surface thermal forcing.

  8. Pulmonary Sporotrichosis: An Evolving Clinical Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Aung, Ar K; Spelman, Denis W; Thompson, Philip J

    2015-10-01

    In recent decades, sporotrichosis, caused by thermally dimorphic fungi Sporothrix schenckii complex, has become an emerging infection in many parts of the world. Pulmonary infection with S. schenckii still remains relatively uncommon, possibly due to underrecognition. Pulmonary sporotrichosis presents with distinct clinical and radiological patterns in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts and can often result in significant morbidity and mortality despite treatment. Current understanding regarding S. schenckii biology, epidemiology, immunopathology, clinical diagnostics, and treatment options has been evolving in the recent years with increased availability of molecular sequencing techniques. However, this changing knowledge has not yet been fully translated into a better understanding of the clinical aspects of pulmonary sporotrichosis, as such current management guidelines remain unsupported by high-level clinical evidence. This article examines recent advances in the knowledge of sporotrichosis and its application to the difficult challenges of managing pulmonary sporotrichosis.

  9. Mach cones in an evolving medium

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, Thorsten; Ruppert, Joerg

    2006-01-15

    The energy and momentum lost by a hard parton propagating through hot and dense matter has to be redistributed in the nuclear medium. Apart from heating the medium, there is the possibility that collective modes are excited. We outline a formalism that can be used to track the propagation of such a mode through the evolving medium if its dispersion relation is known. Under the assumption that a sound wave is created, we track the jet energy loss as a function of spacetime and follow the resulting mach cone throughout the fireball evolution. We compare with the angular correlation pattern of hard hadrons as obtained by the PHENIX Collaboration and find good agreement with the data provided that a substantial fraction of jet energy ({approx}90%) is deposited into a propagating mode and that the hot matter can be characterized by an equation of state with a soft point (not necessarily a mixed phase)

  10. Finch: A System for Evolving Java (Bytecode)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Michael; Sipper, Moshe

    The established approach in genetic programming (GP) involves the definition of functions and terminals appropriate to the problem at hand, after which evolution of expressions using these definitions takes place. We have recently developed a system, dubbed FINCH (Fertile Darwinian Bytecode Harvester), to evolutionarily improve actual, extant software, which was not intentionally written for the purpose of serving as a GP representation in particular, nor for evolution in general. This is in contrast to existing work that uses restricted subsets of the Java bytecode instruction set as a representation language for individuals in genetic programming. The ability to evolve Java programs will hopefully lead to a valuable new tool in the software engineer's toolkit.

  11. Language as a coordination tool evolves slowly

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Social living ultimately depends on coordination between group members, and communication is necessary to make this possible. We suggest that this might have been the key selection pressure acting on the evolution of language in humans and use a behavioural coordination model to explore the impact of communication efficiency on social group coordination. We show that when language production is expensive but there is an individual benefit to the efficiency with which individuals coordinate their behaviour, the evolution of efficient communication is selected for. Contrary to some views of language evolution, the speed of evolution is necessarily slow because there is no advantage in some individuals evolving communication abilities that much exceed those of the community at large. However, once a threshold competence has been achieved, evolution of higher order language skills may indeed be precipitate. PMID:28083091

  12. Evolving surgical approaches in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Petrowsky, Henrik; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2009-02-01

    The growing discrepancy between the need and the availability of donor livers has resulted in evolving surgical approaches in liver transplantation during the last two decades to expand the donor pool. One approach is to transplant partial grafts, obtained either from a living donor or splitting a cadaveric donor liver. For both surgical methods, it is important to obtain a minimal viable graft volume to prevent small-for-size syndrome and graft failure. This minimal volume, expressed as graft-to-whole body ratio, must be between 0.8 and 1%. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) became the primary transplant option in many Asian countries and is increasingly performed as an adjunct transplant option in countries with low donation rates. Split liver transplantation (SLT) is a surgical method that creates two allografts from one deceased donor. The most widely used splitting technique is the division of the liver into a left lateral sectoral graft (segments 2 and 3) for a pediatric patient and a right trisegmental graft (segments 1 and 4 to 8) for an adult patient. Both LDLT and SLT are also important and established methods for the treatment of pediatric patients. Another evolving surgical approach is auxiliary liver transplantation, which describes the transplanting a whole or partial graft with preservation of the partial native liver. This bridging technique is applied in patients with fulminate liver failure and should allow the regeneration of the injured liver with the potential to discontinue immunosuppression. Other methods such as xenotransplantation, as well as hepatocyte and stem cell transplantation, are promising approaches that are still in experimental phases.

  13. Studying evolved stars with Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Santos, João Manuel

    2016-07-01

    A systematic inspection of the far-infrared (FIR) properties of evolved stars allows not only to constrain physical models, but also to understand the chemical evolution that takes place in the end of their lives. In this work we intend to study the circumstellar envelopes (CSE) on a sample of stars in the THROES catalogue from AGB/post-AGB stars to planetary nebulae using photometry and spectroscopy provided by the PACS instrument on-board Herschel telescope. In the first part we are interested in obtaining an estimate of the size of FIR emitting region and to sort our targets in two classes: point-like and extended. Secondly, we focus on the molecular component of the envelope traced by carbon monoxide (CO) rotational lines. We conduct a line survey on a sample of evolved stars by identifying and measuring flux of both 12CO and 13CO isotopologues in the PACS range, while looking at the overall properties of the sample. Lastly, we will be interested in obtaining physical parameters of the CSE, namely gas temperature, mass and mass-loss rate on a sample of carbon stars. For that, we make use of PACS large wavelength coverage, which enables the simultaneous study of a large number of CO transitions, to perform the rotational diagram analysis. We report the detection of CO emission in a high number of stars from the catalogue, which were mostly classified as point-like targets with a few exceptions of planetary nebulae. High J rotational number transitions were detected in a number of targets, revealing the presence of a significant amount of hot gas (T ˜ 400-900 K) and high mass-loss rates. We conclude that Herschel/PACS is in a privileged position to detect a new population of warmer gas, typically missed in sub-mm/mm observations.

  14. How evolved psychological mechanisms empower cultural group selection.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Joseph; Boyd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Driven by intergroup competition, social norms, beliefs, and practices can evolve in ways that more effectively tap into a wide variety of evolved psychological mechanisms to foster group-beneficial behavior. The more powerful such evolved mechanisms are, the more effectively culture can potentially harness and manipulate them to generate greater phenotypic variation across groups, thereby fueling cultural group selection.

