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Sample records for field nicaragua exploration

  1. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  2. Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nicaragua is on the following: geography; the people and history; government and polictical conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the US and Nicaragua. Nicaragua's population is 2.9 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3% (1981). The infant mortality rate is 37/1000; life expectancy is 56 years. Most Nicaraguans are mestizo, a mix of European and Indian. Smaller ethnic groups also are recognizable. A large black minority of Jamaican origin is concentrated on the Caribbean coast, although migration to Managua is on the rise. Nicaragua borders Costa Rica to the south and El Salvador--across the Gulf of Fonseca--and Honduras to the north. The climate is tropical. About 40% of the population are urban; most live in the Pacific lowlands and the adjacent interior highlands region. On July 19, 1979 the Government of National Reconstruction formed in exile as a coalition of the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) and civic leaders, stepped into the power vacuum left by the Somoza government's collapse. The GRN was organized into a 5-member junta, the 19 member Council of Ministers, and the 33 member quasi legislative National Council. The GRN's July 19 Declaration of San Jose, promising a democratically elected government and an equitable pluralistic society, met with strong popular support. Freedom of speech, press, religion, and assembly are guaranteed by the declaration, yet the GRN's efforts at promoting political freedom have been less successful than its efforts at economic equity. At different times, the GRN has restricted operation of opposition newspapers on national security grounds, banned individual foreign films on political grounds, attempted to reduce the role of the Roman Catholic Church and tried to reduce the traditional autonomy of the national university. The country's resources are primarily agricultural. Some estimates indicate that 70% of Nicaragua's territory is usable

  3. A reservoir engineering assessment of the San Jacinto-Tizate Geothermal Field, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Ostapenko, S.; Spektor, S.; Davila, H.; Porras, E.; Perez, M.

    1996-01-24

    More than twenty yews have passed since geothermal research and drilling took place at the geothermal fields in Nicaragua- Tbe well horn Momotombo Geothermal Field (70 We) has been generating electricity since 1983, and now a new geothermal field is under exploration. the San Jacinto-Tizate. Two reservoirs hydraulic connected were found. The shallow reservoir (270°C) at the depth of 550 - 1200 meters, and the deep one at > 1600 meters. Both of theme are water dominated reservoirs, although a two phase condition exist in the upper part of the shallow one. Different transient tests and a multi-well interference test have been carried out, very high transmissivity value were estimated around the well SJ-4 and average values for the others. A preliminar conceptual model of the geothermal system is given in this paper, as the result of the geology, geophysics, hydrology studies, drilling and reservoir evaluation.

  4. Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C J; Alvarado, P; Narváez, C; Miranda, F; Hernández, L; Vanegas, H; Hruska, A; Shelton, A M

    2000-12-01

    Field populations of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), Plutella xylostella (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) were tested for resistance to several insecticides commonly used in Nicariagua. Assays were conducted to estimate the LD50s or LC50s and the corresponding resistance ratios. A diagnostic concentration was used to discriminate between susceptible and resistant strains of H. hampei. The tests with >6,000 H. hampei adults collected from six different sites indicate the absence of resistance to endosulfan. Resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorfluazuron, thiocyclam, and methamidophos was documented in six field populations of P. xylostella. High levels of resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin, but moderate levels of resistance to chlorpyriphos and methomyl, were also documented in two field populations of S. exigua. Moderate levels of resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and chlorpyriphos were also documented in three field populations of H. zea. Moderate to high levels of resistance to bifenthrin, methamidophos and endosulfan were documented in four field populations of B. tabaci. The presence of significant correlations between LD50s or LC50s suggests the occurrence of cross-resistance or simultaneous selection for resistance by different insecticides with different modes of action. Our data could not differentiate between these two possibilities. Because insecticides will continue being used in Nicaragua, a resistance management program is urgently needed. The implementation of integrated pest management tactics must be accompanied by specific regulations for pesticide registration. In the future, pesticide registration regulations in Nicaragua should include periodic resistance monitoring. The mechanisms to cover the costs of resistance monitoring and resistance management should also be established.

  5. Leptospirosis Outbreaks in Nicaragua: Identifying Critical Areas and Exploring Drivers for Evidence-Based Planning

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Nájera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Bacallao, Jorge; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Altamirano, Lesbia; Saenz, Carlos; Marin, Jesus; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moynihan, Matthew; Espinal, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. In Central America, leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported in almost all countries; Nicaragua in particular has faced several outbreaks. The objective of this study was to stratify the risk and identify “critical areas” for leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua, and to perform an exploratory analysis of potential “drivers”. This ecological study includes the entire country (153 municipalities). Cases from 2004 to 2010 were obtained from the country’s health information system, demographic and socioeconomic variables from its Census, and environmental data from external sources. Criteria for risk stratification of leptospirosis were defined. Nicaragua reported 1,980 cases of leptospirosis during this period, with the highest percentage of cases (26.36%) in León, followed by Chinandega (15.35%). Among the 153 municipalities, 48 were considered critical areas, 85 were endemic and 20 silent. Using spatial and statistical analysis, the variable presenting the most evident pattern of association with critical areas defined by top quintile of incidence rate is the percentage of municipal surface occupied by the soil combination of cambisol (over pyroclastic and lava bedrock) and andosol (over a volcanic ashes foundation). Precipitation and percentage of rural population are also associated with critical areas. This methodology and findings could be used for Nicaragua’s Leptospirosis Intersectoral Plan, and to identify possible risk areas in other countries with similar drivers. PMID:23202822

  6. Stratigraphy, geomorphology, geochemistry and hazard implications of the Nejapa Volcanic Field, western Managua, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Pardo, Natalia; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodriguez, Dionisio

    2012-02-01

    The Nejapa Volcanic Field (NVF) is located on the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua. It consists of at least 30 volcanic structures emplaced along the N-S Nejapa fault, which represents the western active edge of the Managua Graben. The study area covers the central and southern parts of the volcanic field. We document the basic geomorphology, stratigraphy, chemistry and evolution of 17 monogenetic volcanic structures: Ticomo (A, B, C, D and E); Altos de Ticomo; Nejapa; San Patricio; Nejapa-Norte; Motastepe; El Hormigón; La Embajada; Asososca; Satélite; Refinería; and Cuesta El Plomo (A and B). Stratigraphy aided by radiocarbon dating suggests that 23 eruptions have occurred in the area during the past ~ 34,000 years. Fifteen of these eruptions originated in the volcanic field between ~ 28,500 and 2,130 yr BP with recurrence intervals varying from 400 to 7,000 yr. Most of these eruptions were phreatomagmatic with minor strombolian and fissural lava flow events. A future eruption along the fault might be of a phreatomagmatic type posing a serious threat to the more than 500,000 inhabitants in western Managua.

  7. Toxaphene residues from cotton fields in soils and in the coastal environment of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Villeneuve, J P; Cattini, C; Tolosa, I; Bartocci, J; Lacayo-Romero, M; Cruz-Granja, A

    2003-11-01

    Toxaphene (camphechlor) was intensively used in the cotton growing fields of Nicaragua for decades with application rates as high as 31 kg ha(-1) in 1985. Although the use of this compound has recently been discontinued in the country, its intensive use in the past and its long persistence in soil allowed for the build up of large reservoirs of toxaphene in agriculture soils and a wide dispersal of residues in the environment. Measurements of toxaphene in coastal areas on the coast of the Pacific Ocean show that environmental concentrations are particularly high in the district of Chinandega, the traditional cotton growing region. Toxaphene residues measured in soils attained 44 microg g(-1) (dry weight) while concentrations in lagoon sediments attained 6.9 microg g(-1) (dry weight) near the mouth of the rivers flowing across the agricultural region. Measurements in aquatic biota showed concentrations as high as 1.6 microg g(-1) (dry weight) in the soft tissues of clams. The toxaphene reservoir in soils combined with the obvious persistence of this compound in soils and lagoon sediments allows predicting that toxaphene will remain in the coastal ecosystem at relatively high concentrations for many years. Toxic effects in lagoon fauna are likely to be observed especially in benthic species that may recycle this compound from sediments. Consumption of seafood, in particular of clams (Anadara spp.) from the more contaminated areas, may expose the population to unacceptably high intake of toxaphene, 30 microg d(-1) per person, with the diet.

  8. Permanent tremor of Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua: Wave field analysis and source location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MéTaxian, Jean-Philippe; Lesage, Philippe; Dorel, Jacques

    1997-10-01

    The Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, is a basaltic caldera in a subduction zone. The permanent source of the volcanic tremor was located inside Santiago crater, at the lava lake's position and 400 m below the NE rim, and therefore corresponds to superficial magma activity. We used two tripartite arrays (90 m side), one semicircular array (r=120 m) in 1992, and two semicircular arrays (r=60 m) and a 2500 m long linear array radiating out from the source and on the flank of the crater in 1993. We used both a cross-spectrum method and a correlation method to determine the wave delay time between the reference station and the other stations of an array and to quantify the wave field. Using the delays therefore by intersecting the back azimuth wave directions from the arrays, we could pinpoint the source. Additionally, the correlation coefficients obtained as functions of frequency for the three components of motion confirm the inferred position of the source of tremor. The tremor's wave field is composed of comparable quantities of dispersed Rayleigh and Love surface waves, whose phase velocities lie in the ranges 730-1240 m/s at 2 Hz and 330-550 m/s at 6 Hz. The dispersive phase velocities were inverted to obtain crustal structures with a minimal number of layers. The resulting velocity models are similar for the northern and southern parts of the volcano. After geometrical spreading corrections, Q2Hz=14 and Q3Hz=31 were determined along the northern linear array. The typical low velocities and low Q corresponding to the cone structure and are similar to those of other basaltic volcanoes like Puu Oo, Hawaii, and Klyuchevskoy, Kamchatka.

  9. Audiology in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polich, Laura

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 37 individuals in Nicaragua were the basis of this review of the audiology field in that nation. The review covers the prevalence and etiology of hearing impairment, training for audiologists, government services for individuals with hearing impairment, private agencies concerned with hearing impairment, and fitting and use of…

  10. Implementing a vector surveillance-response system for chagas disease control: a 4-year field trial in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kota; Tercero, Doribel; Pérez, Byron; Nakamura, Jiro; Pérez, Lenin

    2017-03-06

    Chagas disease is one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). International goals for its control involve elimination of vector-borne transmission. Central American countries face challenges in establishing sustainable vector control programmes, since the main vector, Triatoma dimidiata, cannot be eliminated. In 2012, the Ministry of Health in Nicaragua started a field test of a vector surveillance-response system to control domestic vector infestation. This paper reports the main findings from this pilot study. This study was carried out from 2012 to 2015 in the Municipality of Totogalpa. The Japan International Cooperation Agency provided technical cooperation in designing and monitoring the surveillance-response system until 2014. This system involved 1) vector reports by householders to health facilities, 2) data analysis and planning of responses at the municipal health centre and 3) house visits or insecticide spraying by health personnel as a response. We registered all vector reports and responses in a digital database. The collected data were used to describe and analyse the system performance in terms of amount of vector reports as well as rates and timeliness of responses. During the study period, T. dimidiata was reported 396 times. Spatiotemporal analysis identified some high-risk clusters. All houses reported to be infested were visited by health personnel in 2013 and this response rate dropped to 39% in 2015. Rates of insecticide spraying rose above 80% in 2013 but no spraying was carried out in the following 2 years. The timeliness of house visits improved significantly after the responsibility was transferred from a vector control technician to primary health care staff. We argue that the proposed vector surveillance-response system is workable within the resource-constrained health system in Nicaragua. Integration to the primary health care services was a key to improve the system performance. Continual efforts are necessary to keep adapting

  11. Radio, Advertising Techniques, and Nutrition Education: A Summary of a Field Experiment in the Philippines and Nicaragua. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Thomas M.; Romweber, Susan T.

    Infant and child health and nutrition education messages patterned after the reach-and-frequency technique of commercial advertising were broadcast to target groups of young mothers over local radio stations in the Philippines and Nicaragua for one year without the support of more conventional education methods. The messages were developed in…

  12. Radio, Advertising Techniques, and Nutrition Education: A Summary of a Field Experiment in the Philippines and Nicaragua. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Thomas M.; Romweber, Susan T.

    Infant and child health and nutrition education messages patterned after the reach-and-frequency technique of commercial advertising were broadcast to target groups of young mothers over local radio stations in the Philippines and Nicaragua for one year without the support of more conventional education methods. The messages were developed in…

  13. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  14. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  15. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  16. Field Campaign Explorer: Simultaneous Data Exploration, Discovery, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. M.; Kulkarni, A.; Maskey, M.; Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) was a 5-year mission investigating the underlying processes involved in the storm formation and intensification of major Atlantic Ocean Basin hurricanes. The HS3 campaign collected environmental and inner core measurements using a series of instruments aboard two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. In order to better serve users of these data, the Global Hydrology Resource Center DAAC has developed a Field Campaign Explorer System to leverage and provide value-added services to the users of airborne datasets created from each campaign flight. Traditionally, users of field campaign data are challenged with the tedious task of discovering and visualizing multiple datasets in relation to a desired feature at a specific geographic location and temporal period, each with varying dimensions, formats, visualization requirements, and structures. The Field Campaign Explorer System enables users to move more seamlessly between the data discovery, visualization, and delivery processes by allowing the simultaneous visualization of multiple datasets within an interactive mapping system. The developed system aggregates traditional data alongside data extracted from unstructured resources such as flight and mission reports, and geospatially and temporally tags them so that they may be used for data discovery. The user selected data may then be subsetted, previewed, and downloaded using underlying OPeNDAP capabilities. The Field Campaign Explorer was designed using an adaptable infrastructure that leverages unstructured resources through geographic and temporal tagging to drive data discovery, and can be applied towards future field campaign data in order to promote scientific research through innovative data exploration, discovery, and visualization.

  17. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  18. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone.

    PubMed

    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far-reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly.

  19. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large‐scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far‐reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly. PMID:27253906

  20. Country watch: Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pauw, J

    1999-01-01

    The Association of Workers for Education, Health and Social Integration (TESIS) works with commercial sex workers to control HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in Nicaragua through free condom distribution and education. Education includes group work, individual counseling, and demonstrations of correct condom use. Condoms are also distributed to the motels frequented by commercial sex workers. When the Condom Social Marketing (CSM) project in Central America started, it sold condoms of the same quality as the ones offered by TESIS; thus the condom donors reduced their donations, and in turn, TESIS lost its normal quota for free condom distribution. Because of this situation, TESIS dealt with a condom promotion scheme at a lower cost for the poorest women. Condom quality did not deteriorate as products only came with simpler packaging. TESIS fills the gap which CSM missed.

  1. The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Hacking, Perry

    1993-01-01

    More than 30% of current star formation is taking place ingalaxies known as starburst galaxies. Do starburst galaxies play a central role in the evolution of all galaxies, and can they lead us to the birth of galaxies and the source of quasars? We have proposed to build the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), capable of detecting typical starburst galaxies at a redshift of 0.5, ultraluminous infrared galaxies behond a redshift of 2, and luminous protogalaxies beyond a redshift of 5.

  2. Acid-Sulfate Weathering of Basalts at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua: An Early Mars Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, E. C.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Rogers, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cerro Negro, Nicaragua is a high temperature, low pH, S-rich environment, proposed to explain some acid-sulfate weathering on Mars. Simultaneously, we are analyzing field samples, laboratory experiments, theoretical modeling, and microbial studies.

  3. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bommer, J

    1985-12-01

    The occurrence of natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, are, in themselves, beyond oar control. However, careful preparation before such events, and the correct management of the problem once it occurs, can both lead to major redaction of the suffering involved. Disaster preparation and emergency planning are both inextricably linked to politics and economics, both on a national and an international scale. Disasters themselves raise a number of issues of a political or economic nature, and die response to a natural disaster both in the short and the long term is largely determined by the political relations within a country, and between that country and the international community. This paper examines these issues by taking the examples of the earthquake of Managua, Nicaragua in 1972 and the flooding that occurred in Nicaragua in 1982. These two natural disasters occurred under different administrations in Nicaragua, and tills allows some interesting comparisons.

  4. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this paper, we present a series of simple activities adapted from the Matter & Interactions textbook for doing just this. Interestingly, these simple measurements are comparable to predictions made by the Bohr model of the atom. Although antiquated, Bohr's atom can lead the way to a deeper analysis of the atomic properties of magnets. Although originally developed for an introductory calculus-based course, these activities can easily be adapted for use in an algebra-based class or even at the high school level.

  5. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    We present WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) mid-infrared photometry of young stellar object candidates in the Canis Majoris clouds at a distance of 1 kpc. WISE has identified 682 objects with apparent 12 and 22 micron excess emission in a 7 deg x 10 deg field around the CMa Rl cloud . While a substantial fraction of these candidates are likely galaxies, AGB stars, and artifacts from confusion along the galactic plane, others are part of a spectacular cluster of YSOs imaged by WISE along a dark filament in the R1 cloud. Palomar Double Spectrograph observations of several sources in this cluster confirm their identity as young A and B stars with strong emission lines. In this contribution, we plot the optical -mid-infrared spectral energy distribution for the WISE YSO candidates and discuss potential contaminants to the sample . The data demonstrate the utility of WISE in performing wide-area surveys for young stellar objects.

  6. Teaching Business Communication in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, David Alan

    2007-01-01

    Global partnerships between educational institutions are one mechanism for building a capacity to educate students and prepare them for the global economy. In this article, the author describes a seminar on business communication he taught to the faculty members of Universidad Centroamerica de Managua (UCA) in Managua, Nicaragua. The purpose of…

  7. Teaching Business Communication in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, David Alan

    2007-01-01

    Global partnerships between educational institutions are one mechanism for building a capacity to educate students and prepare them for the global economy. In this article, the author describes a seminar on business communication he taught to the faculty members of Universidad Centroamerica de Managua (UCA) in Managua, Nicaragua. The purpose of…

  8. The Nicaragua Radio Mathematics Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Barbara

    The Radio Mathematics Project was funded by the Agency for International Development to design, implement, and evaluate, in conjunction with personnel of a developing country, a system for teaching primary-grade mathematics by radio. In July 1974, a project in Nicaragua began with a series of radio presentations, each followed by 20 minutes of…

  9. A new geothermal anomaly in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Yoram

    1982-03-01

    The information acquired during reconnaissance surface exploration in Nicaragua suggests a large geothermal reservoir in the region of Masaya—Nandaime. The exploration programme included geological, geophysical, geochemical, as well as hydrogeological investigations. Integration of the results from various disciplines permitted postulation of a conceptual model of the reservoir and of the thermal regime within the zone immediately above and around the reservoir. The reservoir with a temperature in excess of 200°C is emplaced at a depth between 2 and 4 km in a predominantly graywacke formation. It is sealed off by a silica cap and camouflaged by the flow of groundwater in a thick phreatic aquifer, that intercepts and redistributes anomalous heat flow from above the reservoir.

  10. Exploring Galaxy Environments with Characteristic Field Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Shannon A.

    2006-12-01

    The connection between characteristic properties of galaxies and their local environments is an important tool in understanding the life history of galaxies, their formation, and their effects on the large-scale structure of the universe. However, while there has been significant progress in understanding galaxy properties with relation to local densities and nearby cluster distances, fundamental questions still remain unanswered. Three-dimensional field mapping techniques are explored as a means of investigating the environmental dependence of characteristic properties of galaxies in large data sets. Field maps are applied to the Millenium Run semi-analytic galaxy catalog to create a baseline of methodology against a simulated data set. The field maps are then extended for application to the Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An open architecture is presented as a framework for further studies of the correlational dependence of arbitrary characteristics. In particular, the techniques are being applied in current investigation towards an understanding of the relationships of metallicity, densities, star formation, mass, and luminosities in local environments in the DR5 of the SDSS.

  11. FieldREG II: consciousness field effects: replications and explorations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R D; Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J; Dobyns, Y H; Bradish, G J

    2007-01-01

    Based on formal analysis of 18 exploratory applications, 12 of which have been reported previously, a testable general hypothesis for FieldREG experiments has been postulated, namely that data taken in environments fostering relatively intense or profound subjective resonance will show larger deviations of the mean relative to chance expectation than those generated in more pragmatic assemblies. The 61 subsequent FieldREG applications reported here comprise 21 hypothesis-based formal replications, along with 40 further explorations designed to learn more about the circumstances that favor anomalous deviations. The results of the formal replications strongly confirm the general hypothesis, yielding a composite probability against chance for the resonant subset of 2.2 x 10(-6) compared to 0.91 for the mundane subset. The exploratory work suggests other venues in which anomalous effects of group consciousness can be expected, and also identifies a number of situations that do not appear to be conducive to such responses.

  12. [The health system of Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Muiser, Jorine; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Nicaragua and discusses the characteristics of its national health system including its structure and coverage, its financial sources its physical, material and human resources the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the system and the level of satisfaction of health care users. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the decentralization of the regulation of health facilities and the design and implementation of a new health care model known as Family and Community Health Model.

  13. BIOÉTICA EN NICARAGUA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálezy, Armando Ulloa; Monge, Melba de la Cruz Barrantes

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo describe la situación de la bioética en Nicaragua, caracterizando las circunstancias y el contexto de las actividades de educación médica y las unidades prestadoras de servicios de salud. El desarrollo de un nuevo modelo de atención integral en salud, la implementación de políticas de salud que garanticen a la población el mayor acceso y gratuidad a los servicios, y los cambios acontecidos en los cuidados médicos, debidos en parte al reconocimiento creciente de una mayor autonomía de los pacientes y al uso creciente de nuevas tecnologías médicas, hace que se presenten algunas limitantes y dilemas en las unidades asistenciales y entre el personal de salud. La bioética en Nicaragua tiene un desarrollo incipiente: no está institucionalizada ni se han previsto los mecanismos formales que permitan resolver los problemas éticamente complejos, por lo tanto, constituye un gran reto por parte de las instituciones educativas y rectoras de la salud. PMID:20352016

  14. Exploring scalar field dynamics with Gaussian processes

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay; Jain, Deepak E-mail: sanjay.jhingan@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe remains an unsolved mystery in Cosmology. In this work we consider a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe with non-relativistic matter and a single scalar field contributing to the energy density of the Universe. Properties of this scalar field, like potential, kinetic energy, equation of state etc. are reconstructed from Supernovae and BAO data using Gaussian processes. We also reconstruct energy conditions and kinematic variables of expansion, such as the jerk and the slow roll parameter. We find that the reconstructed scalar field variables and the kinematic quantities are consistent with a flat ΛCDM Universe. Further, we find that the null energy condition is satisfied for the redshift range of the Supernovae data considered in the paper, but the strong energy condition is violated.

  15. Exploring Literate Lives: Returning to the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Robyn; Woods, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of conducting lengthy fieldwork in today's busy academic world have impacted the types of research that are able to be carried out. In particular, traditional educational ethnography has become problematic for research beyond initial doctoral research programs. This article analyzes data collected during a return to the field of a…

  16. Exploring Literate Lives: Returning to the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Robyn; Woods, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of conducting lengthy fieldwork in today's busy academic world have impacted the types of research that are able to be carried out. In particular, traditional educational ethnography has become problematic for research beyond initial doctoral research programs. This article analyzes data collected during a return to the field of a…

  17. Families in the Field: exploring northeastern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Kelda

    2017-04-01

    Northeastern Illinois topography is dominated by evidence of the Pleistocene: glacial moraines, kettle lakes, bogs, and of course, Lake Michigan - the fifth largest freshwater lake in the world. My high school students have grown up within this landscape and their familiarity provides a springboard for us to dive deeper into their understanding of continental glaciers and Ice Ages. However, these features have merely functioned as a background to their lives. My goal is to inspire, by having them stand in the field and imagine how it all would have appeared 11,000 years ago. For the past five years, the Geology teachers at Warren Township High School have been leading voluntary weekend hikes with our students and their families. The Geology teachers guide the hike with a more technical explanation of the landscape, and our students rise to the occasion as they share what they know with their parents, siblings, and peers. This opens lines of communication, increases student motivation, enhances the course material, and allows us to see on our landscape within the context of dynamic Earth systems.

  18. Omar field discovery confirms Syria as exploration hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-20

    Syria is proving to be one of the Mediterranean's exploration hot spots. The discovery of Omar field by a Shell-led exploration group earlier this year confirmed Syria as a prime exploration prospect. For years Syria produced small volumes of heavy, high-sulfur crude mainly for refining and use in the domestic market and found it difficult to attract foreign explorers. Industry sources say there is now no shortage of outside industry interest in taking new exploration concessions. Over the last 6 months much of the available prospective acreage has been taken up as industry interest in Syria reached nee heights.

  19. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-18

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission will survey the entire sky in a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum called the mid-infrared with far greater sensitivity than any previous mission or program ever has.

  20. Dancing in the thresholds: Exploring the interactive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Constance S.

    This dissertation is an attempt to investigate the nature of the interactive field to deepen as well as broaden its scope as it applies to depth psychology and its praxis. With a phenomenological eye toward field dynamics from other paradigms, this exploration demonstrates an additional theoretical framework within the interactive field. It opens other possibilities creating a neither/nor position from which to contain our work with an alchemical/metaphorical position and allows for the liberation of the imaginal realm through which ``the Other'' may be of service, and in fact, may ask us to be in service to it. The literature review not only surveys the three primary schools in psychology-the psychoanalytical, the classical, and archetypal as the genesis of the interactive field, but also investigates shamanic realms as a backdrop from which to see field theory. Field theory is also explored in the world of quantum physics where the universal field is examined from paradigms situated in varied consciousness models. The somatic unconscious, an intrinsic part of the interactive field in mutual engagement with two or more persons, is also woven into the fabric of this study as an intersection between the universal field and the psychodynamic field. This study, as a psychological gnosis, initiates subtle body awareness from Eastern cosmologies from a depth perspective in the psychodynamics of the interactive field. Synchronistic encounters are integrated into field theory as a threshold where universal fields engage the somatic unconscious, initiating numinous and sometimes transformative change into one's life.

  1. Identification of Aedes albopictus in urban Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Emperatriz Del C; Moreno, Gilberto; Zachariah, Marcus A; López, María M; López, Josefa D; Delgado, Marco A; Valle, Sonia I; Espinoza, Perla M; Salgado, Mario J; Pérez, Roselo; Hammond, Samantha N; Harris, Eva

    2005-09-01

    Larvae of Aedes albopictus, a mosquito known for transmitting dengue virus, were identified in the city of León, Nicaragua, in 2003. Mosquito larvae were collected from a total of 2,225 residences in the 2 largest cities in Nicaragua during the period from June to September of 2003, and larval Ae. albopictus were identified in 4 homes in León. This represents the 1st detection of Ae. albopictus in a major Nicaraguan urban center, and increased control efforts appear to have eliminated the mosquito subsequently from León. The presence of Ae. albopictus in urban Nicaragua highlights the need for surveillance of areas thought to be free of the mosquito so that early detection and control activities can prevent its spread.

  2. Education of the deaf in nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Polich, L

    2001-01-01

    Nicaragua now ranks as the third poorest country in the Western Hemisphere (Interamerican Development Bank [IDB], 1995). Occasionally educational improvement has been a national priority (Arrien & Matus, 1989). Usually, however, education rests at the lower end of a long list of national needs. The history of education in Nicaragua is marked by low teacher salaries, deteriorated physical plants, and scarcities of teaching materials (Arnove, 1994). Deaf education has been no exception. Teachers have been expected to learn empirically what deafness is and how to teach deaf children, to teach pupils who have had little or no language exposure before entering school, and to manage with the barest physical resources, all the while receiving only meager compensation. This article places education of the deaf in Nicaragua in a historical perspective, reports the results of a teacher survey, and discusses national policies that, so far, have had only indirect effects, but are likely to gain importance in the future.

  3. Exploring International Multicultural Field Experiences in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Hilary; Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; An, Heejung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore an online field experience between technology facilitator candidates in the USA and K-12 teachers in Namibia, to improve candidates' understanding of diversity and equity issues in the successful incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning.…

  4. Artist Concept of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer WISE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-08

    Artist concept of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. A new NASA mission will scan the entire sky in infrared light in search of nearby cool stars, planetary construction zones and the brightest galaxies in the universe. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06927

  5. Exploring International Multicultural Field Experiences in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Hilary; Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; An, Heejung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore an online field experience between technology facilitator candidates in the USA and K-12 teachers in Namibia, to improve candidates' understanding of diversity and equity issues in the successful incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning.…

  6. Severe Histoplasmosis in Travelers to Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Julia; Lance-Parker, Susan; Traeger, Marc; Wiersma, Steven; Phan, Quyen; Dennison, David; MacDonald, Pia; Lindsley, Mark; Guarner, Jeannette; Connolly, Patricia; Cetron, Martin; Hajjeh, Rana

    2003-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of unexpectedly severe histoplasmosis among 14 healthy adventure travelers from the United States who visited a bat-infested cave in Nicaragua. Although histoplasmosis has rarely been reported to cause serious illness among travelers, this outbreak demonstrates that cases may be severe among travelers, even young, healthy persons. PMID:14609473

  7. Extension Learning Exchange: Lessons from Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Paul; Lachapelle, Paul; Howe, Rod

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need to support global professional development, international education, and collaborative learning opportunities in Extension. The program described here established an international learning exchange in Nicaragua to lead to global professional development and future international collaboration. The primary lessons and outcomes…

  8. Nicaragua 1980: The Battle of the ABCs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenal, Fernando; Miller, Valerie

    1981-01-01

    The authors present a first-hand account of the massive literacy program in Nicaragua. They describe the political rationale and the extensive organizational tasks of the National Literacy Crusade, pointing out that its success depended upon the commitment of the people and the government to literacy and liberation. (Author/SK)

  9. Nicaragua's Libraries: A Struggle for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Description of the effects of the revolution, U.S. government policy, and natural disasters on the economic climate in Nicaragua focuses on problems faced by the country's libraries and library school. Support and funding provided to Nicaraguan libraries by American library groups are reviewed, and attitudes of Nicaraguan librarians toward the…

  10. Field Exploration Science for a Return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Helper, M. A.; Muehlbberger, W.; Snoke, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Apollo field exploration science, and subsequent analysis, and interpretation of its findings and collected samples, underpin our current understanding of the origin and history of the Moon. That understanding, in turn, continues to provide new and important insights into the early histories of the Earth and other bodies in the solar system, particularly during the period that life formed and began to evolve on Earth and possibly on Mars. Those early explorations also have disclosed significant and potentially commercially viable lunar resources that might help satisfy future demand for both terrestrial energy alternatives and space consumables. Lunar sortie missions as part of the Vision for Space Exploration provide an opportunity to continue and expand the human geological, geochemical and geophysical exploration of the Moon. Specific objectives of future field exploration science include: (1) Testing of the consensus "giant impact" hypothesis for the origin of the Moon by further investigation of materials that may augment understanding of the chondritic geochemistry of the lower lunar mantle; (2) Testing of the consensus impact "cataclysm" hypothesis by obtaining absolute ages on large lunar basins of relative ages older than the 3.8-3.9 Ga mascon basins dated by Apollo 15 and 17; (3) Calibration of the end of large impacts in the inner solar system; (4) Global delineation of the internal structure of the Moon; (5) Global sampling and field investigations that extend the data necessary to remotely correlate major lunar geological and geochemical units; (6) Definition of the depositional history of polar volatiles - cometary, solar wind, or otherwise; (7) Determine the recoverable in situ concentrations and distribution of potential volatile resources; and (8) Acquisition of information and samples related to relatively less site-specific aspects of lunar geological processes. Planning for renewed field exploration of the Moon depends largely on the selection

  11. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  12. Exploring dense and cold QCD in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, E. J.; de la Incera, V.

    2016-08-01

    Strong magnetic fields are commonly generated in off-central relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab and in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and have been used to probe the topological configurations of the QCD vacua. A strong magnetic field can affect the character and location of the QCD critical point, influence the QCD phases, and lead to anomalous transport of charge. To take advantage of the magnetic field as a probe of QCD at higher baryon densities, we are going to need experiments capable to scan the lower energy region. In this context, the nuclotron-based ion collider facility (NICA) at JINR offers a unique opportunity to explore such a region and complement alternative programs at RHIC and other facilities. In this paper we discuss some relevant problems of the interplay between QCD and magnetic fields and the important role the experiments at NICA can play in tackling them.

  13. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary…

  14. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary…

  15. Analysis of maternal mortality in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Cavalleru, M; Quintana, M; Ara, A

    1992-01-01

    The Women's Collective in Matagalpa, Nicaragua, Sanitaria VI region estimated maternal mortality rates for 1989 and 1990 to be 309 and 239/100,000 live births, respectively. The majority of births took place at home, assisted by untrained midwives, and in 68% of cases the place and attendant(s) were not listed. National figures for maternal mortality are 49.4 and 159/per 100,000 in 1989. Thus the proportion of unreported maternal mortality is probably high in Nicaragua. The Collective believers that health workers give substandard prenatal care and fail to refer high risk cases to higher levels of care. They recommend that women mount a permanent campaign, insist on training programs for health workers that focus on women's situation, that more data be collected, and that women themselves take action.

  16. Men's Educational Group Appointments in Rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce B; Gonzalez, Hugo; Campbell, McKenzie; Campbell, Kent

    2017-03-01

    Men's preventive health and wellness is largely neglected in rural Nicaragua, where a machismo culture prevents men from seeking health care. To address this issue, a men's educational group appointment model was initiated at a rural health post to increase awareness about hypertension, and to train community health leaders to measure blood pressure. Men's hypertension workshops were conducted with patient knowledge pretesting, didactic teaching, and posttesting. Pretesting and posttesting performances were recorded, blood pressures were screened, and community leaders were trained to perform sphygmomanometry. An increase in hypertension-related knowledge was observed after every workshop and community health leaders demonstrated proficiency in sphygmomanometry. In addition, several at-risk patients were identified and follow-up care arranged. Men's educational group appointments, shown to be effective in the United States in increasing patient knowledge and satisfaction, appear to function similarly in a resource-constrained environment and may be an effective mechanism for reaching underserved men in Nicaragua.

  17. Will the Nicaragua Canal connect or divide?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-11-03

    A century after the opening of the Panama Canal, a second inter-oceanic passage is set to be built in Central America, this time in Nicaragua. The ambitious and astronomically expensive project promises to bring economic opportunity to a poor country but it also carries risks to its tropical ecosystems. Will the new waterway ultimately link two oceans or divide a continent? Michael Gross investigates.

  18. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. R.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    While there is a growing recognition of the impact that climate change may have on human development, there has been a shift in focus from an impacts-led assessment approach towards a vulnerability-led assessment approach. This research operationalizes the IPCC's definition of vulnerability in a sub-national assessment to understand how different factors that shape vulnerability to climate change vary spatially across rural Nicaragua. The research utilizes the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO UN) CropWat model to evaluate how the annual yield of two of Nicaragua's staple crops may change under projected changes in temperature and precipitation. This analysis of agricultural sensitivity under exposure to climate change is then overlain with an indicator-based assessment of adaptive capacity in rural Nicaraguan farming households. Adaptive capacity was evaluated using household survey data from the 2001 National Household Survey on Living Standards Measurement, which was provided to us by the FAO UN. The result is a map representing current vulnerability to future climate change, and can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions in rural Nicaragua.

  19. Overview of NASA Finesse (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D.S.S.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, B.; Sears, D.; Neish, C.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Downs, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint Institute supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). As such, FINESSE is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our Moon, Mars moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. FINESSE embodies the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science".

  20. Observations and Modeling of the August 27, 2012 Earthquake and Tsunami affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Lynett, Patrick J.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Newman, Andrew V.; Convers, Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local tsunami. Following the event, local and international tsunami teams surveyed the tsunami effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The tsunami reached a maximum height of ~6 m with inundation of up to 340 m inland along a 25 km section of coastline in eastern El Salvador. Less severe inundation was reported in northern Nicaragua. In the far-field, the tsunami was recorded by a DART buoy and tide gauges in several locations of the eastern Pacific Ocean but did not cause any damage. The field measurements and recordings are compared to numerical modeling results using initial conditions of tsunami generation based on finite-fault earthquake and tsunami inversions and a uniform slip model.

  1. Evaluating a Special Education Training Programme in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…

  2. U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua: Illegal and Unwarranted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Ved P.

    1988-01-01

    Appraises the legality, under international law, of the U.S. intervention in Nicaragua. Describes the concepts of intervention, international resolutions, and declarations on the subject. Points out that international law is violated by many nations. Concludes that U.S. intervention in Nicaragua is impermissible under international law and unwise…

  3. Susceptibility of Children to Sapovirus Infections, Nicaragua, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Carlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Larson, Göran; Blandon, Patricia; Vilchez, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We describe the genetic diversity of sapovirus (SaV) in children in Nicaragua and investigate the role of host genetic factors and susceptibility to SaV infections. Our results indicate that neither ABO blood group, Lewis phenotype, nor secretor status affects susceptibility to SaV infection in Nicaragua. PMID:23092588

  4. Schools, Communities, and Democracy: The Nicaragua BASE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The 1990 election of Dona Violeta Barrios de Chamorro as President of Nicaragua marked the end of the Sandinista era and the return of U.S. foreign assistance the following year. Education was prominent in the U.S. assistance package. Since early 1994, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mission to Nicaragua has funded a…

  5. Evaluating a Special Education Training Programme in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…

  6. Science with a wide-field UV transient explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Sagiv, I.; Gal-Yam, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Waxman, E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Topaz, J.; Aharonson, O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Phinney, E. S.; Nakar, E.; Maoz, D.; Beichman, C.; Murthy, J.; Worden, S. P.

    2014-04-01

    The time-variable electromagnetic sky has been well-explored at a wide range of wavelengths. In contrast, the ultra-violet (UV) variable sky is relatively poorly explored, even though it offers exciting scientific prospects. Here, we review the potential scientific impact of a wide-field UV survey on the study of explosive and other transient events, as well as known classes of variable objects, such as active galactic nuclei and variable stars. We quantify our predictions using a fiducial set of observational parameters which are similar to those envisaged for the proposed ULTRASAT mission. We show that such a mission would be able to revolutionize our knowledge about massive star explosions by measuring the early UV emission from hundreds of events, revealing key physical parameters of the exploding progenitor stars. Such a mission would also detect the UV emission from many tens of tidal-disruption events of stars by supermassive black holes at galactic nuclei and enable a measurement of the rate of such events. The overlap of such a wide-field UV mission with existing and planned gravitational-wave and high-energy neutrino telescopes makes it especially timely.

  7. Collaboration on contentious issues: research partnerships for gender equity in Nicaragua's Fair Trade coffee cooperatives.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lori; Terstappen, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the use of collaborative and partnership approaches in health and agricultural research has flourished. Such approaches are frequently adopted to ensure more successful research uptake and to contribute to community empowerment through participatory research practices. At the same time that interest in research partnerships has been growing, publications on methods, models, and guidelines for building these partnerships have proliferated. However, partnership development is not necessarily as straightforward or linear a process as such literature makes it appear, particularly when the research involves divisive or contentious issues. This paper explores prevailing views on research partnerships, and also questions the applicability of partnership models using an emerging research program around gender equity and health in Fair Trade coffee cooperatives in Nicaragua as an example. Moreover, the paper introduces some of the complicated issues facing the authors as they attempt to develop and expand partnerships in this research area. The paper culminates with a series of strategies that the authors plan to use that offer alternative ways of thinking about building research partnerships concerning controversial or complex issues in the field of community health and development.

  8. Assessment and evaluation in interprofessional education: exploring the field.

    PubMed

    Blue, Amy V; Chesluk, Benjamin J; Conforti, Lisa N; Holmboe, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    The practice of interprofessional education (IPE) is expanding rapidly in the United States and globally. The publication of competencies from the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) was a significant step forward to recognize the importance of health professions collaboration and to guide institutions for educational program development. However, there remains substantial difficulty in implementation, as well as considerable variability in assessment of learners' interprofessional collaborative knowledge and skills and evaluation of IPE programs. We conducted a multi-methods project which included 20 key informant interviews, a literature review, and a meeting of an expert panel. Our goals were 1) explore the current field of IPE, 2) identify and disseminate best practices to institutions wishing to implement/augment IPE assessment and evaluation processes, 3) uncover gaps in current IPE assessment and evaluation practices, and 4) recommend next steps for the field. A small and growing literature indicates evidence of the effectiveness of IPE. A diverse collection of methods and tools are used to assess and evaluate IPE learners and programs; these are often used without an explicit program-evaluation framework. For the field to advance and to align with the demands of changing clinical care systems, robust assessment and evaluation methods, standardized use of common tools, and longitudinal assessment from diverse data streams are needed for IPE.

  9. Volcanic hazard map for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahina, T.; Navarro, M.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A volcano hazard study was conducted for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua, based on geological and volcanological field investigations, air photo analyses, and numerical eruption simulation. These volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes of the country. This study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting volcanic hazard map on 1:50,000 scale displays the hazards of lava flow, pyroclastic flows, lahars, tephra fall, volcanic bombs for an area of 1,300 square kilometers. The map and corresponding GIS coverage was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use and is included in a National GIS on Georisks developed and maintained by INETER.

  10. Exploring perturbative conformal field theory in Mellin space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizami, Amin A.; Rudra, Arnab; Sarkar, Sourav; Verma, Mritunjay

    2017-01-01

    We explore the Mellin representation of correlation functions in conformal field theories in the weak coupling regime. We provide a complete proof for a set of Feynman rules to write the Mellin amplitude for a general tree level Feynman diagram involving only scalar operators. We find a factorised form involving beta functions associated to the propagators, similar to tree level Feynman rules in momentum space for ordinary QFTs. We also briefly consider the case where a generic scalar perturbation of the free CFT breaks conformal invariance. Mellin space still has some utility and one can consider non-conformal Mellin representations. In this context, we find that the beta function corresponding to conformal propagator uplifts to a hypergeometric function.

  11. Focus Validation of the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansock, J.; Larsen, M.; Shumway, A.; Hacking, P.

    1998-09-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) is a small cryogenic spaceborne infrared telescope being readied for launch in September 1998 as the fifth of NASA's Small Explorers. WIRE illuminates two 128 x 128 Si:As Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) produced by Boeing North American with a 30 cm diameter Ritchey Cretien diamond turned mirror system. A dichroic beam splitter and band-pass filter define two broad pass bands for a deep pointed survey to search for protogalaxies and to study the evolution of starburst galaxies. The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) developed and instrumented ground-based procedures to validate the focus of the WIRE Instrument. The procedures used point source data acquired during ground measurements obtained with a calibration source consisting of an illuminated pinhole near the focus of a cryogenically cooled collimator. Simulated point source measurements were obtained at multiple focus positions by translating the pinhole along the optical axis inside and outside the optimum focus of the collimator. The detector FPAs were moved to positions indicated by the test results. These focus positions were verified by subsequent cold tests using an independent cold collimator. The method and hardware used to obtain focus validation are described and results presented.

  12. Women's strategic responses to violence in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.
DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.
SETTING—León, Nicaragua.
PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.
MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.
CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.


Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011

  13. [Mental disorders in Nicaragua: family perspective].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-09-01

    In recent years the family perspective in Psychiatry has become more important a factor. Therefore this paper is aimed at examining the family structure of mentally disordered people in León, Nicaragua, as well as presenting the use of a Genogram in epidemiological research. 201 families were randomly selected, whose members were interviewed in two steps: a screening, and a diagnostic stage. The family map or Genogram for each family was analyzed with respect to adult and child cases, generations within the family, and other background variables.

  14. Lunar Dust, Plasma, Waves and Fields Exploration Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travnicek, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight shadow transitions. A detail under-standing of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. Here we present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Fluxgate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

  15. Exploring the Magnetic Field Configuration in BL Lac Using GMVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Bindu; Krichbaum, Thomas; Hodgson, Jeff; Koyama, Shoko; Zensus, Anton; Fuhramnn, Lars; Marscher, Alan; Jorstad, Svetlana

    2016-09-01

    The high radio frequency polarization imaging of non-thermal emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength and structure in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and is crucial in testing the jet-launching scenario. To explore the the magnetic field configuration at the base of jets in blazars, we took advantage of the full polarization capabilities of the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA). With an angular resolution of $\\sim$50 micro-arcseconds ($\\mu$as) at 86 GHz, one could resolve scales up to $\\sim$450 gravitational radii (for a 10$^9$ solar mass black hole at a redshift of 0.1). We present here the preliminary results of our study on the blazar BL~Lac. Our results suggest that on sub-mas scales the core and the central jet of BL Lac are significantly polarized with two distinct regions of polarized intensity. We also noted a great morphological similarity between the 7mm/3mm VLBI images at very similar angular resolution.

  16. By and for women. Nicaragua's Si Mujer.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In Nicaragua, a group of women physicians and health professionals created an alternative health service for women. "Si Mujer" (Yes Woman), which stands for Integrated Services for Women, provides: 1) gynecologic services (comprehensive check-up, early cancer detection, sterility counseling, and AIDS and sexually transmitted disease [STD] prevention); 2) obstetric services (prenatal care, normal and high-risk pregnancy care, and family planning); 3) counseling (for women, couples, and families, and for victims of sexual violence); and 4) sex education and training (in reproductive health, gynecology, and sexuality). The non-profit organization collects fees according to ability to pay (11% pay nothing) and serves approximately 800 clients per month. Special programs provide services to teenagers and to men. While the training program began as a secondary effort, it is now as important as the direct service provision, with training activities reaching more than 1600 people in the first year through courses on such topics as sexuality, gender and power, AIDS and STD prevention, and cancer prevention. Si Mujer is one of more than 52 women's health centers in Nicaragua that have arisen to fill the gap left by the deterioration of public health services and which apply a gender perspective to the manner in which they approach their clients.

  17. Early childbearing in Nicaragua: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Blandón, Luis; Carballo Palma, Luis; Wulf, Deirdre; Remez, Lisa; Prada, Elena; Drescher, Joanna

    2006-09-01

    (1) Among Nicaraguan women 20-24 years old, six in 10 had entered a union and almost half had had a child before their 20th birthday. (2) A quarter of all births in Nicaragua--35,000 per year--are to 15-19-year-olds. (3) Rural women, who have less education, on average, than their urban counterparts, are more likely than city dwellers to enter a union and become mothers during adolescence. (4) The proportion of 20-24-year-olds who had a child during adolescence is more than twice as high among the poorest as among those in the highest socioeconomic category. (5) Nearly half--45%--of births to adolescent women are unplanned, a level that varies little by women's urban-rural residence and their educational achievement. (6) Among all sexually active women aged 15-19 (in union and not in union), 86% do not want a child in the next two years, and 36% have an unmet need for effective contraception. Unmet need for family planning is equally high in urban and rural areas. (7) The strong link between low educational attainment and early motherhood suggests that improving educational opportunities for girls is a promising way of reducing high levels of adolescent childbearing in Nicaragua.

