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Sample records for field nicaragua exploration

  1. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  2. Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nicaragua is on the following: geography; the people and history; government and polictical conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the US and Nicaragua. Nicaragua's population is 2.9 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3% (1981). The infant mortality rate is 37/1000; life expectancy is 56 years. Most Nicaraguans are mestizo, a mix of European and Indian. Smaller ethnic groups also are recognizable. A large black minority of Jamaican origin is concentrated on the Caribbean coast, although migration to Managua is on the rise. Nicaragua borders Costa Rica to the south and El Salvador--across the Gulf of Fonseca--and Honduras to the north. The climate is tropical. About 40% of the population are urban; most live in the Pacific lowlands and the adjacent interior highlands region. On July 19, 1979 the Government of National Reconstruction formed in exile as a coalition of the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) and civic leaders, stepped into the power vacuum left by the Somoza government's collapse. The GRN was organized into a 5-member junta, the 19 member Council of Ministers, and the 33 member quasi legislative National Council. The GRN's July 19 Declaration of San Jose, promising a democratically elected government and an equitable pluralistic society, met with strong popular support. Freedom of speech, press, religion, and assembly are guaranteed by the declaration, yet the GRN's efforts at promoting political freedom have been less successful than its efforts at economic equity. At different times, the GRN has restricted operation of opposition newspapers on national security grounds, banned individual foreign films on political grounds, attempted to reduce the role of the Roman Catholic Church and tried to reduce the traditional autonomy of the national university. The country's resources are primarily agricultural. Some estimates indicate that 70% of Nicaragua's territory is usable

  3. Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C J; Alvarado, P; Narváez, C; Miranda, F; Hernández, L; Vanegas, H; Hruska, A; Shelton, A M

    2000-12-01

    Field populations of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), Plutella xylostella (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) were tested for resistance to several insecticides commonly used in Nicariagua. Assays were conducted to estimate the LD50s or LC50s and the corresponding resistance ratios. A diagnostic concentration was used to discriminate between susceptible and resistant strains of H. hampei. The tests with >6,000 H. hampei adults collected from six different sites indicate the absence of resistance to endosulfan. Resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorfluazuron, thiocyclam, and methamidophos was documented in six field populations of P. xylostella. High levels of resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin, but moderate levels of resistance to chlorpyriphos and methomyl, were also documented in two field populations of S. exigua. Moderate levels of resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and chlorpyriphos were also documented in three field populations of H. zea. Moderate to high levels of resistance to bifenthrin, methamidophos and endosulfan were documented in four field populations of B. tabaci. The presence of significant correlations between LD50s or LC50s suggests the occurrence of cross-resistance or simultaneous selection for resistance by different insecticides with different modes of action. Our data could not differentiate between these two possibilities. Because insecticides will continue being used in Nicaragua, a resistance management program is urgently needed. The implementation of integrated pest management tactics must be accompanied by specific regulations for pesticide registration. In the future, pesticide registration regulations in Nicaragua should include periodic resistance monitoring. The mechanisms to cover the costs of resistance monitoring and resistance management should also be established.

  4. Leptospirosis Outbreaks in Nicaragua: Identifying Critical Areas and Exploring Drivers for Evidence-Based Planning

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Nájera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Bacallao, Jorge; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Altamirano, Lesbia; Saenz, Carlos; Marin, Jesus; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moynihan, Matthew; Espinal, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. In Central America, leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported in almost all countries; Nicaragua in particular has faced several outbreaks. The objective of this study was to stratify the risk and identify “critical areas” for leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua, and to perform an exploratory analysis of potential “drivers”. This ecological study includes the entire country (153 municipalities). Cases from 2004 to 2010 were obtained from the country’s health information system, demographic and socioeconomic variables from its Census, and environmental data from external sources. Criteria for risk stratification of leptospirosis were defined. Nicaragua reported 1,980 cases of leptospirosis during this period, with the highest percentage of cases (26.36%) in León, followed by Chinandega (15.35%). Among the 153 municipalities, 48 were considered critical areas, 85 were endemic and 20 silent. Using spatial and statistical analysis, the variable presenting the most evident pattern of association with critical areas defined by top quintile of incidence rate is the percentage of municipal surface occupied by the soil combination of cambisol (over pyroclastic and lava bedrock) and andosol (over a volcanic ashes foundation). Precipitation and percentage of rural population are also associated with critical areas. This methodology and findings could be used for Nicaragua’s Leptospirosis Intersectoral Plan, and to identify possible risk areas in other countries with similar drivers. PMID:23202822

  5. Stratigraphy, geomorphology, geochemistry and hazard implications of the Nejapa Volcanic Field, western Managua, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Pardo, Natalia; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodriguez, Dionisio

    2012-02-01

    The Nejapa Volcanic Field (NVF) is located on the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua. It consists of at least 30 volcanic structures emplaced along the N-S Nejapa fault, which represents the western active edge of the Managua Graben. The study area covers the central and southern parts of the volcanic field. We document the basic geomorphology, stratigraphy, chemistry and evolution of 17 monogenetic volcanic structures: Ticomo (A, B, C, D and E); Altos de Ticomo; Nejapa; San Patricio; Nejapa-Norte; Motastepe; El Hormigón; La Embajada; Asososca; Satélite; Refinería; and Cuesta El Plomo (A and B). Stratigraphy aided by radiocarbon dating suggests that 23 eruptions have occurred in the area during the past ~ 34,000 years. Fifteen of these eruptions originated in the volcanic field between ~ 28,500 and 2,130 yr BP with recurrence intervals varying from 400 to 7,000 yr. Most of these eruptions were phreatomagmatic with minor strombolian and fissural lava flow events. A future eruption along the fault might be of a phreatomagmatic type posing a serious threat to the more than 500,000 inhabitants in western Managua.

  6. Toxaphene residues from cotton fields in soils and in the coastal environment of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Villeneuve, J P; Cattini, C; Tolosa, I; Bartocci, J; Lacayo-Romero, M; Cruz-Granja, A

    2003-11-01

    Toxaphene (camphechlor) was intensively used in the cotton growing fields of Nicaragua for decades with application rates as high as 31 kg ha(-1) in 1985. Although the use of this compound has recently been discontinued in the country, its intensive use in the past and its long persistence in soil allowed for the build up of large reservoirs of toxaphene in agriculture soils and a wide dispersal of residues in the environment. Measurements of toxaphene in coastal areas on the coast of the Pacific Ocean show that environmental concentrations are particularly high in the district of Chinandega, the traditional cotton growing region. Toxaphene residues measured in soils attained 44 microg g(-1) (dry weight) while concentrations in lagoon sediments attained 6.9 microg g(-1) (dry weight) near the mouth of the rivers flowing across the agricultural region. Measurements in aquatic biota showed concentrations as high as 1.6 microg g(-1) (dry weight) in the soft tissues of clams. The toxaphene reservoir in soils combined with the obvious persistence of this compound in soils and lagoon sediments allows predicting that toxaphene will remain in the coastal ecosystem at relatively high concentrations for many years. Toxic effects in lagoon fauna are likely to be observed especially in benthic species that may recycle this compound from sediments. Consumption of seafood, in particular of clams (Anadara spp.) from the more contaminated areas, may expose the population to unacceptably high intake of toxaphene, 30 microg d(-1) per person, with the diet.

  7. Radio, Advertising Techniques, and Nutrition Education: A Summary of a Field Experiment in the Philippines and Nicaragua. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Thomas M.; Romweber, Susan T.

    Infant and child health and nutrition education messages patterned after the reach-and-frequency technique of commercial advertising were broadcast to target groups of young mothers over local radio stations in the Philippines and Nicaragua for one year without the support of more conventional education methods. The messages were developed in…

  8. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  9. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  10. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone.

    PubMed

    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far-reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly.

  11. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large‐scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far‐reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly. PMID:27253906

  12. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  13. Country watch: Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pauw, J

    1999-01-01

    The Association of Workers for Education, Health and Social Integration (TESIS) works with commercial sex workers to control HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in Nicaragua through free condom distribution and education. Education includes group work, individual counseling, and demonstrations of correct condom use. Condoms are also distributed to the motels frequented by commercial sex workers. When the Condom Social Marketing (CSM) project in Central America started, it sold condoms of the same quality as the ones offered by TESIS; thus the condom donors reduced their donations, and in turn, TESIS lost its normal quota for free condom distribution. Because of this situation, TESIS dealt with a condom promotion scheme at a lower cost for the poorest women. Condom quality did not deteriorate as products only came with simpler packaging. TESIS fills the gap which CSM missed.

  14. The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Hacking, Perry

    1993-01-01

    More than 30% of current star formation is taking place ingalaxies known as starburst galaxies. Do starburst galaxies play a central role in the evolution of all galaxies, and can they lead us to the birth of galaxies and the source of quasars? We have proposed to build the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), capable of detecting typical starburst galaxies at a redshift of 0.5, ultraluminous infrared galaxies behond a redshift of 2, and luminous protogalaxies beyond a redshift of 5.

  15. Acid-Sulfate Weathering of Basalts at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua: An Early Mars Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, E. C.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Rogers, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cerro Negro, Nicaragua is a high temperature, low pH, S-rich environment, proposed to explain some acid-sulfate weathering on Mars. Simultaneously, we are analyzing field samples, laboratory experiments, theoretical modeling, and microbial studies.

  16. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bommer, J

    1985-12-01

    The occurrence of natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, are, in themselves, beyond oar control. However, careful preparation before such events, and the correct management of the problem once it occurs, can both lead to major redaction of the suffering involved. Disaster preparation and emergency planning are both inextricably linked to politics and economics, both on a national and an international scale. Disasters themselves raise a number of issues of a political or economic nature, and die response to a natural disaster both in the short and the long term is largely determined by the political relations within a country, and between that country and the international community. This paper examines these issues by taking the examples of the earthquake of Managua, Nicaragua in 1972 and the flooding that occurred in Nicaragua in 1982. These two natural disasters occurred under different administrations in Nicaragua, and tills allows some interesting comparisons.

  17. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this paper, we present a series of simple activities adapted from the Matter & Interactions textbook for doing just this. Interestingly, these simple measurements are comparable to predictions made by the Bohr model of the atom. Although antiquated, Bohr's atom can lead the way to a deeper analysis of the atomic properties of magnets. Although originally developed for an introductory calculus-based course, these activities can easily be adapted for use in an algebra-based class or even at the high school level.

  18. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    We present WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) mid-infrared photometry of young stellar object candidates in the Canis Majoris clouds at a distance of 1 kpc. WISE has identified 682 objects with apparent 12 and 22 micron excess emission in a 7 deg x 10 deg field around the CMa Rl cloud . While a substantial fraction of these candidates are likely galaxies, AGB stars, and artifacts from confusion along the galactic plane, others are part of a spectacular cluster of YSOs imaged by WISE along a dark filament in the R1 cloud. Palomar Double Spectrograph observations of several sources in this cluster confirm their identity as young A and B stars with strong emission lines. In this contribution, we plot the optical -mid-infrared spectral energy distribution for the WISE YSO candidates and discuss potential contaminants to the sample . The data demonstrate the utility of WISE in performing wide-area surveys for young stellar objects.

  19. Teaching Business Communication in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, David Alan

    2007-01-01

    Global partnerships between educational institutions are one mechanism for building a capacity to educate students and prepare them for the global economy. In this article, the author describes a seminar on business communication he taught to the faculty members of Universidad Centroamerica de Managua (UCA) in Managua, Nicaragua. The purpose of…

  20. A new geothermal anomaly in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Yoram

    1982-03-01

    The information acquired during reconnaissance surface exploration in Nicaragua suggests a large geothermal reservoir in the region of Masaya—Nandaime. The exploration programme included geological, geophysical, geochemical, as well as hydrogeological investigations. Integration of the results from various disciplines permitted postulation of a conceptual model of the reservoir and of the thermal regime within the zone immediately above and around the reservoir. The reservoir with a temperature in excess of 200°C is emplaced at a depth between 2 and 4 km in a predominantly graywacke formation. It is sealed off by a silica cap and camouflaged by the flow of groundwater in a thick phreatic aquifer, that intercepts and redistributes anomalous heat flow from above the reservoir.

  1. Exploring Galaxy Environments with Characteristic Field Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Shannon A.

    2006-12-01

    The connection between characteristic properties of galaxies and their local environments is an important tool in understanding the life history of galaxies, their formation, and their effects on the large-scale structure of the universe. However, while there has been significant progress in understanding galaxy properties with relation to local densities and nearby cluster distances, fundamental questions still remain unanswered. Three-dimensional field mapping techniques are explored as a means of investigating the environmental dependence of characteristic properties of galaxies in large data sets. Field maps are applied to the Millenium Run semi-analytic galaxy catalog to create a baseline of methodology against a simulated data set. The field maps are then extended for application to the Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An open architecture is presented as a framework for further studies of the correlational dependence of arbitrary characteristics. In particular, the techniques are being applied in current investigation towards an understanding of the relationships of metallicity, densities, star formation, mass, and luminosities in local environments in the DR5 of the SDSS.

  2. FieldREG II: consciousness field effects: replications and explorations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R D; Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J; Dobyns, Y H; Bradish, G J

    2007-01-01

    Based on formal analysis of 18 exploratory applications, 12 of which have been reported previously, a testable general hypothesis for FieldREG experiments has been postulated, namely that data taken in environments fostering relatively intense or profound subjective resonance will show larger deviations of the mean relative to chance expectation than those generated in more pragmatic assemblies. The 61 subsequent FieldREG applications reported here comprise 21 hypothesis-based formal replications, along with 40 further explorations designed to learn more about the circumstances that favor anomalous deviations. The results of the formal replications strongly confirm the general hypothesis, yielding a composite probability against chance for the resonant subset of 2.2 x 10(-6) compared to 0.91 for the mundane subset. The exploratory work suggests other venues in which anomalous effects of group consciousness can be expected, and also identifies a number of situations that do not appear to be conducive to such responses.

  3. [The health system of Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Muiser, Jorine; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Nicaragua and discusses the characteristics of its national health system including its structure and coverage, its financial sources its physical, material and human resources the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the system and the level of satisfaction of health care users. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the decentralization of the regulation of health facilities and the design and implementation of a new health care model known as Family and Community Health Model.

  4. BIOÉTICA EN NICARAGUA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálezy, Armando Ulloa; Monge, Melba de la Cruz Barrantes

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo describe la situación de la bioética en Nicaragua, caracterizando las circunstancias y el contexto de las actividades de educación médica y las unidades prestadoras de servicios de salud. El desarrollo de un nuevo modelo de atención integral en salud, la implementación de políticas de salud que garanticen a la población el mayor acceso y gratuidad a los servicios, y los cambios acontecidos en los cuidados médicos, debidos en parte al reconocimiento creciente de una mayor autonomía de los pacientes y al uso creciente de nuevas tecnologías médicas, hace que se presenten algunas limitantes y dilemas en las unidades asistenciales y entre el personal de salud. La bioética en Nicaragua tiene un desarrollo incipiente: no está institucionalizada ni se han previsto los mecanismos formales que permitan resolver los problemas éticamente complejos, por lo tanto, constituye un gran reto por parte de las instituciones educativas y rectoras de la salud. PMID:20352016

  5. Exploring scalar field dynamics with Gaussian processes

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay; Jain, Deepak E-mail: sanjay.jhingan@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe remains an unsolved mystery in Cosmology. In this work we consider a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe with non-relativistic matter and a single scalar field contributing to the energy density of the Universe. Properties of this scalar field, like potential, kinetic energy, equation of state etc. are reconstructed from Supernovae and BAO data using Gaussian processes. We also reconstruct energy conditions and kinematic variables of expansion, such as the jerk and the slow roll parameter. We find that the reconstructed scalar field variables and the kinematic quantities are consistent with a flat ΛCDM Universe. Further, we find that the null energy condition is satisfied for the redshift range of the Supernovae data considered in the paper, but the strong energy condition is violated.

  6. Exploring Literate Lives: Returning to the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Robyn; Woods, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of conducting lengthy fieldwork in today's busy academic world have impacted the types of research that are able to be carried out. In particular, traditional educational ethnography has become problematic for research beyond initial doctoral research programs. This article analyzes data collected during a return to the field of a…

  7. Omar field discovery confirms Syria as exploration hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-20

    Syria is proving to be one of the Mediterranean's exploration hot spots. The discovery of Omar field by a Shell-led exploration group earlier this year confirmed Syria as a prime exploration prospect. For years Syria produced small volumes of heavy, high-sulfur crude mainly for refining and use in the domestic market and found it difficult to attract foreign explorers. Industry sources say there is now no shortage of outside industry interest in taking new exploration concessions. Over the last 6 months much of the available prospective acreage has been taken up as industry interest in Syria reached nee heights.

  8. Dancing in the thresholds: Exploring the interactive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Constance S.

    This dissertation is an attempt to investigate the nature of the interactive field to deepen as well as broaden its scope as it applies to depth psychology and its praxis. With a phenomenological eye toward field dynamics from other paradigms, this exploration demonstrates an additional theoretical framework within the interactive field. It opens other possibilities creating a neither/nor position from which to contain our work with an alchemical/metaphorical position and allows for the liberation of the imaginal realm through which ``the Other'' may be of service, and in fact, may ask us to be in service to it. The literature review not only surveys the three primary schools in psychology-the psychoanalytical, the classical, and archetypal as the genesis of the interactive field, but also investigates shamanic realms as a backdrop from which to see field theory. Field theory is also explored in the world of quantum physics where the universal field is examined from paradigms situated in varied consciousness models. The somatic unconscious, an intrinsic part of the interactive field in mutual engagement with two or more persons, is also woven into the fabric of this study as an intersection between the universal field and the psychodynamic field. This study, as a psychological gnosis, initiates subtle body awareness from Eastern cosmologies from a depth perspective in the psychodynamics of the interactive field. Synchronistic encounters are integrated into field theory as a threshold where universal fields engage the somatic unconscious, initiating numinous and sometimes transformative change into one's life.

  9. Education of the deaf in nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Polich, L

    2001-01-01

    Nicaragua now ranks as the third poorest country in the Western Hemisphere (Interamerican Development Bank [IDB], 1995). Occasionally educational improvement has been a national priority (Arrien & Matus, 1989). Usually, however, education rests at the lower end of a long list of national needs. The history of education in Nicaragua is marked by low teacher salaries, deteriorated physical plants, and scarcities of teaching materials (Arnove, 1994). Deaf education has been no exception. Teachers have been expected to learn empirically what deafness is and how to teach deaf children, to teach pupils who have had little or no language exposure before entering school, and to manage with the barest physical resources, all the while receiving only meager compensation. This article places education of the deaf in Nicaragua in a historical perspective, reports the results of a teacher survey, and discusses national policies that, so far, have had only indirect effects, but are likely to gain importance in the future.

  10. Identification of Aedes albopictus in urban Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Emperatriz Del C; Moreno, Gilberto; Zachariah, Marcus A; López, María M; López, Josefa D; Delgado, Marco A; Valle, Sonia I; Espinoza, Perla M; Salgado, Mario J; Pérez, Roselo; Hammond, Samantha N; Harris, Eva

    2005-09-01

    Larvae of Aedes albopictus, a mosquito known for transmitting dengue virus, were identified in the city of León, Nicaragua, in 2003. Mosquito larvae were collected from a total of 2,225 residences in the 2 largest cities in Nicaragua during the period from June to September of 2003, and larval Ae. albopictus were identified in 4 homes in León. This represents the 1st detection of Ae. albopictus in a major Nicaraguan urban center, and increased control efforts appear to have eliminated the mosquito subsequently from León. The presence of Ae. albopictus in urban Nicaragua highlights the need for surveillance of areas thought to be free of the mosquito so that early detection and control activities can prevent its spread.

  11. Exploring International Multicultural Field Experiences in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Hilary; Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; An, Heejung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore an online field experience between technology facilitator candidates in the USA and K-12 teachers in Namibia, to improve candidates' understanding of diversity and equity issues in the successful incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning.…

  12. Extension Learning Exchange: Lessons from Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Paul; Lachapelle, Paul; Howe, Rod

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need to support global professional development, international education, and collaborative learning opportunities in Extension. The program described here established an international learning exchange in Nicaragua to lead to global professional development and future international collaboration. The primary lessons and outcomes…

  13. Nicaragua 1980: The Battle of the ABCs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenal, Fernando; Miller, Valerie

    1981-01-01

    The authors present a first-hand account of the massive literacy program in Nicaragua. They describe the political rationale and the extensive organizational tasks of the National Literacy Crusade, pointing out that its success depended upon the commitment of the people and the government to literacy and liberation. (Author/SK)

  14. Severe Histoplasmosis in Travelers to Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Julia; Lance-Parker, Susan; Traeger, Marc; Wiersma, Steven; Phan, Quyen; Dennison, David; MacDonald, Pia; Lindsley, Mark; Guarner, Jeannette; Connolly, Patricia; Cetron, Martin; Hajjeh, Rana

    2003-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of unexpectedly severe histoplasmosis among 14 healthy adventure travelers from the United States who visited a bat-infested cave in Nicaragua. Although histoplasmosis has rarely been reported to cause serious illness among travelers, this outbreak demonstrates that cases may be severe among travelers, even young, healthy persons. PMID:14609473

  15. Field Exploration Science for a Return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Helper, M. A.; Muehlbberger, W.; Snoke, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Apollo field exploration science, and subsequent analysis, and interpretation of its findings and collected samples, underpin our current understanding of the origin and history of the Moon. That understanding, in turn, continues to provide new and important insights into the early histories of the Earth and other bodies in the solar system, particularly during the period that life formed and began to evolve on Earth and possibly on Mars. Those early explorations also have disclosed significant and potentially commercially viable lunar resources that might help satisfy future demand for both terrestrial energy alternatives and space consumables. Lunar sortie missions as part of the Vision for Space Exploration provide an opportunity to continue and expand the human geological, geochemical and geophysical exploration of the Moon. Specific objectives of future field exploration science include: (1) Testing of the consensus "giant impact" hypothesis for the origin of the Moon by further investigation of materials that may augment understanding of the chondritic geochemistry of the lower lunar mantle; (2) Testing of the consensus impact "cataclysm" hypothesis by obtaining absolute ages on large lunar basins of relative ages older than the 3.8-3.9 Ga mascon basins dated by Apollo 15 and 17; (3) Calibration of the end of large impacts in the inner solar system; (4) Global delineation of the internal structure of the Moon; (5) Global sampling and field investigations that extend the data necessary to remotely correlate major lunar geological and geochemical units; (6) Definition of the depositional history of polar volatiles - cometary, solar wind, or otherwise; (7) Determine the recoverable in situ concentrations and distribution of potential volatile resources; and (8) Acquisition of information and samples related to relatively less site-specific aspects of lunar geological processes. Planning for renewed field exploration of the Moon depends largely on the selection

  16. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  17. Exploring dense and cold QCD in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, E. J.; de la Incera, V.

    2016-08-01

    Strong magnetic fields are commonly generated in off-central relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab and in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and have been used to probe the topological configurations of the QCD vacua. A strong magnetic field can affect the character and location of the QCD critical point, influence the QCD phases, and lead to anomalous transport of charge. To take advantage of the magnetic field as a probe of QCD at higher baryon densities, we are going to need experiments capable to scan the lower energy region. In this context, the nuclotron-based ion collider facility (NICA) at JINR offers a unique opportunity to explore such a region and complement alternative programs at RHIC and other facilities. In this paper we discuss some relevant problems of the interplay between QCD and magnetic fields and the important role the experiments at NICA can play in tackling them.

  18. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary…

  19. Men's Educational Group Appointments in Rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce B; Gonzalez, Hugo; Campbell, McKenzie; Campbell, Kent

    2017-03-01

    Men's preventive health and wellness is largely neglected in rural Nicaragua, where a machismo culture prevents men from seeking health care. To address this issue, a men's educational group appointment model was initiated at a rural health post to increase awareness about hypertension, and to train community health leaders to measure blood pressure. Men's hypertension workshops were conducted with patient knowledge pretesting, didactic teaching, and posttesting. Pretesting and posttesting performances were recorded, blood pressures were screened, and community leaders were trained to perform sphygmomanometry. An increase in hypertension-related knowledge was observed after every workshop and community health leaders demonstrated proficiency in sphygmomanometry. In addition, several at-risk patients were identified and follow-up care arranged. Men's educational group appointments, shown to be effective in the United States in increasing patient knowledge and satisfaction, appear to function similarly in a resource-constrained environment and may be an effective mechanism for reaching underserved men in Nicaragua.

  20. Will the Nicaragua Canal connect or divide?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-11-03

    A century after the opening of the Panama Canal, a second inter-oceanic passage is set to be built in Central America, this time in Nicaragua. The ambitious and astronomically expensive project promises to bring economic opportunity to a poor country but it also carries risks to its tropical ecosystems. Will the new waterway ultimately link two oceans or divide a continent? Michael Gross investigates.

  1. Overview of NASA Finesse (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D.S.S.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, B.; Sears, D.; Neish, C.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Downs, M.; Busto, J.; Cohen, B.; Caldwell, B.; Jones, A. J. P.; Johnson, S.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint Institute supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). As such, FINESSE is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our Moon, Mars moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. FINESSE embodies the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science".

  2. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. R.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    While there is a growing recognition of the impact that climate change may have on human development, there has been a shift in focus from an impacts-led assessment approach towards a vulnerability-led assessment approach. This research operationalizes the IPCC's definition of vulnerability in a sub-national assessment to understand how different factors that shape vulnerability to climate change vary spatially across rural Nicaragua. The research utilizes the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO UN) CropWat model to evaluate how the annual yield of two of Nicaragua's staple crops may change under projected changes in temperature and precipitation. This analysis of agricultural sensitivity under exposure to climate change is then overlain with an indicator-based assessment of adaptive capacity in rural Nicaraguan farming households. Adaptive capacity was evaluated using household survey data from the 2001 National Household Survey on Living Standards Measurement, which was provided to us by the FAO UN. The result is a map representing current vulnerability to future climate change, and can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions in rural Nicaragua.

  3. Evaluating a Special Education Training Programme in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…

  4. U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua: Illegal and Unwarranted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Ved P.

    1988-01-01

    Appraises the legality, under international law, of the U.S. intervention in Nicaragua. Describes the concepts of intervention, international resolutions, and declarations on the subject. Points out that international law is violated by many nations. Concludes that U.S. intervention in Nicaragua is impermissible under international law and unwise…

  5. Susceptibility of Children to Sapovirus Infections, Nicaragua, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Carlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Larson, Göran; Blandon, Patricia; Vilchez, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We describe the genetic diversity of sapovirus (SaV) in children in Nicaragua and investigate the role of host genetic factors and susceptibility to SaV infections. Our results indicate that neither ABO blood group, Lewis phenotype, nor secretor status affects susceptibility to SaV infection in Nicaragua. PMID:23092588

  6. Collaboration on contentious issues: research partnerships for gender equity in Nicaragua's Fair Trade coffee cooperatives.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lori; Terstappen, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the use of collaborative and partnership approaches in health and agricultural research has flourished. Such approaches are frequently adopted to ensure more successful research uptake and to contribute to community empowerment through participatory research practices. At the same time that interest in research partnerships has been growing, publications on methods, models, and guidelines for building these partnerships have proliferated. However, partnership development is not necessarily as straightforward or linear a process as such literature makes it appear, particularly when the research involves divisive or contentious issues. This paper explores prevailing views on research partnerships, and also questions the applicability of partnership models using an emerging research program around gender equity and health in Fair Trade coffee cooperatives in Nicaragua as an example. Moreover, the paper introduces some of the complicated issues facing the authors as they attempt to develop and expand partnerships in this research area. The paper culminates with a series of strategies that the authors plan to use that offer alternative ways of thinking about building research partnerships concerning controversial or complex issues in the field of community health and development.

  7. Science with a wide-field UV transient explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Sagiv, I.; Gal-Yam, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Waxman, E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Topaz, J.; Aharonson, O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Phinney, E. S.; Nakar, E.; Maoz, D.; Beichman, C.; Murthy, J.; Worden, S. P.

    2014-04-01

    The time-variable electromagnetic sky has been well-explored at a wide range of wavelengths. In contrast, the ultra-violet (UV) variable sky is relatively poorly explored, even though it offers exciting scientific prospects. Here, we review the potential scientific impact of a wide-field UV survey on the study of explosive and other transient events, as well as known classes of variable objects, such as active galactic nuclei and variable stars. We quantify our predictions using a fiducial set of observational parameters which are similar to those envisaged for the proposed ULTRASAT mission. We show that such a mission would be able to revolutionize our knowledge about massive star explosions by measuring the early UV emission from hundreds of events, revealing key physical parameters of the exploding progenitor stars. Such a mission would also detect the UV emission from many tens of tidal-disruption events of stars by supermassive black holes at galactic nuclei and enable a measurement of the rate of such events. The overlap of such a wide-field UV mission with existing and planned gravitational-wave and high-energy neutrino telescopes makes it especially timely.

  8. Volcanic hazard map for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahina, T.; Navarro, M.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A volcano hazard study was conducted for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua, based on geological and volcanological field investigations, air photo analyses, and numerical eruption simulation. These volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes of the country. This study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting volcanic hazard map on 1:50,000 scale displays the hazards of lava flow, pyroclastic flows, lahars, tephra fall, volcanic bombs for an area of 1,300 square kilometers. The map and corresponding GIS coverage was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use and is included in a National GIS on Georisks developed and maintained by INETER.

  9. Exploring perturbative conformal field theory in Mellin space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizami, Amin A.; Rudra, Arnab; Sarkar, Sourav; Verma, Mritunjay

    2017-01-01

    We explore the Mellin representation of correlation functions in conformal field theories in the weak coupling regime. We provide a complete proof for a set of Feynman rules to write the Mellin amplitude for a general tree level Feynman diagram involving only scalar operators. We find a factorised form involving beta functions associated to the propagators, similar to tree level Feynman rules in momentum space for ordinary QFTs. We also briefly consider the case where a generic scalar perturbation of the free CFT breaks conformal invariance. Mellin space still has some utility and one can consider non-conformal Mellin representations. In this context, we find that the beta function corresponding to conformal propagator uplifts to a hypergeometric function.

  10. Women's strategic responses to violence in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.
DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.
SETTING—León, Nicaragua.
PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.
MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.
CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.


Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011

  11. Focus Validation of the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansock, J.; Larsen, M.; Shumway, A.; Hacking, P.

    1998-09-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) is a small cryogenic spaceborne infrared telescope being readied for launch in September 1998 as the fifth of NASA's Small Explorers. WIRE illuminates two 128 x 128 Si:As Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) produced by Boeing North American with a 30 cm diameter Ritchey Cretien diamond turned mirror system. A dichroic beam splitter and band-pass filter define two broad pass bands for a deep pointed survey to search for protogalaxies and to study the evolution of starburst galaxies. The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) developed and instrumented ground-based procedures to validate the focus of the WIRE Instrument. The procedures used point source data acquired during ground measurements obtained with a calibration source consisting of an illuminated pinhole near the focus of a cryogenically cooled collimator. Simulated point source measurements were obtained at multiple focus positions by translating the pinhole along the optical axis inside and outside the optimum focus of the collimator. The detector FPAs were moved to positions indicated by the test results. These focus positions were verified by subsequent cold tests using an independent cold collimator. The method and hardware used to obtain focus validation are described and results presented.

  12. [Mental disorders in Nicaragua: family perspective].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-09-01

    In recent years the family perspective in Psychiatry has become more important a factor. Therefore this paper is aimed at examining the family structure of mentally disordered people in León, Nicaragua, as well as presenting the use of a Genogram in epidemiological research. 201 families were randomly selected, whose members were interviewed in two steps: a screening, and a diagnostic stage. The family map or Genogram for each family was analyzed with respect to adult and child cases, generations within the family, and other background variables.

  13. Lunar Dust, Plasma, Waves and Fields Exploration Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travnicek, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight shadow transitions. A detail under-standing of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. Here we present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Fluxgate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

  14. Early childbearing in Nicaragua: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Blandón, Luis; Carballo Palma, Luis; Wulf, Deirdre; Remez, Lisa; Prada, Elena; Drescher, Joanna

    2006-09-01

    (1) Among Nicaraguan women 20-24 years old, six in 10 had entered a union and almost half had had a child before their 20th birthday. (2) A quarter of all births in Nicaragua--35,000 per year--are to 15-19-year-olds. (3) Rural women, who have less education, on average, than their urban counterparts, are more likely than city dwellers to enter a union and become mothers during adolescence. (4) The proportion of 20-24-year-olds who had a child during adolescence is more than twice as high among the poorest as among those in the highest socioeconomic category. (5) Nearly half--45%--of births to adolescent women are unplanned, a level that varies little by women's urban-rural residence and their educational achievement. (6) Among all sexually active women aged 15-19 (in union and not in union), 86% do not want a child in the next two years, and 36% have an unmet need for effective contraception. Unmet need for family planning is equally high in urban and rural areas. (7) The strong link between low educational attainment and early motherhood suggests that improving educational opportunities for girls is a promising way of reducing high levels of adolescent childbearing in Nicaragua.

  15. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the "so called" Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  16. By and for women. Nicaragua's Si Mujer.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In Nicaragua, a group of women physicians and health professionals created an alternative health service for women. "Si Mujer" (Yes Woman), which stands for Integrated Services for Women, provides: 1) gynecologic services (comprehensive check-up, early cancer detection, sterility counseling, and AIDS and sexually transmitted disease [STD] prevention); 2) obstetric services (prenatal care, normal and high-risk pregnancy care, and family planning); 3) counseling (for women, couples, and families, and for victims of sexual violence); and 4) sex education and training (in reproductive health, gynecology, and sexuality). The non-profit organization collects fees according to ability to pay (11% pay nothing) and serves approximately 800 clients per month. Special programs provide services to teenagers and to men. While the training program began as a secondary effort, it is now as important as the direct service provision, with training activities reaching more than 1600 people in the first year through courses on such topics as sexuality, gender and power, AIDS and STD prevention, and cancer prevention. Si Mujer is one of more than 52 women's health centers in Nicaragua that have arisen to fill the gap left by the deterioration of public health services and which apply a gender perspective to the manner in which they approach their clients.

  17. Update on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wright, Edward L.; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Irace, William; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024(sup 2) HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5 resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47' x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 launch vehicle. The WISE survey approach is simple and efficient. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft rotates at a constant rate while the scan mirror freezes the telescope line of sight during each exposure. WISE has completed its mission Preliminary Design Review and its NASA Confirmation Review, and the project is awaiting confirmation from NASA to proceed to the Critical Design phase. Much of the payload hardware is now complete, and assembly of the payload will occur over the next year. WISE is scheduled to launch in late 2009; the project web site can be found at www.wise.ssl.berkeley.edu.

  18. Virtual field trips: exploring a new approach to ocean education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, C.; Bryant, T.

    2003-04-01

    During the past four years with primary support from the National Science Foundation, the University of Delaware College of Marine Studies has launched the "Extreme series" of virtual field trips to get students and the public excited -- and learning -- about science by enabling them to follow along with researchers as they explore hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean. The Extreme series has blossomed from a small pilot project involving about 800 students in 14 schools primarily in Delaware, to a thriving program that last year welcomed aboard more than 500 schools representing over 42,000 students from across the United States and in several foreign countries. Participants range from small, rural schools on American Indian reservations and in the landlocked states of America's "heartland," to large public schools in major coastal cities such as New York and Los Angeles. Each participating teacher receives a resource package containing student guides, curricula, evaluation tools, and a documentary video. During the expedition, an interactive Web site serves as the program's "lifeline." Education coordinators aboard ship -- a UD graduate student and a schoolteacher -- post daily journals, conduct experiments submitted by classrooms, and relay photos and video clips back to shore each day for uploading to the Web site. The project also involves selected classrooms in teleconferences with scientists working live on the seafloor aboard the submersible Alvin. Evaluated for its educational quality and impact, the Extreme series continues to grow and develop with the enthusiastic support of teachers.

  19. Satellite Animation Shows Landfall of Hurricane Otto in Nicaragua

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Nov. 22 to Nov. 25 shows Hurricane Otto moving through the southwestern Caribbean Sea and making landfall in southern Nicaragua on Nov. 24....

  20. Reflections on curative health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Slater, R G

    1989-01-01

    Improved health care in Nicaragua is a major priority of the Sandinista revolution; it has been pursued by major reforms of the national health care system, something few developing countries have attempted. In addition to its internationally recognized advances in public health, considerable progress has been made in health care delivery by expanding curative medical services through training more personnel and building more facilities to fulfill a commitment to free universal health coverage. The very uneven quality of medical care is the leading problem facing curative medicine now. Underlying factors include the difficulty of adequately training the greatly increased number of new physicians. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement continue to be major problems. The curative medical system is not well coordinated with the preventive sector. Recent innovations include initiation of a "medicina integral" residency, similar to family practice. Despite its inadequacies and the handicaps of war and poverty, the Nicaraguan curative medical system has made important progress. PMID:2705603

  1. Episodic Volcanism and Geochemistry in Western Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I.; Carr, M. J.; Gazel, E.; Swisher, C.; Turrin, B.

    2007-12-01

    The active volcanic arc in western Nicaragua is separated from the Miocene arc by a temporal gap in the volcanic record, during which little volcanic material was erupted. Previous work suggested that this gap lasted from 7 to 1.6 Ma, during which volcanic production in Nicaragua was limited or nonexistent. Because the precise timing and duration of this gap has been poorly constrained, recent fieldwork has focused on locating samples that may have erupted close to or even during this apparent hiatus in activity. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dates reveal pulses of low- level episodic volcanism at 7 Ma and 1 Ma between the active and Miocene arcs with current volcanism beginning ~350 ka. In addition, sampling from an inactive area between Coseguina and San Cristobal yielded two distinct groupings of ages; one of Tamarindo age (13 Ma) and the other around 3.5 Ma-the only samples of that age collected on-strike with the active arc. This raises the possibility the bases of the other active volcanoes contain lavas that are older than expected, but have been covered by subsequent eruptions. The Miocene arc differs from the active arc in Central America in several ways, with the latter having higher Ba/La and U/Th values due to increased slab input and changes in subducted sediment composition. Analysis of sample C-51 and others taken from the same area may shed light on the timing of this shift from high to low Ba/La and U/Th values. More importantly, it may help explain why the arc experienced such a dramatic downturn in volcanic production during this time. We also report 25 new major and trace element analyses that shed some light on the origins of these minor episodes of Nicaraguan volcanism. These samples are currently awaiting Sr and Nd isotopic analyses.

  2. Child survival revolutions revisited. Lessons learned from Bangladesh, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Persson, Lars Åke; Rahman, Anisur; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Musafili, Aimable; Hoa, Dinh Phuong

    2017-03-12

    Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multi-sectorial development efforts and community engagement CONCLUSION: Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Socioeconomic factors and vulnerability to outbreaks of leptospirosis in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I; Espinal, Marcos A

    2014-08-15

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the "causes of outbreaks" and "causes of cases".

  4. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  5. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates.

  6. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  7. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  8. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  9. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  10. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  11. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  12. FINESSE Spaceward Bound - Teacher Engagement in NASA Science and Exploration Field Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. J. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Sheely, T.; Karlin, J.; Johnson, S.; Rosemore, A.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Lim, D. S. S.; Garry, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars. The FINESSE science program is infused with leading edge exploration concepts since "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." The FINESSE education and public outreach program leverages the team's field investigations and educational partnerships to share the excitement of lunar, Near Earth Asteroid, and martian moon science and exploration locally, nationally, and internationally. The FINESSE education plan is in line with all of NASA's Science Mission Directorate science education objectives, particularly to enable STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education and leverage efforts through partnerships.

  13. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Hughes, S.; Kobs, S.; Garry, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  14. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Garry, W. B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K. V.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  15. Revolution in Field Science: Apollo Approach to Inaccessible Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.

    2010-07-01

    The extraordinary challenge mission designers, scientists, and engineers, faced in planning the first human expeditions to the surface of another solar system body led to the development of a distinctive and even revolutionary approach to field work. Not only were those involved required to deal effectively with the extreme limitation in resources available for and access to a target as remote as the lunar surface; they were required to developed a rigorous approach to science activities ranging from geological field work to deploying field instruments. Principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work are discussed here, including the highly integrated, intensive, and lengthy science planning, simulation, and astronaut training; the development of a systematic scheme for description and documentation of geological sites and samples; and a flexible yet disciplined methodology for site documentation and sample collection. The capability for constant communication with a ‘backroom’ of geological experts who make requests and weigh in on surface operations was innovative and very useful in encouraging rapid dissemination of information to the greater community in general. An extensive archive of the Apollo era science activity related documents provides evidence of the principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work. The Apollo Surface Journal allows analysis of the astronaut’s performance in terms of capability for traveling on foot, documentation and sampling of field stations, and manual operation of tools and instruments, all as a function of time. The application of these analysis as ‘lessons learned’ for planning the next generation of human or robotic field science activities on the Moon and elsewhere are considered here as well.

  16. Exploring the solar coronal magnetic field using variational calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Ramit; Kumar, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The topological properties of magnetic field has an ubiquitous influence on various energetic processes in the solar atmosphere. For example, the preservation of magnetic topology in a near-ideal magnetofluid characterized by high magnetic Reynolds number is believed to produce discontinuities in an otherwise continuous magnetic field. The subsequent reconnection of magnetic field lines across the corresponding surface of discontinuity is believed to be one of the possible mechanisms to heat the solar corona to its million degree temperature. Any understanding of coronal magnetic field then should involve appropriate topological constraints in their proper physical context. The calculus of variations provides a powerful mathematical tool to include preservation of these constraints in the framework of the problem under consideration. In this work we pose a variational problem based on two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and relevant to the solar corona. The Euler-Lagrange equations obtained are of double curl in nature and support non-zero plasma-beta along with mass flow of the magnetofluid. These equations are solved in Cartesian coordinates utilizing a geometry compatible to the solar atmosphere, and a basic comparative study of the non force-free, force-free, and potential magnetic field obtained as solutions of the same Euler-Lagrange equations is presented.

  17. Effect of hydrothermal circulation on slab dehydration for the subduction zone of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; Harris, Robert N.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of subducting oceanic plates is associated with mantle wedge melting, arc volcanism, intraslab earthquakes through dehydration embrittlement, and the flux of water into the mantle. In this study, we present two-dimensional thermal models of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone to investigate dehydration reactions within the subducting Cocos plate. Seismic and geochemical observations indicate that the mantle wedge below Nicaragua is more hydrated than that below Costa Rica. These trends have been hypothesized to be due to a variation in either the thermal state or the hydration state of the subducting slab. Despite only small variations in plate age along strike, heat flow measurements near the deformation front reveal significantly lower heat flow offshore Nicaragua than offshore Costa Rica. These measurements are interpreted to reflect an along-strike change in the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. We parameterize thermal models in terms of efficient and inefficient hydrothermal circulation and explore their impact on slab temperature in the context of dehydration models. Relative to models without fluid flow, efficient hydrothermal circulation reduces slab temperature by as much at 60 °C to depths of ∼75 km and increases the predicted depth of eclogitization by ∼15 km. Inefficient hydrothermal circulation has a commensurately smaller influence on slab temperatures and the depth of eclogitization. For both regions, the change in eclogitization depth better fits the observed intraslab crustal seismicity, but there is not a strong contrast in the slab thermal structure or location of the main dehydration reactions. Consistent with other studies, these results suggest that observed along-strike differences in mantle wedge hydration may be better explained by a northwestward increase in the hydration state of the Cocos plate before it is subducted.

  18. Bose-Einstein condensates and scalar fields; exploring the similitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, E.; Macías, A.; Núñez, D.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the the remarkable analogy between the classical Klein-Gordon equation for a test scalar field in a flat and also in a curved background, and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped by an external potential. We stress here that the solution associated with the Klein-Gordon equation (KG) in a flat space time has the same mathematical structure, under certain circumstances, to those obtained for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, that is, a static soliton solution. Additionally, Thomas-Fermi approximation is applied to the 3-dimensional version of this equation, in order to calculate some thermodynamical properties of the system in curved a space-time back ground. Finally, we stress the fact that a gravitational background provides, in some cases, a kind of confining potential for the scalar field, allowing us to remarks even more the possible connection between scalar fields and the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation.

  19. Bose–Einstein condensates and scalar fields; exploring the similitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Castellanos, E.; Macías, A.; Núñez, D.

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the the remarkable analogy between the classical Klein–Gordon equation for a test scalar field in a flat and also in a curved background, and the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for a Bose–Einstein condensate trapped by an external potential. We stress here that the solution associated with the Klein–Gordon equation (KG) in a flat space time has the same mathematical structure, under certain circumstances, to those obtained for the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, that is, a static soliton solution. Additionally, Thomas–Fermi approximation is applied to the 3–dimensional version of this equation, in order to calculate some thermodynamical properties of the system in curved a space–time back ground. Finally, we stress the fact that a gravitational background provides, in some cases, a kind of confining potential for the scalar field, allowing us to remarks even more the possible connection between scalar fields and the phenomenon of Bose–Einstein condensation.

  20. Health services reforms in revolutionary Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Taboada, E

    1984-01-01

    Before the Nicaraguan revolution of 1979, access to health services was largely limited to the affluent sectors of the urban population and the minority of workers with social security coverage. Repeated attempts at reform by organized medicine were ineffective. Since the revolution, a tremendous expansion in health services has occurred. The national health system receives approximately one-third of its funds from the social security system. Steadily increasing equity in access is a result of the promotion of primary care, health campaigns involving up to 10 per cent of the general population as volunteers, the use of paramedical aides, and foreign assistance. Private practice nevertheless remains strong. In the coming years, several complex issues must be examined, including: a balance in the number of nurses and doctors trained, the role of private practice, and the relationship of the Ministry of Health to the social security system. Further progress in health reforms may be delayed by the defensive war which Nicaragua is fighting on its northern and southern borders. Despite emergent health problems in the war zones, most of the innovative aspects of the health system remain intact as of this writing. PMID:6476169

  1. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar ‘INTA Rojo’ and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  2. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  3. Moon Exploration from "apollo" Magnetic and Gravity Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, Andrey

    Recently, the great value is given to various researches of the Moon, as nearest nature satellite of the Earth, because there is preparation for forthcoming starts on the Moon of the American, European, Russian, Chinese, Indian new Orbiters and Landers. Designing of International Lu-nar bases is planned also. Therefore, in the near future the series of the questions connected with placing of International Lunar bases which coordinates substantially should to be connected with heterogeneity of the internal structure of the Moon can become especially interesting. If in the Moon it will be possible to find large congestions of water ice and those chemical elements which stocks in the Earth are limited this area of the Moon can become perspective for Inter-national Lunar bases. To solve a question of research of the deep structure of the Moon in the locations of International Lunar bases, competently, without excessive expenses for start new various under the form of the Lunar orbit of automatic space vehicles (polar, equatorial, inclined to the rotation axis) and their altitude of flight, which also not always were connected with investigation programs of measured fields (video observation, radio-frequency sounding, mag-netic, gravity), is possible if already from the available information of space vehicles APOLLO, SMART1, KAGUYA, LCROSS, LRO, CHANDRAYAAN-1, CHANG'E-1 it will be possible to analyse simultaneously some various fields, at different altitudes of measuring over the surface (20-300 km) of the Moon. The experimental data of the radial component magnetic field and gravity field the Moon measured at different altitudes, in its equatorial part have been analysed for the research of the deep structure of the Moon. This data has been received as a result of start of space vehicles -APOLLO-15 and APOLLO-16 (USA), and also the Russian space vehicles "LUNOHOD". Authors had been used the data of a magnetic field of the Moon at flight altitude 160, 100, 75, 30, 0 km

  4. A pocket guide to explorations of the defensin field.

    PubMed

    Selsted, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are among the most ancient effectors of host defense. Intersecting lines of research demonstrate that life forms as diverse as plants, insects, and vertebrates employ antimicrobial peptides to kill or neutralize a wide variety of microbial species. Defensins, of which there are three structural sub-families, constitute a major category of host defense peptides in vertebrates. Presented here is a brief history of the emergence of the defensin field with an emphasis on the role of these peptides in mammalian innate immunity.

  5. Sans Spring Field Exploration Model, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    The existing model for Oligocene volcanic reservoir production in Railroad Valley was expanded with the discovery of oil at Sans Spring field by CENEX, et. al in March, 1993. Prior to drilling the CENEX No. 5-14 Federal (SWNW, section 14, T7N-R56E), economic production had only been established along the east and west borders of the valley, in structures associated with large offset normal faults. The location of Sans Spring field is on an east-west structural high that separates the productive central Railroad Valley sub-basin from the as yet unproductive southern sub-basin. Gravity, regional and detailed conventional 2-D seismic data coverage was employed to define the structure. This geophysical data further suggested that the structure had remained relatively undeformed, providing seal and trap integrity, during the post Oligocene extensional structural development of Railroad Valley. The location also met a critical criterion of being along a potential hydrocarbon migration pathway for oil generated by the Mississippian Chainman shale source rocks. The discovery well found reservoir development in a moderately welded and altered rhyolitic ignimbrite, with an IPF 1253 BOPD. The trap is an angular unconformity, with truncation to the west that has been modified and complicated by cut and fill channeling and faulting. Definition of the structural configuration, fault geometries and offsets has been greatly enhanced with the acquisition of a 3-D seismic survey. However, the data volume does not as yet provide an unambiguous solution to stratigraphic variations.