  15. Evolving Stories of Child Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…

  16. Evolving Stories of Child Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…

  17. Cognitive Styles in Children: Some Evolving Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Saarni, Carolyn

    1989-01-01

    Discusses trends in the conceptualization of children's cognitive style which continue to generate research activity. Trends discussed include field dependence-independence, reflection-impulsivity, conceptualization styles, breadth of categorization, metaphoric sensitivity, cognitive complexity-simplicity, and cognitive control. (RJC)

  18. On the Discovery of Evolving Truth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaliang; Li, Qi; Gao, Jing; Su, Lu; Zhao, Bo; Fan, Wei; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    In the era of big data, information regarding the same objects can be collected from increasingly more sources. Unfortunately, there usually exist conflicts among the information coming from different sources. To tackle this challenge, truth discovery, i.e., to integrate multi-source noisy information by estimating the reliability of each source, has emerged as a hot topic. In many real world applications, however, the information may come sequentially, and as a consequence, the truth of objects as well as the reliability of sources may be dynamically evolving. Existing truth discovery methods, unfortunately, cannot handle such scenarios. To address this problem, we investigate the temporal relations among both object truths and source reliability, and propose an incremental truth discovery framework that can dynamically update object truths and source weights upon the arrival of new data. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the proposed method is guaranteed to converge at a fast rate. The experiments on three real world applications and a set of synthetic data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method over state-of-the-art truth discovery methods. PMID:26705502

  19. Exploring Evolving Media Discourse Through Event Cueing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yafeng; Steptoe, Michael; Burke, Sarah; Wang, Hong; Tsai, Jiun-Yi; Davulcu, Hasan; Montgomery, Douglas; Corman, Steven R; Maciejewski, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Online news, microblogs and other media documents all contain valuable insight regarding events and responses to events. Underlying these documents is the concept of framing, a process in which communicators act (consciously or unconsciously) to construct a point of view that encourages facts to be interpreted by others in a particular manner. As media discourse evolves, how topics and documents are framed can undergo change, shifting the discussion to different viewpoints or rhetoric. What causes these shifts can be difficult to determine directly; however, by linking secondary datasets and enabling visual exploration, we can enhance the hypothesis generation process. In this paper, we present a visual analytics framework for event cueing using media data. As discourse develops over time, our framework applies a time series intervention model which tests to see if the level of framing is different before or after a given date. If the model indicates that the times before and after are statistically significantly different, this cues an analyst to explore related datasets to help enhance their understanding of what (if any) events may have triggered these changes in discourse. Our framework consists of entity extraction and sentiment analysis as lenses for data exploration and uses two different models for intervention analysis. To demonstrate the usage of our framework, we present a case study on exploring potential relationships between climate change framing and conflicts in Africa.

  20. Evolving paradigms in multifocal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Roberto; Aftimos, Philippe; Sotiriou, Christos; Desmedt, Christine

    2015-04-01

    The 7th edition of the TNM defines multifocal breast cancer as multiple simultaneous ipsilateral and synchronous breast cancer lesions, provided they are macroscopically distinct and measurable using current traditional pathological and clinical tools. According to the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the characterization of only the largest lesion is considered sufficient, unless the grade and/or histology are different between the lesions. Here, we review three potentially clinically relevant aspects of multifocal breast cancers: first, the importance of a different intrinsic breast cancer subtype of the various lesions; second, the emerging awareness of inter-lesion heterogeneity; and last but not least, the potential introduction of bias in clinical trials due to the unrecognized biological diversity of these cancers. Although the current strategy to assess the lesion with the largest diameter has clearly its advantages in terms of costs and feasibility, this recommendation may not be sustainable in time and might need to be adapted to be compliant with new evolving paradigms in breast cancer.

  1. Evolving dynamic web pages using web mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Kartik; Dagli, Cihan H.

    2003-08-01

    The heterogeneity and the lack of structure that permeates much of the ever expanding information sources on the WWW makes it difficult for the user to properly and efficiently access different web pages. Different users have different needs from the same web page. It is necessary to train the system to understand the needs and demands of the users. In other words there is a need for efficient and proper web mining. In this paper issues and possible ways of training the system and providing high level of organization for semi structured data available on the web is discussed. Web pages can be evolved based on history of query searches, browsing, links traversed and observation of the user behavior like book marking and time spent on viewing. Fuzzy clustering techniques help in grouping natural users and groups, neural networks, association rules and web traversals patterns help in efficient sequential anaysis based on previous searches and queries by the user. In this paper we analyze web server logs using above mentioned techniques to know more about user interactions. Analyzing these web server logs help to closely understand the user behavior and his/her web access pattern.

  2. An evolving model of online bipartite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Chuang

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the structure and evolution of online bipartite networks is a significant task since they play a crucial role in various e-commerce services nowadays. Recently, various attempts have been tried to propose different models, resulting in either power-law or exponential degree distributions. However, many empirical results show that the user degree distribution actually follows a shifted power-law distribution, the so-called Mandelbrot’s law, which cannot be fully described by previous models. In this paper, we propose an evolving model, considering two different user behaviors: random and preferential attachment. Extensive empirical results on two real bipartite networks, Delicious and CiteULike, show that the theoretical model can well characterize the structure of real networks for both user and object degree distributions. In addition, we introduce a structural parameter p, to demonstrate that the hybrid user behavior leads to the shifted power-law degree distribution, and the region of power-law tail will increase with the increment of p. The proposed model might shed some lights in understanding the underlying laws governing the structure of real online bipartite networks.

  3. Generative Representations for Evolving Families of Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2003-01-01

    Since typical evolutionary design systems encode only a single artifact with each individual, each time the objective changes a new set of individuals must be evolved. When this objective varies in a way that can be parameterized, a more general method is to use a representation in which a single individual encodes an entire class of artifacts. In addition to saving time by preventing the need for multiple evolutionary runs, the evolution of parameter-controlled designs can create families of artifacts with the same style and a reuse of parts between members of the family. In this paper an evolutionary design system is described which uses a generative representation to encode families of designs. Because a generative representation is an algorithmic encoding of a design, its input parameters are a way to control aspects of the design it generates. By evaluating individuals multiple times with different input parameters the evolutionary design system creates individuals in which the input parameter controls specific aspects of a design. This system is demonstrated on two design substrates: neural-networks which solve the 3/5/7-parity problem and three-dimensional tables of varying heights.