  18. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the ;so called; Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  19. Update on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wright, Edward L.; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Irace, William; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024(sup 2) HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5 resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47' x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 launch vehicle. The WISE survey approach is simple and efficient. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft rotates at a constant rate while the scan mirror freezes the telescope line of sight during each exposure. WISE has completed its mission Preliminary Design Review and its NASA Confirmation Review, and the project is awaiting confirmation from NASA to proceed to the Critical Design phase. Much of the payload hardware is now complete, and assembly of the payload will occur over the next year. WISE is scheduled to launch in late 2009; the project web site can be found at www.wise.ssl.berkeley.edu.

  20. Update on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wright, Edward L.; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Irace, William; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024(sup 2) HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5 resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47' x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 launch vehicle. The WISE survey approach is simple and efficient. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft rotates at a constant rate while the scan mirror freezes the telescope line of sight during each exposure. WISE has completed its mission Preliminary Design Review and its NASA Confirmation Review, and the project is awaiting confirmation from NASA to proceed to the Critical Design phase. Much of the payload hardware is now complete, and assembly of the payload will occur over the next year. WISE is scheduled to launch in late 2009; the project web site can be found at www.wise.ssl.berkeley.edu.

  1. Virtual field trips: exploring a new approach to ocean education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, C.; Bryant, T.

    2003-04-01

    During the past four years with primary support from the National Science Foundation, the University of Delaware College of Marine Studies has launched the "Extreme series" of virtual field trips to get students and the public excited -- and learning -- about science by enabling them to follow along with researchers as they explore hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean. The Extreme series has blossomed from a small pilot project involving about 800 students in 14 schools primarily in Delaware, to a thriving program that last year welcomed aboard more than 500 schools representing over 42,000 students from across the United States and in several foreign countries. Participants range from small, rural schools on American Indian reservations and in the landlocked states of America's "heartland," to large public schools in major coastal cities such as New York and Los Angeles. Each participating teacher receives a resource package containing student guides, curricula, evaluation tools, and a documentary video. During the expedition, an interactive Web site serves as the program's "lifeline." Education coordinators aboard ship -- a UD graduate student and a schoolteacher -- post daily journals, conduct experiments submitted by classrooms, and relay photos and video clips back to shore each day for uploading to the Web site. The project also involves selected classrooms in teleconferences with scientists working live on the seafloor aboard the submersible Alvin. Evaluated for its educational quality and impact, the Extreme series continues to grow and develop with the enthusiastic support of teachers.

  2. Satellite Animation Shows Landfall of Hurricane Otto in Nicaragua

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Nov. 22 to Nov. 25 shows Hurricane Otto moving through the southwestern Caribbean Sea and making landfall in southern Nicaragua on Nov. 24....

  3. State Approaches Toward Reducing Youth Violence in Honduras and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    maintaining a lower incidence of violence and capable of addressing its domestic gang problems. In contrast, Honduran violent entrepreneurs who...TOWARD REDUCING YOUTH VIOLENCE IN HONDURAS AND NICARAGUA by Luis E. Preciado September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Arturo C. Sotomayor Second...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STATE APPROACHES TOWARD REDUCING YOUTH VIOLENCE IN HONDURAS AND NICARAGUA 5

  4. Reflections on curative health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Slater, R G

    1989-01-01

    Improved health care in Nicaragua is a major priority of the Sandinista revolution; it has been pursued by major reforms of the national health care system, something few developing countries have attempted. In addition to its internationally recognized advances in public health, considerable progress has been made in health care delivery by expanding curative medical services through training more personnel and building more facilities to fulfill a commitment to free universal health coverage. The very uneven quality of medical care is the leading problem facing curative medicine now. Underlying factors include the difficulty of adequately training the greatly increased number of new physicians. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement continue to be major problems. The curative medical system is not well coordinated with the preventive sector. Recent innovations include initiation of a "medicina integral" residency, similar to family practice. Despite its inadequacies and the handicaps of war and poverty, the Nicaraguan curative medical system has made important progress. PMID:2705603

  5. Episodic Volcanism and Geochemistry in Western Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I.; Carr, M. J.; Gazel, E.; Swisher, C.; Turrin, B.

    2007-12-01

    The active volcanic arc in western Nicaragua is separated from the Miocene arc by a temporal gap in the volcanic record, during which little volcanic material was erupted. Previous work suggested that this gap lasted from 7 to 1.6 Ma, during which volcanic production in Nicaragua was limited or nonexistent. Because the precise timing and duration of this gap has been poorly constrained, recent fieldwork has focused on locating samples that may have erupted close to or even during this apparent hiatus in activity. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dates reveal pulses of low- level episodic volcanism at 7 Ma and 1 Ma between the active and Miocene arcs with current volcanism beginning ~350 ka. In addition, sampling from an inactive area between Coseguina and San Cristobal yielded two distinct groupings of ages; one of Tamarindo age (13 Ma) and the other around 3.5 Ma-the only samples of that age collected on-strike with the active arc. This raises the possibility the bases of the other active volcanoes contain lavas that are older than expected, but have been covered by subsequent eruptions. The Miocene arc differs from the active arc in Central America in several ways, with the latter having higher Ba/La and U/Th values due to increased slab input and changes in subducted sediment composition. Analysis of sample C-51 and others taken from the same area may shed light on the timing of this shift from high to low Ba/La and U/Th values. More importantly, it may help explain why the arc experienced such a dramatic downturn in volcanic production during this time. We also report 25 new major and trace element analyses that shed some light on the origins of these minor episodes of Nicaraguan volcanism. These samples are currently awaiting Sr and Nd isotopic analyses.

  6. Multidisciplinary exploration of the Tendaho Graben geothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armadillo, Egidio; Rizzello, Daniele; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasqua, Claudio; Marini, Luigi; Meqbel, Naser; Stimac, Jim; Kebede, Solomon; Mengiste, Andarge; Hailegiorgis, Getenesch; Abera, Fitsum; Mengesha, Kebede

    2017-04-01

    The NW-SE trending Tendaho Graben is the major extensional feature of the Afar, Ethiopia. Rifting and volcanic activity within the graben occurred mostly between 1.8 and 0.6 Ma, but extended to at least 0.2 Ma. Very recent (0.22- 0.03 Ma) activity is focused along the southern part of the younger and active Manda Hararo Rift, which is included in the north-western part of the graben. Extension gave rise to about 1600 m of vertical displacement (verified by drilling) of the basaltic Afar Stratoid sequence, over a crust with a mean thickness of about 23 km. The infill of graben, overlying the Stratoids, consists of volcanic and sedimentary deposits that have been drilled by six exploratory wells. Within the graben, two main geothermal fields have been explored by intensive geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys over an area that approximately covers a square sector of 40x40 km. Both new and existing data sets have been integrated. The Dubti-Ayrobera system is located along the central axis of the graben. Available data, acquired in the last three decades, comprise more than two thousands gravity and magnetic stations, 229 magnetotelluric stations and structural-geological and geochemical observations. The Alalobeda system is located along the SW flank of the graben, at about 25 km from the Dubti-Ayrobera system and has been very recently studied by means of gravimetric (300 stations), magnetotelluric and TDEM (140 stations) geological and geochemical surveys. The new residual magnetic anomaly map has been used to map the younger normal polarity basalt distribution and infer the location of the unknown main rift axis. The bedrock surface resulting by the 3D inversion of the new residual Bouguer anomaly enlightens the main normal faults hindered by sediments and the secondary structures represented by horsts and grabens. The three-dimensional resistivity models allow mapping the sedimentary infill of the graben, fracture zones in the Afar Stradoids bedrock and

  7. Child survival revolutions revisited. Lessons learned from Bangladesh, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Persson, Lars Åke; Rahman, Anisur; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Musafili, Aimable; Hoa, Dinh Phuong

    2017-03-12

    Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multi-sectorial development efforts and community engagement CONCLUSION: Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new - magnetometric - potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates.

  9. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  10. Socioeconomic factors and vulnerability to outbreaks of leptospirosis in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I; Espinal, Marcos A

    2014-08-15

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the "causes of outbreaks" and "causes of cases".

  11. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  12. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  13. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  14. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  15. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  16. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  17. FINESSE Spaceward Bound - Teacher Engagement in NASA Science and Exploration Field Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. J. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Sheely, T.; Karlin, J.; Johnson, S.; Rosemore, A.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Lim, D. S. S.; Garry, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars. The FINESSE science program is infused with leading edge exploration concepts since "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." The FINESSE education and public outreach program leverages the team's field investigations and educational partnerships to share the excitement of lunar, Near Earth Asteroid, and martian moon science and exploration locally, nationally, and internationally. The FINESSE education plan is in line with all of NASA's Science Mission Directorate science education objectives, particularly to enable STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education and leverage efforts through partnerships.

  18. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Hughes, S.; Kobs, S.; Garry, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  19. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Garry, W. B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K. V.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  20. Revolution in Field Science: Apollo Approach to Inaccessible Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.

    2010-07-01

    The extraordinary challenge mission designers, scientists, and engineers, faced in planning the first human expeditions to the surface of another solar system body led to the development of a distinctive and even revolutionary approach to field work. Not only were those involved required to deal effectively with the extreme limitation in resources available for and access to a target as remote as the lunar surface; they were required to developed a rigorous approach to science activities ranging from geological field work to deploying field instruments. Principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work are discussed here, including the highly integrated, intensive, and lengthy science planning, simulation, and astronaut training; the development of a systematic scheme for description and documentation of geological sites and samples; and a flexible yet disciplined methodology for site documentation and sample collection. The capability for constant communication with a ‘backroom’ of geological experts who make requests and weigh in on surface operations was innovative and very useful in encouraging rapid dissemination of information to the greater community in general. An extensive archive of the Apollo era science activity related documents provides evidence of the principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work. The Apollo Surface Journal allows analysis of the astronaut’s performance in terms of capability for traveling on foot, documentation and sampling of field stations, and manual operation of tools and instruments, all as a function of time. The application of these analysis as ‘lessons learned’ for planning the next generation of human or robotic field science activities on the Moon and elsewhere are considered here as well.

  1. Exploring the solar coronal magnetic field using variational calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Ramit; Kumar, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The topological properties of magnetic field has an ubiquitous influence on various energetic processes in the solar atmosphere. For example, the preservation of magnetic topology in a near-ideal magnetofluid characterized by high magnetic Reynolds number is believed to produce discontinuities in an otherwise continuous magnetic field. The subsequent reconnection of magnetic field lines across the corresponding surface of discontinuity is believed to be one of the possible mechanisms to heat the solar corona to its million degree temperature. Any understanding of coronal magnetic field then should involve appropriate topological constraints in their proper physical context. The calculus of variations provides a powerful mathematical tool to include preservation of these constraints in the framework of the problem under consideration. In this work we pose a variational problem based on two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and relevant to the solar corona. The Euler-Lagrange equations obtained are of double curl in nature and support non-zero plasma-beta along with mass flow of the magnetofluid. These equations are solved in Cartesian coordinates utilizing a geometry compatible to the solar atmosphere, and a basic comparative study of the non force-free, force-free, and potential magnetic field obtained as solutions of the same Euler-Lagrange equations is presented.

  2. Bose-Einstein condensates and scalar fields; exploring the similitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, E.; Macías, A.; Núñez, D.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the the remarkable analogy between the classical Klein-Gordon equation for a test scalar field in a flat and also in a curved background, and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped by an external potential. We stress here that the solution associated with the Klein-Gordon equation (KG) in a flat space time has the same mathematical structure, under certain circumstances, to those obtained for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, that is, a static soliton solution. Additionally, Thomas-Fermi approximation is applied to the 3-dimensional version of this equation, in order to calculate some thermodynamical properties of the system in curved a space-time back ground. Finally, we stress the fact that a gravitational background provides, in some cases, a kind of confining potential for the scalar field, allowing us to remarks even more the possible connection between scalar fields and the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation.

  3. Bose–Einstein condensates and scalar fields; exploring the similitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Castellanos, E.; Macías, A.; Núñez, D.

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the the remarkable analogy between the classical Klein–Gordon equation for a test scalar field in a flat and also in a curved background, and the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for a Bose–Einstein condensate trapped by an external potential. We stress here that the solution associated with the Klein–Gordon equation (KG) in a flat space time has the same mathematical structure, under certain circumstances, to those obtained for the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, that is, a static soliton solution. Additionally, Thomas–Fermi approximation is applied to the 3–dimensional version of this equation, in order to calculate some thermodynamical properties of the system in curved a space–time back ground. Finally, we stress the fact that a gravitational background provides, in some cases, a kind of confining potential for the scalar field, allowing us to remarks even more the possible connection between scalar fields and the phenomenon of Bose–Einstein condensation.

  4. Embracing "Fields of Influence" while Exploring Alternative Paths of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiack, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses narrative and reflective methodologies to examine pedagogical practices that enable the production of meaningful relationships. I suggest that the term "fields of influence" encapsulates practices that enable some people to influence relationships with others. The narrative invites readers to consider how the embodied qualities…

  5. Effect of hydrothermal circulation on slab dehydration for the subduction zone of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; Harris, Robert N.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of subducting oceanic plates is associated with mantle wedge melting, arc volcanism, intraslab earthquakes through dehydration embrittlement, and the flux of water into the mantle. In this study, we present two-dimensional thermal models of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone to investigate dehydration reactions within the subducting Cocos plate. Seismic and geochemical observations indicate that the mantle wedge below Nicaragua is more hydrated than that below Costa Rica. These trends have been hypothesized to be due to a variation in either the thermal state or the hydration state of the subducting slab. Despite only small variations in plate age along strike, heat flow measurements near the deformation front reveal significantly lower heat flow offshore Nicaragua than offshore Costa Rica. These measurements are interpreted to reflect an along-strike change in the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. We parameterize thermal models in terms of efficient and inefficient hydrothermal circulation and explore their impact on slab temperature in the context of dehydration models. Relative to models without fluid flow, efficient hydrothermal circulation reduces slab temperature by as much at 60 °C to depths of ∼75 km and increases the predicted depth of eclogitization by ∼15 km. Inefficient hydrothermal circulation has a commensurately smaller influence on slab temperatures and the depth of eclogitization. For both regions, the change in eclogitization depth better fits the observed intraslab crustal seismicity, but there is not a strong contrast in the slab thermal structure or location of the main dehydration reactions. Consistent with other studies, these results suggest that observed along-strike differences in mantle wedge hydration may be better explained by a northwestward increase in the hydration state of the Cocos plate before it is subducted.

  6. Health services reforms in revolutionary Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Taboada, E

    1984-01-01

    Before the Nicaraguan revolution of 1979, access to health services was largely limited to the affluent sectors of the urban population and the minority of workers with social security coverage. Repeated attempts at reform by organized medicine were ineffective. Since the revolution, a tremendous expansion in health services has occurred. The national health system receives approximately one-third of its funds from the social security system. Steadily increasing equity in access is a result of the promotion of primary care, health campaigns involving up to 10 per cent of the general population as volunteers, the use of paramedical aides, and foreign assistance. Private practice nevertheless remains strong. In the coming years, several complex issues must be examined, including: a balance in the number of nurses and doctors trained, the role of private practice, and the relationship of the Ministry of Health to the social security system. Further progress in health reforms may be delayed by the defensive war which Nicaragua is fighting on its northern and southern borders. Despite emergent health problems in the war zones, most of the innovative aspects of the health system remain intact as of this writing. PMID:6476169

  7. Characterization of multiresistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Castro, I; Bergeron, M G; Chamberland, S

    1993-01-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics in Nicaragua raises concerns about the resulting levels of susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria. This is the first study that characterizes 18 strains of N. gonorrhoeae isolated in Nicaragua (1989), for their antibiotic susceptibility. Strains were predominantly of the auxotype/serotype Proto/PIB. There was no difference in lipopolysaccharides profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE for all strains. Variable expression of the PII outer membrane protein was not associated to antimicrobial resistance. All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, rifampin and cefoxitin. The strains were classified in five groups based on plasmid profiles. A total of 78% of the isolates were penicillinase-producing (PPNG) and 22% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (TRNG). One PPNG strain showed a concomitant decreased of penicillin binding to penicillin-binding protein 2. These randomly chosen isolates of N. gonorrhoeae from Nicaragua possess high levels of resistance to multiple families of drugs.

  8. Moon Exploration from "apollo" Magnetic and Gravity Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, Andrey

    Recently, the great value is given to various researches of the Moon, as nearest nature satellite of the Earth, because there is preparation for forthcoming starts on the Moon of the American, European, Russian, Chinese, Indian new Orbiters and Landers. Designing of International Lu-nar bases is planned also. Therefore, in the near future the series of the questions connected with placing of International Lunar bases which coordinates substantially should to be connected with heterogeneity of the internal structure of the Moon can become especially interesting. If in the Moon it will be possible to find large congestions of water ice and those chemical elements which stocks in the Earth are limited this area of the Moon can become perspective for Inter-national Lunar bases. To solve a question of research of the deep structure of the Moon in the locations of International Lunar bases, competently, without excessive expenses for start new various under the form of the Lunar orbit of automatic space vehicles (polar, equatorial, inclined to the rotation axis) and their altitude of flight, which also not always were connected with investigation programs of measured fields (video observation, radio-frequency sounding, mag-netic, gravity), is possible if already from the available information of space vehicles APOLLO, SMART1, KAGUYA, LCROSS, LRO, CHANDRAYAAN-1, CHANG'E-1 it will be possible to analyse simultaneously some various fields, at different altitudes of measuring over the surface (20-300 km) of the Moon. The experimental data of the radial component magnetic field and gravity field the Moon measured at different altitudes, in its equatorial part have been analysed for the research of the deep structure of the Moon. This data has been received as a result of start of space vehicles -APOLLO-15 and APOLLO-16 (USA), and also the Russian space vehicles "LUNOHOD". Authors had been used the data of a magnetic field of the Moon at flight altitude 160, 100, 75, 30, 0 km

  9. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar ‘INTA Rojo’ and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  10. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  11. Field Survey - A Journey of Exploration and Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Kiran

    2017-04-01

    You can teach a student a lesson a day but if you teach him to learn by creating curiosity ,he will continue the learning process for life.This abstract is a manifestation of my innate desire as an educator to build students cognitive level of thinking and refine their processes to gain knowledge from the environment ,process it and put it to optimum use. This field survey has been planned and conducted for students of 12th grade (+16yrs). At this level students are introduced to various aspects of Human geography and how human intervention has harnessed environmental resources for its growth and development. They are also encouraged to observe how humans have adapted to the environment and in this process also modified it to satisfy their needs and demands. Students are also sensitized to the understand how geography has evolved as a scientific subject of enquiry. Hence it calls for a deeper understanding and analysis of issues from the local to the global level. Through the pedagogical approach of field survey, they have been oriented to the process of conducting Research -as a well-defined procedure. It involves three phases 1. Planning and preliminary preparation before the survey, 2. During the field survey 3. After the survey compilation, computation and presentation. This activity has been planned over a period of 3 months and as of now the topic and area of case study have been selected. The general concern was studying low rainfall and agriculturally less productive regions hence a case study of a drought prone village- Hiware Bazaar in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra was undertaken. The site Hiware Bazar has been selected as it is based on the principles of sustainable development and water shed development programme to combat severe drought. The statement of the problem has been defined along with the outlined objectives ,scope of study and the time frame needed to gather the information. The field visit spanned over 5 days for data collection has

  12. A pocket guide to explorations of the defensin field.

    PubMed

    Selsted, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are among the most ancient effectors of host defense. Intersecting lines of research demonstrate that life forms as diverse as plants, insects, and vertebrates employ antimicrobial peptides to kill or neutralize a wide variety of microbial species. Defensins, of which there are three structural sub-families, constitute a major category of host defense peptides in vertebrates. Presented here is a brief history of the emergence of the defensin field with an emphasis on the role of these peptides in mammalian innate immunity.

  13. Sans Spring Field Exploration Model, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    The existing model for Oligocene volcanic reservoir production in Railroad Valley was expanded with the discovery of oil at Sans Spring field by CENEX, et. al in March, 1993. Prior to drilling the CENEX No. 5-14 Federal (SWNW, section 14, T7N-R56E), economic production had only been established along the east and west borders of the valley, in structures associated with large offset normal faults. The location of Sans Spring field is on an east-west structural high that separates the productive central Railroad Valley sub-basin from the as yet unproductive southern sub-basin. Gravity, regional and detailed conventional 2-D seismic data coverage was employed to define the structure. This geophysical data further suggested that the structure had remained relatively undeformed, providing seal and trap integrity, during the post Oligocene extensional structural development of Railroad Valley. The location also met a critical criterion of being along a potential hydrocarbon migration pathway for oil generated by the Mississippian Chainman shale source rocks. The discovery well found reservoir development in a moderately welded and altered rhyolitic ignimbrite, with an IPF 1253 BOPD. The trap is an angular unconformity, with truncation to the west that has been modified and complicated by cut and fill channeling and faulting. Definition of the structural configuration, fault geometries and offsets has been greatly enhanced with the acquisition of a 3-D seismic survey. However, the data volume does not as yet provide an unambiguous solution to stratigraphic variations.

  14. Magnetotelluric Exploration of the Sipoholon Geothermal Field, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasari, S. W.; Muñoz, G.; Kholid, M.; Suhanto, E.; Ritter, O.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements have been carried out at 96 sites around the Sipoholon Geothermal field, in the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. The Sipoholon geothermal field is a low enthalpy geothermal system located in a pull-apart basin controlled by the Sumatra fault system. One of the main difficulties in understanding this system is an apparently random distribution of temperatures in 15 hot springs in the area. High levels of electromagnetic noise with several high voltage power lines in a densely populated area is challenging for natural source MT measurements. Noise at long periods and in the dead band (1s to 10s) could be removed with robust remote reference processing and high frequency noise could be suppressed with a delay line filter. After dimensionality and directionality analysis of the data, we found a regional strike direction consistent with the Sumatra fault. We present results of 2D inversion of the data along several profiles perpendicular to the main strike direction. Modeling results indicate a shallow (< 1000 m) low resistivity layer, zones of high resistivity at intermediate depths (approximately 500 to 5000 m), and regions of low resistivity in the depth range of 2 to 4 km. These deep zones of low resistivity could be caused by hydrothermal alteration or hydrothermal fluids. The shallow low resistivity correlates spatially with the graben areas of the pull-apart system and is likely associated with (unconsolidated) sedimentary fill.

  15. Field flow fractionation techniques to explore the "nano-world".

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia

    2017-04-01

    Field flow fractionation (FFF) techniques are used to successfully characterize several nanomaterials by sizing nano-entities and producing information about the aggregation/agglomeration state of nanoparticles. By coupling FFF techniques to specific detectors, researchers can determine particle-size distributions (PSDs), expressed as mass-based or number-based PSDs. This review considers FFF applications in the food, biomedical, and environmental sectors, mostly drawn from the past 4 y. It thus underlines the prominent role of asymmetrical flow FFF within the FFF family. By concisely comparing FFF techniques with other techniques suitable for sizing nano-objects, the advantages and the disadvantages of these instruments become clear. A consideration of select recent publications illustrates the state of the art of some lesser-known FFF techniques and innovative instrumental set-ups.

  16. Eifel field operation campaign supporting Moon Mars and NEO exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Offringa, Marloes

    2016-07-01

    As follow-up on the 2009 Eifel field campaign new field tests with our ExoGeoLab lander were conducted in November 2015 and February 2016. The two phase campaign was used to test the usability of a mock-up lander as test bench for experiments and its remote control in a Moon, Mars analogue environment. In a real mission such a lander could be used in a robotic or manned mission as scientific tool for scientists on Earth to do preliminary study on in-situ collected rocks. This could be useful for example for a sample return mission where scientists on Earth can determine if sample is interesting enough for a more detailed study. The prototype lander is one of the components of the ExoGeoLab project from ESA and ILEWG. Several student projects have prepared the lander for a geological field campaign in lunar and Martian analogue terrain. The lander can be divided in three sections which are used to store several components of the lander. The lower compartment can be used to store a rover or used as laboratory. The middle compartment is used for the lander computer(s), spectrometers and the associated cables. The top plate is used for a telescope which in our case is used to observe the environment around the lander and to guide astronauts during their EVA. As closest volcanic are there is chosen to do the Eifel area, Germany. Several stages of volcanism from Devon till Quaternary resulted in a variation of rocks which is analogue to volcanic rocks from Moon, Mars and other near Earth objects. Several topics we would like to test were pre-defined. Functional tests and demo were performed at European astronaut centre prior to the campaign. The latest updates with respect to the remote control were tested. The pressurised transport vehicle was equipped as remote base for (scientific) support during the campaign. The new instrument set-up were tested and some spectra were measured on collected rocks. The telescope was used to study the environment around the lander

  17. Exploration 3-D Seismic Field Test/Native Tribes Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon

    1999-04-27

    To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.

  18. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-10-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of U.S. organizations sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  19. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  20. Relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields and particle precipitation as observed by dynamics Explorer-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Hoffman, R. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Burch, J. L.; Winningham, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields, and particle fluxes are determined using observations from the polar orbiting low-altitude satellite Dynamics Explorer-2. It is shown that the north-south electric field and the east-west magnetic field components are usually highly correlated in the field-aligned current regions. This proportionality observationally proves that the field-aligned current equals the divergence of the height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen current in the meridional plane to a high degree of approximation. As a general rule, in the evening sector the upward field-aligned currents flow in the boundary plasma sheet region and the downward currents flow in the central plasma sheet region. The current densities determined independently from the plasma and magnetic field measurements are compared. Although the current densities deduced from the two methods are in general agreement, the degree and extent of the agreement vary in individual cases.

  1. Relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields, and particle precipitation as observed by Dynamics Explorer-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Hoffman, R. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Burch, J. L.; Winningham, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields, and particle fluxes are determined using observations from the polar orbiting low-altitude satellite Dynamics Explorer-2. It is shown that the north-south electric field and the east-west magnetic field components are usually highly correlated in the field-aligned current regions. This proportionality observationally proves that the field-aligned current equals the divergence of the height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen current in the meridional plane to a high degree of approximation. As a general rule, in the evening sector the upward field-aligned currents flow in the boundary plasma sheet region and the downward currents flow in the central plasma sheet region. The current densities determined independently from the plasma and magnetic field measurements are compared. Although the current densities deduced from the two methods are in general agreement, the degree and extent of the agreement vary in individual cases.

  2. Geology and eruptive mechanisms of Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    Results of detailed geologic field mapping and analysis of eruptive mechanisms at Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua are presented. Eruptions began at least 50,000 and possibly 460,000 y.b.p. The Las Sierras Formation, regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, forms the local basement. A central vent of group or vents in the developing Masaya volcanic complex produced diverse deposits, all of basaltic composition. Eruption of a pyroclastic flow-surge sequence at 2250-6500 y.b.p. culminated in wholesale collapse of a caldera with a volume of 15.3 km/sup 3/. The bulk volume of the ignimbrite is 2.2-3.4 kkm/sup 3/ and the surge deposit is 4.9-5.5 km/sup 3/. Pre-historic lava production rates of 1.9-5.5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//year are similar to rates at other volcanoes but 26-76 times greater than the historic rate of production. The average lava effusion rate of 32 m/sup 3//sec during the 1772 eruption is at least an order of magnitude greater than observed effusion rates at other Central American volcanoes, and helps explain the unusual shield-like morphology of the volcano. Pyroclastic eruptions of several types have played an important role in the evolution of the volcano. Fissure-type eruptions, unknown elsewhere in Central America, have created numerous ash and scoria deposits. Two widespread scoria-fall deposits, locally known as the Fontana Lapilli an San Judas Formation, are the first documented plinian airfall deposts of basaltic composition. The Masaya-type caldera is redefined as a caldera associated with voluminous explosive eruptions of much less than 100 km/sup 3/ of mafic magma from a summit vent.

  3. Nicaragua: The Values, Attitudes and Beliefs of its Educated Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard J.

    The study examines the attitudes of young people in the secondary schools and universities of Nicaragua toward politics, government, religion, education, and work. The report also looks at teacher's attitudes towards education. Over 50 instruments which provide information concerning attitudes, values, and beliefs were sent to random samples of…

  4. The Nicaragua Canal:Security And Economic Boom Or Bust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    trans/. 12 Rachel Nuwer, “Nicaragua Plans to Bisect the Country With a Massive Canal.” 13 John Daly, “Naval Choke Points and Command of the Sea ,” World Politics...corredorinteroceanico.com/main_i.asp?clc=467. Daly, John. “Naval Choke Points and Command of the Sea .” World Politics Review, 2 March 2009. http

  5. Reavistamientos de Corvus corax en las tierras altas de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Francisco J. Muñoz; Wayne J. Arendt; Marvin A. Tórrez; Liliana Chavarría; Arlen Pinell.

    2009-01-01

    The common raven (Corvus corax) is one of the most widespread naturally occurring birds in the world. Thus, from a conservation and management perspective, it is of minimum concern. Yet, in Nicaragua, observations of this species are few and not well documented. After a lapse of almost 40 years since the last written report, we describe recent sightings from the...

  6. Nicaragua: The Values, Attitudes and Beliefs of its Educated Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard J.

    The study examines the attitudes of young people in the secondary schools and universities of Nicaragua toward politics, government, religion, education, and work. The report also looks at teacher's attitudes towards education. Over 50 instruments which provide information concerning attitudes, values, and beliefs were sent to random samples of…

  7. Education in Nicaragua: What Difference Can a Revolution Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sheila

    1987-01-01

    To stimulate development in Nicaragua it was necessary for the Sandinistas to raise the education level of its populace. This was accomplished through a national literacy crusade which decreased the illiteracy rate by 37.1 per cent. The crusade showed the importance of incorporating popular organizations into the process of change. (VM)

  8. First record of Tricoloured Munia (Lonchura malacca) for Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    W. J. Arendt; O. Lane; M.A. Torrez; J.C. Gamez Castellon

    2013-01-01

    We report the first published record of Tricolored Munia (Lonchura malacca) for Nicaragua, thus adding to our knowledge of its distribution in the New World. Escaped cage birds have established multi-focal feral populations, thereby expediting the species’ range expansion in Mesoamerica from Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama to northwestern South America (...

  9. Nicaragua: Political-Economy as Communication and Media Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    The Nicaraguan people, through a successful revolution and subsequent elections, have chosen a communist government. This paper, using an historical-descriptive methodology, examines the status of Nicaragua under the current political-economy that prevails in that nation. Political-economic statements made and published in the press that support…

  10. Learning from Each Other--Inspiration and Example from Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Audrey

    1993-01-01

    Reviews community development projects in Nicaragua that use the multiplier effect in which people learn from each other. Projects include volunteer community health promoters, women's family gardens cooperatives, soil and water conservation programs, a women's collective, and a wheelchair repair workshop. (SK)

  11. Household Structure and Short-Run Economic Change in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul; Stecklov, Guy; Todd, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    During the economic crises Nicaragua suffered between 2000 and 2002, a conditional cash transfer program targeting poor households began operating. Using panel data on 1,397 households from the program's experimentally designed evaluation, we examined the impact of the program on household structure. Our findings suggest that the program enabled…

  12. Educational Provision for Ethnic Minority Groups in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines effect of Nicaragua's 1979 revolution on education, especially for minority Miskito Indians. Summarizes history of Indian culture in region. Suggests Sandinista government began emphasizing bilingual, bicultural education in 1982-83, sparked by deteriorating economic situation. Concludes multicultural education program, while hindered by…

  13. Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

    2004-01-01

    In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

  14. South Africa, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Home: Understanding the Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Zala

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the historical, social, cultural, economic, and political connections that make the struggles of the people of South Africa, Nicaragua, and El Salvador relevant to the lives of Black people in the United States. Considers the U.S. government's role with respect to each of these countries. (DMM)

  15. Learning from Each Other--Inspiration and Example from Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Audrey

    1993-01-01

    Reviews community development projects in Nicaragua that use the multiplier effect in which people learn from each other. Projects include volunteer community health promoters, women's family gardens cooperatives, soil and water conservation programs, a women's collective, and a wheelchair repair workshop. (SK)

  16. Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

    2004-01-01

    In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

  17. Crew Field Notes: A New Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Evans, Cynthia; Eppler, Dean; Gernhardt, Michael; Bluethmann, William; Graf, Jodi; Bleisath, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field tests of 2010 focused on the simultaneous operation of two rovers, a historical first. The complexity and data volume of two rovers operating simultaneously presented significant operational challenges for the on-site Mission Control Center, including the real time science support function. The latter was split into two "tactical" back rooms, one for each rover, that supported the real time traverse activities; in addition, a "strategic" science team convened overnight to synthesize the day's findings, and to conduct the strategic forward planning of the next day or days as detailed in [1, 2]. Current DRATS simulations and operations differ dramatically from those of Apollo, including the most evolved Apollo 15-17 missions, due to the advent of digital technologies. Modern digital still and video cameras, combined with the capability for real time transmission of large volumes of data, including multiple video streams, offer the prospect for the ground based science support room(s) in Mission Control to witness all crew activities in unprecedented detail and in real time. It was not uncommon during DRATS 2010 that each tactical science back room simultaneously received some 4-6 video streams from cameras mounted on the rover or the crews' backpacks. Some of the rover cameras are controllable PZT (pan, zoom, tilt) devices that can be operated by the crews (during extensive drives) or remotely by the back room (during EVAs). Typically, a dedicated "expert" and professional geologist in the tactical back room(s) controls, monitors and analyses a single video stream and provides the findings to the team, commonly supported by screen-saved images. It seems obvious, that the real time comprehension and synthesis of the verbal descriptions, extensive imagery, and other information (e.g. navigation data; time lines etc) flowing into the science support room(s) constitute a fundamental challenge to future mission

  18. Drilling and Automation for Mars Exploration - 3rd Field Test on Devon Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Davis, K.; Glass, B.

    2007-03-01

    The third Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration field test took place inside the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic in July 2006. This season's objective was to demonstrate autonomous drilling capabilities while drilling with a

  19. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (what, again?): A Senior Field Geologist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    Lunar geological exploration should be founded on key elements that form an integrated operational concept, including mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets, and field tools and IT assets.

  20. Global mental health: transformative capacity building in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Sapag, Jaime C.; Herrera, Andrés; Trainor, Ruth; Caldera, Trinidad; Khenti, Akwatu

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health is increasingly recognised as integral to good public health, but this area continues to lack sufficient planning, resources, and global strategy. It is a pressing concern in Latin America, where social determinants of health aggravate existing inequities in access to health services. Nicaragua faces serious mental health needs and challenges. One key strategy for addressing gaps in mental health services is building capacity at the primary healthcare and system levels. Objective Using the framework of best practice literature, this article analyses the four-year collaborative process between the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua in León (UNAN-León) and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Canada, which is aimed at improving mental healthcare in Nicaragua. Design Based on a critical analysis of evaluation reports, key documents, and discussion among partners, the central steps of the collaboration are analysed and main successes and challenges identified. Results A participatory needs assessment identified local strengths and weaknesses, expected outcomes regarding competencies, and possible methodologies and recommendations for the development of a comprehensive capacity-building programme. The partners delivered two international workshops on mental health and addiction with an emphasis on primary healthcare. More recently, an innovative Diploma and Master programme was launched to foster interprofessional leadership and effective action to address mental health and addiction needs. Collaborative activities have taken place in Nicaragua and Canada. Discussion To date, international collaboration between Nicaragua and CAMH has been successful in achieving the jointly defined goals. The process has led to mutual knowledge sharing, strong networking, and extensive educational opportunities. Evidence of effective and respectful global health capacity building is provided. Lessons learned and implications for global

  1. Global mental health: transformative capacity building in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sapag, Jaime C; Herrera, Andrés; Trainor, Ruth; Caldera, Trinidad; Khenti, Akwatu

    2013-09-30

    Mental health is increasingly recognised as integral to good public health, but this area continues to lack sufficient planning, resources, and global strategy. It is a pressing concern in Latin America, where social determinants of health aggravate existing inequities in access to health services. Nicaragua faces serious mental health needs and challenges. One key strategy for addressing gaps in mental health services is building capacity at the primary healthcare and system levels. Using the framework of best practice literature, this article analyses the four-year collaborative process between the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua in León (UNAN-León) and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Canada, which is aimed at improving mental healthcare in Nicaragua. Based on a critical analysis of evaluation reports, key documents, and discussion among partners, the central steps of the collaboration are analysed and main successes and challenges identified. A participatory needs assessment identified local strengths and weaknesses, expected outcomes regarding competencies, and possible methodologies and recommendations for the development of a comprehensive capacity-building programme. The partners delivered two international workshops on mental health and addiction with an emphasis on primary healthcare. More recently, an innovative Diploma and Master programme was launched to foster interprofessional leadership and effective action to address mental health and addiction needs. Collaborative activities have taken place in Nicaragua and Canada. To date, international collaboration between Nicaragua and CAMH has been successful in achieving the jointly defined goals. The process has led to mutual knowledge sharing, strong networking, and extensive educational opportunities. Evidence of effective and respectful global health capacity building is provided. Lessons learned and implications for global health action are identified and discussed.

  2. Assessing the Applicability of Earthquake Early Warning in Nicaragua.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massin, F.; Clinton, J. F.; Behr, Y.; Strauch, W.; Cauzzi, C.; Boese, M.; Talavera, E.; Tenorio, V.; Ramirez, J.

    2016-12-01

    Nicaragua, like much of Central America, suffers from frequent damaging earthquakes (6 M7+ earthquakes occurred in the last 100 years). Thrust events occur at the Middle America Trench where the Cocos plate subducts by 72-81 mm/yr eastward beneath the Caribbean plate. Shallow crustal events occur on-shore, with potential extensive damage as demonstrated in 1972 by a M6.2 earthquake, 5 km beneath Managua. This seismotectonic setting is challenging for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) because the target events derive from both the offshore seismicity, with potentially large lead times but uncertain locations, and shallow seismicity in close proximity to densely urbanized areas, where an early warning would be short if available at all. Nevertheless, EEW could reduce Nicaragua's earthquake exposure. The Swiss Development and Cooperation Fund and the Nicaraguan Government have funded a collaboration between the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) at ETH Zurich and the Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER) in Managua to investigate and build a prototype EEW system for Nicaragua and the wider region. In this contribution, we present the potential of EEW to effectively alert Nicaragua and the neighbouring regions. We model alert time delays using all available seismic stations (existing and planned) in the region, as well as communication and processing delays (observed and optimal) to estimate current and potential performances of EEW alerts. Theoretical results are verified with the output from the Virtual Seismologist in SeisComP3 (VS(SC3)). VS(SC3) is implemented in the INETER SeisComP3 system for real-time operation and as an offline instance, that simulates real-time operation, to record processing delays of playback events. We compare our results with similar studies for Europe, California and New Zealand. We further highlight current capabilities and challenges for providing EEW alerts in Nicaragua. We also discuss how combining different algorithms, like e.g. VS

  3. Temperament in bullheads: do laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables correlate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel

    2009-10-01

    The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead ( Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.

  4. Temperament in bullheads: do laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables correlate?

    PubMed

    Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel

    2009-10-01

    The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead (Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.

  5. Changes in Childhood Diarrhea Incidence in Nicaragua Following 3 Years of Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Dominik, Rosalie; Cao, Hongyuan; Shah, Naman K.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Moreno, Gilberto; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Background While the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the vaccine’s effectiveness under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. In October, 2006, Nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. To assess the impact of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of León, Nicaragua. Methods We extracted data on diarrhea episodes from health ministry records. We used scaled Poisson regression models to estimate diarrhea incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the period following the program’s implementation to the period before implementation. Results Following implementation of the immunization program, diarrhea episodes among infants were reduced (IRR 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–1.02) during the rotavirus season, but appear to have increased during other months. Conclusions While the immunization program appears effective in reducing diarrhea episodes during the rotavirus season, a large burden of diarrhea persists during the remainder of the year. PMID:20881511

  6. Rehabilitation of Reading and Visual Exploration in Visual Field Disorders: Transfer or Specificity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Susanne; Heywood, Charles A.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Dauner, Ruth; Zihl, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Reading and visual exploration impairments in unilateral homonymous visual field disorders are frequent and disabling consequences of acquired brain injury. Compensatory therapies have been developed, which allow patients to regain sufficient reading and visual exploration performance through systematic oculomotor training. However, it is still…

  7. Rehabilitation of Reading and Visual Exploration in Visual Field Disorders: Transfer or Specificity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Susanne; Heywood, Charles A.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Dauner, Ruth; Zihl, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Reading and visual exploration impairments in unilateral homonymous visual field disorders are frequent and disabling consequences of acquired brain injury. Compensatory therapies have been developed, which allow patients to regain sufficient reading and visual exploration performance through systematic oculomotor training. However, it is still…

  8. Developments in health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Halperin, D C; Garfield, R

    1982-08-05

    The 4 year war that resulted in the overthrow of Nicaragua's Somoza dictatorship cost 50,000 lives. In 1972 an earthquake killed 20,000 with 10,000 injured. Under Somoza health conditions had been worse than in neighboring countries with 35% of the urban and 95% of the rural population lacking access to potable water and only about 10% of the population receiving adequate medical care. 1/3 of the people contracted malaria at least once in their lives and 46-83% of the children were malnourished. Life expectancy at the time of the revolution was 52.9 years, infant mortality was between 120-140/1000. Since July 1979, however, about 70% of the people have regular medical care and health care education campaigns are widespread. Public health programs have administered vaccinations to thousands of children and literacy programs have incorporated elementary health principles into their curricula. However, despite these efforts malaria continued to rise from 4.4 people/1000 in 1978 to 9.4/1000 in 1980. After an antimalarial drug campaign in 1981, a 98% decline was noted in new cases of malaria. Poliomyelitis and tuberculosis prevention campaigns are likewise effective and oral rehydration centers have been set up to combat infant diarrhea. Having recently experienced a baby boom, a campaign to disseminate family planning information is being planned. Technical and professional health training has been expanded as well with a second medical school opening in Managua in 1981 along with growth in the amount of nursing school students. International aid has been crucial in health care with more than 24 countries sending medical supplies and personnel. Lack of equipment and facilities is holding back medical advances and there is a dilemma concerning physicians' time spent at public versus their private practices. Drugs remain the largest health import for the country even though their pharmaceutical manufacturers have increased production. 5 new hospitals are being built with

  9. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  10. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  11. Self-Guided Field Explorations: Integrating Earth Science into Students' Lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Kirkby, S.

    2013-12-01

    Self-guided field explorations are a simple way to transform an earth science class into a more pedagogically effective experience. Previous experience demonstrated that self-guided student explorations of museum and aquarium exhibits were both extremely popular and remarkably effective. That success led our program to test an expansion of the concept to include self-guided student explorations in outdoor field settings. Preliminary assessment indicates these self-guided field explorations are nearly as popular with students as the museum and aquarium explorations and are as pedagogically effective. Student gains on post-instruction assessment match or exceed those seen in instructor-assisted, hands-on, small group laboratory activities and completely eclipse gains achieved by traditional lecture instruction. As importantly, self-guided field explorations provide a way to integrate field experiences into large enrollment courses where the sheer scale of class trips makes them logistically impossible. This expands course breadth, integrating new topics that could not be as effectively covered by the original class structure. Our introductory program assessed two models of self-guided field explorations. A walking/cycling exploration of the Saint Anthony Falls area, a mile from campus, focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the geology behind the waterfalls' evolution as well as its subsequent social and economic impacts on human history. A second exploration focuses on the campus area geology, including its building stones as well as its landscape evolution. In both explorations, the goal was to integrate geology with the students' broader understanding of the world they live in. Although the explorations' creation requires a significant commitment, once developed, self-guided explorations are surprisingly low maintenance. These explorations provide a model of a simple, highly effective pedagogical tool that is

  12. Chemical changes during alteration of volcanic rocks and gold ore formation, La Libertad, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darce, M.; Levi, B.; Nyström, J. O.

    A chemical comparison between altered and unaltered basic lavas from a Tertiary epithermal gold deposit at La Libertad and its surroundings in central Nicaragua shows that chemical changes associated with the geothermal field type of alteration centered at the mining district reach more than 5 km away from it. Titanium seems to have been immobile, H 2O, CO 2, K, and S have been added, and Ni, Mg, and Cl partly lost from the fossil geothermal system. Gold, originally concentrated in the glass of basic lavas, was leached during zeolite facies conditions and precipitated with silica in fractures, forming veins in the center of the geothermal field. An estimate shows that the amount of Au released during the alteration was sufficient to form the La Libertad deposit.

  13. A new genus of moss inhabiting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Nicaragua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicaltica new genus and new species (N. selvanegra), from Nicaragua are described and illustrated. Nicaltica is compared to Kiskeya Konstantinov and Chamorro, Monotalla Bechyne, and Normaltica Konstantinov....

  14. Shape evolution of arc volcanoes, a case study of Concepción and Maderas (Nicaragua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.; Mathieu, L.; Cecchi, E.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanoes change shape as they grow due to the interplay of several processes such as eruption style, intrusion, vent migration, erosion, and through the effects of tectonic and gravitational deformation. Their shapes can thus hold clues as to their volcano-tectonic state and their structural evolution. We have recently carried out a study on volcano shape evolution by the morphometric analyses of 115 volcanoes from Central America and the southern Central Andes using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) (Grosse et al., 2009, Geology). The study allowed us to obtain a classification of volcanic edifices (cones, sub-cones, and massifs) and to recognize several evolutionary trends, which seem to be mainly related to magma flux, edifice strength and structural / tectonic conditions. In order to test some of the hypotheses on specific cases, we here explore the morphometric evolution of the two volcanoes that make up the island of Ometepe (Nicaragua), Concepción and Maderas. From basic geological mapping we have a detailed knowledge of the stratigraphy, lithology and architecture of these two volcanoes. Both volcanoes have experienced or are experiencing gravitational spreading, but they differ in that Concepción is a rapidly growing active cone, whereas Maderas is a squat and dormant sub-cone. In addition to the SRTM DEM, we use a higher resolution 30-meter DEM from the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) and combine the morphometric analysis with our field data. We find clear differences in the morphology of the two volcanoes and more subtle variations within discrete sectors of each volcano that are associated with local lava/tephra ratios, the prevailing winds, eruption and erosion rates, and gravitational spreading. The effects of gravitational spreading on the morphometry of the volcanoes are further investigated by comparing with 3-D analogue experiments. This specific case study shows how detailed

  15. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  16. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  17. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  18. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer 2013 Field Season on the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; Skarke, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    During the 2013 field season, Okeanos Explorer used its suite of state-of-the-art sonars to systematically map and explore our nation's waters off the Atlantic seaboard, specifically the Atlantic Canyons and New England Seamounts. High resolution three dimensional maps created from the ship's sonars were used to select sites for fine-resolution exploration with the new 6000 meter remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Deep Discoverer. Scientists onboard and onshore around the world were actively engaged in all steps of the exploration process, from the identification of broad-scale mapping targets, to the planning and real-time refining of 300 to 1500 meter long planned ROV dive tracks. Live video feeds were available to the general public through the award winning website www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov. Important exploration milestones during the Okeanos Explorer 2013 Field Season include: the completion of comprehensive, high-resolution multibeam mapping of the continental shelf break from Cape Hatteras to the northern U.S. Atlantic offshore border, totaling over 100,000 square kilometers of new seafloor data within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone; the first successful field season of the ROV Deep Discoverer, which conducted over 40 successful dives; and initial mapping site characterization of eight of the outer seamounts of the New England Seamount Chain. All data collected by Okeanos Explorer are available via the NOAA public archives with metadata records within 60 to 90 days of the end of each cruise.