  6. Magnetotelluric Exploration of the Sipoholon Geothermal Field, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasari, S. W.; Muñoz, G.; Kholid, M.; Suhanto, E.; Ritter, O.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements have been carried out at 96 sites around the Sipoholon Geothermal field, in the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. The Sipoholon geothermal field is a low enthalpy geothermal system located in a pull-apart basin controlled by the Sumatra fault system. One of the main difficulties in understanding this system is an apparently random distribution of temperatures in 15 hot springs in the area. High levels of electromagnetic noise with several high voltage power lines in a densely populated area is challenging for natural source MT measurements. Noise at long periods and in the dead band (1s to 10s) could be removed with robust remote reference processing and high frequency noise could be suppressed with a delay line filter. After dimensionality and directionality analysis of the data, we found a regional strike direction consistent with the Sumatra fault. We present results of 2D inversion of the data along several profiles perpendicular to the main strike direction. Modeling results indicate a shallow (< 1000 m) low resistivity layer, zones of high resistivity at intermediate depths (approximately 500 to 5000 m), and regions of low resistivity in the depth range of 2 to 4 km. These deep zones of low resistivity could be caused by hydrothermal alteration or hydrothermal fluids. The shallow low resistivity correlates spatially with the graben areas of the pull-apart system and is likely associated with (unconsolidated) sedimentary fill.

  7. Eifel field operation campaign supporting Moon Mars and NEO exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Offringa, Marloes

    2016-07-01

    As follow-up on the 2009 Eifel field campaign new field tests with our ExoGeoLab lander were conducted in November 2015 and February 2016. The two phase campaign was used to test the usability of a mock-up lander as test bench for experiments and its remote control in a Moon, Mars analogue environment. In a real mission such a lander could be used in a robotic or manned mission as scientific tool for scientists on Earth to do preliminary study on in-situ collected rocks. This could be useful for example for a sample return mission where scientists on Earth can determine if sample is interesting enough for a more detailed study. The prototype lander is one of the components of the ExoGeoLab project from ESA and ILEWG. Several student projects have prepared the lander for a geological field campaign in lunar and Martian analogue terrain. The lander can be divided in three sections which are used to store several components of the lander. The lower compartment can be used to store a rover or used as laboratory. The middle compartment is used for the lander computer(s), spectrometers and the associated cables. The top plate is used for a telescope which in our case is used to observe the environment around the lander and to guide astronauts during their EVA. As closest volcanic are there is chosen to do the Eifel area, Germany. Several stages of volcanism from Devon till Quaternary resulted in a variation of rocks which is analogue to volcanic rocks from Moon, Mars and other near Earth objects. Several topics we would like to test were pre-defined. Functional tests and demo were performed at European astronaut centre prior to the campaign. The latest updates with respect to the remote control were tested. The pressurised transport vehicle was equipped as remote base for (scientific) support during the campaign. The new instrument set-up were tested and some spectra were measured on collected rocks. The telescope was used to study the environment around the lander

  8. Field flow fractionation techniques to explore the "nano-world".

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia

    2017-04-01

    Field flow fractionation (FFF) techniques are used to successfully characterize several nanomaterials by sizing nano-entities and producing information about the aggregation/agglomeration state of nanoparticles. By coupling FFF techniques to specific detectors, researchers can determine particle-size distributions (PSDs), expressed as mass-based or number-based PSDs. This review considers FFF applications in the food, biomedical, and environmental sectors, mostly drawn from the past 4 y. It thus underlines the prominent role of asymmetrical flow FFF within the FFF family. By concisely comparing FFF techniques with other techniques suitable for sizing nano-objects, the advantages and the disadvantages of these instruments become clear. A consideration of select recent publications illustrates the state of the art of some lesser-known FFF techniques and innovative instrumental set-ups.

  9. Exploration 3-D Seismic Field Test/Native Tribes Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon

    1999-04-27

    To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.

  10. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-10-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of U.S. organizations sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  11. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  12. Nicaragua: The Values, Attitudes and Beliefs of its Educated Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard J.

    The study examines the attitudes of young people in the secondary schools and universities of Nicaragua toward politics, government, religion, education, and work. The report also looks at teacher's attitudes towards education. Over 50 instruments which provide information concerning attitudes, values, and beliefs were sent to random samples of…

  13. Nicaragua: Political-Economy as Communication and Media Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    The Nicaraguan people, through a successful revolution and subsequent elections, have chosen a communist government. This paper, using an historical-descriptive methodology, examines the status of Nicaragua under the current political-economy that prevails in that nation. Political-economic statements made and published in the press that support…

  14. Education in Nicaragua: What Difference Can a Revolution Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sheila

    1987-01-01

    To stimulate development in Nicaragua it was necessary for the Sandinistas to raise the education level of its populace. This was accomplished through a national literacy crusade which decreased the illiteracy rate by 37.1 per cent. The crusade showed the importance of incorporating popular organizations into the process of change. (VM)

  15. Learning from Each Other--Inspiration and Example from Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Audrey

    1993-01-01

    Reviews community development projects in Nicaragua that use the multiplier effect in which people learn from each other. Projects include volunteer community health promoters, women's family gardens cooperatives, soil and water conservation programs, a women's collective, and a wheelchair repair workshop. (SK)

  16. Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

    2004-01-01

    In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

  17. Geology and eruptive mechanisms of Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    Results of detailed geologic field mapping and analysis of eruptive mechanisms at Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua are presented. Eruptions began at least 50,000 and possibly 460,000 y.b.p. The Las Sierras Formation, regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, forms the local basement. A central vent of group or vents in the developing Masaya volcanic complex produced diverse deposits, all of basaltic composition. Eruption of a pyroclastic flow-surge sequence at 2250-6500 y.b.p. culminated in wholesale collapse of a caldera with a volume of 15.3 km/sup 3/. The bulk volume of the ignimbrite is 2.2-3.4 kkm/sup 3/ and the surge deposit is 4.9-5.5 km/sup 3/. Pre-historic lava production rates of 1.9-5.5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//year are similar to rates at other volcanoes but 26-76 times greater than the historic rate of production. The average lava effusion rate of 32 m/sup 3//sec during the 1772 eruption is at least an order of magnitude greater than observed effusion rates at other Central American volcanoes, and helps explain the unusual shield-like morphology of the volcano. Pyroclastic eruptions of several types have played an important role in the evolution of the volcano. Fissure-type eruptions, unknown elsewhere in Central America, have created numerous ash and scoria deposits. Two widespread scoria-fall deposits, locally known as the Fontana Lapilli an San Judas Formation, are the first documented plinian airfall deposts of basaltic composition. The Masaya-type caldera is redefined as a caldera associated with voluminous explosive eruptions of much less than 100 km/sup 3/ of mafic magma from a summit vent.

  18. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  19. Crew Field Notes: A New Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Evans, Cynthia; Eppler, Dean; Gernhardt, Michael; Bluethmann, William; Graf, Jodi; Bleisath, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field tests of 2010 focused on the simultaneous operation of two rovers, a historical first. The complexity and data volume of two rovers operating simultaneously presented significant operational challenges for the on-site Mission Control Center, including the real time science support function. The latter was split into two "tactical" back rooms, one for each rover, that supported the real time traverse activities; in addition, a "strategic" science team convened overnight to synthesize the day's findings, and to conduct the strategic forward planning of the next day or days as detailed in [1, 2]. Current DRATS simulations and operations differ dramatically from those of Apollo, including the most evolved Apollo 15-17 missions, due to the advent of digital technologies. Modern digital still and video cameras, combined with the capability for real time transmission of large volumes of data, including multiple video streams, offer the prospect for the ground based science support room(s) in Mission Control to witness all crew activities in unprecedented detail and in real time. It was not uncommon during DRATS 2010 that each tactical science back room simultaneously received some 4-6 video streams from cameras mounted on the rover or the crews' backpacks. Some of the rover cameras are controllable PZT (pan, zoom, tilt) devices that can be operated by the crews (during extensive drives) or remotely by the back room (during EVAs). Typically, a dedicated "expert" and professional geologist in the tactical back room(s) controls, monitors and analyses a single video stream and provides the findings to the team, commonly supported by screen-saved images. It seems obvious, that the real time comprehension and synthesis of the verbal descriptions, extensive imagery, and other information (e.g. navigation data; time lines etc) flowing into the science support room(s) constitute a fundamental challenge to future mission

  20. Relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields, and particle precipitation as observed by Dynamics Explorer-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Hoffman, R. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Burch, J. L.; Winningham, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields, and particle fluxes are determined using observations from the polar orbiting low-altitude satellite Dynamics Explorer-2. It is shown that the north-south electric field and the east-west magnetic field components are usually highly correlated in the field-aligned current regions. This proportionality observationally proves that the field-aligned current equals the divergence of the height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen current in the meridional plane to a high degree of approximation. As a general rule, in the evening sector the upward field-aligned currents flow in the boundary plasma sheet region and the downward currents flow in the central plasma sheet region. The current densities determined independently from the plasma and magnetic field measurements are compared. Although the current densities deduced from the two methods are in general agreement, the degree and extent of the agreement vary in individual cases.

  1. Relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields and particle precipitation as observed by dynamics Explorer-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Hoffman, R. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Burch, J. L.; Winningham, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields, and particle fluxes are determined using observations from the polar orbiting low-altitude satellite Dynamics Explorer-2. It is shown that the north-south electric field and the east-west magnetic field components are usually highly correlated in the field-aligned current regions. This proportionality observationally proves that the field-aligned current equals the divergence of the height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen current in the meridional plane to a high degree of approximation. As a general rule, in the evening sector the upward field-aligned currents flow in the boundary plasma sheet region and the downward currents flow in the central plasma sheet region. The current densities determined independently from the plasma and magnetic field measurements are compared. Although the current densities deduced from the two methods are in general agreement, the degree and extent of the agreement vary in individual cases.

  2. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  3. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (what, again?): A Senior Field Geologist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    Lunar geological exploration should be founded on key elements that form an integrated operational concept, including mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets, and field tools and IT assets.

  4. Drilling and Automation for Mars Exploration - 3rd Field Test on Devon Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Davis, K.; Glass, B.

    2007-03-01

    The third Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration field test took place inside the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic in July 2006. This season's objective was to demonstrate autonomous drilling capabilities while drilling with a

  5. Global mental health: transformative capacity building in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Sapag, Jaime C.; Herrera, Andrés; Trainor, Ruth; Caldera, Trinidad; Khenti, Akwatu

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health is increasingly recognised as integral to good public health, but this area continues to lack sufficient planning, resources, and global strategy. It is a pressing concern in Latin America, where social determinants of health aggravate existing inequities in access to health services. Nicaragua faces serious mental health needs and challenges. One key strategy for addressing gaps in mental health services is building capacity at the primary healthcare and system levels. Objective Using the framework of best practice literature, this article analyses the four-year collaborative process between the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua in León (UNAN-León) and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Canada, which is aimed at improving mental healthcare in Nicaragua. Design Based on a critical analysis of evaluation reports, key documents, and discussion among partners, the central steps of the collaboration are analysed and main successes and challenges identified. Results A participatory needs assessment identified local strengths and weaknesses, expected outcomes regarding competencies, and possible methodologies and recommendations for the development of a comprehensive capacity-building programme. The partners delivered two international workshops on mental health and addiction with an emphasis on primary healthcare. More recently, an innovative Diploma and Master programme was launched to foster interprofessional leadership and effective action to address mental health and addiction needs. Collaborative activities have taken place in Nicaragua and Canada. Discussion To date, international collaboration between Nicaragua and CAMH has been successful in achieving the jointly defined goals. The process has led to mutual knowledge sharing, strong networking, and extensive educational opportunities. Evidence of effective and respectful global health capacity building is provided. Lessons learned and implications for global

  6. Rehabilitation of Reading and Visual Exploration in Visual Field Disorders: Transfer or Specificity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Susanne; Heywood, Charles A.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Dauner, Ruth; Zihl, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Reading and visual exploration impairments in unilateral homonymous visual field disorders are frequent and disabling consequences of acquired brain injury. Compensatory therapies have been developed, which allow patients to regain sufficient reading and visual exploration performance through systematic oculomotor training. However, it is still…

  7. Temperament in bullheads: do laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables correlate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel

    2009-10-01

    The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead ( Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.

  8. Temperament in bullheads: do laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables correlate?

    PubMed

    Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel

    2009-10-01

    The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead (Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.

  9. Changes in Childhood Diarrhea Incidence in Nicaragua Following 3 Years of Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Dominik, Rosalie; Cao, Hongyuan; Shah, Naman K.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Moreno, Gilberto; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Background While the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the vaccine’s effectiveness under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. In October, 2006, Nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. To assess the impact of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of León, Nicaragua. Methods We extracted data on diarrhea episodes from health ministry records. We used scaled Poisson regression models to estimate diarrhea incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the period following the program’s implementation to the period before implementation. Results Following implementation of the immunization program, diarrhea episodes among infants were reduced (IRR 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–1.02) during the rotavirus season, but appear to have increased during other months. Conclusions While the immunization program appears effective in reducing diarrhea episodes during the rotavirus season, a large burden of diarrhea persists during the remainder of the year. PMID:20881511

  10. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  11. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  12. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  13. Self-Guided Field Explorations: Integrating Earth Science into Students' Lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Kirkby, S.

    2013-12-01

    Self-guided field explorations are a simple way to transform an earth science class into a more pedagogically effective experience. Previous experience demonstrated that self-guided student explorations of museum and aquarium exhibits were both extremely popular and remarkably effective. That success led our program to test an expansion of the concept to include self-guided student explorations in outdoor field settings. Preliminary assessment indicates these self-guided field explorations are nearly as popular with students as the museum and aquarium explorations and are as pedagogically effective. Student gains on post-instruction assessment match or exceed those seen in instructor-assisted, hands-on, small group laboratory activities and completely eclipse gains achieved by traditional lecture instruction. As importantly, self-guided field explorations provide a way to integrate field experiences into large enrollment courses where the sheer scale of class trips makes them logistically impossible. This expands course breadth, integrating new topics that could not be as effectively covered by the original class structure. Our introductory program assessed two models of self-guided field explorations. A walking/cycling exploration of the Saint Anthony Falls area, a mile from campus, focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the geology behind the waterfalls' evolution as well as its subsequent social and economic impacts on human history. A second exploration focuses on the campus area geology, including its building stones as well as its landscape evolution. In both explorations, the goal was to integrate geology with the students' broader understanding of the world they live in. Although the explorations' creation requires a significant commitment, once developed, self-guided explorations are surprisingly low maintenance. These explorations provide a model of a simple, highly effective pedagogical tool that is

  14. A new genus of moss inhabiting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Nicaragua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicaltica new genus and new species (N. selvanegra), from Nicaragua are described and illustrated. Nicaltica is compared to Kiskeya Konstantinov and Chamorro, Monotalla Bechyne, and Normaltica Konstantinov....

  15. Shape evolution of arc volcanoes, a case study of Concepción and Maderas (Nicaragua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.; Mathieu, L.; Cecchi, E.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanoes change shape as they grow due to the interplay of several processes such as eruption style, intrusion, vent migration, erosion, and through the effects of tectonic and gravitational deformation. Their shapes can thus hold clues as to their volcano-tectonic state and their structural evolution. We have recently carried out a study on volcano shape evolution by the morphometric analyses of 115 volcanoes from Central America and the southern Central Andes using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) (Grosse et al., 2009, Geology). The study allowed us to obtain a classification of volcanic edifices (cones, sub-cones, and massifs) and to recognize several evolutionary trends, which seem to be mainly related to magma flux, edifice strength and structural / tectonic conditions. In order to test some of the hypotheses on specific cases, we here explore the morphometric evolution of the two volcanoes that make up the island of Ometepe (Nicaragua), Concepción and Maderas. From basic geological mapping we have a detailed knowledge of the stratigraphy, lithology and architecture of these two volcanoes. Both volcanoes have experienced or are experiencing gravitational spreading, but they differ in that Concepción is a rapidly growing active cone, whereas Maderas is a squat and dormant sub-cone. In addition to the SRTM DEM, we use a higher resolution 30-meter DEM from the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) and combine the morphometric analysis with our field data. We find clear differences in the morphology of the two volcanoes and more subtle variations within discrete sectors of each volcano that are associated with local lava/tephra ratios, the prevailing winds, eruption and erosion rates, and gravitational spreading. The effects of gravitational spreading on the morphometry of the volcanoes are further investigated by comparing with 3-D analogue experiments. This specific case study shows how detailed

  16. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  17. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer 2013 Field Season on the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; Skarke, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    During the 2013 field season, Okeanos Explorer used its suite of state-of-the-art sonars to systematically map and explore our nation's waters off the Atlantic seaboard, specifically the Atlantic Canyons and New England Seamounts. High resolution three dimensional maps created from the ship's sonars were used to select sites for fine-resolution exploration with the new 6000 meter remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Deep Discoverer. Scientists onboard and onshore around the world were actively engaged in all steps of the exploration process, from the identification of broad-scale mapping targets, to the planning and real-time refining of 300 to 1500 meter long planned ROV dive tracks. Live video feeds were available to the general public through the award winning website www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov. Important exploration milestones during the Okeanos Explorer 2013 Field Season include: the completion of comprehensive, high-resolution multibeam mapping of the continental shelf break from Cape Hatteras to the northern U.S. Atlantic offshore border, totaling over 100,000 square kilometers of new seafloor data within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone; the first successful field season of the ROV Deep Discoverer, which conducted over 40 successful dives; and initial mapping site characterization of eight of the outer seamounts of the New England Seamount Chain. All data collected by Okeanos Explorer are available via the NOAA public archives with metadata records within 60 to 90 days of the end of each cruise.

  18. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  19. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project.

  20. Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M C; Peña, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study measured the prevalence, frequency, and severity of physical wife abuse and its risk factors in León, Nicaragua. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 488 women 15 to 49 years of age. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spousal violence was 52% among ever-married women (n = 360). Spousal violence was significantly positively associated with poverty, parity, urban residence, and history of violence in the husband's family. No significant associations were found between spousal violence and women's age, education, marital dependency, or occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Wife abuse constitutes a major public health problem in Nicaragua, requiring urgent measures for prevention and treatment for victims. PMID:9949757

  1. State Approaches Toward Reducing Youth Violence in Honduras and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    their inability to meet the overwhelming monetary demands of gangs.49 Within the last 15 years, Honduran youth gangs have also expanded the types of...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STATE APPROACHES TOWARD REDUCING YOUTH VIOLENCE IN HONDURAS AND NICARAGUA 5...AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or

  2. Learning from the Third World: health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Kugel, C

    1991-01-01

    In this article, Candace Kugel, a family nurse practitioner in Pennsylvania who visited Nicaragua as part of an exchange program, describes her impressions of the country's health care system. Kugel is a member of the Project Gettysburg/Leon, a sister-city program that promotes cultural exchanges. She arrived in Nicaragua less than 2 weeks after the newly elected UNO government assumed power. In Leon, Kugel visited seven rural and urban clinics, the city's hospital, the health education organization, and the medical, dental, and nursing schools. In all health facilities, she discovered politically energized and committed health care workers. It is this determination that allows then to continue working in spite of perpetual shortages of even the most basic supplies. The hospital was out of insulin, and was having to reuse bulb syringes for newborns. One clinic lacked water supply. Kugel also found nurses to be in short supply. As she explains, the physicians outnumber professional nurse 3-1. Because of low salaries, 1 6-day work schedule, and staffing shortages, few are interested in becoming nurses. Furthermore, the nursing school is severely ill-equipped. Nonetheless, Nicaragua's health care system has accomplished health: immunization, family planning, prenatal care, well-child screening, health education, and treating open water for malaria and dengue-bearing mosquitoes. From 1979-88, infant mortality dropped from 93/1000-62/1000, and life expectancy increased from 56-63.3 years. Additionally, Nicaraguans now consider health care a right, not a privilege. Kugel hopes that with the end of the US embargo and the renewal of US aid, Nicaragua will accomplish even more.

  3. Thorough exploration of complex environments with a space-based potential field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenealy, Alina; Primiano, Nicholas; Keyes, Alex; Lyons, Damian M.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic exploration, for the purposes of search and rescue or explosive device detection, can be improved by using a team of multiple robots. Potential field navigation methods offer natural and efficient distributed exploration algorithms in which team members are mutually repelled to spread out and cover the area efficiently. However, they also suffer from field minima issues. Liu and Lyons proposed a Space-Based Potential Field (SBPF) algorithm that disperses robots efficiently and also ensures they are driven in a distributed fashion to cover complex geometry. In this paper, the approach is modified to handle two problems with the original SBPF method: fast exploration of enclosed spaces, and fast navigation of convex obstacles. Firstly, a "gate-sensing" function was implemented. The function draws the robot to narrow openings, such as doors or corridors that it might otherwise pass by, to ensure every room can be explored. Secondly, an improved obstacle field conveyor belt function was developed which allows the robot to avoid walls and barriers while using their surface as a motion guide to avoid being trapped. Simulation results, where the modified SPBF program controls the MobileSim Pioneer 3-AT simulator program, are presented for a selection of maps that capture difficult to explore geometries. Physical robot results are also presented, where a team of Pioneer 3-AT robots is controlled by the modified SBPF program. Data collected prior to the improvements, new simulation results, and robot experiments are presented as evidence of performance improvements.

  4. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  5. Geo hazard studies and their policy implications in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    Nicaragua, situated at the Central American Subduction zone and placed in the trajectory of tropical storms and hurricanes, is a frequent showplace of natural disasters which have multiplied the negative effects of a long term socioeconomic crisis leaving Nicaragua currently as the second poorest country of the Americas. In the last years, multiple efforts were undertaken to prevent or mitigate the affectation of the natural phenomena to the country. National and local authorities have become more involved in disaster prevention policy and international cooperation boosted funding for disaster prevention and mitigation measures in the country. The National Geosciences Institution (INETER) in cooperation with foreign partners developed a national monitoring and early warning system on geological and hydro-meteorological phenomena. Geological and risk mapping projects were conducted by INETER and international partners. Universities, NGO´s, International Technical Assistance, and foreign scientific groups cooperated to capacitate Nicaraguan geoscientists and to improve higher education on disaster prevention up to the master degree. Funded by a World Bank loan, coordinated by the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Attention (SINAPRED) and scientifically supervised by INETER, multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability studies were carried out between 2003 and 2005 with emphasis on seismic hazard. These GIS based works provided proposals for land use policies on a local level in 30 municipalities and seismic vulnerability and risk information for each single building in Managua, Capital of Nicaragua. Another large multidisciplinary project produced high resolution air photos, elaborated 1:50,000 vectorized topographic maps, and a digital elevation model for Western Nicaragua. These data, integrated in GIS, were used to assess: 1) Seismic Hazard for Metropolitan Managua; 2) Tsunami hazard for the Pacific coast; 3) Volcano hazard for Telica

  6. 76 FR 44648 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nicaragua

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nicaragua Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Div. F... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Nicaragua and I hereby waive such restriction....

  7. Literacy Crusades and Revolutionary Governments: The Cases of Cuba, 1961, and Nicaragua, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, William

    After the Castro revolution of 1959, the new Cuban revolutionary government began a massive literacy campaign that taught 700,000 persons to read in about a year. Twenty years later, Nicaragua, facing an even more serious literacy problem, conducted a similar literacy campaign. In approximately six months, Nicaragua had reduced illiteracy by 37…

  8. Mid Miocene volcanism in Nicaragua and implications for the formation of the Nicaraguan Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Nicaragua contains Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression consisting of portions of the Coyol Formation to the East and the Tamarindo Formation to the West. The Tamarindo Formation is a narrow band of basaltic to andesitic lavas interlayered with thick ignimbrite deposits and volcaniclastic sediments that parallel Nicaragua’s Pacific coast to the west of the modern volcanic front with ages from 14.7-11.7 Ma. The Coyol represents primarily Miocene volcanism from 25-7 Ma and lies east of the active front. The presence of Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression has led to speculation that the two coeval units, which are currently separated by almost 100km, were once connected and have since been separated by extension. Here, we present data that show the Tamarindo and Coyol are geochemically distinct and therefore cannot be considered part of the same unit. First, the Tamarindo has lower La/Yb values than Coyol, which suggests that the Tamarindo was formed by a higher degree of partial melting, assuming that mantle source compositions are similar for both units. In addition, the Tamarindo has higher Zr/Nb values than Coyol, which are indicative of High Field Strength Element (HFSE) depletion common in arc volcanics. Because the degree of partial melting and HFSE depletion is expected to increase towards the trench, both Tamarindo’s La/Yb and Zr/Nb values are consistent with its being emplaced closer to the trench than Coyol and the presence of these two units of Mid-Miocene age on opposite sides of the Nicaraguan Depression cannot be used as proof of significant extension. In addition, currently available data do not show the significant crustal thinning and large-scale structural surface features that would be expected if the Tamarindo and Coyol were once connected and later separated by extension. Fault displacement along the Nicaraguan Depression is insufficient to accommodate this extension and

  9. Exploring Intersubjectivity between Student Teachers and Field Instructors in Student Teaching Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soslau, Elizabeth Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Student teachers are learners of teaching and emerging collaborative practitioners preparing to join school-based professional learning communities. Using situative learning theory, this 16-week multiple-case study explored whether necessary conditions were satisfied within field instructor-led conferences towards the goal of helping student…

  10. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Susan K.; Beyer, Katherine M.; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to…

  11. Research on the Field of Education Policy: Exploring Different Levels of Approach and Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Tello, César

    2016-01-01

    This paper, of theoretical nature, explores the levels of approach and abstraction of research in the field of education policy: description, analysis and understanding. Such categories were developed based on concepts of Bourdieu's theory and on the grounds of epistemological studies focused on education policy and meta-research. This paper…

  12. Inequality and Doctoral Education: Exploring the "Rules" of Doctoral Study through Bourdieu's Notion of Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…

  13. Student Conscientiousness, Self-Regulated Learning, and Science Achievement: An Explorative Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie; Zeidner, Moshe; Aharon, Irit

    2009-01-01

    This explorative field study examined the mediating role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the relationship between the personality trait of conscientiousness, SRL, and science achievement in a sample of junior high school students. Over the course of an entire academic year, data on enacted SRL were collected each week for 52 eighth-grade…

  14. Population History and Mitochondrial Genetic Substructure of the Rama Amerindians from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Norberto F; Crawford, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    The Rama are a coastal population from southern Nicaragua who in large part were able to resist, at least for a time, the cultural changes and social reorganization brought on by colonial and modern influences. Historical information leaves the Rama origins and biological relationships with nearby extinct and extant groups ambiguous. The objective of this study was to examine the internal genetic microdifferentiation based on the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of approximately 20% of the population, and to expand the few available historical and anthropological data on the Rama by exploring the effects of cultural practices and historical events on genetic structure, providing an integrative perspective on the Rama genetic history. When considering differences in the spatial distribution and genetic diversity of the mtDNA haplotypes together with historical information on the Rama, a noteworthy pattern emerges. (a) Haplotypes are differentially distributed among a central Rama community (Punta Águila) compared with the other five peripheral communities (analysis of molecular variance: FCT = 0.10, p < 0.001), and their distribution is consistent with the historical relocation of this population after their split from Punta Gorda in the 18th century. (b) Differential genetic signatures found among central and peripheral Rama communities resemble two population histories: one of stability (haplogroup A2) and other of expansion (haplogroup B2), supporting the possibility that these patterns of genetic microdifferentiation between central and peripheral populations resulted from the 18th-century unification in southern Nicaragua of the Rama and a group of Voto migrants from Costa Rica that later split off and moved to the Bay of Bluefields.

  15. Field Immune Assessment during Simulated Planetary Exploration in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Lee, Pascal; Stowe, Raymond; Jones, Jeff; Effenhauser, Rainer; Widen, Raymond; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during space flight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions has yet to be established. In addition, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of field-compatible clinical immunology techniques and equipment. In July 2002 NASA performed a comprehensive field immunology assessment on crewmembers participating in the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) on Devon Island in the high Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate mission-associated effects on the human immune system, as well as to evaluate techniques developed for processing immune samples in remote field locations. Ten HMP-2002 participants volunteered for the study. A field protocol was developed at NASA-JSC for performing sample collection, blood staining/processing for immunophenotype analysis, wholeblood mitogenic culture for functional assessments and cell-sample preservation on-location at Devon Island. Specific assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution; constitutively activated T cells, intracellular cytokine profiles and plasma EBV viral antibody levels. Study timepoints were L-30, midmission and R+60. The protocol developed for immune sample processing in remote field locations functioned properly. Samples were processed in the field location, and stabilized for subsequent analysis at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The data indicated that some phenotype, immune function and stress hormone changes occurred in the HMP field participants that were largely distinct from pre-mission baseline and post-mission recovery data. These immune changes appear similar to those observed in Astronauts following spaceflight. The sample processing protocol developed for this study may have applications for immune assessment during

  16. The Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field, NM: An Analog for Exploring Planetary Volcanic Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, near Grants, New Mexico, is comprised of volcanic deposits from several basaltic eruptions during the last million years. This vent field exhibits a diverse group of coalesced lava flows and displays well-preserved volcanic features including a’a and pahoehoe flows, collapsed lava tubes, cinder cones and low shields. The McCartys flow is a 48-km long inflated basalt flow and is the youngest in the field at around 3000 years old. Over the last three years we have used the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, and the McCartys flow in particular, as a terrestrial analog for exploring planetary volcanic fields, and understanding the role of lava sheet inflation in flow field development. We have conducted three different styles of analog tests, 1) basic field science focused on understanding lava sheet inflation, 2) mission operations tests related to EVA design and real-time modification of traverse plans, and 3) science enabling technology tests. The Zuni-Bandera field is an ideal location for each style of analog test because it provides easy access to a diverse set of volcanic features with variable quality of preservation. However, many limitations must also be considered in order to maximize lessons learned. The McCartys flow displays well-preserved inflation plateaus that rise up to 15 m above the surrounding field. The preservation state enables textures and morphologies indicative of this process to be characterized. However, the pristine nature of the flow does not compare well with the much older and heavily modified inflated flows of Mars and the Moon. Older flows west of McCartys add value to this aspect of analog work because of their degraded surfaces, development of soil horizons, loose float, and limited exposure of outcrops, similar to what might be observed on the Moon or Mars. EVA design tests and science enabling technology tests at the Zuni-Bandera field provide the opportunity to document and interpret the relationships

  17. Gravity survey of marine field: Case study for Silurian reef exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Heigold, P.C.; Whitaker, S.T. )

    1989-08-01

    A gravity survey conducted over and around Marine field in southwestern Illinois has been used as an example to show how measurement of the local gravity field can aid in the search for Silurian reefs in the Illinois basin. Acquisition parameters for gravity surveys over Silurian reefs should be calculated beforehand from simple models of the reef based on estimates of density contrasts, depths, and size. Residual and derivative mapping techniques generally enhance gravity anomalies and enable more accurate portrayals of the structural relief on buried reefs. The second vertical derivative map of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly surface at Marine field compares very well with the structure of the reef as mapped from subsurface data. This study indicates that similar mapping techniques could be effective on other reefs throughout the Illinois basin. Although gravity mapping methods are potentially powerful exploration tools in themselves, the writers believe that their proper role is as a part of a more comprehensive exploration approach. Gravity surveys can be used effectively as an initial exploration method in reef-prone areas to define smaller, prospect-size areas in which more intensive exploration techniques can subsequently be focused.

  18. Exploring the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. II. New magnetic field measurements in cluster and field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Ilyin, I.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Oskinova, L. M.; Langer, N.; González, J. F.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Briquet, M.; Magori Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Context. Theories on the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars remain poorly developed, because the properties of their magnetic field as function of stellar parameters could not yet be investigated. Additional observations are of utmost importance to constrain the conditions that are conducive to magnetic fields and to determine first trends about their occurrence rate and field strength distribution. Aims: To investigate whether magnetic fields in massive stars are ubiquitous or appear only in stars with a specific spectral classification, certain ages, or in a special environment, we acquired 67 new spectropolarimetric observations for 30 massive stars. Among the observed sample, roughly one third of the stars are probable members of clusters at different ages, whereas the remaining stars are field stars not known to belong to any cluster or association. Methods: Spectropolarimetric observations were obtained during four different nights using the low-resolution spectropolarimetric mode of FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS 2) mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT. Furthermore, we present a number of follow-up observations carried out with the high-resolution spectropolarimeters SOFIN mounted at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and HARPS mounted at the ESO 3.6 m between 2008 and 2011. To assess the membership in open clusters and associations, we used astrometric catalogues with the highest quality kinematic and photometric data currently available. Results: The presence of a magnetic field is confirmed in nine stars previously observed with FORS 1/2: HD 36879, HD 47839, CPD-28 2561, CPD-47 2963, HD 93843, HD 148937, HD 149757, HD 328856, and HD 164794. New magnetic field detections at a significance level of at least 3σ were achieved in five stars: HD 92206c, HD 93521, HD 93632, CPD-46 8221, and HD 157857. Among the stars with a detected magnetic field, five stars belong to open clusters with high membership probability. According to

  19. Optimal path-finding through mental exploration based on neural energy field gradients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihong; Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Yating

    2017-02-01

    Rodent animal can accomplish self-locating and path-finding task by forming a cognitive map in the hippocampus representing the environment. In the classical model of the cognitive map, the system (artificial animal) needs large amounts of physical exploration to study spatial environment to solve path-finding problems, which costs too much time and energy. Although Hopfield's mental exploration model makes up for the deficiency mentioned above, the path is still not efficient enough. Moreover, his model mainly focused on the artificial neural network, and clear physiological meanings has not been addressed. In this work, based on the concept of mental exploration, neural energy coding theory has been applied to the novel calculation model to solve the path-finding problem. Energy field is constructed on the basis of the firing power of place cell clusters, and the energy field gradient can be used in mental exploration to solve path-finding problems. The study shows that the new mental exploration model can efficiently find the optimal path, and present the learning process with biophysical meaning as well. We also analyzed the parameters of the model which affect the path efficiency. This new idea verifies the importance of place cell and synapse in spatial memory and proves that energy coding is effective to study cognitive activities. This may provide the theoretical basis for the neural dynamics mechanism of spatial memory.

  20. Telepresence in the human exploration of Mars: Field studies in analog environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the role of telepresence in performing exploration of Mars. As part of an effort to develop telepresence to support Mars exploration, NASA is developing telepresence technology and using it to perform exploration in space analog environments. This paper describes experiments to demonstrate telepresence control of an underwater remotely operated vehicle (TROV) to perform scientific field work in isolated and hostile environments. Toward this end, we have developed a telepresence control system and interfaced it to an underwater remotely operated vehicle. This vehicle was used during 1992 to study aquatic ecosystems in Antarctica including a study of the physical and biological environment of permanently ice-covered lake. We also performed a preliminary analysis of the potential for using the TROV to study the benthic ecology under the sea ice in McMurdo sound. These expeditions are opening up new areas of research by using telepresence control of remote vehicles to explore isolated and extreme environments on Earth while also providing an impetus to develop technology which will play a major role in the human exploration of Mars. Antarctic field operations, in particular, provide an excellent analog experience for telepresence operation in space.

  1. Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachón, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga

    2009-01-01

    Background Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Results Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. Conclusion This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub

  2. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (What, Again?): A Senior Field Geologist's Integrated View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar surface geological exploration should be founded on a number of key elements that are seemingly disparate, but which can form an integrated operational concept when properly conceived and deployed. If lunar surface geological exploration is to be useful, this integration of key elements needs to be undertaken throughout the development of both mission hardware, training and operational concepts. These elements include the concept of mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets that are matched with mission class, and field tools and IT assets that make data collection, sharing and archiving transparent to the surface crew.

  3. The plasma wave and quasi-static electric field instrument /PWI/ for dynamics Explorer-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Odem, D. L.; Helliwell, R. A.; Park, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that the Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) on Dynamics Explorer-A measures both plasma wave phenomena and quasi-static electric fields. The quasi-static electric fields are measured parallel to the spin axis of the spacecraft in a range of 2 mV/m to 2 V/m and perpendicular to the spin axis 0.5 mV/m to 2 V/m at 16 samples/s. The ac electric field sensors include a 200-m tip-to-tip long wire antenna and a 0.6-m short electric antenna, both of which are perpendicular to the spin axis, and a 9-m tip-to-tip tubular antenna parallel to the spin axis. AC electric wave fields are measured over a frequency range of 1 Hz to 2 MHz and over an amplitude range of 0.03 microvolt/m to 100 mV/m.

  4. New Frontiers in Ocean Exploration: The 2010 E/V NAUTILUS Field Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. L.; Ballard, R. D.; Coleman, D. F.; Roman, C.; Brennan, M.; Turanli, T.; Carey, S.; Nomikou, P.; Vougioukalakis, G.; Mayer, L. A.; Nicolaides, S.; Konnaris, K.; Shank, T. M.; Austin, J. A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Phillips, B.

    2010-12-01

    In the summer of 2010, the Exploration Vessel NAUTILUS undertook a four-month expedition to the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas. The primary goal of the NAUTILUS is to create a focus of international leadership for the development and integration of leading-edge technologies, educational programs, field operations, and public outreach programs for ocean exploration, in partnership with NOAA, the National Geographic Society, Office of Naval Research, and other sponsors. To do so, the program uses a complement of deep submergence vehicle systems and “telepresence” technologies to engage scientists, educators and the public, both at sea and ashore, allowing them to become integral members of the on-board exploration team. When discoveries are made, experts ashore are notified and brought aboard virtually within a short period of time to help guide our response actions before the ship moves on. We are currently in the middle of our field season, and have already made several discoveries of note. Ten new shipwrecks have been discovered in Turkish waters, ranging in age from Hellenistic to Byzantine. Many of these archaeological sites have been mapped using high-resolution multibeam, stereo imaging, and/or structured light imaging. In the southern Aegean Sea, seventeen of nineteen of the submarine volcanic cones of the Kolumbo Rift Zone have been explored for the first time. The hydrothermal vent field, crater walls, and flanks of Kolumbo underwater volcano have been mapped with sidescan sonar and sampled. In addition, a large debris avalanche field on the eastern flanks of Santorini volcano has been mapped with sidescan sonar, and explored and sampled using ROVs. Sidescan and ROV investigations on Eratosthenes Seamount in the eastern Mediterranean have revealed karst topography with sinkholes up to 50m in diameter and 12m deep atop the seamount, as well as vent/seep communities with populations of tube worms, bivalves, crabs, and bacteria on the slopes. Two

  5. GSFC magnetic field experiment Explorer 43. [describing magnetometer, data processor, and telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seek, J. B.; Scheifele, J. L.; Ness, N. F.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic field experiment flown on Explorer 43 is described. The detecting instrument is a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer which is mounted on a boom with a flipping mechanism for reorienting the sensor in flight. An on-board data processor takes successive magnetometer samples and transmits differences to the telemetry system. By examining these differences in conjunction with an untruncated sample transmitted periodically, the original data may be uniquely reconstructed on the ground.

  6. Geology of oil fields and future exploration potential in west African Aptian Salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.D.; Edwards, A.D.

    1987-05-01

    The Aptian Salt basin of west Africa, extends from Equatorial Guinea southward to Angola, contains recoverable reserves estimated at nearly 4 billion BOE, and is current producing 600,000 BOPD. The basin developed as a result of tensional forces between west Africa and South America initiated at the end of the Jurassic. The prospective sedimentary sequences ranged in age from Early Cretaceous (uppermost Jurassic in places) to Holocene and is divided by the Aptian transgressive sand and salt into a pre-salt, nonmarine, syn-rift sequence and a post-salt, marine, post-rift sequence. Both the pre- and post-salt sequences contain several successful exploration plays, the most prolific of which are the Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstone fields in tilted fault blocks of Gabon and Cabinda; Early Cretaceous carbonate buildups on the margins of basement highs in Cabinda; Early Cretaceous transgressive marine sandstone fields in anticlines draped over basement highs in Gabon; Late Cretaceous shallow marine sandstone and carbonate fields in salt-related structures in the Congo, Zaire, Cabinda, and Angola; Late Cretaceous dolomites in structural/stratigraphic traps in Angola; Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary deltaic/estuarine sandstone traps formed by salt movement in Gabon, Cabinda, and angola; and Tertiary marine turbidite fields in Cabinda and Angola. Despite the exploration success in these trends, much of the basin is under or poorly explored. The major problems for exploration are the poor quality of seismic definition beneath the salt, which makes it difficult to predict pre-salt structure and stratigraphy, and the importance of a stratigraphic element in many of the post-salt traps, also difficult to detect on seismic.

  7. Cruise ships and bush medicine: Globalization on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and effects on the health of Creole women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Emma McKim; Steeves, Richard; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Global health research into the relationship between health, economic inequalities, and globalization is necessary to address increasing health disparities in low income countries. Nicaragua has high levels of poverty and extreme poverty when compared with other Central and South American Countries. Design Photovoice and ethnographic research methods were used to explore health experiences of Creole women in Bluefields, Nicaragua and the intersections between culture, socioeconomic status, and gender. Sample Twelve Creole women participants, ages 18–45. Measurements After initial focus groups, participants used disposable cameras to document health experiences. Follow up interviews were conducted about the meaning of each photo. Participants then selected photos to be included in a city-wide photoshow. Results In initial focus groups, participants described great distress over changes they perceived in Creole culture and how these changes affect the health of the next generation. Participants related most of these changes to the economy and globalization. Photos taken were primarily of aspects of Creole culture, including household practices and traditional remedies from Creole culture. Conclusions Findings on the relationships between culture, disease and community-identified health risks in this minority population can help healthcare providers and public health policy makers develop and sustain culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:24766610

  8. Cryogenic Telescope, Scanner, and Imaging Optics for the Wide-field Imaging Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, Mark; Akerstrom, A.; Barry, M.; Guregian, J.; LaMalva, F.; Laquidara, P.; Perron, G.; Sampath, D.; Ugolini, V.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) instrument includes a cryogenic telescope, scanner, and imaging optics module. Component fabrication, mirror polishing, and prototype scanner cryogenic testing are complete for these subassemblies, and assembly is in process. The telescope is a 40 cm aperture reflecting five-mirror imager/collimator relay that provides 8X demagnification, a 47 x 86 arcminute field of regard, and a real exit pupil for scanning. It also provides distortion control to better than one part in a thousand to prevent image blur during internal scanning. A single-axis scan mirror at the exit pupil scans the detectors' field of view across the telescope field of regard, countering the orbital motion and freezing the line of sight during the multi-second exposure period. The imaging optics module is a five-mirror re-imager with dichroic beamsplitters that separate the energy into four infrared channels between 2.8 and 26 microns. All modules operate below 17 Kelvin. The all-reflective system uses aluminum mirrors and metering structures. L-3 Communications SSG-Tinsley is designing and building the telescope, scanner, and imaging optics module under contract to the Space Dynamics Laboratory. WISE is a MIDEX mission within NASA's Explorers Program.

  9. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Susan K.; Beyer, Katherine M.; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to research scientists. The Shaw Institute for Field Training (SIFT) program combines introductory field-skills training with research assistance opportunities, and the subsequent Tyson Environmental Research Fellowships (TERF) program provides immersive internships on university field station–based research teams. In a longitudinal mixed-methods study grounded in social cognitive career theory, changes in youth perspectives were measured during program progression from 10th grade through college, evaluating the efficacy of encouraging career path entry. Results indicate SIFT provided self-knowledge and career perspectives more aligned with reality. During SIFT, differences were found between SIFT-only participants compared with those who progressed to TERF. Transition from educational activities to fieldwork with scientists was a pivotal moment at which data showed decreased or increased interest and confidence. Continuation to TERF provided deeper relationships with role models who gave essential early-career support. Our study indicates the two-stage apprenticeship structure influenced persistence in pursuit of an environmental research career pathway. Recommendations for other precollege environmental career–exploration programs are presented. PMID:27909017

  10. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Susan K; Beyer, Katherine M; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to research scientists. The Shaw Institute for Field Training (SIFT) program combines introductory field-skills training with research assistance opportunities, and the subsequent Tyson Environmental Research Fellowships (TERF) program provides immersive internships on university field station-based research teams. In a longitudinal mixed-methods study grounded in social cognitive career theory, changes in youth perspectives were measured during program progression from 10th grade through college, evaluating the efficacy of encouraging career path entry. Results indicate SIFT provided self-knowledge and career perspectives more aligned with reality. During SIFT, differences were found between SIFT-only participants compared with those who progressed to TERF. Transition from educational activities to fieldwork with scientists was a pivotal moment at which data showed decreased or increased interest and confidence. Continuation to TERF provided deeper relationships with role models who gave essential early-career support. Our study indicates the two-stage apprenticeship structure influenced persistence in pursuit of an environmental research career pathway. Recommendations for other precollege environmental career-exploration programs are presented.

  11. Health-related outcomes of war in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Frieden, T; Vermund, S H

    1987-01-01

    Since 1983, war in Nicaragua has slowed improvements in health which had developed rapidly from 1979-82. The rate of war-related deaths among Nicaraguans now exceeds that of the United States citizens in either the Vietnam War or World War II. Forty-two of the 84 documented war-related casualties among Nicaraguan health workers have been deaths. This high case fatality rate reflects the targeting of health workers by contra troops. The number of staff and services of the public medical system decreased by approximately 10 per cent from 1983 to 1985. Population movements, the establishment of new settlements, and war-related destruction of the primary health infrastructure are associated with recent epidemics of malaria, dengue, measles, and leishmaniasis. The estimated rate of infant mortality in Nicaragua, which had declined from 120 per 1,000 in 1978 to 76/1,000 live births in 1983, has since shown no further decline. Internationally mandated protections enjoyed by civilians and health workers during times of war do not appear to operate in this so-called "low intensity" conflict. Further declines in infant mortality, prevention of epidemics, and improvement in other health indicators will likely await the cessation of military hostilities. PMID:3565659

  12. Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sandiford, P; Pauw, J; Morales, P; Pérez, R M; Alberts, H

    1998-12-01

    Poor hygiene practices are among the risk factors for the transmission of childhood diarrhea, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Findings are reported from a prospective follow-up study in rural Nicaragua of the effect of a number of hygiene practices upon diarrheal disease in children under age 2 years old. 172 families, of whom half had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhea in their children and the other half a lower rate, participated. Hygiene behavior was observed over 2 mornings and diarrhea incidence was recorded with a calendar over the course of 5 months. Of 46 good practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhea, 5 were unrelated, and a higher risk was observed for 2. The washing of hands, domestic cleanliness, and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect against diarrhea. Mothers with more than 3 years of primary school education and in a comparatively better economic position, including having a radio, exhibited comparatively better general hygiene behavior. Education had a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. However, individual hygiene behavior seems to be highly variable compared to the consistent behavior of the overall community. Appropriate indicators of hygiene behavior were domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child.

  13. Interplanetary boundary layers at 1 AU. [magnetic field measurements from Explorer 34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lemaire, J. F.; Turner, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The structure and nature of discontinuities in the interplanetary magnetic field at 1 AU in the period March 18, 1971 to April 9, 1971, is determined by using high-resolution magnetic field measurements from Explorer 34. The discontinuities that were selected for this analysis occurred under a variety of interplanetary conditions at an average rate of 0.5/hr. This set does not include all discontinuities that were present, but the sample is large and it is probably representative. Both tangential and rotational discontinuities were identified, the ratio of TD's to RD's being approximately 3 to 1. Tangential discontinuities were observed every day, even among Alfvenic fluctuations. The structure of most of the boundary layers was simple and ordered, i.e., the magnetic field usually changed smoothly and monotonically from one side of the boundary layer to the other.

  14. Applications of exploration technologies to reservoir prediction and management -- Field examples of South-East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Allen, G.; Madaoui, K.; Gouadain, J.; Kremer, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes how modern geoscience techniques, developed for a large part in intensive exploration programs, can be used at the field level to improve reservoir prediction and production planning and also to optimize recovery. Detailed sedimentological studies has allowed the authors to determine the environment of the reservoir formations and help define the likely shape and size of individual sands and refine the reservoir model. An illustration is given by fields located in the Mahakam delta area of Kalimantan (Handil, Tunu) and in the Gulf of Thailand (Bongkot). Sequence stratigraphy assists in identifying efficient regional seals which, at field scale, lead to the recomposition of a great number of individual sands (several hundreds in some cases) into fewer flow units, making the system manageable from a reservoir standpoint. This technology was used extensively to delineate the giant Peciko gas field of Indonesia. The geophysical approach of reservoir parameters and the use of seismic attributes are rapidly expanding. The Yadana gas field in the Gulf of Martaban (Myanmar) is a case in point to show how porosities can be determined from impedances obtained by seismic inversion techniques. An example from the Bongkot field shows how 3D seismic and direct hydrocarbon indication technology (DHI) are used to deal with complex faulting to optimize deviated well profiles and improve recoveries.