  4. The continually evolving Clostridium difficile species.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Michelle D; Stabler, Richard A; Shetty, Nandini; Wren, Brendan W

    2012-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium that causes chronic diarrhea and sometimes life-threatening disease mainly in elderly and hospitalized patients. The reported incidence of C. difficile infection has changed dramatically over the last decade and has been related to the emergence of distinct clonal lineages that appear more transmissible and cause more severe infection. These include PCR ribotypes 027, 017 and more recently 078. Population biology studies using multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome comparisons has helped to define the C. difficile species into four clonal complexes that include PCR ribotypes 027, 017, 078 and 023, as well as a general grouping of most other PCR ribotypes. Further analysis of strains from diverse sources and geographical origins reveal significant microdiversity of clonal complexes and confirms that C. difficile is continuing to evolve. The study of C. difficile represents a real-time global evolutionary experiment where the pathogen is responding to a range of selective pressures created by human activity and practices in healthcare settings. The advent of whole-genome sequencing coupled with phylogeny (phylogeography and phylohistory) will provide unprecedented detail on the local and global emergence and disappearance of C. difficile clones, and facilitate more rational approaches to disease control. This review will highlight the emergence of virulent C. difficile clones and our current understanding of molecular epidemiology of the species.

  5. Tearing Mode Stability of Evolving Toroidal Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletzer, A.; McCune, D.; Manickam, J.; Jardin, S. C.

    2000-10-01

    There are a number of toroidal equilibrium (such as JSOLVER, ESC, EFIT, and VMEC) and transport codes (such as TRANSP, BALDUR, and TSC) in our community that utilize differing equilibrium representations. There are also many heating and current drive (LSC and TORRAY), and stability (PEST1-3, GATO, NOVA, MARS, DCON, M3D) codes that require this equilibrium information. In an effort to provide seamless compatibility between the codes that produce and need these equilibria, we have developed two Fortran 90 modules, MEQ and XPLASMA, that serve as common interfaces between these two classes of codes. XPLASMA provides a common equilibrium representation for the heating and current drive applications while MEQ provides common equilibrium and associated metric information needed by MHD stability codes. We illustrate the utility of this approach by presenting results of PEST-3 tearing stability calculations of an NSTX discharge performed on profiles provided by the TRANSP code. Using the MEQ module, the TRANSP equilibrium data are stored in a Fortran 90 derived type and passed to PEST3 as a subroutine argument. All calculations are performed on the fly, as the profiles evolve.

  6. Origins of stereoselectivity in evolved ketoreductases.

    PubMed

    Noey, Elizabeth L; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Osuna, Sílvia; Park, Jiyong; Bond, Carly M; Cascio, Duilio; Liang, Jack; Zhang, Xiyun; Huisman, Gjalt W; Tang, Yi; Houk, Kendall N

    2015-12-22

    Mutants of Lactobacillus kefir short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase, used here as ketoreductases (KREDs), enantioselectively reduce the pharmaceutically relevant substrates 3-thiacyclopentanone and 3-oxacyclopentanone. These substrates differ by only the heteroatom (S or O) in the ring, but the KRED mutants reduce them with different enantioselectivities. Kinetic studies show that these enzymes are more efficient with 3-thiacyclopentanone than with 3-oxacyclopentanone. X-ray crystal structures of apo- and NADP(+)-bound selected mutants show that the substrate-binding loop conformational preferences are modified by these mutations. Quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the mechanism of reduction by the enzyme. We have developed an MD-based method for studying the diastereomeric transition state complexes and rationalize different enantiomeric ratios. This method, which probes the stability of the catalytic arrangement within the theozyme, shows a correlation between the relative fractions of catalytically competent poses for the enantiomeric reductions and the experimental enantiomeric ratio. Some mutations, such as A94F and Y190F, induce conformational changes in the active site that enlarge the small binding pocket, facilitating accommodation of the larger S atom in this region and enhancing S-selectivity with 3-thiacyclopentanone. In contrast, in the E145S mutant and the final variant evolved for large-scale production of the intermediate for the antibiotic sulopenem, R-selectivity is promoted by shrinking the small binding pocket, thereby destabilizing the pro-S orientation.

  7. Origins of stereoselectivity in evolved ketoreductases

    PubMed Central

    Noey, Elizabeth L.; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Osuna, Sílvia; Park, Jiyong; Bond, Carly M.; Cascio, Duilio; Liang, Jack; Zhang, Xiyun; Huisman, Gjalt W.; Tang, Yi; Houk, Kendall N.

    2015-01-01

    Mutants of Lactobacillus kefir short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase, used here as ketoreductases (KREDs), enantioselectively reduce the pharmaceutically relevant substrates 3-thiacyclopentanone and 3-oxacyclopentanone. These substrates differ by only the heteroatom (S or O) in the ring, but the KRED mutants reduce them with different enantioselectivities. Kinetic studies show that these enzymes are more efficient with 3-thiacyclopentanone than with 3-oxacyclopentanone. X-ray crystal structures of apo- and NADP+-bound selected mutants show that the substrate-binding loop conformational preferences are modified by these mutations. Quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the mechanism of reduction by the enzyme. We have developed an MD-based method for studying the diastereomeric transition state complexes and rationalize different enantiomeric ratios. This method, which probes the stability of the catalytic arrangement within the theozyme, shows a correlation between the relative fractions of catalytically competent poses for the enantiomeric reductions and the experimental enantiomeric ratio. Some mutations, such as A94F and Y190F, induce conformational changes in the active site that enlarge the small binding pocket, facilitating accommodation of the larger S atom in this region and enhancing S-selectivity with 3-thiacyclopentanone. In contrast, in the E145S mutant and the final variant evolved for large-scale production of the intermediate for the antibiotic sulopenem, R-selectivity is promoted by shrinking the small binding pocket, thereby destabilizing the pro-S orientation. PMID:26644568

  8. Fast evolving pair-instability supernovae

    DOE PAGES

    Kozyreva, Alexandra; Gilmer, Matthew; Hirschi, Raphael; ...