  19. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  20. Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M C; Peña, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study measured the prevalence, frequency, and severity of physical wife abuse and its risk factors in León, Nicaragua. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 488 women 15 to 49 years of age. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spousal violence was 52% among ever-married women (n = 360). Spousal violence was significantly positively associated with poverty, parity, urban residence, and history of violence in the husband's family. No significant associations were found between spousal violence and women's age, education, marital dependency, or occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Wife abuse constitutes a major public health problem in Nicaragua, requiring urgent measures for prevention and treatment for victims. PMID:9949757

  1. The Camino Verde intervention in Nicaragua, 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Ledogar, Robert J; Coloma, Josefina; Hernández-Alvarez, Carlos; Suazo-Laguna, Harold; Cárcamo, Alvaro; Reyes, Rosa María; Belli, Alejandro; Andersson, Neil; Harris, Eva

    2017-05-30

    Camino Verde (the Green Way) is an evidence-based community mobilisation tool for prevention of dengue and other mosquito-borne viral diseases. Its effectiveness was demonstrated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in 2010-2013 in Nicaragua and Mexico. The Nicaraguan arm of the trial was preceded, from 2004 to 2008, by a feasibility study that provided valuable lessons and trained facilitators for the trial itself. Here, guided by the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR), we describe the Camino Verde intervention in Nicaragua, presenting its rationale, its time and location, activities, materials used, the main actors, modes of delivery, how it was tailored to encourage community engagement, modifications made from the feasibility study to the trial itself, and how fidelity to the process originally designed was maintained. We also present information on costs and discuss the place of this study within the literature on implementation science. ISRCTN27581154 .

  2. Providing sanctuary for battered women: Nicaragua's casas de la mujer.

    PubMed

    Wessel, L; Campbell, J C

    1997-01-01

    A combination of participant observation and in-depth interviews (10 with key informants; 21 with battered women) was used to investigate wife battering in Nicaragua and the casas de la mujer, or women's centers, that have been established to help abused women. The results are presented within the context of the historical and structural realities of women's lives in Nicaragua and the sanctions and sanctuary framework of cultural analysis of wife battering. Nicaraguan wife battering is exacerbated in the context of cultural traditions of acceptance of wife beating, machismo, and the recent history of warfare. Findings about the relationship context and intervention outcomes were similar to those found in studies of battered women and shelters in the United States. The results were generally supportive of the framework, demonstrating the importance of women's solidarity groups, community sanctions against domestic violence, and sanctuary for battered women.

  3. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. International collaboration for pediatric oncology nursing leadership: Nicaragua and Canada.

    PubMed

    Orozco, A; Marin, V; Reyes, S; Challinor, J; Carpio, B

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, with financial support from the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario, a pilot nursing leadership project linked pediatric oncology nurses from Canada with nurses at the La Mascota Hospital in Managua, Nicaragua. Following consultation with the pediatric oncology team in Nicaragua, a program was developed to strengthen clinical nursing leadership in a clinical setting through continuing education. The nurses believed that care of the patient and family improved due to the increased leadership skills of nurses in the unit and as the profile and credibility of nurses as peers in the health care team became evident. Providing nurses with the autonomy and financing for a project related directly to nursing care represented an important development for leadership in the profession.

  5. Developing Public Health Management Training Capacity in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Elena; Conway, Mary J.; Bull, David L.; Malison, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Initiative in Nicaragua is distinctive in its focus on developing a cadre of in-country trainers whose aim is to equip frontline public health managers with widely applicable tools and techniques to assist them in identifying and solving implementation problems. Since 1999, 137 trainees—37% more than originally planned—have demonstrated competence by completing and presenting applied management projects. Nineteen professors from the preventive medicine faculty at the Autonomous University of Nicaragua also have been trained. The country office now has a cadre of seasoned trainers who can meet the ongoing management training needs of CARE staff and their counterparts in the Ministry of Health and in other nongovernmental organizations. PMID:11574313

  6. Learning from the Third World: health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Kugel, C

    1991-01-01

    In this article, Candace Kugel, a family nurse practitioner in Pennsylvania who visited Nicaragua as part of an exchange program, describes her impressions of the country's health care system. Kugel is a member of the Project Gettysburg/Leon, a sister-city program that promotes cultural exchanges. She arrived in Nicaragua less than 2 weeks after the newly elected UNO government assumed power. In Leon, Kugel visited seven rural and urban clinics, the city's hospital, the health education organization, and the medical, dental, and nursing schools. In all health facilities, she discovered politically energized and committed health care workers. It is this determination that allows then to continue working in spite of perpetual shortages of even the most basic supplies. The hospital was out of insulin, and was having to reuse bulb syringes for newborns. One clinic lacked water supply. Kugel also found nurses to be in short supply. As she explains, the physicians outnumber professional nurse 3-1. Because of low salaries, 1 6-day work schedule, and staffing shortages, few are interested in becoming nurses. Furthermore, the nursing school is severely ill-equipped. Nonetheless, Nicaragua's health care system has accomplished health: immunization, family planning, prenatal care, well-child screening, health education, and treating open water for malaria and dengue-bearing mosquitoes. From 1979-88, infant mortality dropped from 93/1000-62/1000, and life expectancy increased from 56-63.3 years. Additionally, Nicaraguans now consider health care a right, not a privilege. Kugel hopes that with the end of the US embargo and the renewal of US aid, Nicaragua will accomplish even more.

  7. "Siempre me critican": barriers to reproductive health in Ocotal, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Luffy, Samantha M; Evans, Dabney P; Rochat, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    To identify perceived barriers to accessing reproductive health care according to the women of Ocotal, Nicaragua; describe their understanding of their reproductive rights; and document their opinions about Nicaragua's total ban on abortion. From May to June 2014, three focus group discussions were held in Spanish with 17 women from two different neighborhoods (barrios) in the city of Ocotal, Nicaragua. A semi-structured discussion guide with open-ended questions was employed to elucidate local perspectives regarding the focus group discussions themes. Serious obstacles including 1) violence against women, 2) machismo, 3) criticism from others, and 4) lack of communication and education limit women's ability to make their own reproductive health decisions. Women had a pervasive lack of knowledge about reproductive rights and the international human rights documents that define them. In addition, due to religious and cultural ideologies, most women supported the country's total ban on abortion in most circumstances, with the possible exception of rape. Both men and women in Ocotal should be encouraged to participate in community-level programs designed to reduce the impact of the following obstacles to receiving reproductive health care: 1) violence against women and machismo; 2) insufficient, non-standardized sexual education and information about reproductive rights; and 3) poor communication within families and the community at large. Any future public health campaigns to address women's reproductive health needs in Ocotal should implement these types of programs, at the neighborhood level, to reduce stigma surrounding sexual health and activity.

  8. Thorough exploration of complex environments with a space-based potential field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenealy, Alina; Primiano, Nicholas; Keyes, Alex; Lyons, Damian M.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic exploration, for the purposes of search and rescue or explosive device detection, can be improved by using a team of multiple robots. Potential field navigation methods offer natural and efficient distributed exploration algorithms in which team members are mutually repelled to spread out and cover the area efficiently. However, they also suffer from field minima issues. Liu and Lyons proposed a Space-Based Potential Field (SBPF) algorithm that disperses robots efficiently and also ensures they are driven in a distributed fashion to cover complex geometry. In this paper, the approach is modified to handle two problems with the original SBPF method: fast exploration of enclosed spaces, and fast navigation of convex obstacles. Firstly, a "gate-sensing" function was implemented. The function draws the robot to narrow openings, such as doors or corridors that it might otherwise pass by, to ensure every room can be explored. Secondly, an improved obstacle field conveyor belt function was developed which allows the robot to avoid walls and barriers while using their surface as a motion guide to avoid being trapped. Simulation results, where the modified SPBF program controls the MobileSim Pioneer 3-AT simulator program, are presented for a selection of maps that capture difficult to explore geometries. Physical robot results are also presented, where a team of Pioneer 3-AT robots is controlled by the modified SBPF program. Data collected prior to the improvements, new simulation results, and robot experiments are presented as evidence of performance improvements.

  9. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  10. Geo hazard studies and their policy implications in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    Nicaragua, situated at the Central American Subduction zone and placed in the trajectory of tropical storms and hurricanes, is a frequent showplace of natural disasters which have multiplied the negative effects of a long term socioeconomic crisis leaving Nicaragua currently as the second poorest country of the Americas. In the last years, multiple efforts were undertaken to prevent or mitigate the affectation of the natural phenomena to the country. National and local authorities have become more involved in disaster prevention policy and international cooperation boosted funding for disaster prevention and mitigation measures in the country. The National Geosciences Institution (INETER) in cooperation with foreign partners developed a national monitoring and early warning system on geological and hydro-meteorological phenomena. Geological and risk mapping projects were conducted by INETER and international partners. Universities, NGO´s, International Technical Assistance, and foreign scientific groups cooperated to capacitate Nicaraguan geoscientists and to improve higher education on disaster prevention up to the master degree. Funded by a World Bank loan, coordinated by the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Attention (SINAPRED) and scientifically supervised by INETER, multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability studies were carried out between 2003 and 2005 with emphasis on seismic hazard. These GIS based works provided proposals for land use policies on a local level in 30 municipalities and seismic vulnerability and risk information for each single building in Managua, Capital of Nicaragua. Another large multidisciplinary project produced high resolution air photos, elaborated 1:50,000 vectorized topographic maps, and a digital elevation model for Western Nicaragua. These data, integrated in GIS, were used to assess: 1) Seismic Hazard for Metropolitan Managua; 2) Tsunami hazard for the Pacific coast; 3) Volcano hazard for Telica

  11. Literacy Crusades and Revolutionary Governments: The Cases of Cuba, 1961, and Nicaragua, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, William

    After the Castro revolution of 1959, the new Cuban revolutionary government began a massive literacy campaign that taught 700,000 persons to read in about a year. Twenty years later, Nicaragua, facing an even more serious literacy problem, conducted a similar literacy campaign. In approximately six months, Nicaragua had reduced illiteracy by 37…

  12. 76 FR 44648 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nicaragua

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nicaragua Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Div. F... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Nicaragua and I hereby waive such restriction....

  13. Student Conscientiousness, Self-Regulated Learning, and Science Achievement: An Explorative Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie; Zeidner, Moshe; Aharon, Irit

    2009-01-01

    This explorative field study examined the mediating role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the relationship between the personality trait of conscientiousness, SRL, and science achievement in a sample of junior high school students. Over the course of an entire academic year, data on enacted SRL were collected each week for 52 eighth-grade…

  14. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Susan K.; Beyer, Katherine M.; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to…

  15. Exploring Intersubjectivity between Student Teachers and Field Instructors in Student Teaching Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soslau, Elizabeth Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Student teachers are learners of teaching and emerging collaborative practitioners preparing to join school-based professional learning communities. Using situative learning theory, this 16-week multiple-case study explored whether necessary conditions were satisfied within field instructor-led conferences towards the goal of helping student…

  16. Inequality and Doctoral Education: Exploring the "Rules" of Doctoral Study through Bourdieu's Notion of Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…

  17. Research on the Field of Education Policy: Exploring Different Levels of Approach and Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Tello, César

    2016-01-01

    This paper, of theoretical nature, explores the levels of approach and abstraction of research in the field of education policy: description, analysis and understanding. Such categories were developed based on concepts of Bourdieu's theory and on the grounds of epistemological studies focused on education policy and meta-research. This paper…

  18. Geologist's Field Assistant: Developing Image and Spectral Analyses Algorithms for Remote Science Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Bishop, J.; Gazis, P.; Alena, R.; Sierhuis, M.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing science analyses algorithms to interface with a Geologist's Field Assistant device to allow robotic or human remote explorers to better sense their surroundings during limited surface excursions. Our algorithms will interpret spectral and imaging data obtained by various sensors. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Inequality and Doctoral Education: Exploring the "Rules" of Doctoral Study through Bourdieu's Notion of Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…

  20. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Susan K.; Beyer, Katherine M.; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to…

  1. Mid Miocene volcanism in Nicaragua and implications for the formation of the Nicaraguan Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Nicaragua contains Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression consisting of portions of the Coyol Formation to the East and the Tamarindo Formation to the West. The Tamarindo Formation is a narrow band of basaltic to andesitic lavas interlayered with thick ignimbrite deposits and volcaniclastic sediments that parallel Nicaragua’s Pacific coast to the west of the modern volcanic front with ages from 14.7-11.7 Ma. The Coyol represents primarily Miocene volcanism from 25-7 Ma and lies east of the active front. The presence of Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression has led to speculation that the two coeval units, which are currently separated by almost 100km, were once connected and have since been separated by extension. Here, we present data that show the Tamarindo and Coyol are geochemically distinct and therefore cannot be considered part of the same unit. First, the Tamarindo has lower La/Yb values than Coyol, which suggests that the Tamarindo was formed by a higher degree of partial melting, assuming that mantle source compositions are similar for both units. In addition, the Tamarindo has higher Zr/Nb values than Coyol, which are indicative of High Field Strength Element (HFSE) depletion common in arc volcanics. Because the degree of partial melting and HFSE depletion is expected to increase towards the trench, both Tamarindo’s La/Yb and Zr/Nb values are consistent with its being emplaced closer to the trench than Coyol and the presence of these two units of Mid-Miocene age on opposite sides of the Nicaraguan Depression cannot be used as proof of significant extension. In addition, currently available data do not show the significant crustal thinning and large-scale structural surface features that would be expected if the Tamarindo and Coyol were once connected and later separated by extension. Fault displacement along the Nicaraguan Depression is insufficient to accommodate this extension and

  2. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  3. Measuring dimensions of social capital: evidence from surveys in poor communities in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew David; Bossert, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    A dominant perspective in social capital research emphasizes a "structural" dimension of social capital, consisting of network connections, and a "cognitive" dimension, consisting of attitudes toward trust. Correspondingly, membership in organizations (i.e., membership density) and general trust in people (i.e., social trust) are two indicators commonly used to relate structural and cognitive social capital, respectively, to a variety of health and other outcomes. This study analyzed relationships between membership density, social trust and a more comprehensive set of household-level social capital indicators as well as selected civic and health behaviors in the context of Nicaragua. The sample of respondents was drawn from 6 communities and interviews were conducted with 482 heads of households, resulting in data on 2882 individuals. Factor analyses suggest that membership density loaded strongly (loading=0.81) onto an "organizational participation" factor which contained a number of qualitative characteristics of involvement, including bridging social capital. Further, this structural dimension of social capital appears to be a construct consisting of more than just informal social networks. However, factor analyses suggest that distinctions between levels of trust are warranted in Nicaragua: social trust loaded weakly (loading=0.32) onto a factor characterized by institutional trust in a factor analysis of trust items, and well below 0.30 in a factor analysis of both structural and cognitive dimensions of social capital. A nuanced understanding of these household-level indicators of structural and cognitive social capital held implications for civic and health behaviors. While membership density and institutional trust were positively related to an index of political engagement, social trust was either not related or negatively associated (among urban respondents). Similarly, social trust was associated with over 50% reduced odds of an additional childhood

  4. Population History and Mitochondrial Genetic Substructure of the Rama Amerindians from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Norberto F; Crawford, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    The Rama are a coastal population from southern Nicaragua who in large part were able to resist, at least for a time, the cultural changes and social reorganization brought on by colonial and modern influences. Historical information leaves the Rama origins and biological relationships with nearby extinct and extant groups ambiguous. The objective of this study was to examine the internal genetic microdifferentiation based on the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of approximately 20% of the population, and to expand the few available historical and anthropological data on the Rama by exploring the effects of cultural practices and historical events on genetic structure, providing an integrative perspective on the Rama genetic history. When considering differences in the spatial distribution and genetic diversity of the mtDNA haplotypes together with historical information on the Rama, a noteworthy pattern emerges. (a) Haplotypes are differentially distributed among a central Rama community (Punta Águila) compared with the other five peripheral communities (analysis of molecular variance: FCT = 0.10, p < 0.001), and their distribution is consistent with the historical relocation of this population after their split from Punta Gorda in the 18th century. (b) Differential genetic signatures found among central and peripheral Rama communities resemble two population histories: one of stability (haplogroup A2) and other of expansion (haplogroup B2), supporting the possibility that these patterns of genetic microdifferentiation between central and peripheral populations resulted from the 18th-century unification in southern Nicaragua of the Rama and a group of Voto migrants from Costa Rica that later split off and moved to the Bay of Bluefields.

  5. The design and use of a field and reservoir data base for petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Nehring, R. )

    1991-03-01

    Field and reservoir data bases can have many valuable applications in petroleum exploration. Realizing this value requires careful attention to several general and specific design considerations. The primary general design considerations include (1) developing standard field and reservoir definitions that are applied uniformly across political boundaries (2) applying appropriate variable definitions consistently throughout the data base, (3) providing high rates of coverage for each variable, and (4) testing and editing the data thoroughly for consistency and correctness. Design considerations that are specific to intended uses of a field and reservoir data base include (1) the provision of complete field and reservoir size estimates, (2) the incorporation of a comprehensive set of play definitions, and (3) the use of cross-referencing variables to facilitate combined uses with the various well data bases. Well-designed field reservoir data bases provide a source of information between the often uninformative generality of aggregate statistics and the overwhelming detail of well data bases. They can be used as several different levels of aggregation. Their most valuable applications to exploration are found primarily in three areas: (1) basin, regional, and national reviews, (2) the generation of exploration concepts, and (3) evaluating prospects systematically within a play context.

  6. Exploring the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. II. New magnetic field measurements in cluster and field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Ilyin, I.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Oskinova, L. M.; Langer, N.; González, J. F.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Briquet, M.; Magori Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Context. Theories on the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars remain poorly developed, because the properties of their magnetic field as function of stellar parameters could not yet be investigated. Additional observations are of utmost importance to constrain the conditions that are conducive to magnetic fields and to determine first trends about their occurrence rate and field strength distribution. Aims: To investigate whether magnetic fields in massive stars are ubiquitous or appear only in stars with a specific spectral classification, certain ages, or in a special environment, we acquired 67 new spectropolarimetric observations for 30 massive stars. Among the observed sample, roughly one third of the stars are probable members of clusters at different ages, whereas the remaining stars are field stars not known to belong to any cluster or association. Methods: Spectropolarimetric observations were obtained during four different nights using the low-resolution spectropolarimetric mode of FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS 2) mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT. Furthermore, we present a number of follow-up observations carried out with the high-resolution spectropolarimeters SOFIN mounted at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and HARPS mounted at the ESO 3.6 m between 2008 and 2011. To assess the membership in open clusters and associations, we used astrometric catalogues with the highest quality kinematic and photometric data currently available. Results: The presence of a magnetic field is confirmed in nine stars previously observed with FORS 1/2: HD 36879, HD 47839, CPD-28 2561, CPD-47 2963, HD 93843, HD 148937, HD 149757, HD 328856, and HD 164794. New magnetic field detections at a significance level of at least 3σ were achieved in five stars: HD 92206c, HD 93521, HD 93632, CPD-46 8221, and HD 157857. Among the stars with a detected magnetic field, five stars belong to open clusters with high membership probability. According to

  7. Field Immune Assessment during Simulated Planetary Exploration in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Lee, Pascal; Stowe, Raymond; Jones, Jeff; Effenhauser, Rainer; Widen, Raymond; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during space flight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions has yet to be established. In addition, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of field-compatible clinical immunology techniques and equipment. In July 2002 NASA performed a comprehensive field immunology assessment on crewmembers participating in the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) on Devon Island in the high Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate mission-associated effects on the human immune system, as well as to evaluate techniques developed for processing immune samples in remote field locations. Ten HMP-2002 participants volunteered for the study. A field protocol was developed at NASA-JSC for performing sample collection, blood staining/processing for immunophenotype analysis, wholeblood mitogenic culture for functional assessments and cell-sample preservation on-location at Devon Island. Specific assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution; constitutively activated T cells, intracellular cytokine profiles and plasma EBV viral antibody levels. Study timepoints were L-30, midmission and R+60. The protocol developed for immune sample processing in remote field locations functioned properly. Samples were processed in the field location, and stabilized for subsequent analysis at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The data indicated that some phenotype, immune function and stress hormone changes occurred in the HMP field participants that were largely distinct from pre-mission baseline and post-mission recovery data. These immune changes appear similar to those observed in Astronauts following spaceflight. The sample processing protocol developed for this study may have applications for immune assessment during

  8. The Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field, NM: An Analog for Exploring Planetary Volcanic Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, near Grants, New Mexico, is comprised of volcanic deposits from several basaltic eruptions during the last million years. This vent field exhibits a diverse group of coalesced lava flows and displays well-preserved volcanic features including a’a and pahoehoe flows, collapsed lava tubes, cinder cones and low shields. The McCartys flow is a 48-km long inflated basalt flow and is the youngest in the field at around 3000 years old. Over the last three years we have used the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, and the McCartys flow in particular, as a terrestrial analog for exploring planetary volcanic fields, and understanding the role of lava sheet inflation in flow field development. We have conducted three different styles of analog tests, 1) basic field science focused on understanding lava sheet inflation, 2) mission operations tests related to EVA design and real-time modification of traverse plans, and 3) science enabling technology tests. The Zuni-Bandera field is an ideal location for each style of analog test because it provides easy access to a diverse set of volcanic features with variable quality of preservation. However, many limitations must also be considered in order to maximize lessons learned. The McCartys flow displays well-preserved inflation plateaus that rise up to 15 m above the surrounding field. The preservation state enables textures and morphologies indicative of this process to be characterized. However, the pristine nature of the flow does not compare well with the much older and heavily modified inflated flows of Mars and the Moon. Older flows west of McCartys add value to this aspect of analog work because of their degraded surfaces, development of soil horizons, loose float, and limited exposure of outcrops, similar to what might be observed on the Moon or Mars. EVA design tests and science enabling technology tests at the Zuni-Bandera field provide the opportunity to document and interpret the relationships

  9. Gravity survey of marine field: Case study for Silurian reef exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Heigold, P.C.; Whitaker, S.T. )

    1989-08-01

    A gravity survey conducted over and around Marine field in southwestern Illinois has been used as an example to show how measurement of the local gravity field can aid in the search for Silurian reefs in the Illinois basin. Acquisition parameters for gravity surveys over Silurian reefs should be calculated beforehand from simple models of the reef based on estimates of density contrasts, depths, and size. Residual and derivative mapping techniques generally enhance gravity anomalies and enable more accurate portrayals of the structural relief on buried reefs. The second vertical derivative map of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly surface at Marine field compares very well with the structure of the reef as mapped from subsurface data. This study indicates that similar mapping techniques could be effective on other reefs throughout the Illinois basin. Although gravity mapping methods are potentially powerful exploration tools in themselves, the writers believe that their proper role is as a part of a more comprehensive exploration approach. Gravity surveys can be used effectively as an initial exploration method in reef-prone areas to define smaller, prospect-size areas in which more intensive exploration techniques can subsequently be focused.

  10. Optimal path-finding through mental exploration based on neural energy field gradients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihong; Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Yating

    2017-02-01

    Rodent animal can accomplish self-locating and path-finding task by forming a cognitive map in the hippocampus representing the environment. In the classical model of the cognitive map, the system (artificial animal) needs large amounts of physical exploration to study spatial environment to solve path-finding problems, which costs too much time and energy. Although Hopfield's mental exploration model makes up for the deficiency mentioned above, the path is still not efficient enough. Moreover, his model mainly focused on the artificial neural network, and clear physiological meanings has not been addressed. In this work, based on the concept of mental exploration, neural energy coding theory has been applied to the novel calculation model to solve the path-finding problem. Energy field is constructed on the basis of the firing power of place cell clusters, and the energy field gradient can be used in mental exploration to solve path-finding problems. The study shows that the new mental exploration model can efficiently find the optimal path, and present the learning process with biophysical meaning as well. We also analyzed the parameters of the model which affect the path efficiency. This new idea verifies the importance of place cell and synapse in spatial memory and proves that energy coding is effective to study cognitive activities. This may provide the theoretical basis for the neural dynamics mechanism of spatial memory.

  11. Telepresence in the human exploration of Mars: Field studies in analog environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the role of telepresence in performing exploration of Mars. As part of an effort to develop telepresence to support Mars exploration, NASA is developing telepresence technology and using it to perform exploration in space analog environments. This paper describes experiments to demonstrate telepresence control of an underwater remotely operated vehicle (TROV) to perform scientific field work in isolated and hostile environments. Toward this end, we have developed a telepresence control system and interfaced it to an underwater remotely operated vehicle. This vehicle was used during 1992 to study aquatic ecosystems in Antarctica including a study of the physical and biological environment of permanently ice-covered lake. We also performed a preliminary analysis of the potential for using the TROV to study the benthic ecology under the sea ice in McMurdo sound. These expeditions are opening up new areas of research by using telepresence control of remote vehicles to explore isolated and extreme environments on Earth while also providing an impetus to develop technology which will play a major role in the human exploration of Mars. Antarctic field operations, in particular, provide an excellent analog experience for telepresence operation in space.

  12. Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachón, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga

    2009-05-19

    Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub-national administrative regions, and

  13. Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachón, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga

    2009-01-01

    Background Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Results Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. Conclusion This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub

  14. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (What, Again?): A Senior Field Geologist's Integrated View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar surface geological exploration should be founded on a number of key elements that are seemingly disparate, but which can form an integrated operational concept when properly conceived and deployed. If lunar surface geological exploration is to be useful, this integration of key elements needs to be undertaken throughout the development of both mission hardware, training and operational concepts. These elements include the concept of mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets that are matched with mission class, and field tools and IT assets that make data collection, sharing and archiving transparent to the surface crew.

  15. The plasma wave and quasi-static electric field instrument /PWI/ for dynamics Explorer-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Odem, D. L.; Helliwell, R. A.; Park, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that the Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) on Dynamics Explorer-A measures both plasma wave phenomena and quasi-static electric fields. The quasi-static electric fields are measured parallel to the spin axis of the spacecraft in a range of 2 mV/m to 2 V/m and perpendicular to the spin axis 0.5 mV/m to 2 V/m at 16 samples/s. The ac electric field sensors include a 200-m tip-to-tip long wire antenna and a 0.6-m short electric antenna, both of which are perpendicular to the spin axis, and a 9-m tip-to-tip tubular antenna parallel to the spin axis. AC electric wave fields are measured over a frequency range of 1 Hz to 2 MHz and over an amplitude range of 0.03 microvolt/m to 100 mV/m.

  16. New Frontiers in Ocean Exploration: The 2010 E/V NAUTILUS Field Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. L.; Ballard, R. D.; Coleman, D. F.; Roman, C.; Brennan, M.; Turanli, T.; Carey, S.; Nomikou, P.; Vougioukalakis, G.; Mayer, L. A.; Nicolaides, S.; Konnaris, K.; Shank, T. M.; Austin, J. A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Phillips, B.

    2010-12-01

    In the summer of 2010, the Exploration Vessel NAUTILUS undertook a four-month expedition to the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas. The primary goal of the NAUTILUS is to create a focus of international leadership for the development and integration of leading-edge technologies, educational programs, field operations, and public outreach programs for ocean exploration, in partnership with NOAA, the National Geographic Society, Office of Naval Research, and other sponsors. To do so, the program uses a complement of deep submergence vehicle systems and “telepresence” technologies to engage scientists, educators and the public, both at sea and ashore, allowing them to become integral members of the on-board exploration team. When discoveries are made, experts ashore are notified and brought aboard virtually within a short period of time to help guide our response actions before the ship moves on. We are currently in the middle of our field season, and have already made several discoveries of note. Ten new shipwrecks have been discovered in Turkish waters, ranging in age from Hellenistic to Byzantine. Many of these archaeological sites have been mapped using high-resolution multibeam, stereo imaging, and/or structured light imaging. In the southern Aegean Sea, seventeen of nineteen of the submarine volcanic cones of the Kolumbo Rift Zone have been explored for the first time. The hydrothermal vent field, crater walls, and flanks of Kolumbo underwater volcano have been mapped with sidescan sonar and sampled. In addition, a large debris avalanche field on the eastern flanks of Santorini volcano has been mapped with sidescan sonar, and explored and sampled using ROVs. Sidescan and ROV investigations on Eratosthenes Seamount in the eastern Mediterranean have revealed karst topography with sinkholes up to 50m in diameter and 12m deep atop the seamount, as well as vent/seep communities with populations of tube worms, bivalves, crabs, and bacteria on the slopes. Two

  17. Geology of oil fields and future exploration potential in west African Aptian Salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.D.; Edwards, A.D.

    1987-05-01

    The Aptian Salt basin of west Africa, extends from Equatorial Guinea southward to Angola, contains recoverable reserves estimated at nearly 4 billion BOE, and is current producing 600,000 BOPD. The basin developed as a result of tensional forces between west Africa and South America initiated at the end of the Jurassic. The prospective sedimentary sequences ranged in age from Early Cretaceous (uppermost Jurassic in places) to Holocene and is divided by the Aptian transgressive sand and salt into a pre-salt, nonmarine, syn-rift sequence and a post-salt, marine, post-rift sequence. Both the pre- and post-salt sequences contain several successful exploration plays, the most prolific of which are the Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstone fields in tilted fault blocks of Gabon and Cabinda; Early Cretaceous carbonate buildups on the margins of basement highs in Cabinda; Early Cretaceous transgressive marine sandstone fields in anticlines draped over basement highs in Gabon; Late Cretaceous shallow marine sandstone and carbonate fields in salt-related structures in the Congo, Zaire, Cabinda, and Angola; Late Cretaceous dolomites in structural/stratigraphic traps in Angola; Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary deltaic/estuarine sandstone traps formed by salt movement in Gabon, Cabinda, and angola; and Tertiary marine turbidite fields in Cabinda and Angola. Despite the exploration success in these trends, much of the basin is under or poorly explored. The major problems for exploration are the poor quality of seismic definition beneath the salt, which makes it difficult to predict pre-salt structure and stratigraphy, and the importance of a stratigraphic element in many of the post-salt traps, also difficult to detect on seismic.

  18. GSFC magnetic field experiment Explorer 43. [describing magnetometer, data processor, and telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seek, J. B.; Scheifele, J. L.; Ness, N. F.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic field experiment flown on Explorer 43 is described. The detecting instrument is a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer which is mounted on a boom with a flipping mechanism for reorienting the sensor in flight. An on-board data processor takes successive magnetometer samples and transmits differences to the telemetry system. By examining these differences in conjunction with an untruncated sample transmitted periodically, the original data may be uniquely reconstructed on the ground.

  19. Cruise ships and bush medicine: Globalization on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and effects on the health of Creole women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Emma McKim; Steeves, Richard; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Global health research into the relationship between health, economic inequalities, and globalization is necessary to address increasing health disparities in low income countries. Nicaragua has high levels of poverty and extreme poverty when compared with other Central and South American Countries. Design Photovoice and ethnographic research methods were used to explore health experiences of Creole women in Bluefields, Nicaragua and the intersections between culture, socioeconomic status, and gender. Sample Twelve Creole women participants, ages 18–45. Measurements After initial focus groups, participants used disposable cameras to document health experiences. Follow up interviews were conducted about the meaning of each photo. Participants then selected photos to be included in a city-wide photoshow. Results In initial focus groups, participants described great distress over changes they perceived in Creole culture and how these changes affect the health of the next generation. Participants related most of these changes to the economy and globalization. Photos taken were primarily of aspects of Creole culture, including household practices and traditional remedies from Creole culture. Conclusions Findings on the relationships between culture, disease and community-identified health risks in this minority population can help healthcare providers and public health policy makers develop and sustain culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:24766610

  20. Cruise ships and bush medicine: globalization on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and effects on the health of Creole women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emma McKim; Steeves, Richard; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Global health research into the relationship between health, economic inequalities, and globalization is necessary to address increasing health disparities in low income countries. Nicaragua has high levels of poverty and extreme poverty when compared with other Central and South American Countries. Photovoice and ethnographic research methods were used to explore health experiences of Creole women in Bluefields, Nicaragua and the intersections between culture, socioeconomic status, and gender. Twelve Creole women participants, ages 18-45. After initial focus groups, participants used disposable cameras to document health experiences. Follow-up interviews were conducted about the meaning of each photo. Participants then selected photos to be included in a city-wide photoshow. In initial focus groups, participants described great distress over changes they perceived in Creole culture and how these changes affect the health of the next generation. Participants related most of these changes to the economy and globalization. Photos taken were primarily of aspects of Creole culture, including household practices and traditional remedies from Creole culture. Findings on the relationships between culture, disease, and community-identified health risks in this minority population can help health care providers and public health policymakers develop and sustain culturally appropriate health interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Susan K.; Beyer, Katherine M.; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to research scientists. The Shaw Institute for Field Training (SIFT) program combines introductory field-skills training with research assistance opportunities, and the subsequent Tyson Environmental Research Fellowships (TERF) program provides immersive internships on university field station–based research teams. In a longitudinal mixed-methods study grounded in social cognitive career theory, changes in youth perspectives were measured during program progression from 10th grade through college, evaluating the efficacy of encouraging career path entry. Results indicate SIFT provided self-knowledge and career perspectives more aligned with reality. During SIFT, differences were found between SIFT-only participants compared with those who progressed to TERF. Transition from educational activities to fieldwork with scientists was a pivotal moment at which data showed decreased or increased interest and confidence. Continuation to TERF provided deeper relationships with role models who gave essential early-career support. Our study indicates the two-stage apprenticeship structure influenced persistence in pursuit of an environmental research career pathway. Recommendations for other precollege environmental career–exploration programs are presented. PMID:27909017

  2. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Susan K; Beyer, Katherine M; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to research scientists. The Shaw Institute for Field Training (SIFT) program combines introductory field-skills training with research assistance opportunities, and the subsequent Tyson Environmental Research Fellowships (TERF) program provides immersive internships on university field station-based research teams. In a longitudinal mixed-methods study grounded in social cognitive career theory, changes in youth perspectives were measured during program progression from 10th grade through college, evaluating the efficacy of encouraging career path entry. Results indicate SIFT provided self-knowledge and career perspectives more aligned with reality. During SIFT, differences were found between SIFT-only participants compared with those who progressed to TERF. Transition from educational activities to fieldwork with scientists was a pivotal moment at which data showed decreased or increased interest and confidence. Continuation to TERF provided deeper relationships with role models who gave essential early-career support. Our study indicates the two-stage apprenticeship structure influenced persistence in pursuit of an environmental research career pathway. Recommendations for other precollege environmental career-exploration programs are presented.

  3. Cryogenic Telescope, Scanner, and Imaging Optics for the Wide-field Imaging Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, Mark; Akerstrom, A.; Barry, M.; Guregian, J.; LaMalva, F.; Laquidara, P.; Perron, G.; Sampath, D.; Ugolini, V.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) instrument includes a cryogenic telescope, scanner, and imaging optics module. Component fabrication, mirror polishing, and prototype scanner cryogenic testing are complete for these subassemblies, and assembly is in process. The telescope is a 40 cm aperture reflecting five-mirror imager/collimator relay that provides 8X demagnification, a 47 x 86 arcminute field of regard, and a real exit pupil for scanning. It also provides distortion control to better than one part in a thousand to prevent image blur during internal scanning. A single-axis scan mirror at the exit pupil scans the detectors' field of view across the telescope field of regard, countering the orbital motion and freezing the line of sight during the multi-second exposure period. The imaging optics module is a five-mirror re-imager with dichroic beamsplitters that separate the energy into four infrared channels between 2.8 and 26 microns. All modules operate below 17 Kelvin. The all-reflective system uses aluminum mirrors and metering structures. L-3 Communications SSG-Tinsley is designing and building the telescope, scanner, and imaging optics module under contract to the Space Dynamics Laboratory. WISE is a MIDEX mission within NASA's Explorers Program.

  4. Interplanetary boundary layers at 1 AU. [magnetic field measurements from Explorer 34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lemaire, J. F.; Turner, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The structure and nature of discontinuities in the interplanetary magnetic field at 1 AU in the period March 18, 1971 to April 9, 1971, is determined by using high-resolution magnetic field measurements from Explorer 34. The discontinuities that were selected for this analysis occurred under a variety of interplanetary conditions at an average rate of 0.5/hr. This set does not include all discontinuities that were present, but the sample is large and it is probably representative. Both tangential and rotational discontinuities were identified, the ratio of TD's to RD's being approximately 3 to 1. Tangential discontinuities were observed every day, even among Alfvenic fluctuations. The structure of most of the boundary layers was simple and ordered, i.e., the magnetic field usually changed smoothly and monotonically from one side of the boundary layer to the other.

  5. Geochemistry of Concepcion and Maderas Volcanoes, Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, F. N.; Bolge, L. L.; Carr, M. J.; Feigenson, M. D.

    2004-12-01

    The occurrence of geochemical zoning along the Central American volcanic arc is due primarily to changes in mantle composition and both the composition and amount of incorporated slab components. The maximum slab signal, represented by the ratio of Ba/La, occurs in the Nicaraguan volcano Telica and decreases to both the northwest and southeast. Whereas continuous geochemical coverage between El Salvador and Nicaragua suggests that the transition is gradual, a gap in volcanic geochemical analyses between Nicaraguan and Costa Rican volcanoes hinders any conclusion as to whether the decrease is gradual here as well, or more abrupt. To this end, we analyze newly collected volcanic lavas from Isla de Ometepe in Lago de Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica using XRF and HR- ICP- MS techniques to quantify major oxides and trace elements. The island consists of two volcanoes: Concepcion and Maderas. Concepcion is presently active and records two periods of lava flows, one recent and one prehistoric. Here, our work on lavas from the eastern side of the island complements the recent work by Benjamin van Wyk de Vries on western tephra. Maderas, while not historically active, has long been a private coffee plantation granting public access only recently. These analyses will mark the first samples of this volcano within the geological community.

  6. Provider Perspectives on Intimate Partner Violence in Bluefields, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Laughon, Kathryn; Mitchell, Emma; Price, Julianne

    2017-10-01

    Intimate partner violence represents a significant public health problem and a substantial human rights' issue for women and girls throughout the world. Design and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to answer these research questions: What are the current practices for addressing gender violence in the RACS? What do professionals consider to be the current strengths and gaps in policies related to gender violence in this region? By employing a qualitative descriptive approach (Sandelowski, 2000 ), researchers traveled from the US to Bluefields, Nicaragua, in 2012. The multidisciplinary team of two US nurses, a prosecutor, and a victim-witness advocate interviewed 18 key informants, police officers, advocates, and nurses, and observed court processes. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed in the language the interview was conducted in. Researchers coded data independently and identified emergent themes. Informants described the complexity of the nature and dynamics of gender violence, strongly informed by Nicaragua's fairly progressive laws. The participants described holistic, fully integrated services as the intended functioning of the system. These services were often thwarted by gaps-fragmentation and lack of resources-and were additionally hampered by substantial individual and structural economical obstacles.

  7. Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sandiford, P; Pauw, J; Morales, P; Pérez, R M; Alberts, H

    1998-12-01

    Poor hygiene practices are among the risk factors for the transmission of childhood diarrhea, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Findings are reported from a prospective follow-up study in rural Nicaragua of the effect of a number of hygiene practices upon diarrheal disease in children under age 2 years old. 172 families, of whom half had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhea in their children and the other half a lower rate, participated. Hygiene behavior was observed over 2 mornings and diarrhea incidence was recorded with a calendar over the course of 5 months. Of 46 good practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhea, 5 were unrelated, and a higher risk was observed for 2. The washing of hands, domestic cleanliness, and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect against diarrhea. Mothers with more than 3 years of primary school education and in a comparatively better economic position, including having a radio, exhibited comparatively better general hygiene behavior. Education had a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. However, individual hygiene behavior seems to be highly variable compared to the consistent behavior of the overall community. Appropriate indicators of hygiene behavior were domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child.

  8. Health-related outcomes of war in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Frieden, T; Vermund, S H

    1987-01-01

    Since 1983, war in Nicaragua has slowed improvements in health which had developed rapidly from 1979-82. The rate of war-related deaths among Nicaraguans now exceeds that of the United States citizens in either the Vietnam War or World War II. Forty-two of the 84 documented war-related casualties among Nicaraguan health workers have been deaths. This high case fatality rate reflects the targeting of health workers by contra troops. The number of staff and services of the public medical system decreased by approximately 10 per cent from 1983 to 1985. Population movements, the establishment of new settlements, and war-related destruction of the primary health infrastructure are associated with recent epidemics of malaria, dengue, measles, and leishmaniasis. The estimated rate of infant mortality in Nicaragua, which had declined from 120 per 1,000 in 1978 to 76/1,000 live births in 1983, has since shown no further decline. Internationally mandated protections enjoyed by civilians and health workers during times of war do not appear to operate in this so-called "low intensity" conflict. Further declines in infant mortality, prevention of epidemics, and improvement in other health indicators will likely await the cessation of military hostilities. PMID:3565659

  9. The power of research exploration within education: lessons from an international field hydrology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Najm, M. R.; Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Lane, J. W.; Casanova, F.; Arumí, J.; Rivera, D.

    2011-12-01

    Educating the next generation of scientists requires new educational methods and unconventional approaches to facilitate the interdisciplinary scholarship required to cope with fast-paced developments in the geosciences. We believe incorporation of field training with active research missions is an effective educational model. By participating in active research and open science dialogue, students are exposed to real-world examples of the principles and processes of complex systems in a manner that allows them to develop a deeper understanding of the subject. We find students are highly motivated by the knowledge that data they collect will advance the research mission; such an environment stokes their passions and imaginations and allows the students to explore the roots of their interest in geoscience. In this context, a two-week educational field course on hydrologic processes and measurements was integrated with ongoing research in Chile to understand the effect of soil shrinkage and swelling properties on watershed hydrologic response. Students witnessed the iterative process of field-experiment design and became part of science in the making. They experienced the complexity of field work and developed problem-solving skills through the myriad of challenges presented in the acquisition of field data in a remote area. All of these factors contributed to an atmosphere of creativity that led to an outstanding research and educational experience. We find the coupling of field training with active research to be extremely rewarding, and time- and cost-effective education in this fast-paced and cost-cautious age.

  10. Applications of exploration technologies to reservoir prediction and management -- Field examples of South-East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Allen, G.; Madaoui, K.; Gouadain, J.; Kremer, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes how modern geoscience techniques, developed for a large part in intensive exploration programs, can be used at the field level to improve reservoir prediction and production planning and also to optimize recovery. Detailed sedimentological studies has allowed the authors to determine the environment of the reservoir formations and help define the likely shape and size of individual sands and refine the reservoir model. An illustration is given by fields located in the Mahakam delta area of Kalimantan (Handil, Tunu) and in the Gulf of Thailand (Bongkot). Sequence stratigraphy assists in identifying efficient regional seals which, at field scale, lead to the recomposition of a great number of individual sands (several hundreds in some cases) into fewer flow units, making the system manageable from a reservoir standpoint. This technology was used extensively to delineate the giant Peciko gas field of Indonesia. The geophysical approach of reservoir parameters and the use of seismic attributes are rapidly expanding. The Yadana gas field in the Gulf of Martaban (Myanmar) is a case in point to show how porosities can be determined from impedances obtained by seismic inversion techniques. An example from the Bongkot field shows how 3D seismic and direct hydrocarbon indication technology (DHI) are used to deal with complex faulting to optimize deviated well profiles and improve recoveries.

  11. GlyphSea: Interactive Exploration of Seismic Wave Fields Using Shaded Glyphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, E.; Chourasia, A.; Minster, J. H.; Schulze, J.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake simulations produce large vector fields that raise challenging visualization issues. Prior visualization strategies have typically focused on slices and volumetric rendering of scalar fields, which limits the scope of observable phenomena. We present a new interactive glyph visualization application called "GlyphSea" that allows exploration of seismic velocity fields. This work draws from a large body of glyph rendering techniques to focus on time-dependent seismic vector fields. Glyphs are capable of encoding multivariate data into a concise visual representation, which can be interpreted easily. However, that they occupy a large amount of display space, a severe drawback when dealing with dense data sets. We demonstrate how shading and texturing glyphs can alleviate this issue and provide insight into the data. We show that proper shading, positioning, scaling, and context techniques reveal features of the wave fields which are not immediately noticeable through standard vector and scalar visualization approaches. Visualization is further enhanced by using screen space ambient occlusion, jitter, halos, and displacement. These techniques are flexibly interchanged with a realtime, fully interactive, cross platform software system that runs on workstations and laptops alike. Successful design decisions stemming from collaboration between domain experts in visualization and seismology highlight the substantial benefits of interactive displays. GlyphSea used to visualize a point source simulation. This result is created interactively and shows the full time series evolution with multiple glyph types and directional cues.

  12. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua: A Key Mars Analog Environment for Acid-Sulfate Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.

    2007-07-01

    Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, is being investigated as an analog for acid-sulfate weathering of Mars-like basalts. Our goal is to better understand the mineral alteration pathways and the astrobiological potential of early Mars.

  13. A Rockefeller Foundation health primer for US-occupied Nicaragua, 1914-1928.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ligia María Peña; Palmer, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The article presents views from above and below of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Commission's (IHC's) hookworm control program in Nicaragua from 1914 to 1928. It looks at the meaning, impact, and unique configuration of the Nicaraguan mission, while taking into account the larger global institutional project of this important international health actor. Although the IHC program in Nicaragua complemented some of the social policy goals of the US intervention in Nicaragua, which was a de facto protectorate during this period, the institution cannot be considered a direct expression or agent of US foreign policy. Ultimately the shape and limits of the IHC mission to Nicaragua were determined by the institutional project of the international public health agency itself, and by local considerations ranging from the characteristics of the staff to the response of rural communities to the anti-hookworm campaigns.