  15. The power of research exploration within education: lessons from an international field hydrology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Najm, M. R.; Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Lane, J. W.; Casanova, F.; Arumí, J.; Rivera, D.

    2011-12-01

    Educating the next generation of scientists requires new educational methods and unconventional approaches to facilitate the interdisciplinary scholarship required to cope with fast-paced developments in the geosciences. We believe incorporation of field training with active research missions is an effective educational model. By participating in active research and open science dialogue, students are exposed to real-world examples of the principles and processes of complex systems in a manner that allows them to develop a deeper understanding of the subject. We find students are highly motivated by the knowledge that data they collect will advance the research mission; such an environment stokes their passions and imaginations and allows the students to explore the roots of their interest in geoscience. In this context, a two-week educational field course on hydrologic processes and measurements was integrated with ongoing research in Chile to understand the effect of soil shrinkage and swelling properties on watershed hydrologic response. Students witnessed the iterative process of field-experiment design and became part of science in the making. They experienced the complexity of field work and developed problem-solving skills through the myriad of challenges presented in the acquisition of field data in a remote area. All of these factors contributed to an atmosphere of creativity that led to an outstanding research and educational experience. We find the coupling of field training with active research to be extremely rewarding, and time- and cost-effective education in this fast-paced and cost-cautious age.

  16. GlyphSea: Interactive Exploration of Seismic Wave Fields Using Shaded Glyphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, E.; Chourasia, A.; Minster, J. H.; Schulze, J.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake simulations produce large vector fields that raise challenging visualization issues. Prior visualization strategies have typically focused on slices and volumetric rendering of scalar fields, which limits the scope of observable phenomena. We present a new interactive glyph visualization application called "GlyphSea" that allows exploration of seismic velocity fields. This work draws from a large body of glyph rendering techniques to focus on time-dependent seismic vector fields. Glyphs are capable of encoding multivariate data into a concise visual representation, which can be interpreted easily. However, that they occupy a large amount of display space, a severe drawback when dealing with dense data sets. We demonstrate how shading and texturing glyphs can alleviate this issue and provide insight into the data. We show that proper shading, positioning, scaling, and context techniques reveal features of the wave fields which are not immediately noticeable through standard vector and scalar visualization approaches. Visualization is further enhanced by using screen space ambient occlusion, jitter, halos, and displacement. These techniques are flexibly interchanged with a realtime, fully interactive, cross platform software system that runs on workstations and laptops alike. Successful design decisions stemming from collaboration between domain experts in visualization and seismology highlight the substantial benefits of interactive displays. GlyphSea used to visualize a point source simulation. This result is created interactively and shows the full time series evolution with multiple glyph types and directional cues.

  17. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua: A Key Mars Analog Environment for Acid-Sulfate Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.

    2007-07-01

    Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, is being investigated as an analog for acid-sulfate weathering of Mars-like basalts. Our goal is to better understand the mineral alteration pathways and the astrobiological potential of early Mars.

  18. The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; McLean, Ian S.; Bauer, James M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Stern, Daniel; Vacca, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of six Y dwarfs also Cushing et al.), eighty-nine T dwarfs, eight L dwarfs, and one M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types > or =T6, six of which have been announced earlier in Mainzer et al. and I3urgasser et al. We present color-color and colortype diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. "

  19. Flat field response of the microchannel plate detectors used on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Gibson, J. L.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vedder, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flat field calibrations of two of the flight detectors to be flown on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) are presented. Images of about 40 million detected events binned 512 by 512 are sufficient to show microchannel plate fixed pattern noise such as hexagonal microchannel multifiber bundle interfaces, 'dead' spots, edge distortion, and differential nonlinearity. Differences due to photocathode material and dependencies on EUV wavelength are also described. Over large spatial scales, the detector response is flat to better than 10 percent of the mean response, but, at spatial scales less than 1 mm, the variations from the mean can be as large as 20 percent.

  20. A Framework to Explore the Knowledge Structure of Multidisciplinary Research Fields

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shahadat; Khan, Arif; Baur, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emerging areas of a multidisciplinary research field is crucial for researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders. For them a knowledge structure based on longitudinal bibliographic data can be an effective instrument. But with the vast amount of available online information it is often hard to understand the knowledge structure for data. In this paper, we present a novel approach for retrieving online bibliographic data and propose a framework for exploring knowledge structure. We also present several longitudinal analyses to interpret and visualize the last 20 years of published obesity research data. PMID:25915521

  1. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  2. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama

    PubMed Central

    Condit, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country. PMID:26214182

  3. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    PubMed

    Condit, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  4. Field experiments on solar geoengineering: report of a workshop exploring a representative research portfolio

    PubMed Central

    Keith, David W.; Duren, Riley; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize a portfolio of possible field experiments on solar radiation management (SRM) and related technologies. The portfolio is intended to support analysis of potential field research related to SRM including discussions about the overall merit and risk of such research as well as mechanisms for governing such research and assessments of observational needs. The proposals were generated with contributions from leading researchers at a workshop held in March 2014 at which the proposals were critically reviewed. The proposed research dealt with three major classes of SRM proposals: marine cloud brightening, stratospheric aerosols and cirrus cloud manipulation. The proposals are summarized here along with an analysis exploring variables such as space and time scale, risk and radiative forcing. Possible gaps, biases and cross-cutting considerations are discussed. Finally, suggestions for plausible next steps in the development of a systematic research programme are presented. PMID:25404684

  5. Field experiments on solar geoengineering: report of a workshop exploring a representative research portfolio.

    PubMed

    Keith, David W; Duren, Riley; MacMartin, Douglas G

    2014-12-28

    We summarize a portfolio of possible field experiments on solar radiation management (SRM) and related technologies. The portfolio is intended to support analysis of potential field research related to SRM including discussions about the overall merit and risk of such research as well as mechanisms for governing such research and assessments of observational needs. The proposals were generated with contributions from leading researchers at a workshop held in March 2014 at which the proposals were critically reviewed. The proposed research dealt with three major classes of SRM proposals: marine cloud brightening, stratospheric aerosols and cirrus cloud manipulation. The proposals are summarized here along with an analysis exploring variables such as space and time scale, risk and radiative forcing. Possible gaps, biases and cross-cutting considerations are discussed. Finally, suggestions for plausible next steps in the development of a systematic research programme are presented.

  6. Exploring two-field inflation in the Wess-Zumino model

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mulryne, David J. E-mail: Nikolaos.Mavromatos@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-05-01

    We explore inflation via the effective potential of the minimal Wess-Zumino model, considering both the real and imaginary components of the complex field. Using transport techniques, we calculate the full allowed range of n{sub s}, r and f{sub NL} for different choices of the single free parameter, v, and present the probability distribution of these signatures given a simple choice for the prior distribution of initial conditions. Our work provides a case study of multi-field inflation in a simple but realistic setting, with important lessons that are likely to apply more generally. For example, we find that there are initial conditions consistent with observations of n{sub s} and r for values of v that would be excluded if only evolutions in the real field direction were to be considered, and that these may yield enhanced values of f{sub NL}. Moreover, we find that initial conditions fixed at high energy density, where the potential is close to quartic in form, can still lead to evolutions in a concave region of the potential during the observable number of e-folds, as preferred by present data. The Wess-Zumino model therefore provides an illustration that multi-field dynamics must be taken into account when seeking to understand fully the phenomenology of such models of inflation.

  7. Exploring the efficacy of different electric field models in driving a model of the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, A. J.; Dodger, A. M.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamics of the plasmasphere are strongly controlled by the inner magnetospheric electric field. In order to capture realistically the erosion of the nightside plasmapause and the formation of the drainage plume in a model of the plasmasphere, the electric field must be accurate. This study investigates how well five different electric field models drive the Dynamic Global Core Plasma Model during eight storm periods. The five electric field models are the Volland-Stern analytic formula with Maynard-Chen Kpdependence, two versions of the Weimer statistical models (96 and 05), and two versions of the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) technique using magnetometer and DMSP satellite data. Manually extracted plasmapause locations from images taken by the EUV instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite, as described by Goldstein et al. (2005), were compared to the simulation results throughout the main phase of the eight events. Three methods of calculating the plasmapause were employed to determine the best fit to EUV data, using the maximum gradient, a constant density contour (fit method), and the location in which the modeled density fell significantly below the specified saturation density for the given radial position (saturation method). It was found that the simulations driven by the Weimer (1996) model produced the best fit overall and that the fit and saturation methods worked best for matching the model results to the observations.

  8. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization into lunar/Mars exploration through field analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables, and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For example, the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for ascent vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review the

  9. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization Into Lunar/Mars Exploration Through Field Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gerald

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into useful products such as propellants, life support and power system consumables, and radiation and rocket exhaust plume debris shielding, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, has the potential to significantly reduce the launch mass, risk, and cost of robotic and human exploration of space. The incorporation of ISRU into missions can also significantly influence technology selection and system development in other areas such as power, life support, and propulsion. For ex-ample, the ability to extract or produce large amounts of oxygen and/or water in-situ could minimize the need to completely close life support air and water processing system cycles, change thermal and radiation protection of habitats, and influence propellant selection for as-cent vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review

  10. Seeking Signs of Life in Nili Patera with Icelandic Sinter Field Exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skok, J. R.; Farmer, J. D.; Parente, M.; Gaskin, J.; Kaasalainen, H.; Tobler, D.; Jerman, G.

    2015-12-01

    The past decade of Martian orbital and surface exploration has made it clear that the planet could have supported life as we know it in many places throughout much of it's history. The next step in exploration will be to find the evidence for and characterize any preserved Martian life. The jump from confirming habitability to finding life will be difficult and likely require a systemic surface exploration of multiple, specific sites. One site, the sinter mounds of the Nili Patera caldera, provides the ideal combination of hot, neutral to alkaline waters that can develop or support life and the sinter precipitation to preserve it. Nili Patera also provides deposits that are well mapped from orbit allowing a mission to pinpoint the target rocks. With this target known, we can develop the mission, the payload and the science to fit the goals. Several sinter field sites in Iceland were selected for mission testing. They were selected to provide diversity in scale, chemistry and complexity. At each site, we asked the same questions that would drive a mission to Mars. Was there life? What are its preserved properties? What are the environmental history of the sinters and the volcanic history of the local terrain? These questions were investigated with spectral, compositional and morphological analysis. By investigating these questions in Iceland, we will determine which observations, in terms of terrain access and instrument selection are required for mission success on Mars. We report the results from the August 2015 expedition, the first of two planned field seasons. This summer was focused on finalizing the field locations, acquiring mapping data and an initial sampling campaign to determine expected composition and calibrate instruments for year two. With this information, we will determine an investigation plan consistent with a range of mission types from robotic lander to sample return to human exploration. We will also determine the instruments required by the

  11. Interhousehold meat sharing among Mayangna and Miskito horticulturalists in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Koster, Jeremy

    2011-12-01

    Recent analyses of food sharing in small-scale societies indicate that reciprocal altruism maintains interhousehold food transfers, even among close kin. In this study, matrix-based regression methods are used to test the explanatory power of reciprocal altruism, kin selection, and tolerated scrounging. In a network of 35 households in Nicaragua's Bosawas Reserve, the significant predictors of food sharing include kinship, interhousehold distance, and reciprocity. In particular, resources tend to flow from households with relatively more meat to closely related households with little, as predicted by kin selection. This generalization is especially true of household dyads with mother-offspring relationships, which suggests that studies of food sharing may benefit from distinctions between lineal and collateral kin. Overall, this analysis suggests that exchanges among kin are primarily associated with differences in need, not reciprocity. Finally, although large game is distributed widely, qualitative observations indicate that hunters typically do not relinquish control of the distribution in ways predicted by costly signaling theory.

  12. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  13. Using potential field data for petroleum exploration targeting, Amadeus Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentith, Mike; Cowan, Duncan

    2011-09-01

    The Amadeus Basin, a large Proterozoic basin located in central Australia, is one of the least explored onshore petroleum-bearing basins with proven reserves in Australia. The size and remoteness of the Amadeus Basin makes ground exploration expensive so this study uses aerogravity and aeromagnetic data to assess petroleum prospectivity. In the western part of the Amadeus Basin the Gillen Petroleum System is considered most significant; this system has the important characteristic that the source in the Bitter Springs Formation is stratigraphically higher than the potential reservoirs within the Dean/Heavitree Quartzite. Thin skinned deformation is expected at the source level and above, with detachments at evaporitic horizons, but deformation of the reservoir is expected to be thick-skinned. This model can form the basis for predicting potential field responses. The most prospective areas are where: (i) gravity suggests basement (and reservoir) is shallow; (ii) magnetics maps fold-thrust complexes (structural trap); and (iii) these features occur adjacent to gravity lows, indicative of significant thicknesses of basin fill (source at depth and below reservoir). Faults at the margins of the depocentre (mapped using magnetic data) provide a possible migration path for the hydrocarbons. Favourable scenarios for younger petroleum systems are antiforms in fold-thrust complexes in units assigned to the Boord Formation and younger units. The juxtaposition of these structures with depocentres suggested by negative gravity anomalies constitutes a favourable exploration scenario. Regardless of specific exploration targets, this study demonstrates that airborne gravity and magnetic data are capable of resolving intra-basin structures in sufficient detail to allow prospective areas to be identified and for follow-up seismic surveys to be reliably planned.

  14. Hinode magnetic-field observations of solar flares for exploring the energy storage and trigger mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Toshifumi; Inoue, Satoshi; Kawabata, Yusuke

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares abruptly release the free energy stored as a non-potential magnetic field in the corona and may be accompanied by eruptions of the coronal plasma. Magnetic reconnection is considered as a physical process in which the magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and particle acceleration, but the location of magnetic reconnection is difficult to identify directly because of low emission measure at the reconnection region. We are still lack of observational knowledge on the 3D magnetic configuration and physical conditions for leading to flare trigger. Accurate measurements of vector magnetic fields at the solar photosphere, provided by the Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode, help us in exploring how the free energy is stored in the solar atmosphere and how the release of the energy is triggered. This presentation will review the magnetic field configuration and possible candidates for flare trigger primarily based on Hinode observations of some large flare events, which may include X5.4/X1.3 flares on 7 March 2012, X1.2 flare on 7 January 2014 and two M-class flares on 2 February 2014. The 7 March 2012 events were observed in an active region with delta-type sunspots, showing a strong shear in the entire magnetic system. For the sheared magnetic structure, the inclusion of a small-scale trigger field was identified near the polarity inversion line with excitation of a high-speed material flow in the horizontally oriented magnetic field formed nearly in parallel to the polarity inversion line. The observations suggest that gas dynamics at the solar surface play a vital role of leading to the onset of flares. The 7 January 2014 event is an exceptional event which most scientists would not be able to predict its occurrence. The flare unexpectedly happened apart from the sheared magnetic field region. The M-class flares on 2 February 2014 were observed in the magnetic field configuration, in which four magnetic domains were

  15. Mid-Max field: A piece of the Silurian-Devonian exploration puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Entzminger, D.J.; Basham, W.L. ); Gonzales, E. )

    1992-04-01

    The Mid-Max field, Andrews County, Texas, provides an example for the exploration and development of subtle stratigraphic targets in the Permian basin. The integration of all available data, including seismic, log, core, and engineering data, is essential in this mature area as the search for hydrocarbons turns toward subtle structural and stratigraphic prospects. The Mid-Max field, on the Central basin platform, is a Silurian reef. Seismic data support the geologic interpreation of Woodford Shale thinning over a Silurian high, a Silurian to Fusselman thick, and the presence of a relatively flat Fusselman reflector beneath the Silurian high. Whole cores and rotary sidewall cores from the field contain stromatoporoids, corals, algal stromatolites, crinoidal grainstones and other reef elements. The reservoir is predominantly dolomite with porosity and permeability being variable and controlled by the presence of lime mud, fracturing, and diagenesis. The 26-29 API gravity sour crude produced at Mid-Max field is atypical of Siluria-Devonian oils, which commonly are sweet crudes of 35 to 45 API gravity. This atypical oil is explained by the mixing of two types of Woodford-sourced oils and biodegradation. Tectonism appears to have played a minor role in the formation of the Mid-Max field, unlike the conventional faulted-anticline prospects in the Silurian-Devonian of the Permian basin. Although modern common-depth-point seismic data and a dry Silurian test exited over the Mid-Max prospect prior to drilling, these illusive traps commonly are misinterpreted or overlooked, which would suggest that there might be similar subtle Silurian prospects elsewhere in the Permian basin.

  16. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region of a pattern referred to as 'horse-collar' aurora (Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use the Dynamics Explorer data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager, while at the same time DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. Our analysis shows that, in general, there is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. In many instances, over scales ranging from tens to a few hundred kilometers, electron precipitation features and upward field-aligned currents are observed at locations where the plasma flow gradients indicate negative V-average x E. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  17. Flow Web: a graph based user interface for 3D flow field exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijie; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    While there have been intensive efforts in developing better 3D flow visualization techniques, little attention has been paid to the design of better user interfaces and more effective data exploration work flow. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based user interface called Flow Web to enable more systematic explorations of 3D flow data. The Flow Web is a node-link graph that is constructed to highlight the essential flow structures where a node represents a region in the field and a link connects two nodes if there exist particles traveling between the regions. The direction of an edge implies the flow path, and the weight of an edge indicates the number of particles traveling through the connected nodes. Hierarchical flow webs are created by splitting or merging nodes and edges to allow for easy understanding of the underlying flow structures. To draw the Flow Web, we adopt force based graph drawing algorithms to minimize edge crossings, and use a hierarchical layout to facilitate the study of flow patterns step by step. The Flow Web also supports user queries to the properties of nodes and links. Examples of the queries for node properties include the degrees, complexity, and some associated physical attributes such as velocity magnitude. Queries for edges include weights, flow path lengths, existence of circles and so on. It is also possible to combine multiple queries using operators such as and , or, not. The FlowWeb supports several types of user interactions. For instance, the user can select nodes from the subgraph returned by a query and inspect the nodes with more details at different levels of detail. There are multiple advantages of using the graph-based user interface. One is that the user can identify regions of interest much more easily since, unlike inspecting 3D regions, there is very little occlusion. It is also much more convenient for the user to query statistical information about the nodes and links at different levels of detail. With

  18. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level

  19. Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization Into Lunar/Mars Exploration Through Field Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    vehicles and surface propulsive hoppers. While concepts and even laboratory work on evaluating and developing ISRU techniques such as oxygen extraction from lunar regolith have been going on since before the Apollo 11 Moon landing, no ISRU system has ever flown in space, and only recently have ISRU technologies been developed at a scale and at a system level that is relevant to actual robotic and human mission applications. Because ISRU hardware and systems have never been demonstrated or utilized before on robotic or human missions, architecture and mission planners and surface system hardware developers are hesitant to rely on ISRU products and services that are critical to mission and system implementation success. To build confidence in ISRU systems for future missions and assess how ISRU systems can best influence and integrate with other surface system elements, NASA, with international partners, are performing analog field tests to understand how to take advantage of ISRU capabilities and benefits with the minimum of risk associated with introducing this game-changing approach to exploration. This paper will describe and review the results of four analog field tests (Moses Lake in 6/08, Mauna Kea in 11/08. Flagstaff in 9/09; and Mauna Kea in 1/10) that have begun the process of integrating ISRU into robotic and human exploration systems and missions, and propose future ISRU-related analog field test activities that can be performed in collaboration with international space agencies.

  20. Binocular Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss and Its Impact on Visual Exploration - A Supermarket Study

    PubMed Central

    Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as “passed” or “failed” with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p<0.001). Furthermore, patients who passed the task showed a significantly higher number of glances towards the visual field defect (VFD) area than patients who failed (t-test, p<0.05). According to these results, glaucoma patients with defects in the binocular visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a “time-effective” compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task. PMID:25162522

  1. Managing the Development of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irace, William; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Greanias, George; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Royer, Donald; Wright, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission, is surveying the entire sky in four bands from 3.4 to 22 microns with a sensitivity hundreds to hundreds of thousands times better than previous all-sky surveys at these wavelengths. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm three-mirror anastigmatic telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 6" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). WISE was placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta II 7320 launch vehicle on December 14, 2009. NASA selected WISE as a MIDEX in 2002 following a rigorous competitive selection process. To gain further confidence in WISE, NASA extended the development period one year with an option to cancel the mission if certain criteria were not met. MIDEX missions are led by the principal investigator who in this case delegated day-to-day management to the project manager. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it was essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This was accomplished with an integrated management team representing all key partners and disciplines. The project was developed on budget and on schedule in spite of the need to surmount significant technical challenges. This paper describes our management approach, key challenges and critical decisions made. Results are described from a programmatic, technical and scientific point of view. Lessons learned are offered for projects of this type.

  2. Ground characterization of the Wide-field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, John C.; Larsen, Mark F.; Peterson, James Q.; Sargent, Steven D.

    1998-11-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) is a small cryogenic spaceborne infrared telescope being readied for launch in September 1998 as the fifth of NASA's Small Explorers. WIRE utilizes two 128 X 128 Si:As Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) produced by Boeing North American with a 30 cm diameter Ritchey Cretien diamond turned mirror system. This mission takes advantage of recent advances in infrared array detector technology to provide a large sensitivity gain over previously flown missions. Two broad pass bands are defined for a deep pointed survey to search for protogalaxies and to study the evolution of starburst galaxies. The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) used the multifunction infrared calibrator and other special purpose cryogenic equipment to perform a ground characterization of the WIRE instrument. The focus was verified cold with two independent measurements. Both in-band and out-of-band Relative Spectral Response measurements were made; some sensitivity to temperature, bias voltage, and location on the long wavelength focal plane array were found. Dark current and dark noise measurements are also reported.

  3. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  4. Geophysical Investigations of Magma Plumbing Systems at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    Cerro Negro near Leon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6--7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive density anomalies beneath Cerro Negro and Las Pilas-El Hoyo. These findings suggest that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping a large magma reservoir beneath Las Pilas-El Hoyo, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest vent on the Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcanic complex. As such, it is possible that the intensity of volcanic hazards at Cerro Negro may eventually increase in the future to resemble those pertaining to a stratovolcano. Keywords: Cerro Negro; Las Pilas-El Hoyo; Bouguer gravity; magmatic plumbing systems; potential fields; volcano.

  5. INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER MEASUREMENTS AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE VICINITY OF THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Zank, Gary P.; Borovikov, Sergey N.; Frisch, Priscilla C.; McComas, David J. E-mail: jh0001@uah.edu E-mail: snb0003@uah.edu E-mail: DMcComas@swri.edu

    2011-12-01

    The combination of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) all-sky maps of the energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes with the Voyager in situ measurements provides a unique opportunity to learn about the physics governing the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. The first IBEX results revealed a sky-spanning 'ribbon' of unexpectedly intense emissions of ENAs that had not been predicted previously by any physical model. A number of explanations were proposed to explain the IBEX ribbon, some of them associated with the distribution of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) coupled with the interplanetary magnetic field at the heliopause. The position of the ribbon in the sky correlates with the line-of-sight directions perpendicular to the modeled ISMF. In this paper, we analyze such distributions for a variety of ISMF strengths and directions in order to reveal the topology of the surface that may potentially contain the ENA sources creating the ribbon. We also analyze the distributions of total pressure exerted on the heliopause as a result of its draping by the ISMF. The effects of solar cycle variations on the ribbon topology are discussed.

  6. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  7. Evaluation of evaporite facies as a tool for exploration, Yates Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, A.W.; Warren, J.K.

    1987-05-01

    Evaporites have long been recognized as the most efficient reservoir seal; however, the seal can itself serve as an exploration tool to locate subtle stratigraphic traps. By analogy with modern environments, thick massive evaporites form subaqueously in ponds (salinas) in topographic lows while sabkhas form on the subaerially exposed supratidal zone on topographic highs. Recognition of evaporite facies distribution can delineate paleotopography where sabkhas form a seal over local highs and closure is provided by salinas forming a lateral seal in lows. These relationships are illustrated by the giant Yates field (2 billion bbl reserves), situated at the southern tip of the Central basin platform in the Permian basin. The seal over the Yates reservoir (San Andres formation) is formed by the evaporites at the base of the Seven Rivers Formation (Guadalupian). Within the evaporite, two distinct depositional facies are recognized: a massive, salina-anhydrite in the central and western parts of the field; and on the east, stacked sabkha sequences consisting of sandy dolomite overlying a sharp base, grading into nodular anhydrite and capped by an erosional surface. The depositional topography on the underlying San Andres reservoir controlled the facies distribution in the basal Seven Rivers. Carbonate buildups formed on the eastern side of the field, while interbedded shales and dolomites accumulated in the quiet lagoonal waters behind. Due to dewatering and compaction during early burial, the lagoons remained topographically low until early Seven Rivers time when they were finally filled with salina evaporites. The rigid shelf margin buildups remained as topographic highs over which sabkhas developed. Only 10% of the production has come from the lagoonal muds under the salinas, while 90% has been produced from the carbonate buildups under the sabkhas.

  8. Geology Field Camp at Southern Illinois University: Six weeks exploring four tectonic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, S. A.; Conder, J. A.; Ferre, E. C.; Heij, G.

    2013-12-01

    Field Geology is typically the capstone course for an undergraduate Bachelor of Science degree in Geology. This type of course brings together the varied sub-disciplines and course topics students encounter in their undergraduate experience, and puts these in context of active Earth processes. At the same time, a significant fraction of Geology departments have dropped field geology from their offerings and students must choose from those programs still offering the course. Southern Illinois University has offered field geology for over 40 years, stationed in and around southwestern Montana. This field camp offers experiences with four distinct tectonic settings: thick-skin contractional, thin-skin contractional, extensional, and anorogenic. The most challenging projects of the course involve mapping and interpreting Laramide and Sevier compressionally deformed areas. The major difference between the two types of deformation is that Laramide ('thick-skinned') tectonics encompasses the mid-crust in deformation while Sevier ('thin-skinned') deformation is limited to the uppermost portion of the crust. This difference results in markedly different fold styles and other deformational structures encountered, requiring different approaches to understanding and constructing the deformational histories of the regions. Extensional tectonics are explored with a paleoseismology project at Hebgen Lake, in Grand Teton National Park where the students typically spend two days, and at the Bitterroot Shear Zone - the edge of a metamorphic core complex along the eastern boundary of the Idaho batholith. While recent work from EarthScope and elsewhere casts doubt on Yellowstone as a mantle plume, Yellowstone remains the classic example of a continental hotspot. During visits through the park, students distinguish between the recent volcanics and hydrothermal activity of Yellowstone and the nearby Eocene Absaroka volcanics. Expanding on the story of the Yellowstone hotspot, a visit is

  9. 78 FR 39259 - Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers exported from Nicaragua to the... the one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber trousers. Section 1634(c)(2) of the Pension... exports of cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers entered under the TPL, Nicaragua would export to...

  10. Nicaragua: an example of commitments and strengths despite problems of poverty.

    PubMed

    Ross, Carl A

    2007-01-01

    Nicaragua is located in the middle of the Central American isthmus between the countries of Honduras and Costa Rica. It is the largest Central American country and is equivalent in size to the state of Georgia. Nicaragua is cited by Pan American Health Organization as one of the poorest third-world countries. One factor that continues to contribute to Nicaragua's chronic poverty state is the demographics of the country. Nearly half of all Nicaraguans are under 15 years of age, and more than a quarter are between the ages of 15 and 29 years. Only a quarter of the population is over 30 years of age. Beyond the hardship and poverty, there is a country rich in beauty. Nicaragua has a beautiful countryside with lush green mountains, black sand beaches of the Pacific Ocean, and the natural wonder of active volcanoes. It is easy to become engulfed by the tranquility of these surroundings and to steer away from the harsh conditions of the country. It is, however, a temporary escape from reality, for it was the hardships and unfavorable circumstances of this country that are never forgotten and which persist until today. This article focuses on a variety of interventions used to assist Nicaragua with their health care and state of well-being.

  11. May 2011 eruption of Telica Volcano, Nicaragua: Multidisciplinary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, M. R.; Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Roman, D. C.; Rodgers, M.; Muñoz, A.; Morales, A.; Tenorio, V.; Chavarria, D.; Feineman, M. D.; Furman, T.; Longley, A.

    2011-12-01

    Telica volcano, an andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Nicaragua, erupted in May 2011. The eruption, produced ash but no lava and required the evacuation of over 500 people; no injuries were reported. We present the first detailed report of the eruption, using information from the TElica Seismic ANd Deformation (TESAND) network, that provides real-time data, along with visual observations, ash leachate analysis, and fumarole temperature measurements. Telica is located in the Maribios mountain range. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua and has frequent small explosions and rare large (VEI 4) eruptions, with the most recent sizable eruptions (VEI 2) occurring in 1946 and 1999. The 2011 eruption is the most explosive since 1999. The eruption consisted of a series of ash explosions, with the first observations from May 8, 2011 when local residents reported ash fall NE of the active crater. Popping sounds could be heard coming from the crater on May 10. On May 13, the activity intensified and continued with some explosions every day for about 2 weeks. The well-defined plumes originated from the northern part of the crater. Ash fall was reported 4 km north of the active crater on May 14. The largest explosion at 2:54 pm (local time) on May 21 threw rocks from the crater and generated a column 2 km in height. Fresh ash samples were collected on May 16, 18, and 21 and preliminary inspection shows that the majority of the material is fragmented rock and crystalline material, i.e. not juvenile. Ash leachates (ash:water = 1:25) contain a few ppb As, Se, and Cd; tens of ppb Co and Ni; and up to a few hundred ppb Cu and Zn. Telica typically has hundreds of small seismic events every day, even when the volcano is not erupting. The TESAND network detected an increase in the rate and magnitude of seismic activity, with a maximum magnitude of 3.3. Elevated fumarole temperatures at locations near the active vent were also observed throughout the May 2011

  12. The Psychological Impact of First Burn Camp in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa L; Castillo Alaniz, Arlen Tatiana; Lucia Icaza, Ivette; Alejandra Murillo, Evelyn

    Asociacion Pro-Ninos Quemados de Nicaragua (APROQUEN) is a comprehensive burn center that provides a holistic and integrated approach to treating burns. APROQUEN has set the standards internationally with acute treatment for burns, intensive care, reconstructive surgeries, nutritional care, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological treatment. APROQUEN is excelling within Central and South America with life-saving techniques and quality of care. It is imperative that burn centers in Central America recognize that the treatment of a child with a burn injury surpasses physical care to include psychological treatment for the complete well-being of the child. It is necessary to provide the tools necessary to reintegrate the child back into their environment. APROQUEN developed and implemented the first burn camp in Latin America, "Confio en Mi" (I trust myself). The camp theme focused on self-esteem. The camp program included theory (educational) and practice (applied) components where the campers through "classroom type" activities had the opportunity to reflect and share with other campers and camp staff on self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Participants were children who survived major burns (N = 33; 58% women; ages 12-25; 61% <18) and were shown to have difficulty socializing. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to ensure fit for camp. Forty-two percent of the campers had not slept away from home since the burn injury. Mean TBSA = 20% and mean age at time of burn injury was 13. The majority of campers (46%) endured flame burn injuries, with 24% having scald injuries. Mean years postburn = 4.8 + 3.2. Most campers (40%) were enrolled in secondary school, 30% in elementary school, and 21% in college. Standardized measures (CDI-2 Parent Form and Child Form, Rosenberg Scale, APROQUEN Burn Camp Measure Parent and Child Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory) were given to all campers prior to attending camp. The same measures

  13. 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Robotic Field Geologists for a Mars Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed in Gusev crater on Jan. 4, 2004 and the rover Opportunity arrived on the plains of Meridiani Planum on Jan. 25, 2004. The rovers continue to return new discoveries after 4 continuous Earth years of operations on the surface of the red planet. Spirit has successfully traversed 7.5 km over the Gusev crater plains, ascended to the top of Husband Hill, and entered into the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills. Opportunity has traveled nearly 12 km over flat plains of Meridiani and descended into several impact craters. Spirit and Opportunity carry an integrated suite of scientific instruments and tools called the Athena science payload. The Athena science payload consists of the 1) Panoramic Camera (Pancam) that provides high-resolution, color stereo imaging, 2) Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) that provides spectral cubes at mid-infrared wavelengths, 3) Microscopic Imager (MI) for close-up imaging, 4) Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) for elemental chemistry, 5) Moessbauer Spectrometer (MB) for the mineralogy of Fe-bearing materials, 6) Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) for removing dusty and weathered surfaces and exposing fresh rock underneath, and 7) Magnetic Properties Experiment that allow the instruments to study the composition of magnetic martian materials [1]. The primary objective of the Athena science investigation is to explore two sites on the martian surface where water may once have been present, and to assess past environmental conditions at those sites and their suitability for life. The Athena science instruments have made numerous scientific discoveries over the 4 plus years of operations. The objectives of this paper are to 1) describe the major scientific discoveries of the MER robotic field geologists and 2) briefly summarize what major outstanding questions were not answered by MER that might be addressed by returning samples to our laboratories on Earth.

  14. New Frontiers in Ocean Exploration: The 2011 E/V NAUTILUS Field Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. L.; Ballard, R. D.; Coleman, D. F.; Roman, C.; Brennan, M. L.; Turanli, T.; Duman, M.; Carey, S.; Nomikou, P.; Marani, M.; Rosi, M.; Austin, J. A.; Canals, M.; Karson, J.; Mayer, L. A.; Makovsky, Y.; Scientific Team of the 2011 Nautilus Expedition

    2011-12-01

    In the summer of 2011, the Exploration Vessel NAUTILUS is undertaking a four-month expedition to the Black, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, and North Atlantic Ocean. The primary goal of the NAUTILUS is to create a focus of international leadership for the development and integration of leading-edge technologies, educational programs, field operations, and public outreach programs for ocean exploration, in partnership with NOAA, National Geographic Society, Office of Naval Research, and other sponsors. To do so, the program uses a complement of deep submergence vehicle systems and "telepresence" technologies to engage scientists, educators and the public, both at sea and ashore, allowing them to become integral members of the on-board exploration team. When discoveries are made, experts ashore are notified and brought aboard virtually within a short period of time to help guide shipboard response before the ship moves on. The 2011 expedition is currently in progress, and is comprised of eight areas of interest. Extensive sidescan mapping is taking place off the Turkish coasts of the Black and Aegean Seas, and will be followed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives on targets of archaeological, geological and biological interest. In the Black Sea, additional work on the porewater chemistry of the sediments in the oxic, suboxic and anoxic zones will take place. High-resolution multibeam, stereo imaging and structured light mapping, as well as sediment and water sampling, will be carried out at two locations in the Hellenic Volcanic Arc, the Kolumbo underwater volcano and deep Cretan Basin. We will also carry out transects on the unexplored slopes of the volcanic Christianna Domes, located near Santorini volcano. We will use ROVs equipped with MAPRs and ORP sensors to search for and investigate hydrothermal activity on seamounts and other suspected venting sites in the Aeolian Arc and Straits of Sicily. In the western Mediterranean, the submarine canyons and Mazarron

  15. A qualitative study on primary health care professionals’ perceptions of mental health, suicidal problems and help-seeking among young people in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people’s mental health problems, suicidal problems and help–seeking behaviour. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach. Results This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems. Conclusion PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people’s willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people. PMID:24989871

  16. Reactive plume chemistry and links to mercury deposition at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, Roland; Donohoue, Deanna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Witt, Melanie; Mather, Tamsin

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes are known to emit significant quantities of gases and trace metals including mercury. Some of these gases are involved in very fast reaction cycles in the atmosphere. This is especially true for chlorine and bromine which destroy ozone catalytically and also oxidise elemental gaseous mercury. Oxidised mercury is soluble and can be taken up by particles which can potentially increase the deposition of toxic mercury near the volcano. In order to quantify these processes we conducted a field campaign at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua in March/April 2011. We measured gaseous S, F, Cl, Br, I, total gaseous mercury and particulate mercury and particle size distributions near the crater rim and at a site ~ 2.5 km downwind fumigated by the plume. We also measured BrO and SO2 near the crater rim and at two distances downwind by U.V. spectroscopy. The BrO/SO2 ratio was clearly elevated downwind compared to near-crater showing that reaction cycles to produce BrO are efficient on timescales of less than 10min. Changes in the mercury speciation (i.e., increased proportions of particulate Hg) were also observed at the downwind site, consistent with the links between reactive halogens and mercury discussed above. A one-dimensional model was used to simulate the evolution of the volcanic emissions in the atmosphere, the comparison with the field data showed good model skill at reproducing the chemical processes. Details of the field data and the model results will be discussed.

  17. Wave fields and spectra of Rayleigh waves in poroelastic media in the exploration seismic frequency band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yixian; Xia, Jianghai

    2012-12-01

    A better understanding of the influences of different surface fluid drainage conditions on the propagation and attenuation of surface waves as the stipulated frequency is varied is a key issue to apply surface wave method to detect subsurface hydrological properties. Our study develops three-dimensional dynamical Green's functions in poroelastic media for Rayleigh waves of possible free surface conditions: permeable - "open pore," impermeable - "closed pore," and partially permeable boundaries. The full transient response of wave fields and spectra due to a stress impulse wavelet on the surface are investigated in the exploration seismic frequency band for typical surface drainage conditions, viscous coupling-damping, solid frame properties and porous fluid flowing configuration. Our numerical results show that, due to the slow dilatational wave - P2 wave, two types of Rayleigh waves, designated as R1 and R2 waves, exist along the surface. R1 wave possesses high energy as classic Rayleigh waves in pure elastic media for each porous materials. A surface fluid drainage condition is a significant factor to influence dispersion and attenuation, especially attenuation of R1 waves. R2 wave for closed pore and partially permeable surfaces is only observed for a low coupling-damping coefficient. The non-physical wave for partially surface conditions causes the R1 wave radiates into the R2 wave in the negative attenuation frequency range. It makes weaker R1 wave and stronger R2 wave to closed pore surface. Moreover, it is observed that wave fields and spectra of R1 wave are sensitive to frame elastic moduli change for an open pore surface, and to pore fluid flow condition change for closed pore and partially permeable surface.

  18. Exploration of strong-field double ionization of CS2 molecule in bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, Shuai; Zuo, Wanlong; Song, Kaili; Xu, Tongtong; Guo, Jing; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2016-12-01

    By using classical ensemble method, we investigate the double ionization of CS2 molecule in linearly, the bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields and the combination of bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields and static field, respectively. The numerical results show that the ionization probability in the bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields is about 2 order magnitude higher than that in linearly polarized laser field. When a static field is added, the ionization probability is the largest. Besides, the "knee" structure occurs at about 0.05 PW/cm2 in linearly polarized laser field; whereas "knee" structure is disappeared in the bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields and combined laser field. The corresponding momentum distribution of CS2 molecule presents a "finger-like" structure at about 0.05 PW/cm2 in linearly polarized field. By analysing the energy distributions of double-ionized electrons versus time and corresponding trajectories, we find that, for linearly polarized case non-sequential double ionization (NSDI) is predominant at about 0.05 PW/cm2, for bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields, one electron ionizes after another which indicate sequential ionization process (SDI). When the static field is added, the two electrons undergoes a long pre-ionization process first and then ionizes one after another, and the pre-ionization process lasts longer than other two cases.

  19. Teaching and Learning in the Tropics: An Epistemic Exploration of "the Field" in a Development Studies Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kamna

    2015-01-01

    Development studies employs theories, tools and methods often found in geography, including the international field trip to a "developing" country. In 2013 and 2014, I led a two-week trip to Ethiopia. To better comprehend the effects of "the field" on students' learning, I introduced an assessed reflexive field diary to…

  20. Tephra hazard assessment at Concepción Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaini, C.; Folch, A.; Navarro, M.

    2012-03-01

    Concepción volcano in Ometepe Island, Nicaragua, is a highly active volcano with a rich historical record of explosive eruptions. Tephra fallout from Concepción jeopardizes the surrounding populations, whereas volcanic ash clouds threat aerial navigation at a regional level. The assessment of these hazards is important for territorial planning and adoption of mitigation measures. Here we compute probabilistic hazard maps for Concepción volcano considering three different eruptive scenarios based on past reference events. Previous geological analysis is used to quantify the eruption parameters of the reference events. We account for uncertainties in the definition of the scenarios trough probability density functions. A representative meteorological dataset is created for each scenario by running the WRF-ARW mesoscale meteorological model over a typical meteorological year, defined in terms of wind speed and direction at a given atmospheric height. Tephra transport and deposition under different eruption and wind conditions is modelled using the FALL3D dispersion model. For each scenario, simulations are combined to build probabilistic hazard maps for critical values of tephra load and for threshold values of airborne ash concentration at relevant flight levels. Results are useful to identify the expected impacts for each eruption type and aim at improving the assessment and management of risk in the region.

  1. Determinants of drinking water quality in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, P; Gorter, A C; Smith, G D; Pauw, J P

    1989-06-01

    One hundred and fifty-three water samples from rural Nicaragua were examined for the presence of faecal coliforms during both wet and dry periods. A linear model was fitted by analysis of covariance with the logarithm of the faecal coliform count as the dependent variable. As expected, traditional water sources were grossly contaminated at all times whereas piped water sources were much cleaner. Hand-dug protected wells had significantly higher levels of faecal contamination than unprotected riverside wells and springs during the dry season. The possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed. A close association between rainfall and faecal contamination was demonstrated but the effect of rainfall depended on the type of water source. An association between water quality and the size of the community served by the source was also detected. The finding that stored water was usually more contaminated than fresh water samples is consistent with the results from other studies. Since it is unusual for water quality to be inversely correlated with accessibility, this study site would be suitable for investigating the relative importance of water-borne versus water-washed transmission mechanisms in childhood diarrhoea.

  2. Women's groups hold up the introduction of Norplant in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bank, A

    1994-01-01

    Women's groups met in Managua, Nicaragua on International Women's Day to discuss new reproductive technologies and population policies, with an emphasis on reproductive rights. This event postponed introduction of Norplant by the Minister of Health (MINSA), fulfilling the prediction of Carme Clavel of Servicios Integrales para la Mujer, one of the event's organizers, who stated that MINSA would be unable to introduce Norplant quietly. Three days later, Carlos Jarquin, director of Salud Integral at MINSA, denied the alleged approval. However, this was disputed by Maria Hamlin, director of the Centro de Informacion y Servicios de Asesoria en la Salud (CISAS) and one of the event's organizers, who said the procedure had been under consideration for testing since the year before with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Population Council. Ana Maria Pizarro, director of Si Mujer, suggested that tests focused on overcoming resistance and acceptance of irregularities in menstrual bleeding. It was suggested at the meeting that Norplant should be studied at alternative women's centers with their full participation and from the user's perspective. Ana Maria Pizarro insisted that the wishes and needs of the user be met. Ana Quiros from CISAS stated that women must have control of the method used. Maria Hamlin was optimistic about future cooperation among the groups and their impact on Nicaraguan population and health policies.

  3. MPA in Labor: Securing the Pearl Cays of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Clarence; Jentoft, Svein

    2011-04-01

    Implementation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) has always a step-zero, i.e., an initial phase when the idea is incepted, communicated and negotiated among stakeholders. What happens during this phase is likely to have an impact later on. If not done right, the management of the MPA may encounter problems at later stage that will be difficult to correct. Inspired by this working theory, this article describes the effort to establish the Pearl Cays off the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua as a protected area. This case-study illustrates the critical actions to be taken during step-zero, i.e., what needs to be considered and done before an MPA is formally declared. The area investigated consists of a number of small islands (cays) and coral reefs, fishing grounds and marine turtle nesting areas. Throughout history, the cays have played an important role in sustaining livelihoods of nearby communities. Although the idea of an MPA was originally conservation, the communities saw it as an opportunity to regain ownership and control of the cays. By Nicaraguan law, in order to establish protected areas, consultation and approval from local people is required. In the case of the Pearl Cays, this has proved difficult. The article demonstrates how MPA initiatives must sometimes relate to already ongoing complex social processes in the area where they are to be instigated.

  4. Determinants of drinking water quality in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P.; Gorter, A. C.; Smith, G. D.; Pauw, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-three water samples from rural Nicaragua were examined for the presence of faecal coliforms during both wet and dry periods. A linear model was fitted by analysis of covariance with the logarithm of the faecal coliform count as the dependent variable. As expected, traditional water sources were grossly contaminated at all times whereas piped water sources were much cleaner. Hand-dug protected wells had significantly higher levels of faecal contamination than unprotected riverside wells and springs during the dry season. The possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed. A close association between rainfall and faecal contamination was demonstrated but the effect of rainfall depended on the type of water source. An association between water quality and the size of the community served by the source was also detected. The finding that stored water was usually more contaminated than fresh water samples is consistent with the results from other studies. Since it is unusual for water quality to be inversely correlated with accessibility, this study site would be suitable for investigating the relative importance of water-borne versus water-washed transmission mechanisms in childhood diarrhoea. PMID:2737254

  5. Rotavirus Prevalence in the Primary Care Setting in Nicaragua after Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Bucardo, Filemon; Hudgens, Michael G.; Weber, David J.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement universal infant rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). Initial studies of vaccine effectiveness in Nicaragua and other developing nations have focused on the prevention of hospitalizations and severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, rotavirus diarrhea is more commonly treated in the primary care setting, with only 1–3% of rotavirus cases receiving hospital care. We measured the prevalence of rotavirus infection in primary care clinics in León, Nicaragua, after introduction of the immunization program. In the post-vaccine period, 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.9–5.8) of children seeking care for diarrhea tested positive for rotavirus. A high diversity of rotavirus genotypes was encountered among the few positive samples. In conclusion, rotavirus was an uncommon cause of childhood diarrhea in this primary care setting after implementation of a rotavirus immunization program. PMID:22049057

  6. Malaria control in Nicaragua: social and political influences on disease transmission and control activities.

    PubMed

    Garfield, R

    1999-07-31

    Throughout Central America, a traditional malaria control strategy (depending on heavy use of organic pesticides) became less effective during the 1970s. In Nicaragua, an alternative strategy, based on frequent local epidemiological assessments and community participation, was developed in the 1980s. Despite war-related social instability, and continuing vector resistance, this approach was highly successful. By the end of the contra war, there finally existed organisational and ecological conditions that favoured improved malaria control. Yet the expected improvements did not occur. In the 1990s, Nicaragua experienced its worst recorded malaria epidemics. This situation was partly caused by the country's macroeconomic structural adjustment programme. Volunteers now take fewer slides and provide less treatment, malaria control workers are less motivated by the spirit of public service, and some malaria control stations charge for diagnosis or treatment. To "roll back malaria", in Nicaragua at least, will require the roll-back of some erroneous aspects of structural adjustment.

  7. The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Mainzer, Amy; Ressler, Michael E.; Cutri, Roc M.; Jarrett, Thomas; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Padgett, Deborah; McMillan, Robert S.; Skrutskie,Michael; Stanford, S. A.; Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.; Mather, John C.; Leisawitz, David; Gautier, Thomas N., III; McLean, Ian; Benford, Dominic; Lonsdale,Carol J.; Blain, Andrew; Mendez,Bryan; Irace, William R.; Duval, Valerie; Liu, Fengchuan; Royer, Don

    2010-01-01

    The all sky surveys done by the Palomar Observatory Schmidt, the European Southern Observatory Schmidt, and the United Kingdom Schmidt, the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite and the 2 Micron All Sky Survey have proven to be extremely useful tools for astronomy with value that lasts for decades. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer is mapping the whole sky following its launch on 14 December 2009. WISE began surveying the sky on 14 Jan 2010 and completed its first full coverage of the sky on July 17. The survey will continue to cover the sky a second time until the cryogen is exhausted (anticipated in November 2010). WISE is achieving 5 sigma point source sensitivities better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic in bands centered at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers. Sensitivity improves toward the ecliptic poles due to denser coverage and lower zodiacal background. The angular resolution is 6.1", 6.4", 6.5" and 12.0" at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micrometers, and the astrometric precision for high SNR sources is better than 0.15".

  8. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer cryogenic support system lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Brett; Thompson, Brian; Schick, Scott

    2010-08-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a JPL-managed MIDEX mission to perform an infrared all-sky survey. The WISE instrument, developed by the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), is a 40-cm cryogenically-cooled telescope which includes a cryogenic scan mirror and four infrared focal planes (2-HgCdTe, 2-Si:As). Cooling the instrument to the desired temperatures is accomplished by a two-stage, solid hydrogen cryostat, provided by Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (LMATC). Required temperatures for the instrument optics and Si:As focal planes are <13 K and <7.6 K respectively. To reduce heat loads, the vacuum shell is isolated from the spacecraft bus via composite struts and radiatively cooled to <200 K. The telescope aperture is protected from on-orbit environmental loads via a two-stage radiatively cooled aperture shade. WISE was successfully launched into a 530 km, polar orbit on December 14, 2009, beginning a 10-month mission to survey the entire sky in the infrared.