    2016-10-06

    With an increasing number of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered the ques- tion of their origin remains open and causes heated debates in the supernova commu- nity. Currently, there are three proposed mechanisms for SLSNe: (1) pair-instability supernovae (PISN), (2) magnetar-driven supernovae, and (3) models in which the su- pernova ejecta interacts with a circumstellar material ejected before the explosion. Based on current observations of SLSNe, the PISN origin has been disfavoured for a number of reasons. Many PISN models provide overly broad light curves and too reddened spectra, because of massive ejecta and a high amount of nickel. In themore » cur- rent study we re-examine PISN properties using progenitor models computed with the GENEC code. We calculate supernova explosions with FLASH and light curve evolu- tion with the radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. We find that high-mass models (200 M⊙ and 250 M⊙) at relatively high metallicity (Z=0.001) do not retain hydro- gen in the outer layers and produce relatively fast evolving PISNe Type I and might be suitable to explain some SLSNe. We also investigate uncertainties in light curve modelling due to codes, opacities, the nickel-bubble effect and progenitor structure and composition.« less

  9. Fast evolving pair-instability supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyreva, Alexandra; Gilmer, Matthew; Hirschi, Raphael; Frohlich, Carla; Blinnikov, Sergey; Wollaeger, Ryan Thomas; Noebauer, Ulrich M.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Heger, Alexander; Even, Wesley Paul; Waldman, Roni; Tolstov, Alexey; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Sorokina, Elena

    2016-10-06

    With an increasing number of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered the ques- tion of their origin remains open and causes heated debates in the supernova commu- nity. Currently, there are three proposed mechanisms for SLSNe: (1) pair-instability supernovae (PISN), (2) magnetar-driven supernovae, and (3) models in which the su- pernova ejecta interacts with a circumstellar material ejected before the explosion. Based on current observations of SLSNe, the PISN origin has been disfavoured for a number of reasons. Many PISN models provide overly broad light curves and too reddened spectra, because of massive ejecta and a high amount of nickel. In the cur- rent study we re-examine PISN properties using progenitor models computed with the GENEC code. We calculate supernova explosions with FLASH and light curve evolu- tion with the radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. We find that high-mass models (200 M⊙ and 250 M⊙) at relatively high metallicity (Z=0.001) do not retain hydro- gen in the outer layers and produce relatively fast evolving PISNe Type I and might be suitable to explain some SLSNe. We also investigate uncertainties in light curve modelling due to codes, opacities, the nickel-bubble effect and progenitor structure and composition.

  10. Consensus in evolving networks of mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2012-02-01

    Populations of mobile and communicating agents describe a vast array of technological and natural systems, ranging from sensor networks to animal groups. Here, we investigate how a group-level agreement may emerge in the continuously evolving networks defined by the local interactions of the moving individuals. We adopt a general scheme of motion in two dimensions and we let the individuals interact through the minimal naming game, a prototypical scheme to investigate social consensus. We distinguish different regimes of convergence determined by the emission range of the agents and by their mobility, and we identify the corresponding scaling behaviors of the consensus time. In the same way, we rationalize also the behavior of the maximum memory used during the convergence process, which determines the minimum cognitive/storage capacity needed by the individuals. Overall, we believe that the simple and general model presented in this talk can represent a helpful reference for a better understanding of the behavior of populations of mobile agents.

  11. The evolved function of the oedipal conflict.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lawrence

    2010-08-01

    Freud based his oedipal theory on three clinical observations of adult romantic relationships: (1) Adults tend to split love and lust; (2) There tend to be sex differences in the ways that men and women split love and lust; (3) Adult romantic relationships are unconsciously structured by the dynamics of love triangles in which dramas of seduction and betrayal unfold. Freud believed that these aspects of adult romantic relationships were derivative expressions of a childhood oedipal conflict that has been repressed. Recent research conducted by evolutionary psychologists supports many of Freud's original observations and suggests that Freud's oedipal conflict may have evolved as a sexually selected adaptation for reproductive advantage. The evolution of bi-parental care based on sexually exclusive romantic bonds made humans vulnerable to the costs of sexual infidelity, a situation of danger that seriously threatens monogamous bonds. A childhood oedipal conflict enables humans to better adapt to this longstanding evolutionary problem by providing the child with an opportunity to develop working models of love triangles. On the one hand, the oedipal conflict facilitates monogamous resolutions by creating intense anxiety about the dangers of sexual infidelity and mate poaching. On the other hand, the oedipal conflict in humans may facilitate successful cheating and mate poaching by cultivating a talent for hiding our true sexual intentions from others and even from ourselves. The oedipal conflict in humans may be disguised by evolutionary design in order to facilitate tactical deception in adult romantic relationships.

  12. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Roveri, Norberto; Iafisco, Michele

    2010-11-09

    By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical-physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical-physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical-physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.

  13. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Evan L; Matthews, Luke J; Hare, Brian A; Nunn, Charles L; Anderson, Rindy C; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M; Emery, Nathan J; Haun, Daniel B M; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F; Platt, Michael L; Rosati, Alexandra G; Sandel, Aaron A; Schroepfer, Kara K; Seed, Amanda M; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P; Wobber, Victoria

    2012-03-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution.

  14. Epidemic spreading on evolving signed networks.

    PubMed

    Saeedian, M; Azimi-Tafreshi, N; Jafari, G R; Kertesz, J

    2017-02-01

    Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences people's willingness to contact others: A "friendly" contact may be turned to "unfriendly" to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected disease-spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heider's theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms. However, the danger of infection affects the evolution of its edge signs. To describe the coupled problem of the sign evolution and disease spreading, we generalize the notion of structural balance by taking into account the state of the nodes. We introduce an energy function and carry out Monte Carlo simulations on complete networks to test the energy landscape, where we find local minima corresponding to the so-called jammed states. We study the effect of the ratio of initial friendly to unfriendly connections on the propagation of disease. The steady state can be balanced or a jammed state such that a coexistence occurs between susceptible and infected nodes in the system.

  15. Approximating centrality in evolving graphs: toward sublinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, Benjamin W.; Cybenko, George

    2017-05-01

    The identification of important nodes is a ubiquitous problem in the analysis of social networks. Centrality indices (such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, PageRank, and others) are used across many domains to accomplish this task. However, the computation of such indices is expensive on large graphs. Moreover, evolving graphs are becoming increasingly important in many applications. It is therefore desirable to develop on-line algorithms that can approximate centrality measures using memory sublinear in the size of the graph. We discuss the challenges facing the semi-streaming computation of many centrality indices. In particular, we apply recent advances in the streaming and sketching literature to provide a preliminary streaming approximation algorithm for degree centrality utilizing CountSketch and a multi-pass semi-streaming approximation algorithm for closeness centrality leveraging a spanner obtained through iteratively sketching the vertex-edge adjacency matrix. We also discuss possible ways forward for approximating betweenness centrality, as well as spectral measures of centrality. We provide a preliminary result using sketched low-rank approximations to approximate the output of the HITS algorithm.