  14. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  15. Exploring High-Latitude Electric Field Variability With the Auroral Spatial Structures Probe Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, D.; Stromberg, E.; Neilsen, T. L.; Weston, C.; Byers, B.; Frazier, C. A.; Nelson, W.; Perkins, C.; Miller, J.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) is a NASA sounding rocket mission to be launched in the late January 2014 time frame that, will be used to study both the spatial and temporal small scale variation of the electric and magnetic fields during active aurora and just before the onset of an auroral sub-storm. This will be accomplished through the use of a constellation of small payloads that separate relative to each other throughout a sounding rocket flight. The multiple baseline observations of the electric and magnetic fields will be used to observe variability of both the E-field and the Poynting flux. These observations will be placed in the context of available data, including winds, large scale E-fields, and proxy conductivity (airglow images) observations. In this way we will address the main scientific objective of this mission which is: What are the contributions of small spatial scale and rapid temporal scale fluctuations of electric fields relative to the larger-scale electrodynamic processes? The high altitude rocket will be launched along the magnetic field line and carry six sub-payloads to be ejected from the main payload at high velocity. The sub-payloads will be deployed both along the flight path and perpendicular to the flight path so that both spatial features and temporal-spatial ambiguities can be explored. The low-mass sub-payloads that, for a fixed ejection impulse will achieve at least a 50 km separation by the end of the flight are key to the observational success. Each sub-payload will carry a crossed pair of double-probe sensors to measure in-situ electric fields, a three axis magnetometer, a Langmuir probe and a GPS receiver. In this poster we review the ASSP science and mission, and preliminary design.

  16. The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe: Exploring Small-Scale High-Latitude Electric Field Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, D.; Weston, C.; Nelson, W.; Stromberg, E. M.; Byers, B.; Frazier, C.; Swenson, A.; Miller, J.; Carrick, B.; Neilsen, T. L.; Hidalgo, J. M.; Cox, W.; Evans, T.; Vangeison, V.; Perkins, C.; Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Auroral Spatial Structures Probe (ASSP) is a NASA sounding rocket mission to be launched in the late January 2014 time frame that will be used to study both the spatial and temporal small scale variation of the electric and magnetic fields during active aurora and just before the onset of an auroral sub-storm. This will be accomplished through the use of a constellation of small payloads that separate relative to each other throughout a sounding rocket flight. The multiple baseline observations of the electric and magnetic fields will be used to observe variability of both the E-field and the Poynting flux. These observations will be placed in the context of available data, including winds, large scale E-fields, and proxy conductivity (airglow image) observations. In this way we will address the main scientific objective of this mission which is: What are the contributions of small spatial scale and rapid temporal scale fluctuations of electric fields relative to the larger-scale electrodynamic processes? The high altitude rocket will be launched along the magnetic field line and carry six sub-payloads to be ejected from the main payload at high velocity. The sub-payloads will be deployed both along the flight path and perpendicular to the flight path so that both spatial features and temporal-spatial ambiguities can be explored. The low-mass sub-payloads will achieve at least a 35 km separation by the end of the flight and are key to observational success. Each sub-payload will carry a crossed pair of double-probe sensors to measure in-situ electric fields, a three axis magnetometer, a Langmuir probe and a GPS receiver. In this poster we review the ASSP science, mission, and design, and present instrument calibration and testing results.

  17. Flat field response of the microchannel plate detectors used on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Gibson, J. L.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vedder, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flat field calibrations of two of the flight detectors to be flown on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) are presented. Images of about 40 million detected events binned 512 by 512 are sufficient to show microchannel plate fixed pattern noise such as hexagonal microchannel multifiber bundle interfaces, 'dead' spots, edge distortion, and differential nonlinearity. Differences due to photocathode material and dependencies on EUV wavelength are also described. Over large spatial scales, the detector response is flat to better than 10 percent of the mean response, but, at spatial scales less than 1 mm, the variations from the mean can be as large as 20 percent.

  18. A Framework to Explore the Knowledge Structure of Multidisciplinary Research Fields

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shahadat; Khan, Arif; Baur, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emerging areas of a multidisciplinary research field is crucial for researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders. For them a knowledge structure based on longitudinal bibliographic data can be an effective instrument. But with the vast amount of available online information it is often hard to understand the knowledge structure for data. In this paper, we present a novel approach for retrieving online bibliographic data and propose a framework for exploring knowledge structure. We also present several longitudinal analyses to interpret and visualize the last 20 years of published obesity research data. PMID:25915521

  19. The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; McLean, Ian S.; Bauer, James M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Stern, Daniel; Vacca, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of six Y dwarfs also Cushing et al.), eighty-nine T dwarfs, eight L dwarfs, and one M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types > or =T6, six of which have been announced earlier in Mainzer et al. and I3urgasser et al. We present color-color and colortype diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. "

  20. Flat field response of the microchannel plate detectors used on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Gibson, J. L.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vedder, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flat field calibrations of two of the flight detectors to be flown on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) are presented. Images of about 40 million detected events binned 512 by 512 are sufficient to show microchannel plate fixed pattern noise such as hexagonal microchannel multifiber bundle interfaces, 'dead' spots, edge distortion, and differential nonlinearity. Differences due to photocathode material and dependencies on EUV wavelength are also described. Over large spatial scales, the detector response is flat to better than 10 percent of the mean response, but, at spatial scales less than 1 mm, the variations from the mean can be as large as 20 percent.

  1. Field experiments on solar geoengineering: report of a workshop exploring a representative research portfolio.

    PubMed

    Keith, David W; Duren, Riley; MacMartin, Douglas G

    2014-12-28

    We summarize a portfolio of possible field experiments on solar radiation management (SRM) and related technologies. The portfolio is intended to support analysis of potential field research related to SRM including discussions about the overall merit and risk of such research as well as mechanisms for governing such research and assessments of observational needs. The proposals were generated with contributions from leading researchers at a workshop held in March 2014 at which the proposals were critically reviewed. The proposed research dealt with three major classes of SRM proposals: marine cloud brightening, stratospheric aerosols and cirrus cloud manipulation. The proposals are summarized here along with an analysis exploring variables such as space and time scale, risk and radiative forcing. Possible gaps, biases and cross-cutting considerations are discussed. Finally, suggestions for plausible next steps in the development of a systematic research programme are presented.

  2. Field experiments on solar geoengineering: report of a workshop exploring a representative research portfolio

    PubMed Central

    Keith, David W.; Duren, Riley; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize a portfolio of possible field experiments on solar radiation management (SRM) and related technologies. The portfolio is intended to support analysis of potential field research related to SRM including discussions about the overall merit and risk of such research as well as mechanisms for governing such research and assessments of observational needs. The proposals were generated with contributions from leading researchers at a workshop held in March 2014 at which the proposals were critically reviewed. The proposed research dealt with three major classes of SRM proposals: marine cloud brightening, stratospheric aerosols and cirrus cloud manipulation. The proposals are summarized here along with an analysis exploring variables such as space and time scale, risk and radiative forcing. Possible gaps, biases and cross-cutting considerations are discussed. Finally, suggestions for plausible next steps in the development of a systematic research programme are presented. PMID:25404684

  3. Diversidad de aves en agropaisajes en la region norte de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Wayne J. Arendt; Marvin Tórrez; Sergio. Vílchez

    2012-01-01

    Avian diversity in agroscapes in Nicaragua’s north highlands. – Nicaragua’s highland forests are threatened by continual wood extraction and encroaching agriculture. Still, the effects of forest loss and fragmentation on avian communities remain little known. We used fixed-width point counts (distance sampling: 4843 detections during 86 h of observation) to...

  4. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama

    PubMed Central

    Condit, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country. PMID:26214182

  5. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    PubMed

    Condit, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  6. Exploring the efficacy of different electric field models in driving a model of the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, A. J.; Dodger, A. M.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamics of the plasmasphere are strongly controlled by the inner magnetospheric electric field. In order to capture realistically the erosion of the nightside plasmapause and the formation of the drainage plume in a model of the plasmasphere, the electric field must be accurate. This study investigates how well five different electric field models drive the Dynamic Global Core Plasma Model during eight storm periods. The five electric field models are the Volland-Stern analytic formula with Maynard-Chen Kpdependence, two versions of the Weimer statistical models (96 and 05), and two versions of the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) technique using magnetometer and DMSP satellite data. Manually extracted plasmapause locations from images taken by the EUV instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite, as described by Goldstein et al. (2005), were compared to the simulation results throughout the main phase of the eight events. Three methods of calculating the plasmapause were employed to determine the best fit to EUV data, using the maximum gradient, a constant density contour (fit method), and the location in which the modeled density fell significantly below the specified saturation density for the given radial position (saturation method). It was found that the simulations driven by the Weimer (1996) model produced the best fit overall and that the fit and saturation methods worked best for matching the model results to the observations.

  7. Exploring two-field inflation in the Wess-Zumino model

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mulryne, David J. E-mail: Nikolaos.Mavromatos@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-05-01

    We explore inflation via the effective potential of the minimal Wess-Zumino model, considering both the real and imaginary components of the complex field. Using transport techniques, we calculate the full allowed range of n{sub s}, r and f{sub NL} for different choices of the single free parameter, v, and present the probability distribution of these signatures given a simple choice for the prior distribution of initial conditions. Our work provides a case study of multi-field inflation in a simple but realistic setting, with important lessons that are likely to apply more generally. For example, we find that there are initial conditions consistent with observations of n{sub s} and r for values of v that would be excluded if only evolutions in the real field direction were to be considered, and that these may yield enhanced values of f{sub NL}. Moreover, we find that initial conditions fixed at high energy density, where the potential is close to quartic in form, can still lead to evolutions in a concave region of the potential during the observable number of e-folds, as preferred by present data. The Wess-Zumino model therefore provides an illustration that multi-field dynamics must be taken into account when seeking to understand fully the phenomenology of such models of inflation.

  8. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization into lunar/Mars exploration through field analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables, and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For example, the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for ascent vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review the

  9. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization Into Lunar/Mars Exploration Through Field Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables, and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For ex-ample, the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for as-cent vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review

  10. Seeking Signs of Life in Nili Patera with Icelandic Sinter Field Exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skok, J. R.; Farmer, J. D.; Parente, M.; Gaskin, J.; Kaasalainen, H.; Tobler, D.; Jerman, G.

    2015-12-01

    The past decade of Martian orbital and surface exploration has made it clear that the planet could have supported life as we know it in many places throughout much of it's history. The next step in exploration will be to find the evidence for and characterize any preserved Martian life. The jump from confirming habitability to finding life will be difficult and likely require a systemic surface exploration of multiple, specific sites. One site, the sinter mounds of the Nili Patera caldera, provides the ideal combination of hot, neutral to alkaline waters that can develop or support life and the sinter precipitation to preserve it. Nili Patera also provides deposits that are well mapped from orbit allowing a mission to pinpoint the target rocks. With this target known, we can develop the mission, the payload and the science to fit the goals. Several sinter field sites in Iceland were selected for mission testing. They were selected to provide diversity in scale, chemistry and complexity. At each site, we asked the same questions that would drive a mission to Mars. Was there life? What are its preserved properties? What are the environmental history of the sinters and the volcanic history of the local terrain? These questions were investigated with spectral, compositional and morphological analysis. By investigating these questions in Iceland, we will determine which observations, in terms of terrain access and instrument selection are required for mission success on Mars. We report the results from the August 2015 expedition, the first of two planned field seasons. This summer was focused on finalizing the field locations, acquiring mapping data and an initial sampling campaign to determine expected composition and calibrate instruments for year two. With this information, we will determine an investigation plan consistent with a range of mission types from robotic lander to sample return to human exploration. We will also determine the instruments required by the

  11. Interhousehold meat sharing among Mayangna and Miskito horticulturalists in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Koster, Jeremy

    2011-12-01

    Recent analyses of food sharing in small-scale societies indicate that reciprocal altruism maintains interhousehold food transfers, even among close kin. In this study, matrix-based regression methods are used to test the explanatory power of reciprocal altruism, kin selection, and tolerated scrounging. In a network of 35 households in Nicaragua's Bosawas Reserve, the significant predictors of food sharing include kinship, interhousehold distance, and reciprocity. In particular, resources tend to flow from households with relatively more meat to closely related households with little, as predicted by kin selection. This generalization is especially true of household dyads with mother-offspring relationships, which suggests that studies of food sharing may benefit from distinctions between lineal and collateral kin. Overall, this analysis suggests that exchanges among kin are primarily associated with differences in need, not reciprocity. Finally, although large game is distributed widely, qualitative observations indicate that hunters typically do not relinquish control of the distribution in ways predicted by costly signaling theory.

  12. Reliability perceptions and water storage expenditures: Evidence from Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VáSquez, William F.

    2012-10-01

    Storing water at home has become a common practice in many areas with water delivery systems in developing countries. However, little is known about which factors motivate households to expend on water storage devices. Instrumental variable Tobit models are estimated to investigate the relationship between perceptions of water supply reliability and household expenditures on water storage devices in León, Nicaragua. Findings indicate that almost 80% of households use at least one storage device on which they expend an average of 0.87% of their income. Results show that reliability perceptions are the main factor driving household expenditures on storage devices, followed by home ownership and household income. Findings also indicate that reliability perceptions are associated with service performance and assessment of service hours relative to peers.

  13. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  14. Maternal resources and household food security: evidence from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A; Herrera Rodríguez, Andrés; Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano; Centeno Cárdenas, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    Women (especially mothers) are theorized as critical to reducing household food insecurity through their work and caregiver roles. The present study tests these assumptions, assessing how maternal economic and social resources are associated with food insecurity in households with young children. Data from a population-based sample of households was collected in León, Nicaragua (n 443). Data include a newly validated measure of household food insecurity (ELCSA), maternal resource measures, and household economic status and demographics. Regression analysis tests the statistical associations (P<0·05) of maternal resources with household, adult-specific and child-specific food insecurity. Municipality of León, Nicaragua. Households with children aged 3-11 years in rural and urban León. Only 25% of households with young children were food secure, with 50% mildly food insecure and 25% moderately/severely food insecure. When mothers contributed substantially to household income, the odds of moderate/severe household food insecurity were 34% lower than when their spouse/partner was the main provider. The odds of food insecurity were 60% lower when mothers managed household money, 48% lower when mothers had a secondary (v. primary) education, 65% higher among single mothers and 16% lower with each indicator of social support. Results were similar for adult- and child-specific food insecurity. This research provides new evidence that maternal economic and social resources are important for reducing household food insecurity and adult- and child-specific food insecurity. Women's social status, social support and access to economic resources need to be enhanced as a part of policies aimed to reduce food insecurity in high-poverty settings.

  15. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling Through Planetary Analogue Sampling (FELDSPAR).

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockton, A.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z.; Gentry, D. M.; Kirby, J.; Jacobsen, M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Exploration missions to Mars rely on rovers to perform analyses over small sampling areas; however, landing sites for these missions are selected based on large-scale, low-resolution remote data. The use of Earth analogue environments to estimate the multi-scale spatial distributions of key signatures of habitability can help ensure mission science goals are met. A main goal of FELDSPAR is to conduct field operations analogous to Mars sample return in its science, operations, and technology from landing site selection, to in-field sampling location selection, remote or stand-off analysis, in situ analysis, and home laboratory analysis. Lava fields and volcanic regions are relevant analogues to Martian landscapes due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, and temperature extremes. Operationally, many Icelandic lava fields are remote enough to require that field expeditions address several sampling constraints that are experienced in robotic exploration, including in situ and sample return missions. The Fimmvruhls lava field was formed by a basaltic effusive eruption associated with the 2010 Eyjafjallajkull eruption. Mlifellssandur is a recently deglaciated plain to the north of the Myrdalsjkull glacier. Holuhraun was formed by a 2014 fissure eruptions just north of the large Vatnajkull glacier. Dyngjusandur is an alluvial plain apparently kept barren by repeated mechanical weathering. Informed by our 2013 expedition, we collected samples in nested triangular grids every decade from the 10 cm scale to the 1 km scale (as permitted by the size of the site). Satellite imagery is available for older sites, and for Mlifellssandur, Holuhraun, and Dyngjusandur we obtained overhead imagery at 1 m to 200 m elevation. PanCam-style photographs were taken in the field by sampling personnel. In-field reflectance spectroscopy was also obtained with an ASD spectrometer in Dyngjusandur. All sites chosen were 'homogeneous' in apparent color, morphology, moisture, grain size, and

  16. Using potential field data for petroleum exploration targeting, Amadeus Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentith, Mike; Cowan, Duncan

    2011-09-01

    The Amadeus Basin, a large Proterozoic basin located in central Australia, is one of the least explored onshore petroleum-bearing basins with proven reserves in Australia. The size and remoteness of the Amadeus Basin makes ground exploration expensive so this study uses aerogravity and aeromagnetic data to assess petroleum prospectivity. In the western part of the Amadeus Basin the Gillen Petroleum System is considered most significant; this system has the important characteristic that the source in the Bitter Springs Formation is stratigraphically higher than the potential reservoirs within the Dean/Heavitree Quartzite. Thin skinned deformation is expected at the source level and above, with detachments at evaporitic horizons, but deformation of the reservoir is expected to be thick-skinned. This model can form the basis for predicting potential field responses. The most prospective areas are where: (i) gravity suggests basement (and reservoir) is shallow; (ii) magnetics maps fold-thrust complexes (structural trap); and (iii) these features occur adjacent to gravity lows, indicative of significant thicknesses of basin fill (source at depth and below reservoir). Faults at the margins of the depocentre (mapped using magnetic data) provide a possible migration path for the hydrocarbons. Favourable scenarios for younger petroleum systems are antiforms in fold-thrust complexes in units assigned to the Boord Formation and younger units. The juxtaposition of these structures with depocentres suggested by negative gravity anomalies constitutes a favourable exploration scenario. Regardless of specific exploration targets, this study demonstrates that airborne gravity and magnetic data are capable of resolving intra-basin structures in sufficient detail to allow prospective areas to be identified and for follow-up seismic surveys to be reliably planned.

  17. Hinode magnetic-field observations of solar flares for exploring the energy storage and trigger mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Toshifumi; Inoue, Satoshi; Kawabata, Yusuke

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares abruptly release the free energy stored as a non-potential magnetic field in the corona and may be accompanied by eruptions of the coronal plasma. Magnetic reconnection is considered as a physical process in which the magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and particle acceleration, but the location of magnetic reconnection is difficult to identify directly because of low emission measure at the reconnection region. We are still lack of observational knowledge on the 3D magnetic configuration and physical conditions for leading to flare trigger. Accurate measurements of vector magnetic fields at the solar photosphere, provided by the Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode, help us in exploring how the free energy is stored in the solar atmosphere and how the release of the energy is triggered. This presentation will review the magnetic field configuration and possible candidates for flare trigger primarily based on Hinode observations of some large flare events, which may include X5.4/X1.3 flares on 7 March 2012, X1.2 flare on 7 January 2014 and two M-class flares on 2 February 2014. The 7 March 2012 events were observed in an active region with delta-type sunspots, showing a strong shear in the entire magnetic system. For the sheared magnetic structure, the inclusion of a small-scale trigger field was identified near the polarity inversion line with excitation of a high-speed material flow in the horizontally oriented magnetic field formed nearly in parallel to the polarity inversion line. The observations suggest that gas dynamics at the solar surface play a vital role of leading to the onset of flares. The 7 January 2014 event is an exceptional event which most scientists would not be able to predict its occurrence. The flare unexpectedly happened apart from the sheared magnetic field region. The M-class flares on 2 February 2014 were observed in the magnetic field configuration, in which four magnetic domains were

  18. Mid-Max field: A piece of the Silurian-Devonian exploration puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Entzminger, D.J.; Basham, W.L. ); Gonzales, E. )

    1992-04-01

    The Mid-Max field, Andrews County, Texas, provides an example for the exploration and development of subtle stratigraphic targets in the Permian basin. The integration of all available data, including seismic, log, core, and engineering data, is essential in this mature area as the search for hydrocarbons turns toward subtle structural and stratigraphic prospects. The Mid-Max field, on the Central basin platform, is a Silurian reef. Seismic data support the geologic interpreation of Woodford Shale thinning over a Silurian high, a Silurian to Fusselman thick, and the presence of a relatively flat Fusselman reflector beneath the Silurian high. Whole cores and rotary sidewall cores from the field contain stromatoporoids, corals, algal stromatolites, crinoidal grainstones and other reef elements. The reservoir is predominantly dolomite with porosity and permeability being variable and controlled by the presence of lime mud, fracturing, and diagenesis. The 26-29 API gravity sour crude produced at Mid-Max field is atypical of Siluria-Devonian oils, which commonly are sweet crudes of 35 to 45 API gravity. This atypical oil is explained by the mixing of two types of Woodford-sourced oils and biodegradation. Tectonism appears to have played a minor role in the formation of the Mid-Max field, unlike the conventional faulted-anticline prospects in the Silurian-Devonian of the Permian basin. Although modern common-depth-point seismic data and a dry Silurian test exited over the Mid-Max prospect prior to drilling, these illusive traps commonly are misinterpreted or overlooked, which would suggest that there might be similar subtle Silurian prospects elsewhere in the Permian basin.

  19. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region of a pattern referred to as 'horse-collar' aurora (Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use the Dynamics Explorer data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager, while at the same time DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. Our analysis shows that, in general, there is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. In many instances, over scales ranging from tens to a few hundred kilometers, electron precipitation features and upward field-aligned currents are observed at locations where the plasma flow gradients indicate negative V-average x E. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  20. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region of a pattern referred to as 'horse-collar' aurora (Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use the Dynamics Explorer data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager, while at the same time DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. Our analysis shows that, in general, there is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. In many instances, over scales ranging from tens to a few hundred kilometers, electron precipitation features and upward field-aligned currents are observed at locations where the plasma flow gradients indicate negative V-average x E. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  1. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level

  2. Flow Web: a graph based user interface for 3D flow field exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijie; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    While there have been intensive efforts in developing better 3D flow visualization techniques, little attention has been paid to the design of better user interfaces and more effective data exploration work flow. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based user interface called Flow Web to enable more systematic explorations of 3D flow data. The Flow Web is a node-link graph that is constructed to highlight the essential flow structures where a node represents a region in the field and a link connects two nodes if there exist particles traveling between the regions. The direction of an edge implies the flow path, and the weight of an edge indicates the number of particles traveling through the connected nodes. Hierarchical flow webs are created by splitting or merging nodes and edges to allow for easy understanding of the underlying flow structures. To draw the Flow Web, we adopt force based graph drawing algorithms to minimize edge crossings, and use a hierarchical layout to facilitate the study of flow patterns step by step. The Flow Web also supports user queries to the properties of nodes and links. Examples of the queries for node properties include the degrees, complexity, and some associated physical attributes such as velocity magnitude. Queries for edges include weights, flow path lengths, existence of circles and so on. It is also possible to combine multiple queries using operators such as and , or, not. The FlowWeb supports several types of user interactions. For instance, the user can select nodes from the subgraph returned by a query and inspect the nodes with more details at different levels of detail. There are multiple advantages of using the graph-based user interface. One is that the user can identify regions of interest much more easily since, unlike inspecting 3D regions, there is very little occlusion. It is also much more convenient for the user to query statistical information about the nodes and links at different levels of detail. With

  3. Binocular Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss and Its Impact on Visual Exploration - A Supermarket Study

    PubMed Central

    Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as “passed” or “failed” with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p<0.001). Furthermore, patients who passed the task showed a significantly higher number of glances towards the visual field defect (VFD) area than patients who failed (t-test, p<0.05). According to these results, glaucoma patients with defects in the binocular visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a “time-effective” compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task. PMID:25162522

  4. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization Into Lunar/Mars Exploration Through Field Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review the results of four analog field tests (Moses Lake in 6/08, Mauna Kea in 11/08. Flagstaff in 9/09; and Mauna Kea in 1/10) that have begun the process of integrating ISRU into robotic and human exploration systems and missions, and propose future ISRU-related analog field test activities that can be performed in collaboration with international space agencies.

  5. Novel compact photoacoustic imaging system to explore the applications in the medical imaging field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Hayakawa, Toshiro; Ishihara, Miya

    2017-04-01

    PhotoAcoustic (PA) imaging is a promising imaging method using the pulsed-laser light source and ultrasound detector. PA image shows the features of optical contrast in biological tissue with ultrasound-like depth and resolution. In the human body, Hemoglobin of the blood is strong optical absorber, so the high-contrast blood distribution (vascular) image is obtained by PA imaging. Recently, FUJIFILM has developed the PA imaging system to explore its application in medical imaging field. In this system, the fusion of PA and conventional ultrasound image is realized, for example, ultrasound Doppler image is superposed to the PA and B-mode image. The system features and some results of clinical studies will be introduced.

  6. Shale characterization on Barito field, Southeast Kalimantan for shale hydrocarbon exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumotarto, T. A.; Haris, A.; Riyanto, A.; Usman, A.

    2017-07-01

    Exploration and exploitation in Indonesia now are still focused on conventional hydrocarbon energy than unconventional hydrocarbon energy such as shale gas. Tanjung Formation is a source rock of Barito Basin located in South Kalimantan that potentially as shale hydrocarbon. In this research, integrated methods using geochemical analysis, mineralogy, petrophysical analysis and seismic interpretation has been applied to explore the shale hydrocarbon potential in Barito Field for Tanjung formation. The first step is conducting geochemical and mineralogy analysis to the shale rock sample. Our analysis shows that the organic richness is ranging from 1.26-5.98 wt.% (good to excellent) with the depth of early mature window of 2170 m. The brittleness index is in an average of 0.44-0.56 (less Brittle) and Kerogen type is classified into II/III type that potentially produces oil and gas. The second step is continued by performing petrophysical analysis, which includes Total Organic Carbon (TOC) calculation and brittleness index continuously. The result has been validated with a laboratory measurement that obtained a good correlation. In addition, seismic interpretation based on inverted acoustic impedance is applied to map the distributions of shale hydrocarbon potential. Our interpretation shows that shale hydrocarbon potential is localized in the eastern and southeastern part of the study area.

  7. Managing the Development of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irace, William; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Greanias, George; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Royer, Donald; Wright, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission, is surveying the entire sky in four bands from 3.4 to 22 microns with a sensitivity hundreds to hundreds of thousands times better than previous all-sky surveys at these wavelengths. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm three-mirror anastigmatic telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 6" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). WISE was placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta II 7320 launch vehicle on December 14, 2009. NASA selected WISE as a MIDEX in 2002 following a rigorous competitive selection process. To gain further confidence in WISE, NASA extended the development period one year with an option to cancel the mission if certain criteria were not met. MIDEX missions are led by the principal investigator who in this case delegated day-to-day management to the project manager. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it was essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This was accomplished with an integrated management team representing all key partners and disciplines. The project was developed on budget and on schedule in spite of the need to surmount significant technical challenges. This paper describes our management approach, key challenges and critical decisions made. Results are described from a programmatic, technical and scientific point of view. Lessons learned are offered for projects of this type.

  8. Ground characterization of the Wide-field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, John C.; Larsen, Mark F.; Peterson, James Q.; Sargent, Steven D.

    1998-11-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) is a small cryogenic spaceborne infrared telescope being readied for launch in September 1998 as the fifth of NASA's Small Explorers. WIRE utilizes two 128 X 128 Si:As Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) produced by Boeing North American with a 30 cm diameter Ritchey Cretien diamond turned mirror system. This mission takes advantage of recent advances in infrared array detector technology to provide a large sensitivity gain over previously flown missions. Two broad pass bands are defined for a deep pointed survey to search for protogalaxies and to study the evolution of starburst galaxies. The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) used the multifunction infrared calibrator and other special purpose cryogenic equipment to perform a ground characterization of the WIRE instrument. The focus was verified cold with two independent measurements. Both in-band and out-of-band Relative Spectral Response measurements were made; some sensitivity to temperature, bias voltage, and location on the long wavelength focal plane array were found. Dark current and dark noise measurements are also reported.

  9. Managing the Development of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irace, William; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Greanias, George; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Royer, Donald; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission, is surveying the entire sky in four bands from 3.4 to 22 microns with a sensitivity hundreds to hundreds of thousands times better than previous all-sky surveys at these wavelengths. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm three-mirror anastigmatic telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 6" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). WISE was placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta II 7320 launch vehicle on December 14, 2009. NASA selected WISE as a MIDEX in 2002 following a rigorous competitive selection process. To gain further confidence in WISE, NASA extended the development period one year with an option to cancel the mission if certain criteria were not met. MIDEX missions are led by the principal investigator who in this case delegated day-to-day management to the project manager. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it was essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This was accomplished with an integrated management team representing all key partners and disciplines. The project was developed on budget and on schedule in spite of the need to surmount significant technical challenges. This paper describes our management approach, key challenges and critical decisions made. Results are described from a programmatic, technical and scientific point of view. Lessons learned are offered for projects of this type.

  10. Cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions reduce motivation in appetitive operant conditioning and open field exploration.

    PubMed

    Bauer, David J; Kerr, Abigail L; Swain, Rodney A

    2011-02-01

    Recently identified pathways from the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum to the rostral cerebral cortex via the thalamus suggest a cerebellar role in frontal and prefrontal non-motor functioning. Disturbance of cerebellar morphology and connectivity, particularly involving these cerebellothalamocortical (CTC) projections, has been implicated in motivational and cognitive deficits. The current study explored the effects of CTC disruption on motivation in male Long Evans rats. The results of two experiments demonstrate that electrolytic lesions of the cerebellar dentate nuclei lower breaking points on an operant conditioning progressive ratio schedule and decrease open field exploration compared to sham controls. Changes occurred in the absence of motor impairment, assessed via lever pressing frequency and rotarod performance. Similar elevated plus maze performances between lesioned and sham animals indicated that anxiety did not influence task performance. Our results demonstrate hedonic and purposive motivational reduction and suggest a CTC role in global motivational processes. These implications are discussed in terms of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, in which cerebellar damage and motivational deficits often present concomitantly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  12. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.13 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public... section 241(a)(5) of the Act, if the alien: (1) Is a national of Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided...

  13. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  14. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  15. Geophysical Investigations of Magma Plumbing Systems at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    Cerro Negro near Leon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6--7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive density anomalies beneath Cerro Negro and Las Pilas-El Hoyo. These findings suggest that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping a large magma reservoir beneath Las Pilas-El Hoyo, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest vent on the Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcanic complex. As such, it is possible that the intensity of volcanic hazards at Cerro Negro may eventually increase in the future to resemble those pertaining to a stratovolcano. Keywords: Cerro Negro; Las Pilas-El Hoyo; Bouguer gravity; magmatic plumbing systems; potential fields; volcano.

  16. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  17. Pilot assessment of mercury exposure in selected biota from the lowlands of Nicaragua [Evaluacion piloto de exposicion al mercurio en biota selecta de las tierras bajas de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    O.P. Lane; W.J. Arendt; M.A. Torrez; J.C. Gamez Castellon

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin, can damage health of humans and wildlife. In 2012, we collected 73 blood and feather samples from birds among diverse foraging guilds to assess mercury exposure in wetland habitats associated with Lakes Managua and Nicaragua. Blood levels (0.72 parts per million) in a piscivorous Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus from...

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  19. INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER MEASUREMENTS AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE VICINITY OF THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Zank, Gary P.; Borovikov, Sergey N.; Frisch, Priscilla C.; McComas, David J. E-mail: jh0001@uah.edu E-mail: snb0003@uah.edu E-mail: DMcComas@swri.edu

    2011-12-01

    The combination of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) all-sky maps of the energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes with the Voyager in situ measurements provides a unique opportunity to learn about the physics governing the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. The first IBEX results revealed a sky-spanning 'ribbon' of unexpectedly intense emissions of ENAs that had not been predicted previously by any physical model. A number of explanations were proposed to explain the IBEX ribbon, some of them associated with the distribution of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) coupled with the interplanetary magnetic field at the heliopause. The position of the ribbon in the sky correlates with the line-of-sight directions perpendicular to the modeled ISMF. In this paper, we analyze such distributions for a variety of ISMF strengths and directions in order to reveal the topology of the surface that may potentially contain the ENA sources creating the ribbon. We also analyze the distributions of total pressure exerted on the heliopause as a result of its draping by the ISMF. The effects of solar cycle variations on the ribbon topology are discussed.

  20. Spatial variations of hydrocarbon contamination and soil properties in oil exploring fields across China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Jian; Li, Guanghe

    2012-11-30

    Successful site remediation is critically based on a comprehensive understanding of distribution of contaminants, soil physico-chemical and microbial properties in oil contaminated sites. One hundred and ten topsoils were sampled from seven typical oil fields in different geoclimate regions across north to south China to investigate the spatial variances of oil contaminations and soil parameters. Oil concentrations and compositions, soil geochemical properties and microbial populations were analyzed and statistic analysis methods were used to analyze the spatial pattern of soil variables. The results indicated that oil contaminations were serious in most oil exploring areas in China, especially with high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic origin. Ordination analyses indicated a relatively distinct spatial pattern that all soil samples grouped mainly by geographic locations, instead of distributing along contamination or other geochemical variable gradient. Microbial populations were found to be statistically positively correlated with soil nitrogen, phosphorus and water content, and negatively correlated with salt pH and soluble salts (P<0.05). This study provided insights into the spatial variability of soil variables in hydrocarbon-contaminated fields across large spatial scales, which is important for the environmental protection and further remediation in oil contaminated sites according to local conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Geology Field Camp at Southern Illinois University: Six weeks exploring four tectonic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, S. A.; Conder, J. A.; Ferre, E. C.; Heij, G.

    2013-12-01

    Field Geology is typically the capstone course for an undergraduate Bachelor of Science degree in Geology. This type of course brings together the varied sub-disciplines and course topics students encounter in their undergraduate experience, and puts these in context of active Earth processes. At the same time, a significant fraction of Geology departments have dropped field geology from their offerings and students must choose from those programs still offering the course. Southern Illinois University has offered field geology for over 40 years, stationed in and around southwestern Montana. This field camp offers experiences with four distinct tectonic settings: thick-skin contractional, thin-skin contractional, extensional, and anorogenic. The most challenging projects of the course involve mapping and interpreting Laramide and Sevier compressionally deformed areas. The major difference between the two types of deformation is that Laramide ('thick-skinned') tectonics encompasses the mid-crust in deformation while Sevier ('thin-skinned') deformation is limited to the uppermost portion of the crust. This difference results in markedly different fold styles and other deformational structures encountered, requiring different approaches to understanding and constructing the deformational histories of the regions. Extensional tectonics are explored with a paleoseismology project at Hebgen Lake, in Grand Teton National Park where the students typically spend two days, and at the Bitterroot Shear Zone - the edge of a metamorphic core complex along the eastern boundary of the Idaho batholith. While recent work from EarthScope and elsewhere casts doubt on Yellowstone as a mantle plume, Yellowstone remains the classic example of a continental hotspot. During visits through the park, students distinguish between the recent volcanics and hydrothermal activity of Yellowstone and the nearby Eocene Absaroka volcanics. Expanding on the story of the Yellowstone hotspot, a visit is

  2. Evaluation of evaporite facies as a tool for exploration, Yates Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, A.W.; Warren, J.K.

    1987-05-01

    Evaporites have long been recognized as the most efficient reservoir seal; however, the seal can itself serve as an exploration tool to locate subtle stratigraphic traps. By analogy with modern environments, thick massive evaporites form subaqueously in ponds (salinas) in topographic lows while sabkhas form on the subaerially exposed supratidal zone on topographic highs. Recognition of evaporite facies distribution can delineate paleotopography where sabkhas form a seal over local highs and closure is provided by salinas forming a lateral seal in lows. These relationships are illustrated by the giant Yates field (2 billion bbl reserves), situated at the southern tip of the Central basin platform in the Permian basin. The seal over the Yates reservoir (San Andres formation) is formed by the evaporites at the base of the Seven Rivers Formation (Guadalupian). Within the evaporite, two distinct depositional facies are recognized: a massive, salina-anhydrite in the central and western parts of the field; and on the east, stacked sabkha sequences consisting of sandy dolomite overlying a sharp base, grading into nodular anhydrite and capped by an erosional surface. The depositional topography on the underlying San Andres reservoir controlled the facies distribution in the basal Seven Rivers. Carbonate buildups formed on the eastern side of the field, while interbedded shales and dolomites accumulated in the quiet lagoonal waters behind. Due to dewatering and compaction during early burial, the lagoons remained topographically low until early Seven Rivers time when they were finally filled with salina evaporites. The rigid shelf margin buildups remained as topographic highs over which sabkhas developed. Only 10% of the production has come from the lagoonal muds under the salinas, while 90% has been produced from the carbonate buildups under the sabkhas.

  3. 75 FR 38772 - Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... reduces the 2010 TPL for Nicaragua to 99,238,862 square meters equivalent to account for the shortfall in... meter equivalent of exports of cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers entered under the TPL, Nicaragua... 50 million square meters equivalent in 2009, the fourth year after the date of entry into force...

  4. 78 FR 39259 - Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... TPL for Nicaragua to 98,447,866 square meters equivalent to account for the shortfall in meeting the... letters dated March 24 and 27, 2006, Nicaragua agreed that for each square meter equivalent (SME) of... the one-to-one commitment is 1,552,134 square meters equivalent. This amount is being deducted...

  5. 77 FR 40589 - Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...: July 10, 2012. SUMMARY: This notice reduces the 2012 TPL for Nicaragua to 96,529,059 square meters..., Nicaragua agreed that for each square meter equivalent (SME) of exports of cotton and man-made fiber woven...,941 square meters equivalent. This amount is being deducted from the 2012 TPL, resulting in a new...

  6. Nicaragua: an example of commitments and strengths despite problems of poverty.

    PubMed

    Ross, Carl A

    2007-01-01

    Nicaragua is located in the middle of the Central American isthmus between the countries of Honduras and Costa Rica. It is the largest Central American country and is equivalent in size to the state of Georgia. Nicaragua is cited by Pan American Health Organization as one of the poorest third-world countries. One factor that continues to contribute to Nicaragua's chronic poverty state is the demographics of the country. Nearly half of all Nicaraguans are under 15 years of age, and more than a quarter are between the ages of 15 and 29 years. Only a quarter of the population is over 30 years of age. Beyond the hardship and poverty, there is a country rich in beauty. Nicaragua has a beautiful countryside with lush green mountains, black sand beaches of the Pacific Ocean, and the natural wonder of active volcanoes. It is easy to become engulfed by the tranquility of these surroundings and to steer away from the harsh conditions of the country. It is, however, a temporary escape from reality, for it was the hardships and unfavorable circumstances of this country that are never forgotten and which persist until today. This article focuses on a variety of interventions used to assist Nicaragua with their health care and state of well-being.

  7. Population-based study of presbyopia in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hookway, Larry A; Frazier, Marcela; Rivera, Nelson; Ramson, Prasidh; Carballo, Luis; Naidoo, Kovin

    2016-11-01

    Uncorrected presbyopia can greatly impact a person's quality of life and employment prospects. Nicaragua is the poorest country in Latin America and there are no population-based reports of prevalence of presbyopia in Nicaragua. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted. The sample was selected through random cluster sampling. Adults 35 years and older were enlisted through a door-to-door method using aged-based sampling. All enumerated household members 35 years and older were asked to attend a free visual acuity screening. Autorefraction was done and then uncorrected distance vision and near visual acuity were measured for all subjects. All those who had distance or near vision that was 6/12 or worse underwent a clinical examination, which included refraction at distance and near. Free spectacles were provided. Of the 3,390 subjects surveyed, 37.1 per cent reported that they wore spectacles on a regular basis. A total of 1,871 (55.2 per cent) of those enumerated were examined. The prevalence of near visual impairment (6/12 [N 6] or worse) was 79.6 per cent for the 35 to 49-year-old group, 97.3 per cent for the 50 to 64-year-old group and 96.7 per cent for the 65 and over group. Of those reporting for the examination, 82.2 per cent did not have glasses. Of those examined, 10 per cent did not need spectacles, four per cent were given spectacles for distance only, 38 per cent spectacles for distance and near, 42 per cent spectacles for near only and seven per cent were referred for medical evaluation due to ocular pathology. During the refractions, 91.5 per cent were corrected to 6/12 or better at distance and 89.4 per cent were corrected to 6/12 or better at near. The majority of the participants who were examined did not have the spectacles that they needed. Over one-third of those participants who presented without spectacles had distance vision better than 6/12 and could be improved to good near vision with ready-made near-only spectacles

  8. May 2011 eruption of Telica Volcano, Nicaragua: Multidisciplinary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, M. R.; Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Roman, D. C.; Rodgers, M.; Muñoz, A.; Morales, A.; Tenorio, V.; Chavarria, D.; Feineman, M. D.; Furman, T.; Longley, A.

    2011-12-01

    Telica volcano, an andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Nicaragua, erupted in May 2011. The eruption, produced ash but no lava and required the evacuation of over 500 people; no injuries were reported. We present the first detailed report of the eruption, using information from the TElica Seismic ANd Deformation (TESAND) network, that provides real-time data, along with visual observations, ash leachate analysis, and fumarole temperature measurements. Telica is located in the Maribios mountain range. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua and has frequent small explosions and rare large (VEI 4) eruptions, with the most recent sizable eruptions (VEI 2) occurring in 1946 and 1999. The 2011 eruption is the most explosive since 1999. The eruption consisted of a series of ash explosions, with the first observations from May 8, 2011 when local residents reported ash fall NE of the active crater. Popping sounds could be heard coming from the crater on May 10. On May 13, the activity intensified and continued with some explosions every day for about 2 weeks. The well-defined plumes originated from the northern part of the crater. Ash fall was reported 4 km north of the active crater on May 14. The largest explosion at 2:54 pm (local time) on May 21 threw rocks from the crater and generated a column 2 km in height. Fresh ash samples were collected on May 16, 18, and 21 and preliminary inspection shows that the majority of the material is fragmented rock and crystalline material, i.e. not juvenile. Ash leachates (ash:water = 1:25) contain a few ppb As, Se, and Cd; tens of ppb Co and Ni; and up to a few hundred ppb Cu and Zn. Telica typically has hundreds of small seismic events every day, even when the volcano is not erupting. The TESAND network detected an increase in the rate and magnitude of seismic activity, with a maximum magnitude of 3.3. Elevated fumarole temperatures at locations near the active vent were also observed throughout the May 2011

  9. The Psychological Impact of First Burn Camp in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa L; Castillo Alaniz, Arlen Tatiana; Lucia Icaza, Ivette; Alejandra Murillo, Evelyn

    Asociacion Pro-Ninos Quemados de Nicaragua (APROQUEN) is a comprehensive burn center that provides a holistic and integrated approach to treating burns. APROQUEN has set the standards internationally with acute treatment for burns, intensive care, reconstructive surgeries, nutritional care, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological treatment. APROQUEN is excelling within Central and South America with life-saving techniques and quality of care. It is imperative that burn centers in Central America recognize that the treatment of a child with a burn injury surpasses physical care to include psychological treatment for the complete well-being of the child. It is necessary to provide the tools necessary to reintegrate the child back into their environment. APROQUEN developed and implemented the first burn camp in Latin America, "Confio en Mi" (I trust myself). The camp theme focused on self-esteem. The camp program included theory (educational) and practice (applied) components where the campers through "classroom type" activities had the opportunity to reflect and share with other campers and camp staff on self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Participants were children who survived major burns (N = 33; 58% women; ages 12-25; 61% <18) and were shown to have difficulty socializing. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to ensure fit for camp. Forty-two percent of the campers had not slept away from home since the burn injury. Mean TBSA = 20% and mean age at time of burn injury was 13. The majority of campers (46%) endured flame burn injuries, with 24% having scald injuries. Mean years postburn = 4.8 + 3.2. Most campers (40%) were enrolled in secondary school, 30% in elementary school, and 21% in college. Standardized measures (CDI-2 Parent Form and Child Form, Rosenberg Scale, APROQUEN Burn Camp Measure Parent and Child Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory) were given to all campers prior to attending camp. The same measures

  10. 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Robotic Field Geologists for a Mars Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed in Gusev crater on Jan. 4, 2004 and the rover Opportunity arrived on the plains of Meridiani Planum on Jan. 25, 2004. The rovers continue to return new discoveries after 4 continuous Earth years of operations on the surface of the red planet. Spirit has successfully traversed 7.5 km over the Gusev crater plains, ascended to the top of Husband Hill, and entered into the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills. Opportunity has traveled nearly 12 km over flat plains of Meridiani and descended into several impact craters. Spirit and Opportunity carry an integrated suite of scientific instruments and tools called the Athena science payload. The Athena science payload consists of the 1) Panoramic Camera (Pancam) that provides high-resolution, color stereo imaging, 2) Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) that provides spectral cubes at mid-infrared wavelengths, 3) Microscopic Imager (MI) for close-up imaging, 4) Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) for elemental chemistry, 5) Moessbauer Spectrometer (MB) for the mineralogy of Fe-bearing materials, 6) Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) for removing dusty and weathered surfaces and exposing fresh rock underneath, and 7) Magnetic Properties Experiment that allow the instruments to study the composition of magnetic martian materials [1]. The primary objective of the Athena science investigation is to explore two sites on the martian surface where water may once have been present, and to assess past environmental conditions at those sites and their suitability for life. The Athena science instruments have made numerous scientific discoveries over the 4 plus years of operations. The objectives of this paper are to 1) describe the major scientific discoveries of the MER robotic field geologists and 2) briefly summarize what major outstanding questions were not answered by MER that might be addressed by returning samples to our laboratories on Earth.

  11. Exploration of strong-field double ionization of CS2 molecule in bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, Shuai; Zuo, Wanlong; Song, Kaili; Xu, Tongtong; Guo, Jing; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2016-12-01

    By using classical ensemble method, we investigate the double ionization of CS2 molecule in linearly, the bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields and the combination of bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields and static field, respectively. The numerical results show that the ionization probability in the bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields is about 2 order magnitude higher than that in linearly polarized laser field. When a static field is added, the ionization probability is the largest. Besides, the "knee" structure occurs at about 0.05 PW/cm2 in linearly polarized laser field; whereas "knee" structure is disappeared in the bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields and combined laser field. The corresponding momentum distribution of CS2 molecule presents a "finger-like" structure at about 0.05 PW/cm2 in linearly polarized field. By analysing the energy distributions of double-ionized electrons versus time and corresponding trajectories, we find that, for linearly polarized case non-sequential double ionization (NSDI) is predominant at about 0.05 PW/cm2, for bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields, one electron ionizes after another which indicate sequential ionization process (SDI). When the static field is added, the two electrons undergoes a long pre-ionization process first and then ionizes one after another, and the pre-ionization process lasts longer than other two cases.