  9. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ∼12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08–623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  10. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  11. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  12. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars.We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks.We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  13. Geophysical exploration on the subsurface geology of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolós, Xavier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Casas, Albert; Lovera, Raúl; Nadal-Sala, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We applied self-potential (SP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to the exploration of the uppermost part of the substrate geology and shallow structure of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field, part of the European Neogene-Quaternary volcanic province. The aim of the study was to improve knowledge of the shallowest part of the feeding system of these monogenetic volcanoes and of its relationship with the subsurface geology. This study complements previous geophysical studies carried out at a less detailed scale and aimed at identifying deeper structures, and together will constitute the basis to establish volcanic susceptibility in La Garrotxa. SP study complemented previous smaller-scale studies and targeted key areas where ERT could be conducted. The main new results include the generation of resistivity models identifying dykes and faults associated with several monogenetic cones. The combined results confirm that shallow tectonics controlling the distribution of the foci of eruptive activity in this volcanic zone mainly correspond to NNW-SSE and accessorily by NNE-SSW Neogene extensional fissures and faults and concretely show the associated magmatic intrusions. These structures coincide with the deeper ones identified in previous studies, and show that previous Alpine tectonic structures played no apparent role in controlling the loci of this volcanism. Moreover, the results obtained show that the changes in eruption dynamics occurring at different vents located at relatively short distances in this volcanic area are controlled by shallow stratigraphical, structural and hydrogeological differences underneath these monogenetic volcanoes.

  14. Preliminary Results from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer's NEOWISE Search for Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J. M.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Tholen, D. J.; Wright, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Cutri, R.; Neowise Team

    2011-12-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) imaged the entire sky twice between January, 2010 and January, 2011 at four wavelengths spanning the near through mid-IR at sensitivities hundreds of times greater than previous surveys [1]. The WISE band-passes (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22mm) sample the flux from most inner-solar-system bodies near the peak of their thermal emission. Overlapping sky regions were sampled repeatedly at 3 hour intervals. The same region of sky was observed a minimum of 8 times. While the primary WISE science objectives focus on ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and brown dwarfs, additions to the baseline WISE pipeline (collectively known as "NEOWISE") have enabled the detection of undiscovered moving objects, as well as previously known bodies [2]. NEOWISE has detected more than 155,000 minor planets, including more than 500 near-Earth objects (NEOs), ~2000 Jupiter Trojans, ~120 comets, and ~20 outer Solar System objects such as Centaurs. The survey has discovered ~34,000 new minor planets, including 130 new NEOs and 20 new comets. The NEOWISE data will drive a wide range of new Solar System investigations. NEOWISE allows precise determination of IR-derived diameters and albedos for minor planets throughout the Solar System [3],[4]. We will summarize the latest results from the project, including studies of the statistical properties of asteroid populations such as the NEOs, and comparisons between albedo and asteroid taxonomic classification.

  15. Automated classification of periodic variable stars detected by the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Masci, Frank J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Cutri, Roc M.; Hoffman, Douglas I.

    2014-07-01

    We describe a methodology to classify periodic variable stars identified using photometric time-series measurements constructed from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) full-mission single-exposure Source Databases. This will assist in the future construction of a WISE Variable Source Database that assigns variables to specific science classes as constrained by the WISE observing cadence with statistically meaningful classification probabilities. We have analyzed the WISE light curves of 8273 variable stars identified in previous optical variability surveys (MACHO, GCVS, and ASAS) and show that Fourier decomposition techniques can be extended into the mid-IR to assist with their classification. Combined with other periodic light-curve features, this sample is then used to train a machine-learned classifier based on the random forest (RF) method. Consistent with previous classification studies of variable stars in general, the RF machine-learned classifier is superior to other methods in terms of accuracy, robustness against outliers, and relative immunity to features that carry little or redundant class information. For the three most common classes identified by WISE: Algols, RR Lyrae, and W Ursae Majoris type variables, we obtain classification efficiencies of 80.7%, 82.7%, and 84.5% respectively using cross-validation analyses, with 95% confidence intervals of approximately ±2%. These accuracies are achieved at purity (or reliability) levels of 88.5%, 96.2%, and 87.8% respectively, similar to that achieved in previous automated classification studies of periodic variable stars.

  16. THE FIRST ULTRA-COOL BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Skrutskie, M.; Beaton, R.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; McLean, I.; Dietrich, M.; Garnavich, P.; Rueff, K.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 {mu}m spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}36 at 4.6 {mu}m. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  17. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer 2012 Field Season in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarke, A. D.; Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; VerPlanck, N.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, jointly operated by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research and the NOAA Office of Marine and Aviation Operations, is America's only federally managed ship dedicated solely to ocean exploration. The 2012 field season was spent exploring the northern Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf break and slope. In the Gulf of Mexico, mapping and remotely operated vehicle operations focused on the salt domes and canyons offshore Mississippi and Louisiana, and characterized several of the hundreds of seeps that were detected in the water column backscatter data collected with the ship's Kongsberg EM 302 multibeam sonar (30 kHz) during the 2011 field season. A team of NOAA and non-NOAA partners identified priority frontier areas along the continental shelf and slope between North Carolina and Cape Cod, mapping numerous canyons selected for focused mapping exploration in partnership with the North East Fisheries Science Center, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (a state level partnership between various states including NY, NJ, DE, MD, and VA), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Virginia Sea Grant. The 2012 mapping efforts built on data collected during the 2011 field season. Okeanos Explorer data were leveraged by NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow to conduct towed camera operations to ground truth multibeam backscatter data for deepwater coral habitat assessment. The Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs offshore North Carolina were a third focus of exploration operations. Seven 900 meter high cold seeps were discovered in the diapir province. Exploration incorporated WHOI's Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle and its full suite of mapping and oceanographic sensors were used to characterize six seep sites. All data collected by Okeanos Explorer are available via the NOAA public archives with metadata records within 60 to 90 days of the end of each cruise.

  18. Stressful life events in countries of differing economic development: Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rincón, Paulina Paz

    2007-08-01

    the aim was to describe a study involving 481 psychology students in the last courses of their degrees (M age = 21.9 yr., SD=4.2; 94 men and 386 women) from Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. The study examined the potential risk of experiencing certain stressful life events, the number of stressors, and their characteristics. Also were analyzed the strength of their relation to social class and stressful life events experienced. Greater presence of stressful life events were reported among people from less developed countries, Chile and Nicaragua, and among people belonging to lower social class.

  19. The Software Design for the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Barnes, Kenneth C.; Melhorn, Charles M.; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), currently scheduled for launch in September 1998, is the fifth of five spacecraft in the NASA/Goddard Small Explorer (SMEX) series. This paper presents the design of WIRE's Attitude Control System flight software (ACS FSW). WIRE is a momentum-biased, three-axis stabilized stellar pointer which provides high-accuracy pointing and autonomous acquisition for eight to ten stellar targets per orbit. WIRE's short mission life and limited cryogen supply motivate requirements for Sun and Earth avoidance constraints which are designed to prevent catastrophic instrument damage and to minimize the heat load on the cryostat. The FSW implements autonomous fault detection and handling (FDH) to enforce these instrument constraints and to perform several other checks which insure the safety of the spacecraft. The ACS FSW implements modules for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, guide star acquisition, actuator command generation, command/telemetry processing, and FDH. These software components are integrated with a hierarchical control mode managing module that dictates which software components are currently active. The lowest mode in the hierarchy is the 'safest' one, in the sense that it utilizes a minimal complement of sensors and actuators to keep the spacecraft in a stable configuration (power and pointing constraints are maintained). As higher modes in the hierarchy are achieved, the various software functions are activated by the mode manager, and an increasing level of attitude control accuracy is provided. If FDH detects a constraint violation or other anomaly, it triggers a safing transition to a lower control mode. The WIRE ACS FSW satisfies all target acquisition and pointing accuracy requirements, enforces all pointing constraints, provides the ground with a simple means for reconfiguring the system via table load, and meets all the demands of its real-time embedded environment (16 MHz Intel

  20. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Playing the Field(s): An Exploration of Change, Conformity and Conflict in Girls' Understandings of Gendered Physicality in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a year-long ethnographic study of a group of 12- to 13-year-old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay's extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts where…

  2. East Meets West on "Double Star", a Joint Mission to Explore Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Cluster instruments has a number of advantages for both European and Chinese scientists. "By flying experiments identical to those on Cluster, we can reduce costs and development time," explained Alberto Gianolio, ESA Project Manager for Double Star. "This will minimise risk and help us to ensure that we are able to meet the spacecraft development schedule." ESA has agreed to contribute 8 million euros to the Double Star programme. This funding will be used for refurbishment and pre-integration of the European instruments, acquisition of data for 4 hours per day and coordination of scientific operations. Notes for Editors: Double Star will be the first mission launched by China to explore the Earth's magnetosphere - the magnetic bubble that surrounds our planet. As its name suggests, Double Star will involve two satellites - each designed, developed, launched and operated by the CNSA - flying in complementary orbits around the Earth. This orbital configuration will enable scientists to obtain simultaneous data on the changing magnetic field and population of electrified particles in different regions of the magnetosphere. The duo is expected to be launched by Chinese Long March 2C rockets in December 2002 and March 2003. This schedule may enable them to operate alongside ESA's Cluster mission - a mini-flotilla of four identical spacecraft launched into elliptical orbits around the Earth last summer. The "equatorial" spacecraft (DSP-1) will be launched into an elliptical orbit of 550 x 60,000 km, inclined at 28.5 degrees to the equator. This will enable it to investigate the Earth's huge magnetic tail, the region where particles are accelerated towards the planet's magnetic poles by a process known as reconnection. The "polar" satellite (DSP-2) will concentrate on physical processes taking place over the magnetic poles and the development of aurorae. It will have a 350 x 25,000 km orbit taking it round the Earth once every 7.3 hours.

  3. THERMAL MODEL CALIBRATION FOR MINOR PLANETS OBSERVED WITH WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER/NEOWISE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Ressler, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Wright, E.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Cohen, M.

    2011-08-01

    With the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we have observed over 157,000 minor planets. Included in these are a number of near-Earth objects, main-belt asteroids, and irregular satellites which have well measured physical properties (via radar studies and in situ imaging) such as diameters. We have used these objects to validate models of thermal emission and reflected sunlight using the WISE measurements, as well as the color corrections derived in Wright et al. for the four WISE bandpasses as a function of effective temperature. We have used 50 objects with diameters measured by radar or in situ imaging to characterize the systematic errors implicit in using the WISE data with a faceted spherical near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) to compute diameters and albedos. By using the previously measured diameters and H magnitudes with a spherical NEATM model, we compute the predicted fluxes (after applying the color corrections given in Wright et al.) in each of the four WISE bands and compare them to the measured magnitudes. We find minimum systematic flux errors of 5%-10%, and hence minimum relative diameter and albedo errors of {approx}10% and {approx}20%, respectively. Additionally, visible albedos for the objects are computed and compared to the albedos at 3.4 {mu}m and 4.6 {mu}m, which contain a combination of reflected sunlight and thermal emission for most minor planets observed by WISE. Finally, we derive a linear relationship between subsolar temperature and effective temperature, which allows the color corrections given in Wright et al. to be used for minor planets by computing only subsolar temperature instead of a faceted thermophysical model. The thermal models derived in this paper are not intended to supplant previous measurements made using radar or spacecraft imaging; rather, we have used them to characterize the errors that should be expected when computing diameters and albedos of minor planets observed by WISE using a spherical

  4. THE DISCOVERY OF Y DWARFS USING DATA FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-12-10

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f{sub {lambda}}, so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH{sub 3}. These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722-05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  5. Exploration of molecular pathways mediating electric field-directed Schwann cell migration by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li; Li, Yongchao; Knapp, Jennifer; Smith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral nervous systems, Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. Following spinal cord injury, Schwann cells regenerate and migrate to the lesion and are involved in the spinal cord regeneration process. Transplantation of Schwann cells into injured neural tissue results in enhanced spinal axonal regeneration. Effective directional migration of Schwann cells is critical in the neural regeneration process. In this study, we report that Schwann cells migrate anodally in an applied electric field (EF). The directedness and displacement of anodal migration increased significantly when the strength of the EF increased from 50 mV/mm to 200 mV/mm. The EF did not significantly affect the cell migration speed. To explore the genes and signaling pathways that regulate cell migration in EFs, we performed a comparative analysis of differential gene expression between cells stimulated with an EF (100 mV/mm) and those without using next-generation RNA sequencing, verified by RT-qPCR. Based on the cut-off criteria (FC > 1.2, q < 0.05), we identified 1,045 up-regulated and 1,636 down-regulated genes in control cells versus EF-stimulated cells. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis found that compared to the control group, 21 pathways are down-regulated, while 10 pathways are up-regulated. Differentially expressed genes participate in multiple cellular signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cell migration, including pathways of regulation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt. PMID:25557037

  6. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DETERMINED FROM THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON

    SciTech Connect

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-02-10

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  7. Yombo field exploration model, peoples Republic of the Congo, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Sorgenfrei, M.C.; Rice, D.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Yombo field in the Congo is sourced from the lacustrine shales of the presalt rift stage and produces from the Albian and Cenomanian, postsalt, Sendji carbonate and Tchala Sandstone. The Yombo prospect exploration model included an upper Sendji stratigraphic trap with two components and a structural nose. The buried hill component of the trap is formed by topographic relief on the reservoir below the top Sendji unconformity. The lower Sendji slump blocks provide a high on which the upper Sendji grainstone shoal facies develop. Both depositional relief and erosion during the top Sendji unconformity contribute to the topography. An isochron thick in the overlying Tchala valley-fill sediments defined a drainage pattern on the unconformity around the buried hill of the underlying upper Sendji. The facies change component is formed by the pinch-out of the grainstone shoal reservoir facies into porous, but impermeable lagoonal dolomite interbedded with anhydrite and shale. Capillary pressure measurements on the 16% porosity, 0.1 md permeability lagoonal dolomite, along with pore throat radius and buoyancy calculations, demonstrated this facies could trap a significant column of low-gravity oil at shallow depth. The Tchala Sandstone contains several separate hydrocarbon accumulations. A stratigraphic trap in the lower Tchala is formed by marine and tidal channel sandstones pinching out into lagoonal shales. The nearshore marine sandstones of the upper Tchala contain additional hydrocarbons in structural and stratigraphic traps. The stratigraphic pinch-out that cross the Yombo nose trap a significant hydrocarbon accumulation, even though the four-way structural closure is relatively small.

  8. Exploring the use of storytelling in quantitative research fields using a multiple case study method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lori N. Hamlet

    The purpose of this study was to explore the emerging use of storytelling in quantitative research fields. The focus was not on examining storytelling in research, but rather how stories are used in various ways within the social context of quantitative research environments. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven professionals who had experience using storytelling in their work and my personal experience with the subject matter was also used as a source of data according to the notion of researcher-as-instrument. This study is qualitative in nature and is guided by two supporting theoretical frameworks, the sociological perspective and narrative inquiry. A multiple case study methodology was used to gain insight about why participants decided to use stories or storytelling in a quantitative research environment that may not be traditionally open to such methods. This study also attempted to identify how storytelling can strengthen or supplement existing research, as well as what value stories can provide to the practice of research in general. Five thematic findings emerged from the data and were grouped under two headings, "Experiencing Research" and "Story Work." The themes were found to be consistent with four main theoretical functions of storytelling identified in existing scholarly literature: (a) sense-making; (b) meaning-making; (c) culture; and (d) communal function. The five thematic themes that emerged from this study and were consistent with the existing literature include: (a) social context; (b) quantitative versus qualitative; (c) we think and learn in terms of stories; (d) stories tie experiences together; and (e) making sense and meaning. Recommendations are offered in the form of implications for various social contexts and topics for further research are presented as well.

  9. Lahar Hazards at Concepción volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Concepción is one of Nicaragua’s highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical cone occupies the northeastern half of a dumbbell shaped island called Isla Ometepa. The dormant volcano, Maderas, occupies the southwest half of the island. A narrow isthmus connects Concepción and Maderas volcanoes. Concepción volcano towers more than 1600 m above Lake Nicaragua and is within 5 to 10 km of several small towns situated on its aprons at or near the shoreline. These towns have a combined population of nearly 5,000. The volcano has frequently produced debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. Concepción volcano has erupted more than 25 times in the last 120 years. Its first recorded activity was in AD 1883. Eruptions in the past century, most of which have originated from a small summit crater, comprise moderate explosions, ash that falls out of eruption plumes (called tephra), and occasional lava flows. Near the summit area, there are accumulations of rock that were emplaced hot (pyroclastic deposits), most of which were hot enough to stick together during deposition (a process called welding). These pyroclastic rocks are rather weak, and tend to break apart easily. The loose volcanic rock remobilizes during heavy rain to form lahars. Volcanic explosions have produced blankets of tephra that are distributed downwind, which on Isla Ometepe is mostly to the west. Older deposits at the west end of the island that are up to 1 m thick indicate larger explosive events have happened at Concepción volcano in prehistoric time. Like pyroclastic-flow deposits, loose tephra on the steep slopes of the volcano provides source material that heavy rainstorms and earthquakes can mobilize to trigger debris flow.

  10. Respiratory disease in a textile factory in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, A M; Christiani, D C; McConnell, R; Eisen, E A; Wilcox, M

    1991-01-01

    This is the first epidemiologic study conducted in a textile mill in Nicaragua using techniques and diagnostic criteria similar to those used in the United States and England. The prevalence of byssinosis and nonspecific respiratory symptoms were studied in 194 workers in a cotton mill in Managua. Limited environmental sampling, performed using a vertical elutriator in yarn preparation and weaving areas, indicated that exposures were similar to those reported in other parts of the developing world. A modified translated version of the Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was administered. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after the Monday workshift to measure across-shift change in ventilatory function. The prevalence of byssinosis was 5.9% and all the cases occurred among exposed women. Nonspecific respiratory symptoms were also more prevalent among exposed workers. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking habit, and work tenure, the exposure odds ratios for usual cough and usual phlegm were 3.3 and 2.2, respectively. The association between exposure and across-shift decrement in FEV1 was not significant. Byssinotic workers, however, had greater decrements in FEV1% than those without byssinosis: 5.5% versus 1.8%. A consistent gender effect was observed in which both exposed and unexposed women were found to have greater across-shift decrements in FEV1 than men. The gender difference existed among long-term workers as well as workers who had been employed less than 2 years. Results are related to cotton dust exposure, as has been documented elsewhere. The poorer health status of the women in this study population deserves follow-up.

  11. Understanding Children's Curiosity and Exploration through the Lenses of Lewin's Field Theory: On Developing an Appraisal Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chak, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Uses Lewin's field theory as a framework to appraise children's momentary state of curiosity and exploratory behavior. Discusses two levels of analysis: child-stimulus situation and child-stimulus-adult situation. Argues that a parent can be a barrier hindering a child's exploration, or a facilitator to remove barriers. (Author/SD)

  12. Assurance of Learning in an MBA Program: Exploration of the Value Added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The use of standardized tests as a piece of outcomes assessment has risen in recent years in order to satisfy external accrediting bodies such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International. The authors explore the value added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for assurance of learning in a master of…

  13. Field/Work, Site, and Other Matters: Exploring Design Practice across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Brown, James Benedict

    2011-01-01

    This article explores educational research and theory in the area of the built environment by reflecting on the challenges of interdisciplinary enquiry and the prerequisites for successful interdisciplinary practice. The genesis of a particular example of interdisciplinary collaboration is explored, and the authors come to the deceptively simple…

  14. The science and politics of forest management in Northern Nicaragua after hurricane Felix (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi Idarraga, Esteban

    This dissertation examines the ecological effects of hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua as well as the socio-political factors that influenced forest management efforts in hurricane impacted locations. Specifically, this research focused on the following questions: first, what were the regional damage patterns caused by hurricane Felix on the forests of Northern Nicaragua? Second, what stand and tree attributes explain observed post-hurricane damage patterns? And, third, why were post-hurricane management efforts unsuccessful? The first dissertation article characterizes the intensity and spatial distribution of forest damage after hurricane Felix using satellite imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and aerial photographs. Results indicated that Broadleaf forests experienced larger damage (>75% trees blown down) than Pine forest, and that Enhanced Vegetation Index data (EVI), obtained from the MODIS sensor, can adequately depict post-hurricane damage in tropical forests. The agreement between the obtained EVI damage map and the reference data set ranged from 91% in high-damage locations to 85% in low-damage locations, with 86% overall agreement. The second dissertation article describes the relationship between hurricane damage patterns and ecological variables at the local level. Specifically, it characterizes the relationship between tree-and-stand attributes (i.e. DBH, height, density, basal area) and wind damage, using field data. Findings indicate that tree attributes such as DBH and height strongly influenced the amount and type of wind damage and that stand attributes such as maximum canopy height and distance to the hurricane path were also predictive of the amount of damage. Observed differences in damage patterns among broadleaf and pine forests were strongly correlated with the height to diameter ratio (H/D). Field observations showed that while post-hurricane regeneration was abundant in broadleaf

  15. Using Technology and Mentorship to Improve Teacher Pedagogy and Educational Opportunities in Rural Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenberg, Anni; Henderson, Kathryn I.; Durán, Leah

    2016-01-01

    This study used ethnographic methods to understand factors influencing the implementation of an educational intervention combining short math content videos with teacher trainings and mentorship in high-poverty primary schools in Nicaragua with implications for rural school reform. Educators in rural schools in Latin American face serious…

  16. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  17. The State, Nonformal Education, and Socialism in Cuba, Nicaragua, and Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1991-01-01

    Many Latin American states, characterized by "colonization" of the state by dominant families or individuals, are unable to carry out proper state functions. In attempting to address such states' shortcomings, nonformal adult education has been prominent in new educational policies of revolutionary governments in Cuba, Nicaragua, and…

  18. Fluid Intake and Decreased Risk for Hospitalization for Dengue Fever, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Leonel; Phares, Christina R.; Pérez, Maria de los Angeles; Idiaquez, Wendy; Rocha, Julio; Cuadra, Ricardo; Hernandez, Emelina; Campos, Luisa Amanda; Gonzalez, Alcides; Amador, Juan Jose; Balmaseda, Angel

    2003-01-01

    In a hospital and health center-based study in Nicaragua, fluid intake during the 24 hours before being seen by a clinician was statistically associated with decreased risk for hospitalization of dengue fever patients. Similar results were obtained for children <15 years of age and older adolescents and adults in independent analyses. PMID:12967502

  19. 78 FR 20128 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Mitch, various hurricanes, tropical depressions, and tropical storms have resulted in loss of life... Nicaragua. Most recently, in October 2011, heavy rains associated with Tropical Depression 12E caused... cause for late re-registration. However, applicants are urged to refile within 45 days of the date...

  20. Intercultural Bilingual Education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for Improving the Quality of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken--especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry…

  1. Caldera-related gold mineralization of the El Limón mining district, western Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Gary B.; Stoiber, Richard E.

    1987-08-01

    The town of El Limón, the center of a small gold mining district, lies 36 km northeast of León, Nicaragua. This paper reports on the sequence of volcanic rocks in the district, the structures in these volcanics and the relationship of the gold veins to them.

  2. Nicaragua: A Look Across Cultures. An Area Study in Spanish and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozete, Oscar

    These curricular units are designed to help Spanish students or bilingual students gain a better understanding of the history, geography, and culture of Nicaragua, Wisconsin's "sister state" in Central America. In its entirety, the bulletin can serve as the basis of a cultural mini-course. However, since each section is a self-contained…

  3. Literacy and Politics in Latin America: The Case of Brazil, Peru and Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Emilia

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes and compares approaches to literacy and the involvement of the community in literacy training in three Latin American countries: (1) Brazil, a capitalist economic framework; (2) Peru, with reform as an alternative to counter-insurgency measures; and (3) Nicaragua, a revolutionary society in transition. (JOW)

  4. Magma-tectonic interactions in Nicaragua: the 1999 seismic swarm and eruption of Cerro Negro volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Femina, Peter C.; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Brittain E.; Strauch, Wilfried; Saballos, J. Armando

    2004-09-01

    A low-energy (Volcanic Explosivity Index [VEI] 1), small-volume (0.001 km 3 Dense Rock Equivalent [DRE]) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three earthquakes (each ˜ Mw 5.2) with strike-slip and oblique-slip focal mechanisms, the first of which occurred approximately 11 h before eruptive activity and within 1 km of Cerro Negro. Surface ruptures formed during these events extend up to 4 km from Cerro Negro, but concentrate ˜1 km south of Cerro Negro. Surface ruptures did not occur within 300 m of the cone, however, three new vents formed on the south flank and base of Cerro Negro and on trend with the Cerro La Mula-Cerro Negro volcanic alignment. Earthquake swarms were located northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro and seismicity was elevated for up to 11 days after the initial event. The temporal and spatial patterns of earthquake swarms, surface ruptures, and the eruption location can be explained using the Hill [J. Geophys. Res. 82 (1977) 1347] model for earthquake swarms in volcanic regions, where an eruption is triggered by tectonically induced changes in the regional stress field. In this model, tectonic strain, rather than magmatic overpressure causes dilation of the conduit for magma ascent. Numerical simulations for the 1999 eruption illustrate that the observed velocities (up to 75 m s -1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little excess magmatic pressure, in response to changes in Coulomb stress along the Cerro La Mula-Cerro Negro alignment. These observations and models show that 1999 Cerro Negro activity was a tectonically induced small-volume eruption in an arc setting, with the accommodation of extensional strain by dike injection.

  5. Exploration of solar photospheric magnetic field data sets using the UCSD tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P.; Nishimura, N.; Nozaki, N.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates the use of two different types of National Solar Observatory magnetograms and two different coronal field modeling techniques over 10 years. Both the "open-field" Current Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) and a "closed-field" technique using CSSS modeling are compared. The University of California, San Diego, tomographic modeling, using interplanetary scintillation data from Japan, provides the global velocities to extrapolate these fields outward, which are then compared with fields measured in situ near Earth. Although the open-field technique generally gives a better result for radial and tangential fields, we find that a portion of the closed extrapolated fields measured in situ near Earth comes from the direct outward mapping of these fields in the low solar corona. All three closed-field components are nonzero at 1 AU and are compared with the appropriate magnetometer values. A significant positive correlation exists between these closed-field components and the in situ measurements over the last 10 years. We determine that a small fraction of the static low-coronal component flux, which includes the Bn (north-south) component, regularly escapes from closed-field regions. The closed-field flux fraction varies by about a factor of 3 from a mean value during this period, relative to the magnitude of the field components measured in situ near Earth, and maximizes in 2014. This implies that a relatively more efficient process for closed-flux escape occurs near solar maximum. We also compare and find that the popular Potential Field Source Surface and CSSS model closed fields are nearly identical in sign and strength.

  6. Field based geothermal exploration: Structural controls in the Tarutung Basin/North Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukman, M.; Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Tarutung Basin is one of several basins along the prominent Sumatra Fault System (SFS) which represents a dextral strike slip fault zone segmented into individual fault strands. The basins are located at right-stepping transfer. The Tarutung Basin hosts geothermal manifestations such as hot springs and travertines indicating a geothermal system with some decent potential in the subsurface. As part of geothermal exploration, field geology is investigated focusing on how the structural setting controls the thermal manifestation distribution. A complex fault pattern is now newly mapped and evidences sinistral faults striking E-W (Silangkitang), normal faults striking SE-NW at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin (Sitompul) and normal faults striking NW-SE at the western strand of the basin (Sitaka). These structures form an angle greater than 450 with respect to the current maximum principal stress which is oriented in N-S. Secondary sinistral shear fractures identified as antithetic Riedel shears can be correlated with hot spring locations at Silangkitang, forming an angle of 500 with respect to the current maximum stress. A large angle of normal fault and antithetic Riedel shear trend with respect to the current maximum stress direction indicates that the structures have been rotated. Unidentified dextral strike slip faults might exist at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin to accommodate the clockwise rotation between the eastern boundary of the basin and the NW-SE striking normal fault of Panabungan. Normal faults striking parallel with the SFS East of the basin are interpreted as dilatational jogs caused by the clockwise rotated block movement with respect to the NW-SE fault trend sinistral shear along ENE-WSW faults. Silicified pryroclastics in association with large discharge at hot springs at these NW-SE striking normal faults support this hypothesis. As proposed by Nivinkovich (1976) and Nishimura (1986) Sumatra has rotated 20° clockwise since the last

  7. THE FIRST HUNDRED BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Bauer, James M.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Stanford, S. A.; Bailey, Vanessa; and others

    2011-12-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of 6 Y dwarfs (see also Cushing et al.), 89 T dwarfs, 8 L dwarfs, and 1 M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types {>=}T6, six of which have been announced earlier by Mainzer et al. and Burgasser et al. We present color-color and color-type diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. Near-infrared and, in a few cases, optical spectra are presented for these discoveries. Near-infrared classifications as late as early Y are presented and objects with peculiar spectra are discussed. Using these new discoveries, we are also able to extend the optical T dwarf classification scheme from T8 to T9. After deriving an absolute WISE 4.6 {mu}m (W2) magnitude versus spectral type relation, we estimate spectrophotometric distances to our discoveries. We also use available astrometric measurements to provide preliminary trigonometric parallaxes to four of our discoveries, which have types of L9 pec (red), T8, T9, and Y0; all of these lie within 10 pc of the Sun. The Y0 dwarf, WISE 1541-2250, is the closest at 2.8{sup +1.3}{sub -0.6} pc; if this 2.8 pc value persists after continued monitoring, WISE 1541-2250 will become the seventh closest stellar system to the Sun. Another 10 objects, with types between T6 and >Y0, have spectrophotometric distance estimates also placing them within 10 pc. The closest of these, the T6 dwarf WISE 1506+7027, is believed to fall at a distance of {approx}4.9 pc. WISE multi-epoch positions supplemented with positional info primarily from the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera allow us to calculate proper motions and tangential velocities for roughly one-half of the new discoveries. This work represents the first step by WISE to complete a full-sky, volume-limited census of late-T and Y dwarfs. Using early results from this census, we present preliminary, lower limits to the space density of

  8. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: A Program for Teachers and Students to Explore Their World and Study Global Change Through Field-Experience and Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Orchard, A.; Colodner, D.; Schwartz, K.; Crown, D. A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.

    2012-03-01

    The Laurel Clark Earth Camp program provides middle and high school students and teachers opportunities to explore local environmental issues and global change through field-experiences, inquiry exercises, and exploring satellite images.

  9. Occupational injuries identified by an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Noe, R; Rocha, J; Clavel-Arcas, C; Aleman, C; Gonzales, M; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and describe the work related injuries in both the formal and informal work sectors captured in an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Managua, Nicaragua. Setting: Urban emergency department in Managua, Nicaragua serving 200–300 patients per day. Methods: Secondary analysis from the surveillance system data. All cases indicating an injury while working and seen for treatment at the emergency department between 1 August 2001 and 31 July 2002 were included. There was no exclusion based on place of occurrence (home, work, school), age, or gender. Results: There were 3801 work related injuries identified which accounted for 18.6% of the total 20 425 injures captured by the surveillance system. Twenty seven work related fatalities were recorded, compared with the 1998 International Labor Organization statistic of 25 occupational fatalities for all of Nicaragua. Injuries occurring outside of a formal work location accounted for more than 60% of the work related injuries. Almost half of these occurred at home, while 19% occurred on the street. The leading mechanisms for work related injuries were falls (30%), blunt objects (28%), and stabs/cuts (23%). Falls were by far the most severe mechanism in the study, causing 37% of the work related deaths and more than half of the fractures. Conclusions: Occupational injuries are grossly underreported in Nicaragua. This study demonstrated that an emergency department can be a data source for work related injuries in developing countries because it captures both the formal and informal workforce injuries. Fall prevention initiatives could significantly reduce the magnitude and severity of occupational injuries in Managua, Nicaragua. PMID:15314050

  10. Exploring Coupled Plasmonic Nanostructures in the Near Field by Photoemission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Han; Sun, Quan; Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Kubo, Atsushi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2016-11-22

    The extraordinary optical properties of coupled plasmonic nanostructures make these materials potentially useful in many applications; thus, they have received enormous attention in basic and applied research. Coupled plasmon modes have been characterized predominantly using far-field spectroscopy. In near-field spectroscopy, the spectral response of local field enhancement in coupled plasmonic nanostructures remains largely unexplored, especially experimentally. Here, we investigate the coupled gold dolmen nanostructures in the near field using photoemission electron microscopy, with wavelength-tunable femtosecond laser pulses as an excitation source. The spatial evolution of near-field mapping of an individual dolmen structure with the excitation wavelength was successfully obtained. In the near field, we spatially resolved an anti-bonding mode and a bonding mode as the result of plasmon hybridization. Additionally, the quadrupole plasmon mode that could be involved in the formation of a Fano resonance was also revealed by spatially resolved near-field spectra, but it only contributed little to the total near-field enhancement. On the basis of these findings, we obtained a better understanding of the near-field properties of coupled plasmonic nanostructures, where the plasmon hybridization and the plasmonic Fano resonance were mixed.

  11. Field Testing of an In-Situ Neutron Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Feldman, W. C.; Wiens, R. C.

    2004-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to demonstrate the utility of using in-situ neutron spectroscopy to measure water content on planetary surfaces, we have developed a field site for carrying out neutron spectroscopy measurements. Specifically, our objectives in developing the field site are: 1) Demonstrate in-situ neutron measurements in a realistic field test scenario; 2) Demonstrate our ability to accurately model neutron measurements for various conditions and identify measurement factors that need to be controlled and/or accounted for such as detailed stratigraphy; 3) Provide a field test location for future in-situ neutron measurements using a variety of instrument and soil configurations.

  12. [Childhood diarrhea in rural Nicaragua: beliefs and traditional health practices].

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sánchez, G; Pauw, J; Pérez, R M; Sandiford, P; Smith, G D

    1995-11-01

    In Nicaragua, the principal cause of infant mortality is diarrhea, which is responsible for 40% of these deaths annually. This statistic reflects the low usage of health services and oral rehydration therapy (ORT). In an effort to improve the situation, several studies were carried out in Villa Carlos Fonseca municipio. This report describes two of those studies, one ethnographic and the other epidemiologic (conducted in 1989 and 1990, respectively), to find out beliefs and traditional health practices and their influence on the way in which mothers responded to their children's diarrheal illness. The ethnographic study involved interviewing 70 mothers with an average age of 28 years who had children under 2 years of age. The children represented two groups: one at high risk for diarrhea and the other at low risk. The objectives were to learn the traditional names for diarrhea, the perception of risk, and the treatments that were used. The epidemiologic study included 391 mothers over 14 years of age with one or more children under age 5 years, of whom 215 had had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. The objectives were to describe local beliefs and health practices and to determine the incidence of diarrheas according to the diagnosis made by the mothers. At least 12 types of diarrhea were identified, for which terms such as "empacho" and "sol de vista" were used. In most cases, the mothers had more confidence in folkloric treatments that they themselves or the traditional healers (curanderos) applied than in the services offered at health centers. This attitude limited their use of health services and ORT, although it was observed that in certain cases traditional treatments were used in combination with those of western medicine. There was a direct but nonsignificant correlation between the level of schooling of the mothers and the frequency with which they visited the health center. The authors suggest the effects of massages, herbal baths, and other

  13. Distribution of Thermophilic Acidophiles at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, an Analog for Acid-Sulfate Weathering Environments on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Stephenson, S.; McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.

    2010-04-01

    Cerro Negro, Nicaragua is an excellent terrestrial analog for putative acid-sulfate weathering systems on early Mars. Sulfur- and sulfate-reducing acidophiles are found throughout Cerro Negro and can further elucidate the habitability of early Mars.

  14. Exploring the Role of Field Experience Context in Preservice Teachers' Development as Mathematics Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sandi; Nesmith, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of field experience is supported and attended to by teacher education programs across the United States, there have been numerous national reports and research findings stressing the need for major improvements in the preparation of teachers with an emphasis on more authentic experiences. Quality field experiences have the…

  15. Open the Door, Let's Explore More! Field Trips of Discovery for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redleaf, Rhoda

    Designed as a resource for teachers and parents, this guide contains activities to help children in primary grades learn from walks and field trips. Chapter 1, "Experience and Learning," discusses general information about how young children learn and the contribution of field trips to children's perception, language, memory, and logical…

  16. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  17. Results of the First Astronaut-Rover (ASRO) Field Experiment: Lessons and Directions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Kosmo, J. J.; Trevino, R. C.; Thomas, H.; Eppler, D.; Bualat, M. G.; Baker, K.; Huber, E.; Sierhuis, M.; Grin, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    The first Astronaut-Rover Interaction field experiment (hereafter designated as the ASRO project) took place Feb. 22-27, 1999, in Silver Lake, Mojave Desert, CA. The ASRO project is the result of a joint project between NASA Ames Research Center and Johnson Space Center. In the perspective of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) of the Solar System, this interaction - the astronaut and the rover as a complementary and interactive team - in the field is critical to assess but had never been tested before the Silver Lake experiment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Frontier Fields: Engaging Educators, the Youth, and the Public in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Darnell, John A.; Ryer, Holly

    2015-01-01

    The Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep 'blank fields.' The three-year long collaborative program is led by observations from NASA's Great Observatories. The observations allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein's theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has initiated an education and public outreach (EPO) project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community, the youth, and the public, and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, professional development workshops, and direct interactions with scientists. We are also leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.The Frontier Fields program has just completed its first year. This talk will feature the goals and current status of the Frontier Fields EPO program. We will highlight OPO's strategies and infrastructure

  19. Spanish Language Equivalents for a Glossary of Terms Used in the Field of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    A need was identified for a reference to provide translations into Spanish of terms used in space exploration. A search for such a resource bore no fruit, so the author compiled his own glossary and obtained the translations. It was printed as a Goddard Space Flight Center X Document (X-602-82-11).

  20. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet s surface, and it is the first order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics or remote sensing. These allied sciences, as important as they are, derive the basis of their understanding from the knowledge of the geology of a given location. When we go back to the Moon, and on to Mars, the surface systems we deploy will need to support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture will consider what field geology is about - why it s important, how we do it, how the conduct of field geology informs many other sciences, and how it will affect the design of surface systems and implementation of operations in the future.

  1. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  2. Earth-based rover field testing for exploration mission on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward; Huntsberger, Terry; Baumgartner, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a high-level overview of the last major field operations test conducted in 2002 leading up to the MER mision. Objectives, approach, general results, and lessons learned are discussed.

  3. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  4. Exploring Direct 3D Interaction for Full Horizontal Parallax Light Field Displays Using Leap Motion Controller

    PubMed Central

    Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran; Sodnik, Jaka; Szolgay, Peter; Jakus, Grega

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV) of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work. PMID:25875189

  5. Exploring 360 domain walls in ferromagnetic nanostructures using circular magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarella, Anandakumar; Kaya, F. I.; Aidala, K. E.

    Ferromagnetic nanostructures can exhibit intriguing magnetic states, such as the metastable 360 domain wall (DW), in which two 180 DWs combine to form a nearly flux closed state in sufficiently thin structures. These composite structures have potential to maximize storage densities due to their minimal stray fields. We study a straightforward method to nucleate 360 DWs in nanorings, nanowires, using in-plane circular fields, as if from a current carrying wire passing through the substrate in close proximity to the nanostructures. Our simulations, using OOMMF, predict that the vortex state of a ring with appropriate geometry will reverse from CW to CCW through an intermediate state consisting of pairs of 360 DWs. We examine the dependence of the switching field and intermediate states on geometric properties such as the diameter, thickness, and width of the ring. Using the local circular field, we can also nucleate 360 DWs in nanowires, pinning the location of the DWs at notches spaced as close as 100 nm apart, suggesting high density storage. We are currently studying these structures experimentally using AFM/MFM. We generate the circular field by passing current through AFM tip and image the resulting magnetic states with MFM. NSF Grants No. DMR 1208042 and 1207924. Simulations were run on the Odyssey cluster, Research Computing Group at Harvard.

  6. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Hamilton, Allister B.

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  7. Nutritional analysis of a programme in eastern Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Horner, M R

    1982-01-01

    This discussion describes the impact of a World Food Program (WFP) project on the food consumption of preschool Miskito Indian children in eastern Nicaragua. The data were collected during January, March, and May 1977 by the recall method for the random sample of 252 children ranging in age from 6 months-5 years. 24-hour recalls were obtained from mothers or other persons responsible for childfeeding. Homes were visited once per day in the late afternoon. Food intakes for the 24 hours immediately preceding the interview were recorded using food models and marked dishes as aids. The amount of breastmilk consumed was not estimated. In March, homes of selected children were visited 3 days in succession with 24-hour food intakes recorded for each day. To evaluate the contribution of different food sources to the children's diets, the following classification was used: home--food acquired through the family's own agriculture, hunting, fishing, or gathering, or received as a gift; market--food purchased in village stores or a food combination made with purchased ingredients; mixed--food purchased from another family or a food combination made with ingredients from a mixture of home, market, and National Development Institute (INFONAC) sources; and INFONAC--food items from the INFONAC project or a food combination made from a majority of INFONAC ingredients, which consisted of oatmeal, whole wheat, and dried skim milk. Marked changes occurred in food sources over the 5-month period. Data for January and March were relatively similar but, in May, there was a significant increase in the contribution of INFONAC foods to the consumption of almost all nutrients. This shift was due to a decrease in the availabiltiy of "home" foods as well as to increased consumption of INFONAC foods. The percentage contributions of the 4 different food sources to the diets of Miskito Indian children cannot indicate the actual nutrient adequacy of the food consumed. Total food consumption

  8. Golf Ball Roll Distance: A Field Exercise to Explore Management Factors Affecting Putting Green Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Cale A.; Walker, Kristina S.

    2007-01-01

    Putting greens are the most important golf course use area and regularly draw comments regarding their appearance and playing condition. This field laboratory exercise taught students how to properly measure putting green speed, an important functional characteristic, using a Stimpmeter device that measures golf ball roll distance (BRD).…

  9. Field Studies of Crater Gradation in Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum Using the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Crumpler, L.; Li, R.; Watters, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity investigated numerous craters since landing in Gusev crater (14.569degS, 175.473degE) and Meridiani Planum (1.946degS, 354.473degE) over the first 400 sols of their missions [1-4]. Craters at both sites are simple structures and vary in size and preservation state. Comparing observed and expected pristine morphology and using process-specific gradational signatures around terrestrial craters as a template [5-7] allows distinguishing gradation processes whose relative importance fundamentally differs from those responsible for most crater modification on the Earth.

  10. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from <0 to 5. Adjacent to some fumaroles, silica is being precipitated from condensing steam on the crater walls and endolithic photosynthetic mats are found at 1-2 cm depth within these silica deposits. We have analyzed one of these mats, Monkey Cheek (T=65°C, pH ~4.5), for both Archaeal and Bacterial diversity. Cloning of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes reveals a diverse community of Bacteria, with eight phyla represented. The most common bacterial sequences belonged to the Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted

  11. A Field-Particle Correlation Technique to Explore the Collisionless Damping of Plasma Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Kristopher

    2016-10-01

    The nature of the dominant mechanisms which damp turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations remains an unanswered question in the study of a variety of collisionless plasma systems. Proposed damping mechanisms can be generally, but not exclusively, classified as resonant, e.g. Landau and cyclotron damping, non-resonant, e.g. stochastic ion heating, and intermittent, e.g. energization via current sheets or magnetic reconnection. To determine the role these mechanisms play in turbulent plasmas, we propose the application of field-particle correlations to time series of single spatial point observations of the type typically measured in the solar wind. This correlation, motivated by the form of the collisionless Vlasov equation, is the time averaged product of the factors comprising the nonlinear field-particle interaction term. The correlation both captures the secular transfer of energy between fields and perturbed plasma distributions by averaging out the conservative oscillatory energy transfer, and retains the velocity space structure of the secular transfer, allowing for observational characterization of the damping mechanism. Field-particle correlations are applied to a set of nonlinear kinetic numerical simulations of increasing complexity, including electrostatic, gyrokinetic, and hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell systems. These correlations are shown to capture the secular energy transfer between fields and particles and distinguish between the mechanisms accessible to the chosen system. We conclude with a discussion of the application of this general technique to data from current and upcoming spacecraft missions, including MMS, DSCOVR, Solar Probe Plus and THOR, which should help in determining which damping mechanisms operate in a variety of heliospheric plasmas. This work was performed in collaboration with Gregory Howes, Jason TenBarge, Nuno Loureiro, Ryusuke Numata, Francesco Valetini, Oreste Pezzi, Matt Kunz, Justin Kasper, and Chris Chen, with support from Grants

  12. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  13. Suicide intent among parasuicide patients in Nicaragua: a surveillance and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Caldera, Trinidad; Herrera, Andrés; Kullgren, Gunnar; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2007-01-01

    This study examines suicide intent among parasuicide patients in a low-income country, Nicaragua, with special reference to gender patterns and future suicidal behavior. Using the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), suicide intent was assessed in 204 persons presenting to hospital after parasuicide. Repetition was checked after a mean follow-up period of three years. The total SIS scores did not differ between women and men. However, a higher SIS score among women was significantly associated with older age, having children and use of pesticide as the parasuicide method. The overall method of suicide intent was low in Nicaragua compared to other countries, as was the nonfatal repetition rate (4.8% after three years). Subsequent suicides were found only in three men. Factor structures within the SIS disclosed supported the cross-cultural validity of the instrument. The level of suicide intent at the index attempt did not show any association with future suicidal behavior.

  14. Magnetic field observations on DE-A and -B. [Dynamics Explorer A and B satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farthing, W. H.; Sugiura, M.; Ledley, B. G.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic field observations are conducted on each of the DE-A and -B satellites by a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. In the basic mode the instrumental resolution is + or - 1.5 nT; in addition, the DE-A magnetometer has two modes of higher resolution: + or - 0.25 nT and + or - 20 pT. The sampling rate is 16 vector samples per second in all modes. The experiment objectives include observations of field-aligned currents, magnetospheric equatorial currents, and ULF waves. These observations, taking full advantage of the specifically selected orbits of the two spacecraft and of the unique combination of instruments, are performed to achieve a better understanding of the electrodynamic coupling within the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system and of wave-particle interactions which contribute to the coupling processes.

  15. Improving Regional Security in Central America: Military Engagement Options for Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    peaceful resolution. This group was made up of foreign ministers from Mexico , Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama and was named after Contadora Island, the...from: Martine, George and Guzman, Jose Miguel, UNFPA Country Support Team, Mexico Source: OPS/OMS (1994); CEPAL (1999); OPS-Nicaragua (http...State. Isacson, Adam 1998. Seguridad Cooperativa en Centroamérica. (Cooperative Security in Central America) Diálogo Centro-americano No. 35

  16. Exploring Ultrahigh Magnetic Field Processing of Materials for Developing Customized Microstructures and Enhanced Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, GERALD M.

    2005-03-31

    Thermodynamic calculations based on Gibbs free energy in the magnetization-magnetic intensity-temperature (M-H-T) magnetic equation of state space demonstrate that significantly different phase equilibria may result for those material systems where the product and parent phases exhibit different magnetization responses. These calculations show that the Gibbs free energy is changed by a factor equal to -MdH, where M and H are the magnetization and applied field strength, respectively. Magnetic field processing is directly applicable to a multitude of alloys and compounds for dramatically influencing phase stability and phase transformations. This ability to selectively control microstructural stability and alter transformation kinetics through appropriate selection of the magnetic field strength promises to provide a very robust mechanism for developing and tailoring enhanced microstructures (and even nanostructures through accelerated kinetics) with superior properties for a broad spectrum of material applications. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) Advanced Materials for the Future project, ferrous alloys were studied initially since this alloy family exhibits ferromagnetism over part of its temperature range of stability and therefore would demonstrate the maximum impact of this novel processing mechanism. Additionally, with these ferrous alloys, the high-temperature parent phase, austenite, exhibits a significantly different magnetization response from the potential product phases, ferrite plus carbide or martensite; and therefore, the solid-state transformation behavior of these alloys will be dramatically influenced by the presence of ultrahigh magnetic fields. Finally, a thermodynamic calculation capability (within ThermoCalc for example) was developed during this project to enable parametric studies to be performed to predict the magnitude of the influence of magnetic processing variables on the phase stability (phase diagrams) in

  17. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind

  18. Charting the Interstellar Magnetic Field behind the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Wiktorowicz, S.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D.; Andersson, B. G.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Slavin, J. D.; Hanson, A.; Fu, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The relation between the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) controlling the configuration of the "ribbon" of energetic neutral atoms discovered by IBEX, and the ISMF in deep space, can be probed with polarized starlight. Starlight is polarized in a dichroic interstellar medium formed by interstellar dust grains that are aligned with respect to the ISMF. Our ongoing survey of polarized starlight traces the ISMF within 40 parsecs. The local ISMF direction was evaluated using the weighted means of the linear polarization vectors. The dominant nearby magnetic field direction is within 7.6 (+14.9,-7.6) degrees of the ISMF direction that is traced by the IBEX ribbon. A low level of random magnetic turbulence is obtained from the polarization data that best trace the IBEX ribbon field direction, 9 (+/-1) deg, which explains the continuity of the IBEX ISMF out into space where it can be traced by starlight polarization. The ISMF direction is perpendicular to the velocity of the cloud around the heliosphere, and it orders the kinematics of the other local interstellar clouds. These results are obtained only after a well-defined subset of the polarization data is omitted from the sample. A separate analysis shows that these polarization vectors are oriented toward the upwind direction of the interstellar gas flowing into the heliosphere. This group of polarization data traces an elongated filamentary-type feature that is perpendicular to the hydrogen deflection plane. We suggest a heliosheath origin for the grains that create this polarized feature. One characteristic shown by the polarization and IBEX field directions is that the ribbon ISMF extends to the boundaries of the BICEP2 region where the polarized CMB background has been studied. Inside of the BICEP2 region other nearby magnetic components are also present. The sightline toward the star Capella suggests that the polarization mechanism is very efficient in this nearby cloud.