  16. Evolving role of MRI in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Obara, Piotr; Oto, Aytekin

    2013-06-01

    MR enterography is playing an evolving role in the evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). Standard MR enterography includes a combination of rapidly acquired T2 sequence, balanced steady-state acquisition, and contrast enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo sequence. The diagnostic performance of these sequences has been shown to be comparable, and in some respects superior, to other small bowel imaging modalities. The findings of CD on MR enterography have been well described in the literature. New and emerging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), cinematography, and magnetization transfer, may lead to improved accuracy in characterizing the disease. These advanced techniques can provide quantitative parameters that may prove to be useful in assessing disease activity, severity, and response to treatment. In the future, MR enterography may play an increasing role in management decisions for patients with small bowel CD; however, larger studies are needed to validate these emerging MRI parameters as imaging biomarkers.

  17. On the Discovery of Evolving Truth.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaliang; Li, Qi; Gao, Jing; Su, Lu; Zhao, Bo; Fan, Wei; Han, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    In the era of big data, information regarding the same objects can be collected from increasingly more sources. Unfortunately, there usually exist conflicts among the information coming from different sources. To tackle this challenge, truth discovery, i.e., to integrate multi-source noisy information by estimating the reliability of each source, has emerged as a hot topic. In many real world applications, however, the information may come sequentially, and as a consequence, the truth of objects as well as the reliability of sources may be dynamically evolving. Existing truth discovery methods, unfortunately, cannot handle such scenarios. To address this problem, we investigate the temporal relations among both object truths and source reliability, and propose an incremental truth discovery framework that can dynamically update object truths and source weights upon the arrival of new data. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the proposed method is guaranteed to converge at a fast rate. The experiments on three real world applications and a set of synthetic data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method over state-of-the-art truth discovery methods.

  18. Women's oral health: the evolving science.

    PubMed

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Harrison, Sonja G

    2008-02-01

    The evidence base for women's oral health is emerging from legislative action, clinical research, and survey documentation. The Women's Health in the Dental School Curriculum study (1999) followed a similar study (1996) of medical school curricula. Both of these major efforts resulted from statutory mandates in the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993 (updated October 2000). A major study of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) National Academy of Sciences in 2001 concluded that "the study of sex differences is evolving into a mature science." This IOM study documented the scientific basis for gender-related policy and research and challenged the dental research enterprise to conduct collaborative, cross-disciplinary research on gender-related issues in oral health, disease, and disparities. This report chronicles some of the factors that have and continue to influence concepts of women's oral health in dental education, research, and practice. Gender issues related to women's health are no longer restricted to reproductive issues but are being considered across the life span and include psychosocial factors that impact women's health and treatment outcomes.

  19. Fast evolving pair-instability supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyreva, Alexandra; Gilmer, Matthew; Hirschi, Raphael; Frohlich, Carla; Blinnikov, Sergey; Wollaeger, Ryan Thomas; Noebauer, Ulrich M.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Heger, Alexander; Even, Wesley Paul; Waldman, Roni; Tolstov, Alexey; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Sorokina, Elena

    2016-10-06

    With an increasing number of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered the ques- tion of their origin remains open and causes heated debates in the supernova commu- nity. Currently, there are three proposed mechanisms for SLSNe: (1) pair-instability supernovae (PISN), (2) magnetar-driven supernovae, and (3) models in which the su- pernova ejecta interacts with a circumstellar material ejected before the explosion. Based on current observations of SLSNe, the PISN origin has been disfavoured for a number of reasons. Many PISN models provide overly broad light curves and too reddened spectra, because of massive ejecta and a high amount of nickel. In the cur- rent study we re-examine PISN properties using progenitor models computed with the GENEC code. We calculate supernova explosions with FLASH and light curve evolu- tion with the radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. We find that high-mass models (200 M⊙ and 250 M⊙) at relatively high metallicity (Z=0.001) do not retain hydro- gen in the outer layers and produce relatively fast evolving PISNe Type I and might be suitable to explain some SLSNe. We also investigate uncertainties in light curve modelling due to codes, opacities, the nickel-bubble effect and progenitor structure and composition.

  20. Speciation genetics: current status and evolving approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jochen B W; Lindell, Johan; Backström, Niclas

    2010-06-12

    The view of species as entities subjected to natural selection and amenable to change put forth by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace laid the conceptual foundation for understanding speciation. Initially marred by a rudimental understanding of hereditary principles, evolutionists gained appreciation of the mechanistic underpinnings of speciation following the merger of Mendelian genetic principles with Darwinian evolution. Only recently have we entered an era where deciphering the molecular basis of speciation is within reach. Much focus has been devoted to the genetic basis of intrinsic postzygotic isolation in model organisms and several hybrid incompatibility genes have been successfully identified. However, concomitant with the recent technological advancements in genome analysis and a newfound interest in the role of ecology in the differentiation process, speciation genetic research is becoming increasingly open to non-model organisms. This development will expand speciation research beyond the traditional boundaries and unveil the genetic basis of speciation from manifold perspectives and at various stages of the splitting process. This review aims at providing an extensive overview of speciation genetics. Starting from key historical developments and core concepts of speciation genetics, we focus much of our attention on evolving approaches and introduce promising methodological approaches for future research venues.

  1. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Roveri, Norberto; Iafisco, Michele

    2010-01-01

    By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications. PMID:24198477

  2. Evolving epidemiology of HIV-associated malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shiels, Meredith S; Engels, Eric A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population. Most studies have reported significant increases in liver cancer rates and decreases in lung cancer over time. Although some studies have reported significant increases in anal cancer rates and declines in Hodgkin lymphoma rates, others have shown stable incidence. Declining mortality among HIV-infected individuals has resulted in the growth and aging of the HIV-infected population, causing an increase in the number of non-AIDS-defining cancers diagnosed each year in HIV-infected people. The epidemiology of cancer among HIV-infected people has evolved since the beginning of the HIV epidemic with particularly marked changes since the introduction of modern treatment. Public health interventions aimed at prevention and early detection of cancer among HIV-infected people are needed.

  3. Evolving Galaxies in a Hierachical Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Changhoon

    2017-01-01

    Observations of galaxies using large surveys (SDSS, COSMOS, PRIMUS, etc.) have firmly established a global view of galaxy properties out to z~1. Galaxies are broadly divided into two classes: blue, typically disk-like star forming galaxies and red, typically elliptical quiescent ones with little star formation. The star formation rates (SFR) and stellar masses of star forming galaxies form an empirical relationship referred to as the "star formation main sequence". Over cosmic time, this sequence undergoes significant decline in SFR and causes the overall cosmic star formation decline. Simultaneously, physical processes cause significant fractions of star forming galaxies to "quench" their star formation. Hierarchical structure formation and cosmological models provide precise predictions of the evolution of the underying dark matter, which serve as the foundation for these detailed trends and their evolution. Whatever trends we observe in galaxy properties can be interpreted within the narrative of the underlying dark matter and halo occupation framework. More importantly, through careful statistical treatment and precise measurements, this connection can be utilized to better constrain and understand key elements of galaxy evolution. In this spirit, for my dissertation I connect observations of evolving galaxy properties to the framework of the hierarchical Universe and use it to better understand physical processes responsible for the cessation of star formation in galaxies. For instance, through this approach, I constrain the quenching timescale of central galaxies and find that they are significantly longer than the quenching timescale of satellite galaxies.