  12. Teaching and Learning in the Tropics: An Epistemic Exploration of "the Field" in a Development Studies Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kamna

    2015-01-01

    Development studies employs theories, tools and methods often found in geography, including the international field trip to a "developing" country. In 2013 and 2014, I led a two-week trip to Ethiopia. To better comprehend the effects of "the field" on students' learning, I introduced an assessed reflexive field diary to…

  13. Teaching and Learning in the Tropics: An Epistemic Exploration of "the Field" in a Development Studies Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kamna

    2015-01-01

    Development studies employs theories, tools and methods often found in geography, including the international field trip to a "developing" country. In 2013 and 2014, I led a two-week trip to Ethiopia. To better comprehend the effects of "the field" on students' learning, I introduced an assessed reflexive field diary to…

  14. Tiny Stars, Strong Fields: Exploring the Origin of Intense Magnetism in M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomre, Juri

    The M-type stars are becoming dominant targets in searches for Earth-like planets that could occupy their habitable zones. The low masses and luminosities of M-dwarf central stars make them very attractive for such exoplanetary hunts. The habitable zone of M dwarfs is close to the star due to their low luminosity. Thus possibly habitable planets will have short orbital periods, making their detection feasible both with the transit method (used by Kepler, K2 and soon with TESS) and with the radial velocity approaches. Yet habitability on a planet likely requires both solid surfaces and atmospheres, but also a favorable radiation environment. It is here that the M-dwarf central stars raise major theoretical puzzles, for many of them exhibit remarkably intense and frequent flaring, despite their modest intrinsic luminosities. The super-flares release their energy both in white light and in X-rays, and can be thousands of times brighter than the strongest solar flares. Such striking events must have magnetic origins, likely from fields built by convective dynamos operating in their interiors. Further, recent observations suggest that the surface of some M stars is carpeted with magnetic fields of 3 kG or more. Such field strengths are reminiscent of a sunspot, but here instead cover much of the stellar surface. With M stars now taking center stage in the search for Earthlike planets, it is crucial to begin to understand how convective dynamos may be able to build intense magnetic fields involved with super-flares and vast star spots, and how they depend upon the mass and rotation rate of these stars. We propose to use major 3-D MHD simulations with our Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code to study the coupling of turbulent convection, rotation, and magnetism within full spherical domains such as the interior of an M dwarf. This permits the exploration of the magnetic dynamos that must be responsible for the evolving magnetism and intense activity of many M dwarfs

  15. New Frontiers in Ocean Exploration: The 2011 E/V NAUTILUS Field Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. L.; Ballard, R. D.; Coleman, D. F.; Roman, C.; Brennan, M. L.; Turanli, T.; Duman, M.; Carey, S.; Nomikou, P.; Marani, M.; Rosi, M.; Austin, J. A.; Canals, M.; Karson, J.; Mayer, L. A.; Makovsky, Y.; Scientific Team of the 2011 Nautilus Expedition

    2011-12-01

    In the summer of 2011, the Exploration Vessel NAUTILUS is undertaking a four-month expedition to the Black, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, and North Atlantic Ocean. The primary goal of the NAUTILUS is to create a focus of international leadership for the development and integration of leading-edge technologies, educational programs, field operations, and public outreach programs for ocean exploration, in partnership with NOAA, National Geographic Society, Office of Naval Research, and other sponsors. To do so, the program uses a complement of deep submergence vehicle systems and "telepresence" technologies to engage scientists, educators and the public, both at sea and ashore, allowing them to become integral members of the on-board exploration team. When discoveries are made, experts ashore are notified and brought aboard virtually within a short period of time to help guide shipboard response before the ship moves on. The 2011 expedition is currently in progress, and is comprised of eight areas of interest. Extensive sidescan mapping is taking place off the Turkish coasts of the Black and Aegean Seas, and will be followed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives on targets of archaeological, geological and biological interest. In the Black Sea, additional work on the porewater chemistry of the sediments in the oxic, suboxic and anoxic zones will take place. High-resolution multibeam, stereo imaging and structured light mapping, as well as sediment and water sampling, will be carried out at two locations in the Hellenic Volcanic Arc, the Kolumbo underwater volcano and deep Cretan Basin. We will also carry out transects on the unexplored slopes of the volcanic Christianna Domes, located near Santorini volcano. We will use ROVs equipped with MAPRs and ORP sensors to search for and investigate hydrothermal activity on seamounts and other suspected venting sites in the Aeolian Arc and Straits of Sicily. In the western Mediterranean, the submarine canyons and Mazarron

  16. Reactive plume chemistry and links to mercury deposition at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, Roland; Donohoue, Deanna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Witt, Melanie; Mather, Tamsin

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes are known to emit significant quantities of gases and trace metals including mercury. Some of these gases are involved in very fast reaction cycles in the atmosphere. This is especially true for chlorine and bromine which destroy ozone catalytically and also oxidise elemental gaseous mercury. Oxidised mercury is soluble and can be taken up by particles which can potentially increase the deposition of toxic mercury near the volcano. In order to quantify these processes we conducted a field campaign at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua in March/April 2011. We measured gaseous S, F, Cl, Br, I, total gaseous mercury and particulate mercury and particle size distributions near the crater rim and at a site ~ 2.5 km downwind fumigated by the plume. We also measured BrO and SO2 near the crater rim and at two distances downwind by U.V. spectroscopy. The BrO/SO2 ratio was clearly elevated downwind compared to near-crater showing that reaction cycles to produce BrO are efficient on timescales of less than 10min. Changes in the mercury speciation (i.e., increased proportions of particulate Hg) were also observed at the downwind site, consistent with the links between reactive halogens and mercury discussed above. A one-dimensional model was used to simulate the evolution of the volcanic emissions in the atmosphere, the comparison with the field data showed good model skill at reproducing the chemical processes. Details of the field data and the model results will be discussed.

  17. Wave fields and spectra of Rayleigh waves in poroelastic media in the exploration seismic frequency band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yixian; Xia, Jianghai

    2012-12-01

    A better understanding of the influences of different surface fluid drainage conditions on the propagation and attenuation of surface waves as the stipulated frequency is varied is a key issue to apply surface wave method to detect subsurface hydrological properties. Our study develops three-dimensional dynamical Green's functions in poroelastic media for Rayleigh waves of possible free surface conditions: permeable - "open pore," impermeable - "closed pore," and partially permeable boundaries. The full transient response of wave fields and spectra due to a stress impulse wavelet on the surface are investigated in the exploration seismic frequency band for typical surface drainage conditions, viscous coupling-damping, solid frame properties and porous fluid flowing configuration. Our numerical results show that, due to the slow dilatational wave - P2 wave, two types of Rayleigh waves, designated as R1 and R2 waves, exist along the surface. R1 wave possesses high energy as classic Rayleigh waves in pure elastic media for each porous materials. A surface fluid drainage condition is a significant factor to influence dispersion and attenuation, especially attenuation of R1 waves. R2 wave for closed pore and partially permeable surfaces is only observed for a low coupling-damping coefficient. The non-physical wave for partially surface conditions causes the R1 wave radiates into the R2 wave in the negative attenuation frequency range. It makes weaker R1 wave and stronger R2 wave to closed pore surface. Moreover, it is observed that wave fields and spectra of R1 wave are sensitive to frame elastic moduli change for an open pore surface, and to pore fluid flow condition change for closed pore and partially permeable surface.

  18. A qualitative study on primary health care professionals’ perceptions of mental health, suicidal problems and help-seeking among young people in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people’s mental health problems, suicidal problems and help–seeking behaviour. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach. Results This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems. Conclusion PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people’s willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people. PMID:24989871

  19. Determinants of drinking water quality in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P.; Gorter, A. C.; Smith, G. D.; Pauw, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-three water samples from rural Nicaragua were examined for the presence of faecal coliforms during both wet and dry periods. A linear model was fitted by analysis of covariance with the logarithm of the faecal coliform count as the dependent variable. As expected, traditional water sources were grossly contaminated at all times whereas piped water sources were much cleaner. Hand-dug protected wells had significantly higher levels of faecal contamination than unprotected riverside wells and springs during the dry season. The possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed. A close association between rainfall and faecal contamination was demonstrated but the effect of rainfall depended on the type of water source. An association between water quality and the size of the community served by the source was also detected. The finding that stored water was usually more contaminated than fresh water samples is consistent with the results from other studies. Since it is unusual for water quality to be inversely correlated with accessibility, this study site would be suitable for investigating the relative importance of water-borne versus water-washed transmission mechanisms in childhood diarrhoea. PMID:2737254

  20. Index Cluster Study of Dengue Virus Infection in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Miguel; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Standish, Katherine; Matute, Juan Carlos; Ortega, Oscar; Moraga, Berman; Avilés, William; Henn, Matthew R.; Balmaseda, Angel; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Traditional study designs do not identify acute asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections, thus limiting our understanding of immunologic and viral factors that modulate infection outcome. In the 2006 and 2007 dengue seasons, we conducted a pilot index cluster study in Managua, Nicaragua, in which 442 persons living within 50 meters of 22 index cases identified through an ongoing pediatric cohort study were evaluated for DENV infection. Post-enrollment and pre-enrollment DENV infections were confirmed in 12 (2.7%) and 19 (4.3%) contacts, respectively. Five (42%) post-enrollment infections were asymptomatic, and DENV-2 was identified in 9 (75%) infections. Phylogenetic analysis with full-length DENV genomic sequence from contacts, index cases, and cohort dengue cases indicated focal transmission and infection outside the local area. We demonstrate the feasibility of identification of acute asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic cases in urban Latin America, the first report of such a study in the Americas, and identify age and concomitant immunity to DENV of contacts as a key factor in index cluster study design. PMID:20810839

  1. Determinants of drinking water quality in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, P; Gorter, A C; Smith, G D; Pauw, J P

    1989-06-01

    One hundred and fifty-three water samples from rural Nicaragua were examined for the presence of faecal coliforms during both wet and dry periods. A linear model was fitted by analysis of covariance with the logarithm of the faecal coliform count as the dependent variable. As expected, traditional water sources were grossly contaminated at all times whereas piped water sources were much cleaner. Hand-dug protected wells had significantly higher levels of faecal contamination than unprotected riverside wells and springs during the dry season. The possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed. A close association between rainfall and faecal contamination was demonstrated but the effect of rainfall depended on the type of water source. An association between water quality and the size of the community served by the source was also detected. The finding that stored water was usually more contaminated than fresh water samples is consistent with the results from other studies. Since it is unusual for water quality to be inversely correlated with accessibility, this study site would be suitable for investigating the relative importance of water-borne versus water-washed transmission mechanisms in childhood diarrhoea.

  2. MPA in Labor: Securing the Pearl Cays of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Clarence; Jentoft, Svein

    2011-04-01

    Implementation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) has always a step-zero, i.e., an initial phase when the idea is incepted, communicated and negotiated among stakeholders. What happens during this phase is likely to have an impact later on. If not done right, the management of the MPA may encounter problems at later stage that will be difficult to correct. Inspired by this working theory, this article describes the effort to establish the Pearl Cays off the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua as a protected area. This case-study illustrates the critical actions to be taken during step-zero, i.e., what needs to be considered and done before an MPA is formally declared. The area investigated consists of a number of small islands (cays) and coral reefs, fishing grounds and marine turtle nesting areas. Throughout history, the cays have played an important role in sustaining livelihoods of nearby communities. Although the idea of an MPA was originally conservation, the communities saw it as an opportunity to regain ownership and control of the cays. By Nicaraguan law, in order to establish protected areas, consultation and approval from local people is required. In the case of the Pearl Cays, this has proved difficult. The article demonstrates how MPA initiatives must sometimes relate to already ongoing complex social processes in the area where they are to be instigated.

  3. Quality in practice: preventing and managing neonatal sepsis in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    López, Sergio; Wong, Yudy; Urbina, Luis; Gómez, Ivonne; Escobar, Flavia; Tinoco, Bernarda; Parrales, Alba

    2013-10-01

    Incorrect and excessive diagnosis of newborn infections in Nicaragua caused overcrowding in the neonatal intensive care units and unnecessary hospitalization. A baseline study in nine hospitals found that none correctly utilized disinfectants, sterilization or hand hygiene and that diagnosis of neonatal sepsis was based primarily on clinical manifestations. In 2007, the Ministry of Health (MINSA), with Unites States Agency for the International Development technical assistance, began developing guidelines and implementing quality improvement in infection prevention and control to reduce neonatal infections. In a second intervention phase, the MINSA introduced an algorithm for correct identification of maternal risk factors and standardized laboratory tests for neonatal sepsis. Interventions included developing national guidelines on correct use of disinfectants and hand hygiene; training medical staff on the guidelines; revising the basic medical supply list to support appropriate antisepsis; defining a package of diagnostic tests for neonatal sepsis and systematically measuring compliance with the new procedures. The 18 hospitals achieved appropriate use of disinfectants in a 12-month period. In seven hospitals that introduced improvements in diagnosis and management of neonatal sepsis, application of the standardized laboratory package in suspected sepsis cases increased from 0% in April 2009 to 93% in July 2011, and the median incidence of neonatal sepsis was reduced by 67%. The organizational changes implemented for the diagnosis and verification of neonatal sepsis led to a reduction in the newborn sepsis admissions and expenditures for antibiotics, allowing resources to be redirected to treating other critically ill newborns.

  4. Tephra hazard assessment at Concepción Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaini, C.; Folch, A.; Navarro, M.

    2012-03-01

    Concepción volcano in Ometepe Island, Nicaragua, is a highly active volcano with a rich historical record of explosive eruptions. Tephra fallout from Concepción jeopardizes the surrounding populations, whereas volcanic ash clouds threat aerial navigation at a regional level. The assessment of these hazards is important for territorial planning and adoption of mitigation measures. Here we compute probabilistic hazard maps for Concepción volcano considering three different eruptive scenarios based on past reference events. Previous geological analysis is used to quantify the eruption parameters of the reference events. We account for uncertainties in the definition of the scenarios trough probability density functions. A representative meteorological dataset is created for each scenario by running the WRF-ARW mesoscale meteorological model over a typical meteorological year, defined in terms of wind speed and direction at a given atmospheric height. Tephra transport and deposition under different eruption and wind conditions is modelled using the FALL3D dispersion model. For each scenario, simulations are combined to build probabilistic hazard maps for critical values of tephra load and for threshold values of airborne ash concentration at relevant flight levels. Results are useful to identify the expected impacts for each eruption type and aim at improving the assessment and management of risk in the region.

  5. A women's movement in Nicaragua, an advocate of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    O'leary De Macias, G

    1981-02-01

    Description of the activities and services of Genesis II, a women's organization dedicated to providing social welfare and health services to the women of Nicaragua. Genesis II is affiliated with Madres y Madres y Mujeres en Accion, a national women's movement, and is funded by the Comite Evangelico Pro-Ayuda al Desarrollo. The stated goal of Genesis II is to provide services for children, to promote an analysis of the problems affecting women, children, and families and to support women in providing adequate care for their children. The organization operates through daily radio programs, counseling services, limited foster care, and research into the problems affecting women and children. Included in the social services program are prenatal and natural childbirth classes, La Leche League groups for the encouragement of breastfeeding, counseling services for sex education and family planning, as well as several other innovative programs. The target groups for this reeducation effort range from health care professionals, through high school students, to the grassroots and largely illiterate population of Guatemala's women.

  6. Women's groups hold up the introduction of Norplant in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bank, A

    1994-01-01

    Women's groups met in Managua, Nicaragua on International Women's Day to discuss new reproductive technologies and population policies, with an emphasis on reproductive rights. This event postponed introduction of Norplant by the Minister of Health (MINSA), fulfilling the prediction of Carme Clavel of Servicios Integrales para la Mujer, one of the event's organizers, who stated that MINSA would be unable to introduce Norplant quietly. Three days later, Carlos Jarquin, director of Salud Integral at MINSA, denied the alleged approval. However, this was disputed by Maria Hamlin, director of the Centro de Informacion y Servicios de Asesoria en la Salud (CISAS) and one of the event's organizers, who said the procedure had been under consideration for testing since the year before with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Population Council. Ana Maria Pizarro, director of Si Mujer, suggested that tests focused on overcoming resistance and acceptance of irregularities in menstrual bleeding. It was suggested at the meeting that Norplant should be studied at alternative women's centers with their full participation and from the user's perspective. Ana Maria Pizarro insisted that the wishes and needs of the user be met. Ana Quiros from CISAS stated that women must have control of the method used. Maria Hamlin was optimistic about future cooperation among the groups and their impact on Nicaraguan population and health policies.

  7. Malaria control in Nicaragua: social and political influences on disease transmission and control activities.

    PubMed

    Garfield, R

    1999-07-31

    Throughout Central America, a traditional malaria control strategy (depending on heavy use of organic pesticides) became less effective during the 1970s. In Nicaragua, an alternative strategy, based on frequent local epidemiological assessments and community participation, was developed in the 1980s. Despite war-related social instability, and continuing vector resistance, this approach was highly successful. By the end of the contra war, there finally existed organisational and ecological conditions that favoured improved malaria control. Yet the expected improvements did not occur. In the 1990s, Nicaragua experienced its worst recorded malaria epidemics. This situation was partly caused by the country's macroeconomic structural adjustment programme. Volunteers now take fewer slides and provide less treatment, malaria control workers are less motivated by the spirit of public service, and some malaria control stations charge for diagnosis or treatment. To "roll back malaria", in Nicaragua at least, will require the roll-back of some erroneous aspects of structural adjustment.

  8. Rotavirus Prevalence in the Primary Care Setting in Nicaragua after Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Bucardo, Filemon; Hudgens, Michael G.; Weber, David J.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement universal infant rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). Initial studies of vaccine effectiveness in Nicaragua and other developing nations have focused on the prevention of hospitalizations and severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, rotavirus diarrhea is more commonly treated in the primary care setting, with only 1–3% of rotavirus cases receiving hospital care. We measured the prevalence of rotavirus infection in primary care clinics in León, Nicaragua, after introduction of the immunization program. In the post-vaccine period, 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.9–5.8) of children seeking care for diarrhea tested positive for rotavirus. A high diversity of rotavirus genotypes was encountered among the few positive samples. In conclusion, rotavirus was an uncommon cause of childhood diarrhea in this primary care setting after implementation of a rotavirus immunization program. PMID:22049057

  9. Preliminary Results from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer's NEOWISE Search for Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J. M.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Tholen, D. J.; Wright, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Cutri, R.; Neowise Team

    2011-12-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) imaged the entire sky twice between January, 2010 and January, 2011 at four wavelengths spanning the near through mid-IR at sensitivities hundreds of times greater than previous surveys [1]. The WISE band-passes (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22mm) sample the flux from most inner-solar-system bodies near the peak of their thermal emission. Overlapping sky regions were sampled repeatedly at 3 hour intervals. The same region of sky was observed a minimum of 8 times. While the primary WISE science objectives focus on ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and brown dwarfs, additions to the baseline WISE pipeline (collectively known as "NEOWISE") have enabled the detection of undiscovered moving objects, as well as previously known bodies [2]. NEOWISE has detected more than 155,000 minor planets, including more than 500 near-Earth objects (NEOs), ~2000 Jupiter Trojans, ~120 comets, and ~20 outer Solar System objects such as Centaurs. The survey has discovered ~34,000 new minor planets, including 130 new NEOs and 20 new comets. The NEOWISE data will drive a wide range of new Solar System investigations. NEOWISE allows precise determination of IR-derived diameters and albedos for minor planets throughout the Solar System [3],[4]. We will summarize the latest results from the project, including studies of the statistical properties of asteroid populations such as the NEOs, and comparisons between albedo and asteroid taxonomic classification.

  10. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Mainzer, Amy; Ressler, Michael E.; Cutri, Roc M.; Jarrett, Thomas; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Padgett, Deborah; McMillan, Robert S.; Skrutskie,Michael; hide

    2010-01-01

    The all sky surveys done by the Palomar Observatory Schmidt, the European Southern Observatory Schmidt, and the United Kingdom Schmidt, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite and the 2 Micron All Sky Survey have proven to be extremely useful tools for astronomy with value that lasts for decades. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 14 December 2009. WISE began surveying the sky on 14 Jan 2010 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17. The survey will continue to cover the sky a second time until the cryogen is exhausted (anticipated in November 2010). WISE is achieving 5 sigma point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in bands centered at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The angular resolution is 6.1", 6.4", 6.5" and 12.0" at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers, and the astrometric precision for high SNR sources is better than 0.15".

  11. The First Ultra-cool Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, M.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; Beaton, R.; Dietrich, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Garnavich, P.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.; Marsh, K.; McLean, I.; Padgett, D.; Rueff, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 μm spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~36 at 4.6 μm. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  12. Local interstellar magnetic field determined from the interstellar boundary explorer ribbon

    SciTech Connect

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2016-02-08

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (~1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ~8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Lastly, our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  13. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer cryogenic support system lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Brett; Thompson, Brian; Schick, Scott

    2010-08-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a JPL-managed MIDEX mission to perform an infrared all-sky survey. The WISE instrument, developed by the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), is a 40-cm cryogenically-cooled telescope which includes a cryogenic scan mirror and four infrared focal planes (2-HgCdTe, 2-Si:As). Cooling the instrument to the desired temperatures is accomplished by a two-stage, solid hydrogen cryostat, provided by Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (LMATC). Required temperatures for the instrument optics and Si:As focal planes are <13 K and <7.6 K respectively. To reduce heat loads, the vacuum shell is isolated from the spacecraft bus via composite struts and radiatively cooled to <200 K. The telescope aperture is protected from on-orbit environmental loads via a two-stage radiatively cooled aperture shade. WISE was successfully launched into a 530 km, polar orbit on December 14, 2009, beginning a 10-month mission to survey the entire sky in the infrared.

  14. Geophysical exploration on the subsurface geology of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolós, Xavier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Casas, Albert; Lovera, Raúl; Nadal-Sala, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We applied self-potential (SP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to the exploration of the uppermost part of the substrate geology and shallow structure of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field, part of the European Neogene-Quaternary volcanic province. The aim of the study was to improve knowledge of the shallowest part of the feeding system of these monogenetic volcanoes and of its relationship with the subsurface geology. This study complements previous geophysical studies carried out at a less detailed scale and aimed at identifying deeper structures, and together will constitute the basis to establish volcanic susceptibility in La Garrotxa. SP study complemented previous smaller-scale studies and targeted key areas where ERT could be conducted. The main new results include the generation of resistivity models identifying dykes and faults associated with several monogenetic cones. The combined results confirm that shallow tectonics controlling the distribution of the foci of eruptive activity in this volcanic zone mainly correspond to NNW-SSE and accessorily by NNE-SSW Neogene extensional fissures and faults and concretely show the associated magmatic intrusions. These structures coincide with the deeper ones identified in previous studies, and show that previous Alpine tectonic structures played no apparent role in controlling the loci of this volcanism. Moreover, the results obtained show that the changes in eruption dynamics occurring at different vents located at relatively short distances in this volcanic area are controlled by shallow stratigraphical, structural and hydrogeological differences underneath these monogenetic volcanoes.

  15. South African adolescents with cystic fibrosis: a qualitative exploration of their bio-psychosocial fields.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Carina Jacobie; van der Merwe, Mariette

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored risk factors and protective factors in the bio-psychosocial fields of adolescents living with cystic fibrosis (CF). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents in the middle and late adolescent years (15-22 years) who had the defining characteristics of CF and were living in Gauteng province. Themes emerged from individual interviews. The fundamental human need to be understood and to understand was negatively affected as the illness affected socialisation and learning. Participants experienced an array of emotions including loss and bereavement linked to their illness and when friends with CF died. Constructive internal dialogue and positive thinking emerged as protective variables. Participants generally showed awareness of how they regulated their contact with the illness and how they self-regulate. Despite the severity of their symptoms and the taxing demands of managing CF, participants expressed hope for the future and could find some meaning in the illness. Adolescents with CF who participated in this study indicated that they felt different from their peers. Apart from the general developmental tasks typical to adolescence they faced the challenge of managing a severe chronic and potentially terminal illness.

  16. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  17. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  18. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars.We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks.We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  19. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  20. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars.We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks.We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  1. Automated classification of periodic variable stars detected by the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Masci, Frank J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Cutri, Roc M.; Hoffman, Douglas I.

    2014-07-01

    We describe a methodology to classify periodic variable stars identified using photometric time-series measurements constructed from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) full-mission single-exposure Source Databases. This will assist in the future construction of a WISE Variable Source Database that assigns variables to specific science classes as constrained by the WISE observing cadence with statistically meaningful classification probabilities. We have analyzed the WISE light curves of 8273 variable stars identified in previous optical variability surveys (MACHO, GCVS, and ASAS) and show that Fourier decomposition techniques can be extended into the mid-IR to assist with their classification. Combined with other periodic light-curve features, this sample is then used to train a machine-learned classifier based on the random forest (RF) method. Consistent with previous classification studies of variable stars in general, the RF machine-learned classifier is superior to other methods in terms of accuracy, robustness against outliers, and relative immunity to features that carry little or redundant class information. For the three most common classes identified by WISE: Algols, RR Lyrae, and W Ursae Majoris type variables, we obtain classification efficiencies of 80.7%, 82.7%, and 84.5% respectively using cross-validation analyses, with 95% confidence intervals of approximately ±2%. These accuracies are achieved at purity (or reliability) levels of 88.5%, 96.2%, and 87.8% respectively, similar to that achieved in previous automated classification studies of periodic variable stars.

  2. THE FIRST ULTRA-COOL BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Skrutskie, M.; Beaton, R.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; McLean, I.; Dietrich, M.; Garnavich, P.; Rueff, K.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 {mu}m spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}36 at 4.6 {mu}m. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  3. The Mission Operations System for Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrichsen, Ingolf H.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission is to perform a highly sensitive all-sky survey in 4 wavebands from 3 to 25(mu)m. Launched on a Delta II rocket into a 500km Sun-synchronous orbit in June 2009, during its 7 months of operations, WISE will acquire about 50GBytes of raw science data every day, which will be down-linked via the TDRSS relay satellite system and processed into an astronomical catalogue and image atlas. The WISE mission operations system is being implemented in collaboration between UCLA, JPL and IPAC (Caltech). In this paper we describe the challenges to manage a high data rate, cryogenic, low earth-orbit mission; maintaining safe on-orbit operations, fast anomaly recoveries (mandated by the desire to provide complete sky coverage in a limited lifetime), production and dissemination of high quality science products, given the constraints imposed by funding profiles for small space missions.

  4. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ∼12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08–623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  5. Beyond efficacy in water containers: Temephos and household entomological indices in six studies between 2005 and 2013 in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Coloma, Josefina; Hernández-Alvarez, Carlos; Suazo-Laguna, Harold; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2017-05-30

    A cluster-randomized controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua reported, as a secondary finding, a higher risk of dengue virus infection in households where inspectors found temephos in water containers. Data from control sites in the preceding pilot study and the Nicaragua trial arm provided six time points (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2011, 2012, 2013) to examine potentially protective effects of temephos on entomological indices under every day conditions of the national vector control programme. Three household entomological indicators for Aedes aegypti breeding were Household Index, Households with pupae, and Pupae per Person. The primary exposure indicator at the six time points was temephos identified physically during the entomological inspection. A stricter criterion for exposure at four time points included households reporting temephos application during the last 30 days and temephos found on inspection. Using generalized linear mixed modelling with cluster as a random effect and temephos as a potential fixed effect, at each time point we examined possible determinants of lower entomological indicators. Between 2005 and 2013, temephos exposure was not significantly associated with a reduction in any of the three entomological indices, whether or not the exposure indicator included timing of temephos application. In six of 18 multivariate models at the six time points, temephos exposure was associated with higher entomological indices; in these models, we could exclude any protective effect of temephos with 95% confidence. Our failure to demonstrate a significant protective association between temephos and entomological indices might be explained by several factors. These include ecological adaptability of the vector, resistance of Aedes to the pesticide, operational deficiencies of vector control programme, or a decrease in preventive actions by households resulting from a false sense of protection fostered by the

  6. GIS-based debris flow source and runout susceptibility assessment from DEM data - a case study in NW Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinau, M.; Vilajosana, I.; Vilaplana, J. M.

    2007-11-01

    In October 1998, Hurricane Mitch triggered numerous landslides (mainly debris flows) in Honduras and Nicaragua, resulting in a high death toll and in considerable damage to property. The potential application of relatively simple and affordable spatial prediction models for landslide hazard mapping in developing countries was studied. Our attention was focused on a region in NW Nicaragua, one of the most severely hit places during the Mitch event. A landslide map was obtained at 1:10 000 scale in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment from the interpretation of aerial photographs and detailed field work. In this map the terrain failure zones were distinguished from the areas within the reach of the mobilized materials. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 20 m×20 m of pixel size was also employed in the study area. A comparative analysis of the terrain failures caused by Hurricane Mitch and a selection of 4 terrain factors extracted from the DEM which, contributed to the terrain instability, was carried out. Land propensity to failure was determined with the aid of a bivariate analysis and GIS tools in a terrain failure susceptibility map. In order to estimate the areas that could be affected by the path or deposition of the mobilized materials, we considered the fact that under intense rainfall events debris flows tend to travel long distances following the maximum slope and merging with the drainage network. Using the TauDEM extension for ArcGIS software we generated automatically flow lines following the maximum slope in the DEM starting from the areas prone to failure in the terrain failure susceptibility map. The areas crossed by the flow lines from each terrain failure susceptibility class correspond to the runout susceptibility classes represented in a runout susceptibility map. The study of terrain failure and runout susceptibility enabled us to obtain a spatial prediction for landslides, which could contribute to landslide risk mitigation.

  7. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer 2012 Field Season in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarke, A. D.; Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; VerPlanck, N.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, jointly operated by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research and the NOAA Office of Marine and Aviation Operations, is America's only federally managed ship dedicated solely to ocean exploration. The 2012 field season was spent exploring the northern Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf break and slope. In the Gulf of Mexico, mapping and remotely operated vehicle operations focused on the salt domes and canyons offshore Mississippi and Louisiana, and characterized several of the hundreds of seeps that were detected in the water column backscatter data collected with the ship's Kongsberg EM 302 multibeam sonar (30 kHz) during the 2011 field season. A team of NOAA and non-NOAA partners identified priority frontier areas along the continental shelf and slope between North Carolina and Cape Cod, mapping numerous canyons selected for focused mapping exploration in partnership with the North East Fisheries Science Center, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (a state level partnership between various states including NY, NJ, DE, MD, and VA), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Virginia Sea Grant. The 2012 mapping efforts built on data collected during the 2011 field season. Okeanos Explorer data were leveraged by NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow to conduct towed camera operations to ground truth multibeam backscatter data for deepwater coral habitat assessment. The Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs offshore North Carolina were a third focus of exploration operations. Seven 900 meter high cold seeps were discovered in the diapir province. Exploration incorporated WHOI's Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle and its full suite of mapping and oceanographic sensors were used to characterize six seep sites. All data collected by Okeanos Explorer are available via the NOAA public archives with metadata records within 60 to 90 days of the end of each cruise.

  8. Stressful life events in countries of differing economic development: Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rincón, Paulina Paz

    2007-08-01

    the aim was to describe a study involving 481 psychology students in the last courses of their degrees (M age = 21.9 yr., SD=4.2; 94 men and 386 women) from Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. The study examined the potential risk of experiencing certain stressful life events, the number of stressors, and their characteristics. Also were analyzed the strength of their relation to social class and stressful life events experienced. Greater presence of stressful life events were reported among people from less developed countries, Chile and Nicaragua, and among people belonging to lower social class.

  9. The Software Design for the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Barnes, Kenneth C.; Melhorn, Charles M.; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), currently scheduled for launch in September 1998, is the fifth of five spacecraft in the NASA/Goddard Small Explorer (SMEX) series. This paper presents the design of WIRE's Attitude Control System flight software (ACS FSW). WIRE is a momentum-biased, three-axis stabilized stellar pointer which provides high-accuracy pointing and autonomous acquisition for eight to ten stellar targets per orbit. WIRE's short mission life and limited cryogen supply motivate requirements for Sun and Earth avoidance constraints which are designed to prevent catastrophic instrument damage and to minimize the heat load on the cryostat. The FSW implements autonomous fault detection and handling (FDH) to enforce these instrument constraints and to perform several other checks which insure the safety of the spacecraft. The ACS FSW implements modules for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, guide star acquisition, actuator command generation, command/telemetry processing, and FDH. These software components are integrated with a hierarchical control mode managing module that dictates which software components are currently active. The lowest mode in the hierarchy is the 'safest' one, in the sense that it utilizes a minimal complement of sensors and actuators to keep the spacecraft in a stable configuration (power and pointing constraints are maintained). As higher modes in the hierarchy are achieved, the various software functions are activated by the mode manager, and an increasing level of attitude control accuracy is provided. If FDH detects a constraint violation or other anomaly, it triggers a safing transition to a lower control mode. The WIRE ACS FSW satisfies all target acquisition and pointing accuracy requirements, enforces all pointing constraints, provides the ground with a simple means for reconfiguring the system via table load, and meets all the demands of its real-time embedded environment (16 MHz Intel

  10. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Playing the Field(s): An Exploration of Change, Conformity and Conflict in Girls' Understandings of Gendered Physicality in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a year-long ethnographic study of a group of 12- to 13-year-old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay's extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts where…

  12. Playing the Field(s): An Exploration of Change, Conformity and Conflict in Girls' Understandings of Gendered Physicality in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a year-long ethnographic study of a group of 12- to 13-year-old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay's extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts where…

  13. East Meets West on "Double Star", a Joint Mission to Explore Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Cluster instruments has a number of advantages for both European and Chinese scientists. "By flying experiments identical to those on Cluster, we can reduce costs and development time," explained Alberto Gianolio, ESA Project Manager for Double Star. "This will minimise risk and help us to ensure that we are able to meet the spacecraft development schedule." ESA has agreed to contribute 8 million euros to the Double Star programme. This funding will be used for refurbishment and pre-integration of the European instruments, acquisition of data for 4 hours per day and coordination of scientific operations. Notes for Editors: Double Star will be the first mission launched by China to explore the Earth's magnetosphere - the magnetic bubble that surrounds our planet. As its name suggests, Double Star will involve two satellites - each designed, developed, launched and operated by the CNSA - flying in complementary orbits around the Earth. This orbital configuration will enable scientists to obtain simultaneous data on the changing magnetic field and population of electrified particles in different regions of the magnetosphere. The duo is expected to be launched by Chinese Long March 2C rockets in December 2002 and March 2003. This schedule may enable them to operate alongside ESA's Cluster mission - a mini-flotilla of four identical spacecraft launched into elliptical orbits around the Earth last summer. The "equatorial" spacecraft (DSP-1) will be launched into an elliptical orbit of 550 x 60,000 km, inclined at 28.5 degrees to the equator. This will enable it to investigate the Earth's huge magnetic tail, the region where particles are accelerated towards the planet's magnetic poles by a process known as reconnection. The "polar" satellite (DSP-2) will concentrate on physical processes taking place over the magnetic poles and the development of aurorae. It will have a 350 x 25,000 km orbit taking it round the Earth once every 7.3 hours.

  14. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DETERMINED FROM THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON

    SciTech Connect

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-02-10

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  15. Local interstellar magnetic field determined from the interstellar boundary explorer ribbon

    DOE PAGES

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Funsten, H. O.; ...

    2016-02-08

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquelymore » coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (~1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ~8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Lastly, our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.« less

  16. THE DISCOVERY OF Y DWARFS USING DATA FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-12-10

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f{sub {lambda}}, so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH{sub 3}. These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722-05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  17. THERMAL MODEL CALIBRATION FOR MINOR PLANETS OBSERVED WITH WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER/NEOWISE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Ressler, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Wright, E.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Cohen, M.

    2011-08-01

    With the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we have observed over 157,000 minor planets. Included in these are a number of near-Earth objects, main-belt asteroids, and irregular satellites which have well measured physical properties (via radar studies and in situ imaging) such as diameters. We have used these objects to validate models of thermal emission and reflected sunlight using the WISE measurements, as well as the color corrections derived in Wright et al. for the four WISE bandpasses as a function of effective temperature. We have used 50 objects with diameters measured by radar or in situ imaging to characterize the systematic errors implicit in using the WISE data with a faceted spherical near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) to compute diameters and albedos. By using the previously measured diameters and H magnitudes with a spherical NEATM model, we compute the predicted fluxes (after applying the color corrections given in Wright et al.) in each of the four WISE bands and compare them to the measured magnitudes. We find minimum systematic flux errors of 5%-10%, and hence minimum relative diameter and albedo errors of {approx}10% and {approx}20%, respectively. Additionally, visible albedos for the objects are computed and compared to the albedos at 3.4 {mu}m and 4.6 {mu}m, which contain a combination of reflected sunlight and thermal emission for most minor planets observed by WISE. Finally, we derive a linear relationship between subsolar temperature and effective temperature, which allows the color corrections given in Wright et al. to be used for minor planets by computing only subsolar temperature instead of a faceted thermophysical model. The thermal models derived in this paper are not intended to supplant previous measurements made using radar or spacecraft imaging; rather, we have used them to characterize the errors that should be expected when computing diameters and albedos of minor planets observed by WISE using a spherical

  18. Exploration of molecular pathways mediating electric field-directed Schwann cell migration by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li; Li, Yongchao; Knapp, Jennifer; Smith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral nervous systems, Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. Following spinal cord injury, Schwann cells regenerate and migrate to the lesion and are involved in the spinal cord regeneration process. Transplantation of Schwann cells into injured neural tissue results in enhanced spinal axonal regeneration. Effective directional migration of Schwann cells is critical in the neural regeneration process. In this study, we report that Schwann cells migrate anodally in an applied electric field (EF). The directedness and displacement of anodal migration increased significantly when the strength of the EF increased from 50 mV/mm to 200 mV/mm. The EF did not significantly affect the cell migration speed. To explore the genes and signaling pathways that regulate cell migration in EFs, we performed a comparative analysis of differential gene expression between cells stimulated with an EF (100 mV/mm) and those without using next-generation RNA sequencing, verified by RT-qPCR. Based on the cut-off criteria (FC > 1.2, q < 0.05), we identified 1,045 up-regulated and 1,636 down-regulated genes in control cells versus EF-stimulated cells. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis found that compared to the control group, 21 pathways are down-regulated, while 10 pathways are up-regulated. Differentially expressed genes participate in multiple cellular signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cell migration, including pathways of regulation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt. PMID:25557037

  19. Yombo field exploration model, peoples Republic of the Congo, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Sorgenfrei, M.C.; Rice, D.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Yombo field in the Congo is sourced from the lacustrine shales of the presalt rift stage and produces from the Albian and Cenomanian, postsalt, Sendji carbonate and Tchala Sandstone. The Yombo prospect exploration model included an upper Sendji stratigraphic trap with two components and a structural nose. The buried hill component of the trap is formed by topographic relief on the reservoir below the top Sendji unconformity. The lower Sendji slump blocks provide a high on which the upper Sendji grainstone shoal facies develop. Both depositional relief and erosion during the top Sendji unconformity contribute to the topography. An isochron thick in the overlying Tchala valley-fill sediments defined a drainage pattern on the unconformity around the buried hill of the underlying upper Sendji. The facies change component is formed by the pinch-out of the grainstone shoal reservoir facies into porous, but impermeable lagoonal dolomite interbedded with anhydrite and shale. Capillary pressure measurements on the 16% porosity, 0.1 md permeability lagoonal dolomite, along with pore throat radius and buoyancy calculations, demonstrated this facies could trap a significant column of low-gravity oil at shallow depth. The Tchala Sandstone contains several separate hydrocarbon accumulations. A stratigraphic trap in the lower Tchala is formed by marine and tidal channel sandstones pinching out into lagoonal shales. The nearshore marine sandstones of the upper Tchala contain additional hydrocarbons in structural and stratigraphic traps. The stratigraphic pinch-out that cross the Yombo nose trap a significant hydrocarbon accumulation, even though the four-way structural closure is relatively small.

  20. Exploring the use of storytelling in quantitative research fields using a multiple case study method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lori N. Hamlet

    The purpose of this study was to explore the emerging use of storytelling in quantitative research fields. The focus was not on examining storytelling in research, but rather how stories are used in various ways within the social context of quantitative research environments. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven professionals who had experience using storytelling in their work and my personal experience with the subject matter was also used as a source of data according to the notion of researcher-as-instrument. This study is qualitative in nature and is guided by two supporting theoretical frameworks, the sociological perspective and narrative inquiry. A multiple case study methodology was used to gain insight about why participants decided to use stories or storytelling in a quantitative research environment that may not be traditionally open to such methods. This study also attempted to identify how storytelling can strengthen or supplement existing research, as well as what value stories can provide to the practice of research in general. Five thematic findings emerged from the data and were grouped under two headings, "Experiencing Research" and "Story Work." The themes were found to be consistent with four main theoretical functions of storytelling identified in existing scholarly literature: (a) sense-making; (b) meaning-making; (c) culture; and (d) communal function. The five thematic themes that emerged from this study and were consistent with the existing literature include: (a) social context; (b) quantitative versus qualitative; (c) we think and learn in terms of stories; (d) stories tie experiences together; and (e) making sense and meaning. Recommendations are offered in the form of implications for various social contexts and topics for further research are presented as well.

  1. Exploring the Role of Overlying Fields and Flare Ribbons in CME Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, M.; Welsch, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    The standard model of eruptive, two-ribbon flares involves reconnection of overlying magnetic fields beneath a rising ejection. Numerous observers have reported evidence linking this reconnection, indicated by photospheric flux swept out by flare ribbons, to coronal mass ejection (CME) acceleration. This acceleration might be caused by reconnected fields that wrap around the ejection producing an increased outward "hoop force." Other observations have linked stronger overlying fields, measured by the power-law index of the fitted decay rate of field strengths overlying eruption sites, to slower CME speeds. This might be caused by greater downward magnetic tension in stronger overlying fields. So overlying fields might both help and hinder the acceleration of CMEs: reconnection that converts overlying fields into flux winding about the ejection might help, but unreconnected overlying fields might hurt. Here, we investigate the roles of both ribbon fluxes and the decay rates of overlying fields in a set of eruptive events.

  2. Lahar Hazards at Concepción volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Concepción is one of Nicaragua’s highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical cone occupies the northeastern half of a dumbbell shaped island called Isla Ometepa. The dormant volcano, Maderas, occupies the southwest half of the island. A narrow isthmus connects Concepción and Maderas volcanoes. Concepción volcano towers more than 1600 m above Lake Nicaragua and is within 5 to 10 km of several small towns situated on its aprons at or near the shoreline. These towns have a combined population of nearly 5,000. The volcano has frequently produced debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. Concepción volcano has erupted more than 25 times in the last 120 years. Its first recorded activity was in AD 1883. Eruptions in the past century, most of which have originated from a small summit crater, comprise moderate explosions, ash that falls out of eruption plumes (called tephra), and occasional lava flows. Near the summit area, there are accumulations of rock that were emplaced hot (pyroclastic deposits), most of which were hot enough to stick together during deposition (a process called welding). These pyroclastic rocks are rather weak, and tend to break apart easily. The loose volcanic rock remobilizes during heavy rain to form lahars. Volcanic explosions have produced blankets of tephra that are distributed downwind, which on Isla Ometepe is mostly to the west. Older deposits at the west end of the island that are up to 1 m thick indicate larger explosive events have happened at Concepción volcano in prehistoric time. Like pyroclastic-flow deposits, loose tephra on the steep slopes of the volcano provides source material that heavy rainstorms and earthquakes can mobilize to trigger debris flow.

  3. Respiratory disease in a textile factory in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, A M; Christiani, D C; McConnell, R; Eisen, E A; Wilcox, M

    1991-01-01

    This is the first epidemiologic study conducted in a textile mill in Nicaragua using techniques and diagnostic criteria similar to those used in the United States and England. The prevalence of byssinosis and nonspecific respiratory symptoms were studied in 194 workers in a cotton mill in Managua. Limited environmental sampling, performed using a vertical elutriator in yarn preparation and weaving areas, indicated that exposures were similar to those reported in other parts of the developing world. A modified translated version of the Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was administered. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after the Monday workshift to measure across-shift change in ventilatory function. The prevalence of byssinosis was 5.9% and all the cases occurred among exposed women. Nonspecific respiratory symptoms were also more prevalent among exposed workers. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking habit, and work tenure, the exposure odds ratios for usual cough and usual phlegm were 3.3 and 2.2, respectively. The association between exposure and across-shift decrement in FEV1 was not significant. Byssinotic workers, however, had greater decrements in FEV1% than those without byssinosis: 5.5% versus 1.8%. A consistent gender effect was observed in which both exposed and unexposed women were found to have greater across-shift decrements in FEV1 than men. The gender difference existed among long-term workers as well as workers who had been employed less than 2 years. Results are related to cotton dust exposure, as has been documented elsewhere. The poorer health status of the women in this study population deserves follow-up.