  19. Exploring Adsorption of Water and Ions on Carbon Surfaces using a Polarizable Force Field.

    PubMed

    Schyman, Patric; Jorgensen, William L

    2013-02-07

    Graphene, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes are of great interest due to their unique properties and diverse applications in biology, molecular electronics, and materials science. Therefore, there is demand for methods that can accurately model the interface between carbon surfaces and their environment. In this letter we compare results for complexes of water, potassium ion, and chloride ion with graphene, carbon nanotube, and fullerene surfaces using a standard non-polarizable force field (OPLS-AA), a polarizable force field (OPLS-AAP), DFT, and ab initio theory. For interactions with water, OPLS-AA with the TIP3P or TIP4P water models describes the interactions with benzene (C(6)H(6)) and coronene (C(24)H(12)) well; however, for acenes larger than circumcoronene (C(54)H(18)) and especially for C(60), the interaction energies are somewhat too weak and polarization is needed. For ions interacting with carbon surfaces, inclusion of polarization is essential, and OPLS-AAP is found to perform well in comparison to the highest-level quantum mechanical methods. Overall, OPLS-AAP provides an accurate and computationally efficient force field for modeling condensed-phase systems featuring carbon surfaces.

  20. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM NEOWISE: AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER FOR SOLAR SYSTEM SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Brandenburg, H.; Conrow, T.; Evans, T.; Fowler, J.; Jarrett, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Wright, E.; Walker, R.; Jedicke, R.; Tholen, D.; Spahr, T.

    2011-04-10

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the WISE data processing system called 'NEOWISE' that allows detection and archiving of moving objects found in the WISE data. NEOWISE has mined the WISE images for a wide array of small bodies in our solar system, including near-Earth objects (NEOs), Main Belt asteroids, comets, Trojans, and Centaurs. By the end of survey operations in 2011 February, NEOWISE identified over 157,000 asteroids, including more than 500 NEOs and {approx}120 comets. The NEOWISE data set will enable a panoply of new scientific investigations.

  1. Charting the Interstellar Magnetic Field causing the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Ribbon of Energetic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Andersson, B.-G.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Slavin, J. D.; Hanson, A. J.; Fu, C.-W.

    2015-12-01

    The interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) near the heliosphere is a fundamental component of the solar galactic environment that can only be studied using polarized starlight. The results of an ongoing survey of the linear polarizations of local stars are analyzed with the goal of linking the ISMF that shapes the heliosphere to the nearby field in interstellar space. We present new results on the direction of the magnetic field within 40 pc obtained from analyzing polarization data using a merit function that determines the field direction that provides the best fit to the polarization data. Multiple magnetic components are identified, including a dominant interstellar field, {B}{POL}, that is aligned with the direction ℓ, b = 36.°2, 49.°0 (±16.°0). Stars tracing {B}{POL} have the same mean distance as stars that do not trace {B}{POL}, but show weaker average polarizations consistent with a smaller column density of polarizing material. {B}{POL} is aligned with the ISMF traced by the IBEX Ribbon to within {7.6}-7.6+14.9 degrees. The variations in the polarization position angle directions derived from the data that best match {B}{POL} indicate a low level of magnetic turbulence, ˜9° ± 1°. The direction of {B}{POL} is obtained after excluding polarization data tracing a separate magnetic structure that appears to be associated with interstellar dust deflected around the heliosphere. The velocities of local interstellar clouds relative to the Local Standard of Rest (LSR) increase with the angles between the LSR velocities and {B}{POL}, indicating that the kinematics of local interstellar material is ordered by the ISMF. The Loop I superbubble that extends close to the Sun contains dust that reddens starlight and whose distance is determined by the color excess E(B - V) of starlight. Polarizations caused by grains aligned with respect to {B}{POL} are consistent with the location of the Sun in the rim of the Loop I superbubble. An angle of {76

  2. Exploring the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice: stories from the field.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Teresa; Howie, Linsey

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses interested in extending their interpersonal and psychotherapeutic skills sometimes undertake postgraduate training in gestalt therapy. Little is known about how this new knowledge and psychotherapeutic skill base informs their practice. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that aimed to explore the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice. Within a framework of narrative inquiry, four psychiatric nurses trained in gestalt therapy were invited to tell their stories of training in a gestalt approach to therapy, and recount their experiences of how it influenced their practice. In keeping with narrative analysis methods, the research findings were presented as a collection of four stories. Eight themes were derived from a thematic analysis conducted within and across the four stories. The discussion of the themes encapsulates the similarities and differences across the storied collection, providing a community and cultural context for understanding the individual stories.

  3. Gender, inequality and Depo-Provera: Constraints on reproductive choice in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Kristin Elizabeth; Dent, Nicolette Jeannette

    2017-04-01

    This article examines the sociocultural determinants of Nicaraguan women's use of Depo-Provera as a means of contraception. The prevalence of Depo-Provera in Nicaragua is high and increasing compared to other Central American countries. Drawing on data from structured interviews with 87 women and from focus groups with 32 women, we show how women's preference for Depo is shaped by both gendered inequalities and socioeconomic constraints. We employ basic statistical tests to analyse correlations between women's marital status and socioeconomic status (SES) with contraceptive use. Our statistical findings show significant associations between use of Depo and both marital status and SES, such that women who are married or in conjugal unions and women with lower SES are more likely to use Depo. To help explain women's use of Depo-Provera in Nicaragua, we situate our findings within the context of gender, culture, and power, reviewing the contested history of Depo-Provera in the developing world and dynamics of gender inequality, which constrain women's contraceptive choices. We conclude with suggestions for reproductive health programming in Nicaragua and beyond, arguing that gender equity and addressing socioeconomic barriers to family planning remain priorities for the achievement of global reproductive health.

  4. Unsuspected Leptospirosis Is a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Wunder, Elsio A.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Flom, Judith E.; Mayorga, Orlando; Woods, Christopher W.; Ko, Albert I.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Matute, Armando J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemic severe leptospirosis was recognized in Nicaragua in 1995, but unrecognized epidemic and endemic disease remains unstudied. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the burden of and risk factors associated with symptomatic leptospirosis in Nicaragua, we prospectively studied patients presenting with fever at a large teaching hospital. Epidemiologic and clinical features were systematically recorded, and paired sera tested by IgM-ELISA to identify patients with probable and possible acute leptospirosis. Microscopic Agglutination Test and PCR were used to confirm acute leptospirosis. Among 704 patients with paired sera tested by MAT, 44 had acute leptospirosis. Patients with acute leptospirosis were more likely to present during rainy months and to report rural residence and fresh water exposure. The sensitivity of clinical impression and acute-phase IgM detected by ELISA were poor. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis is a common (6.3%) but unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in Nicaragua. Rapid point-of-care tests to support early diagnosis and treatment as well as tests to support population-based studies to delineate the epidemiology, incidence, and clinical spectrum of leptospirosis, both ideally pathogen-based, are needed. PMID:25058149

  5. Exploring solvent effects upon the Menshutkin reaction using a polarizable force field.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Orlando; Jorgensen, William L

    2010-07-01

    The energetics of the Menshutkin reaction between triethylamine and ethyl iodide have been computed using B3LYP and MP2 with the LANL2DZ, LANL2DZd, SVP, MIDI!, 6-311G(d,p), and aug-cc-PVTZ basis sets. Small- and large-core energy-consistent relativistic pseudopotentials were employed. Solvent effect corrections were computed from QM/MM Monte Carlo simulations utilizing free-energy perturbation theory, PDDG/PM3, and both a nonpolarizable OPLS and polarizable OPLS-AAP force field. The B3LYP/MIDI! theory level provided the best DeltaG(++) values with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 4.9 kcal/mol from experiment in cyclohexane, CCl(4), THF, DMSO, acetonitrile, water, and methanol. However, the relative rates in cyclohexane, and to a certain extent CCl(4), were determined to be greatly underestimated when using the nonpolarizable OPLS force field. An overall reduction in the MAE to 3.1 kcal/mol using B3LYP/MIDI!/OPLS-AAP demonstrated the need for a fully polarizable force field when computing solvent effects for highly dipolar transition structures in low-dielectric media. The MAEs obtained with PDDG/PM3/OPLS and OPLS-AAP of 5.3 and 3.8 kcal/mol, respectively, provided comparable results to B3LYP at a fraction of the computational resources. The large rate accelerations observed in the reaction were correlated to an increased stabilization of the emerging charge separation at the transition state via favorable solute-solvent interactions.

  6. The Mobile Agents 2005 Field Test at MDRS: Planning for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maaretn; Alena, Rick; Berrios, Dan; Dowding John; Garry, Brent; Graham, Jeff; Hirsh, Rob; Rupert, Shannon; Semple, Abigail; vanHoof, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Society s Desert Research Station (MDRS) Rotation 38, April 3-17, 2005, was dedicated to field tests of NASA's Mobile Agents EVA communications system. MDRS provided an excellent, cost-effective venue for bringing together eighteen scientists and engineers from NASA Ames and Johnson Space Center, in an intensive two weeks of system integration and experiments. The Mobile Agents architecture and collaborative engineering methodology provides a flexible toolkit for configuring extravehicular activity (EVA) components, visualizing and formalizing EVA plans, and automating key supervisory functions.

  7. Mars Exploration Rover Field Observations of Impact Craters at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum and Implications for Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers have provided a field geologist's perspective of impact craters in various states of degradation along their traverses at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. This abstract will describe the craters observed and changes to the craters that constrain the erosion rates and the climate [l]. Changes to craters on the plains of Gusev argue for a dry and desiccating environment since the Late Hesperian in contrast to the wet and likely warm environment in the Late Noachian at Meridiani in which the sulfate evaporites were deposited in salt-water playas or sabkhas.

  8. Exploring assumptions about child neglect in relation to the broader field of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Polonko, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    Research on child neglect is reviewed as it relates to common assumptions in the field, the broader context of research on child maltreatment and trends within the larger society. Overall, while child Research on child neglect is reviewed as it relates to common assumptions in the field, the broader context of research on child maltreatment and trends within the larger society. Overall, while child neglect is the type of maltreatment most frequently reported to and acted on by official agencies, its proportion of all maltreatment in the general population is comparatively smaller. The issue.of "neglect of neglect" is placed within the larger framework of the low priority of research on child maltreatment in general. While research shows that all forms of child maltreatment are associated with devastating consequences for children, child physical neglect has the most profound effects on cognitive functioning and academic achievement, while child physical abuse has the most serious effects on aggression and subsequent violent behavior. Child emotional neglect, sexual and physical abuse have similarly grave effects on psychopathology, in contrast to child physical neglect which is associated with the least adverse consequences. These findings are discussed within the framework of research on the neurodevelopmental effects of child abuse and neglect. Research on the causes of child neglect, in particular as they relate to the perpetrators, points to a distressing "cycle of neglect." Finally, suggestions for breaking this cycle and keeping our children safe are discussed.

  9. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread poleward to very high latitudes, (the type of a pattern referred to as a 'horse-collar' aurora by Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use a DE data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager while at the same time the DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. There is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2-D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  10. Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices.

    PubMed

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Abreu, Corina; Hossain, Mohammad B; Altisent, Rosa; Brunton, Nigel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-03-02

    The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1-4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100-1500), pulse frequency (10-200 Hz) and pulse width (10-30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001) the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%), FaDOH (164.9%) and FaDOAc (166.8%) levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.

  11. Exploration of the electron multiple recollision dynamics in intense laser fields with Bohmian trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-06-01

    Electron multiple recollision dynamics under intense midinfrared laser fields is studied by means of the de Broglie-Bohm framework of Bohmian mechanics. Bohmian trajectories contain all the information embedded in the time-dependent wave function. This makes the method suitable to investigate the coherent dynamic processes for which the phase information is crucial. In this study, the appearance of the subpeaks in the high-harmonic-generation time-frequency profiles and the asymmetric fine structures in the above-threshold ionization spectrum are analyzed by the comprehensive and intuitive picture provided by Bohmian mechanics. The time evolution of the individual electron trajectories is closely studied to address some of the major structural features of the photoelectron angular distributions.

  12. Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals of the Geysers Steam Field, California and their Potential Use in Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Diane

    1980-12-16

    Little information has been published on the hydrothermal alteration minerals occurring at depth in the Geysers steam field, California. Steiner (1958) reported the occurrence of wairakite from a well; McNitt (1964) identified pyrite, sericite, calcite, quartz, siderite, apatite and chlorite in cores of Franciscan graywacke and greenstone. Recently, Union Oil Geothermal Division furnished a set of well cores from the cap rock overlying the steam reservoir for geophysical studies (Lockner -e t -a l . , 1980). Cores of metagraywacke and greenstone from 4 wells were compared to unaltered Franciscan metagraywacke from surface exposures. Several previously unreported alteration minerals were found in the cored rocks, including epidote, tremolite-actinolite, prehnite and tourmaline. This note describes the observed alteration minerals and some of the factors that controlled their growth.

  13. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375kgN/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH4 mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO2, and N2O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO2 flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH4 flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N2O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225kgN/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO2-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89t/ha in paddy fields.

  14. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of volcanic acid-sulfate alteration in Nicaragua: Analogs for early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, Emma C.; Hynek, Brian M.; Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Rogers, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    Acid-sulfate weathering at Nicaraguan hydrothermal sites Cerro Negro, Momotombo, and Telica volcanoes and Hervidores de San Jacinto mudpots was characterized as an analog for similar processes that likely operated on early Mars. In situ mineralogical analyses were conducted with a field portable visible near-infrared spectrometer for comparison to similar Martian data sets. Three classes of alteration minerals were identified: sulfates (gypsum and natroalunite), oxides/hydroxides (hematite and goethite), and phyllosilicates (kaolinite/halloysite, montmorillonite, and saponite), as well as elemental sulfur and hydrated silica phases. Our sites had similar suites of minerals, but frequencies varied with location. The results of this field campaign allow inferences regarding the paleo-environmental conditions that were likely present at similar relic hydrothermal sites identified on Mars. In particular, sulfates and phyllosilicates could have coevolved under hydrothermal conditions at Noctis Labyrinthus as is seen in Nicaragua. Fe/Mg smectites were detected in areas with pH of 3-4. Alunite spectra at Terra Sirenum demonstrated mineral mixing effects on spectroscopy. Mineral mixing can cause uncertainties in spectral identification due to a dominant spectrum, such as iron minerals, masking another or the suppression of weaker bands. When viewed from orbit, our field sites would likely be dominated by hydrated silica and Mars sites, such as one in Syrtis Major, could have a more diverse mineralogy than the data reveal. Concentrated amorphous silica, such as at Gusev crater, can result from acidic fumarolic activity, while Mg sulfates may indicate a lack of reworking by water. This field spectroscopy study helps confirm and provide insight into hydrothermal processes on ancient Mars.

  15. The Importance of Being First: Exploring Priority and Diversity Effects in a Grassland Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Weidlich, Emanuela W. A.; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Delory, Benjamin M.; Blossfeld, Stephan; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky M.

    2017-01-01

    Diversity of species and order of arrival can have strong effects on ecosystem functioning and community composition, but these two have rarely been explicitly combined in experimental setups. We measured the effects of both species diversity and order of arrival on ecosystem function and community composition in a grassland field experiment, thus combining biodiversity and assembly approaches. We studied the effect of order of arrival of three plant functional groups (PFGs: grasses, legumes, and non-leguminous forbs) and of sowing low and high diversity seed mixtures (9 or 21 species) on species composition and aboveground biomass. The experiment was set up in two different soil types. Differences in PFG order of arrival affected the biomass, the number of species and community composition. As expected, we found higher aboveground biomass when sowing legumes before the other PFGs, but this effect was not continuous over time. We did not find a positive effect of sown diversity on aboveground biomass (even if it influenced species richness as expected). No interaction were found between the two studied factors. We found that sowing legumes first may be a good method for increasing productivity whilst maintaining diversity of central European grasslands, although the potential for long-lasting effects needs further study. In addition, the mechanisms behind the non-continuous priority effects we found need to be further researched, taking weather and plant-soil feedbacks into account. PMID:28119707

  16. Exploring Dust Impacts on Tropical Systems from the NASA HS-3 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowottnick, Ed; Colarco, Pete; da Silva, Arlindo; Barahona, Donifan; Hlavka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    One of the overall scientific goals of the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS-3) field campaign is to better understand the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in tropical storm development. During the 2012 HS-3 deployment, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) observed dust within SAL air in close proximity to a developing Nadine (September 11, 2012). Throughout the mission, the NASA GEOS-5 modeling system supported HS-3 by providing 0.25 degrees resolution 5-day global forecasts of aerosols, which were used to support mission planning. The aerosol module was radiatively interactive within the GEOS-5 model, but aerosols were not directly coupled to cloud and precipitation processes. In this study we revisit the aerosol forecasts with an updated version of the GEOS-5 model. For the duration of Hurricane Nadine, we run multiday climate simulations leading up to each respective Global Hawk flight with and without aerosol direct interaction. For each set of simulations, we compare simulated dust mass fluxes to identify differences in SAL entrainment related to the interaction between dust aerosols and the atmosphere. We find that the direct effects of dust induce a low level anticyclonic circulation that temporarily shields Nadine from the intrusion of dry air, leading to a more intense storm.

  17. Exploring field vegetation reflectance as an indicator of soil contamination in river floodplains.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, L; Salas, E A L; Clevers, J G P W; Wehrens, R; Leuven, R S E W; Nienhuis, P H; Buydens, L M C

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between vegetation reflectance and elevated concentrations of the metals Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb in river floodplain soils. High-resolution vegetation reflectance spectra in the visible to near-infrared (400-1350 nm) were obtained using a field radiometer. The relations were evaluated using simple linear regression in combination with two spectral vegetation indices: the Difference Vegetation Index (DVI) and the Red-Edge Position (REP). In addition, a multivariate regression approach using partial least squares (PLS) regression was adopted. The three methods achieved comparable results. The best R(2) values for the relation between metals concentrations and vegetation reflectance were obtained for grass vegetation and ranged from 0.50 to 0.73. Herbaceous species displayed a larger deviation from the established relationships, resulting in lower R(2) values and larger cross-validation errors. The results corroborate the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing to contribute to the survey of elevated metal concentrations in floodplain soils under grassland using the spectral response of the vegetation as an indicator. Additional constraints will, however, have to be taken into account, as results are resolution- and location-dependent.

  18. Exploring combined dark and bright field illumination to improve the detection of defects on specular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Paulo M. F.; Felgueiras, P. E. R.; Ferreira, Flávio P.; Sousa, M. A.; Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J.; Bret, Boris P. J.; Belsley, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    An automatic optical inspection system for detecting local defects on specular surfaces is presented. The system uses an image display to produce a sequence of structured diffuse illumination patterns and a digital camera to acquire the corresponding sequence of images. An image enhancement algorithm, which measures the local intensity variations between bright- and dark-field illumination conditions, yields a final image in which the defects are revealed with a high contrast. Subsequently, an image segmentation algorithm, which compares statistically the enhanced image of the inspected surface with the corresponding image for a defect-free template, allows separating defects from non-defects with an adjusting decision threshold. The method can be applied to shiny surfaces of any material including metal, plastic and glass. The described method was tested on the plastic surface of a car dashboard system. We were able to detect not only scratches but also dust and fingerprints. In our experiment we observed a detection contrast increase from about 40%, when using an extended light source, to more than 90% when using a structured light source. The presented method is simple, robust and can be carried out with short cycle times, making it appropriate for applications in industrial environments.

  19. The Importance of Being First: Exploring Priority and Diversity Effects in a Grassland Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, Emanuela W A; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Delory, Benjamin M; Blossfeld, Stephan; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky M

    2016-01-01

    Diversity of species and order of arrival can have strong effects on ecosystem functioning and community composition, but these two have rarely been explicitly combined in experimental setups. We measured the effects of both species diversity and order of arrival on ecosystem function and community composition in a grassland field experiment, thus combining biodiversity and assembly approaches. We studied the effect of order of arrival of three plant functional groups (PFGs: grasses, legumes, and non-leguminous forbs) and of sowing low and high diversity seed mixtures (9 or 21 species) on species composition and aboveground biomass. The experiment was set up in two different soil types. Differences in PFG order of arrival affected the biomass, the number of species and community composition. As expected, we found higher aboveground biomass when sowing legumes before the other PFGs, but this effect was not continuous over time. We did not find a positive effect of sown diversity on aboveground biomass (even if it influenced species richness as expected). No interaction were found between the two studied factors. We found that sowing legumes first may be a good method for increasing productivity whilst maintaining diversity of central European grasslands, although the potential for long-lasting effects needs further study. In addition, the mechanisms behind the non-continuous priority effects we found need to be further researched, taking weather and plant-soil feedbacks into account.

  20. Fielding a current idea: exploring the public health impact of electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    Several publications in the scientific literature have raised concern about the individual and public health impact of adverse non-ionizing radiation (a-NIR) from electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure emanating from certain power, electrical and wireless devices commonly found in the home, workplace, school and community. Despite the many challenges in establishing irrefutable scientific proof of harm and the various gaps in elucidating the precise mechanisms of harm, epidemiological analyses continue to suggest considerable potential for injury and affliction as a result of a-NIR exposure. As environmental health has not been emphasized in medical education, some clinicians are not fully aware of possible EMF-related health problems and, as a result, manifestations of a-NIR may remain misdiagnosed and ineffectually managed. It is important for physicians and public health officials to be aware of the fundamental science and clinical implications of EMF exposure. A review of the scientific literature relating to the link between electromagnetic radiation and human health, several public health recommendations, and four case histories are presented for consideration.

  1. Field-Programmable Gate Array Computer in Structural Analysis: An Initial Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Brown, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an initial assessment of using a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) computational device as a new tool for solving structural mechanics problems. A FPGA is an assemblage of binary gates arranged in logical blocks that are interconnected via software in a manner dependent on the algorithm being implemented and can be reprogrammed thousands of times per second. In effect, this creates a computer specialized for the problem that automatically exploits all the potential for parallel computing intrinsic in an algorithm. This inherent parallelism is the most important feature of the FPGA computational environment. It is therefore important that if a problem offers a choice of different solution algorithms, an algorithm of a higher degree of inherent parallelism should be selected. It is found that in structural analysis, an 'analog computer' style of programming, which solves problems by direct simulation of the terms in the governing differential equations, yields a more favorable solution algorithm than current solution methods. This style of programming is facilitated by a 'drag-and-drop' graphic programming language that is supplied with the particular type of FPGA computer reported in this paper. Simple examples in structural dynamics and statics illustrate the solution approach used. The FPGA system also allows linear scalability in computing capability. As the problem grows, the number of FPGA chips can be increased with no loss of computing efficiency due to data flow or algorithmic latency that occurs when a single problem is distributed among many conventional processors that operate in parallel. This initial assessment finds the FPGA hardware and software to be in their infancy in regard to the user conveniences; however, they have enormous potential for shrinking the elapsed time of structural analysis solutions if programmed with algorithms that exhibit inherent parallelism and linear scalability. This potential warrants further

  2. Exploring wildfire impact on post-fire runoff water quality: field and laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Acharya, K.; Miller, J.; Berli, M.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have complex effects on physical and chemical properties of soil and post-fire runoff. Water quality issues in the post-fire runoff may have caused catastrophic events in aquatic ecosystem in the Virgin River in Southwestern U.S. To examined the mechanisms of the impact of wildfire on post-fire runoff water quality, field sampling and experiments were conducted on surfaces of various fuel types at a burned site in the Virgin River Watershed. Rainfall simulation tests were performed to generate runoff for water quality test including in-situ DO and pH measurement and laboratory tests on a number of water quality constituents. Soil/ash samples collected from burned surfaces were applied in a laboratory test to produce solutions of different concentrations and DO changes over a 24-hour period were measured. Results confirmed that, for runoff carrying large amounts of sediment or debris, DO values can be substantially reduced to a level close to or lower than 5 mg/L. Fire effects may enhance this trend, but is not necessarily a critical reason for the reduction of DO levels. Laboratory runoff and soil sample analysis show that the post-fire runoff in this watershed may contain a large amount of ammonia (NH3 and NH4+). The concentration of ammonia can be higher than the lethal level to many (if not all) fish species. Fire effects appear to have a significant impact on the ammonia level, which lead to an increase of several times to one order of magnitude in the ammonia concentration in the runoff or soil solution under burned conditions. These results provide information to better understand post-fire water quality in this and similar watersheds.

  3. Paper 58714 - Exploring activated faults hydromechanical processes from semi-controled field injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Nussbaum, C.

    2015-12-01

    The appreciation of the sensitivity of fractures and fault zones to fluid-induced-deformations in the subsurface is a key question in predicting the reservoir/caprock system integrity around fluid manipulations with applications to reservoir leakage and induced seismicity. It is also a question of interest in understanding earthquakes source, and recently the hydraulic behavior of clay faults under a potential reactivation around nuclear underground depository sites. Fault and fractures dynamics studies face two key problems (1) the up-scaling of laboratory determined properties and constitutive laws to the reservoir scale which is not straightforward when considering faults and fractures heterogeneities, (2) the difficulties to control both the induced seismicity and the stimulated zone geometry when a fault is reactivated. Using instruments dedicated to measuring coupled pore pressures and deformations downhole, we conducted field academic experiments to characterize fractures and fault zones hydromechanical properties as a function of their multi-scale architecture, and to monitor their dynamic behavior during the earthquake nucleation process. We show experiments on reservoir or cover rocks analogues in underground research laboratories where experimental conditions can be optimized. Key result of these experiments is to highlight how important the aseismic fault activation is compared to the induced seismicity. We show that about 80% of the fault kinematic moment is aseismic and discuss the complex associated fault friction coefficient variations. We identify that the slip stability and the slip velocity are mainly controlled by the rate of the permeability/porosity increase, and discuss the conditions for slip nucleation leading to seismic instability.

  4. Full Field X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging Using Micro Pore Optics for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Gailhanou, M.; Walter, P.; Schyns, E.; Marchis, F.; Thompson, K.; Bristow, T.

    2016-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave evidence as small features in the sub-millimetre scale. Current planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometers lack the spatial resolution to analyse such small features as they only provide global analyses of areas greater than 100 mm(exp 2). A micro-XRF spectrometer will be deployed on the NASA Mars 2020 rover to analyse spots as small as 120m. When using its line-scanning capacity combined to perpendicular scanning by the rover arm, elemental maps can be generated. We present a new instrument that provides full-field XRF imaging, alleviating the need for precise positioning and scanning mechanisms. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer - "Map-X" - will allow elemental imaging with approximately 100µm spatial resolution and simultaneously provide elemental chemistry at the scale where many relict physical, chemical and biological features can be imaged in ancient rocks. The arm-mounted Map-X instrument is placed directly on the surface of an object and held in a fixed position during measurements. A 25x25 mm(exp 2) surface area is uniformly illuminated with X-rays or alpha-particles and gamma-rays. A novel Micro Pore Optic focusses a fraction of the emitted X-ray fluorescence onto a CCD operated at a few frames per second. On board processing allows measuring the energy and coordinates of each X-ray photon collected. Large sets of frames are reduced into 2d histograms used to compute higher level data products such as elemental maps and XRF spectra from selected regions of interest. XRF spectra are processed on the ground to further determine quantitative elemental compositions. The instrument development will be presented with an emphasis on the characterization and modelling of the X-ray focussing Micro Pore Optic. An outlook on possible alternative XRF imaging applications will be discussed.

  5. Field Observations of Methane Emissions from Unconventional and Conventional Fossil Fuel Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M.; Lindenmaier, R.; Arata, C.; Costigan, K. R.; Frankenberg, C.; Kort, E. A.; Rahn, T. A.; Henderson, B. G.; Love, S. P.; Aubrey, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Energy from methane (CH4) has lower carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions per unit energy produced than coal or oil making it a desirable fossil fuel. Hydraulic fracturing is allowing United States to harvest the nation's abundant domestic shale gas reservoirs to achieve energy independence. However, CH4 is a gas that is hard to contain during mining, processing, transport and end-use. Therefore fugitive CH4 leaks occur that are reported in bottom up inventories by the EPA. Recent targeted field observations at selected plays have provided top down CH4 leak estimates that are larger than the reported EPA inventories. Furthermore, no long-term regional baselines are available to delineate leaks from unconventional mining operations from historical conventional mining. We will report and compare observations of fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional and unconventional mining to understand changes from technology shifts. We will report in situ and regional column measurements of CH4, its isotopologue 13CH4 and ethane (C2H6) at our Four Corners site near Farmington, NM. The region has substantial coal bed methane, conventional oil and gas production, processing and distribution with minimal hydraulic fracturing activity. We observe large enhancements in in situ and regional column CH4 with distinct time dependence. Our in situ 13CH4 observations and remote C2H6/CH4 provide strong evidence of thermogenic sources. Comparisons of WRF-simulations with emissions inventory (Edgar) with our observations show that the fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional mining are 3 times greater than reported. We also compare in situ mobile surveys of fugitive CH4 and 13CH4 leak signals in basins with conventional (San Juan) mining and unconventional (Permian and Powder River) mining. A large number of active and closed wells were sampled in these regions. Furthermore, play scale surveys on public roads allowed us to gain a regional perspective. The composition of atmospheric 13CH4

  6. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric exploration of Tenerife geothermal field (Canary Islands, Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña-Varas, Perla; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Bellmunt, Fabián; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Several magnetotelluric (MT) surveys have been carried out to investigate the geothermal system in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). These data have been acquired since 1987 till 2012 by different agencies and institutions. In 1987 and 1991, two MT surveys were carried out by the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME). These data in paper format (129 MT sites in total) were collected and digitized. In October 2009, 83 stations were acquired for Petratherm Ltd., and 25 stations in March 2012 by the University of Barcelona. In total, 237 MT stations distributed around the island center are available for this study. A simplified conceptual model of the island using known geological and geophysical data has been created to identify the ocean and topography effects on the MT data. The typical conceptual model of a generic high temperature volcanic geothermal system (Cumming, 2009a; Pellerin, 1996) and the 1D models from the MT data have played a key role for the correct construction of this conceptual model. Synthetic forward modeling was performed on a set of models to determine the effect of topography and of the conductive Atlantic Ocean. Finally, a 3D resistivity model of Tenerife Island has been computed with modEM code (Egbert and Kelbert, 2012). Out of the 237 MT sites available, 87 stations were discarded because of computational capability problems. Thus, for this new 3D model, 150 MT sites have been taking into account from the different field surveys. The model is discrtized on 94x65x133-layer grid and the inversions are undertaken using the off-diagonal components (Zxy, Zyx) of the impedance tensor for 16 periods in the frequency range from 1000 to 0.1 Hz. In the inversion processing we assumed a 5% error floor in the impedance components and the final RMS is 3.5. The 3D inversion model shows the typical layered pattern expected from a volcanic complex (andesite, basalt) with a possible geothermal overprint; a resistive fresh volcanic structure near the

  7. Comprehensive theoretical analysis and experimental exploration of ultrafast microchip-based high-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingfeng; Wang, Yonghuan; Chen, Chilai; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, Jikui

    2015-06-01

    High-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) has become an efficient technique for separation and characterization of gas-phase ions at ambient pressure, which utilizes the mobility differences of ions at high and low fields. Micro FAIMS devices made by micro-electromechanical system technology have small gaps of the channels, high electric field and good installation precision, as thus they have received great attentions. However, the disadvantage of relatively low resolution limits their applications in some areas. In this study, theoretical analysis and experimental exploration were carried out to overcome the disadvantage. Multiple scans, characteristic decline curves of ion transmission and pattern recognitions were proposed to improve the performance of the microchip-based FAIMS. The results showed that although micro FAIMS instruments as a standalone chemical analyzer suffer from low resolution, by using one or more of the methods proposed, they can identify chemicals precisely and provide quantitative analysis with low detection limit in some applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Recent Advances and Field Trial Results Integrating Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography with Other Data Sources for Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, D.

    2015-12-01

    CRM GeoTomography Technologies, Inc. is leading the way in applying muon tomography to discovery and definition of dense ore bodies for mineral exploration and resource estimation. We have successfully imaged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits at mines in North America using our suite of field-proven muon tracking detectors, and are at various stages of development for other applications. Recently we developed in-house inversion software that integrates data from assays, surface and borehole gravity, and underground muon flux measurements. We have found that the differing geophysical data sources provide complementary information and that dramatic improvements in inversion results are attained using various inversion performance metrics related to the excess tonnage of the mineral deposits, as well as their spatial extents and locations. This presentation will outline field tests of muon tomography performed by CRM Geotomography in some real world examples, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of joint muon tomography, assay and gravity inversion techniques in field tests (where data are available) and in simulations.

  9. On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

  10. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Leisawitz, David

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  11. Rigorous electromagnetic field simulation of two-beam interference exposures for the exploration of double patterning and double exposure scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Schnattinger, Thomas; Xu, Cheng-Bai; Szmanda, Chuck

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of double patterning and double exposure technologies, especially in combination with hyper NA, increases the importance of wafer topography phenomena. Rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) simulations of two beam interference exposures over non-planar wafers are used to explore the impact of the hardmask material and pattern on resulting linewidths and swing curves after the second lithography step. Moreover, the impact of the optical material contrast between the frozen and unfrozen resist in a pattern freezing process and the effect of a reversible contrast enhancement layer on the superposition of two subsequent lithographic exposures are simulated. The described simulation approaches can be used for the optimization of wafer stack configurations for double patterning and to identify appropriate optical material properties for alternative double patterning and double exposure techniques.

  12. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of Young Stellar Objects in the Lynds 1509 Dark Cloud in Auriga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Wilson M.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Leisawitz, David

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  13. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-01-20

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  14. Spectal Responsivity Calibration of the Large Format Si:As FPAs in the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J.; Sevilla, P.; Gibbons, W.; Herter, T.

    1998-09-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) is a small cryogenic spaceborne infrared telescope being readied for launch in September 1998 as the fifth of NASA's Small Explorers. WIRE illuminates two 128 x 128 Si:As Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) produced by Boeing North American with a 30 cm diameter Ritchey Cretien diamond turned mirror system. A dichroic beam splitter and band-pass filter define two broad pass bands for a deep pointed survey to search for protogalaxies and to study the evolution of starburst galaxies. The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University (SDL/USU) measured the spectral responsivity of the WIRE sensor using the SDL multifunction infrared calibrator (MIC2) and a step- scan interferometer. The primary objective of the spectral responsivity calibration was the array-average relative spectral responsivity (RSR) measurement of each WIRE FPA under nominal operating conditions. The array-average RSR measurement is composed of two parts, a high spectral resolution in-band measurement and an out-of-band measurement that extended the noise floor of the RSR measurement outside the WIRE spectral passbands to approximately 1E-5 of the in-band peak. In addition to the array average RSR at nominal operating conditions, SDL personnel also investigated the WIRE RSR sensitivity to FPA position, temperature and bias voltage. The WIRE spectral calibration method is described, and the results are presented.

  15. The role of the right frontal eye field in overt visual attention deployment as assessed by free visual exploration.

    PubMed

    Cazzoli, Dario; Jung, Simon; Nyffeler, Thomas; Nef, Tobias; Wurtz, Pascal; Mosimann, Urs P; Müri, René M

    2015-07-01

    The frontal eye field (FEF) is known to be involved in saccade generation and visual attention control. Studies applying covert attentional orienting paradigms have shown that the right FEF is involved in attentional shifts to both the left and the right hemifield. In the current study, we aimed at examining the effects of inhibitory continuous theta burst (cTBS) transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right FEF on overt attentional orienting, as measured by a free visual exploration paradigm. In forty-two healthy subjects, free visual exploration of naturalistic pictures was tested in three conditions: (1) after cTBS over the right FEF; (2) after cTBS over a control site (vertex); and, (3) without any stimulation. The results showed that cTBS over the right FEF-but not cTBS over the vertex-triggered significant changes in the spatial distribution of the cumulative fixation duration. Compared to the group without stimulation and the group with cTBS over the vertex, cTBS over the right FEF decreased cumulative fixation duration in the left and in the right peripheral regions, and increased cumulative fixation duration in the central region. The present study supports the view that the right FEF is involved in the bilateral control of not only covert, but also of overt, peripheral visual attention.

  16. Prevalence of and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in rural Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Julie K.; Tobey, Matthew; Stevens, Lesley A.; Johnson, Sarah; Stringham, Peter; Cohen, Bruce; Brooks, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Mostly anecdotal reports describe a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in northwestern Nicaragua, predominantly among younger men, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. The true prevalence, nature and aetiology of kidney disease in this region remain unknown. Methods. We performed a population-based prevalence study in Quezalguaque, Nicaragua to assess the frequency of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and compared the prevalence of reduced eGFR in Quezalguaque with the USA using the NHANES 1999–2006 data. We also conducted an embedded case–control study in a subset of participants to assess kidney disease risk factors. Results. From 1882 eligible households, 771 individuals from 300 households participated in the prevalence study, 98 (13%) of whom had reduced eGFR. Reduced eGFR was more common among older participants, men and participants living at lower altitudes. Among 18–29-year-old participants, 2.6% had reduced eGFR, and among 30–41-year-old participants, 7.4% had reduced eGFR; this compares with 0.2% and 0.8%, respectively, in NHANES. No individuals in these age groups were diabetic. Among cases, only 27% had dipstick proteinuria of 1+ or greater, compared with 7% of controls. Haematuria did not significantly differ between cases and controls (24% versus 18%). In age- and sex-adjusted models, hypertension and residence at lower altitude were independently associated with reduced eGFR, while occupational history was not associated with reduced eGFR. Conclusions. Kidney disease appears common in residents of Quezalguaque, Nicaragua, particularly in younger men, with features most consistent with tubulointerstitial disease. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes of kidney disease in this region. PMID:20615905

  17. Prevalence of obesity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption by socioeconomic status among six communities in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors (overweight/obesity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption) and identify correlations between these and sociodemographic characteristics in western and central Nicaragua. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1 355 participants from six communities in Nicaragua conducted in September 2007–July 2009. Demographic and NCD risk-related health behavior information was collected from each individual, and their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, diabetes status, and renal function were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and (non-stratified and stratified) logistic regression models. Results Of the 1 355 study participants, 22.0% were obese and 55.1% were overweight/obese. Female sex, higher income, and increasing age were significantly associated with obesity. Among men, lifelong urban living correlated with obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 4.39, 1.18–16.31). Of the total participants, 31.3% reported ever smoking tobacco and 47.7% reported ever drinking alcohol. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were strikingly more common among men (OR = 13.0, 8.8–19.3 and 15.6, 10.7–22.6, respectively) and lifelong urban residents (OR = 2.42, 1.31–4.47 and 4.10, 2.33–7.21, respectively). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of obesity/overweight across all income levels. Women were much more likely to be obese, but men had higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The rising prevalence of NCD risk factors among even the poorest subjects suggests that an epidemiologic transition in underway in western and central Nicaragua whereby NCD prevalence is shifting to all segments of society. Raising awareness that health clinics can be used for chronic conditions needs to be priority. PMID:23183562

  18. Predominance of Norovirus and Sapovirus in Nicaragua after Implementation of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Reyes, Yaoska; Svensson, Lennart; Nordgren, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite significant reduction of rotavirus (RV) infections following implementation of RotaTeq vaccination in Nicaragua, a large burden of patients with diarrhea persists. Methods We conducted a community- and hospital-based study of the burden of RV, norovirus (NV) and sapovirus (SV) infections as cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis (GE) among 330 children ≤ 5 years of age between September 2009 and October 2010 in two major cities of Nicaragua with a RotaTeq coverage rate of 95%. Results We found that NV, SV and RV infections altogether accounted for 45% of cases of GE. Notably, NV was found in 24% (79/330) of the children, followed by SV (17%, 57/330) and RV (8%, 25/330). The detection rate in the hospital setting was 27%, 15% and 14% for NV, SV and RV respectively, whereas in the community setting the detection rate of RV was < 1%. Among each of the investigated viruses one particular genogroup or genotype was dominant; GII.4 (82%) for NV, GI (46%) for SV and G1P[8] (64%) in RV. These variants were also found in higher proportions in the hospital setting compared to the community setting. The GII.4.2006 Minerva strain circulating globally since 2006 was the most common among genotyped NV in this study, with the GII.4-2010 New Orleans emerging in 2010. Conclusions This study shows that NV has become the leading viral cause of gastroenteritis at hospital and community settings in Nicaragua after implementation of RV vaccination. PMID:24849288

  19. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A. E-mail: alberto@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: karl.r.stapelfeldt@nasa.gov

    2011-09-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg{sup 2}. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a {approx}260 deg{sup 2} region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  20. Happiness among poor women victims of intimate partner violence in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rivas, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes various aspects of overall happiness expressed by 136 women in poverty who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Nicaragua, a country with low levels of development. The information was gathered using a structured interview. Results obtained show that despite the hardships they face, one half of the women in poverty who are victims of IPV say they are happy, and the vast majority are optimistic about their future. The main sources of happiness among the interviewees are in areas outside their economic life and are mainly associated with social relations.

  1. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  2. Introduction and Establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control. PMID:26335479

  3. The Role of Water in Arc Magmatism in Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, S. J.; Hoernle, K.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Central American Volcanic Arc provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of varying subduction parameters on arc magma geochemistry. Here we examine melt inclusions trapped in olivine phenocrysts in young mafic tephras from the active arc segments in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These segments of the subduction zone provide starkly contrasting situations with differing oceanic crustal input (East Pacific Rise vs. oceanic crust overprinted by the Galapagos hot spot) and slab dip ( ˜70° vs. ˜30° ) in Nicaragua and Costa Rica respectively. We collected major-, trace-, and volatile-element concentration data from olivine-hosted (Fo68-87) melt inclusions from volcanoes Cerro Negro, Nejapa, Masaya, and Mombacho along the volcanic front in central Nicaragua and Irazu and Arenal in Costa Rica. In Nicaragua H2O shows a general increase with decreasing Fo of the host olivine, reflecting incompatible behavior during differentiation from 1-3 wt. % in samples from Fo>85 to ˜ 5% in some of the slightly more evolved, yet still relatively undegassed, samples. This is best illustrated by samples from Mombacho and Cerro Negro. Comparison of the major element data with experimental melting studies indicates that the Nicaraguan melts with higher FeO and lower SiO2 (at similar MgO contents) could have formed at greater depths and temperatures in the presence of less water than the Costa Rican melts with higher SiO2 and lower FeO. The most primitive samples from Irazu (host olivine Fo84-89) are extremely rich in H2O (3-5 wt. %). H2O enrichment correlates with enrichment of some LILE, LREE (i.e., Ba, La, K), relative to HFSE for most samples from the Nicaraguan volcanoes. S/Nb and Cl/Nb also show some correlation with H2O/Nb in Nicaraguan samples, with some exceptions possibly related to volatile loss is the less primitive samples. These correlations are generally not present in the Costa Rican samples, thus suggesting that despite apparent larger initial water contents

  4. Como Lo Hago Yo: Defectos Del Cierre Del Tubo Neural En Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan Bosco

    2014-01-01

    En Nicaragua no hay un plan de forltificación de alimentos con ácido fólico. Las madres son muy jóvenes. En La Mascota operamos mas de cuarenta niños por año. Derivación tardía es un problema. La infección preoperatoria tiene que ser descartada. Vancomicina y Ceftriaxone estan indicadas. Estricta regla de asepsia operatoria. Suturamos la plaqueta para asemejar su forma al cilindro normal de la médula. No ceramos la capa de músculo. PMID:24791221

  5. Telepresence field research experience for undergraduate and graduate students: An R/V Okeanos Explorer/AUV Sentry success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dover, C. L.; German, C. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Kaiser, C. L.; Brothers, L.

    2012-12-01

    Telepresence and ocean exploration are generally perceived as rich visual experiences informed by streaming video of ocean environments from ship to shore. In an NSF/NOAA-funded partnership, our team of engineers, scientists, and students pushed the boundary of what it means to engage in a telepresence research experience. Instead of using a tethered ROV as our data-gathering platform, we used the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry on science missions to explore the Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs off the Carolina coast. The shore-based team included one senior engineer, two senior scientists, the talented support staff of the Inner Space Center at the University of Rhode Island, three PhD students, four undergraduate interns, and one MFA graduate student. The ship-based team included an engineer, a scientist, and extremely capable NOAA personnel. Sentry was deployed nightly on science missions designed from shore with input from shipboard science and engineering. The vehicle was recovered and data was downloaded and sent to shore each morning, where the data was 'attacked' by student teams. Within three days of the start of the field program, the student teams had developed their research questions under the mentorship of the senior scientists and identified the priority data streams required from Sentry. Students initially were audience to science mission planning discussions, but less than halfway through the 11-mission program, student teams were providing key data to inform planning decisions. Their entrepreneurial engagement with the research was so complete that the last two missions were designed by the students in collaboration with the engineers who programmed each mission. This scientific maturation of the students was markedly swift by usual standards and is attributed in large part to the data-sharing and data-processing capacity of the Inner Space Center. Post-cruise analysis of the data by students continued with the same avidity, resulting in

  6. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 2002-03 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapping program in Antarctica is one of the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). This is the 53rd U.S. expedition to Antarctica in which USGS scientists have participated. The financial support from the National Science Foundation, which extends back to the time of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1956–57, can be attributed to the need for accurate maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was being driven by science, and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support. The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, had, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some international) programs in biology, geology, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958 and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica. The USGS mapping and science programs still play a significant role in the advancement of science in Antarctica today. Antarctica is the planet's 5th largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)], it contains the world's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets, and it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report provides documentation of USGS scientific activities in the

  7. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 1995-96 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapping program in Antarctica is one of the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). This is the 46th U.S. expedition to Antarctica in which USGS scientists have participated. The financial support from the National Science Foundation, which extends back to the time of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1956-57, can be attributed to the need for accurate maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was being driven by science and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support. The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, had, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some international) programs in biology, geology, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958 and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica. The USGS mapping and science programs still play a significant role in the advancement of science in Antarctica today. Antarctica is the planet's 5th largest continent (13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)), it contains the world's largest (of two) remaining ice sheet, and it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report provides documentation of USGS scientific activities in the exploration of

  8. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASOLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    George C. Vradis; Hagen Schempf

    2004-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate ''EXPLORER'', a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its sixth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The prototype robot completed its first field demonstration in June 2004 and is undergoing further extensive endurance testing and some minor modifications in order to prepare for the second and last field demonstration planned for October 2004.

  9. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2003-04-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has already been designed, constructed and tested, having exceeded performance expectations. The full prototype system will be comprehensively tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NGA member utilities' pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its third six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The fabrication of the prototype is complete and is now been tested in the laboratory mainly focusing on the last system integration issues and on software development for the turning and launching routines. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by Summer 2003, to be followed by two field demonstrations in early Fall 2003.