  4. Metapopulation capacity of evolving fluvial landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The form of fluvial landscapes is known to attain stationary network configurations that settle in dynamically accessible minima of total energy dissipation by landscape-forming discharges. Recent studies have highlighted the role of the dendritic structure of river networks in controlling population dynamics of the species they host and large-scale biodiversity patterns. Here, we systematically investigate the relation between energy dissipation, the physical driver for the evolution of river networks, and the ecological dynamics of their embedded biota. To that end, we use the concept of metapopulation capacity, a measure to link landscape structures with the population dynamics they host. Technically, metapopulation capacity is the leading eigenvalue λM of an appropriate "landscape" matrix subsuming whether a given species is predicted to persist in the long run. λM can conveniently be used to rank different landscapes in terms of their capacity to support viable metapopulations. We study how λM changes in response to the evolving network configurations of spanning trees. Such sequence of configurations is theoretically known to relate network selection to general landscape evolution equations through imperfect searches for dynamically accessible states frustrated by the vagaries of Nature. Results show that the process shaping the metric and the topological properties of river networks, prescribed by physical constraints, leads to a progressive increase in the corresponding metapopulation capacity and therefore on the landscape capacity to support metapopulations—with implications on biodiversity in fluvial ecosystems.

  5. Evolving role of pediatric nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Aruda, Mary M; Griffin, Valerie J; Schartz, Kathryn; Geist, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    To report and interpret findings from national pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP) job analysis surveys reflecting the changes in the knowledge and skills required for advanced practice. National role delineation studies (RDS) conducted by American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) in 2003, 2008, and 2011. Since the first nurse practitioner (NP) program was established in 1965 to train pediatric nurses for advanced practice, the role of the PNP has continued to develop. The RDS results demonstrate the increased autonomy of PNP's prescription of medication as the top work activity category identified, followed by the reporting of suspected abuse, exploitation, and/or neglect and immunizing based on current recommendations. Analysis of the changes in role or work activities, tied to the knowledge and skills required to perform those activities, can provide content for educators updating curriculum, for clinicians to remain current in their practice and impact healthcare policy. The current PNP role has evolved to meet the workforce demands of providing primary care to the pediatric population with increasing complex social and healthcare needs. Role analysis is important as NPs move forward to practice to the full extent of their education and training. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Luke J.; Hare, Brian A.; Nunn, Charles L.; Anderson, Rindy C.; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M.; Emery, Nathan J.; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F.; Platt, Michael L.; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Sandel, Aaron A.; Schroepfer, Kara K.; Seed, Amanda M.; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P.; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution. PMID:21927850

  7. Epidemic spreading on evolving signed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedian, M.; Azimi-Tafreshi, N.; Jafari, G. R.; Kertesz, J.

    2017-02-01

    Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences people's willingness to contact others: A "friendly" contact may be turned to "unfriendly" to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected disease-spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heider's theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms. However, the danger of infection affects the evolution of its edge signs. To describe the coupled problem of the sign evolution and disease spreading, we generalize the notion of structural balance by taking into account the state of the nodes. We introduce an energy function and carry out Monte Carlo simulations on complete networks to test the energy landscape, where we find local minima corresponding to the so-called jammed states. We study the effect of the ratio of initial friendly to unfriendly connections on the propagation of disease. The steady state can be balanced or a jammed state such that a coexistence occurs between susceptible and infected nodes in the system.

  8. Speciation genetics: current status and evolving approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Lindell, Johan; Backström, Niclas

    2010-01-01

    The view of species as entities subjected to natural selection and amenable to change put forth by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace laid the conceptual foundation for understanding speciation. Initially marred by a rudimental understanding of hereditary principles, evolutionists gained appreciation of the mechanistic underpinnings of speciation following the merger of Mendelian genetic principles with Darwinian evolution. Only recently have we entered an era where deciphering the molecular basis of speciation is within reach. Much focus has been devoted to the genetic basis of intrinsic postzygotic isolation in model organisms and several hybrid incompatibility genes have been successfully identified. However, concomitant with the recent technological advancements in genome analysis and a newfound interest in the role of ecology in the differentiation process, speciation genetic research is becoming increasingly open to non-model organisms. This development will expand speciation research beyond the traditional boundaries and unveil the genetic basis of speciation from manifold perspectives and at various stages of the splitting process. This review aims at providing an extensive overview of speciation genetics. Starting from key historical developments and core concepts of speciation genetics, we focus much of our attention on evolving approaches and introduce promising methodological approaches for future research venues. PMID:20439277

  9. Origins and evolvability of the PAX family.

    PubMed

    Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa R; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2015-08-01

    The paired box (PAX) family of transcription/developmental genes plays a key role in numerous stages of embryonic development, as well as in adult organogenesis. There is evidence linking the acquisition of a paired-like DNA binding domain (PD) to domestication of a Tc1/mariner transposon. Further duplication/deletion processes led to at least five paralogous metazoan protein groups, which can be classified into two supergroups, PAXB-like or PAXD-like, using ancestral defining structures; the PD plus an octapeptide motif (OP) and a paired-type homeobox DNA binding domain (PTHD), producing the PD-OP-PTHD structure characteristic of the PAXB-like group, whereas an additional domain, the paired-type homeodomain tail (PHT), is present in the PAXD-like group, producing a PD-OP-PTHD-PHT structure. We examined their patterns of distribution in various species, using both available data and new bioinformatic analyses, including vertebrate PAX genes and their shared and specific functions, as well as inter- and intraspecific variability of PAX in primates. These analyses revealed a relatively conserved PAX network, accompanied by specific changes that led to adaptive novelties. Therefore, both stability and evolvability shaped the molecular evolution of this key transcriptional network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolving Resistance Among Gram-positive Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Munita, Jose M.; Bayer, Arnold S.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a key component of modern medical practice and a cornerstone for the development of complex clinical interventions in critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance is now recognized as a major public health threat jeopardizing the care of thousands of patients worldwide. Gram-positive pathogens exhibit an immense genetic repertoire to adapt and develop resistance to virtually all antimicrobials clinically available. As more molecules become available to treat resistant gram-positive infections, resistance emerges as an evolutionary response. Thus, antimicrobial resistance has to be envisaged as an evolving phenomenon that demands constant surveillance and continuous efforts to identify emerging mechanisms of resistance to optimize the use of antibiotics and create strategies to circumvent this problem. Here, we will provide a broad perspective on the clinical aspects of antibiotic resistance in relevant gram-positive pathogens with emphasis on the mechanistic strategies used by these organisms to avoid being killed by commonly used antimicrobial agents. PMID:26316558