  4. Assurance of Learning in an MBA Program: Exploration of the Value Added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The use of standardized tests as a piece of outcomes assessment has risen in recent years in order to satisfy external accrediting bodies such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International. The authors explore the value added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for assurance of learning in a master of…

  5. Assurance of Learning in an MBA Program: Exploration of the Value Added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The use of standardized tests as a piece of outcomes assessment has risen in recent years in order to satisfy external accrediting bodies such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International. The authors explore the value added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for assurance of learning in a master of…

  6. Understanding Children's Curiosity and Exploration through the Lenses of Lewin's Field Theory: On Developing an Appraisal Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chak, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Uses Lewin's field theory as a framework to appraise children's momentary state of curiosity and exploratory behavior. Discusses two levels of analysis: child-stimulus situation and child-stimulus-adult situation. Argues that a parent can be a barrier hindering a child's exploration, or a facilitator to remove barriers. (Author/SD)

  7. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Development of Master's Level Counseling Supervisors Who Were Trained in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semivan, Suzanne Gibson

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the experience of eight Master's level supervisors who received their counselor supervision training within the field. The research focused on the lived experiences of becoming a supervisor and strived to understand meaningful and formative influences, as well as the technical and supportive nature of those forces…

  8. Field/Work, Site, and Other Matters: Exploring Design Practice across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Brown, James Benedict

    2011-01-01

    This article explores educational research and theory in the area of the built environment by reflecting on the challenges of interdisciplinary enquiry and the prerequisites for successful interdisciplinary practice. The genesis of a particular example of interdisciplinary collaboration is explored, and the authors come to the deceptively simple…

  9. Field/Work, Site, and Other Matters: Exploring Design Practice across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Brown, James Benedict

    2011-01-01

    This article explores educational research and theory in the area of the built environment by reflecting on the challenges of interdisciplinary enquiry and the prerequisites for successful interdisciplinary practice. The genesis of a particular example of interdisciplinary collaboration is explored, and the authors come to the deceptively simple…

  10. The science and politics of forest management in Northern Nicaragua after hurricane Felix (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi Idarraga, Esteban

    This dissertation examines the ecological effects of hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua as well as the socio-political factors that influenced forest management efforts in hurricane impacted locations. Specifically, this research focused on the following questions: first, what were the regional damage patterns caused by hurricane Felix on the forests of Northern Nicaragua? Second, what stand and tree attributes explain observed post-hurricane damage patterns? And, third, why were post-hurricane management efforts unsuccessful? The first dissertation article characterizes the intensity and spatial distribution of forest damage after hurricane Felix using satellite imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and aerial photographs. Results indicated that Broadleaf forests experienced larger damage (>75% trees blown down) than Pine forest, and that Enhanced Vegetation Index data (EVI), obtained from the MODIS sensor, can adequately depict post-hurricane damage in tropical forests. The agreement between the obtained EVI damage map and the reference data set ranged from 91% in high-damage locations to 85% in low-damage locations, with 86% overall agreement. The second dissertation article describes the relationship between hurricane damage patterns and ecological variables at the local level. Specifically, it characterizes the relationship between tree-and-stand attributes (i.e. DBH, height, density, basal area) and wind damage, using field data. Findings indicate that tree attributes such as DBH and height strongly influenced the amount and type of wind damage and that stand attributes such as maximum canopy height and distance to the hurricane path were also predictive of the amount of damage. Observed differences in damage patterns among broadleaf and pine forests were strongly correlated with the height to diameter ratio (H/D). Field observations showed that while post-hurricane regeneration was abundant in broadleaf

  11. Exploration of solar photospheric magnetic field data sets using the UCSD tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P.; Nishimura, N.; Nozaki, N.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates the use of two different types of National Solar Observatory magnetograms and two different coronal field modeling techniques over 10 years. Both the "open-field" Current Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) and a "closed-field" technique using CSSS modeling are compared. The University of California, San Diego, tomographic modeling, using interplanetary scintillation data from Japan, provides the global velocities to extrapolate these fields outward, which are then compared with fields measured in situ near Earth. Although the open-field technique generally gives a better result for radial and tangential fields, we find that a portion of the closed extrapolated fields measured in situ near Earth comes from the direct outward mapping of these fields in the low solar corona. All three closed-field components are nonzero at 1 AU and are compared with the appropriate magnetometer values. A significant positive correlation exists between these closed-field components and the in situ measurements over the last 10 years. We determine that a small fraction of the static low-coronal component flux, which includes the Bn (north-south) component, regularly escapes from closed-field regions. The closed-field flux fraction varies by about a factor of 3 from a mean value during this period, relative to the magnitude of the field components measured in situ near Earth, and maximizes in 2014. This implies that a relatively more efficient process for closed-flux escape occurs near solar maximum. We also compare and find that the popular Potential Field Source Surface and CSSS model closed fields are nearly identical in sign and strength.

  12. MOMANIC Project - Temporary seismic installation to study the unrest at MOmotombo and MAsaya volcanoes in NICaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Graf, Pascal; Garcia, Fernando; Grillo, Ulbert; Mendoza, Francisco; Herrera, Martha; Argüello, Greyving; Massin, Frédérick; John, Clinton; Strauch, Wilfried

    2017-04-01

    In the past three years, the region around the volcanoes Masaya and Momotombo, which includes Nicaraguans capital Managua, has shown an unusually high seismic and volcanic activity. On April 10, 2014, a M6.3 earthquake occurred near Momotombo volcano followed by intense aftershock activity and a migration of seismicity towards Managua. In the following 2 years, the seismic activity remained considerably higher than in the previous network operation time (1975-2013). In December 2015 and January 2016, Momotombo volcano erupted after 110 years of quiescence. Since Mid December 2015, Masaya volcano has a lava lake in its main crater with gradually increasing activity. With 30 broadband stations, we temporarily (Dec16-March17) densified the seismic network from the seismological department of INETER around these volcanoes. With this network, we expect to be able to image the magma chambers and feeding channels of the volcanoes using both, ambient noise tomography and earthquake tomography. A detailed analysis of the present seismicity shall provide us with a better understanding of the underlying tectonic processes and possible interactions between seismic and volcanic activity. In this contribution, we will present the project as well as first results from the field campaign. Acknowledgements This work is supported by the government of Nicaragua on behalf of the Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER). GeoForschungsZentrum/Potsdam (GFZ-Potsdam) provided the 30 mobile seismic broad band stations from its geophysical instruments pool. The cooperation between SED/ETHZ and INETER is promoted and supported by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation DEZA.

  13. Magma-tectonic interactions in Nicaragua: the 1999 seismic swarm and eruption of Cerro Negro volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Femina, Peter C.; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Brittain E.; Strauch, Wilfried; Saballos, J. Armando

    2004-09-01

    A low-energy (Volcanic Explosivity Index [VEI] 1), small-volume (0.001 km 3 Dense Rock Equivalent [DRE]) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three earthquakes (each ˜ Mw 5.2) with strike-slip and oblique-slip focal mechanisms, the first of which occurred approximately 11 h before eruptive activity and within 1 km of Cerro Negro. Surface ruptures formed during these events extend up to 4 km from Cerro Negro, but concentrate ˜1 km south of Cerro Negro. Surface ruptures did not occur within 300 m of the cone, however, three new vents formed on the south flank and base of Cerro Negro and on trend with the Cerro La Mula-Cerro Negro volcanic alignment. Earthquake swarms were located northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro and seismicity was elevated for up to 11 days after the initial event. The temporal and spatial patterns of earthquake swarms, surface ruptures, and the eruption location can be explained using the Hill [J. Geophys. Res. 82 (1977) 1347] model for earthquake swarms in volcanic regions, where an eruption is triggered by tectonically induced changes in the regional stress field. In this model, tectonic strain, rather than magmatic overpressure causes dilation of the conduit for magma ascent. Numerical simulations for the 1999 eruption illustrate that the observed velocities (up to 75 m s -1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little excess magmatic pressure, in response to changes in Coulomb stress along the Cerro La Mula-Cerro Negro alignment. These observations and models show that 1999 Cerro Negro activity was a tectonically induced small-volume eruption in an arc setting, with the accommodation of extensional strain by dike injection.

  14. THE FIRST HUNDRED BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Bauer, James M.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Stanford, S. A.; Bailey, Vanessa; and others

    2011-12-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of 6 Y dwarfs (see also Cushing et al.), 89 T dwarfs, 8 L dwarfs, and 1 M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types {>=}T6, six of which have been announced earlier by Mainzer et al. and Burgasser et al. We present color-color and color-type diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. Near-infrared and, in a few cases, optical spectra are presented for these discoveries. Near-infrared classifications as late as early Y are presented and objects with peculiar spectra are discussed. Using these new discoveries, we are also able to extend the optical T dwarf classification scheme from T8 to T9. After deriving an absolute WISE 4.6 {mu}m (W2) magnitude versus spectral type relation, we estimate spectrophotometric distances to our discoveries. We also use available astrometric measurements to provide preliminary trigonometric parallaxes to four of our discoveries, which have types of L9 pec (red), T8, T9, and Y0; all of these lie within 10 pc of the Sun. The Y0 dwarf, WISE 1541-2250, is the closest at 2.8{sup +1.3}{sub -0.6} pc; if this 2.8 pc value persists after continued monitoring, WISE 1541-2250 will become the seventh closest stellar system to the Sun. Another 10 objects, with types between T6 and >Y0, have spectrophotometric distance estimates also placing them within 10 pc. The closest of these, the T6 dwarf WISE 1506+7027, is believed to fall at a distance of {approx}4.9 pc. WISE multi-epoch positions supplemented with positional info primarily from the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera allow us to calculate proper motions and tangential velocities for roughly one-half of the new discoveries. This work represents the first step by WISE to complete a full-sky, volume-limited census of late-T and Y dwarfs. Using early results from this census, we present preliminary, lower limits to the space density of

  15. Field based geothermal exploration: Structural controls in the Tarutung Basin/North Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukman, M.; Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Tarutung Basin is one of several basins along the prominent Sumatra Fault System (SFS) which represents a dextral strike slip fault zone segmented into individual fault strands. The basins are located at right-stepping transfer. The Tarutung Basin hosts geothermal manifestations such as hot springs and travertines indicating a geothermal system with some decent potential in the subsurface. As part of geothermal exploration, field geology is investigated focusing on how the structural setting controls the thermal manifestation distribution. A complex fault pattern is now newly mapped and evidences sinistral faults striking E-W (Silangkitang), normal faults striking SE-NW at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin (Sitompul) and normal faults striking NW-SE at the western strand of the basin (Sitaka). These structures form an angle greater than 450 with respect to the current maximum principal stress which is oriented in N-S. Secondary sinistral shear fractures identified as antithetic Riedel shears can be correlated with hot spring locations at Silangkitang, forming an angle of 500 with respect to the current maximum stress. A large angle of normal fault and antithetic Riedel shear trend with respect to the current maximum stress direction indicates that the structures have been rotated. Unidentified dextral strike slip faults might exist at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin to accommodate the clockwise rotation between the eastern boundary of the basin and the NW-SE striking normal fault of Panabungan. Normal faults striking parallel with the SFS East of the basin are interpreted as dilatational jogs caused by the clockwise rotated block movement with respect to the NW-SE fault trend sinistral shear along ENE-WSW faults. Silicified pryroclastics in association with large discharge at hot springs at these NW-SE striking normal faults support this hypothesis. As proposed by Nivinkovich (1976) and Nishimura (1986) Sumatra has rotated 20° clockwise since the last

  16. Intercultural Bilingual Education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for Improving the Quality of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken--especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry…

  17. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  18. Fluid Intake and Decreased Risk for Hospitalization for Dengue Fever, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Leonel; Phares, Christina R.; Pérez, Maria de los Angeles; Idiaquez, Wendy; Rocha, Julio; Cuadra, Ricardo; Hernandez, Emelina; Campos, Luisa Amanda; Gonzalez, Alcides; Amador, Juan Jose; Balmaseda, Angel

    2003-01-01

    In a hospital and health center-based study in Nicaragua, fluid intake during the 24 hours before being seen by a clinician was statistically associated with decreased risk for hospitalization of dengue fever patients. Similar results were obtained for children <15 years of age and older adolescents and adults in independent analyses. PMID:12967502

  19. Literacy and Politics in Latin America: The Case of Brazil, Peru and Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Emilia

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes and compares approaches to literacy and the involvement of the community in literacy training in three Latin American countries: (1) Brazil, a capitalist economic framework; (2) Peru, with reform as an alternative to counter-insurgency measures; and (3) Nicaragua, a revolutionary society in transition. (JOW)

  20. 75 FR 24737 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZA94 Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for... TPS Beneficiaries AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland...

  1. 78 FR 20128 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB19 Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua... Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland Security..., the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recognizes that all re-registrants may not receive new...

  2. Intercultural Bilingual Education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for Improving the Quality of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken--especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry…

  3. Using Technology and Mentorship to Improve Teacher Pedagogy and Educational Opportunities in Rural Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenberg, Anni; Henderson, Kathryn I.; Durán, Leah

    2016-01-01

    This study used ethnographic methods to understand factors influencing the implementation of an educational intervention combining short math content videos with teacher trainings and mentorship in high-poverty primary schools in Nicaragua with implications for rural school reform. Educators in rural schools in Latin American face serious…

  4. Caldera-related gold mineralization of the El Limón mining district, western Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Gary B.; Stoiber, Richard E.

    1987-08-01

    The town of El Limón, the center of a small gold mining district, lies 36 km northeast of León, Nicaragua. This paper reports on the sequence of volcanic rocks in the district, the structures in these volcanics and the relationship of the gold veins to them.

  5. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  6. The State, Nonformal Education, and Socialism in Cuba, Nicaragua, and Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1991-01-01

    Many Latin American states, characterized by "colonization" of the state by dominant families or individuals, are unable to carry out proper state functions. In attempting to address such states' shortcomings, nonformal adult education has been prominent in new educational policies of revolutionary governments in Cuba, Nicaragua, and…

  7. Nicaragua: A Look Across Cultures. An Area Study in Spanish and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozete, Oscar

    These curricular units are designed to help Spanish students or bilingual students gain a better understanding of the history, geography, and culture of Nicaragua, Wisconsin's "sister state" in Central America. In its entirety, the bulletin can serve as the basis of a cultural mini-course. However, since each section is a self-contained…

  8. Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural…

  9. Literacy and Politics in Latin America: The Case of Brazil, Peru and Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Emilia

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes and compares approaches to literacy and the involvement of the community in literacy training in three Latin American countries: (1) Brazil, a capitalist economic framework; (2) Peru, with reform as an alternative to counter-insurgency measures; and (3) Nicaragua, a revolutionary society in transition. (JOW)

  10. Magnetic Field Modeling of the Northern Juan De Fuca and Explorer Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    THE i NORTHERN JUAN DE FUCA AND EXPLORER PLATES I I JOHN M. QUINN DONALD L. SHIEL DTIC "ELECTE 1AU 18 1994U s.I GD SI q •-(494-26093I...concerns a low-level Project MAGNET survey of the northern Juan de Fuca and Explorer Plates , a region of intense scientific interest due to its volcanic...Juan de Fuca and Explorer Plates 5. AUTHOR(S) John H. Quinn Donald L. Shiel 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING

  11. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: A Program for Teachers and Students to Explore Their World and Study Global Change Through Field-Experience and Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Orchard, A.; Colodner, D.; Schwartz, K.; Crown, D. A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.

    2012-03-01

    The Laurel Clark Earth Camp program provides middle and high school students and teachers opportunities to explore local environmental issues and global change through field-experiences, inquiry exercises, and exploring satellite images.

  12. What can the Field of Oceanography Contribute to Ocean World Exploration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.

    2017-02-01

    The most promising opportunities to find evidence for an independent origin of life beyond Earth by 2050 lie in exploration of our outer solar system's Ocean Worlds. Harnessing knowledge embedded in our ocean research community should enhance this.

  13. Occupational injuries identified by an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Noe, R; Rocha, J; Clavel-Arcas, C; Aleman, C; Gonzales, M; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and describe the work related injuries in both the formal and informal work sectors captured in an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Managua, Nicaragua. Setting: Urban emergency department in Managua, Nicaragua serving 200–300 patients per day. Methods: Secondary analysis from the surveillance system data. All cases indicating an injury while working and seen for treatment at the emergency department between 1 August 2001 and 31 July 2002 were included. There was no exclusion based on place of occurrence (home, work, school), age, or gender. Results: There were 3801 work related injuries identified which accounted for 18.6% of the total 20 425 injures captured by the surveillance system. Twenty seven work related fatalities were recorded, compared with the 1998 International Labor Organization statistic of 25 occupational fatalities for all of Nicaragua. Injuries occurring outside of a formal work location accounted for more than 60% of the work related injuries. Almost half of these occurred at home, while 19% occurred on the street. The leading mechanisms for work related injuries were falls (30%), blunt objects (28%), and stabs/cuts (23%). Falls were by far the most severe mechanism in the study, causing 37% of the work related deaths and more than half of the fractures. Conclusions: Occupational injuries are grossly underreported in Nicaragua. This study demonstrated that an emergency department can be a data source for work related injuries in developing countries because it captures both the formal and informal workforce injuries. Fall prevention initiatives could significantly reduce the magnitude and severity of occupational injuries in Managua, Nicaragua. PMID:15314050

  14. Stakeholder perceptions of a total market approach to family planning in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Espinoza, Henry; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Lacayo, Yann; Keith, Bonnie M; Vail, Janet G

    2011-05-01

    To assess private-sector stakeholders' and donors' perceptions of a total market approach (TMA) to family planning in Nicaragua in the context of decreased funding; to build evidence for potential strategies and mechanisms for TMA implementation (including public-private partnerships (PPPs)); and to identify information gaps and future priorities for related research and advocacy. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted in various locations in Nicaragua from March to April 2010. A total of 24 key private-sector stakeholders and donors were interviewed and their responses analyzed using two questionnaires and a stakeholder analysis tool (PolicyMakerTM software). All survey participants supported a TMA, and public-private collaboration, in family planning in Nicaragua. Based on the survey responses, opportunities for further developing PPPs for family planning include building on and expanding existing governmental frameworks, such as Nicaragua's current coordination mechanism for contraceptive security. Obstacles include the lack of ongoing government engagement with the commercial (for-profit) sector and confusion about regulations for its involvement in family planning. Strategies for strengthening existing PPPs include establishing a coordination mechanism specifically for the commercial sector and collecting and disseminating evidence supporting public-private collaboration in family planning. There was no formal or absolute opposition to a TMA or PPPs in family planning in Nicaragua among a group of diverse nongovernmental stakeholders and donors. This type of study can help identify strategies to mobilize existing and potential advocates in achieving articulated policy goals, including diversification of funding sources for family planning to achieve contraceptive security.

  15. Treatment of childhood Hodgkin's disease with COPP or COPP-ABV (hybrid) without radiotherapy in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Baez, F; Ocampo, E; Conter, V; Flores, A; Gutierrez, T; Malta, A; Pacheco, C; Palacios, R; Biondi, A; Riva, L; Sala, A; Silvestri, D; Cavalli, F; Sessa, C; Casanova, M; Masera, G

    1997-03-01

    Childhood Hodgkin's disease (HD) in low-income countries has been reported to have distinct presenting features, including a high prevalence of the mixed cellularity subtype, which also seems to be associated with poorer prognosis. Further investigations are needed to evaluate these issues. Another controversial aspect of childhood HD is the use of radiotherapy (RT) in its treatment and the growing concern about its serious adverse side effects. In this paper, data on the diagnosis and outcome of children treated without RT in a low-income country (Nicaragua) are reported. Forty-eight consecutive children aged 0-15 years, diagnosed at 'La Mascota' Hospital of Managua (Nicaragua) from January 1990 to October 1995. entered this study. Follow-up was updated in May 1996. Clinical and histopathological staging was performed according to Ann Arbor and Rye criteria, respectively. Treatment consisted of COPP (six cycles) for stages I or IIA, or COPP-ABV hybrid): eight cycles for stages IIB or III, and ID cycles for stage IV. Total cumulative doses of adriamycin and bleomycin in this protocol are, respectively, 200 and 80 mg:sqm for stages II B or III and 250 and 100 mg/sqm for stage IV. The median age of the 48 patients at diagnosis was seven years, and the mean age was 7.9 years (range 3-15 years). Clinical stages were IA in 5, IIA in 9, IIB in 6, IIIA in 5, IIIB in 14, and IVB in 9. Histopathologically, 25 cases presented with mixed cellularity, 15 with nodular sclerosis, 5 with lymphocytic predominance and 3 with lymphocytic depletion. Four patients did not proceed with treatment and were lost to follow-up. Two patients (stages IIIB and IVB), who never achieved complete remission (CR) during treatment, presented progressive disease at the end of the scheduled chemotherapy. The remaining 42 patients were in complete remission at the end of chemotherapy. Following discontinuation of therapy, one patient (stage IA) was lost to follow-up and two patients with stage IIIB

  16. Exploring Coupled Plasmonic Nanostructures in the Near Field by Photoemission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Han; Sun, Quan; Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Kubo, Atsushi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2016-11-22

    The extraordinary optical properties of coupled plasmonic nanostructures make these materials potentially useful in many applications; thus, they have received enormous attention in basic and applied research. Coupled plasmon modes have been characterized predominantly using far-field spectroscopy. In near-field spectroscopy, the spectral response of local field enhancement in coupled plasmonic nanostructures remains largely unexplored, especially experimentally. Here, we investigate the coupled gold dolmen nanostructures in the near field using photoemission electron microscopy, with wavelength-tunable femtosecond laser pulses as an excitation source. The spatial evolution of near-field mapping of an individual dolmen structure with the excitation wavelength was successfully obtained. In the near field, we spatially resolved an anti-bonding mode and a bonding mode as the result of plasmon hybridization. Additionally, the quadrupole plasmon mode that could be involved in the formation of a Fano resonance was also revealed by spatially resolved near-field spectra, but it only contributed little to the total near-field enhancement. On the basis of these findings, we obtained a better understanding of the near-field properties of coupled plasmonic nanostructures, where the plasmon hybridization and the plasmonic Fano resonance were mixed.

  17. Field Testing of an In-Situ Neutron Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Feldman, W. C.; Wiens, R. C.

    2004-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to demonstrate the utility of using in-situ neutron spectroscopy to measure water content on planetary surfaces, we have developed a field site for carrying out neutron spectroscopy measurements. Specifically, our objectives in developing the field site are: 1) Demonstrate in-situ neutron measurements in a realistic field test scenario; 2) Demonstrate our ability to accurately model neutron measurements for various conditions and identify measurement factors that need to be controlled and/or accounted for such as detailed stratigraphy; 3) Provide a field test location for future in-situ neutron measurements using a variety of instrument and soil configurations.

  18. Open the Door Let's Explore: Neighborhood Field Trips for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redleaf, Rhoda

    Designed as a resource for teachers and parents, this guide contains activities to help children from 2 to 8 years old learn from neighborhood walks and field trips. Information is presented on: field trips as an approach to learning, learning processes of children, and techniques to make trips meaningful. Teaching material for each trip includes…

  19. Using GIS in an Earth Sciences Field Course for Quantitative Exploration, Data Management and Digital Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Wouter A.; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Field courses are essential for subjects like Earth Sciences, Geography and Ecology. In these topics, GIS is used to manage and analyse spatial data, and offers quantitative methods that are beneficial for fieldwork. This paper presents changes made to a first-year Earth Sciences field course in the French Alps, where new GIS methods were…

  20. Open the Door, Let's Explore More! Field Trips of Discovery for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redleaf, Rhoda

    Designed as a resource for teachers and parents, this guide contains activities to help children in primary grades learn from walks and field trips. Chapter 1, "Experience and Learning," discusses general information about how young children learn and the contribution of field trips to children's perception, language, memory, and logical…

  1. Exploring the Role of Field Experience Context in Preservice Teachers' Development as Mathematics Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sandi; Nesmith, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of field experience is supported and attended to by teacher education programs across the United States, there have been numerous national reports and research findings stressing the need for major improvements in the preparation of teachers with an emphasis on more authentic experiences. Quality field experiences have the…

  2. Open the Door, Let's Explore More! Field Trips of Discovery for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redleaf, Rhoda

    Designed as a resource for teachers and parents, this guide contains activities to help children in primary grades learn from walks and field trips. Chapter 1, "Experience and Learning," discusses general information about how young children learn and the contribution of field trips to children's perception, language, memory, and logical…

  3. Auditing Nicaragua's anti-corruption struggle, 1998 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Hernandez, Carlos; Suazo, Harold; Cárcamo, Alvaro; Reyes, Rosa Maria; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2011-12-21

    Four social audits in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2009 identified actions that Nicaragua could take to reduce corruption and public perception in primary health care and other key services. In a 71-cluster sample, weighted according to the 1995 census and stratified by geographic region and settlement type, we audited the same five public services: health centres and health posts, public primary schools, municipal government, transit police and the courts. Some 6,000 households answered questions about perception and personal experience of unofficial and involuntary payments, payments without obtaining receipts or to the wrong person, and payments "to facilitate" services in municipal offices or courts. Additional questions covered complaints about corruption and confidence in the country's anti-corruption struggle. Logistic regression analyses helped clarify local variations and explanatory variables. Feedback to participants and the services at both national and local levels followed each social audit. Users' experience of corruption in health services, education and municipal government decreased. The wider population's perception of corruption in these sectors decreased also, but not as quickly. Progress among traffic police faltered between 2006 and 2009 and public perception of police corruption ticked upwards in parallel with drivers' experience. Users' experience of corruption in the courts worsened over the study period--with the possible exception of Managua between 2006 and 2009--but public perception of judicial corruption, after peaking in 2003, declined from then on. Confidence in the anti-corruption struggle grew from 50% to 60% between 2003 and 2009. Never more than 8% of respondents registered complaints about corruption.Factors associated with public perception of corruption were: personal experience of corruption, quality of the service itself, and the perception that municipal government takes community opinion into account and keeps people informed

  4. Characterisation and distribution of heavy metals at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, M.; Rymer, H.; Gillman, M.; Blake, S.

    2011-12-01

    Activity at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is characterised by periodic cycles of intense gas emission that last years to decades. The volcano entered its current phase of degassing in 1993, which resulted in a low-level persistent gas plume. As a result of this continuous emission, the substantial deposition of heavy metals onto the surrounding soils (andosols) is thought to be occurring (Delfosse et al., 2003). The deposition of these heavy metal plume components, and their incorporation into soil, is of key interest because once discharged to the environment they accumulate throughout the food chain and may pose a serious ecological threat (Alloway, 1995). Although many studies have focused on the impacts of volcanic gases on the environment, few have addressed the fate of the metals released by persistent gas plumes. This study therefore investigates the patterns of heavy metal transport, deposition and distribution at Masaya in order to provide additional information on the processes that govern the behaviour of volcanic heavy metals. A number of agricultural and non-agricultural soils at two horizons (A: 0-10 cm and B: 20-30 cm) were collected and their trace metal content analysed. Twenty sites were sampled from the active vent to ~5 km downwind, as well as two control sites upwind of the volcano. Preliminary data suggest that a rapid deposition of metals occurs close to the source, with metal concentrations in the soil generally decreasing with distance away from the active vent. Cr and As clearly follow this trend, with maximum concentrations of 20.71 and 7.61 mg/kg respectively occurring closest to the vent. Concentration peaks for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn (959.30, 21.57, 13.44, 152.85, and 72.73 mg/kg respectively) occur slightly further away from the vent, implying that these metals are transported further. The concentration of Cr, Co, Al, Ni and Mn was found to increase from soil horizon A to B, whereas the abundance of Zn decreases with depth. Heavy metal

  5. Unusual Dengue Virus 3 Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Gamaliel; Standish, Katherine; Narvaez, Federico; Perez, Maria Angeles; Saborio, Saira; Elizondo, Douglas; Ortega, Oscar; Nuñez, Andrea; Kuan, Guillermina; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1–4) cause the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease affecting humans worldwide. In 2009, Nicaragua experienced the largest dengue epidemic in over a decade, marked by unusual clinical presentation, as observed in two prospective studies of pediatric dengue in Managua. From August 2009–January 2010, 212 dengue cases were confirmed among 396 study participants at the National Pediatric Reference Hospital. In our parallel community-based cohort study, 170 dengue cases were recorded in 2009–10, compared to 13–65 cases in 2004–9. In both studies, significantly more patients experienced “compensated shock” (poor capillary refill plus cold extremities, tachycardia, tachypnea, and/or weak pulse) in 2009–10 than in previous years (42.5% [90/212] vs. 24.7% [82/332] in the hospital study (p<0.001) and 17% [29/170] vs. 2.2% [4/181] in the cohort study (p<0.001). Signs of poor peripheral perfusion presented significantly earlier (1–2 days) in 2009–10 than in previous years according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. In the hospital study, 19.8% of subjects were transferred to intensive care, compared to 7.1% in previous years – similar to the cohort study. DENV-3 predominated in 2008–9, 2009–10, and 2010–11, and full-length sequencing revealed no major genetic changes from 2008–9 to 2010–11. In 2008–9 and 2010–11, typical dengue was observed; only in 2009–10 was unusual presentation noted. Multivariate analysis revealed only “2009–10” as a significant risk factor for Dengue Fever with Compensated Shock. Interestingly, circulation of pandemic influenza A-H1N1 2009 in Managua was shifted such that it overlapped with the dengue epidemic. We hypothesize that prior influenza A H1N1 2009 infection may have modulated subsequent DENV infection, and initial results of an ongoing study suggest increased risk of shock among children with anti-H1N1-2009 antibodies. This study demonstrates that

  6. Diffuse CO2 degassing monitoring of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Alonso, Mar; Ibarra, Martha; Rodríguez, Wesly; Melián, Gladys V.; Saballos, Armando; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Álvarez, Julio; Martínez, William

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of fourteen soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed accumulation chamber method at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua. The surveys were undertaken from 1999 to 2016 to constrain the diffuse CO2 emission from this volcano and to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation to the eruptive cycle. Cerro Negro is an active basaltic volcano belonging to the active Central American Volcanic Arc which includes a 1,100 Km long chain of 41 active volcanoes from Guatemala to Panama. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850 and has experienced 21 eruptive eruptions with inter eruptive average periods between 7 and 9 years. Since the last eruption occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a collaborative research program between INETER and ITER/INVOLCAN has been established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from this volcano. The first survey carried out at Cerro Negro was in December 1999, just 3 months after the 1999 eruption, with a total diffuse CO2 emission output estimated on 1,869 ± 197 td-1. The second survey carried out in March 2003, three years after the eruption, yielded a value of 432 ± 54 td-1. Both values that can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. The last survey performed at Cerro Negro was in November 2016, with an estimated diffuse CO2 emission of 63 ± 14 tṡd-1and soil CO2 efflux values ranging from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 7264 g m-2 d-1. The long-term record of diffuse CO2 emissions at Cerro Negro shows small temporal variations in CO2 emissions with a peak in 2004 (256 ± 26 td-1) followed by a peak in seismicity. Except this value, the rest of estimated values can be considered within the inter-eruptive phase, period during which a decreasing trend on the total diffuse CO2 output has been observed, with estimates between 10 and 83 tṡd-1. Regarding to the spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 values, most of relatively high CO2

  7. [Childhood diarrhea in rural Nicaragua: beliefs and traditional health practices].

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sánchez, G; Pauw, J; Pérez, R M; Sandiford, P; Smith, G D

    1995-11-01

    In Nicaragua, the principal cause of infant mortality is diarrhea, which is responsible for 40% of these deaths annually. This statistic reflects the low usage of health services and oral rehydration therapy (ORT). In an effort to improve the situation, several studies were carried out in Villa Carlos Fonseca municipio. This report describes two of those studies, one ethnographic and the other epidemiologic (conducted in 1989 and 1990, respectively), to find out beliefs and traditional health practices and their influence on the way in which mothers responded to their children's diarrheal illness. The ethnographic study involved interviewing 70 mothers with an average age of 28 years who had children under 2 years of age. The children represented two groups: one at high risk for diarrhea and the other at low risk. The objectives were to learn the traditional names for diarrhea, the perception of risk, and the treatments that were used. The epidemiologic study included 391 mothers over 14 years of age with one or more children under age 5 years, of whom 215 had had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. The objectives were to describe local beliefs and health practices and to determine the incidence of diarrheas according to the diagnosis made by the mothers. At least 12 types of diarrhea were identified, for which terms such as "empacho" and "sol de vista" were used. In most cases, the mothers had more confidence in folkloric treatments that they themselves or the traditional healers (curanderos) applied than in the services offered at health centers. This attitude limited their use of health services and ORT, although it was observed that in certain cases traditional treatments were used in combination with those of western medicine. There was a direct but nonsignificant correlation between the level of schooling of the mothers and the frequency with which they visited the health center. The authors suggest the effects of massages, herbal baths, and other

  8. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  9. Exploring entropic uncertainty relation in the Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jia-Ming; Shi, Jia-Dong; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we investigate the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation in a two-qubit Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It has been found that larger coupling strength J between the two spin-chain qubits can effectively reduce the entropic uncertainty. Besides, we observe the mechanics of how the inhomogeneous field influences the uncertainty, and find out that when the inhomogeneous field parameter b<1, the uncertainty will decrease with the decrease of the inhomogeneous field parameter b, conversely, the uncertainty will increase with decreasing b under the condition that b>1. Intriguingly, the entropic uncertainty can shrink to zero when the coupling coefficients are relatively large, while the entropic uncertainty only reduces to 1 with the increase of the homogeneous magnetic field. Additionally, we observe the purity of the state and Bell non-locality and obtain that the entropic uncertainty is anticorrelated with both the purity and Bell non-locality of the evolution state.

  10. Distribution of Thermophilic Acidophiles at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, an Analog for Acid-Sulfate Weathering Environments on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Stephenson, S.; McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.

    2010-04-01

    Cerro Negro, Nicaragua is an excellent terrestrial analog for putative acid-sulfate weathering systems on early Mars. Sulfur- and sulfate-reducing acidophiles are found throughout Cerro Negro and can further elucidate the habitability of early Mars.

  11. A rover's geologic field campaign: Exploration of the Kimberley by Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minitti, Michelle E.

    2017-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover undertook comprehensive exploration of the Kimberley waypoint within Gale crater, Mars in order to understand its context within the larger geologic picture of Gale crater and its evidence for past Martian habitability. Coordinated observations from Curiosity's rich science payload revealed important insights into new Martian crustal compositions, the prevalence and diversity of sedimentary processes within Gale crater, and surface erosion rates. Exploration at the Kimberley, in part informed by a decade of orbital observations of Gale crater, underscored the critical synergy between landed and orbital observations and furthered understanding of complex geological processes on Mars.

  12. Results of the First Astronaut-Rover (ASRO) Field Experiment: Lessons and Directions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Kosmo, J. J.; Trevino, R. C.; Thomas, H.; Eppler, D.; Bualat, M. G.; Baker, K.; Huber, E.; Sierhuis, M.; Grin, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    The first Astronaut-Rover Interaction field experiment (hereafter designated as the ASRO project) took place Feb. 22-27, 1999, in Silver Lake, Mojave Desert, CA. The ASRO project is the result of a joint project between NASA Ames Research Center and Johnson Space Center. In the perspective of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) of the Solar System, this interaction - the astronaut and the rover as a complementary and interactive team - in the field is critical to assess but had never been tested before the Silver Lake experiment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Frontier Fields: Engaging Educators, the Youth, and the Public in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Darnell, John A.; Ryer, Holly

    2015-01-01

    The Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep 'blank fields.' The three-year long collaborative program is led by observations from NASA's Great Observatories. The observations allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein's theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has initiated an education and public outreach (EPO) project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community, the youth, and the public, and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, professional development workshops, and direct interactions with scientists. We are also leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.The Frontier Fields program has just completed its first year. This talk will feature the goals and current status of the Frontier Fields EPO program. We will highlight OPO's strategies and infrastructure

  14. The stadium effect: rodent damage patterns in rice fields explored using giving-up densities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Clare R; Lorica, Ma Renee P; Villegas, James M; Ramal, Angelee F; Horgan, Finbarr G; Singleton, Grant R; Stuart, Alexander M

    2016-12-19

    Rodents are globally important pre-harvest pests of rice. In South-east Asia, rodent damage to growing rice crops is commonly concentrated towards the center of rice fields, away from the field edge resulting in a clear pattern known as the 'stadium effect'. To further understand this behavior of rodent pests and develop recommendations for future research and management, we examined the relation between giving-up densities (GUDs) and damage patterns. In Tanay, Luzon, Philippines, GUD trays containing pieces of coconut in a matrix of sand were placed at four different distances from the field edge to quantify the perceived risk of predation in a rice field pest, Rattus tanezumi. GUDs were recorded during a dry and wet season crop at the reproductive and ripening stages of rice. In addition, assessments of active burrows, tracking tile activity and rodent damage to the rice crop, were conducted in the dry season. GUDs were significantly lower in the center of the rice fields than on the field edges suggesting that rodent damage to rice is greater in the middle of rice fields due to a lower perceived predation risk. Furthermore, this perception of predation risk (or fear) increases towards the field edge and is greatest on the rice bund, where there was no vegetation cover. We discuss the implications for rodent management and rodent damage assessments in rice fields. This is the first documented use of GUDs in a rice agro-ecosystem in Asia, thus we identify the challenges and lessons learned through this process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. A Historical Study of the Effectiveness of U.S. Security Assistance to Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    LC) 4 ,SL~c, - - - 4,,.’..O, t . A HISTORI AL STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS"" OF U.S. SEC ’PlTY ASSISTANCF TO.’\\ ’ PANA"A, COSTA RICA AND NICARAGUA...Costa Rica ..... .................. ... 18 Nicaragua ...... ... ................... .1 Early History ... .. ................... ... 24 Panama...and the declining world economy combined to lower most Central Americans’ quality of life throughout history to present times. This situation

  16. Spanish Language Equivalents for a Glossary of Terms Used in the Field of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    A need was identified for a reference to provide translations into Spanish of terms used in space exploration. A search for such a resource bore no fruit, so the author compiled his own glossary and obtained the translations. It was printed as a Goddard Space Flight Center X Document (X-602-82-11).

  17. [Exploration of basic restorative dental materials teaching in the field of dental technology].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan-ting

    2012-12-01

    This study was to compare the difference of the existing course materials of basic restorative dental with the past materials, found out the weakness of teaching mode before the reform, and explored the reform in education through teaching content, method and evaluation, in order to improve the teaching quality.

  18. Earth-based rover field testing for exploration mission on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward; Huntsberger, Terry; Baumgartner, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a high-level overview of the last major field operations test conducted in 2002 leading up to the MER mision. Objectives, approach, general results, and lessons learned are discussed.

  19. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet s surface, and it is the first order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics or remote sensing. These allied sciences, as important as they are, derive the basis of their understanding from the knowledge of the geology of a given location. When we go back to the Moon, and on to Mars, the surface systems we deploy will need to support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture will consider what field geology is about - why it s important, how we do it, how the conduct of field geology informs many other sciences, and how it will affect the design of surface systems and implementation of operations in the future.

  20. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  1. The Hubble Frontier Fields: Engaging Multiple Audiences in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program began in late 2013 and is led by observations from NASA’s Great Observatories. The observations, now complete, allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has engaged multiple audiences over the past three years to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the STScI outreach program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the public and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. In addition, we are leveraging the reach of the new NASA’s Universe of Learning education program to bring the science of the Frontier Fields to informal education audiences. The main underpinnings of the STScI outreach program and the Universe of Learning education program are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging the infrastructure of these education and outreach programs to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk will feature highlights over the past three years of the program. We will highlight OPO’s strategies and infrastructure that allows for the quick delivery of groundbreaking science to the education community and public.

  2. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  3. Exploring Direct 3D Interaction for Full Horizontal Parallax Light Field Displays Using Leap Motion Controller

    PubMed Central

    Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran; Sodnik, Jaka; Szolgay, Peter; Jakus, Grega

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV) of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work. PMID:25875189

  4. Exploring 360 domain walls in ferromagnetic nanostructures using circular magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarella, Anandakumar; Kaya, F. I.; Aidala, K. E.

    Ferromagnetic nanostructures can exhibit intriguing magnetic states, such as the metastable 360 domain wall (DW), in which two 180 DWs combine to form a nearly flux closed state in sufficiently thin structures. These composite structures have potential to maximize storage densities due to their minimal stray fields. We study a straightforward method to nucleate 360 DWs in nanorings, nanowires, using in-plane circular fields, as if from a current carrying wire passing through the substrate in close proximity to the nanostructures. Our simulations, using OOMMF, predict that the vortex state of a ring with appropriate geometry will reverse from CW to CCW through an intermediate state consisting of pairs of 360 DWs. We examine the dependence of the switching field and intermediate states on geometric properties such as the diameter, thickness, and width of the ring. Using the local circular field, we can also nucleate 360 DWs in nanowires, pinning the location of the DWs at notches spaced as close as 100 nm apart, suggesting high density storage. We are currently studying these structures experimentally using AFM/MFM. We generate the circular field by passing current through AFM tip and image the resulting magnetic states with MFM. NSF Grants No. DMR 1208042 and 1207924. Simulations were run on the Odyssey cluster, Research Computing Group at Harvard.

  5. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Hamilton, Allister B.

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  6. Making Sense of Distributed Leadership: Exploring the Multiple Usages of the Concept in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayrowetz, David

    2008-01-01

    Background: The term "distributed leadership" is now widely used among scholars and practitioners in the field of educational leadership. Major actors in the nonprofit sector promote and financially support the development of distributed leadership. Unfortunately, there is confusion and ambiguity about what "distributed leadership" means, and…

  7. Exploring the Emotions in Pedagogical Content Knowledge about the Electric Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Lina; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the changes in the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) about electric fields of two Colombian physics teachers (Isabel and Alejandro) at the high school level (pupils of ages 17-19), the emotions and their relationship with PCK. The research was conducted during two consecutive years, before and…

  8. Golf Ball Roll Distance: A Field Exercise to Explore Management Factors Affecting Putting Green Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Cale A.; Walker, Kristina S.

    2007-01-01

    Putting greens are the most important golf course use area and regularly draw comments regarding their appearance and playing condition. This field laboratory exercise taught students how to properly measure putting green speed, an important functional characteristic, using a Stimpmeter device that measures golf ball roll distance (BRD).…

  9. Exploring the Needs for Competency Measures in Eight Occupational Fields: Position Reports of Task Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergquist, William H.; And Others

    These position reports describe the findings of task forces which focused on the need to translate work-related experience into degree or certificate credit at postsecondary institutions. The eight occupational fields examined included Accounting, Agribusiness, Data Processing, Day Care, Electronics Technology, Management, Police Science and…

  10. Golf Ball Roll Distance: A Field Exercise to Explore Management Factors Affecting Putting Green Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Cale A.; Walker, Kristina S.

    2007-01-01

    Putting greens are the most important golf course use area and regularly draw comments regarding their appearance and playing condition. This field laboratory exercise taught students how to properly measure putting green speed, an important functional characteristic, using a Stimpmeter device that measures golf ball roll distance (BRD).…

  11. An Attractive Materials Process: Exploring High Magnetic Field Processing for Developing Customized Microstructures with Enhanced Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Jaramillo, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A

    2007-01-01

    Multiple facets of an innovative research endeavor involving high magnetic field processing will be highlighted for this very promising technology initiative for materials and process development. This approach has both scientific and industrial relevance with significant energy savings and environmental benefit ramifications and represents a major step towards achieving materials by design goals for the next generation of materials encompassing both structural and functional material applications. Our experimental and modeling research efforts are clearly demonstrating that phase stability (conventional phase diagrams) can be dramatically altered through the application of an ultrahigh magnetic field. This ability to selectively control microstructural stability and alter transformation kinetics through appropriate selection of the magnetic field strength is being shown to provide a very robust mechanism to develop and tailor enhanced microstructures (even potential bulk nanostructures through accelerated product phase nucleation and transformation kinetics) with potentially superior properties. The broad goals for this research are to demonstrate and document the influence of ultrahigh magnetic field processing on the phase equilibria and kinetics for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic material systems and to develop predictive capability based on first principle calculations.

  12. Exploring the use of multi-sensor data fusion for daily evapotranspiration mapping at field scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern practices of water management in agriculture can significantly benefit from accurate mapping of crop water consumption at field scale. Assuming that actual evapotranspiration (ET) is the main water loss in land hydrological balance, remote sensing data represent an invaluable tool for water u...

  13. Nutritional analysis of a programme in eastern Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Horner, M R

    1982-01-01

    This discussion describes the impact of a World Food Program (WFP) project on the food consumption of preschool Miskito Indian children in eastern Nicaragua. The data were collected during January, March, and May 1977 by the recall method for the random sample of 252 children ranging in age from 6 months-5 years. 24-hour recalls were obtained from mothers or other persons responsible for childfeeding. Homes were visited once per day in the late afternoon. Food intakes for the 24 hours immediately preceding the interview were recorded using food models and marked dishes as aids. The amount of breastmilk consumed was not estimated. In March, homes of selected children were visited 3 days in succession with 24-hour food intakes recorded for each day. To evaluate the contribution of different food sources to the children's diets, the following classification was used: home--food acquired through the family's own agriculture, hunting, fishing, or gathering, or received as a gift; market--food purchased in village stores or a food combination made with purchased ingredients; mixed--food purchased from another family or a food combination made with ingredients from a mixture of home, market, and National Development Institute (INFONAC) sources; and INFONAC--food items from the INFONAC project or a food combination made from a majority of INFONAC ingredients, which consisted of oatmeal, whole wheat, and dried skim milk. Marked changes occurred in food sources over the 5-month period. Data for January and March were relatively similar but, in May, there was a significant increase in the contribution of INFONAC foods to the consumption of almost all nutrients. This shift was due to a decrease in the availabiltiy of "home" foods as well as to increased consumption of INFONAC foods. The percentage contributions of the 4 different food sources to the diets of Miskito Indian children cannot indicate the actual nutrient adequacy of the food consumed. Total food consumption

  14. A Field-Particle Correlation Technique to Explore the Collisionless Damping of Plasma Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Kristopher

    2016-10-01

    The nature of the dominant mechanisms which damp turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations remains an unanswered question in the study of a variety of collisionless plasma systems. Proposed damping mechanisms can be generally, but not exclusively, classified as resonant, e.g. Landau and cyclotron damping, non-resonant, e.g. stochastic ion heating, and intermittent, e.g. energization via current sheets or magnetic reconnection. To determine the role these mechanisms play in turbulent plasmas, we propose the application of field-particle correlations to time series of single spatial point observations of the type typically measured in the solar wind. This correlation, motivated by the form of the collisionless Vlasov equation, is the time averaged product of the factors comprising the nonlinear field-particle interaction term. The correlation both captures the secular transfer of energy between fields and perturbed plasma distributions by averaging out the conservative oscillatory energy transfer, and retains the velocity space structure of the secular transfer, allowing for observational characterization of the damping mechanism. Field-particle correlations are applied to a set of nonlinear kinetic numerical simulations of increasing complexity, including electrostatic, gyrokinetic, and hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell systems. These correlations are shown to capture the secular energy transfer between fields and particles and distinguish between the mechanisms accessible to the chosen system. We conclude with a discussion of the application of this general technique to data from current and upcoming spacecraft missions, including MMS, DSCOVR, Solar Probe Plus and THOR, which should help in determining which damping mechanisms operate in a variety of heliospheric plasmas. This work was performed in collaboration with Gregory Howes, Jason TenBarge, Nuno Loureiro, Ryusuke Numata, Francesco Valetini, Oreste Pezzi, Matt Kunz, Justin Kasper, and Chris Chen, with support from Grants

  15. Exploring the quiet eye in archery using field- and laboratory-based tasks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Claudia C; Causer, Joe; Grey, Michael J; Humphreys, Glyn W; Miall, R Chris; Williams, A Mark

    2017-06-28

    The 'quiet eye' (QE)-a period of extended gaze fixation on a target-has been reported in many tasks that require accurate aiming. Longer quiet eye durations (QEDs) are reported in experts compared to non-experts and on successful versus less successful trials. The QE has been extensively studied in the field; however, the cognitive mechanisms underlying the QE are not yet fully understood. We investigated the QEDs of ten expert and ten novice archers in the field and in the laboratory using a computer-based archery task. The computer task consisted of shooting archery targets using a joystick. Random 'noise' (visual motion perturbation) was introduced at high and low levels to allow for the controlled examination of the effects of task complexity and processing demands. In this computer task, we also tested an additional group of ten non-archers as controls. In both field and computer tasks, eye movements were measured using electro-oculography. The expert archers exhibited longer QED compared to the novice archers in the field task. In the computer task, the archers again exhibited longer QEDs and were more accurate compared to non-archers. Furthermore, expert archers showed earlier QE onsets and longer QEDs during high noise conditions compared to the novices and non-archers. Our findings show skill-based effects on QED in field conditions and in a novel computer-based archery task, in which online (visual) perturbations modulated experts' QEDs. These longer QEDs in experts may be used for more efficient programming in which accurate predictions are facilitated by attention control.