  10. δ13C Degassing Dynamics of a Young Volcanic Center, Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucic, G.; Stix, J.; Wing, B. A.; Muñoz, A.; Ibarra, M.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

    2011-12-01

    Measurement of gas-phase δ13C values above active volcanic centers has the potential for monitoring magma dynamics associated with degassing and recharge events above subduction zones. The strong isotopic partitioning between C in the gas and melt, and C isotopic differences among magmas enables degassed CO2 to give insight into processes happening deep underground. Cerro Negro volcano in Nicaragua is an ideal center for detecting such magma interactions due to its rich history of volcanic activity and unusual eruption style. It is a subduction-driven, basaltic cinder cone that erupts on average once every 20 years with light to moderate intensity explosive eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index: 1-3) commonly accompanied by lava flows. Amid these eruptions are periods of extreme quiescence with very little seismic activity and gas emissions, suggesting rapid magmatic changes beneath the volcano. The brief lag time (on average 30 min). separating precursors and eruption supports this interpretation. In this study, we compare the isotopic composition of gas samples collected from fumaroles, fractures and other thermal areas on the volcano over a period of nearly 2 decades (1992-2011) in order to constrain the magmatic evolution beneath Cerro Negro. While the general systematics of the entire dataset are broadly consistent with degassing models for the natural evolution of CO2 and δ13C values, recent sampling campaigns suggest that new magma may be entering the system. Gases collected in January 2011 after 12 years of quiescence reveal CO2 concentrations ranging from 1-100%, with δ13C values varying from -1.5% to -10.4% with a mean of -3.3±0.28 % for 32 samples. Only limited spatial variability is present in this dataset: inner crater mean δ13C = -4.0±0.12 %, outer crater (-2.4±0.46 %), flanks (-4.4±0.26 %), and thermal areas to the N (-3.5±0.24 %) and SE (-2.5±0.25 %). Based on previous work, a lack of substantial spatial variation in δ values is

  11. FURTHER DEFINING SPECTRAL TYPE 'Y' AND EXPLORING THE LOW-MASS END OF THE FIELD BROWN DWARF MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Tinney, C. G.; Parker, Stephen; Salter, Graeme

    2012-07-10

    We present the discovery of another seven Y dwarfs from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using these objects, as well as the first six WISE Y dwarf discoveries from Cushing et al., we further explore the transition between spectral types T and Y. We find that the T/Y boundary roughly coincides with the spot where the J - H colors of brown dwarfs, as predicted by models, turn back to the red. Moreover, we use preliminary trigonometric parallax measurements to show that the T/Y boundary may also correspond to the point at which the absolute H (1.6 {mu}m) and W2 (4.6 {mu}m) magnitudes plummet. We use these discoveries and their preliminary distances to place them in the larger context of the solar neighborhood. We present a table that updates the entire stellar and substellar constituency within 8 pc of the Sun, and we show that the current census has hydrogen-burning stars outnumbering brown dwarfs by roughly a factor of six. This factor will decrease with time as more brown dwarfs are identified within this volume, but unless there is a vast reservoir of cold brown dwarfs invisible to WISE, the final space density of brown dwarfs is still expected to fall well below that of stars. We also use these new Y dwarf discoveries, along with newly discovered T dwarfs from WISE, to investigate the field substellar mass function. We find that the overall space density of late-T and early-Y dwarfs matches that from simulations describing the mass function as a power law with slope -0.5 < {alpha} < 0.0; however, a power law may provide a poor fit to the observed object counts as a function of spectral type because there are tantalizing hints that the number of brown dwarfs continues to rise from late-T to early-Y. More detailed monitoring and characterization of these Y dwarfs, along with dedicated searches aimed at identifying more examples, are certainly required.

  12. Keeping Kids in School: A Slippery Slope for Miskitu Families Living in the Pearl Lagoon Basin of Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Patricia Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Miskitu participants in the communities of Raitipura and Kahkabila and several of their children had dropped out of school. Earlier quantitative research revealed a problem of low matriculation in elementary and high schools in all of Nicaragua. This inquiry differed from others in that it was a qualitative study focusing on one group of…

  13. 75 FR 38772 - Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... meeting the one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers exported from Nicaragua to... establishes the one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber trousers. Section 1634(c)(2) of the... meter equivalent of exports of cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers entered under the TPL,...

  14. 77 FR 40589 - Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... equivalent to account for the shortfall in meeting the one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber...-made fiber trousers. Section 1634(c)(2) of the Pension Protection Act authorizes the President to..., Nicaragua agreed that for each square meter equivalent (SME) of exports of cotton and man-made fiber...

  15. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  16. The Impact of Institutional Design on the Democratization of School Governance: The Case of Nicaragua's Autonomous School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Minvielle, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    Nicaragua presents an interesting case study of a society pursuing reform of the democratization of its school governance through citizen participation. A radical transformation with a complex institutional arrangement was put in place within a context of major political change and endemic poverty. In order to achieve our objective of empirically…

  17. Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

  18. Intercultural bilingual education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for improving the quality of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken - especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport recognises the need for a flexible curriculum that reflects individual local and regional linguistic and socio-cultural characteristics, through the use of mother tongue and second language learning. The contextualisation model applied in the Atlantic coastal region of Nicaragua is therefore based on the use of a languages strategy in preparing textbooks and basic technical materials with an IBE approach, as part of the process of improving the quality of education. Thus intercultural communication is enhanced, and the need to strengthen the systematic teaching of languages, differentiating between mother tongue, second language and foreign language, is recognised. As well as explaining the contextualisation process in detail, this article discusses the conceptual differences between intercultural bilingual education (IBE) and bilingual intercultural education (BIE). The paper concludes with several recommendations for the further development of BIE in Latin America.

  19. Evaluating the health impact of a public-private partnership: to reduce rotavirus disease in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Shazia; Cardellino, Anna; Klotz, Diana; Kuter, Barbara J; Feinberg, Mark B; Colatrella, Brenda D; Mast, T Christopher

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the RotaTeq(®) Nicaragua Partnership and the evaluation of the public health impact of the vaccine conducted by the partners, including the creation of a rotavirus surveillance program and a vaccine effectiveness assessment. The three main objectives of the partnership were to demonstrate that a new rotavirus vaccine could (1) be introduced rapidly in a developing country, (2) be successfully integrated into the existing vaccine delivery infrastructure, and (3) have a significant and measurable public health impact at the end of the 3-y program. The vaccine impact assessment required collaboration among partners with different areas of expertise, including the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health, Merck, local hospitals, government health clinics, laboratories, and a Technical Advisory Group. Through the partnership, RotaTeq(®) became available in a GAVI-eligible developing country, Nicaragua, in the same year it was approved in the United States. Vaccine coverage rapidly reached over > 90% of eligible Nicaraguan children. The impact assessment evaluated over 10,000 subjects and leveraged and enhanced the existing diarrheal surveillance infrastructure, ultimately providing the scientific community with some of the first real-world rotavirus vaccine effectiveness data from a developing country. The successful public-private partnership (PPP) was internationally recognized as a model for the rapid adoption of a new vaccine in a developing world setting. The model could be adapted to benefit other PPPs interested in demonstrating the impact of their own programs.

  20. [Mental health systems in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: results of a WHO-AIMS evaluation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jorge Jacinto; Barrett, Thomas; Narváez, Silvia; Caldas, José Miguel; Levav, Itzhak; Saxena, Shekhar

    2007-11-01

    The authors evaluated the mental health systems of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, using a group of select indicators. The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was used to collect data from the nations. The national mental health systems of Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador have serious limitations, especially in primary care, and a marked lack of qualified human resources. Budget allocations for mental health care are barely 1% of the total health care budgets; and the psychiatric hospitals located in the national capitals consume at least 90% of those funds. The limited human and material resources available are concentrated in the respective country capital cities. National mental health policies and legislation have not been adopted; however, all three countries do have national plans in progress. Furthermore, all three have designed and implemented programs for mental health care in case of disaster. Agreements must be reached with offices for the defense of human rights to raise awareness and protection of rights for the mentally ill. In recent years, new experiences have been gained and these should be distributed more widely. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and the WHO-AIMS project have contributed toward developing community models for mental health services. Lastly, priorities have been identified and action items recommended.

  1. Unsuspected Dengue as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Children and Adults in Western Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; de Silva, Aravinda M.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Broadwater, Anne; Walker, Katie; Woods, Christopher; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua’s heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not. Methodology/Principal Findings To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness) from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening) of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740) aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5%) were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) in 38 (5.1%) patients. Only 8.1% (3/37) of confirmed cases were suspected clinically. Conclusions/Significance Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America. PMID:27792777

  2. Phenotypic variation within a clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans infecting both tomato and potato in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Blandón-Díaz, J U; Widmark, A-K; Hannukkala, A; Andersson, B; Högberg, N; Yuen, J E

    2012-03-01

    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is a constraint to both potato and tomato crops in Nicaragua. The hypothesis that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans is genotypically and phenotypically diverse and potentially subdivided based on host association was tested. A collection of isolates was analyzed using genotypic markers (microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA haplotype) and phenotypic markers (mating type, virulence, and fungicide sensitivity). The genotypic analysis revealed no polymorphism in 121 of 132 isolates of P. infestans tested. Only the Ia haplotype and the A2 mating type were detected. Most of the tested isolates were resistant to metalaxyl. The virulence testing showed variation among isolates of P. infestans. No evidence was found of population differentiation among potato and tomato isolates of P. infestans based on the genotypic and phenotypic analysis. We conclude that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans consists of a single clonal lineage (NI-1) which belongs to the A2 mating type and the Ia mitochondrial DNA haplotype. Moreover, based on the markers used, this population of P. infestans does not resemble the population in countries from which potato seed is imported to Nicaragua or the population in neighboring countries. The data presented here indicate that the NI-1 clonal lineage is the primary pathogen on both potato and tomato, and its success on both host species is unique in a South American context.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Improving Health Care to People with HIV in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Danilo; Moreno, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Background. A 2010 evaluation found generally poor outcomes among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Nicaragua. We evaluated an intervention to improve HIV nursing services in hospital outpatient departments to improve patient treatment and retention in care. The intervention included improving patient tracking, extending clinic hours, caring for children of HIV+ mothers, ensuring medication availability, promoting self-help groups and family involvement, and coordinating multidisciplinary care. Methods. This pre/postintervention study examined opportunistic infections and clinical status of HIV patients before and after implementation of changes to the system of nursing care. Hospital expenditure data were collected by auditors and hospital teams tracked intervention expenses. Decision tree analysis determined incremental cost-effectiveness from the implementers' perspective. Results. Opportunistic infections decreased by 24% (95% CI: 14%–34%) and 11.3% of patients improved in CDC clinical stage. Average per-patient costs decreased by $133/patient/year (95% CI: $29–$249). The intervention, compared to business-as-usual strategy, saved money while improving outcomes. Conclusions. Improved efficiency of services can allow more ART-eligible patients to receive therapy. We recommended the intervention be implemented in all HIV service facilities in Nicaragua. PMID:24977038

  4. Building social capital in post-conflict communities: evidence from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Brune, Nancy E; Bossert, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Studies of social capital have focused on the static relationship between social capital and health, governance and economic conditions. This study is a first attempt to evaluate interventions designed to improve the levels of social capital in post-conflict communities in Nicaragua and to relate those increases to health and governance issues. The two-year study involved a baseline household survey of approximately 200 households in three communities in Nicaragua, the implementation of systematic interventions designed to increase social capital in two of the locales (with one control group), and a second household survey administered two years after the baseline survey. We found that systematic interventions promoting management and leadership development were effective in improving some aspects of social capital, in particular the cognitive attitudes of trust in the communities. Interventions were also linked to higher levels of civic participation in governance processes. As in other empirical studies, we also found that higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with some positive health behaviors. The behavioral/structural components of social capital (including participation in groups and social networks) were associated with more desirable individual health behaviors such as the use of modern medicine to treat children's respiratory illnesses. Attitudinal components of social capital were positively linked to community health behaviors such as working on community sanitation campaigns. The findings presented here should be of interest to policy makers interested in health policy and social capital, as well as those working in conflict-ridden communities in the developing world.

  5. Meteorological influence on the seasonal and diurnal variability of the dispersion of volcanic emissions in Nicaragua: A numerical model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmann, Baerbel; Hort, Matthias; Hansteen, Thor

    2009-05-01

    Nicaragua comprises seven historically active volcanoes (Cosigüina, San Cristobal, Telica, Cerro Negro, Momotombo, Masaya, and Concepcion), five of which are in a state of continuous degassing. Published measurements of the atmospheric dispersion of continuous emissions from Nicaraguan volcanoes, the chemical and aerosol microphysical modifications of the released gases and aerosols, and related acid deposition and impacts on the environment cover only short periods of time. We applied a three-dimensional atmosphere-chemistry/aerosol numerical model over Central America focussing on Nicaraguan volcanic emissions for month long simulation periods during the dry and wet seasons of 2003. The model is able to reproduce observed monthly precipitation and wind speed throughout the year 2003. Model results for near surface SO 2 concentrations and SO 2 dry deposition fluxes around Masaya volcano are in very good agreement with field measurements. During the dry season, oxidation of SO 2 to sulphate plays only a minor role downwind of the Nicaraguan volcanoes and over the Pacific Ocean, whereas SO 2 released from Arenal and Poas in Costa Rica is oxidised to sulphate much faster and closer to the volcanoes due to higher humidity and cloud water availability. During the wet season, more variable wind conditions lead to reduced dispersion of SO 2 over the Pacific Ocean and increased dispersion inland. The availability of liquid water in the atmosphere favours sulphate formation close to the Nicaraguan volcanoes via aqueous phase oxidation and represents another limitation for the dispersion of SO 2. Strong precipitation removes sulphate quickly from the atmosphere by wet deposition. Atmospheric SO 2 concentrations and in particular dry deposition close to the volcanoes show a pronounced diurnal cycle.

  6. Observations of Near-Earth Asteroid 2010 CN141 with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Sean; Wright, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 2010 CN141 was discovered by NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) in February 2010, with follow-up observations from Mauna Kea by M. Micheli, G. T. Elliott, and D. J. Tholen from February to April. 2010 CN141's low visual albedo and its proximity to Earth caught the attention of observers, and it was selected for more detailed analysis. Its orbit brought it back into WISE's field of view in May, though it was near WISE's detection limit, and it was uncertain whether the asteroid would actually be visible. Subsequent analysis of the relevant WISE frames revealed a faint spot inside the error ellipse that was probably but not conclusively 2010 CN141. The spot was about three arcseconds from the asteroid's expected position. An independent observation from Mauna Kea in April also found a faint object, which was likely 2010 CN141, near the expected coordinates. Thermal modeling of the February observations, using both the Standard Thermal Model (which assumes slow rotation) and the Fast-Rotating Model, indicates that the asteroid has a diameter of 287 m ± 18 m (random) ± 29 m (systematic), a visual geometric albedo of 0.0252 ± 0.0040 (random) ± 0.0051 (systematic), and a bolometric Bond albedo of 0.0099 ± 0.0016 (random) ± 0.0020 (systematic). 2010 CN141 will come relatively close to Earth in the fall of 2011, and there will be good opportunities to observe it for several months.

  7. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    George C. Vradis, Hagen Schempf

    2004-04-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its fifth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The prototype robot is undergoing extensive endurance testing in order to prepare for the field demonstrations planned for June 2004.

  8. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2003-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate ''EXPLORER'', a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6- inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its fourth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The fabrication of the prototype is complete and is now been tested in the laboratory mainly focusing on endurance testing and testing of launching procedures. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by Fall 2003, to be followed by two field demonstrations in Winter 2003-2004.

  9. Magnetic field effect corroborated with docking study to explore photoinduced electron transfer in drug-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Brotati; Roy, Atanu Singha; Dasgupta, Swagata; Basu, Samita

    2010-12-30

    Conventional spectroscopic tools such as absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy used in the study of photoinduced drug-protein interactions can yield useful information about ground-state and excited-state phenomena. However, photoinduced electron transfer (PET) may be a possible phenomenon in the drug-protein interaction, which may go unnoticed if only conventional spectroscopic observations are taken into account. Laser flash photolysis coupled with an external magnetic field can be utilized to confirm the occurrence of PET and authenticate the spin states of the radicals/radical ions formed. In the study of interaction of the model protein human serum albumin (HSA) with acridine derivatives, acridine yellow (AY) and proflavin (PF(+)), conventional spectroscopic tools along with docking study have been used to decipher the binding mechanism, and laser flash photolysis technique with an associated magnetic field (MF) has been used to explore PET. The results of fluorescence study indicate that fluorescence resonance energy transfer takes place from the protein to the acridine-based drugs. Docking study unveils the crucial role of Ser 232 residue of HSA in explaining the differential behavior of the two drugs towards the model protein. Laser flash photolysis experiments help to identify the radicals/radical ions formed in the due course of PET (PF(•), AY(•-), TrpH(•+), Trp(•)), and the application of an external MF has been used to characterize their initial spin-state. Owing to its distance dependence, MF effect gives an idea about the proximity of the radicals/radical ions during interaction in the system and also helps to elucidate the reaction mechanisms. A prominent MF effect is observed in homogeneous buffer medium owing to the pseudoconfinement of the radicals/radical ions provided by the complex structure of the protein.

  10. Forearc kinematics in obliquely convergent margins: Examples from Nicaragua and the northern Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Henry L., III

    In this study, I use surface velocities derived from GPS geodesy, elastic half-space dislocation models, and modeled Coulomb stress changes to investigate deformation in the over-riding plate at obliquely convergent margins at the leading and trailing edges of the Caribbean plate. The two principal study areas are western Nicaragua, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, and the northern Lesser Antilles, where the North American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. In Nicaragua, plate convergence is rapid at 84 mm yr1 with a small angle of obliquity of 10° along a slightly concave portion of the Middle America Trench. GPS velocities for the period from 2000 to 2004 from sites located in the Nicaraguan forearc confirmed forearc sliver motion on the order of ˜14 mm yr1 in close agreement with the value predicted by DeMets (2001). These results are presented here in Chapter 3 and were reported in Geophysical Research Letters (Turner et al., 2007). GPS observations made on sites located in the interior and on the eastern coast of Nicaragua during the same time period were combined with new data from eastern Honduras to help better constrain estimates of rigid Caribbean plate motion (DeMets et al., 2007). Slip approaching the plate convergence rate along the Nicaraguan and El Salvadoran sections of the Middle America Trench was quantitatively demonstrated by finite element modeling of this section of the plate interface using GPS velocities from our Nicaraguan network together with velocities from El Salvador and Honduras as model constraints (Correa-Mora, 2009). The MW 6.9 earthquake that ruptured the seismogenic zone offshore Nicaragua on October 9, 2004 resulted in coseismic displacements and post-seismic motion at GPS sites in the central part of the Nicaraguan forearc that currently prevent extension of interseismic time-series in this region. An elastic half-space dislocation model was used to estimate coseismic displacements at these

  11. Landslides in Nicaragua - Mapping, Inventory, Hazard Assessment, Vulnerability Reduction, and Forecasting Attempts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dévoli, G.; Strauch, W.; Álvarez, A.; Muñoz, A.; Kjekstad, O.

    2009-04-01

    A successful landslide hazard and risk assessment requires awareness and good understanding of the potential landslide problems within the geographic area involved. However, this requirement is not always met in developing countries where population, scientific community, and the government may not be aware of the landslide threat. The landslide hazard assessment is often neglected or is based on sparse and not well documented technical information. In Nicaragua (Central America), the basic conditions for landslide hazard and risk assessment were first created after the catastrophic landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in October 1998. A single landslide took the life of thousands of people at Casita volcano forcing entire communities to be evacuated or relocated and, furthermore, thousands of smaller landslides caused loss of fertile soils and pasture lands, and made serious damages to the infrastructure. Since those events occurred, the public awareness has increased and the country relies now on new local and national governmental laws and policies, on a number of landslide investigations, and on educational and training programs. Dozens of geologists have been capacitated to investigate landslide prone areas, The Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), governmental geo-scientific institution, has assumed the responsibility to help land-use planners and public officials to reduce geological hazard losses. They are committed to work cooperatively with national, international, and local agencies, universities and the private sector to provide scientific information and improve public safety through forecasting and warnings. However, in order to provide successful long-term landslide hazard assessment, the institutions must face challenges related to the scarcity and varied quality of available landslide information; collection and access to dispersed data and documents; organization of landslide information in a form that can be easy to

  12. Armed forces career exploration for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Morgan State University`s School of Engineering conducted its third annual Armed Forces Career Exploration program for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. The four week program was jointly sponsored by the US Army Laboratory Command (Ballistics Research Laboratory and Human Engineering Laboratory) and US Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory). The environment in a predominantly urban school system is such that a significant number of very capable students reach the eleventh grade without plans for the future. These students as a result of teacher influence have taken lower level math and science courses and we feel by participating in this program will see reasons for pursuing higher level math and science courses their last two years in high school. Inasmuch as intervention programs have not yet significantly affected the profile of these schools this pool of students represents an opportunity to make an early impact on the number of students that enter college intending to major in math, science or engineering. This report presents the program that provided selected students with pre-engineering and science enrichment experiences designed to enhance their understanding of engineering, increase their awareness of career opportunities in science and engineering, advance their readiness to enter temporary job situation, and foster the development of self-confidence in their individual capabilities.

  13. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  14. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2002-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6- inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has already been designed, constructed and tested, having exceeded performance expectations. The full prototype system will be comprehensively tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NYGAS member utilities' pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the New York Gas Group (NYGAS; a trade association of the publicly owned gas utilities in New York State), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The DOE's contribution to this current phase of the project is $499,023 out of a total of $780,735 (not including NASA's contribution). The present report

  15. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, Fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch Rates and Trends, 1991–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity. PMID

  16. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Lagueux, Cynthia J; Campbell, Cathi L; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity.

  17. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.

    1996-12-31

    The Momotombo geothermal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}D) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} plotted on the Na-K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to reservoir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2, Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than some of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred from a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  18. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.; Gerardo, J.Y.; Araguas, L.

    1996-01-24

    The Momotombo geotherinal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data (δ18O and δD) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ plotted on the Na- K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to resenroir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2. Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than sonic of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred froin a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  19. Attitudinal and relational factors predicting the use of solar water disinfection: a field study in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Altherr, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Tobias, Robert; Butera, Fabrizio

    2008-04-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an uncomplicated and cheap technology providing individuals with safe drinking water by exposing water-filled plastic bottles to sunlight for 6 hours to kill waterborne pathogens. Two communities were visited, and 81 families (40 SODIS users and 41 nonusers) were interviewed. The relationship between several factors and the intention to use SODIS in the future and actual use were tested. The results showed that intention to use and actual use are mainly related to an overall positive attitude, intention to use is related to the use of SODIS by neighbors, and actual use is related to knowledge about SODIS; SODIS users reported a significantly lower incidence in diarrhea than SODIS nonusers. These results suggest that promotion activities should aim at creating a positive attitude, for example, by choosing a promoter that is able to inspire confidence in the new technology.

  20. Attitudinal and Relational Factors Predicting the Use of Solar Water Disinfection: A Field Study in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altherr, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Tobias, Robert; Butera, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an uncomplicated and cheap technology providing individuals with safe drinking water by exposing water-filled plastic bottles to sunlight for 6 hours to kill waterborne pathogens. Two communities were visited, and 81 families (40 SODIS users and 41 nonusers) were interviewed. The relationship between several…

  1. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, Christian E.

    I explore the role of information and communication in the world of institution-led development. Through a series of case studies from the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, I present several projects and their implications for uncovering information that may lead to greater local benefit from externally-planned development projects. In order to construct policies and implement projects, development institutions collect, analyze, and simplify information, collapsing messy physical and social realities into narrow sets of metrics. In addition, local stakeholders often aren't privy to the analysis and assumptions of the "expert" planners. An evolved set of methods for dialogue and planning, which focus on sharing available information, can help facilitate outcomes that are more beneficial for targeted groups. Carbon abatement cost curves provide a clear example where the relations of complex social, economic, and environmental systems are reduced to a narrow set of metrics, specifically the cost of carbon mitigation and the total tons reduced. When the carbon abatement cost curve is applied to the community level, it reveals information and allows for conclusions obscured by aggregated national level studies. I show that there are opportunities for augmenting the limited metrics of these cost curves to include those that relate to welfare, beginning to highlight how costs and savings are distributed among stakeholders. In particular, the benefits to the most marginalized groups are heavily dependent on planners taking a pro-poor approach. However, planners typically remain blind to the priorities, capabilities, and values of the target stakeholders. There is a dearth of methods that effectively open up the development expert's black box of project designs, allowing their proposed solutions to be transparent to the target beneficiaries. I address this challenge through the presentation of a participatory modeling process that was utilized with groups of artisanal fishers

  2. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this program is to construct and demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The system, which was designed in an earlier effort, is built in a modular fashion in order to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system to be built under this project will include all the basic modules needed by the system, i.e. the locomotion, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has been designed, constructed and tested in the earlier effort. In the current effort, the full prototype system will be tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NYGAS member utilities' pipes. The purpose for EXPLORER is to be able to access live gas mains, insert the system in the piping network, and remotely ''drive'' it within the gas main and its laterals through distances of five to ten thousand feet. Its adaptable locomotion system allows the robot to function through varying diameter pipes (150 - 200 mm or 6- to 8-inches) and is powered via on-board battery-banks. The presence of fish-eye cameras in both ends of the robot allows the operator to view the forward and circumferential views of the internals live using an above-ground TV. Communication takes place via wireless link between the robot and the launch-chamber used to insert/retrieve the system. This link is based on commercial technology presently employed in wireless telecommunication networks. Communication over long distances as well as battery re-charging will be accomplished without retrieving the robot but

  3. Palliative care for older people – exploring the views of doctors and nurses from different fields in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Brueckner, Torben; Schumacher, Martin; Schneider, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Background Providing appropriate palliative care for older people is a major task for health care systems worldwide, and up to now it has also been one of the most neglected. Focusing on the German health care system, we sought to explore the attitudes of health professionals regarding their understanding of palliative care for older patients and its implementation. Methods In a qualitative study design, focus groups were established consisting of general practitioners, geriatricians, palliative care physicians, palliative care nurses and general nurses (a total of 29 participants). The group discussions were recorded, transcribed, coded and analysed using the methodological approach of Qualitative Description. Results Deficiencies in teamwork and conflicting role definitions between doctors and nurses and between family practitioners and medical specialists were found to be central problems affecting the provision of appropriate palliative care for older people. It was emphasized that there are great advantages to family doctors playing a leading role, as they usually have the longest contacts to the patients. However, the professional qualifications of family doctors were to some extent criticized. The general practitioners for their part criticized the increasing specialization on the field of palliative care. All groups complained that the German compensation system gives insufficient consideration to the time-consuming care of older patients, and about excessive bureaucracy. Conclusion General practitioners are the central health professionals in the delivery of palliative care for older people. They should however be encouraged to involve specialized services such as palliative care teams where necessary. With the German health care reform of 2007, a legal framework has been created that allows for this. As far as its realization is concerned, it must be ensured that the spotlight remains on the needs of the patients and not on policy conflicts and rivalries

  4. FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF FIVE LATE-TYPE T DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, James M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Looper, Dagny L.; Tinney, Christopher; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-07-10

    We present the discovery of five late-type T dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan Folded-port InfraRed Echellette reveal strong H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} absorption in all five sources, and spectral indices and comparison to spectral templates indicate classifications ranging from T5.5 to T8.5:. The spectrum of the latest-type source, WISE J1812+2721, is an excellent match to that of the T8.5 companion brown dwarf Wolf 940B. WISE-based spectrophotometric distance estimates place these T dwarfs at 12-13 pc from the Sun, assuming they are single. Preliminary fits of the spectral data to the atmosphere models of Saumon and Marley indicate effective temperatures ranging from 600 K to 930 K, both cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres, and a broad range of ages and masses. In particular, two sources show evidence of both low surface gravity and cloudy atmospheres, tentatively supporting a trend noted in other young brown dwarfs and exoplanets. In contrast, the high proper motion T dwarf WISE J2018-7423 exhibits a suppressed K-band peak and blue spectrophotometric J - K colors indicative of an old, massive brown dwarf; however, it lacks the broadened Y-band peak seen in metal-poor counterparts. These results illustrate the broad diversity of low-temperature brown dwarfs that will be uncovered with WISE.

  5. Exploring Faculty Insights into Why Undergraduate College Students Leave STEM Fields of Study- A Three-Part Organizational Self-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Araceli Martinez; Sriraman, Vederaman

    2015-01-01

    An institutional self-study at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) explored factors thought to impact students' decisions to persist in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields of study. This self-study is presented as a model first step for Institutions of Higher Education interested in launching efforts to improve STEM…

  6. Chikungunya Virus Sequences across the First Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunling; Saborio, Saira; Gresh, Lionel; Eswarappa, Meghana; Wu, Diane; Fire, Andrew; Parameswaran, Poornima; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 and Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported and 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 and April 2015. One full-length and two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported and 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases and three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date. PMID:26643533

  7. Low stress drop earthquakes in the rupture zone of the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, Susan L.; Rotman, Holly M. M.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2016-10-01

    Tsunami earthquakes, events that generate larger than expected tsunami and are deficient in high-frequency seismic radiation, are rare but hazardous to coastal populations. One model for these events is shallow rupture through low-strength materials. We calculate seismic moment, corner frequency, and stress drop for 216 earthquakes (2.1 < Mw < 4.7, November 2005 to June 2006) within and external to the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake rupture zone to test the hypothesis that differences in fault zone properties defined the limits of the 1992 tsunami rupture zone and continue to produce spatial variations in earthquake source properties. Mean stress drop of events within the rupture area is 1.2 MPa, and 5.5 MPa for events just outside of the rupture zone, with similar magnitude earthquakes in each group. Our results demonstrate different source parameter characteristics for microseismicity in the region of a past tsunami earthquake.

  8. [Preliminary plant inventory of the palm-swamps in the Caribbean of Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Ricardo; Jarquín, Orlando; Munguía, Blanca; Reyes, Aquiles; Coronado, Indiana

    2013-09-01

    In the Caribbean slope of Isthmian Central America, plant associations dominated by the palms Raphia taedigera and Manicaria saccifera develop in poorly drained or waterlogged soils. These associations are known locally as yolillales or palm-swamps, although there are differences in the forest structure and plant diversity associated with both palm species. In this paper, we report the results of a preliminary inventory of tree species found in eight palm-swamps at five locations in southeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica. Our data reveal low tree diversity in these swamps with only 60 species accounted in them. This figure is equivalent to close to 8% of the plant species known for this region. In general, R. taedigera dominates flooded areas with extensive hydroperiods and lower floristic diversity, while M. saccifera is often found in flooded forests with more structure and diversity.

  9. Abortion law reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: issue networks and opportunity contexts.

    PubMed

    Reuterswärd, Camilla; Zetterberg, Pär; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Molyneux, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun's (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes.

  10. Who cares in Nicaragua? A care regime in an exclusionary social policy context.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Juliana Martínez; Voorend, Koen

    2011-01-01

    In Latin American countries with historically strong social policy regimes (such as those in the Southern Cone), neoliberal policies are usually blamed for the increased burden of female unpaid work. However, studying the Nicaraguan care regime in two clearly defined periods — the Sandinista and the neoliberal eras — suggests that this argument may not hold in the case of countries with highly familialist social policy regimes. Despite major economic, political and policy shifts, the role of female unpaid work, both within the family and in the community, remains persistent and pivotal, and was significant long before the onset of neoliberal policies. Nicaragua's care regime has been highly dependent on the ‘community’ or ‘voluntary’ work of mostly women. This has also been, and continues to be, vital for the viability of many public social programmes.

  11. [Prevalence of mental disorders in adults in Subtiava, León, Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in the Subtiava district of León, Nicaragua. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select 219 families (n = 584 persons). The study was carried out in two phases. In the first, probable mental disorder cases were screened using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. In the second, the diagnoses were confirmed through the Present State Examination questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires had been confirmed in a pilot study. The present study was conducted in October and November 1987, when Nicaragua was still immersed in armed conflict. Construction of a family map made it possible to analyze, through the multiple imputation method, the characteristics of persons who were absent at the time of the interviews or who did not respond. The estimated prevalence percentages and their respective 95% confidence intervals were as follows: neurosis, 7.5% (5.2%-9.8%); depression, 6.2% (2.6%-8.1%); reactive crisis, 3.3% (2.6-6.5%); alcoholism, 5.8% (3.9%-8.9%); organic brain syndrome, 3.9% (1.7%-5.2%); psychosis, 0.5% (0.2%-1.6%); and other disorders, 0.7% (0.2%-1.6%). The estimated overall prevalence of mental disorders in the study population was 27.9%. Disorders were more prevalent among men (30.8%) than women (26.3%). It is concluded that these high estimated prevalences are associated with stress caused by the war.

  12. Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential

    PubMed Central

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  13. Fertility and infant mortality trends in Nicaragua 1964-1993. The role of women's education

    PubMed Central

    Pena, R.; Liljestrand, J.; Zelaya, E.; Persson, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in fertility and infant mortality rates (IMR) in Leon, Nicaragua, and to examine the effect of women's education on these trends during 1964-1993, a period of rapid social change. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, based on random cluster sampling. A retrospective questionnaire on reproductive events was used. SETTING: The municipality of Leon, which is the second largest city in Nicaragua, with a total population of 195,000 inhabitants. SUBJECTS: 10,867 women aged 15-49 years, corresponding to 176,281 person years of reproductive life. Their children contributed 22,899 person years under 12 months of age to the IMR analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fertility rate (number of pregnancies per 1000 person years) for specific age groups and calendar periods, total fertility rate, and IMR. RESULTS: Fertility rates and IMR declined in parallel, especially during the 1980s. However, education specific fertility rates did not decline, but the proportion of educated young women increased from 20% to 46%. This had also an impact on the overall IMR decline, although IMR reduction mainly took place among infants of women without formal education, decreasing from 118 to 69 per 1000 during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: In this demographic transition over three decades, fertility and IMR declined simultaneously. The decreasing trend in fertility was mainly explained by an increase in women's education, while the IMR decline seemed to be the result of health interventions, specially targeted to poorer groups of women and their infants. Thus, social differences in fertility rates remained unchanged, while equity in chances of child survival increased.   PMID:10396488

  14. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  15. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-02-28

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

  16. Application of a CROPWAT Model to Analyze Crop Yields in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doria, R.; Byrne, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT Changes in climate are likely to influence crop yields due to varying evapotranspiration and precipitation over agricultural regions. In Nicaragua, agriculture is extensive, with new areas of land brought into production as the population increases. Nicaraguan staple food items (maize and beans) are produced mostly by small scale farmers with less than 10 hectares, but they are critical for income generation and food security for rural communities. Given that the majority of these farmers are dependent on rain for crop irrigation, and that maize and beans are sensitive to variations in temperature and rainfall patterns, the present study was undertaken to assess the impact of climate change on these crop yields. Climate data were generated per municipio representing the three major climatic zones of the country: the wet Pacific lowland, the cooler Central highland, and the Caribbean lowland. Historical normal climate data from 1970-2000 (baseline period) were used as input to CROPWAT model to analyze the potential and actual evapotranspiration (ETo and ETa, respectively) that affects crop yields. Further, generated local climatic data of future years (2030-2099) under various scenarios were inputted to the CROPWAT to determine changes in ETo and ETa from the baseline period. Spatial variability maps of both ETo and ETa as well as crop yields were created. Results indicated significant variation in seasonal rainfall depth during the baseline period and predicted decreasing trend in the future years that eventually affects yields. These maps enable us to generate appropriate adaptation measures and best management practices for small scale farmers under future climate change scenarios. KEY WORDS: Climate change, evapotranspiration, CROPWAT, yield, Nicaragua

  17. Corner Frequency Variation in the Southeastern Region of the 1992 Nicaragua Tsunami Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotman, H. M. M.; Bilek, S. L.; Phillips, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    At the Nicaragua portion of the Middle America Trench, where the Cocos Plate is subducting at ~85 mm/yr, a tsunami earthquake (mb 5.3, Ms 7.2, Mw 7.6) occurred at 15 km depth on 2 September 1992, causing a tsunami up to 8 m high and >116 deaths. A tsunami earthquake is characterized by deficiency in high frequency radiated energy and large tsunami for its Ms. Tsunami earthquakes are relatively rare, but their occurrence presents a significant hazard to coastal populations, so the potential to identify tsunami earthquake regions has wide-reaching hazard implications. Here we examine the notion that the cause of the dominantly low frequency energy in the 1992 tsunami earthquake may also manifest in small earthquakes in the same area. We examine 241 events within and south of the 1992 rupture limits with hypocenters 8-30 km depth and 1.7 < Mw < 4.6, recorded by land station and ocean bottom seismometers in southern Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica from November 2005 to June 2006. Event source parameters moment, corner frequency, and stress drop are determined using the spectral ratios of S-wave coda. Mean stress drop inside the 1992 rupture area is 3.2 MPa, and immediately south of the 1992 rupture zone mean stress drop is 10.4 MPa. Inside and outside the 1992 rupture zone at similar depths, the increase in stress drop is by a factor of five and occurs abruptly over <50 km. The mean corner frequency of events in the 1992 rupture area is ~45% the mean corner frequency value for events south of the 1992 rupture zone. Therefore, our results demonstrate different source parameter characteristics for microseismicity in the region of a past tsunami earthquake. If this finding can be reproduced at other subduction zones, it may significantly improve subduction zone coastal hazard assessment.

  18. Etiology of Childhood Diarrhea Following Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction: A Prospective, Population-Based Study in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Bucardo, Filemon; Vilchez, Samuel; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Liu, Lan; Weber, David J.; Peña, Rodolfo; Barclay, Leslie; Vinjé, Jan; Hudgens, Michael G.; Nordgren, Johan; Svensson, Lennart; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix; Paniagua, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement routine immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). In this RV5-immunized population, understanding infectious etiologies of childhood diarrhea is necessary to direct diarrhea treatment and prevention efforts. Methods We followed a population-based sample of children less than 5 years in León, Nicaragua for diarrhea episodes through household visits. Information was obtained on RV5 history and sociodemographics. Stool samples collected during diarrhea episodes and among healthy children underwent laboratory analysis for viral, bacterial, and parasitic enteropathogens. Detection frequency and incidence of each enteropathogen was calculated. Results The 826 children in the cohort experienced 677 diarrhea episodes during 607.5 child-years of exposure time (1.1 episodes per child-year). At least one enteropathogen was detected among 61.1% of the 337 diarrheal stools collected. The most common enteropathogens among diarrheal stools were: norovirus (20.4%), sapovirus (16.6%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, 11.3%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (8.3%), Giardia lamblia (8.0%), and enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC, 7.7%), with rotavirus detected among 5.3% of diarrheal stools. EPEC and ETEC were frequently detected among stools from healthy children. Among children with diarrhea, norovirus was more commonly detected among younger children (< 2 years) and G. lamblia was more commonly detected among older children (2-4 years). The mean age of rotavirus detection was 34.6 months. Conclusions In this Central American community following RV5 introduction, rotavirus was not commonly detected among children with diarrhea. Prevention and appropriate management of norovirus and sapovirus should be considered to further reduce the burden of diarrheal disease. PMID:24879131

  19. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Lindbom, Jenny; Andreasen, Line Lundberg; Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper

    2011-09-27

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined the prevalence of strongyle infection, the efficacy of ivermectin and fenbendazole treatment, and strongyle re-infection rates of working horses during the dry months in Nicaragua. One hundred and five horses used by farmers for transport of people and goods were randomly allocated into three treatment groups, i.e., the IVM group treated with ivermectin, the FBZ group treated with fenbendazole and the control group treated with placebo. Determined by pre-treatment faecal egg counts (FECs), horses showed a high prevalence (94%) of strongyle parasites with high intensities of infection (mean FEC of 1117 eggs per gram (EPG) with an SD of 860 EPG, n=102). Body condition scores of all horses ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 with a mean of 2.4 (scales 1-5). Fourteen days after treatment faecal egg count reductions (FECRs) were 100% and 94% in the IVM and the FBZ groups, respectively. The egg reappearance period (ERP) defined as the time until the mean FEC reached 20% of the pre-treatment level, was estimated as 42 days for the FBZ group and 60 days for the IVM group. Individual faecal cultures were set up and the larval differentiation revealed a 36% prevalence of Strongylus vulgaris before treatment (n=45). In the FBZ group, 25% of the horses were S. vulgaris-positive 70 days post treatment compared to 11% in the IVM group. Our results indicate that strongyle infection intensities in Nicaragua are high and that S. vulgaris is endemic in the area. Furthermore, efficacies and ERPs of IVM and FBZ were within the expected range with no signs of anthelmintic resistance.

  20. Public health surveillance after a volcanic eruption: lessons from Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, 1992.

    PubMed

    Malilay, J; Real, M G; Ramirez Vanegas, A; Noji, E; Sinks, T

    1996-09-01

    The eruption of the Cerro Negro volcano near León, Nicaragua, on 9 April 1992 distributed an estimated 1.7 million tons of ash over a 200 square kilometer area. An assessment was conducted to evaluate the health effects on approximately 300,000 residents, using routine data obtained by the national epidemiologic surveillance system. It was found that rates of visits to health care facilities for acute diarrheal and respiratory illnesses increased in two study communities, one within and one near the disaster zone. Specifically, visits for acute diarrhea were nearly 6 times more numerous than before the eruption in both communities, while visits for acute respiratory diseases were 3.6 times more frequent in Malpaisillo (the community near the disaster zone) and 6.0 times more frequent in Telica (the community within it). Most of the visits were for infants and children less than 5 years old. Increased diarrheal disease morbidity, which commonly occurs after volcanic eruptions, demands detailed investigation of the type and quality of water supplies following heavy ashfall. Ash-related respiratory problems should be further examined to determine the spectrum of such diseases and the timing of illness onsets among infants and other special population subgroups. Data collected on health conditions before and after an eruption by passive surveillance can be used to detect eruption-related morbidity. Systems already in place, such as Nicaragua's national epidemiologic surveillance system, can be modified or extended so as to increase their sensitivity to new cases and hence their ability to provide appropriate notification to medical relief agencies.

  1. Exploring Post-Wildfire Hydrologic Response in Central Colorado Using Field Observations and the Landlab Modeling Framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. M.; Rengers, F. K.; Gasparini, N. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Nudurupati, S. S.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Hutton, E. W. H.

    2014-12-01

    In May 1996, the Buffalo Creek fire burned nearly 5,000 hectares of National Forest and private land 60 miles southwest of Denver, Colorado. Several weeks later, convective storms initiated severe flooding in the Buffalo and Spring Creek watersheds, leading to significant overland and fluvial sediment transport. To assess landscape response to fire, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored hydrologic and sedimentologic conditions between 1997 and 2000. In addition to precipitation, discharge and grain size distribution measurements over the study period, ground surveys and photogrammetry were done at representative cross-sections near the downstream channel outlet to estimate volumes of transported material after different precipitation events. These data can be used to validate numerical models that simulate landscape hydrologic and erosional responses post-fire. Modeling is a critical tool in understanding landscape response to fire across these short time scales, as post-fire erosion events can disrupt steady-state landscapes, subsequently affecting short and long-term landscape evolution. Anthropogenic climate change can exacerbate these morphologic changes over time, as precipitation and fire regimes will experience changes in event recurrence. Landlab, an open-source, componentized model written in Python, can be used to explore landscape evolution across both short and long time scales. The observed hydrologic conditions from Spring Creek are modeled across a 1-meter digital elevation model (DEM) of the watershed to simulate observed flow and sediment transport events. Once the flow and sediment transport data are validated using Landlab components, the model results can be extrapolated to understand landscape response to precipitation and discharge events that occurred immediately post-fire that were not measured in the field. Particularly, sediment transport by overland flow through sheet-flow and rilling are more significant in burned than unburned landscapes

  2. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  3. Nicaragua revisited: evidence of lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a high-altitude, coffee-growing village

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; Barreto Ruiz, Gerardo M.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is found at epidemic levels in certain populations of the Pacific Coast in northwestern Nicaragua especially in younger men. There are knowledge gaps concerning CKD’s prevalence in regions at higher altitudes. Methods A cross-sectional study of adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years in 1 coffee-growing village in Nicaragua located at 1,000 m above sea level (MASL) altitude was performed. Predictors included participant sex, age, occupation, conventional CKD risk factors and other factors associated with CKD suggested by previous surveys in Central America. Outcomes included serum creatinine (SCr) values >1.2 mg/dL for men and >0.9 mg/dL for women, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, dipstick proteinuria stratified as microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/dL) and macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/dL), hypertension and body mass index. Results Of 324 eligible participants, 293 were interviewed (90.4%), and 267 of those received the physical exam (82.4% overall). Of the sample, 45% were men. Prevalence rate of estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was 0 for men (0%) and 2 for women (1.4%). The prevalence of at least microalbuminuria was significantly higher among men compared with women (27.5% vs. 21.4%, respectively; p=0.02). Conclusions The CKD prevalence in this village is comparable to a previously studied Nicaraguan coffee-farming region and much lower than previously screened portions of northwestern Nicaragua. There is heterogeneity in CKD prevalence across Nicaragua. At this time, screenings should target individuals living in previously identified, higher risk regions. More work is needed to understand determinants of CKD in this resource-poor nation. PMID:21956767

  4. Suicidal Expression in Adolescents in Nicaragua in Relation to Youth Self-Report (YSR) Syndromes and Exposure to Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Obando Medina, Claudia María; Herrera, Andres; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide and suicidal expressions among young people represent a major public health problem worldwide. Most studies are from high-income countries, and it remains unclear whether prevalence and risk factors show a similar pattern in other settings. This study aims to assess the prevalence of suicidal expressions and serious suicidal expressions (ideation, plans and attempts) among adolescents in Nicaragua, in relation to previously reported risk factors, such as exposure to suicide in significant others (parents, siblings, partners or friends) and mental health problems. Methods: 368 adolescents aged 15-18 years were randomly selected from public secondary schools in León, Nicaragua. Data was collected using Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) and Youth Self-Report questionnaires (YSR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Suicide ideation prevalence in the past year was 22.6%, suicide plans 10.3%, and suicide attempts 6.5%. Girls were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multivariate analyses showed that anxious/depressed, somatic complaints and exposure to suicidal behavior in significant others were significantly associated with own serious suicidal expressions. Conclusions: The prevalence of serious suicidal expressions among young people in Nicaragua is within the range reported from Western high-income countries. An attempted or completed suicide in someone close, is associated with own suicidal expressions even in the absence of increased mental distress. Furthermore, somatic complaints should alert health care professionals of the possibility of increased suicide risk. PMID:21559237

  5. Genetic Diversity of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Nicaragua as Estimated by Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    PubMed Central

    Geleta, Mulatu; Herrera, Isabel; Monzón, Arnulfo; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Coffea arabica L. (arabica coffee), the only tetraploid species in the genus Coffea, represents the majority of the world's coffee production and has a significant contribution to Nicaragua's economy. The present paper was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of arabica coffee in Nicaragua for its conservation and breeding values. Twenty-six populations that represent eight varieties in Nicaragua were investigated using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 24 alleles were obtained from the 12 loci investigated across 260 individual plants. The total Nei's gene diversity (HT) and the within-population gene diversity (HS) were 0.35 and 0.29, respectively, which is comparable with that previously reported from other countries and regions. Among the varieties, the highest diversity was recorded in the variety Catimor. Analysis of variance (AMOVA) revealed that about 87% of the total genetic variation was found within populations and the remaining 13% differentiate the populations (FST = 0.13; P < 0.001). The variation among the varieties was also significant. The genetic variation in Nicaraguan coffee is significant enough to be used in the breeding programs, and most of this variation can be conserved through ex situ conservation of a low number of populations from each variety. PMID:22701376

  6. Exploring the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars: a survey of O-type stars in clusters and in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Langer, N.; de Wit, W. J.; Ilyin, I.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Piskunov, A. E.; Przybilla, N.; Magori Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Context. Although the effects of magnetic fields in massive stars have been found to be substantial by recent models and observations, the magnetic fields of only a small number of massive O-type stars have so far been investigated. Additional observations are of the utmost importance to constraining the conditions that are conducive to magnetic fields and to determine the first trends about their occurrence rate and field strength distribution. Aims: To investigate statistically whether magnetic fields in massive stars are ubiquitous or appear only in stars with a specific spectral classification, certain ages, or in a special environment, we acquired 41 new spectropolarimetric observations for 36 stars. Among the observed sample, roughly half of the stars are probable members of clusters at different ages, whereas the remaining stars are field stars not known to belong to any cluster or association. Methods: Spectropolarimetric observations were obtained during three different nights using the low-resolution spectropolarimetric mode of FORS 2 (FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph) mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT. To assess the membership in open clusters and associations, we used astrometric catalogues with the highest quality kinematic and photometric data currently available. Results: A field at a significance level of 3σ was detected in ten O-type stars. The strongest longitudinal magnetic fields were measured in two Of?p stars: ⟨ Bz ⟩ = -381 ± 122 G for CPD-28 2561 and ⟨ Bz ⟩ = -297 ± 62 G for HD 148937, the latter of which had previously been detected by ourselves as magnetic. The observations of HD 148937 obtained on three different nights indicate that the magnetic field is slightly variable. Our new measurements support our previous conclusion that large-scale organized magnetic fields with polar field strengths in excess of 1 kG are not widespread among O-type stars. Among the stars with a detected magnetic field, only one

  7. Site exploration for rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member, Belted Range Tuff, U12g Tunnel Complex, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Langkopf, B.S.; Eshom, E.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes site exploration work completed in support of planned rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Ruff at Nevada Test Site`s, G-Tunnel. As part of this work, the Rock Mechanics Drift (RMD) and the Rock Mass Property Alcove (RMPA) were mined and three coreholes drilled. The results of mapping and corehole logging are displayed, described, and analyzed.