  11. Lower mass limit of an evolving interstellar cloud and chemistry in an evolving oscillatory cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarafdar, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous solution of the equation of motion, equation of state and energy equation including heating and cooling processes for interstellar medium gives for a collapsing cloud a lower mass limit which is significantly smaller than the Jeans mass for the same initial density. The clouds with higher mass than this limiting mass collapse whereas clouds with smaller than critical mass pass through a maximum central density giving apparently similar clouds (i.e., same Av, size and central density) at two different phases of its evolution (i.e., with different life time). Preliminary results of chemistry in such an evolving oscillatory cloud show significant difference in abundances of some of the molecules in two physically similar clouds with different life times. The problems of depletion and short life time of evolving clouds appear to be less severe in such an oscillatory cloud.

  12. Medical mentoring via the evolving world wide web.

    PubMed

    Jaffer, Usman; Vaughan-Huxley, Eyston; Standfield, Nigel; John, Nigel W

    2013-01-01

    Mentoring, for physicians and surgeons in training, is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning, providing support in career and non-career related issues. The World Wide Web (WWW) has evolved, as a technology, to become more interactive and person centric, tailoring itself to the individual needs of the user. This changing technology may open new avenues to foster mentoring in medicine. DESIGN, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A search of the MEDLINE database from 1950 to 2012 using the PubMed interface, combined with manual cross-referencing was performed using the following strategy: ("mentors"[MeSH Terms] OR "mentors"[All Fields] OR "mentor"[All Fields]) AND ("internet"[MeSH Terms] OR "internet"[All Fields]) AND ("medicine"[MeSH Terms] OR "medicine"[All Fields]) AND ("humans"[MeSH Terms] AND English[lang]). Abstracts were screened for relevance (UJ) to the topic; eligibility for inclusion was simply on screening for relevance to online mentoring and web-based technologies. Forty-five papers were found, of which 16 were relevant. All studies were observational in nature. To date, all medical mentoring applications utilizing the World Wide Web have enjoyed some success limited by Web 1.0 and 2.0 technologies. With the evolution of the WWW through 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 generations, the potential for meaningful tele- and distance mentoring has greatly improved. Some engagement has been made with these technological advancements, however further work is required to fully realize the potential of these technologies. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outflows from evolved stars with OASIS, NAOMI and GLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.

    2006-01-01

    I discuss the potential of integral-field spectroscopy (IFS) with adaptive optics in the study of the outflows from evolved stars of different masses. With IFS, detailed 3-D spatio-kinematical models of the outflows can be built, providing excellent observational datasets to be confronted with the existing dynamical theories. In addition, if multi-epoch observations are able to resolve the apparent expansion of the nebulae in the plane of the sky, then their dynamics can be further constrained, and other basic quantities like the distance via the expansion parallax, can be determined. The kind of results that can be obtained are illustrated by recent HST and VLT observations of the ring nebula around the symbiotic nova He 2-147. Given the present capabilities of the OASIS integral-field spectrograph of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (ING), classical novae ejecta are the most appealing targets for such kind of studies, provided that its AO system NAOMI is complemented with the forthcoming laser guide star system GLAS. IFS+AO is also a powerful technique to detect faint ionized nebulae around bright stars, like for instance the outflows from luminous blue variables.

  14. Summary of the Conference "The Physics of Evolved Stars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, O.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau was an astronomer of many talents. His expertise was on optical and infrared interferometry. Olivier*s tool of choice, the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), allowed him to see solutions to open questions in stellar astrophysics. These visions led to collaborations with experts in each of the fields where VLTI observations could be useful. As a result Olivier was a man in the middle of a phenomenal network of astronomers, collaborators and friends. I am fortunate to have been one of them. In this contribution I summarise the conference "Physics of Evolved Stars", held in Nice in June 2015 in memory of Olivier. The conference neatly showcased the science that Olivier had been involved with during his life and laid out the advancements that were made thanks in great part to him and to the collaborations he started. Without doubt his bubbly, happy personality, child-like in a way, made him the perfect connector bringing the technique, the questions and the experts in diverse fields together. Dear to all who worked with him, he was truly the little prince of Astronomy. We shall miss him every day.

  15. Evolving magnetic equilibria in anomalous turbulent transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Cerfon, Antoine; Highcock, Edmund; Barnes, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The evolution of poloidal and toroidal magnetic fluxes in a tokamak are determined by Faraday's law in which electric field needs to be consistent with 1-D radial transports of density, temperature, and toroidal angular momentum. Consistency is required because the transport of the thermodynamic variables depends on the 2-D magnetic equilibrium that changes depending on the radial pressure profile. For neoclassical transport, consistency is achieved through a proper treatment of the parallel electric field and Ohm's law [Hinton and Hazeltine (1976), Hirshman and Jardin (1979)]. Recently, consistency for the anomalous turbulent transport has been studied analytically using a Lagrangian formulation of gyrokinetics [Sugama et al. (2014)]. In this poster, we propose a simple numerical model to evolve both the magnetic equilibrium and the radial profile of density, temperature, and toroidal angular frequency due to turbulent transport with a fixed q (safety factor) profile. The constraint of fixed q profile makes the evolution self-consistent only if the transport time scale is much smaller than the resistive current diffusion time scale. In this model, we use the transport code TRINITY coupled with the local gyrokinetic code GS2 and the q-solver version of the Grad-Shafranov code ECOM.