  16. Field Studies of Crater Gradation in Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum Using the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Crumpler, L.; Li, R.; Watters, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity investigated numerous craters since landing in Gusev crater (14.569degS, 175.473degE) and Meridiani Planum (1.946degS, 354.473degE) over the first 400 sols of their missions [1-4]. Craters at both sites are simple structures and vary in size and preservation state. Comparing observed and expected pristine morphology and using process-specific gradational signatures around terrestrial craters as a template [5-7] allows distinguishing gradation processes whose relative importance fundamentally differs from those responsible for most crater modification on the Earth.

  17. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from <0 to 5. Adjacent to some fumaroles, silica is being precipitated from condensing steam on the crater walls and endolithic photosynthetic mats are found at 1-2 cm depth within these silica deposits. We have analyzed one of these mats, Monkey Cheek (T=65°C, pH ~4.5), for both Archaeal and Bacterial diversity. Cloning of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes reveals a diverse community of Bacteria, with eight phyla represented. The most common bacterial sequences belonged to the Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted

  18. The evolutionary dynamics of influenza A and B viruses in the tropical city of Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I.; Balmaseda, Angel; Kuan, Guillermina; Saborio, Saira; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David E.; Harris, Eva; Gordon, Aubree

    2014-01-01

    Despite mounting evidence of the high disease burden of influenza in tropical regions, relatively little viral sequence data is available from tropical countries in the Western hemisphere. To understand the evolutionary dynamics of influenza A and B viruses in Managua, Nicaragua, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of 1,956 influenza viruses, including 335 collected for this study during 2007–2010 from a population-based cohort in Managua. North America was consistently identified as the most significant source of influenza virus diversity in Managua, although South America and Mexico were important viral sources during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. The low number of viral introductions of Central American origin may reflect differences in the seasonality of influenza in Nicaragua versus neighboring countries, and underscores the need for additional data in this understudied region. PMID:24959982

  19. Retraction of Complaints Among Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence Living in Poverty in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Juan; Rivas, Esther; Suarez, Alexia C; Panadero, Sonia

    2017-09-01

    Retraction among female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who report their abuser is a major problem in all societies. This article describes a study of 136 female victims of physical IPV living in poverty in Nicaragua, one of the countries with the lowest levels of development in Central America. This article analyses the aspects that differentiate women living in poverty who retracted after reporting IPV from those who did not. The results show that retraction is widespread among female victims of IPV living in poverty in León (Nicaragua). Although it is difficult to predict the retraction behaviour of the respondents, some differences between the women who retracted their complaint and those who did not were observed. A combination of five variables (including personal circumstances and beliefs about the intimate partner relationship and family) was the best alternative for discriminating between women who had retracted and those who had not.

  20. Suicide intent among parasuicide patients in Nicaragua: a surveillance and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Caldera, Trinidad; Herrera, Andrés; Kullgren, Gunnar; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2007-01-01

    This study examines suicide intent among parasuicide patients in a low-income country, Nicaragua, with special reference to gender patterns and future suicidal behavior. Using the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), suicide intent was assessed in 204 persons presenting to hospital after parasuicide. Repetition was checked after a mean follow-up period of three years. The total SIS scores did not differ between women and men. However, a higher SIS score among women was significantly associated with older age, having children and use of pesticide as the parasuicide method. The overall method of suicide intent was low in Nicaragua compared to other countries, as was the nonfatal repetition rate (4.8% after three years). Subsequent suicides were found only in three men. Factor structures within the SIS disclosed supported the cross-cultural validity of the instrument. The level of suicide intent at the index attempt did not show any association with future suicidal behavior.

  1. Magnetic field observations on DE-A and -B. [Dynamics Explorer A and B satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farthing, W. H.; Sugiura, M.; Ledley, B. G.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic field observations are conducted on each of the DE-A and -B satellites by a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. In the basic mode the instrumental resolution is + or - 1.5 nT; in addition, the DE-A magnetometer has two modes of higher resolution: + or - 0.25 nT and + or - 20 pT. The sampling rate is 16 vector samples per second in all modes. The experiment objectives include observations of field-aligned currents, magnetospheric equatorial currents, and ULF waves. These observations, taking full advantage of the specifically selected orbits of the two spacecraft and of the unique combination of instruments, are performed to achieve a better understanding of the electrodynamic coupling within the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system and of wave-particle interactions which contribute to the coupling processes.

  2. Pathways to collaboration: exploring values and collaborative practice between child welfare and substance abuse treatment fields.

    PubMed

    Drabble, Laurie

    2007-02-01

    Although recent research has highlighted the importance of "bridging the gap" between child welfare and substance abuse treatment delivery systems, few studies examine specific factors that may facilitate such collaboration. This study examined similarities and differences in values and perceived capacity for collaboration between substance abuse and child welfare fields based on survey data from more than 350 respondents in 12 California counties. Although respondents across disciplines held similar values in some areas, such as priorities for services, significant differences between respondents from child welfare and substance abuse fields were found in other areas, including values and beliefs about drug use and drug-using parents, funding, and planning and measurement of outcomes. Respondents from counties with a strong history of collaboration were more likely to report institutionalized collaborative practices in several areas, from use of multidisciplinary teams for case planning to use of multiyear budgeting to plan for integrated services.

  3. Exploring Ultrahigh Magnetic Field Processing of Materials for Developing Customized Microstructures and Enhanced Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, GERALD M.

    2005-03-31

    Thermodynamic calculations based on Gibbs free energy in the magnetization-magnetic intensity-temperature (M-H-T) magnetic equation of state space demonstrate that significantly different phase equilibria may result for those material systems where the product and parent phases exhibit different magnetization responses. These calculations show that the Gibbs free energy is changed by a factor equal to -MdH, where M and H are the magnetization and applied field strength, respectively. Magnetic field processing is directly applicable to a multitude of alloys and compounds for dramatically influencing phase stability and phase transformations. This ability to selectively control microstructural stability and alter transformation kinetics through appropriate selection of the magnetic field strength promises to provide a very robust mechanism for developing and tailoring enhanced microstructures (and even nanostructures through accelerated kinetics) with superior properties for a broad spectrum of material applications. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) Advanced Materials for the Future project, ferrous alloys were studied initially since this alloy family exhibits ferromagnetism over part of its temperature range of stability and therefore would demonstrate the maximum impact of this novel processing mechanism. Additionally, with these ferrous alloys, the high-temperature parent phase, austenite, exhibits a significantly different magnetization response from the potential product phases, ferrite plus carbide or martensite; and therefore, the solid-state transformation behavior of these alloys will be dramatically influenced by the presence of ultrahigh magnetic fields. Finally, a thermodynamic calculation capability (within ThermoCalc for example) was developed during this project to enable parametric studies to be performed to predict the magnitude of the influence of magnetic processing variables on the phase stability (phase diagrams) in

  4. Charting the Interstellar Magnetic Field behind the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Wiktorowicz, S.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D.; Andersson, B. G.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Slavin, J. D.; Hanson, A.; Fu, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The relation between the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) controlling the configuration of the "ribbon" of energetic neutral atoms discovered by IBEX, and the ISMF in deep space, can be probed with polarized starlight. Starlight is polarized in a dichroic interstellar medium formed by interstellar dust grains that are aligned with respect to the ISMF. Our ongoing survey of polarized starlight traces the ISMF within 40 parsecs. The local ISMF direction was evaluated using the weighted means of the linear polarization vectors. The dominant nearby magnetic field direction is within 7.6 (+14.9,-7.6) degrees of the ISMF direction that is traced by the IBEX ribbon. A low level of random magnetic turbulence is obtained from the polarization data that best trace the IBEX ribbon field direction, 9 (+/-1) deg, which explains the continuity of the IBEX ISMF out into space where it can be traced by starlight polarization. The ISMF direction is perpendicular to the velocity of the cloud around the heliosphere, and it orders the kinematics of the other local interstellar clouds. These results are obtained only after a well-defined subset of the polarization data is omitted from the sample. A separate analysis shows that these polarization vectors are oriented toward the upwind direction of the interstellar gas flowing into the heliosphere. This group of polarization data traces an elongated filamentary-type feature that is perpendicular to the hydrogen deflection plane. We suggest a heliosheath origin for the grains that create this polarized feature. One characteristic shown by the polarization and IBEX field directions is that the ribbon ISMF extends to the boundaries of the BICEP2 region where the polarized CMB background has been studied. Inside of the BICEP2 region other nearby magnetic components are also present. The sightline toward the star Capella suggests that the polarization mechanism is very efficient in this nearby cloud.

  5. Exploring the Diversity of Field Strains of Brucella abortus Biovar 3 Isolated in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sanogo, Moussa; Fretin, David; Thys, Eric; Saegerman, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonotic diseases in the world, affecting both humans and domestic and wild animals. Identification and biotyping of field strains of Brucella are of key importance for a better knowledge of the epidemiology of brucellosis, for identifying appropriate antigens, for managing disease outbreaks and for setting up efficient preventive and control programmes. Such data are required both at national and regional level to assess potential threats for public health. Highly discriminative genotyping methods such as the multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) allow the comparison and assessment of genetic relatedness between field strains of Brucella within the same geographical area. In this study, MLVA biotyping data retrieved from the literature using a systematic review were compared using a clustering analysis and the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI). Thus, the analysis of the 42 MLVA genotyping results found in the literature on West Africa [i.e., from Ivory Coast (1), Niger (1), Nigeria (34), The Gambia (3), and Togo (3)] did not allow a complete assessment of the actual diversity among field strains of Brucella. However, it provided some preliminary indications on the co-existence of 25 distinct genotypes of Brucella abortus biovar 3 in this region with 19 genotypes from Nigeria, three from Togo and one from Ivory Coast, The Gambia, and Niger. The strong and urgent need for more sustainable molecular data on prevailing strains of Brucella in this sub-region of Africa and also on all susceptible species including humans is therefore highlighted. This remains a necessary stage to allow a comprehensive understanding of the relatedness between field strains of Brucella and the epidemiology of brucellosis within West Africa countries. PMID:28713359

  6. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind

  7. Investigation of the magnetospheric boundary plasma and magnetic field data from Explorers 33, 43, and 50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Crooker, N. U.

    1979-01-01

    Understanding of the plasma depletion process in the dayside magnetosheath, the nature of magnetotail boundary motion, and the geometry of the magnetospheric boundary layers was examined. A model of the dayside boundary layers, based on the hypothesis that merging occurs only for strictly anitparallel fields was developed which provides a qualitative solution to the problem of the half-wave rectifier response of the magnetosphere to the solar wind electric field. Regarding magnetotail boundary motion, consideration of the data led to the conclusion that at lunar distance, substorms are associated with very large amplitude compressional wave motion of the sausage type. A study of IMF orientation for depletion and nondepletion cases suggests that depletion is most likely to occur for angles between the IMF and the normal to the magnetopause at the measurement location near 90 deg, in agreement with predictions. Observations of the heat flux in the dayside magnetosheath plasma suggest that the energized plasma ions have their source along a given flux tube at that intersection with the bow shock where the magnetic field is most compressed.

  8. Exploring Adsorption of Water and Ions on Carbon Surfaces using a Polarizable Force Field.

    PubMed

    Schyman, Patric; Jorgensen, William L

    2013-02-07

    Graphene, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes are of great interest due to their unique properties and diverse applications in biology, molecular electronics, and materials science. Therefore, there is demand for methods that can accurately model the interface between carbon surfaces and their environment. In this letter we compare results for complexes of water, potassium ion, and chloride ion with graphene, carbon nanotube, and fullerene surfaces using a standard non-polarizable force field (OPLS-AA), a polarizable force field (OPLS-AAP), DFT, and ab initio theory. For interactions with water, OPLS-AA with the TIP3P or TIP4P water models describes the interactions with benzene (C(6)H(6)) and coronene (C(24)H(12)) well; however, for acenes larger than circumcoronene (C(54)H(18)) and especially for C(60), the interaction energies are somewhat too weak and polarization is needed. For ions interacting with carbon surfaces, inclusion of polarization is essential, and OPLS-AAP is found to perform well in comparison to the highest-level quantum mechanical methods. Overall, OPLS-AAP provides an accurate and computationally efficient force field for modeling condensed-phase systems featuring carbon surfaces.

  9. Charting the Interstellar Magnetic Field causing the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Ribbon of Energetic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Andersson, B.-G.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Slavin, J. D.; Hanson, A. J.; Fu, C.-W.

    2015-12-01

    The interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) near the heliosphere is a fundamental component of the solar galactic environment that can only be studied using polarized starlight. The results of an ongoing survey of the linear polarizations of local stars are analyzed with the goal of linking the ISMF that shapes the heliosphere to the nearby field in interstellar space. We present new results on the direction of the magnetic field within 40 pc obtained from analyzing polarization data using a merit function that determines the field direction that provides the best fit to the polarization data. Multiple magnetic components are identified, including a dominant interstellar field, {B}{POL}, that is aligned with the direction ℓ, b = 36.°2, 49.°0 (±16.°0). Stars tracing {B}{POL} have the same mean distance as stars that do not trace {B}{POL}, but show weaker average polarizations consistent with a smaller column density of polarizing material. {B}{POL} is aligned with the ISMF traced by the IBEX Ribbon to within {7.6}-7.6+14.9 degrees. The variations in the polarization position angle directions derived from the data that best match {B}{POL} indicate a low level of magnetic turbulence, ˜9° ± 1°. The direction of {B}{POL} is obtained after excluding polarization data tracing a separate magnetic structure that appears to be associated with interstellar dust deflected around the heliosphere. The velocities of local interstellar clouds relative to the Local Standard of Rest (LSR) increase with the angles between the LSR velocities and {B}{POL}, indicating that the kinematics of local interstellar material is ordered by the ISMF. The Loop I superbubble that extends close to the Sun contains dust that reddens starlight and whose distance is determined by the color excess E(B - V) of starlight. Polarizations caused by grains aligned with respect to {B}{POL} are consistent with the location of the Sun in the rim of the Loop I superbubble. An angle of {76

  10. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM NEOWISE: AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER FOR SOLAR SYSTEM SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Brandenburg, H.; Conrow, T.; Evans, T.; Fowler, J.; Jarrett, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Wright, E.; Walker, R.; Jedicke, R.; Tholen, D.; Spahr, T.

    2011-04-10

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the WISE data processing system called 'NEOWISE' that allows detection and archiving of moving objects found in the WISE data. NEOWISE has mined the WISE images for a wide array of small bodies in our solar system, including near-Earth objects (NEOs), Main Belt asteroids, comets, Trojans, and Centaurs. By the end of survey operations in 2011 February, NEOWISE identified over 157,000 asteroids, including more than 500 NEOs and {approx}120 comets. The NEOWISE data set will enable a panoply of new scientific investigations.

  11. Unsuspected Leptospirosis Is a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Wunder, Elsio A.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Flom, Judith E.; Mayorga, Orlando; Woods, Christopher W.; Ko, Albert I.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Matute, Armando J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemic severe leptospirosis was recognized in Nicaragua in 1995, but unrecognized epidemic and endemic disease remains unstudied. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the burden of and risk factors associated with symptomatic leptospirosis in Nicaragua, we prospectively studied patients presenting with fever at a large teaching hospital. Epidemiologic and clinical features were systematically recorded, and paired sera tested by IgM-ELISA to identify patients with probable and possible acute leptospirosis. Microscopic Agglutination Test and PCR were used to confirm acute leptospirosis. Among 704 patients with paired sera tested by MAT, 44 had acute leptospirosis. Patients with acute leptospirosis were more likely to present during rainy months and to report rural residence and fresh water exposure. The sensitivity of clinical impression and acute-phase IgM detected by ELISA were poor. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis is a common (6.3%) but unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in Nicaragua. Rapid point-of-care tests to support early diagnosis and treatment as well as tests to support population-based studies to delineate the epidemiology, incidence, and clinical spectrum of leptospirosis, both ideally pathogen-based, are needed. PMID:25058149

  12. Unsuspected Dengue as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Children and Adults in Western Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; de Silva, Aravinda M; Miles, Jeremy J; Jadi, Ramesh S; Broadwater, Anne; Walker, Katie; Woods, Christopher; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando

    2016-10-01

    Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua's heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not. To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness) from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening) of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740) aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5%) were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) in 38 (5.1%) patients. Only 8.1% (3/37) of confirmed cases were suspected clinically. Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America.

  13. [Chikungunya seroprevalence and clinical case rate in Nicaragua, 2014-2015].

    PubMed

    2017-08-21

    Estimate seroprevalence, clinical case rate, and proportion of subclinical infections from chikungunya. A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015 at 39 sites distributed across Nicaragua. Demographic and clinical information was compiled through a personal survey. Blood samples were collected to detect chikungunya antibodies using the ELISA inhibition method developed by Nicaragua's National Diagnostic and Reference Center. Results were analyzed using generalized linear models and multilevel Poisson models. A total of 11 722 participants aged >2 years were enrolled and 11 280 samples were processed. National seroprevalence was 32.8% (95% CI [95% confidence interval]: 31.9-33.6), with a clinical case rate of 26.5% (95% CI: 25.7-27.3) and a proportion of subclinical infections of 19.1% (95% CI: 17.8-20.4). Seroprevalence varied among the 39 sites and was greater at sites with higher vector infestation indices. Individually, seroprevalence was higher in participants aged >11 years. Since its introduction, this is the first study on chikungunya seroprevalence in continental Latin America to determine national prevalence, clinical case rate, and proportion of subclinical infections. The study model, employing broad community participation and leadership by the Ministry of Health of Nicaragua, can be an example for conducting similar studies in the region.

  14. Gender, inequality and Depo-Provera: Constraints on reproductive choice in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Kristin Elizabeth; Dent, Nicolette Jeannette

    2017-04-01

    This article examines the sociocultural determinants of Nicaraguan women's use of Depo-Provera as a means of contraception. The prevalence of Depo-Provera in Nicaragua is high and increasing compared to other Central American countries. Drawing on data from structured interviews with 87 women and from focus groups with 32 women, we show how women's preference for Depo is shaped by both gendered inequalities and socioeconomic constraints. We employ basic statistical tests to analyse correlations between women's marital status and socioeconomic status (SES) with contraceptive use. Our statistical findings show significant associations between use of Depo and both marital status and SES, such that women who are married or in conjugal unions and women with lower SES are more likely to use Depo. To help explain women's use of Depo-Provera in Nicaragua, we situate our findings within the context of gender, culture, and power, reviewing the contested history of Depo-Provera in the developing world and dynamics of gender inequality, which constrain women's contraceptive choices. We conclude with suggestions for reproductive health programming in Nicaragua and beyond, arguing that gender equity and addressing socioeconomic barriers to family planning remain priorities for the achievement of global reproductive health.

  15. Total Economic Cost and Burden of Dengue in Nicaragua: 1996–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wettstein, Zachary S.; Fleming, Michael; Chang, Aileen Y.; Copenhaver, David J.; Wateska, Angela R.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Lee, Bruce Y.; Kulkarni, Rajan P.

    2012-01-01

    The burden of dengue in Nicaragua has been steadily rising during the last three decades; however, there have been few efforts to quantify the burden (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) and cost to society. Using primary data from the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health (MINSA), the total cost and burden of dengue were calculated from 1996 to 2010. Total costs included both direct costs from medical expenditures and prevention activities and indirect costs from lost productivity. The annual disease burden ranged from 99 to 805 DALYs per million, with a majority associated with classic dengue fever. The total cost was estimated to be US$13.5 million/year (range: US$5.1–27.6 million). This analysis can help improve allocation of dengue control resources in Nicaragua and the region. As one of the most comprehensive analyses of its type to date in Nicaragua and Latin America, this study can serve as a model to determine the burden and cost of dengue. PMID:22890033

  16. Exploring solvent effects upon the Menshutkin reaction using a polarizable force field.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Orlando; Jorgensen, William L

    2010-07-01

    The energetics of the Menshutkin reaction between triethylamine and ethyl iodide have been computed using B3LYP and MP2 with the LANL2DZ, LANL2DZd, SVP, MIDI!, 6-311G(d,p), and aug-cc-PVTZ basis sets. Small- and large-core energy-consistent relativistic pseudopotentials were employed. Solvent effect corrections were computed from QM/MM Monte Carlo simulations utilizing free-energy perturbation theory, PDDG/PM3, and both a nonpolarizable OPLS and polarizable OPLS-AAP force field. The B3LYP/MIDI! theory level provided the best DeltaG(++) values with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 4.9 kcal/mol from experiment in cyclohexane, CCl(4), THF, DMSO, acetonitrile, water, and methanol. However, the relative rates in cyclohexane, and to a certain extent CCl(4), were determined to be greatly underestimated when using the nonpolarizable OPLS force field. An overall reduction in the MAE to 3.1 kcal/mol using B3LYP/MIDI!/OPLS-AAP demonstrated the need for a fully polarizable force field when computing solvent effects for highly dipolar transition structures in low-dielectric media. The MAEs obtained with PDDG/PM3/OPLS and OPLS-AAP of 5.3 and 3.8 kcal/mol, respectively, provided comparable results to B3LYP at a fraction of the computational resources. The large rate accelerations observed in the reaction were correlated to an increased stabilization of the emerging charge separation at the transition state via favorable solute-solvent interactions.

  17. The Mobile Agents 2005 Field Test at MDRS: Planning for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maaretn; Alena, Rick; Berrios, Dan; Dowding John; Garry, Brent; Graham, Jeff; Hirsh, Rob; Rupert, Shannon; Semple, Abigail; hide

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Society s Desert Research Station (MDRS) Rotation 38, April 3-17, 2005, was dedicated to field tests of NASA's Mobile Agents EVA communications system. MDRS provided an excellent, cost-effective venue for bringing together eighteen scientists and engineers from NASA Ames and Johnson Space Center, in an intensive two weeks of system integration and experiments. The Mobile Agents architecture and collaborative engineering methodology provides a flexible toolkit for configuring extravehicular activity (EVA) components, visualizing and formalizing EVA plans, and automating key supervisory functions.

  18. Exploring the Magnetic Fields of Solar Prominences and Spicules via He I D3 Spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramelli, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Bianda, M.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2011-04-01

    Over the last few years a large set of spectropolarimetric observations of prominences and spicules in the He I D3 multiplet have been collected at the observatory of the Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), using increasingly improved versions of the ZIMPOL polarimeter. The novel HAZEL inversion code of Stokes profiles generated by the joint action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects is being applied to this set of data, in order to infer the strength and geometry of the magnetic field present in these structures. This paper presents a brief overview of the most recent observations and inversions.

  19. FIDO Field Trials in Preparation for Mars Rover Exploration and Discovery and Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Baumgartner, E. T.; Schenker, P.; Squyres, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars 2003 Mission may include a rover to acquire remote sensing and in-situ measurements of surface materials, including rock surfaces that have been cleared of dust and coatings by use of an abrasion tool. Mars Sample Return Missions for 2005 and beyond may include rovers with remote sensing and in-situ measurement capabilities. Further, these mobility platforms may have systems to drill into rocks and collect cores, acquire soil samples, and place the rock and soil samples in ascent vehicles. The point of this abstract is to document that these operations have already been shown to be tractable based on continuing field trials of the FIDO Mars prototype rover.

  20. Exploring assumptions about child neglect in relation to the broader field of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Polonko, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    Research on child neglect is reviewed as it relates to common assumptions in the field, the broader context of research on child maltreatment and trends within the larger society. Overall, while child Research on child neglect is reviewed as it relates to common assumptions in the field, the broader context of research on child maltreatment and trends within the larger society. Overall, while child neglect is the type of maltreatment most frequently reported to and acted on by official agencies, its proportion of all maltreatment in the general population is comparatively smaller. The issue.of "neglect of neglect" is placed within the larger framework of the low priority of research on child maltreatment in general. While research shows that all forms of child maltreatment are associated with devastating consequences for children, child physical neglect has the most profound effects on cognitive functioning and academic achievement, while child physical abuse has the most serious effects on aggression and subsequent violent behavior. Child emotional neglect, sexual and physical abuse have similarly grave effects on psychopathology, in contrast to child physical neglect which is associated with the least adverse consequences. These findings are discussed within the framework of research on the neurodevelopmental effects of child abuse and neglect. Research on the causes of child neglect, in particular as they relate to the perpetrators, points to a distressing "cycle of neglect." Finally, suggestions for breaking this cycle and keeping our children safe are discussed.

  1. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread poleward to very high latitudes, (the type of a pattern referred to as a 'horse-collar' aurora by Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use a DE data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager while at the same time the DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. There is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2-D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  2. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread poleward to very high latitudes, (the type of a pattern referred to as a 'horse-collar' aurora by Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use a DE data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager while at the same time the DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. There is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2-D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  3. Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices.

    PubMed

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Abreu, Corina; Hossain, Mohammad B; Altisent, Rosa; Brunton, Nigel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-03-02

    The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1-4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100-1500), pulse frequency (10-200 Hz) and pulse width (10-30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001) the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%), FaDOH (164.9%) and FaDOAc (166.8%) levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.

  4. Mars Exploration Rover Field Observations of Impact Craters at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum and Implications for Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers have provided a field geologist's perspective of impact craters in various states of degradation along their traverses at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. This abstract will describe the craters observed and changes to the craters that constrain the erosion rates and the climate [l]. Changes to craters on the plains of Gusev argue for a dry and desiccating environment since the Late Hesperian in contrast to the wet and likely warm environment in the Late Noachian at Meridiani in which the sulfate evaporites were deposited in salt-water playas or sabkhas.

  5. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  6. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  7. Exploring the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice: stories from the field.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Teresa; Howie, Linsey

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses interested in extending their interpersonal and psychotherapeutic skills sometimes undertake postgraduate training in gestalt therapy. Little is known about how this new knowledge and psychotherapeutic skill base informs their practice. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that aimed to explore the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice. Within a framework of narrative inquiry, four psychiatric nurses trained in gestalt therapy were invited to tell their stories of training in a gestalt approach to therapy, and recount their experiences of how it influenced their practice. In keeping with narrative analysis methods, the research findings were presented as a collection of four stories. Eight themes were derived from a thematic analysis conducted within and across the four stories. The discussion of the themes encapsulates the similarities and differences across the storied collection, providing a community and cultural context for understanding the individual stories. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals of the Geysers Steam Field, California and their Potential Use in Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Diane

    1980-12-16

    Little information has been published on the hydrothermal alteration minerals occurring at depth in the Geysers steam field, California. Steiner (1958) reported the occurrence of wairakite from a well; McNitt (1964) identified pyrite, sericite, calcite, quartz, siderite, apatite and chlorite in cores of Franciscan graywacke and greenstone. Recently, Union Oil Geothermal Division furnished a set of well cores from the cap rock overlying the steam reservoir for geophysical studies (Lockner -e t -a l . , 1980). Cores of metagraywacke and greenstone from 4 wells were compared to unaltered Franciscan metagraywacke from surface exposures. Several previously unreported alteration minerals were found in the cored rocks, including epidote, tremolite-actinolite, prehnite and tourmaline. This note describes the observed alteration minerals and some of the factors that controlled their growth.

  9. Exploration of the electron multiple recollision dynamics in intense laser fields with Bohmian trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-06-01

    Electron multiple recollision dynamics under intense midinfrared laser fields is studied by means of the de Broglie-Bohm framework of Bohmian mechanics. Bohmian trajectories contain all the information embedded in the time-dependent wave function. This makes the method suitable to investigate the coherent dynamic processes for which the phase information is crucial. In this study, the appearance of the subpeaks in the high-harmonic-generation time-frequency profiles and the asymmetric fine structures in the above-threshold ionization spectrum are analyzed by the comprehensive and intuitive picture provided by Bohmian mechanics. The time evolution of the individual electron trajectories is closely studied to address some of the major structural features of the photoelectron angular distributions.

  10. Exploring the Whiting Features of SW Florida Through Remote Sensing Techniques and Field Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, J.; Hu, C.

    2016-02-01

    Floating patches of water containing high levels of calcium carbonate have been referred to as "whitings" for their bright spectral color. These in-water features are most noticeably found in the Bahama Banks region, but also in the Persian Gulf, and fresh water lakes. Although whitings have been studied for nearly a century, their process of formation is still hotly debated, whether these are the result of resuspended sediment by turbulent boundary conditions, biogenic precipitation by phytoplankton, the result of local chemistry, or something else, is still unknown. Whitings are also recurrent features, occurring throughout the year, usually with a seasonal preference. Individual events can be up to 250km2 and last for longer than one month. With such magnitude, it is important to finally understand the causes of these events, as well as their potential proxies. Though recurring, whitings are also hard to predict. Our region of interest holds newly documented whitings in a remote location, offshore from Everglades City, Florida. This study aims to combine remote sensing techniques with field measurements in order to understand a newly identified, recurring, in-water feature of SW Florida. Using daily MODIS images, a 10-year time series has been developed to evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of whitings in this area. The daily images available in near real-time also helped to plan field trips to take direct measurements of the whitings. Initial parameters were chosen based on long-standing hypotheses of whiting formation, such as those listed above, but also included spectral reflectance and backscattering as well as particle and CDOM absorption These were taken both inside and outside the whitings in order to better identify these features from remote observations. Our results provide the first study of whitings in SW Florida, adding a new multidisciplinary perspective to the world-wide phenomenon.

  11. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of volcanic acid-sulfate alteration in Nicaragua: Analogs for early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, Emma C.; Hynek, Brian M.; Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Rogers, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    Acid-sulfate weathering at Nicaraguan hydrothermal sites Cerro Negro, Momotombo, and Telica volcanoes and Hervidores de San Jacinto mudpots was characterized as an analog for similar processes that likely operated on early Mars. In situ mineralogical analyses were conducted with a field portable visible near-infrared spectrometer for comparison to similar Martian data sets. Three classes of alteration minerals were identified: sulfates (gypsum and natroalunite), oxides/hydroxides (hematite and goethite), and phyllosilicates (kaolinite/halloysite, montmorillonite, and saponite), as well as elemental sulfur and hydrated silica phases. Our sites had similar suites of minerals, but frequencies varied with location. The results of this field campaign allow inferences regarding the paleo-environmental conditions that were likely present at similar relic hydrothermal sites identified on Mars. In particular, sulfates and phyllosilicates could have coevolved under hydrothermal conditions at Noctis Labyrinthus as is seen in Nicaragua. Fe/Mg smectites were detected in areas with pH of 3-4. Alunite spectra at Terra Sirenum demonstrated mineral mixing effects on spectroscopy. Mineral mixing can cause uncertainties in spectral identification due to a dominant spectrum, such as iron minerals, masking another or the suppression of weaker bands. When viewed from orbit, our field sites would likely be dominated by hydrated silica and Mars sites, such as one in Syrtis Major, could have a more diverse mineralogy than the data reveal. Concentrated amorphous silica, such as at Gusev crater, can result from acidic fumarolic activity, while Mg sulfates may indicate a lack of reworking by water. This field spectroscopy study helps confirm and provide insight into hydrothermal processes on ancient Mars.

  12. Solar System Science with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; McMillan, R.; Wright, E.; Cutri, R.; Walker, R.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Jedicke, R.

    2009-09-01

    WISE's all-sky survey of the solar system will be unprecedented in sensitivity and resolution in its wavelength bands. Corresponding to the peak of thermal emission of many solar system bodies and particles, the 12 and 23 micron bands will detect asteroids, comets, comet debris trails, and zodiacal dust to several AU from the sun. Some of the objects and material will be too dark and faint to have been detected previously by visible-light surveys, and previous infrared telescopes in space have either not covered the whole sky or have had far less sensitivity. Consequently, WISE will explore the spatial distributions and thermal properties of the objects and material populating the inner solar system efficiently and without bias favoring bright albedos. At the temperatures dominant in the inner solar system, IR flux is more directly related to the size of the emitter than is visible flux, so the detections of asteroids by WISE will be closer to a diameter-limited census. Yet combined with visible-light data, the albedos of those asteroids detected by WISE can also be derived anew. Orbital migration driven by thermal reradiation of absorbed sunlight is size-dependent and albedo-dependent, and affects the evolution of the orbits of asteroids within a certain size range. The distributions of sizes of asteroids, and the dependences of those distributions with orbital parameters to be uncovered by WISE will therefore be evidence of the processes that brought the solar system to its current arrangement. Asteroids in orbits that bring them close to Earth are especially menacing if they are dark and have evaded detection by ground-based surveys in visible light. But dark objects are especially detectable in the IR, so WISE will make a unique and large contribution to the assessment of the hazard of impacts on Earth.

  13. Exploring channeling optimized radiofrequency energy: a review of radiofrequency history and applications in esthetic fields.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Inna; Margulis, Ariel; Elman, Monica; Bar-Yosef, Udi; Paun, Silviu D

    2012-03-01

    Because of its high efficiency and safety, radiofrequency (RF) energy is widely used in the dermatological field for heating biological tissue in various esthetic applications, including skin tightening, skin lifting, body contouring, and cellulite reduction. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nonablative RF energy in the esthetic field and its scientific background. The purpose of this article is to describe in detail the extensive use of medical devices based on RF technology, the development of these medical devices over the years, and recent developments and trends in RF technology. The authors conducted a systematic search of publications that address safety and efficacy issues, technical system specifications, and clinical techniques. Finally, the authors focused on their own clinical experiences with the use of patented Channeling Optimized RF Energy technique and mechanical massage. An in-vivo study was conducted in domestic pigs, with a thermal video camera. Twenty-seven female patients participated in a cellulite and body shaping study. The treatments were conducted according to a three-phase protocol. An additional 16 females participated in a skin tightening case study. All of the patients underwent three treatment sessions at 3-week intervals, each according to a protocol specific to the area being treated. The review of the literature on RF-based systems revealed that these systems are safe, with low risks for potential side effects, and effective for cellulite, body contouring, and skin tightening procedures. The in-vivo measurements confirmed the theory that the penetration depth of RF is an inverse function of its frequency, and using a vacuum mechanism makes an additional contribution to the RF energy penetration. The heating effect of RF was also found to increase blood circulation and to induce collagen remodeling. The results from the cellulite and body shaping treatments showed an overall average improvement of 55% in the

  14. Exploring asynchronous brainstorming in large groups: a field comparison of serial and parallel subgroups.

    PubMed

    de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Briggs, Robert O; Reiter-Palmon, Roni

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of two different modes of using multiple groups (instead of one large group) to identify problems and develop solutions. Many of the complex problems facing organizations today require the use of very large groups or collaborations of groups from multiple organizations. There are many logistical problems associated with the use of such large groups, including the ability to bring everyone together at the same time and location. A field study involved two different organizations and compared productivity and satisfaction of group. The approaches included (a) multiple small groups, each completing the entire process from start to end and combining the results at the end (parallel mode); and (b) multiple subgroups, each building on the work provided by previous subgroups (serial mode). Groups using the serial mode produced more elaborations compared with parallel groups, whereas parallel groups produced more unique ideas compared with serial groups. No significant differences were found related to satisfaction with process and outcomes between the two modes. Preferred mode depends on the type of task facing the group. Parallel groups are more suited for tasks for which a variety of new ideas are needed, whereas serial groups are best suited when elaboration and in-depth thinking on the solution are required. Results of this research can guide the development of facilitated sessions of large groups or "teams of teams."

  15. Exploring Dust Impacts on Tropical Systems from the NASA HS-3 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowottnick, Ed; Colarco, Pete; da Silva, Arlindo; Barahona, Donifan; Hlavka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    One of the overall scientific goals of the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS-3) field campaign is to better understand the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in tropical storm development. During the 2012 HS-3 deployment, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) observed dust within SAL air in close proximity to a developing Nadine (September 11, 2012). Throughout the mission, the NASA GEOS-5 modeling system supported HS-3 by providing 0.25 degrees resolution 5-day global forecasts of aerosols, which were used to support mission planning. The aerosol module was radiatively interactive within the GEOS-5 model, but aerosols were not directly coupled to cloud and precipitation processes. In this study we revisit the aerosol forecasts with an updated version of the GEOS-5 model. For the duration of Hurricane Nadine, we run multiday climate simulations leading up to each respective Global Hawk flight with and without aerosol direct interaction. For each set of simulations, we compare simulated dust mass fluxes to identify differences in SAL entrainment related to the interaction between dust aerosols and the atmosphere. We find that the direct effects of dust induce a low level anticyclonic circulation that temporarily shields Nadine from the intrusion of dry air, leading to a more intense storm.

  16. The Importance of Being First: Exploring Priority and Diversity Effects in a Grassland Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, Emanuela W A; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Delory, Benjamin M; Blossfeld, Stephan; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky M

    2016-01-01

    Diversity of species and order of arrival can have strong effects on ecosystem functioning and community composition, but these two have rarely been explicitly combined in experimental setups. We measured the effects of both species diversity and order of arrival on ecosystem function and community composition in a grassland field experiment, thus combining biodiversity and assembly approaches. We studied the effect of order of arrival of three plant functional groups (PFGs: grasses, legumes, and non-leguminous forbs) and of sowing low and high diversity seed mixtures (9 or 21 species) on species composition and aboveground biomass. The experiment was set up in two different soil types. Differences in PFG order of arrival affected the biomass, the number of species and community composition. As expected, we found higher aboveground biomass when sowing legumes before the other PFGs, but this effect was not continuous over time. We did not find a positive effect of sown diversity on aboveground biomass (even if it influenced species richness as expected). No interaction were found between the two studied factors. We found that sowing legumes first may be a good method for increasing productivity whilst maintaining diversity of central European grasslands, although the potential for long-lasting effects needs further study. In addition, the mechanisms behind the non-continuous priority effects we found need to be further researched, taking weather and plant-soil feedbacks into account.

  17. The Importance of Being First: Exploring Priority and Diversity Effects in a Grassland Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Weidlich, Emanuela W. A.; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Delory, Benjamin M.; Blossfeld, Stephan; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky M.

    2017-01-01

    Diversity of species and order of arrival can have strong effects on ecosystem functioning and community composition, but these two have rarely been explicitly combined in experimental setups. We measured the effects of both species diversity and order of arrival on ecosystem function and community composition in a grassland field experiment, thus combining biodiversity and assembly approaches. We studied the effect of order of arrival of three plant functional groups (PFGs: grasses, legumes, and non-leguminous forbs) and of sowing low and high diversity seed mixtures (9 or 21 species) on species composition and aboveground biomass. The experiment was set up in two different soil types. Differences in PFG order of arrival affected the biomass, the number of species and community composition. As expected, we found higher aboveground biomass when sowing legumes before the other PFGs, but this effect was not continuous over time. We did not find a positive effect of sown diversity on aboveground biomass (even if it influenced species richness as expected). No interaction were found between the two studied factors. We found that sowing legumes first may be a good method for increasing productivity whilst maintaining diversity of central European grasslands, although the potential for long-lasting effects needs further study. In addition, the mechanisms behind the non-continuous priority effects we found need to be further researched, taking weather and plant-soil feedbacks into account. PMID:28119707

  18. Exploring combined dark and bright field illumination to improve the detection of defects on specular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Paulo M. F.; Felgueiras, P. E. R.; Ferreira, Flávio P.; Sousa, M. A.; Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J.; Bret, Boris P. J.; Belsley, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    An automatic optical inspection system for detecting local defects on specular surfaces is presented. The system uses an image display to produce a sequence of structured diffuse illumination patterns and a digital camera to acquire the corresponding sequence of images. An image enhancement algorithm, which measures the local intensity variations between bright- and dark-field illumination conditions, yields a final image in which the defects are revealed with a high contrast. Subsequently, an image segmentation algorithm, which compares statistically the enhanced image of the inspected surface with the corresponding image for a defect-free template, allows separating defects from non-defects with an adjusting decision threshold. The method can be applied to shiny surfaces of any material including metal, plastic and glass. The described method was tested on the plastic surface of a car dashboard system. We were able to detect not only scratches but also dust and fingerprints. In our experiment we observed a detection contrast increase from about 40%, when using an extended light source, to more than 90% when using a structured light source. The presented method is simple, robust and can be carried out with short cycle times, making it appropriate for applications in industrial environments.

  19. Fielding a current idea: exploring the public health impact of electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    Several publications in the scientific literature have raised concern about the individual and public health impact of adverse non-ionizing radiation (a-NIR) from electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure emanating from certain power, electrical and wireless devices commonly found in the home, workplace, school and community. Despite the many challenges in establishing irrefutable scientific proof of harm and the various gaps in elucidating the precise mechanisms of harm, epidemiological analyses continue to suggest considerable potential for injury and affliction as a result of a-NIR exposure. As environmental health has not been emphasized in medical education, some clinicians are not fully aware of possible EMF-related health problems and, as a result, manifestations of a-NIR may remain misdiagnosed and ineffectually managed. It is important for physicians and public health officials to be aware of the fundamental science and clinical implications of EMF exposure. A review of the scientific literature relating to the link between electromagnetic radiation and human health, several public health recommendations, and four case histories are presented for consideration.

  20. GREMLIT: an airborne gradiometer to explore the Earth's gravitational field in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulon, B.; Christophe, B.

    2010-12-01

    With its family of ultra sensitive space accelerometers dedicated to the in-orbit measurement of the Earth gravity field (CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions), the Onera team has accumulated these last years, the necessary experience and technical know-how to propose a new concept of airborne gravity gradiometer. This planar gradiometer is composed of four thin test masses levitated between two ULE electrodes plates similarly to the space sensors. The instrument is optimized to comply with the specific on ground gravity and aircraft vibration environment when it is mounted on its dedicated filtering platform. Thanks to the combination of super-spring active isolation with hexapod actuation, the platform is finely stabilised and servo-controlled horizontally exploiting the gradiometer acceleration and attitude outputs themselves. Operating as the GOCE space drag free system with respect to the aircraft perturbations and taking advantage of precise GPS positioning and accurate built-in thermal regulation, such a gradiometer has a resolution objective of better than 0.1Eötvös for the two horizontal gravity gradient components. The overall volume of the instrument including its platform and its electronics units is less than 1 m3. The stripping airborne measurements provided by this gradiometer is a fine complement to the global geoids derived from the space missions, GRACE and GOCE to obtain increased accuracy on the subsurface geology in particular in the costal areas.

  1. Exploring field vegetation reflectance as an indicator of soil contamination in river floodplains.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, L; Salas, E A L; Clevers, J G P W; Wehrens, R; Leuven, R S E W; Nienhuis, P H; Buydens, L M C

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between vegetation reflectance and elevated concentrations of the metals Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb in river floodplain soils. High-resolution vegetation reflectance spectra in the visible to near-infrared (400-1350 nm) were obtained using a field radiometer. The relations were evaluated using simple linear regression in combination with two spectral vegetation indices: the Difference Vegetation Index (DVI) and the Red-Edge Position (REP). In addition, a multivariate regression approach using partial least squares (PLS) regression was adopted. The three methods achieved comparable results. The best R(2) values for the relation between metals concentrations and vegetation reflectance were obtained for grass vegetation and ranged from 0.50 to 0.73. Herbaceous species displayed a larger deviation from the established relationships, resulting in lower R(2) values and larger cross-validation errors. The results corroborate the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing to contribute to the survey of elevated metal concentrations in floodplain soils under grassland using the spectral response of the vegetation as an indicator. Additional constraints will, however, have to be taken into account, as results are resolution- and location-dependent.

  2. Exploring Iron Silicate Precursors of Ancient Iron Formations through Rock Record, Laboratory and Field Analogue Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. E.; Rasmussen, B.; Muhling, J.; Benzerara, K.; Jezequel, D.; Cosmidis, J.; Templeton, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    In direct contrast to today's oceans, iron-rich chemical precipitates dominate the deep marine sedimentary record > 2.3 billion years ago. The deposition of these minerals resulted in massive iron formations and indicate that the ocean was previously ferruginous and largely anoxic. To precipitate and concentrate iron in the sediments, many hypotheses have centered on the oxidation of soluble Fe(II) to solid Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides; these ideas have stimulated extensive research using iron-oxidizing bacteria to produce Fe(III)-oxides and trace metal sorption experiments on Fe(III)-oxides, leading to inferences of trace metal availability and implications for enzymatic and microbial evolution as well as pO2 levels and seawater chemistry. However, recent discoveries of disseminated iron-silicate nanoparticles in early-silicifying chert indicate that iron-silicates may have instead been the primary precipitates from these Archean ferruginous oceans (Rasmussen et al, 2015). Considering the significant paradigm shift this discovery implies for interpretations of Archean elemental cycling, redox state and potential microbial metabolisms, we investigated these iron-silicate inclusions and their implications for ancient seawater chemistry in a multi-faceted approach using spectroscopic- and diffraction-based techniques. The crystal structure, Fe oxidation state and Fe coordination environment of iron-silicate nanoparticles have been interrogated using microscale X-ray absorption spectroscopy, TEM and nanoscale scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. To further explore the chemical and potential biological controls on iron-silicate formation, we have also performed laboratory experiments to mimic Archean seawater and precipitate iron-bearing silicate minerals under abiotic conditions and in the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. In a complementary study, sediments from a natural Archean analogue system were sampled to determine if iron-silicate minerals form in Mexican

  3. Full Field X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging Using Micro Pore Optics for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Gailhanou, M.; Walter, P.; Schyns, E.; Marchis, F.; Thompson, K.; Bristow, T.