  8. Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.a; Wettergreen, D. S.; Whittaker, R.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Fisher, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Life In The Atacama (LITA) project develops and field tests a long-range, solarpowered, automated rover platform (Zo ) and a science payload assembled to search for microbial life in the Atacama desert. Life is barely detectable over most of the driest desert on Earth. Its unique geological, climatic, and biological evolution have created a unique training site for designing and testing exploration strategies and life detection methods for the robotic search for life on Mars.

  9. Resistance, Reproduction, Both, or Neither: Exploring the Influence of Early Childhood Professional Development Specialists on the Field of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This article details the findings from a qualitative study that explored the ways individuals who work with early childhood education (ECE) practitioners in professional development settings influenced those practitioners' understandings of early childhood policy and early childhood systems. Defined as individuals who work in the professional…

  10. The Educational and Career Exploration System: First Year Report of a County-Wide Field Trial and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Richard H.; And Others

    Developed by the Advanced Systems Development Division of International Business Machines (IBM) in consultation with two professors, the Educational and Career Exploration System (ECES) includes information on 400 occupations and 300 post-high school majors. Designed for the high school student and for use with a computer terminal, the system…

  11. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations

  12. Three-Dimensional Thermal Model of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-10-01

    The thermal structure of a subduction zone controls many key processes, including subducting plate metamorphism and dehydration, the megathrust earthquake seismogenic zone and volcanic arc magmatism. Here, we present the first three-dimensional (3D), steady-state kinematic-dynamic thermal model for the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone. The model consists of the subducting Cocos plate, the overriding Caribbean Plate, and a viscous mantle wedge in which flow is driven by interactions with the downgoing slab. The Cocos plate geometry includes along-strike variations in slab dip, which induce along-strike flow in the mantle wedge. Along-strike flow occurs primarily below Costa Rica, with a maximum magnitude of 4 cm/year (~40 % of the convergence rate) for a mantle with a dislocation creep rheology; an isoviscous mantle has lower velocities. Along-margin flow causes temperatures variations of up to 80 °C in the subducting slab and mantle wedge at the volcanic arc and backarc. The 3D effects do not strongly alter the shallow (<35 km) thermal structure of the subduction zone. The models predict that the megathrust seismogenic zone width decreases from ~100 km below Costa Rica to just a few kilometers below Nicaragua; the narrow width in the north is due to hydrothermal cooling of the oceanic plate. These results are in good agreement with previous 2D models and with the rupture area of recent earthquakes. In the models, along-strike mantle flow is induced only by variations in slab dip, with flow directed toward the south where the dip angle is smallest. In contrast, geochemical and seismic observations suggest a northward flow of 6-19 cm/year. We do not observe this in our models, suggesting that northward flow may be driven by additional factors, such as slab rollback or proximity to a slab edge (slab window). Such high velocities may significantly affect the thermal structure, especially at the southern end of the subduction zone. In this area, 3D models that

  13. The 10 April 2014 Earthquake in Central Nicaragua: Evidence of Complex Crustal Deformation in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, G.; Muñoz, A.; Talavera, E.; Tenorio, V.; Farraz, I.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Sánchez, A.

    2014-12-01

    On 10 April 2014 a magnitude Mw 6.1 struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan seismic network. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt but caused relatively little damage to the city of Managua and to the surrounding cities and towns. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that in 1972, the earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a southeast trending fault. The reported source mechanism suggests right-lateral strike slip motion on a plane with the same azimuth as the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of seismic activity occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated, beneath Apoyeque volcano. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Seismic scaling relations between magnitude and the fault length predict a length of approximately 10 km for an earthquake of this magnitude. This is in agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. The northeast - southwest trending Tiscapa and Ciudad Jardín faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. This set of conjugate faults confirms that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic style of deformation. The forearc sliver between the trench and the volcanic arc moves to the northwest relative to the Caribbean plate. This deformation, however, does not take place on a single set of faults. The motion is apparently accommodated by a system of conjugate faults: right lateral, strike-slip faults oriented parallel to the volcanic arc and another set of faults trending northeast

  14. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Sistla, Seeta A.; Roddy, Adam B.; Williams, Nicholas E.; Kramer, Daniel B.; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region’s first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  15. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Seeta A; Roddy, Adam B; Williams, Nicholas E; Kramer, Daniel B; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  16. Dynamics of diffuse CO2 emission and eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, F.; Melian, G.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Diaz, M.; Calvo, D.; Nolasco, D.; Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Ibarra, M.; Strauch, W.; Muñoz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cerro Negro volcano is the youngest of a group of cinder cones NW of Las Pilas at 25 km from León (Nicaragua) with 685 meters above sea level and one of the most active volcanoes of Nicaragua. It has erupted 21 times since its birth in 1850, with an eruptive cycle about 7-8 years. Since the last eruption, occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a research collaboration program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from Cerro Negro. Since then, ten CO2 surface efflux surveys have been undertaken covering an area of 0,6 km2, in order to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation with the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. Soil CO2 efflux measurements were performed always by means of a portable NDIR sensor according to the accumulation chamber method. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1869 t d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the 2002 and 2003 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 84 t d-1, respectively. However, during the 2004 a slightly increase on the total diffuse CO2 emission was observed, reaching up to 256 t d-1. The observed relatively increase was addressed to the occurrence of a seismic swarm at Cerro Negro during the survey. The yearly surveys performed at Cerro Negro from 2005 until present, have always shown background levels of CO2 emission, with 68, 38, 45, 10 and 12 t d-1, respectively. The temporal evolution of the diffuse CO2 emissions from Cerro Negro will allow us to determine the typical range of seasonal or other transient departures from its normal or “baseline” behaviour and its relation with the eruptive cycle.

  17. Theoretical exploration of control factors for the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum in two-color field.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinting; Yang, Dapeng; Yao, Li

    2014-09-15

    In this work, the laser-parameter effects on the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum and attosecond trains by mixing two-color laser field, a visible light field of 800 nm and a mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser pulses of 2400 nm, are theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Different schemes are applied to discuss the function of intensity, carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and pulse duration on the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse. As a consequence, an isolated 16as pulse is obtained by Fourier transforming an ultrabroad XUV continuum of 208 eV with the fundamental field of duration of 6 fs, 9×10(14)W/cm2 of intensity, the duration of 12 fs, the CEPs of the two driving pulses of -π and the relative strength ratio √R=0.2.

  18. Mauna Kea, Hawaii as an Analogue Site for Future Planetary Resource Exploration: Results from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU Field-Testing Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Armstrong, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Blummers, M.; Boucher, D.; Caillibot, E.; Captain, J.; Deleuterio, G.; Farmer, J. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Hamilton, J. C.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Nunez, J. I.; Quinn, J. W.; Sanders, G. B.; Sellar, R. G.; Sigurdson, L.; Taylor, R.; Zacny, K.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Lunar Surface Operation - In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test held on January 27 - February 11, 2010 on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii, a number of scientific instrument teams collaborated to characterize the field site and test instrument capabilities outside laboratory environments. In this paper, we provide a geological setting for this new field-test site, a description of the instruments that were tested during the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign, and a short discussion for each instrument about the validity and use of the results obtained during the test. These results will form a catalogue that may serve as reference for future test campaigns. In this paper we provide a description and regional geological setting for a new field analogue test site for lunar resource exploration, and discuss results obtained from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign as a reference for future field-testing at this site. The following instruments were tested: a multispectral microscopic imager, MMI, a Mossbauer spectrometer, an evolved gas analyzer, VAPoR, and an oxygen and volatile extractor called RESOLVE. Preliminary results show that the sediments change from dry, organic-poor, poorly-sorted volcaniclastic sand on the surface, containing basalt, iron oxides and clays, to more water- and organic-rich, fine grained, well-sorted volcaniclastic sand, primarily consisting of iron oxides and depleted of basalt and clays. Furthermore, drilling experiments showed a very close correlation between drilling on the Moon and drilling at the test site. The ILSO-ISRU test site was an ideal location for testing strategies for in situ resource exploration at the lunar or martian surface.

  19. ELUCID - Exploring the Local Universe with ReConstructed Initial Density Field III: Constrained Simulation in the SDSS Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai; Shi, JingJing; Jing, Y. P.; Liu, Chengze; Li, Shijie; Kang, Xi; Gao, Yang

    2016-11-01

    A method we developed recently for the reconstruction of the initial density field in the nearby universe is applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. A high-resolution N-body constrained simulation (CS) of the reconstructed initial conditions, with 30723 particles evolved in a 500 {h}-1 {Mpc} box, is carried out and analyzed in terms of the statistical properties of the final density field and its relation with the distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We find that the statistical properties of the cosmic web and the halo populations are accurately reproduced in the CS. The galaxy density field is strongly correlated with the CS density field, with a bias that depends on both galaxy luminosity and color. Our further investigations show that the CS provides robust quantities describing the environments within which the observed galaxies and galaxy systems reside. Cosmic variance is greatly reduced in the CS so that the statistical uncertainties can be controlled effectively, even for samples of small volumes.

  20. Exploring the denaturation of whey proteins upon application of moderate electric fields: a kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ricardo N; Teixeira, José A; Vicente, António A

    2011-11-09

    Thermal processing often results in disruption of the native conformation of whey proteins, thus affecting functional properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of moderate electric fields on denaturation kinetics and thermodynamic properties of whey protein dispersions at temperatures ranging from 75 to 90 °C. Application of electric fields led to a lower denaturation of whey proteins, kinetically traduced by lower values of reaction order (n) and rate constant (k) (p < 0.05), when compared to those from conventional heating under equivalent heating rates and holding times. Furthermore, the application of electric fields combined with short come-up times has reduced considerably the denaturation of proteins during early stages of heating (>30% of native soluble protein than conventional heating) and has determined also considerable changes in calculated thermodynamic properties (such as E(a), ΔH(‡), ΔS(‡)). In general, denaturation reactions during moderate electric fields processing were less dependent on temperature increase.

  1. Emerging Trends on the Topic of Information Technology in the Field of Educational Sciences: A Bibliometric Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Valiente, Carlos Luis

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a bibliometric analysis on the topic of Information Technology (IT) in the field of Educational Sciences, aimed at envisioning the research emerging trends. The ERIC database is used as a consultation source; the results were subjected to productivity by authors, journals, and term co-occurrence analysis indicators for the…

  2. Exploration in a dark open field: a shift from directional to positional progression and a proposed model of acquiring spatial information.

    PubMed

    Avni, Reut; Zadicario, Pazit; Eilam, David

    2006-08-10

    Exploration in a dark open field undergoes three progressive changes: (i) an initial phase of spending equal amounts of time in various zones of the arena changes to staying in the corners, and ultimately spending most of the time in one corner; (ii) travel paths are first circular and scattered all over the arena, but gradually become anchored to one corner at which they start and end; (iii) traveled distance gradually decreases to that of the initial level seen in a lit open field. Altogether, rodents shift from a 'looping' exploration mechanism with feeble coupling with the environment, to 'home base' exploration which is firmly anchored to the environment. This shift also involves switching from momentary and sporadic to repeated returns to a specific, presumably familiar place, to which the animal navigates back from various other places. We suggest that this switching illustrates navigation first by directional and then by positional environmental cues, as hypothesized in the 'parallel map theory'. We also suggest that the transition from looping to home base behavior is part of a hierarchal construction of space representation via three modes of spatial information processing: (i) piloting--sequential processing, based on moving from one landmark to the next; (ii) orienting--parallel processing, based on moving from one point to the next, with the same starting and ending point; (iii) navigating--continuous processing, based on continuously updating the position in relation to several locations in the environment (map navigation).

  3. Globalization, shifting livelihoods, and their effects on natural resources on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of local peoples' livelihoods is important in understanding the use of, access to, and regulation of natural resources. Drivers of global change, including climate change and globalization, often result in shifts in local peoples' livelihood portfolios. Here, we use longitudinal data to examine how increasing market access, migration, and technology adoption have affected livelihood portfolios in a dozen communities along Nicaragua's Atlantic coast and the effects of livelihood change on terrestrial and marine wildlife. Our study communities are located in varying proximity to the terminus of the first trans-isthmian highway in this region, completed in 2008. Our results indicate that changes in livelihood portfolios, such as shifts between agriculture, fishing, and tourism, can be explained by a combination of household and community characteristics. Moreover, globalization's effects on specific livelihoods are distinct while varying both spatially and temporally. Trends in fisheries abundance, deforestation, and the management of endangered species and protected areas are better understood in the context of these shifting livelihood patterns. Moreover, this study provides new insights as to how natural resource dependent communities might decrease their vulnerability to the forces of global change.

  4. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  5. Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of livestock in Nicaragua, with notes about distribution.

    PubMed

    Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %).

  6. Self-potential, soil co2 flux, and temperature on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Connor, C.; St-Amand, K.; Stix, J.; Spinner, W.

    2003-07-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between self-potential (SP), soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature and the mechanisms that produce SP anomalies on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. We measured SP, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes (<1 to 5.0 x 10{sup 4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), and temperatures (26 to 80 C) within an area surrounding a normal fault, adjacent to Comalito cinder cone (2002-2003). These variables are well spatially correlated. Wavelengths of SP anomalies are {le}100 m, and high horizontal SP gradients flank the region of elevated flux and temperature. Carbon isotopic compositions of soil CO{sub 2} ({delta}{sup 13}C = -3.3 to -1.1{per_thousand}) indicate a deep gas origin. Given the presence of a deep water table (100 to 150 m), high gas flow rates, and subsurface temperatures above liquid boiling points, we suggest that rapid fluid disruption is primarily responsible for positive SP anomalies here. Concurrent measurement of SP, soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature may be a useful tool to monitor intrusive activity.

  7. Child labor and acute pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua: failure to comply with children's rights.

    PubMed

    Corriols, Marianela; Aragón, Aurora

    2010-01-01

    Since 1995, Nicaragua has adopted several legal instruments to comply with children's rights, including international conventions and a minimum working age of 14 years. However, records from the Ministry of Health's Pesticide Program show continuing occupational acute pesticide poisonings (APP) among children five to 14-years-old from 1995 to 2006. We reviewed and described all reported APPs and estimated the yearly incidence and underreporting rates. Of 2069 APP cases, 432 were occupational. Annual incidence rates (range: 1-4.7/100,000) have been decreasing since 1997. Six fatal and most non-fatal cases were related to work in tobacco and basic grain crops. Based on underreporting data, we estimate actual incidence during the period studied to be 18,516 (95% CI, 3840-33,204) cases among five- to fourteen-year-olds. With regard to child labor and pesticide exposure, children's rights violations still exist and must be abolished in both formal employment and in the informal economy, including in family-based agricultural activities.

  8. Incorporating human rights into reproductive health care provider education programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Zuniga, Karen Padilla; Billings, Deborah L; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2013-07-01

    Health care providers play a central role in the promotion and protection of human rights in patient care. Consequently, the World Medical Association, among others, has called on medical and nursing schools to incorporate human rights education into their training programs. This report describes the efforts of one Central American nongovernmental organization to include human rights - related content into reproductive health care provider training programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Baseline findings suggest that health care providers are not being adequately prepared to fulfill their duty to protect and promote human rights in patient care. Medical and nursing school administrators, faculty, and students recognize the need to strengthen training in this area and are enthusiastic about incorporating human rights content into their education programs. Evaluation findings suggest that exposure to educational materials and methodologies that emphasize the relationship between human rights and reproductive health may lead to changes in health care provider attitudes and behaviors that help promote and safeguard human rights in patient care.

  9. The scaling relationship between self-potential and fluid flow on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Conner, C.

    2003-11-11

    The concurrent measurement of self-potential (SP) and soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub s}{sup CO2}) in volcanic systems may be an important tool to monitor intrusive activity and understand interaction between magmatic and groundwater systems. However, quantitative relationships between these parameters must be established to apply them toward understanding processes operating at depth. Power-law scaling exponents calculated for SP and F{sub s}{sup CO2} measured along a fault on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua indicate a nonlinear relationship between these parameters. Scaling exponents suggest that there is a declining increase in SP with a given increase in F{sub s}{sup CO2}, until a threshold (log F{sub s}{sup CO2} {approx} 2.5 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) above which SP remains constant with increasing F{sub s}{sup CO2}. Implications for subsurface processes that may influence SP at Masaya are discussed.

  10. Characterization of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culcidae) production sites in urban Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Samantha N; Gordon, Aubree L; Lugo, Emperatriz del C; Moreno, Gilberto; Kuan, Guillermina M; López, María M; López, Josefa D; Delgado, Marco A; Valle, Sonia I; Espinoza, Perla M; Harris, Eva

    2007-09-01

    To characterize the production patterns of the dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culcidae), pupal surveys were conducted in selected neighborhoods of two major cities in Nicaragua. In León, 833 houses were visited in July and September 2003, corresponding to the beginning and middle of the dengue season; in Managua, 1,365 homes were visited in July 2003. In total, 7,607 containers were characterized, of which 11% were positive for Ae. aegypti larvae and 4% for pupae. In addition to barrels, potted plants and superficial water on tarps and in puddles were identified as highly productive sites. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed frequency of container use, use of a lid, and rainwater filling as key variables affecting pupal positivity. Importantly, this survey demonstrated the risk associated with the presence of lids, the limited temporal efficacy of temephos, and the lack of association of water availability with risky water storage practices. Finally, we introduce the concept of an efficiency value and an accompanying graphical display system that can facilitate development of targeted pupal control strategies. These data underscore the importance of entomological surveillance of pupal productivity to gather information from which to derive streamlined, efficient, and effective vector control measures to reduce the density of Aedes mosquito larvae and pupae and thus the risk for dengue.

  11. Social security health insurance for the informal sector in Nicaragua: a randomized evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Rebecca L; Hatt, Laurel E; Field, Erica M; Islam, Mursaleena; Diaz, Freddy Solís; González, Martha Azucena

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results from an experimental evaluation of a voluntary health insurance program for informal sector workers in Nicaragua. Costs of the premiums as well as enrollment location were randomly allocated. Overall, take-up of the program was low, with only 20% enrollment. Program costs and streamlined bureaucratic procedures were important determinants of enrollment. Participation of local microfinance institutions had a slight negative effect on enrollment. One year later, those who received insurance substituted toward services at covered facilities and total out-of-pocket expenditures fell. However, total expenditures fell by less than the insurance premiums. We find no evidence of an increase in health-care utilization among the newly insured. We also find very low retention rates after the expiration of the subsidy, with less than 10% of enrollees still enrolled after one year. To shed light on the findings from the experimental results, we present qualitative evidence of institutional and contextual factors that limited the success of this program.

  12. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16–24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services. PMID:28030599

  13. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of an area polluted by heavy metals in central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, J. A.; Dahlin, T.; Barmen, G.

    2006-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical surveys were used to investigate the hydrogeological conditions in one of the Río Sucio microbasins, in central Nicaragua. Zones of vertical structures (i.e. fractures and quartz veins) and weathering were mapped using Continuous Vertical Electrical Soundings (CVES), as such zones are of major importance for groundwater transport. Water from the springs was analysed to determine concentrations of major ions and heavy metals. Low ion concentrations and 18O analyses indicate that the springs occur close to their recharge areas and there is a relatively rapid groundwater circulation. Mercury (Hg) content in the springs was low, while comparatively high amounts of lead (Pb) were found. The results presented here demonstrate the important function of weathering and tectonics in the occurrence of groundwater systems in the basin. Hg and Pb found in the springs’ water reveal the existence of an increase in pollution sources disseminating in the area. More than 100 years of using mercury in the gold-mining industry and releasing wastes into rivers has affected water quality and ecosystems. Further investigations are needed in this area to determine the groundwater vulnerability to this pollution as this resource may be needed in the future.

  14. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of an area polluted by heavy metals in central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, J. A.; Dahlin, T.; Barmen, G.

    2006-06-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical surveys were used to investigate the hydrogeological conditions in one of the Río Sucio microbasins, in central Nicaragua. Zones of vertical structures (i.e. fractures and quartz veins) and weathering were mapped using Continuous Vertical Electrical Soundings (CVES), as such zones are of major importance for groundwater transport. Water from the springs was analysed to determine concentrations of major ions and heavy metals. Low ion concentrations and 18O analyses indicate that the springs occur close to their recharge areas and there is a relatively rapid groundwater circulation. Mercury (Hg) content in the springs was low, while comparatively high amounts of lead (Pb) were found. The results presented here demonstrate the important function of weathering and tectonics in the occurrence of groundwater systems in the basin. Hg and Pb found in the springs’ water reveal the existence of an increase in pollution sources disseminating in the area. More than 100 years of using mercury in the gold-mining industry and releasing wastes into rivers has affected water quality and ecosystems. Further investigations are needed in this area to determine the groundwater vulnerability to this pollution as this resource may be needed in the future.

  15. Community Diarrhea Incidence Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Meléndez, Marlon; Liu, Lan; Enrique Zambrana, Luis; Paniagua, Margarita; Weber, David J.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Cáceres, Mercedes; Källeståll, Carina; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix; Peña, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of watery diarrhea in the community before and after introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in León, Nicaragua. A random sample of households was selected before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. All children < 5 years of age in selected households were eligible for inclusion. Children were followed every 2 weeks for watery diarrhea episodes. The incidence rate was estimated as numbers of episodes per 100 child-years of exposure time. A mixed effects Poisson regression model was fit to compare incidence rates in the pre-vaccine and vaccine periods. The pre-vaccine cohort (N = 726) experienced 36 episodes per 100 child-years, and the vaccine cohort (N = 826) experienced 25 episodes per 100 child-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40, 0.91) during the vaccine period versus the pre-vaccine period, indicating a lower incidence of watery diarrhea in the community during the vaccine period. PMID:23817336

  16. Developing a common framework for integrated solid waste management advances in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Olley, Jane E; IJgosse, Jeroen; Rudin, Victoria; Alabaster, Graham

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the municipal solid waste management system in Managua, Nicaragua. It updates an initial profile developed by the authors for the 2010 UN-HABITAT publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities and applies the methodology developed in that publication. In recent years, the municipality of Managua has been the beneficiary of a range of international cooperation projects aimed at improving municipal solid waste management in the city. The article describes how these technical assistance and infrastructure investments have changed the municipal solid waste management panorama in the city and analyses the sustainability of these changes. The article concludes that by working closely with the municipal government, the UN-HABITAT project Strengthening Capacities for Solid Waste Management in Managua was able to unite these separate efforts and situate them within a strategic framework to guide the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system in the forthcoming years. The creation of this multi-stakeholder platform allowed for the implementation of joint activities and ensured coherence in the products generated by the different projects. This approach could be replicated in other cities and in other sectors with similar effect. Developing a long term vision was essential for the advancement of municipal solid waste management in the city. Nevertheless, plan implementation may still be undermined by the pressures of the short term municipal administrative government, which emphasize operational over strategic investment.

  17. A sedimentary-based history of hurricane strikes on the southern Caribbean coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, Terrence Allen; Liu, Kam-biu

    2012-11-01

    Multi-millennial hurricane landfall records from the western North Atlantic indicate that landfall frequency has varied dramatically over time, punctuated by multi-centennial to millennial scale periods of hyperactivity. We extend the record geographically by presenting a paleostrike record inferred from a four-core transect from a marsh on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. Fossil pollen indicates that the site was a highly organic wetland from ~ 5400-4900 cal yr BP, at which time it became a shallow marine lagoon until ~ 2800 cal yr BP when it transitioned back into swamp/marsh, freshening over time, with the present fresh-to-brackish Typha marsh developing over the very recent past. Hurricane Joan, 1988, is recorded as a distinctive light-colored sand-silt-clay layer across the top of the transect, identifiable by abrupt shifts in color from the dark marsh deposits, increased grain size, and two upward-fining sequences, which are interpreted as representing the storm's traction and suspension loads. The six layers identified as hurricane-generated display temporal clustering, featuring a marked increase in landfall frequency ~ 800 cal yr BP. This pattern is anti-phase with the activity pattern previously identified from the northern Caribbean and the Atlantic coast of North America, thereby opposing the view that hyperactivity occurs simultaneously across the entire basin.

  18. Economic Analysis of a Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention Initiative in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Edward I.; López, Sergio R.; Aguilar, María Nela; Somarriba, María Mercedes; Pérez, Magaly; Sánchez, Nieves

    2012-01-01

    We performed an economic analysis of an intervention to decrease ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevalence in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at two Nicaraguan hospitals to determine the cost of the intervention and how effective it needs to be in order to be cost-neutral. A matched cohort study determined differences in costs and outcomes among ventilated patients. VAP cases were matched by sex and age for children older than 28 days and by weight for infants under 28 days old to controls without VAP. Intervention costs were determined from accounting and PICU staff records. The intervention cost was approximately $7,000 for one year. If VAP prevalence decreased by 0.5%, hospitals would save $7,000 and the strategy would be cost-neutral. The finding that the intervention required only modest effectiveness to be cost-neutral and has potential to generate substantial cost savings argues for implementation of VAP prevention strategies in low-income countries like Nicaragua on a broader scale. PMID:22518174

  19. Sedimentary facies and reservoir characteristics of Cretaceous J Sandstone at Torrington field (North), Goshen County, Wyoming, exploration and development implications

    SciTech Connect

    Mikesh, D.L.; Lafollette, R.F.

    1983-08-01

    Torrington field (North) is productive from the Lower Cretaceous J sandstone in the Wyoming portion of the Denver basin. The trapping mechanism is stratigraphic, with reservoir sandstones enveloped laterally and updip by shale-dominated lithofacies. The field has produced 13,000 bbl of oil from two wells since its discovery in late 1981. Three major sedimentary environments and their associated facies, characteristic of a meandered fluvial system, occur within the J interval in the area: abandoned channel, point bar(s), and interfluvial plain. Production at both Torrington (North) and Torrington is from reservoir development within point bar deposits. Cores of the J point bar at Torrington (North) show that it is comprised primarily of very fine to fine-grained quartzarenites and sublitharenites. Sedimentary structures observed in the cores include burrowing and bioturbation, high-angle plane-parallel cross-bedding, discontinuous wavy shale laminae, climbing ripples, and truncated laminae. Although excellent hydrocarbon shows occur from the base to the top of the point bar, production appears to be confined to thin intervals of medium-grained quartzarenite found near the middle of the vertical sequence. Petrophysical reservoir characteristics of the J sandstone were established through examination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thin-section petrography, and conventional core analysis data. Microporosity development and geometry also affect production. Field extension locations and an exploratory drill site have been established as a result of this study.

  20. An integrated exploration model for Council Run field analogs: Regional geology and seismic stratigraphy of Devonian 6th Elk sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, G.; Johnson, R. )

    1991-08-01

    A geologic study of the Devonian Lock Haven 6th Elk formation along the structural front of Pennsylvania and Maryland suggest that present-day structures were active at the time of deposition. These structures barred deposition to the west and helped to localize sands in a northeast-southwest fairway. The 6th Elk sandstones occur in two major depositional lobes (located in Centre and Somerset counties in Pennsylvania, and Garret County, Maryland) and were deposited on a shallow-marine shelf by turbidity currents and later modified by storm-generated currents. Deposition of 6th Elk sands may also have been influenced by cross-strike discontinuities. A seismic study of the Council Run field aids in subsurface identification of the 6th Elk. A high-amplitude seismic anomaly across the Council Run field is correlated with increasing san thickness. Two dimensional modeling suggests that the seismic response is extremely sensitive to specific acquisition and processing techniques including filter and phase variability. Additional attribute analysis integrates the seismic data with the forward models. This results in a predictive method for potentially identifying 6th Elk sandstone development from seismic data. Applying the results of the seismic modeling at Council Run field to a seismic grid across the previously defined 6th Elk depositional fairway has identified many exploratory prospects in Lycoming and Bradford counties, Pennsylvania. This area coincides with the site of a third, previously documented, Upper Devonian depositional lobe.

  1. Exploring correlation between redox potential and other edaphic factors in field and laboratory conditions in relation to methane efflux.

    PubMed

    Singh, S N

    2001-10-01

    Methane is primarily a biogenic gas, which is implicated in global warming. Although its production in the anoxic conditions is regulated by several edaphic factors, aquatic macrophytes also influence methane emission by providing aerenchyma to act as chimney for CH4 transport from the sediment to troposphere, by releasing root exudates to the sediment to serve as substrate for methanogenic bacteria and by transporting atmospheric O2 to rhizosphere, which stimulates CH4 consumption. Among the edaphic factors, redox potential (Eh) is the most important, which largely determines the action of methanogenic bacteria. Hence, a study was undertaken first to find out the correlation between CH4 emission and edaphic factors in the field conditions and then to understand the relationship between Eh and other edaphic factors. The field studies revealed that natural wetlands were the major source of CH4 emission, and the vegetation plays an important role in CH4 emission from the water bodies. However, it was very difficult to establish a strong relationship between the CH4 emission and the edaphic factors in the field conditions due to other limiting factors and their constant fluctuations. In this connection, the laboratory experiments exhibited that soil temperature, pH, moisture regime and incubation period were negatively correlated with Eh, which determines the initiation of methanogenic process. However, organic carbon and the water regime over the soil surface did not show any impact on Eh in this study.

  2. Petroleum in the Caribbean Basin: Further exploration justified?

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.

    1996-08-01

    After more than half a century of exploration for petroleum in that part of the Caribbean Basin covered by this review, the prospects for substantial discoveries remain low. Only Barbados has had modest but sustained production of oil and gas. In Hispaniola minor production from small prospects lasted briefly. Exploration in the northeast Caribbean has not resulted in discoveries. Similar exploration in Puerto Rico and, on a more extensive scale, in Jamaica, has also failed to show positive results. On the Nicaragua Rise (Mosquitia, Tela Basins) drilling has produced shows but no production, a situation also evident in Belize. Nevertheless, examination of these results, in the context of the regional geology of the Caribbean Basin, suggests there are areas where further exploration is justified.

  3. A Review of the Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer as a Tool for Field Geologic Investigations on Earth and in Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Hodges, Kip V.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Graff, Trevor G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is a well-established and commonly used technique in obtaining diagnostic compositional data on geological samples. Recently, developments in X-ray tube and detector technologies have resulted in miniaturized, field-portable instruments that enable new applications both in and out of standard laboratory settings. These applications, however, have not been extensively applied to geologic field campaigns. This study investigates the feasibility of using developing handheld XRF (hXRF) technology to enhance terrestrial field geology, with potential applications in planetary surface exploration missions. We demonstrate that the hXRF is quite stable, providing reliable and accurate data continuously over a several year period. Additionally, sample preparation is proved to have a marked effect on the strategy for collecting and assimilating hXRF data. While the hXRF is capable of obtaining data that are comparable to laboratory XRF analysis for several geologically-important elements (such as Si, Ca, Ti, and K), the instrument is unable to detect other elements (such as Mg and Na) reliably. While this limits the use of the hXRF, especially when compared to laboratory XRF techniques, the hXRF is still capable of providing the field user with significantly improved contextual awareness of a field site, and more work is needed to fully evaluate the potential of this instrument in more complex geologic environments.

  4. Exploration of Quench Initiation Due to Intentional Geometrical Defects in a High Magnetic Field Region of an SRF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Dai, K. Zhao, G.V. Eremeev, R.L. Geng, A.D. Palczewski; Dai, J.; Palczewski, A. D.; Eremeev, G. V.; Geng, R. L.; Zhao, K.

    2011-07-01

    A computer program which was used to simulate and analyze the thermal behaviors of SRF cavities has been developed at Jefferson Lab using C++ code. This code was also used to verify the quench initiation due to geometrical defects in high magnetic field region of SRF cavities. We built a CEBAF single cell cavity with 4 artificial defects near equator, and this cavity has been tested with T-mapping. The preheating behavior and quench initiation analysis of this cavity will be presented here using the computer program.

  5. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  6. Exploring the Integration of Field Portable Instrumentation into Real-Time Surface Science Operations with the RIS4E SSERVI Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, D.; Garry, W. B.; McAdam, A.; Scheidt, S. P.; Carter, L. M.; Glotch, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science (RIS4E) team represents one node of the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) program. While the RIS4E team consists of four themes, each dedicated to a different aspect of airless body exploration, this submission details the RIS4E work underway to maximize an astronaut's effectiveness while conducting surface science. The next generation of surface science operations will look quite different than the EVAs (extravehicular activities) conducted during Apollo. Astronauts will possess data of much higher resolution than the Apollo reconnaissance data, and the EVAs will thus be designed to answer targeted science questions. Additionally, technological advancements over the last several decades have made it possible to conduct in situ analyses of a caliber much greater than was achievable during Apollo. For example, lab techniques such as x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and multi-spectral imaging are now available in field portable formats, meaning that astronauts can gain real-time geochemical awareness during sample collection. The integration of these instruments into EVA operations, however, has not been widely tested. While these instruments will provide the astronaut with a high-resolution look at regional geochemistry and structure, their implementation could prove costly to the already constrained astronaut EVA timeline. The RIS4E team, through fieldwork at the December 1974 lava flow at Kilauea Volcano, HI, investigates the incorporation of portable technologies into planetary surface exploration and explores the relationship between science value added from these instruments and the cost associated with integrating them into an EVA timeline. We also consider what an appropriate instrumentation suite would be for the exploration of a volcanic terrain using this ideal terrestrial analog (see Rogers et al., Young et al., Bleacher et al., and Yant et al., this meeting).

  7. Monte Carlo modeling of small photon fields: quantifying the impact of focal spot size on source occlusion and output factors, and exploring miniphantom design for small-field measurements.

    PubMed

    Scott, Alison J D; Nahum, Alan E; Fenwick, John D

    2009-07-01

    The accuracy with which Monte Carlo models of photon beams generated by linear accelerators (linacs) can describe small-field dose distributions depends on the modeled width of the electron beam profile incident on the linac target. It is known that the electron focal spot width affects penumbra and cross-field profiles; here, the authors explore the extent to which source occlusion reduces linac output for smaller fields and larger spot sizes. A BEAMnrc Monte Carlo linac model has been used to investigate the variation in penumbra widths and small-field output factors with electron spot size. A formalism is developed separating head scatter factors into source occlusion and flattening filter factors. Differences between head scatter factors defined in terms of in-air energy fluence, collision kerma, and terma are explored using Monte Carlo calculations. Estimates of changes in kerma-based source occlusion and flattening filter factors with field size and focal spot width are obtained by calculating doses deposited in a narrow 2 mm wide virtual "milliphantom" geometry. The impact of focal spot size on phantom scatter is also explored. Modeled electron spot sizes of 0.4-0.7 mm FWHM generate acceptable matches to measured penumbra widths. However the 0.5 cm field output factor is quite sensitive to electron spot width, the measured output only being matched by calculations for a 0.7 mm spot width. Because the spectra of the unscattered primary (psi(pi)) and head-scattered (psi(sigma)) photon energy fluences differ, miniphantom-based collision kerma measurements do not scale precisely with total in-air energy fluence psi = (psi(pi) + psi(sigma) but with (psi(pi)+ 1.2psi(sigma)). For most field sizes, on-axis collision kerma is independent of the focal spot size; but for a 0.5 cm field size and 1.0 mm spot width, it is reduced by around 7% mostly due to source occlusion. The phantom scatter factor of the 0.5 cm field also shows some spot size dependence, decreasing by

  8. Remote Sensing as a First Step in Geothermal Exploration in the Xilingol Volcanic Field in NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, F.; Huang, S.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable and low-carbon energy source independent of climate change. It is most abundant in Cenozoic volcanic areas where high temperature can be obtained within a relatively shallow depth. Geological structures play an important role in the transfer and storage of geothermal energy. Like other geological resources, geothermal resource prospecting and exploration require a good understanding of the host media. Remote sensing (RS) has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution and broad spatial coverage over the conventional geological and geophysical prospecting techniques, while geographical information system (GIS) has intuitive, flexible, and convenient characteristics. In this study, RS and GIS techniques are utilized to prospect the geothermal energy potential in Xilingol, a Cenozoic volcanic area in the eastern Inner Mongolia, NE China. Landsat TM/ETM+ multi-temporal images taken under clear-sky conditions, digital elevation model (DEM) data, and other auxiliary data including geological maps of 1:2,500,000 and 1:200,000 scales are used in this study. The land surface temperature (LST) of the study area is retrieved from the Landsat images with a single-channel algorithm. Prior to the LST retrieval, the imagery data are preprocessed to eliminate abnormal values by reference to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the improved normalized water index (MNDWI) on the ENVI platform developed by ITT Visual Information Solutions. Linear and circular geological structures are then inferred through visual interpretation of the LST maps with references to the existing geological maps in conjunction with the computer automatic interpretation features such as lineament frequency, lineament density, and lineament intersection. Several useful techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), image classification, vegetation suppression, multi-temporal comparative analysis, and 3D Surface View based on DEM data are

  9. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashino, Katsuya; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Kanemura, Shinya; Ko, Pyungwon; Matsui, Toshinori

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  10. Estimating Attitude, Trajectory, and Gyro Biases in an Extended Kalman Filter using Earth Magnetic Field Data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally satellite attitude and trajectory have been estimated with completely separate systems, using different measurement data. The estimation of both trajectory and attitude for low earth orbit satellites has been successfully demonstrated in ground software using magnetometer and gyroscope data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors can be used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. This work further tests the single augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft trajectory and attitude with data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) magnetometer and gyro-measured body rates. In addition, gyro biases are added to the state and the filter's ability to estimate them is presented.

  11. Suicide attempts and stressful life events among female victims of intimate partner violence living in poverty in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Ana Isabel; Panadero, Sonia; Rivas, Esther; Vázquez, José Juan

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a study of 136 female intimate partner violence victims living in poverty in Nicaragua. The paper aimed to analyze the relationship between experiencing stressful life events (SLE) and perceived social support with suicide attempts, and to evaluate the differences in the SLE experienced by female suicide attempters versus non-attempters. The results showed the existence of a high level of SLE among the interviewees, and that women who have attempted suicide have experienced substantially more of these events. Experiences of violence and less social support were especially related to suicide attempts among the interviewees.

  12. The explanatory role of relationship power and control in domestic violence against women in Nicaragua: a feminist psychology analysis.

    PubMed

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-08-01

    This study offers a feminist psychology analysis of various aspects of relationship power and control and their relative explanatory contribution to understanding physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women. Findings from structured interviews with 345 women from rural Nicaragua (M age = 44) overwhelmingly demonstrate that measures of power and control reflecting interpersonal relationship dynamics have the strongest predictive power for explaining violence when compared in multivariate analyses to several of the more commonly used measures. These findings have implications for future research and the evaluation of interventions designed to decrease levels of violence against women.

  13. Training physicians for community-oriented primary care in Latin America: model programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, P A; Mora, F

    1987-01-01

    Under the rubrics of preventive and social medicine, public health, and family and community medicine, medical educators in Latin America have developed programs to train physicians for community-oriented health care (COPC). The historical background for such programs in Latin America is reviewed. Three relevant examples of programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are highlighted, drawing on the author's direct experience with and in these faculties. The paper addresses the relation between these programs and national and regional trends in education and services. PMID:3826469

  14. Exploring the perceptions and the role of genetic counselors in the emerging field of perinatal palliative care.

    PubMed

    Wool, Charlotte; Dudek, Martha

    2013-08-01

    Perinatal palliative care is a collaborative model of providing care to fetuses diagnosed with life-limiting conditions along with supportive care to parents. The study explored perceptions and current practice trends of genetic counselors related to this care. An ethics framework was used to structure the study. This cross-sectional, mixed method study was conducted to illuminate perceptions, practice barriers, familiarity with perinatal palliative care, clinician comfort, and referral comfort. The Perinatal Palliative Care Perceptions and Barriers Scale was self-administered online to 212 genetic counselors. Hierarchical multiple regression, used to test the hypothesis that perceptions, barriers to PPC, years of experience, personal comfort and prior familiarity with PPC explain variation in comfort of referral to PPC, yielded a significant overall R (2) of .51. These findings are the first data describing genetic counselors' perspectives and some of the factors contributing to referral comfort. Genetic counselors broadly endorsed the importance of palliative care concepts. They varied in their comfort with referral practices in ways that may be mitigated by increasing their familiarity with this evolving model of care.

  15. Potential Field, Geoelectrical and Reflection Seismic Investigations for Massive Sulphide Exploration in the Skellefte Mining District, Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Saman; Dehghannejad, Mahdieh; García Juanatey, María de los Ángeles; Bauer, Tobias E.; Weihed, Pär; Elming, Sten-Åke

    2016-12-01

    Multi-scale geophysical studies were conducted in the central Skellefte district (CSD) in order to delineate the geometry of the upper crust (down to maximum 4.5 km depth) for prospecting volcanic massive sulphide (VMS) mineralization. These geophysical investigations include potential field, resistivity/induced polarization (IP), reflection seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data which were collected between 2009 and 2010. The interpretations were divided in two scales: (i) shallow ( 1.5 km) and (ii) deep ( 4.5 km). Physical properties of the rocks, including density, magnetic susceptibility, resistivity and chargeability, were also used to improve interpretations. The study result delineates the geometry of the upper crust in the CSD and new models were suggested based on new and joint geophysical interpretation which can benefit VMS prospecting in the area. The result also indicates that a strongly conductive zone detected by resistivity/IP data may have been missed using other geophysical data.

  16. The Bajada del Diablo astrobleme-strewn field, central Patagonia Argentina: Extending the exploration to surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Rabassa, J.; Ponce, J. F.; Martínez, O.; Orgeira, M. J.; Prezzi, C.; Corbella, H.; González-Guillot, M.; Rocca, M.; Subías, I.; Vásquez, C.

    2012-10-01

    The Bajada del Diablo astrobleme-strewn field is a huge domain of enigmatic circular structures located in central Patagonia. Three more localities are herein described, adding to the first area studied so far. Taking into consideration the four areas, a single, blurred crater dispersion ellipse has been identified. The four sectors now have been investigated, mapped, and georreferenced. Their circular structures, with a total of 185 (some of which are partially obliterated by erosion or sediment accumulation), were identified by remote sensing techniques, but many have been evaluated in situ and interpreted as impact craters. Moreover, two of the structures have been surveyed in detail in the field using a total station instrument. In addition to the previously known occurrence of circular structures on the Eruptive Complex Quiñelaf (Miocene basalts), the Pampa Sastre Fm. (Pliocene conglomerates), and of the Pleistocene pediment gravels and sands, and the geomorphological inferences that have suggested the extra-terrestrial origin of this event, we should now add that the recurrent absence of the cited Pliocene stratigraphic unit at the bottom of the craters is found in the pediment gravel and sands. Its removal has been interpreted as directly related to the impact, according to the magnetometric record of existing magnetic anomalies. Other preliminary observations on the collected samples (glass, breccias, and, most relevant, Fe-Ni-bearing spherules picked up within the impact zones) are herein discussed. Two hypotheses have been put forward about the nature of the possible impacting object that formed these astroblemes which, fragmented into hundreds of pieces, hit the surface of the Earth most likely in middle Pleistocene times. One of these hypotheses is related to the impact of a disintegrated asteroid of the rubble pile type, whereas a second hypothesis refers to the collision of a split comet with the Earth surface. The latter hypothesis is favoured since

  17. Reservoir structures detection and hydrocarbons exploration using wavelet transform method in 2 oil fields in southwestern of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, H.; Saadatinejad, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Spectral decomposition provides better methods for quantifying and visualizing subtle seismic features and by decomposing the seismic signal into discrete frequency components, allows the geoscientist to analyze and map features. Through these methods, continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is an effective and widely-applied. It provides a different approach to time-frequency analysis and produces a time-scale map. The application of CWT is extensive and in this paper, we applied two major capacities of CWT in seismic investigations. It operated to detect reservoir structural characteristics and low-frequency shadows below gas reservoirs to develop a producing reservoir and discover a new petroleum reservoir in 2 oilfields in southwestern of Iran successfully. At the first and significant application in reservoir structure study, CWT enabled to providing clear images from kind of structural systems especially to identify hidden structural features such as extensional ruptures and faults for better drilling, injection and recovery operations and be able to increase production of oilfield. According to properties of tectonic events as fault and their effect (velocity diffraction) on seismic signals, it had been observed that CWT results show some discontinuities in location of ruptures and be able to display them more obvious than other spectral results, especially on horizon slices. Then, by picking and interpretation those, we obtain map, kind, strike and deep direction of faults easily. In petroleum exploration case, low-frequency shadows in CWT results appear due to energy attenuation of seismic signal in high frequencies by the presence of gas; this means there are no high frequencies under the gas reservoir. This phenomenon accounts as an indicator and attribute to explore reservoirs containing gas. As the frequency increases, these shadows decrease and finally disappear. The ranges of these shadows are usually between 8 to 20 Hz in gaz and 28 to 35 Hz in oil

  18. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  19. Spatial density analysis of volcanic vents in the Concepción volcanic complex, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saballos, J. A.; Kiyosugi, K.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.

    2011-12-01

    We have applied a bivariate Gaussian kernel function to estimate spatial density of volcanic vents associated to the Concepción Volcanic Complex, CVC. Our dataset consists of 36 known vents distributed on an area 11.0 km (N-S) by 11.3 km (E-W), and whose age of formation is unknown. There are 3 known vents on the western side of the CVC, 21 in the central area, and 12 in the eastern side. All these three regions describe preferentially N-S elongate zones. Concepción is the most active composite volcano in Nicaragua and forms the northwestern side of the Ometepe Island with a total population estimated to be ~33,000, and with the vast majority living very near the volcano. Thus there is an immediate need for estimating the probabilistic hazard associated with areas more prone to the formation of new volcanic vents and how they compare to the location of population centers. We computed the spatial density using the sum of the asymptotic mean squared error (SAMSE), and the least-square cross validation (LSCV) algorithms, both available in the freely-distributed R statistical software library. Both algorithms produce grossly similar spatial density, but with significantly different emphasis on the three elongate vent zones. The SAMSE algorithm yields a spatial vent density of 3x10-2 - 4x10-4 event/km2 between the 1st and 99th percentiles, and an elliptical bandwidth of 2.6 km in the N-S direction and 2.2 km in the E-W. The LSCV algorithm produces a spatial vent density of 5x10-2 - 5x10-4 event/km2 between the 1st and 99th percentiles, and a highly eccentric bandwidth with axis of 2.8 km in the N-S direction and 0.8 km in the E-W. The vent spatial density map produced by the SAMSE algorithm embraces all the vents below the 95th percentile with a spatial density > 2x10-3 event/km2, and the shape of the map is quite homogeneous and not particularly sensitive to local geology or tectonic setting. The spatial density produced by the LSCV algorithm shows three parallel

  20. Sexual onset and contraceptive use among adolescents from poor neighbourhoods in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Orozco, Miguel; Ibarra, Marcia; Segura, Zoyla; Medina, Joel; Vega, Bernardo; Michielsen, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives The prevalence of teenage pregnancies in Nicaragua is the highest in Latin-America. This study aimed to gain insight into factors which determine the sexual behaviours concerned. Methods From July until August 2011, a door-to-door survey was conducted among adolescents living in randomly selected poor neighbourhoods of Managua. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors related to sexual onset and contraceptive use. Results Data from 2803 adolescents were analysed. Of the 475 and 299 sexually active boys and girls, 43% and 54%, respectively, reported contraceptive use. Sexual onset was positively related to increasing age, male sex, alcohol consumption and not living with the parents. Catholic boys and boys never feeling peer pressure to have sexual intercourse were more likely to report consistent condom use. Having a partner and feeling comfortable talking about sexuality with the partner were associated with hormonal contraception. Conclusions Our data identified associates of adolescents’ sexual behaviour related to personal characteristics (sex and alcohol use), to the interaction with significant others (parents, partners, peers) and to the environment (housing condition, religion). We interpreted those associates within the context of the rapidly changing society and the recently implemented health system reform in Nicaragua. Chinese Abstract 摘要 背景与目的 尼加瓜拉是拉丁美洲青少年妊娠率最高的国家。本研究旨在深入了解其性行为相关因素。 方法 2011年7月至8月,研究者在马那瓜贫困地区随机抽样,通过入户访视对青少年进行调查。统计方法采用Logistic回归,分析与性发生及避孕相关的影响因素。 结果 研究分析了2 803名青少年的数据。在475名与299名有性活动的男孩与女孩中,分别有43%与54%采取了避孕措施。研究表明,性发生与年龄增长、男性性别、酒精摄入及脱离父母独

  1. Geophysical exploration of an active pockmark field in the Bay of Concarneau, southern Brittany, and implications for resident suspension feeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, Agnès; Ehrhold, Axel; Rigolet, Carinne; Souron, Aurélie; Cordier, Céline; Clouet, Hélène; Dubois, Stanislas F.