  16. An Evolving Trio of Hybrid Stars: C 111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2004-01-01

    Our goal is to understand the behavior of the outer atmosphere in this intermediate stage to create a comprehensive picture of atmospheric evolution. In the hybrid phase, the large-scale magnetic dynamo activity decays and hydrodynamic processes assume importance. Some hot plasma is still confined close to the star by magnetic loops, yet the confining field is breaking open, the atmosphere can escape through these open field lines, and the diffuse corona may be warm. There may well be a more extended and variable transition process. It remains for FUSE to identify the controlling parameters of the hybrid stars. It shows the positions of our 3 targets in the color-magnitude diagram where it is seen that they are at the extreme end of the hybrid region. Originally we had been awarded the hybrid star Iota Aur, but due to newly imposed pointing constraints of FUSE, that target was not accessible. And so we substituted Iota Dra, a giant of mass similar to our other targets but less evolved. In addition, Iota Dra was recently found to harbor a sub-stellar objects, possibly a planet, and so it could reveal the stellar environment of the planet. This substitution was accepted.

  17. Evolution of evolvability and phenotypic plasticity in virtual cells.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Thomas D; Rutten, Jacob P; Hogeweg, Paulien

    2017-02-28

    Changing environmental conditions pose a challenge for the survival of species. To meet this challenge organisms adapt their phenotype by physiological regulation (phenotypic plasticity) or by evolving. Regulatory mechanisms that ensure a constant internal environment in the face of continuous external fluctuations (homeostasis) are ubiquitous and essential for survival. However, more drastic and enduring environmental change, often requires lineages to adapt by mutating. In vitro evolutionary experiments with microbes show that adaptive, large phenotypic changes occur remarkably quickly, requiring only a few mutations. It has been proposed that the high evolvability demonstrated by these microbes, is an evolved property. If both regulation (phenotypic plasticity) and evolvability can evolve as strategies to adapt to change, what are the conditions that favour the emergence of either of these strategy? Does evolution of one strategy hinder or facilitate evolution of the other strategy? Here we investigate this with computational evolutionary modelling in populations of Virtual Cells. During a preparatory evolutionary phase, Virtual Cells evolved homeostasis regulation for internal metabolite concentrations in a fluctuating environment. The resulting wild-type Virtual Cell strains (WT-VCS) were then exposed to periodic, drastic environmental changes, while maintaining selection on homeostasis regulation. In different sets of simulations the nature and frequencies of environmental change were varied. Pre-evolved WT-VCS were highly evolvable, showing rapid evolutionary adaptation after novel environmental change. Moreover, continued low frequency changes resulted in evolutionary restructuring of the genome that enables even faster adaptation with very few mutations. In contrast, when change frequency is high, lineages evolve phenotypic plasticity that allows them to be fit in different environments without mutations. Yet, evolving phenotypic plasticity is a

  18. Evolving detectors of 2D patterns on a simulated CAM-Brain machine: an evolvable hardware tool for building a 75-million-neuron artificial brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garis, Hugo; Korkin, Michael; Guttikonda, Padma; Cooley, Donald

    2000-11-01

    This paper presents some simulation results of the evolution of 2D visual pattern recognizers to be implemented very shortly on real hardware, namely the 'CAM-Brain Machine' (CBM), an FPGA based piece of evolvable hardware which implements a genetic algorithm (GA) to evolve a 3D cellular automata (CA) based neural network circuit module, of approximately 1,000 neurons, in about a second, i.e. a complete run of a GA, with 10,000s of circuit growths and performance evaluations. Up to 65,000 of these modules, each of which is evolved with a humanly specified function, can be downloaded into a large RAM space, and interconnected according to humanly specified gvdvips -o SPIE-2000.ps SPIE-2000 artificial brain architectures. This RAM, containing an artificial brain with up to 75 million neurons, is then updated by the CBM at a rate of 130 billion CA cells per second. Such speeds will enable real time control of robots and hopefully the birth of a new research field that we call 'brain building.' The first such artificial brain, to be built at STARLAB in 2000 and beyond, will be used to control the behaviors of a life sized kitten robot called 'Robokitty.' This kitten robot will need 2D pattern recognizers in the visual section of its artificial brain. This paper presents simulation results on the evolvability and generalization properties of such recognizers.

  19. Transit probabilities in secularly evolving planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Matthew J.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper considers whether the population of known transiting exoplanets provides evidence for additional outer planets on inclined orbits, due to the perturbing effect of such planets on the orbits of inner planets. As such, we develop a semi-analytical method for calculating the probability that two mutually inclined planets are observed to transit. We subsequently derive a simplified analytical form to describe how the mutual inclination between two planets evolves due to secular interactions with a wide orbit inclined planet and use this to determine the mean probability that the two inner planets are observed to transit. From application to Kepler-48 and HD-106315, we constrain the inclinations of the outer planets in these systems (known from radial velocity). We also apply this work to the so-called Kepler Dichotomy, which describes the excess of single transiting systems observed by Kepler. We find three different ways of explaining this dichotomy: Some systems could be inherently single, some multiplanet systems could have inherently large mutual inclinations, while some multiplanet systems could cyclically attain large mutual inclinations through interaction with an inclined outer planet. We show how the different mechanisms can be combined to fit the observed populations of Kepler systems with one and two transiting planets. We also show how the distribution of mutual inclinations of transiting two-planet systems constrains the fraction of two-planet systems that have perturbing outer planets, since such systems should be preferentially discovered by Kepler when the inner planets are coplanar due to an increased transit probability.

  20. Evolvable Cryogenics (ECRYO) Pressure Transducer Calibration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Carlos E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the findings of recent activities conducted by Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) In-Space Propulsion Branch and MSFC's Metrology and Calibration Lab to assess the performance of current "state of the art" pressure transducers for use in long duration storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. A brief historical narrative in this paper describes the Evolvable Cryogenics program and the relevance of these activities to the program. This paper also provides a review of three separate test activities performed throughout this effort, including: (1) the calibration of several pressure transducer designs in a liquid nitrogen cryogenic environmental chamber, (2) the calibration of a pressure transducer in a liquid helium Dewar, and (3) the calibration of several pressure transducers at temperatures ranging from 20 to 70 degrees Kelvin (K) using a "cryostat" environmental chamber. These three separate test activities allowed for study of the sensors along a temperature range from 4 to 300 K. The combined data shows that both the slope and intercept of the sensor's calibration curve vary as a function of temperature. This homogeneous function is contrary to the linearly decreasing relationship assumed at the start of this investigation. Consequently, the data demonstrates the need for lookup tables to change the slope and intercept used by any data acquisition system. This ultimately would allow for more accurate pressure measurements at the desired temperature range. This paper concludes with a review of a request for information (RFI) survey conducted amongst different suppliers to determine the availability of current "state of the art" flight-qualified pressure transducers. The survey identifies requirements that are most difficult for the suppliers to meet, most notably the capability to validate the sensor's performance at temperatures below 70 K.