    2016-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave evidence as small features in the sub-millimetre scale. Current planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometers lack the spatial resolution to analyse such small features as they only provide global analyses of areas greater than 100 mm(exp 2). A micro-XRF spectrometer will be deployed on the NASA Mars 2020 rover to analyse spots as small as 120m. When using its line-scanning capacity combined to perpendicular scanning by the rover arm, elemental maps can be generated. We present a new instrument that provides full-field XRF imaging, alleviating the need for precise positioning and scanning mechanisms. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer - "Map-X" - will allow elemental imaging with approximately 100µm spatial resolution and simultaneously provide elemental chemistry at the scale where many relict physical, chemical and biological features can be imaged in ancient rocks. The arm-mounted Map-X instrument is placed directly on the surface of an object and held in a fixed position during measurements. A 25x25 mm(exp 2) surface area is uniformly illuminated with X-rays or alpha-particles and gamma-rays. A novel Micro Pore Optic focusses a fraction of the emitted X-ray fluorescence onto a CCD operated at a few frames per second. On board processing allows measuring the energy and coordinates of each X-ray photon collected. Large sets of frames are reduced into 2d histograms used to compute higher level data products such as elemental maps and XRF spectra from selected regions of interest. XRF spectra are processed on the ground to further determine quantitative elemental compositions. The instrument development will be presented with an emphasis on the characterization and modelling of the X-ray focussing Micro Pore Optic. An outlook on possible alternative XRF imaging applications will be discussed.

  4. Field-Programmable Gate Array Computer in Structural Analysis: An Initial Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Brown, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an initial assessment of using a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) computational device as a new tool for solving structural mechanics problems. A FPGA is an assemblage of binary gates arranged in logical blocks that are interconnected via software in a manner dependent on the algorithm being implemented and can be reprogrammed thousands of times per second. In effect, this creates a computer specialized for the problem that automatically exploits all the potential for parallel computing intrinsic in an algorithm. This inherent parallelism is the most important feature of the FPGA computational environment. It is therefore important that if a problem offers a choice of different solution algorithms, an algorithm of a higher degree of inherent parallelism should be selected. It is found that in structural analysis, an 'analog computer' style of programming, which solves problems by direct simulation of the terms in the governing differential equations, yields a more favorable solution algorithm than current solution methods. This style of programming is facilitated by a 'drag-and-drop' graphic programming language that is supplied with the particular type of FPGA computer reported in this paper. Simple examples in structural dynamics and statics illustrate the solution approach used. The FPGA system also allows linear scalability in computing capability. As the problem grows, the number of FPGA chips can be increased with no loss of computing efficiency due to data flow or algorithmic latency that occurs when a single problem is distributed among many conventional processors that operate in parallel. This initial assessment finds the FPGA hardware and software to be in their infancy in regard to the user conveniences; however, they have enormous potential for shrinking the elapsed time of structural analysis solutions if programmed with algorithms that exhibit inherent parallelism and linear scalability. This potential warrants further

  5. Paper 58714 - Exploring activated faults hydromechanical processes from semi-controled field injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Nussbaum, C.

    2015-12-01

    The appreciation of the sensitivity of fractures and fault zones to fluid-induced-deformations in the subsurface is a key question in predicting the reservoir/caprock system integrity around fluid manipulations with applications to reservoir leakage and induced seismicity. It is also a question of interest in understanding earthquakes source, and recently the hydraulic behavior of clay faults under a potential reactivation around nuclear underground depository sites. Fault and fractures dynamics studies face two key problems (1) the up-scaling of laboratory determined properties and constitutive laws to the reservoir scale which is not straightforward when considering faults and fractures heterogeneities, (2) the difficulties to control both the induced seismicity and the stimulated zone geometry when a fault is reactivated. Using instruments dedicated to measuring coupled pore pressures and deformations downhole, we conducted field academic experiments to characterize fractures and fault zones hydromechanical properties as a function of their multi-scale architecture, and to monitor their dynamic behavior during the earthquake nucleation process. We show experiments on reservoir or cover rocks analogues in underground research laboratories where experimental conditions can be optimized. Key result of these experiments is to highlight how important the aseismic fault activation is compared to the induced seismicity. We show that about 80% of the fault kinematic moment is aseismic and discuss the complex associated fault friction coefficient variations. We identify that the slip stability and the slip velocity are mainly controlled by the rate of the permeability/porosity increase, and discuss the conditions for slip nucleation leading to seismic instability.

  6. Exploring wildfire impact on post-fire runoff water quality: field and laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Acharya, K.; Miller, J.; Berli, M.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have complex effects on physical and chemical properties of soil and post-fire runoff. Water quality issues in the post-fire runoff may have caused catastrophic events in aquatic ecosystem in the Virgin River in Southwestern U.S. To examined the mechanisms of the impact of wildfire on post-fire runoff water quality, field sampling and experiments were conducted on surfaces of various fuel types at a burned site in the Virgin River Watershed. Rainfall simulation tests were performed to generate runoff for water quality test including in-situ DO and pH measurement and laboratory tests on a number of water quality constituents. Soil/ash samples collected from burned surfaces were applied in a laboratory test to produce solutions of different concentrations and DO changes over a 24-hour period were measured. Results confirmed that, for runoff carrying large amounts of sediment or debris, DO values can be substantially reduced to a level close to or lower than 5 mg/L. Fire effects may enhance this trend, but is not necessarily a critical reason for the reduction of DO levels. Laboratory runoff and soil sample analysis show that the post-fire runoff in this watershed may contain a large amount of ammonia (NH3 and NH4+). The concentration of ammonia can be higher than the lethal level to many (if not all) fish species. Fire effects appear to have a significant impact on the ammonia level, which lead to an increase of several times to one order of magnitude in the ammonia concentration in the runoff or soil solution under burned conditions. These results provide information to better understand post-fire water quality in this and similar watersheds.

  7. Homonymous Visual Field Loss and Its Impact on Visual Exploration: A Supermarket Study

    PubMed Central

    Kasneci, Enkelejda; Sippel, Katrin; Heister, Martin; Aehling, Katrin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) may critically interfere with quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVFDs on a supermarket search task and to investigate the influence of visual search on task performance. Methods Ten patients with HVFDs (four with a right-sided [HR] and six with a left-sided defect [HL]), and 10 healthy-sighted, sex-, and age-matched control subjects were asked to collect 20 products placed on two supermarket shelves as quickly as possible. Task performance was rated as “passed” or “failed” with regard to the time per correctly collected item (TC -failed = 4.84 seconds based on the performance of healthy subjects). Eye movements were analyzed regarding the horizontal gaze activity, glance frequency, and glance proportion for different VF areas. Results Seven of 10 HVFD patients (three HR, four HL) passed the supermarket search task. Patients who passed needed significantly less time per correctly collected item and looked more frequently toward the VFD area than patients who failed. HL patients who passed the test showed a higher percentage of glances beyond the 60° VF (P < 0.05). Conclusion A considerable number of HVFD patients performed successfully and could compensate for the HVFD by shifting the gaze toward the peripheral VF and the VFD area. Translational Relevance These findings provide new insights on gaze adaptations in patients with HVFDs during activities of daily living and will enhance the design and development of realistic examination tools for use in the clinical setting to improve daily functioning. (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01372319, NCT01372332) PMID:25374771

  8. Field Observations of Methane Emissions from Unconventional and Conventional Fossil Fuel Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M.; Lindenmaier, R.; Arata, C.; Costigan, K. R.; Frankenberg, C.; Kort, E. A.; Rahn, T. A.; Henderson, B. G.; Love, S. P.; Aubrey, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Energy from methane (CH4) has lower carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions per unit energy produced than coal or oil making it a desirable fossil fuel. Hydraulic fracturing is allowing United States to harvest the nation's abundant domestic shale gas reservoirs to achieve energy independence. However, CH4 is a gas that is hard to contain during mining, processing, transport and end-use. Therefore fugitive CH4 leaks occur that are reported in bottom up inventories by the EPA. Recent targeted field observations at selected plays have provided top down CH4 leak estimates that are larger than the reported EPA inventories. Furthermore, no long-term regional baselines are available to delineate leaks from unconventional mining operations from historical conventional mining. We will report and compare observations of fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional and unconventional mining to understand changes from technology shifts. We will report in situ and regional column measurements of CH4, its isotopologue 13CH4 and ethane (C2H6) at our Four Corners site near Farmington, NM. The region has substantial coal bed methane, conventional oil and gas production, processing and distribution with minimal hydraulic fracturing activity. We observe large enhancements in in situ and regional column CH4 with distinct time dependence. Our in situ 13CH4 observations and remote C2H6/CH4 provide strong evidence of thermogenic sources. Comparisons of WRF-simulations with emissions inventory (Edgar) with our observations show that the fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional mining are 3 times greater than reported. We also compare in situ mobile surveys of fugitive CH4 and 13CH4 leak signals in basins with conventional (San Juan) mining and unconventional (Permian and Powder River) mining. A large number of active and closed wells were sampled in these regions. Furthermore, play scale surveys on public roads allowed us to gain a regional perspective. The composition of atmospheric 13CH4

  9. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric exploration of Tenerife geothermal field (Canary Islands, Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña-Varas, Perla; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Bellmunt, Fabián; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Several magnetotelluric (MT) surveys have been carried out to investigate the geothermal system in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). These data have been acquired since 1987 till 2012 by different agencies and institutions. In 1987 and 1991, two MT surveys were carried out by the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME). These data in paper format (129 MT sites in total) were collected and digitized. In October 2009, 83 stations were acquired for Petratherm Ltd., and 25 stations in March 2012 by the University of Barcelona. In total, 237 MT stations distributed around the island center are available for this study. A simplified conceptual model of the island using known geological and geophysical data has been created to identify the ocean and topography effects on the MT data. The typical conceptual model of a generic high temperature volcanic geothermal system (Cumming, 2009a; Pellerin, 1996) and the 1D models from the MT data have played a key role for the correct construction of this conceptual model. Synthetic forward modeling was performed on a set of models to determine the effect of topography and of the conductive Atlantic Ocean. Finally, a 3D resistivity model of Tenerife Island has been computed with modEM code (Egbert and Kelbert, 2012). Out of the 237 MT sites available, 87 stations were discarded because of computational capability problems. Thus, for this new 3D model, 150 MT sites have been taking into account from the different field surveys. The model is discrtized on 94x65x133-layer grid and the inversions are undertaken using the off-diagonal components (Zxy, Zyx) of the impedance tensor for 16 periods in the frequency range from 1000 to 0.1 Hz. In the inversion processing we assumed a 5% error floor in the impedance components and the final RMS is 3.5. The 3D inversion model shows the typical layered pattern expected from a volcanic complex (andesite, basalt) with a possible geothermal overprint; a resistive fresh volcanic structure near the

  10. Comprehensive theoretical analysis and experimental exploration of ultrafast microchip-based high-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingfeng; Wang, Yonghuan; Chen, Chilai; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, Jikui

    2015-06-01

    High-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) has become an efficient technique for separation and characterization of gas-phase ions at ambient pressure, which utilizes the mobility differences of ions at high and low fields. Micro FAIMS devices made by micro-electromechanical system technology have small gaps of the channels, high electric field and good installation precision, as thus they have received great attentions. However, the disadvantage of relatively low resolution limits their applications in some areas. In this study, theoretical analysis and experimental exploration were carried out to overcome the disadvantage. Multiple scans, characteristic decline curves of ion transmission and pattern recognitions were proposed to improve the performance of the microchip-based FAIMS. The results showed that although micro FAIMS instruments as a standalone chemical analyzer suffer from low resolution, by using one or more of the methods proposed, they can identify chemicals precisely and provide quantitative analysis with low detection limit in some applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Recent Advances and Field Trial Results Integrating Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography with Other Data Sources for Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, D.

    2015-12-01

    CRM GeoTomography Technologies, Inc. is leading the way in applying muon tomography to discovery and definition of dense ore bodies for mineral exploration and resource estimation. We have successfully imaged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits at mines in North America using our suite of field-proven muon tracking detectors, and are at various stages of development for other applications. Recently we developed in-house inversion software that integrates data from assays, surface and borehole gravity, and underground muon flux measurements. We have found that the differing geophysical data sources provide complementary information and that dramatic improvements in inversion results are attained using various inversion performance metrics related to the excess tonnage of the mineral deposits, as well as their spatial extents and locations. This presentation will outline field tests of muon tomography performed by CRM Geotomography in some real world examples, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of joint muon tomography, assay and gravity inversion techniques in field tests (where data are available) and in simulations.

  12. Land, Life, and Security: An Interview with Edgardo Garcia, Secretary General of the Association of Farm Workers in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine K; Gonzalez, Marvin

    2016-08-01

    This is an interview with Edgardo Garcia, Secretary General of the Association of Farm Workers in Nicaragua and Oscar Berríos from the Nicaraguan National Engineering University. The interview was conducted in Nicaragua in October 2013. Garcia and Berríos address the importance of organizing among formal workers and informal workers, and the shared conditions of both in Nicaragua. They highlight the history and context of the agricultural workers who began organizing during the national armed revolutionary war, the role of government to create conditions for healthy and safe work, and the need for workers to organize and advocate for themselves. Finally, they highlight the importance of solidarity among workers and the need for alliances with unions and technical assistance providers around the world. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375kgN/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH4 mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO2, and N2O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO2 flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH4 flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N2O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225kgN/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO2-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89t/ha in paddy fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-01-20

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  15. On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

  16. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of Young Stellar Objects in the Lynds 1509 Dark Cloud in Auriga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Wilson M.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Leisawitz, David

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  17. Rigorous electromagnetic field simulation of two-beam interference exposures for the exploration of double patterning and double exposure scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Schnattinger, Thomas; Xu, Cheng-Bai; Szmanda, Chuck

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of double patterning and double exposure technologies, especially in combination with hyper NA, increases the importance of wafer topography phenomena. Rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) simulations of two beam interference exposures over non-planar wafers are used to explore the impact of the hardmask material and pattern on resulting linewidths and swing curves after the second lithography step. Moreover, the impact of the optical material contrast between the frozen and unfrozen resist in a pattern freezing process and the effect of a reversible contrast enhancement layer on the superposition of two subsequent lithographic exposures are simulated. The described simulation approaches can be used for the optimization of wafer stack configurations for double patterning and to identify appropriate optical material properties for alternative double patterning and double exposure techniques.

  18. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Leisawitz, David

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  19. New M, L, and T Dwarf Companions to Nearby Stars from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Mace, Gregory N.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Young, Michael D.; Terrien, Ryan C.; McLean, Ian S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Rhode, Katherine L.

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar. Based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, 2MASS, the W.M. Keck Observatory, the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, the WIYN Observatory at Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope.

  20. Spectal Responsivity Calibration of the Large Format Si:As FPAs in the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J.; Sevilla, P.; Gibbons, W.; Herter, T.

    1998-09-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) is a small cryogenic spaceborne infrared telescope being readied for launch in September 1998 as the fifth of NASA's Small Explorers. WIRE illuminates two 128 x 128 Si:As Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) produced by Boeing North American with a 30 cm diameter Ritchey Cretien diamond turned mirror system. A dichroic beam splitter and band-pass filter define two broad pass bands for a deep pointed survey to search for protogalaxies and to study the evolution of starburst galaxies. The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) measured the spectral responsivity of the WIRE sensor using the SDL multifunction infrared calibrator (MIC2) and a step- scan interferometer. The primary objective of the spectral responsivity calibration was the array-average relative spectral responsivity (RSR) measurement of each WIRE FPA under nominal operating conditions. The array-average RSR measurement is composed of two parts, a high spectral resolution in-band measurement and an out-of-band measurement that extended the noise floor of the RSR measurement outside the WIRE spectral passbands to approximately 1E-5 of the in-band peak. In addition to the array average RSR at nominal operating conditions, SDL personnel also investigated the WIRE RSR sensitivity to FPA position, temperature and bias voltage. The WIRE spectral calibration method is described, and the results are presented.

  1. The role of the right frontal eye field in overt visual attention deployment as assessed by free visual exploration.

    PubMed

    Cazzoli, Dario; Jung, Simon; Nyffeler, Thomas; Nef, Tobias; Wurtz, Pascal; Mosimann, Urs P; Müri, René M

    2015-07-01

    The frontal eye field (FEF) is known to be involved in saccade generation and visual attention control. Studies applying covert attentional orienting paradigms have shown that the right FEF is involved in attentional shifts to both the left and the right hemifield. In the current study, we aimed at examining the effects of inhibitory continuous theta burst (cTBS) transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right FEF on overt attentional orienting, as measured by a free visual exploration paradigm. In forty-two healthy subjects, free visual exploration of naturalistic pictures was tested in three conditions: (1) after cTBS over the right FEF; (2) after cTBS over a control site (vertex); and, (3) without any stimulation. The results showed that cTBS over the right FEF-but not cTBS over the vertex-triggered significant changes in the spatial distribution of the cumulative fixation duration. Compared to the group without stimulation and the group with cTBS over the vertex, cTBS over the right FEF decreased cumulative fixation duration in the left and in the right peripheral regions, and increased cumulative fixation duration in the central region. The present study supports the view that the right FEF is involved in the bilateral control of not only covert, but also of overt, peripheral visual attention.

  2. Prevalence of and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in rural Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Julie K.; Tobey, Matthew; Stevens, Lesley A.; Johnson, Sarah; Stringham, Peter; Cohen, Bruce; Brooks, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Mostly anecdotal reports describe a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in northwestern Nicaragua, predominantly among younger men, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. The true prevalence, nature and aetiology of kidney disease in this region remain unknown. Methods. We performed a population-based prevalence study in Quezalguaque, Nicaragua to assess the frequency of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and compared the prevalence of reduced eGFR in Quezalguaque with the USA using the NHANES 1999–2006 data. We also conducted an embedded case–control study in a subset of participants to assess kidney disease risk factors. Results. From 1882 eligible households, 771 individuals from 300 households participated in the prevalence study, 98 (13%) of whom had reduced eGFR. Reduced eGFR was more common among older participants, men and participants living at lower altitudes. Among 18–29-year-old participants, 2.6% had reduced eGFR, and among 30–41-year-old participants, 7.4% had reduced eGFR; this compares with 0.2% and 0.8%, respectively, in NHANES. No individuals in these age groups were diabetic. Among cases, only 27% had dipstick proteinuria of 1+ or greater, compared with 7% of controls. Haematuria did not significantly differ between cases and controls (24% versus 18%). In age- and sex-adjusted models, hypertension and residence at lower altitude were independently associated with reduced eGFR, while occupational history was not associated with reduced eGFR. Conclusions. Kidney disease appears common in residents of Quezalguaque, Nicaragua, particularly in younger men, with features most consistent with tubulointerstitial disease. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes of kidney disease in this region. PMID:20615905

  3. Predominance of Norovirus and Sapovirus in Nicaragua after Implementation of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Reyes, Yaoska; Svensson, Lennart; Nordgren, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite significant reduction of rotavirus (RV) infections following implementation of RotaTeq vaccination in Nicaragua, a large burden of patients with diarrhea persists. Methods We conducted a community- and hospital-based study of the burden of RV, norovirus (NV) and sapovirus (SV) infections as cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis (GE) among 330 children ≤ 5 years of age between September 2009 and October 2010 in two major cities of Nicaragua with a RotaTeq coverage rate of 95%. Results We found that NV, SV and RV infections altogether accounted for 45% of cases of GE. Notably, NV was found in 24% (79/330) of the children, followed by SV (17%, 57/330) and RV (8%, 25/330). The detection rate in the hospital setting was 27%, 15% and 14% for NV, SV and RV respectively, whereas in the community setting the detection rate of RV was < 1%. Among each of the investigated viruses one particular genogroup or genotype was dominant; GII.4 (82%) for NV, GI (46%) for SV and G1P[8] (64%) in RV. These variants were also found in higher proportions in the hospital setting compared to the community setting. The GII.4.2006 Minerva strain circulating globally since 2006 was the most common among genotyped NV in this study, with the GII.4-2010 New Orleans emerging in 2010. Conclusions This study shows that NV has become the leading viral cause of gastroenteritis at hospital and community settings in Nicaragua after implementation of RV vaccination. PMID:24849288

  4. Prevalence of obesity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption by socioeconomic status among six communities in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors (overweight/obesity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption) and identify correlations between these and sociodemographic characteristics in western and central Nicaragua. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1 355 participants from six communities in Nicaragua conducted in September 2007–July 2009. Demographic and NCD risk-related health behavior information was collected from each individual, and their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, diabetes status, and renal function were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and (non-stratified and stratified) logistic regression models. Results Of the 1 355 study participants, 22.0% were obese and 55.1% were overweight/obese. Female sex, higher income, and increasing age were significantly associated with obesity. Among men, lifelong urban living correlated with obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 4.39, 1.18–16.31). Of the total participants, 31.3% reported ever smoking tobacco and 47.7% reported ever drinking alcohol. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were strikingly more common among men (OR = 13.0, 8.8–19.3 and 15.6, 10.7–22.6, respectively) and lifelong urban residents (OR = 2.42, 1.31–4.47 and 4.10, 2.33–7.21, respectively). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of obesity/overweight across all income levels. Women were much more likely to be obese, but men had higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The rising prevalence of NCD risk factors among even the poorest subjects suggests that an epidemiologic transition in underway in western and central Nicaragua whereby NCD prevalence is shifting to all segments of society. Raising awareness that health clinics can be used for chronic conditions needs to be priority. PMID:23183562

  5. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A. E-mail: alberto@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: karl.r.stapelfeldt@nasa.gov

    2011-09-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg{sup 2}. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a {approx}260 deg{sup 2} region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  6. Kinematic History of a Salient-recess Junction Explored through a Combined Approach of Field Data and Analog Sandbox Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ismat, Zeshan; Toeneboehn, Kevin

    2016-08-05

    Within fold-thrust belts, the junctions between salients and recesses may hold critical clues to the overall kinematic history. The deformation history within these junctions is best preserved in areas where thrust sheets extend from a salient through an adjacent recess. We examine one such junction within the Sevier fold-thrust belt (western United States) along the Leamington transverse zone, northern Utah. Deformation within this junction took place by faulting and cataclastic flow. Here, we describe a protocol that examines these fault patterns to better understand the kinematic history of the field area. Fault data is supplemented by analog sandbox experiments. This study suggests that, in detail, deformation within the overlying thrust sheet may not directly reflect the underlying basement structure. We demonstrate that this combined field-experimental approach is easy, accessible, and may provide more details to the deformation preserved in the crust than other more expensive methods, such as computer modeling. In addition, the sandbox model may help to explain why and how these details formed. This method can be applied throughout fold-thrust belts, where upper-crustal rocks are well preserved. In addition, it can be modified to study any part of the upper crust that has been deformed via elastico-frictional mechanisms. Finally, this combined approach may provide more details as to how fold-thrust belts maintain critical-taper and serve as potential targets for natural resource exploration.

  7. Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Tam; Gardner, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array…

  8. Happiness among poor women victims of intimate partner violence in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rivas, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes various aspects of overall happiness expressed by 136 women in poverty who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Nicaragua, a country with low levels of development. The information was gathered using a structured interview. Results obtained show that despite the hardships they face, one half of the women in poverty who are victims of IPV say they are happy, and the vast majority are optimistic about their future. The main sources of happiness among the interviewees are in areas outside their economic life and are mainly associated with social relations.

  9. Introduction and Establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control. PMID:26335479

  10. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  11. The Role of Water in Arc Magmatism in Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, S. J.; Hoernle, K.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Central American Volcanic Arc provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of varying subduction parameters on arc magma geochemistry. Here we examine melt inclusions trapped in olivine phenocrysts in young mafic tephras from the active arc segments in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These segments of the subduction zone provide starkly contrasting situations with differing oceanic crustal input (East Pacific Rise vs. oceanic crust overprinted by the Galapagos hot spot) and slab dip ( ˜70° vs. ˜30° ) in Nicaragua and Costa Rica respectively. We collected major-, trace-, and volatile-element concentration data from olivine-hosted (Fo68-87) melt inclusions from volcanoes Cerro Negro, Nejapa, Masaya, and Mombacho along the volcanic front in central Nicaragua and Irazu and Arenal in Costa Rica. In Nicaragua H2O shows a general increase with decreasing Fo of the host olivine, reflecting incompatible behavior during differentiation from 1-3 wt. % in samples from Fo>85 to ˜ 5% in some of the slightly more evolved, yet still relatively undegassed, samples. This is best illustrated by samples from Mombacho and Cerro Negro. Comparison of the major element data with experimental melting studies indicates that the Nicaraguan melts with higher FeO and lower SiO2 (at similar MgO contents) could have formed at greater depths and temperatures in the presence of less water than the Costa Rican melts with higher SiO2 and lower FeO. The most primitive samples from Irazu (host olivine Fo84-89) are extremely rich in H2O (3-5 wt. %). H2O enrichment correlates with enrichment of some LILE, LREE (i.e., Ba, La, K), relative to HFSE for most samples from the Nicaraguan volcanoes. S/Nb and Cl/Nb also show some correlation with H2O/Nb in Nicaraguan samples, with some exceptions possibly related to volatile loss is the less primitive samples. These correlations are generally not present in the Costa Rican samples, thus suggesting that despite apparent larger initial water contents

  12. Como Lo Hago Yo: Defectos Del Cierre Del Tubo Neural En Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan Bosco

    2014-01-01

    En Nicaragua no hay un plan de forltificación de alimentos con ácido fólico. Las madres son muy jóvenes. En La Mascota operamos mas de cuarenta niños por año. Derivación tardía es un problema. La infección preoperatoria tiene que ser descartada. Vancomicina y Ceftriaxone estan indicadas. Estricta regla de asepsia operatoria. Suturamos la plaqueta para asemejar su forma al cilindro normal de la médula. No ceramos la capa de músculo. PMID:24791221

  13. A new species of ant mimicking spider, Myrmecotypus jasmineae (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae), from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Leister, Matthew; Miller, Kelly

    2014-07-21

    Spiders of the corinnid genus Myrmecotypus Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 are known for being morphological and behavioral mimics of ants (Reiskind 1969, 1977; Cushing 1997, 2012; Rubio & Arbino 2009; Rubio et al. 2013). This genus currently includes nine species from to the New World. They occur from the United States (one species) to Argentina (one species), but most (seven species) occur from Mexico to Panama (Reiskind 1969; Rubio & Arbino 2009, Platnick 2014). A new species, M. jasmineae, from Nicaragua is described here from two males. A key to males and females of Myrmecotypus, adapted from Reiskind (1969), is modified to include all of the known species.

  14. Telepresence field research experience for undergraduate and graduate students: An R/V Okeanos Explorer/AUV Sentry success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dover, C. L.; German, C. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Kaiser, C. L.; Brothers, L.

    2012-12-01

    Telepresence and ocean exploration are generally perceived as rich visual experiences informed by streaming video of ocean environments from ship to shore. In an NSF/NOAA-funded partnership, our team of engineers, scientists, and students pushed the boundary of what it means to engage in a telepresence research experience. Instead of using a tethered ROV as our data-gathering platform, we used the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry on science missions to explore the Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs off the Carolina coast. The shore-based team included one senior engineer, two senior scientists, the talented support staff of the Inner Space Center at the University of Rhode Island, three PhD students, four undergraduate interns, and one MFA graduate student. The ship-based team included an engineer, a scientist, and extremely capable NOAA personnel. Sentry was deployed nightly on science missions designed from shore with input from shipboard science and engineering. The vehicle was recovered and data was downloaded and sent to shore each morning, where the data was 'attacked' by student teams. Within three days of the start of the field program, the student teams had developed their research questions under the mentorship of the senior scientists and identified the priority data streams required from Sentry. Students initially were audience to science mission planning discussions, but less than halfway through the 11-mission program, student teams were providing key data to inform planning decisions. Their entrepreneurial engagement with the research was so complete that the last two missions were designed by the students in collaboration with the engineers who programmed each mission. This scientific maturation of the students was markedly swift by usual standards and is attributed in large part to the data-sharing and data-processing capacity of the Inner Space Center. Post-cruise analysis of the data by students continued with the same avidity, resulting in

  15. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 2002-03 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapping program in Antarctica is one of the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). This is the 53rd U.S. expedition to Antarctica in which USGS scientists have participated. The financial support from the National Science Foundation, which extends back to the time of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1956–57, can be attributed to the need for accurate maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was being driven by science, and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support. The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, had, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some international) programs in biology, geology, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958 and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica. The USGS mapping and science programs still play a significant role in the advancement of science in Antarctica today. Antarctica is the planet's 5th largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)], it contains the world's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets, and it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report provides documentation of USGS scientific activities in the

  16. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 1995-96 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapping program in Antarctica is one of the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). This is the 46th U.S. expedition to Antarctica in which USGS scientists have participated. The financial support from the National Science Foundation, which extends back to the time of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1956-57, can be attributed to the need for accurate maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was being driven by science and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support. The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, had, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some international) programs in biology, geology, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958 and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica. The USGS mapping and science programs still play a significant role in the advancement of science in Antarctica today. Antarctica is the planet's 5th largest continent (13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)), it contains the world's largest (of two) remaining ice sheet, and it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report provides documentation of USGS scientific activities in the exploration of

  17. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASOLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    George C. Vradis; Hagen Schempf

    2004-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate ''EXPLORER'', a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its sixth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The prototype robot completed its first field demonstration in June 2004 and is undergoing further extensive endurance testing and some minor modifications in order to prepare for the second and last field demonstration planned for October 2004.

  18. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2003-04-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has already been designed, constructed and tested, having exceeded performance expectations. The full prototype system will be comprehensively tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NGA member utilities' pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its third six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The fabrication of the prototype is complete and is now been tested in the laboratory mainly focusing on the last system integration issues and on software development for the turning and launching routines. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by Summer 2003, to be followed by two field demonstrations in early Fall 2003.

  19. δ13C Degassing Dynamics of a Young Volcanic Center, Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucic, G.; Stix, J.; Wing, B. A.; Muñoz, A.; Ibarra, M.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

    2011-12-01

    Measurement of gas-phase δ13C values above active volcanic centers has the potential for monitoring magma dynamics associated with degassing and recharge events above subduction zones. The strong isotopic partitioning between C in the gas and melt, and C isotopic differences among magmas enables degassed CO2 to give insight into processes happening deep underground. Cerro Negro volcano in Nicaragua is an ideal center for detecting such magma interactions due to its rich history of volcanic activity and unusual eruption style. It is a subduction-driven, basaltic cinder cone that erupts on average once every 20 years with light to moderate intensity explosive eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index: 1-3) commonly accompanied by lava flows. Amid these eruptions are periods of extreme quiescence with very little seismic activity and gas emissions, suggesting rapid magmatic changes beneath the volcano. The brief lag time (on average 30 min). separating precursors and eruption supports this interpretation. In this study, we compare the isotopic composition of gas samples collected from fumaroles, fractures and other thermal areas on the volcano over a period of nearly 2 decades (1992-2011) in order to constrain the magmatic evolution beneath Cerro Negro. While the general systematics of the entire dataset are broadly consistent with degassing models for the natural evolution of CO2 and δ13C values, recent sampling campaigns suggest that new magma may be entering the system. Gases collected in January 2011 after 12 years of quiescence reveal CO2 concentrations ranging from 1-100%, with δ13C values varying from -1.5% to -10.4% with a mean of -3.3±0.28 % for 32 samples. Only limited spatial variability is present in this dataset: inner crater mean δ13C = -4.0±0.12 %, outer crater (-2.4±0.46 %), flanks (-4.4±0.26 %), and thermal areas to the N (-3.5±0.24 %) and SE (-2.5±0.25 %). Based on previous work, a lack of substantial spatial variation in δ values is

  20. Geological setting and failure mechanisms of the 1998 Casita volcano landslide, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoli, G.; Cepeda, J.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    A flank collapse occurred at the Casita volcano in Nicaragua on 30 October 1998 during Hurricane Mitch. The collapse transformed into a disastrous lahar that completely buried two small towns 6 km downstream (killing about 2500 people), destroyed small settlements and disrupted the Pan American Highway. Based on the knowledge acquired during previous investigations with additional unpublished field data and observations, this study provides a comprehensive review of all previous studies (published and unpublished) on the 1998 Casita lahar and new insights into the initial flank collapse and the current stability. The knowledge on pre- and post-failure geometry, geology, lithology, tectonics and stratigraphy of the scarp area is improved and a summary of available geotechnical data is provided. Lithological characteristics that were significant in the initial flank collapse and failure mechanism were identified. The location of the failure surface was more precisely defined and the number and sequence of stages in the initial failure presented in previous studies have been confirmed. Slope stability analyses were carried out using limit-equilibrium methods. Geological interpretations, analysis of digital elevation models and geotechnical back-analyses confirmed that the flank collapse took place in three stages involving both the northern and southern areas of the scarp and occurred continuously during a time interval of seconds to a few minutes. In the first stage, failure initiated in a highly fractured and altered volcanic breccia in the northern area of the scarp which released a volume of 260 000 m3. The flow that developed from this failure removed colluvium deposits at the toe of the slope in the southern part in not more than 40 seconds. This rapid removal of the colluvium triggered a second stage which comprised 640 000 m3 and consisted in the failure of the southern part of the scarp by the sliding of a fractured volcanic breccia over a unit of clay

  1. FURTHER DEFINING SPECTRAL TYPE 'Y' AND EXPLORING THE LOW-MASS END OF THE FIELD BROWN DWARF MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Tinney, C. G.; Parker, Stephen; Salter, Graeme

    2012-07-10

    We present the discovery of another seven Y dwarfs from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using these objects, as well as the first six WISE Y dwarf discoveries from Cushing et al., we further explore the transition between spectral types T and Y. We find that the T/Y boundary roughly coincides with the spot where the J - H colors of brown dwarfs, as predicted by models, turn back to the red. Moreover, we use preliminary trigonometric parallax measurements to show that the T/Y boundary may also correspond to the point at which the absolute H (1.6 {mu}m) and W2 (4.6 {mu}m) magnitudes plummet. We use these discoveries and their preliminary distances to place them in the larger context of the solar neighborhood. We present a table that updates the entire stellar and substellar constituency within 8 pc of the Sun, and we show that the current census has hydrogen-burning stars outnumbering brown dwarfs by roughly a factor of six. This factor will decrease with time as more brown dwarfs are identified within this volume, but unless there is a vast reservoir of cold brown dwarfs invisible to WISE, the final space density of brown dwarfs is still expected to fall well below that of stars. We also use these new Y dwarf discoveries, along with newly discovered T dwarfs from WISE, to investigate the field substellar mass function. We find that the overall space density of late-T and early-Y dwarfs matches that from simulations describing the mass function as a power law with slope -0.5 < {alpha} < 0.0; however, a power law may provide a poor fit to the observed object counts as a function of spectral type because there are tantalizing hints that the number of brown dwarfs continues to rise from late-T to early-Y. More detailed monitoring and characterization of these Y dwarfs, along with dedicated searches aimed at identifying more examples, are certainly required.

  2. Meteorological influence on the seasonal and diurnal variability of the dispersion of volcanic emissions in Nicaragua: A numerical model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmann, Baerbel; Hort, Matthias; Hansteen, Thor

    2009-05-01

    Nicaragua comprises seven historically active volcanoes (Cosigüina, San Cristobal, Telica, Cerro Negro, Momotombo, Masaya, and Concepcion), five of which are in a state of continuous degassing. Published measurements of the atmospheric dispersion of continuous emissions from Nicaraguan volcanoes, the chemical and aerosol microphysical modifications of the released gases and aerosols, and related acid deposition and impacts on the environment cover only short periods of time. We applied a three-dimensional atmosphere-chemistry/aerosol numerical model over Central America focussing on Nicaraguan volcanic emissions for month long simulation periods during the dry and wet seasons of 2003. The model is able to reproduce observed monthly precipitation and wind speed throughout the year 2003. Model results for near surface SO 2 concentrations and SO 2 dry deposition fluxes around Masaya volcano are in very good agreement with field measurements. During the dry season, oxidation of SO 2 to sulphate plays only a minor role downwind of the Nicaraguan volcanoes and over the Pacific Ocean, whereas SO 2 released from Arenal and Poas in Costa Rica is oxidised to sulphate much faster and closer to the volcanoes due to higher humidity and cloud water availability. During the wet season, more variable wind conditions lead to reduced dispersion of SO 2 over the Pacific Ocean and increased dispersion inland. The availability of liquid water in the atmosphere favours sulphate formation close to the Nicaraguan volcanoes via aqueous phase oxidation and represents another limitation for the dispersion of SO 2. Strong precipitation removes sulphate quickly from the atmosphere by wet deposition. Atmospheric SO 2 concentrations and in particular dry deposition close to the volcanoes show a pronounced diurnal cycle.

  3. Keeping Kids in School: A Slippery Slope for Miskitu Families Living in the Pearl Lagoon Basin of Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Patricia Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Miskitu participants in the communities of Raitipura and Kahkabila and several of their children had dropped out of school. Earlier quantitative research revealed a problem of low matriculation in elementary and high schools in all of Nicaragua. This inquiry differed from others in that it was a qualitative study focusing on one group of…

  4. Service Learning & Teaching: A Cross-Cultural Experience--Analysis of Languages in a Private School in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins-Gillispie, Delphina

    2012-01-01

    The service learning immersion experience in Central America benefitted preservice teachers, which resulted in a collaborative project on the analysis of languages spoken at the primary to middle school level. This study researches, collects data, and analyzes results from one school system in the country of Nicaragua in hopes of acquiring…

  5. Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

  6. Governmental Forest Policy for Sustainable Forest Management in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: Regulation, Implementation, and Impact

    Treesearch

    Kathleen A. McGinley; Frederick W. Cubbage

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how governmental forest regulation in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua has succeeded or failed in fostering changes in forest owner and user behavior that enhance the sustainability of tropical forest management. As expected, sufficient resources and capacity for forest policy implementation are crucial for attaining governmental forest policy...

  7. The Timeline of Influenza Virus Shedding in Children and Adults in a Household Transmission Study of Influenza in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sophia; Lopez, Roger; Kuan, Guillermina; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Gordon, Aubree

    2016-01-01

    In a household transmission study in Nicaragua, children under 6 years of age had a longer duration of pre-symptomatic influenza virus shedding than adults. The duration of post-symptomatic influenza virus shedding was longest in children 0–5 years of age, followed by children 6-15 years of age and adults. PMID:26910589

  8. The Impact of Institutional Design on the Democratization of School Governance: The Case of Nicaragua's Autonomous School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Minvielle, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    Nicaragua presents an interesting case study of a society pursuing reform of the democratization of its school governance through citizen participation. A radical transformation with a complex institutional arrangement was put in place within a context of major political change and endemic poverty. In order to achieve our objective of empirically…

  9. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  10. Keeping Kids in School: A Slippery Slope for Miskitu Families Living in the Pearl Lagoon Basin of Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Patricia Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Miskitu participants in the communities of Raitipura and Kahkabila and several of their children had dropped out of school. Earlier quantitative research revealed a problem of low matriculation in elementary and high schools in all of Nicaragua. This inquiry differed from others in that it was a qualitative study focusing on one group of…

  11. Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

  12. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  13. The Impact of Institutional Design on the Democratization of School Governance: The Case of Nicaragua's Autonomous School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Minvielle, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    Nicaragua presents an interesting case study of a society pursuing reform of the democratization of its school governance through citizen participation. A radical transformation with a complex institutional arrangement was put in place within a context of major political change and endemic poverty. In order to achieve our objective of empirically…

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Improving Health Care to People with HIV in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Danilo; Moreno, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Background. A 2010 evaluation found generally poor outcomes among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Nicaragua. We evaluated an intervention to improve HIV nursing services in hospital outpatient departments to improve patient treatment and retention in care. The intervention included improving patient tracking, extending clinic hours, caring for children of HIV+ mothers, ensuring medication availability, promoting self-help groups and family involvement, and coordinating multidisciplinary care. Methods. This pre/postintervention study examined opportunistic infections and clinical status of HIV patients before and after implementation of changes to the system of nursing care. Hospital expenditure data were collected by auditors and hospital teams tracked intervention expenses. Decision tree analysis determined incremental cost-effectiveness from the implementers' perspective. Results. Opportunistic infections decreased by 24% (95% CI: 14%–34%) and 11.3% of patients improved in CDC clinical stage. Average per-patient costs decreased by $133/patient/year (95% CI: $29–$249). The intervention, compared to business-as-usual strategy, saved money while improving outcomes. Conclusions. Improved efficiency of services can allow more ART-eligible patients to receive therapy. We recommended the intervention be implemented in all HIV service facilities in Nicaragua. PMID:24977038

  15. Unsuspected Dengue as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Children and Adults in Western Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; de Silva, Aravinda M.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Broadwater, Anne; Walker, Katie; Woods, Christopher; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua’s heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not. Methodology/Principal Findings To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness) from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening) of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740) aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5%) were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) in 38 (5.1%) patients. Only 8.1% (3/37) of confirmed cases were suspected clinically. Conclusions/Significance Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America. PMID:27792777

  16. Maternity waiting homes and institutional birth in Nicaragua: policy options and strategic implications.

    PubMed

    García Prado, Ariadna; Cortez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of promoting institutional births and reducing the high maternal and child mortality rates in rural and poor zones, the government of Nicaragua is supporting the creation of maternity waiting homes. This study analyzes that strategy and examines the factors associated with the use of maternity waiting homes and institutional birth. To that end, we apply a quantitative approach, by means of an econometric analysis of the data extracted from surveys conducted in 2006 on a sample of women and parteras or traditional birth attendants, as well as a qualitative approach based on interviews with key informants. Results indicate that although the operation of the maternity waiting homes is usually satisfactory, there is still room for improvement along the following lines: (i) disseminating information about the homes to both women and men, as the latter frequently decide the course of women's healthcare, and to parteras, who can play an important role in referring women; (ii) strengthening the postpartum care; (iii) ensuring financial sustainability by obtaining regular financial support from the government to complement contributions from the community; and (iv) strengthening the local management and involvement of the regional government. These measures might be useful for health policy makers in Nicaragua and in other developing countries that are considering this strategy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Sexual onset and contraceptive use among adolescents from poor neighbourhoods in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Orozco, Miguel; Ibarra, Marcia; Segura, Zoyla; Medina, Joel; Vega, Bernardo; Michielsen, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of teenage pregnancies in Nicaragua is the highest in Latin-America. This study aimed to gain insight into factors which determine the sexual behaviours concerned. From July until August 2011, a door-to-door survey was conducted among adolescents living in randomly selected poor neighbourhoods of Managua. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors related to sexual onset and contraceptive use. Data from 2803 adolescents were analysed. Of the 475 and 299 sexually active boys and girls, 43% and 54%, respectively, reported contraceptive use. Sexual onset was positively related to increasing age, male sex, alcohol consumption and not living with the parents. Catholic boys and boys never feeling peer pressure to have sexual intercourse were more likely to report consistent condom use. Having a partner and feeling comfortable talking about sexuality with the partner were associated with hormonal contraception. Our data identified associates of adolescents' sexual behaviour related to personal characteristics (sex and alcohol use), to the interaction with significant others (parents, partners, peers) and to the environment (housing condition, religion). We interpreted those associates within the context of the rapidly changing society and the recently implemented health system reform in Nicaragua.

  18. Phenotypic variation within a clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans infecting both tomato and potato in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Blandón-Díaz, J U; Widmark, A-K; Hannukkala, A; Andersson, B; Högberg, N; Yuen, J E

    2012-03-01

    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is a constraint to both potato and tomato crops in Nicaragua. The hypothesis that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans is genotypically and phenotypically diverse and potentially subdivided based on host association was tested. A collection of isolates was analyzed using genotypic markers (microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA haplotype) and phenotypic markers (mating type, virulence, and fungicide sensitivity). The genotypic analysis revealed no polymorphism in 121 of 132 isolates of P. infestans tested. Only the Ia haplotype and the A2 mating type were detected. Most of the tested isolates were resistant to metalaxyl. The virulence testing showed variation among isolates of P. infestans. No evidence was found of population differentiation among potato and tomato isolates of P. infestans based on the genotypic and phenotypic analysis. We conclude that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans consists of a single clonal lineage (NI-1) which belongs to the A2 mating type and the Ia mitochondrial DNA haplotype. Moreover, based on the markers used, this population of P. infestans does not resemble the population in countries from which potato seed is imported to Nicaragua or the population in neighboring countries. The data presented here indicate that the NI-1 clonal lineage is the primary pathogen on both potato and tomato, and its success on both host species is unique in a South American context.

  19. Intercultural bilingual education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for improving the quality of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken - especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport recognises the need for a flexible curriculum that reflects individual local and regional linguistic and socio-cultural characteristics, through the use of mother tongue and second language learning. The contextualisation model applied in the Atlantic coastal region of Nicaragua is therefore based on the use of a languages strategy in preparing textbooks and basic technical materials with an IBE approach, as part of the process of improving the quality of education. Thus intercultural communication is enhanced, and the need to strengthen the systematic teaching of languages, differentiating between mother tongue, second language and foreign language, is recognised. As well as explaining the contextualisation process in detail, this article discusses the conceptual differences between intercultural bilingual education (IBE) and bilingual intercultural education (BIE). The paper concludes with several recommendations for the further development of BIE in Latin America.

  20. Evaluating the health impact of a public-private partnership: to reduce rotavirus disease in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Shazia; Cardellino, Anna; Klotz, Diana; Kuter, Barbara J; Feinberg, Mark B; Colatrella, Brenda D; Mast, T Christopher

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the RotaTeq(®) Nicaragua Partnership and the evaluation of the public health impact of the vaccine conducted by the partners, including the creation of a rotavirus surveillance program and a vaccine effectiveness assessment. The three main objectives of the partnership were to demonstrate that a new rotavirus vaccine could (1) be introduced rapidly in a developing country, (2) be successfully integrated into the existing vaccine delivery infrastructure, and (3) have a significant and measurable public health impact at the end of the 3-y program. The vaccine impact assessment required collaboration among partners with different areas of expertise, including the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health, Merck, local hospitals, government health clinics, laboratories, and a Technical Advisory Group. Through the partnership, RotaTeq(®) became available in a GAVI-eligible developing country, Nicaragua, in the same year it was approved in the United States. Vaccine coverage rapidly reached over > 90% of eligible Nicaraguan children. The impact assessment evaluated over 10,000 subjects and leveraged and enhanced the existing diarrheal surveillance infrastructure, ultimately providing the scientific community with some of the first real-world rotavirus vaccine effectiveness data from a developing country. The successful public-private partnership (PPP) was internationally recognized as a model for the rapid adoption of a new vaccine in a developing world setting. The model could be adapted to benefit other PPPs interested in demonstrating the impact of their own programs.