    2014-06-01

    About a decade ago, a large field of pockmarks (individual features up to 30 m in diameter and <2 m deep) was discovered in water depths of 15-40 m in the Bay of Concarneau in southern Brittany along the French Atlantic coast, covering an overall area of 36 km2 and characterised by unusually high pockmark densities in places reaching 2,500 per square kilometre. As revealed by geophysical swath and subbottom profile data ground-truthed by sediment cores collected during two campaigns in 2005 and 2009, the confines of the pockmark field show a spectacular spatial association with those of a vast expanse of tube mats formed by a benthic community of the suspension-feeding amphipod Haploops nirae. The present study complements those findings with subbottom chirp profiles, seabed sonar imagery and ultrasonic backscatter data from the water column acquired in April 2011. Results show that pockmark distribution is influenced by the thickness of Holocene deposits covering an Oligocene palaeo-valley system. Two groups of pockmarks were identified: (1) a group of large (>10 m diameter), more widely scattered pockmarks deeply rooted (up to 8 ms two-way travel time, TWTT) in the Holocene palaeo-valley infills, and (2) a group of smaller, more densely spaced pockmarks shallowly rooted (up to 2 ms TWTT) in interfluve deposits. Pockmark pore water analyses revealed high methane concentrations peaking at ca. 400 μl/l at 22 and 30 cm core depth in silty sediments immediately above Haploops-bearing layers. Water column data indicate acoustic plumes above pockmarks, implying ongoing pockmark activity. Pockmark gas and/or fluid expulsion resulting in increased turbidity (resuspension of, amongst others, freshly settled phytoplankton) could at least partly account for the strong spatial association with the phytoplankton-feeding H. nirae in the Bay of Concarneau, exacerbating impacts of anthropogenically induced eutrophication and growing offshore trawling activities. Tidally driven

  2. Characterising water balance dynamics and different runoff components in a poorly gauged tropical catchment, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Heyddy; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The water balance dynamics, groundwater flow systems and the runoff components of a tropical forested small catchment (46 km2) is the southwestern Pacific coast of Nicaragua were studied by a combination of hydrometry (observation of rainfall, runoff, evaporation and groundwater levels), geological characterisation (hydrogeological mapping, flow systems, characterization and Piper diagrams) and hydrochemical and isotopic tracers (chemograph analysis, 2- and 3-component hydrograph separation, discharge-hydrochemical hysteresis effects, and MWL). Although some methods can be considered standard in runoff generation research in temperate climate regions; to the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few studies that used the combination of these techniques in a tropical catchment of Central America. Runoff components were studied at different spatial and temporal scales, finding that different sources and temporal contributions are controlled by geology, catchment size, and dominant landscape elements. Two major groundwater flow systems were identified with different chemical and isotopic characteristics. Indication of moisture recycling in the upper catchment area was found based on d-excess analysis. Runoff components were studied at different spatial and temporal scales, demonstrating that different sources and temporal contributions are controlled by dominant landscape elements and precipitation distribution. Evidence of strong river-aquifer interactions in the lower part of the catchment was found. The results provide an in-depth understanding of the surface and groundwater contributions to stream flow and its temporal and spatial distribution, which indicate the importance of runoff generation areas upstream in the catchment and also the vulnerability of the alluvial aquifer to contamination. This provides the basis to develop realistic, evidence-based water management plans for this developing region.

  3. Effectiveness of vaccination with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Nicaragua as determined using the screening method.

    PubMed

    Cardellino, Anna; Khawaja, Shazia; Sánchez Cruz, Edmundo; Mast, T Christopher

    2013-07-01

    The screening method is a surveillance tool to evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) using coverage data on cases and available administrative estimates of vaccine coverage in the population. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the utility and limitations of using the screening methodology to estimate VE, particularly in a developing world country with a high coverage rate, and to compare it with the VE estimates from 2 case-control studies. Using data from 2008, the screening method employed in this study estimated that VE for 3 doses of RV5 among children<12 mo of age to prevent wild-type severe disease, resulting in hospitalization or emergency department visits, was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78-100%). Additional sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the point estimates of VE against severe disease ranged from 72% (95% CI: 62-83%) to 92% (95% CI: 78-100%); this range of VE estimates, although wide, is relatively consistent with results reported from 2 case-control studies in Nicaragua for the same time period. When the infrastructure is in place to collect reasonably robust case data, the use of the screening method to estimate VE is possible in the developing world setting. Cases of severe wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis were obtained through an observational, hospital-based, prospective, surveillance program to assess rotavirus acute gastroenteritis. The proportion of cases vaccinated was estimated using the child's vaccination card or health record. The proportion of the population vaccinated was estimated using administrative population-based vaccination coverage estimates provided by the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health.

  4. Geochemical differences between along-arc and across-arc volcanics in west-central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilert, Sonja; Freundt, Armin; Wörner, Gerhard; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The La Paz Centro - Malpaisillo Lineament (LPML) in west-central Nicaragua is a north-south striking, 20 km long chain of maars and cinder cones, which intersects the northwest-southeast striking main volcanic front. A tectonic control of LPML volcanism is likely but only evident for the Malpaisillo fissure at the northern end of the LPML. Previous work demonstrated geochemical variations implying changes in mantle-source composition (i.e., added slab components) along the Central American Volcanic Arc at spatial scales of some 10's of kilometers. Our study of the LPML shows that minor but systematic changes also occur across the arc within 20 km distance. Variations in trace element ratios such as Zr/Nb, Ba/Th, Ba/La, Th/Zr, U/La and La/Yb along the LPML, i.e. across the volcanic front indicate little change in the degree of partial melting but an increase particularly in the hemipelagic sediment component in the mantle source from the fore arc towards the arc front, followed by a decrease behind the arc. Interestingly, the slab component is most prominent just in front of the arc. About 60 km southeast of the LPML, the Nejapa-Miraflores volcanic and tectonic lineament, which marks a 20 km north-south offset in the arc, differs substantially from the LPML. There is a wide scatter in incompatible trace element ratios indicating a heterogeneous mantle source at small spatial scales (c. 1 km). This mantle heterogeneity may represent vertical rather than across-arc variations and is probably related to the arc offset, because in the absence of such offset at the LPML mantle source conditions vary much less but more systematically.

  5. Associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters in Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Soebiyanto, Radina P; Clara, Wilfrido A; Jara, Jorge; Balmaseda, Angel; Lara, Jenny; Lopez Moya, Mariel; Palekar, Rakhee; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K

    2015-11-04

    Seasonal influenza affects a considerable proportion of the global population each year. We assessed the association between subnational influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in three Central America countries, i.e. Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. Using virologic data from each country's national influenza centre, rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and air temperature and specific humidity data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System, we applied logistic regression methods for each of the five sub-national locations studied. Influenza activity was represented by the weekly proportion of respiratory specimens that tested positive for influenza. The models were adjusted for the potentially confounding co-circulating respiratory viruses, seasonality and previous weeks' influenza activity. We found that influenza activity was proportionally associated (P<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations [odds ratio (OR) 1.21-1.56 per g/kg], while associations with temperature (OR 0.69-0.81 per °C) and rainfall (OR 1.01-1.06 per mm/day) were location-dependent. Among the meteorological parameters, specific humidity had the highest contribution (~3-15%) to the model in all but one location. As model validation, we estimated influenza activity for periods, in which the data was not used in training the models. The correlation coefficients between the estimates and the observed were ≤0.1 in 2 locations and between 0.6-0.86 in three others. In conclusion, our study revealed a proportional association between influenza activity and specific humidity in selected areas from the three Central America countries.

  6. Integrated geophysical and hydrothermal models of flank degassing and fluid flow at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pearson, S.C.P.; Kiyosugi, K.; Lehto, H.L.; Saballos, J.A.; Connor, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate geologic controls on circulation in the shallow hydrothermal system of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, and their relationship to surface diffuse degassing. On a local scale (~250 m), relatively impermeable normal faults dipping at ~60° control the flowpath of water vapor and other gases in the vadose zone. These shallow normal faults are identified by modeling of a NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly of up to 2300 nT that corresponds to a topographic offset. Elevated SP and CO2 to the NW of the faults and an absence of CO2 to the SE suggest that these faults are barriers to flow. TOUGH2 numerical models of fluid circulation show enhanced flow through the footwalls of the faults, and corresponding increased mass flow and temperature at the surface (diffuse degassing zones). On a larger scale, TOUGH2 modeling suggests that groundwater convection may be occurring in a 3-4 km radial fracture zone transecting the entire flank of the volcano. Hot water rising uniformly into the base of the model at 1 x 10-5 kg/m2s results in convection that focuses heat and fluid and can explain the three distinct diffuse degassing zones distributed along the fracture. Our data and models suggest that the unusually active surface degassing zones at Masaya volcano can result purely from uniform heat and fluid flux at depth that is complicated by groundwater convection and permeability variations in the upper few km. Therefore isolating the effects of subsurface geology is vital when trying to interpret diffuse degassing in light of volcanic activity.

  7. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatisticalestimation methods on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

    2004-04-27

    We present a comparative study of soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub CO2}) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured F{sub CO2} using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m{sup 2} grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. All measured F{sub CO2} ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. Arithmetic means and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate estimates for the AM data sets varied between groups by {+-}22%. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from {+-}5 to 167% and increased with the arithmetic mean. Based on a comparison of measurements made by Groups 1-3 during AM and PM times, this variability is likely due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. We compared six geostatistical methods (arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods) to estimate the mean and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial F{sub CO2} distribution. While the CO{sub 2} emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by {+-}1.1%, the F{sub CO2} maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of F{sub CO2} and is most appropriate for volcano monitoring applications.

  8. Multiple-host pathogens in domestic hunting dogs in Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V; Straub, Mary H; Schwartz, Laura M; Liu, James; Campbell, Amanda; Kownacki, Alexa K; Foley, Janet E

    2017-03-01

    Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp. exceeded 50% of dogs. At least one dog was actively shedding leptospires in urine, and many dogs were anemic and/or dehydrated. These dogs interact with wildlife in the forest and humans and domestic livestock in the communities, and may therefore serve as sources of zoonotic and wildlife diseases. Bosawás represents one of the largest intact tracts of habitat for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Central America, and given that these communities are located within the forest, jaguars may be at risk from disease spillover from hunting dogs. Dog owners reported that four of 49 dogs had been attacked and killed by jaguars in the past year, and that retaliatory killing of jaguars was sometimes practiced. Disease spillover from dogs to wildlife could occur both in the course of dogs' hunting activities as well as during jaguar attacks. A better understanding of dog depredation by jaguars, pathogen exposure in jaguars, and a management strategy for the hunting dog population, are urgently needed to mitigate these dual threats to jaguars, improve the lives of hunting dogs, and safeguard the health of their owners.

  9. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatistical estimation methods on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewicki, J.L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

    2005-01-01

    We present a comparative study of soil CO2 flux (FCO2) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured (FCO2) using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m2 grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. Measured (FCO2 ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m-2 day-1. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from ??5 to 167%. However, the arithmetic means of fluxes measured over the entire grid and associated total CO2 emission rate estimates varied between groups by only ??22%. All three groups that made PM measurements reported an 8-19% increase in total emissions over the AM results. Based on a comparison of measurements made during AM and PM times, we argue that this change is due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. In order to estimate the mean and associated CO2 emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial FCO2 distribution, we compared six geostatistical methods: Arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods. While the total CO2 emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by ??4.4%, the FCO2 maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of FCO2, but a variety of geostatistical methods are appropriate to estimate the total CO2 emission rate from a study area, which is a primary goal in volcano monitoring research. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  10. Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-14

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  11. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-11-01

    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  12. Geochemically distinct sources for interstratified lavas from the Nejapa cinder cone alignment, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Feigenson, M.D.; Carr, J.J.; Walker, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Nejapa cinder cone alignment, near Managua, Nicaragua, produces mafic subalkaline basalts that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The Nejapa basalts can be divided into high- and low-titanium suites that are interstratified. Although major element compositions are similar to MORB, concentrations of Ba and Sr in the Nejapa basalts are higher, ranging from 2 x MORB in the high-titanium suite to 10 X MORB for the low-titanium lavas. Recently determined Nd and Sr isotopic and rare earth element (REE) concentrations for Nejapa basalts show that the high and low titanium suites have distinct sources and cannot be related by simple crystallization trends. For example, although the high-Ti lavas are light REE depleted and have overall MORB-like REE concentrations, they are systematically lower in /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd and higher in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr. Low-Ti lavas, on the other hand, are LREE-enriched but have Nd isotopes identical to MORB (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr is distinctly higher). The contradictory geochemical characteristics displayed by the Nejapa lavas can be explained in a general sense by a mixing model that involves upper mantle peridotite and a fluid derived from hydrothermally-altered subducted oceanic crust. This fluid may enrich overlying mantle in Ba, Sr, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, and may supply enough water to stabilize an accessory phase such as rutile at high pressure. Melts generated from this source will be low in Ti, but high in Ba, Sr, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr and /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd. Subjacent peridotite melting with less of the hydrous flux will generate lavas with higher Ti, lower Sr and Ba, and isotopic ratios of the peridotite.

  13. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  14. Investigation of the groundwater system at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, using transient electromagnetics and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Richard E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Connor, Charles B.; Sandberg, Stewart K.; Diez, Mikel

    2007-10-01

    The distribution of groundwater beneath Masaya Volcano, in Nicaragua, and its surrounding caldera was characterized using the transient electromagnetic method (TEM). Multiple soundings were conducted at 30 sites. Models of the TEM data consistently indicate a resistive layer that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. These two layers represent the unsaturated and saturated zones, respectively, with the boundary between them indicating the water-table elevation. A map of the TEM data shows that the water table in the caldera is a subdued replica of the topography, with higher elevations beneath the edifice in the south-central caldera and lower elevations in the eastern caldera, coinciding with the elevation of Laguna de Masaya. These TEM data, combined with regional hydrologic data, indicate that the caldera in hydrologically isolated from the surrounding region, with as much as 60 m of difference in elevation of the groundwater table across caldera-bounding faults. The water-table information and estimates of fluxes of water through the system were used to constrain a numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The simulation results indicate that basalt flows in the outer parts of the caldera have a relatively high transmissivity, whereas the central edifice has a substantially lower transmissivity. A layer of relatively high transmissivity must be present at depth within the edifice in order to deliver the observed flux of water and steam to the active vent. This hydrologic information about the caldera provides a baseline for assessing the response of this isolated groundwater system to future changes in magmatic activity.

  15. Investigation of the groundwater system at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, using transient electromagnetics and numerical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNeil, R.E.; Sanford, W.E.; Connor, C.B.; Sandberg, S.K.; Diez, M.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of groundwater beneath Masaya Volcano, in Nicaragua, and its surrounding caldera was characterized using the transient electromagnetic method (TEM). Multiple soundings were conducted at 30 sites. Models of the TEM data consistently indicate a resistive layer that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. These two layers represent the unsaturated and saturated zones, respectively, with the boundary between them indicating the water-table elevation. A map of the TEM data shows that the water table in the caldera is a subdued replica of the topography, with higher elevations beneath the edifice in the south-central caldera and lower elevations in the eastern caldera, coinciding with the elevation of Laguna de Masaya. These TEM data, combined with regional hydrologic data, indicate that the caldera in hydrologically isolated from the surrounding region, with as much as 60??m of difference in elevation of the groundwater table across caldera-bounding faults. The water-table information and estimates of fluxes of water through the system were used to constrain a numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The simulation results indicate that basalt flows in the outer parts of the caldera have a relatively high transmissivity, whereas the central edifice has a substantially lower transmissivity. A layer of relatively high transmissivity must be present at depth within the edifice in order to deliver the observed flux of water and steam to the active vent. This hydrologic information about the caldera provides a baseline for assessing the response of this isolated groundwater system to future changes in magmatic activity. ?? 2007.

  16. Assessment of Gravity Field and Steady State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) geoid model using GPS levelling over Sabah and Sarawak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A. H.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Som, Z. A. M.; Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Pa'suya, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    The GOCE satellite mission has significantly contributed to various applications such as solid earth physics, oceanography and geodesy. Some substantial applications of geodesy are to improve the gravity field knowledge and the precise geoid modelling towards realising global height unification. This paper aims to evaluate GOCE geoid model based on the recent GOCE Global Geopotential Model (GGM), as well as EGM2008, using GPS levelling data over East Malaysia, i.e. Sabah and Sarawak. The satellite GGMs selected in this study are the GOCE GGM models which include GOCE04S, TIM_R5 and SPW_R4, and the EGM2008 model. To assess these models, the geoid heights from these GGMs are compared to the local geometric geoid height. The GGM geoid heights was derived using EGMLAB1 software and the geometric geoid height was computed by available GPS levelling information obtained from the Department Survey and Mapping Malaysia. Generally, the GOCE models performed better than EGM2008 over East Malaysia and the best fit GOCE model for this region is the TIM_R5 model. The TIM_R5 GOCE model demonstrated the lowest R.M.S. of ± 16.5 cm over Sarawak, comparatively. For further improvement, this model should be combined with the local gravity data for optimum geoid modelling over East Malaysia.

  17. Exploring membrane protein dynamics by multicolor single quantum dot imaging using wide field, TIRF, and hyperspectral microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidke, Diane S.; Andrews, Nicholas L.; Pfeiffer, Janet R.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Haaland, David M.; Burns, Alan R.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Oliver, Janet M.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2007-02-01

    The development of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) for biological imaging has brought a new level of sensitivity to live cell imaging. Single particle tracking (SPT) techniques in particular benefit from the superior photostability, high extinction coefficient and distinct emission spectra of QDs. Here we describe the use of QDs for SPT to study the dynamics of membrane proteins in living cells. We work with the RBL-2H3 mast cell model that signals through the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc\\Vegr RI. Using wide field or Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy we have achieved simultaneous imaging of two spectrally distinct QDs with frame rates of up to 750 frames/s and localization accuracy of ~10 nm. We also describe the imaging and analysis of QDs using a novel hyperspectral microscope and multivariate curve resolution analysis for multi-color QD tracking. The same QD-tag used for SPT is used to localize proteins at <10 nm resolution by electron microscopy (EM) on fixed membrane sheets.

  18. Dickinson field lodgepole reservoir: Significance of this Waulsortian-type mound to exploration in the Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    Conoco`s No. 74 Dickinson State well, a deep test in Dickinson Field, Stark County, North Dakota, was completed in early 1993 capable of producing over 2,000 BOPD. It represents the first commercial oil production from the Lower Mississippian Lodgepole Formation in the U.S. portion of the Williston Basin. Three additional oil producers have now been completed and this Lodgepole discovery is fully developed. The producing reservoir, at depths of 9,700 to 10,000 ft, is a Waulsortian-type mound approximately 300 ft thick with a characteristic faunal assemblage of bryozoans and crinoids. The mound has an areal extent of slightly more than 1 square mile. Similar Waulsortian-type mounds have been recognized in rocks of Paleozoic age around the world, but have only been reported in the Williston Basin during the past decade. Such mounds are shallow to deep water deposits, tend to develop over structurally or topographically-positive areas, and may form by algal or by current action in conjunction with baffling action caused by bryozoans. The prolific nature of the Conoco discovery, plus several more-recent excellent mound discoveries in this same area, have caused renewed drilling and leasing activity. These events have also encouraged a review of existing seismic data, the shooting of new 3-D seismic programs and re-analysis of wells previously drilled through the Lodgepole Formation for evidence of similar mounds elsewhere in the basin.

  19. KINETIC VERSUS MULTI-FLUID APPROACH FOR INTERSTELLAR NEUTRALS IN THE HELIOSPHERE: EXPLORATION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Alouani-Bibi, Fathallah; Opher, Merav; Alexashov, Dimitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav; Toth, Gabor E-mail: mopher@bu.edu

    2011-06-10

    We present a new three-dimensional (3D) self-consistent two-component (plasma and neutral hydrogen) model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM). This model (K-MHD) combines the magnetohydrodynamic treatment of the solar wind and the ionized LISM component with a kinetic model of neutral interstellar hydrogen (LISH). The local interstellar magnetic field (B{sub LISM}) intensity and orientation are chosen based on an early analysis of the heliosheath flows. The properties of the plasma and neutrals obtained using the K-MHD model are compared to previous multi-fluid and kinetic models. The new treatment of LISH revealed important changes in the heliospheric properties not captured by the multi-fluid model. These include a decrease in the heliocentric distance to the termination shock (TS), a thinner heliosheath, and a reduced deflection angle ({theta}) of the heliosheath flows. The asymmetry of the TS, however, seems to be unchanged by the kinetic aspect of the LISH.

  20. Origins and exploration significance of replacement and vein-type alunite deposits in the Marysvale volcanic field, west central Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rye, R.O.; Steven, T.A.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Alunite in the Marysvale volcanic field forms two (three are described) different types of deposits which contrast in appearance and conditions of origin: 1) Replacement deposits are generally fine-grained and formed by near-surface replacement of intermediate-composition volcanic rocks. The deposits form a bead necklace around a monzonite stock. Each deposit is zoned horizontally from alunitic cores to kaolinitic and propylitic envelopes and zoned vertically from pyrite/propylite upward through alunite/jarosite/hematite to a silica cap. Alunite does not extend below 100 m. Sulphur isotope ratios agree with derivation from underlying Mesozoic evaporites. 2) Natroalunite of 14-m.y. age crosscuts replacement-type alunite deposits. Its S-isotope ratios are comparable with those of pyrite in the volcanics. The Na may be from underlying Mesozoic halites. 3) Veins of coarse-grained alunite of 14-m.y. age filled extension fractures above a postulated stock. S-isotope ratios indicate a probable magmatic source. The contrasting properties of the Marysvale alunite deposits preclude any simple relation to ore deposits, but serve to refine interpretations based on other geological considerations. The replacement deposits are a logical near-surface result of skarn forming processes at depth around the monzonite stock. The vein- type deposits are a logical near-surface result of porphyry metallization in an underlying stock. -G.J.N.

  1. Exploration of preprocessing architectures for field-programmable gate array-based thermal-visual smart camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Muhammad; Rinner, Bernhard; Zand, Sajjad Zandi; O'Nils, Mattias

    2016-07-01

    Embedded smart cameras are gaining in popularity for a number of real-time outdoor surveillance applications. However, there are still challenges, i.e., computational latency, variation in illumination, and occlusion. To solve these challenges, multimodal systems, integrating multiple imagers can be utilized. However, trade-off is more stringent requirements on processing and communication for embedded platforms. To meet these challenges, we investigated two low-complexity and high-performance preprocessing architectures for a multiple imagers' node on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In the proposed architectures, majority of the tasks are performed on the thermal images because of the lower spatial resolution. Analysis with different sets of images show that the system with proposed architectures offers better detection performance and can reduce output data from 1.7 to 99 times as compared with full-size images. The proposed architectures can achieve a frame rate of 53 fps, logics utilization from 2.1% to 4.1%, memory consumption 987 to 148 KB and power consumption in the range of 141 to 163 mW on Artix-7 FPGA. This concludes that the proposed architectures offer reduced design complexity and lower processing and communication requirements while retaining the configurability of the system.

  2. Exploring the use of natural antimicrobial agents and pulsed electric fields to control spoilage bacteria during a beer production process.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, M A; Gil, G R; Iannone, L J; Cerrutti, P

    2007-01-01

    Different natural antimicrobials affected viability of bacterial contaminants isolated at critical steps during a beer production process. In the presence of 1 mg/ml chitosan and 0.3 mg/ml hops, the viability of Escherichia coli in an all malt barley extract wort could be reduced to 0.7 and 0.1% respectively after 2 hour- incubation at 4 degrees C. The addition of 0.0002 mg/ml nisin, 0.1 mg/ml chitosan or 0.3 mg/ml hops, selectively inhibited growth of Pediococcus sp. in more than 10,000 times with respect to brewing yeast in a mixed culture. In the presence of 0.1 mg ml chitosan in beer, no viable cells of the thermoresistant strain Bacillus megaterium were detected. Nisin, chitosan and hops increased microbiological stability during storage of a local commercial beer inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum or Pediococcus sp. isolated from wort. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) (8 kV/cm, 3 pulses) application enhanced antibacterial activity of nisin and hops but not that of chitosan. The results herein obtained suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds in isolation or in combination with PEF would be effective to control bacterial contamination during beer production and storage.

  3. Circularly polarized high harmonics generated by a bicircular field from inert atomic gases in the p state: A tool for exploring chirality-sensitive processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    S -matrix theory of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) is generalized to multielectron atoms. In the multielectron case the harmonic power is expressed via a coherent sum of the time-dependent dipoles, while for the one-electron models a corresponding incoherent sum appears. This difference is important for the inert atomic gases having a p ground state as used in a recent HHG experiment with a bicircular field [Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015), 10.1038/nphoton.2014.293]. We investigate HHG by such a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequency r ω and s ω . Selection rules for HHG by a bicircular field are analyzed from the aspects of dynamical symmetry of the system, conservation of the projection of the angular momentum on a fixed quantization axis, and the quantum number of the initial and final atomic ground states. A distinction is made between the selection rules for atoms with closed [J. Phys. B 48, 171001 (2015), 10.1088/0953-4075/48/17/171001] and nonclosed shells. An asymmetry in emission of the left- and right-circularly polarized harmonics is found and explained by using a semiclassical model and the electron probability currents which are related to a nonzero magnetic quantum number. This asymmetry can be important for the application of such harmonics to the exploration of chirality-sensitive processes and for generation of elliptic or even circular attosecond pulse trains. Such attosecond pulse trains are analyzed for longer wavelengths than in Opt. Lett. 40, 2381 (2015), 10.1364/OL.40.002381, and for various field-component intensities.

  4. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  5. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An alien is eligible to apply for...

  6. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... adjudicated in accordance with section 1505(a) of the LIFE Act and its amendments. An alien present in the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and...

  7. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adjudicated in accordance with section 1505(a) of the LIFE Act and its amendments. An alien present in the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and...

  8. Sex, condoms, gender roles, and HIV transmission knowledge among adolescents in León, Nicaragua: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Manji, A; Peña, R; Dubrow, R

    2007-09-01

    There are few peer-reviewed studies of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices among adolescents in Central America. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 246 adolescents in León, Nicaragua, where there is reason for concern about a rise in HIV infections. In many respects, León adolescents were typical of those in other Latin American countries, with a mixture of correct and incorrect knowledge about transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, a higher proportion of males than females reporting having had sex or using condoms, and inconsistent condom use. While some sexual attitudes conformed to the ideology of machismo, others did not, providing an opening for prevention interventions. Some dimensions of HIV/AIDS stigma were high, and most adolescents disapproved of same-sex sexual behaviour. Intervention against homosexuality-related stigma is particularly urgent because a concentrated HIV epidemic may be emerging in Nicaragua among men who have sex with men. Personal religious beliefs did not appear to pose a barrier to condom use. In a multivariate model, being out of school was a significant correlate of having had sex and of insufficient HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Accordingly, HIV prevention interventions must reach adolescents both in and out of school. A multi-component approach to prevention is needed, including programmes based in schools, communities, the mass media and health facilities.

  9. Well water quality in rural Nicaragua using a low-cost bacterial test and microbial source tracking.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Patricia; Aw, Tiong Gim; Urquhart, Gerald R; Galeano, Miguel Ruiz; Rose, Joan B

    2016-04-01

    Water-related diseases, particularly diarrhea, are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Monitoring water quality on a global scale is crucial to making progress in terms of population health. Traditional analytical methods are difficult to use in many regions of the world in low-resource settings that face severe water quality issues due to the inaccessibility of laboratories. This study aimed to evaluate a new low-cost method (the compartment bag test (CBT)) in rural Nicaragua. The CBT was used to quantify the presence of Escherichia coli in drinking water wells and aimed to determine the source(s) of any microbial contamination. Results indicate that the CBT is a viable method for use in remote rural regions. The overall quality of well water in Pueblo Nuevo, Nicaragua was deemed unsafe, and results led to the conclusion that animal fecal wastes may be one of the leading causes of well contamination. Elevation and depth of wells were not found to impact overall water quality. However rope-pump wells had a 64.1% reduction in contamination when compared with simple wells.

  10. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  11. Mercury poisoning in Nicaragua: a case study of the export of environmental and occupational health hazards by a multinational corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, A.; Velasquez, E.; Belmar, R.; Coye, M.; Drucker, E.; Landrigan, P.J.; Michaels, D.; Sidel, K.B.

    1981-01-01

    Pennwalt Inc., a multinational chemical and pharmaceutical firm based in the United States, operates a chloralkali plant in Managua, Nicaragua. This plant utilizes elemental mercury in the production of chlorine and caustic soda for markets throughout Central America. The plant was recently found to be contaminating the waters of Lake Managua (on which the plant is located) with 2 to 4 tons of inorganic mercury effluent per year-over 40 tons in the 13-year history of the plant. Examination of the 152 workers employed in the plant showed that 56(37 percent) were suffering symptoms and signs of mercury poisoning, including tremors (in 45), memory and attention deficits (in 45) and paresthesias (in 52). Levels of airborne mercury vapor in the plant were found to range as high as 600 microgram/m3. (The airborne standard set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration is 100 microgram/m3.) Workers in the plant had never been alerted to the hazards of mercury. The plant was found to be in deteriorated condition, with no recent investments in maintenance or modern safety equipment. It is reported that the parent corporation, Pennwalt, has been withdrawing capital from the operation (and from Nicaragua) since the fall of the Somoza regime.

  12. Primary healthcare providers’ views on improving sexual and reproductive healthcare for adolescents in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Orozco, Miguel; Ibarra, Marcia; Ossio, Freddy Cordova; Vega, Bernardo; Auquilla, Nancy; Medina, Joel; Gorter, Anna C.; Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Temmerman, Marleen; Edmonds, Alexander B.; Valius, Leonas; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To elicit the views of primary healthcare providers from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua on how adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) care in their communities can be improved. Methods Overall, 126 healthcare providers (46 from Bolivia, 39 from Ecuador, and 41 from Nicaragua) took part in this qualitative study. During a series of moderated discussions, they provided written opinions about the accessibility and appropriateness of ASRH services and suggestions for its improvement. The data were analyzed by employing a content analysis methodology. Results Study participants emphasized managerial issues such as the prioritization of adolescents as a patient group and increased healthcare providers’ awareness about adolescent-friendly approaches. They noted that such an approach needs to be extended beyond primary healthcare centers. Schools, parents, and the community in general should be encouraged to integrate issues related to ASRH in the everyday life of adolescents and become ‘gate-openers’ to ASRH services. To ensure the success of such measures, action at the policy level would be required. For example, decision-makers could call for developing clinical guidelines for this population group and coordinate multisectoral efforts. Conclusions To improve ASRH services within primary healthcare institutions in three Latin American countries, primary healthcare providers call for focusing on improving the youth-friendliness of health settings. To facilitate this, they suggested engaging with key stakeholders, such as parents, schools, and decision-makers at the policy level. PMID:23680267

  13. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-29

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  14. The effect of poverty, social inequity, and maternal education on infant mortality in Nicaragua, 1988-1993.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, R; Wall, S; Persson, L A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of poverty and social inequity on infant mortality risks in Nicaragua from 1988 to 1993 and the preventive role of maternal education. METHODS: A cohort analysis of infant survival, based on reproductive histories of a representative sample of 10,867 women aged 15 to 49 years in León, Nicaragua, was conducted. A total of 7073 infants were studied; 342 deaths occurred during 6394 infant-years of follow-up. Outcome measures were infant mortality rate (IMR) and relative mortality risks for different groups. RESULTS: IMR was 50 per 1000 live births. Poverty, expressed as unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) of the household, increased the risk of infant death (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 1.92). Social inequity, expressed as the contrast between the household UBN and the predominant UBN of the neighborhood, further increased the risk (adjusted RR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.71). A protective effect of the mother's educational level was seen only in poor households. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from absolute level of poverty, social inequity may be an independent risk factor for infant mortality in a low-income country. In poor households, female education may contribute to preventing infant mortality. PMID:10630139

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    3) significant changes that have occurred in Antarctic exploration and research since World War II will be discussed at the end of this report. Subsequent Open-File Reports will provide a year-by-year documentation of USGS scientific activities and accomplishments in Antarctica beginning with the post-IGY, 1959-60 research team. One Open-File Report is planned to be written for each field-based season. For an example of the series format, see Open-File Reports 2006-1113 (Meunier, 2007a) and 2006-1114 (Meunier, 2007b). This report is a companion document to Open-File Report 2006-1116 (Meunier, 2007c). The USGS mapping and science programs in Antarctica are among the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). The 2005-06 field season is the 56th consecutive U.S. expedition in which USGS scientists have been participants, starting in 1946. USGS and the National Science Foundation (NSF) cooperation began with the establishment by NSF of the U.S. Antarctic (Research) Program [USA(R)P] in 1958-59 under Operation Deep Freeze IV (DF IV) and was given the responsibility for the principal coordination and management of all U.S. scientific activities in Antarctica in Deep Freeze 60 (DF 60) (1959-60). Financial support from NSF, mostly in the form of Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs) and Cooperative Agreements, extends back to this period and can be attributed to the need for accurate geologic, geophysical, and topographic base maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was driven by science and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support (Meunier, 1979 [2007], p. 38). The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, has, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some

  16. Violence against women and unintended pregnancies in Nicaragua: a population-based multilevel study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an increased use of contraceptive methods by women, unintended pregnancies represent one of the most evident violations of women’s sexual and reproductive rights around the world. This study aims to measure the association between individual and community exposure to different forms of violence against women (physical/sexual violence by the partner, sexual abuse by any person, or controlling behavior by the partner) and unintended pregnancies. Methods Data from the 2006/2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey were used. For the current study, 5347 women who reported a live birth in the five years prior to the survey and who were married or cohabitating at the time of the data collection were selected. Women’s exposure to controlling behaviors by their partners was measured using six questions from the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Area-level variables were constructed by aggregating the individual level exposures to violence into an exposure measurement of the municipality as a whole (n = 142); which is the basic political division in Nicaragua. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results In total, 37.1% of the pregnancies were reported as unintended. After adjusting for all variables included in the model, individual exposure to controlling behavior by a partner (AOR = 1.28, 95% CrI = 1.13–1.44), ever exposure to sexual abuse (AOR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.03–1.62), and ever exposure to physical/sexual intimate partner violence (AOR = 1.44, 95% CrI = 1.24–1.66) were significantly associated with unintended pregnancies. Women who lived in municipalities in the highest tertile of controlling behavior by a partner had 1.25 times higher odds of reporting an unintended pregnancy than women living in municipalities in the lowest tertile (AOR = 1.25, 95% CrI = 1.03–1.48). Conclusions Nicaraguan women often experience unintended pregnancies, and the occurrence of

  17. Geochemistry and genesis of behind-arc basaltic lavas from eastern Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoušek, V.; Erban, V.; Holub, F. V.; Magna, T.; Bellon, H.; Mlčoch, B.; Wiechert, U.; Rapprich, V.

    2010-05-01

    The petrology and chemistry of the Behind the Volcanic Front (BVF) lavas from eastern mainland Nicaragua and the adjacent Great Corn Island in the Caribbean Sea illustrate the complex nature of sources and processes operating in such a tectonic setting. The older, Early Miocene (˜ 17 Ma) group of low-Ti (< 1 wt.%) basalts-andesites is characterized by a strong LILE/HFSE depletion. The low-Ti lavas from El Rama and El Bluff areas are interpreted as relics of Early Miocene volcanic arc, largely analogous to the nowadays extinct Coyol arc further west. However, these rocks differ in some parameters from the modern volcanic front lavas, most notably in having lower δ7Li values, Ba/Yb ratios and lower U contents. The younger high-Ti (Ti > 1.5%) lavas, rich in other HFSE as well, are represented both by alkaline (Quaternary trachybasalts: Volcán Azul and Kukra Hill) and subalkaline (basalts-basaltic andesites: Late Miocene, ˜ 11 Ma Great Corn Island and Quaternary, Pearl Lagoon) volcanic rocks. The Late Miocene and Quaternary high-Ti BVF lavas probably represent small-volume decompression melts of a source similar to that of the OIB-like magmas, most likely upwelling asthenosphere having a strong Galápagos mantle imprint. The positive Sr-Nd isotopic correlation indicates an interaction between this OIB component and a depleted lithospheric mantle modified by a subduction-related influx of Sr and, to a lesser extent, other hydrous fluid-mobile elements. However, the rocks show no recognizable influence of the modern subduction. The feeble trace-element (e.g., slightly elevated Ba, K, and Sr at some localities) and a more pronounced Sr-Li isotopic subduction-related signal stems most likely from the Miocene convergence episode. Subduction of the Galápagos hot-spot tracks in Costa Rica produces magmas that can be readily recognized by their elevated Sr isotopic ratios due to seafloor alteration; the Nd isotopic signature remains unaffected. Such a component with

  18. Gender and social differences in adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, E; Marín, F M; García, J; Berglund, S; Liljestrand, J; Persson, L A

    1997-07-01

    This study sought to uncover gender and social differences in adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Nicaragua through an investigation of age at first coitus and first pregnancy. Data were gathered through a 1993 cross-sectional, community-based survey of a representative sample of 7789 households in the municipality of Leon. Interviews were held with 10,867 women aged 15-49, and more detailed information was elicited from a random subsample of 388 men and 413 women. It was found that median age at first coitus was 17.8 for women and 16.2 for men, with 25% of the population engaging in coitus before age 15. Women delivered their first child at a median age of 19.6 years, whereas men became fathers at 21.2 years. Lack of formal education increased risk of earlier pregnancy for women by 2.5 times, but no increased risk occurred for rural versus urban residence. Earlier pregnancy occurred in women who did not live with their biological fathers during childhood and adolescence (living with a stepfather increased risk of early coitus and delivery even more). Men without a formal education became fathers at an earlier age in both urban and rural areas. The period between first coitus and delivery for women was 21.5 months (20 months for women with primary education or less and 27 months for those who completed ninth-grader or higher). Age groups comparisons (15-20, 21-27, 28-35, and 36-49) showed that the current adolescents were experiencing first coitus and first pregnancy significantly later than the older groups but that the 28-35 age group showed significantly earlier onset of each event. These results point to the need to improve gender equity and women's status and to develop a health care policy that responds to the special needs of adolescents (counseling, access to contraceptives, and availability of safe abortion). Sex education programs must begin at the primary levels in schools because of high drop-out rates.

  19. Ending Intimate Partner Violence after pregnancy: Findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Mariano; Valladares, Eliette; Öhman, Ann; Högberg, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Background Although reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem, few longitudinal studies in developing countries have assessed ways to end such abuse. To this end, this paper aims to analyze individual, family, community and societal factors that facilitate reducing IPV. Methods A longitudinal population-based study was conducted in León, Nicaragua at a demographic surveillance site. Women (n = 478) who were pregnant between 2002 and 2003 were interviewed, and 398 were found at follow-up, 2007. Partner abuse was measured using the WHO Multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence questionnaire. Women's socio demographic variables, perceived emotional distress, partner control, social resources, women's norms and attitudes towards IPV and help-seeking behaviours were also assessed. Ending of abuse was defined as having experienced any abuse in a lifetime or during pregnancy but not at follow-up. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were applied. Results Of the women exposed to lifetime or pregnancy IPV, 59% reported that their abuse ended. This finding took place in a context of a substantial shift in women's normative attitudes towards not tolerating abuse. At the family level, no or diminishing partner control [ORadj 6.7 (95%CI 3.5-13)] was associated with ending of abuse. At the societal level, high or improved social resources [ORadj 2.0 (95%CI 1.1.-3.7)] were also associated with the end of abuse. Conclusion A considerable proportion of women reported end of violence. This might be related to a favourable change in women's norms and attitudes toward gender roles and violence and a more positive attitude towards interventions from people outside their family to end abuse. Maintaining and improving social resources and decreasing partner control and isolation are key interventions to ending abuse. Abuse inquiring may also play an important role in this process and must include health care provider's training and a

  20. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua: A key Mars Analog Environment for Acid-Sulfate Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfate-rich bedrock has been discovered in many locations on Mars and has been studied by both orbiting spacecraft and landers. It appears that in most cases these minerals are produced by acid-sulfate weathering of igneous rocks, which may have been a widespread process for the first billion years of Mars' history. The origin of life on Earth may have occurred in iron-sulfur hydrothermal settings and it is conceivable that early Mars had similar environmental conditions. An excellent terrestrial analog for acid- sulfate weathering of Mars-like basalts exists at Cerro Negro (CN), Nicaragua, where sulfur-bearing gases interact with recently erupted basaltic ash in numerous fumaroles. To date, we have made two expeditions to CN to assess the chemical, mineralogical, and biological conditions. At the fumaroles pH ranges from <1 to 5 and temperatures range from 40 to 400° C. Basalts with a chemical composition very similar to those on Mars are being chemically altered in the solfatara setting. In a few years, freshly erupted basalt can be converted into predominately Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-sulfates, Fe-hydroxides (including jarosite), clays, and free silica. Altered rocks have up to 30 wt% SO3 equivalent, which is similar to the Meridiani Planum bedrocks and inferred in other sulfate-bearing bedrock on Mars. Moreover, heavily weathered rocks have silica contents up to 80 wt%, similar to silica-rich soils at Gusev Crater that possibly formed in hydrothermal environments. Samples were collected for biological analysis including enrichment and isolation of novel thermophiles as well as molecular characterization of thermophile diversity. The low water and nutrient levels found in solfatara environments lead to less biomass when compared to hot springs with similar geochemical conditions. Nonetheless, microbes are thriving in these hot, acidic vent environments. At Cerro Negro solfatara, we are characterizing the metabolic and phylogenetic diversity of resident microbial

  1. Exploring Fields with Shift Registers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    and results from abstract algebra. These results can be found in any standard algebra text such as Dummit and Foote’s Abstract Algebra [3] or...School; 2004. 2. Conway, JH. On Numbers and Games. 2nd ed. Wellesley: AK Peters, Ltd.; 2001. 3. Dummit , D., Foote R. Abstract Algebra. 2nd ed. New

  2. Exploration of the functions of health impact assessment in real-world policymaking in the field of social health inequality: towards a conception of conceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Feyaerts, Gille; Deguerry, Murielle; Deboosere, Patrick; De Spiegelaere, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    With the implementation of health impact assessment (HIA)'s conceptual model into real-world policymaking, a number of fundamental issues arise concerning its decision-support function. Rooted in a rational vision of the decision-making process, focus regarding both conceptualisation and evaluation has been mainly on the function of instrumental policy-learning. However, in the field of social health inequalities, this function is strongly limited by the intrinsic 'wickedness' of the policy issue. Focusing almost exclusively on this instrumental function, the real influence HIA can have on policymaking in the longer term is underestimated and remains largely unexploited. Drawing insights from theoretical models developed in the field of political science and sociology, we explore the different decision-support functions HIA can fulfill and identify conceptual learning as potentially the most important. Accordingly, dominant focus on the technical engineering function, where knowledge is provided in order to 'rationalise' the policy process and to tackle 'tame' problems, should be complemented with an analysis of the conditions for conceptual learning, where knowledge introduces new information and perspectives and, as such, contributes in the longer term to a paradigm change.

  3. Field geology on the Moon: Some lessons learned from the exploration of the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Lee, Pascal; Cockell, Charles S.; Snook, Kelly; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Braham, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    With the prospect of humans returning to Moon by the end of the next decade, considerable attention is being paid to technologies required to transport astronauts to the lunar surface and then to be able to carry out surface science. Recent and ongoing initiatives have focused on scientific questions to be asked. In contrast, few studies have addressed how these scientific priorities will be achieved. In this contribution, we provide some of the lessons learned from the exploration of the Haughton impact structure, an ideal lunar analogue site in the Canadian Arctic. Essentially, by studying how geologists carry out field science, we can provide guidelines for lunar surface operations. Our goal in this contribution is to inform the engineers and managers involved in mission planning, rather than the field geology community. Our results show that the exploration of the Haughton impact structure can be broken down into 3 distinct phases: (1) reconnaissance; (2) systematic regional-scale mapping and sampling; and (3) detailed local-scale mapping and sampling. This break down is similar to the classic scientific method practiced by field geologists of regional exploratory mapping followed by directed mapping at a local scale, except that we distinguish between two different phases of exploratory mapping. Our data show that the number of stops versus the number of samples collected versus the amount of data collected varied depending on the mission phase, as does the total distance covered per EVA. Thus, operational scenarios could take these differences into account, depending on the goals and duration of the mission. Important lessons learned include the need for flexibility in mission planning in order to account for serendipitous discoveries, the highlighting of key "science supersites" that may require return visits, the need for a rugged but simple human-operated rover, laboratory space in the habitat, and adequate room for returned samples, both in the habitat

  4. Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, B; Espinoza, F; Villegas, R R; Smith, G D; Ramos, A; Egger, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa and Bluefields. METHODS: Cervical specimens were examined using the Syva MicroTrak test system with a cut-off of 10 or more elementary bodies (EBs). The DFA results were validated by a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Discordant results were further examined in nested PCR assays directed at two different target genes. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standard gynaecological examination were completed. RESULTS: Sensitivity of DFA was 80.1%, specificity 98.3%, and positive and negative predictive values 62.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Values were lower in locations where samples thawed because of electricity breaks and higher among sex workers. The majority of discordant results was confirmed as positive in nested PCR assays. Prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection based on positivity in DFA and/or PCR ranged from 2% among routine clinic attenders aged 35 years or older, to 8% among adolescent clinic attenders, and to 14% among sex workers. Among routine clinic attenders, young age (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.4-8.9 for women aged 15-19 years as compared with 1 in women 25 years of age or older) and use of oral contraceptives (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.6) were the only statistically significant risk factors identified in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of mucopurulent cervical discharge (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.0-11.5) and presence of ectropion (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5) were the clinical signs independently associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the DFA test was sensitive and

  5. Normal block faulting in the Airport Graben, Managua pull-apart rift, Nicaragua: gravity and magnetic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Zambrana Arias, X.; Keppie, D.; Ramón Márquez, V.

    2012-12-01

    Regional scale models have been proposed for the Nicaraguan depression: 1) parallel rifting of the depression (and volcanic front) due to roll back of the underlying subducted Cocos plate; 2) right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the depression and locally offset by pull-apart basins; 3) right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the depression and offset by left-lateral transverse or bookshelf faults. At an intermediate scale, Funk et al. (2011) interpret the depression as half graben type structures. The E-W Airport graben lies in the southeastern part of the Managua graben (Nicaragua), across which the active Central American volcanic arc is dextrally offset, possibly the result of a subducted transform fault where the subduction angle changes. The Managua graben lies within the late Quaternary Nicaragua depression produced by backarc rifting during roll back of the Middle American Trench. The Managua graben formed as a pull-apart rift associated with dextral bookshelf faulting during dextral shear between the forearc and arc and is the locus of two historical, large earthquakes that destroyed the city of Managua. In order to asses future earthquake risk, four E-W gravity and magnetic profiles were undertaken to determine its structure across the Airport graben, which is bounded by the Cofradia and Airport fault zones, to the east and west, respectively. These data indicated the presence of a series of normal faults bounding down-thrown and up-thrown fault blocks and a listric normal fault, Sabana Grande Fault. The models imply that this area has been subjected to tectonic extension. These faults appear to be part of the bookshelf suite and will probably be the locus of future earthquakes, which could destroy the airport and surrounding part of Managua. Three regional SW-NE gravity profiles running from the Pacific Ocean up to the Caribbean See indicate a change in crustal structure: from north to south the crust thins. According to these regional

  6. A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.

  7. Evidence for static stress changes triggering the 1999 eruption of Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua and regional aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díez, M.; La Femina, P. C.; Connor, C. B.; Strauch, W.; Tenorio, V.

    2005-02-01

    Remarkable evidence of coupling between tectonic and magmatic events emerges from investigation of three tectonic earthquakes, aftershock sequences and eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua in 1999. Here, we explain this coupling through static stress changes following three Mw 5.2 earthquakes. We use focal mechanism solutions to estimate fault system geometry and magnitude of slip from these events, which are then used to calculate the change in minimum horizontal principal stress (σ3) for the region and the change in Coulomb failure stress on optimally oriented fault planes. Results of these simulations indicate that σ3 was reduced by ~0.08 MPa and that Coulomb failure stress was raised by 0.001 to 0.2 MPa in the region. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrates spatial correlation of Coulomb failure stress changes and triggered seismicity and volcanism, and suggests that these small changes in static stress can trigger subsequent geophysical events under appropriate circumstances.

  8. The 1998 debris avalanche at Casita volcano, Nicaragua: Investigation of the role of hydrothermal smectite in promoting slope instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfergelt, S.; Delmelle, P.; Boivin, P.; Delvaux, B.

    2006-08-01

    Buildup of excess pore water pressure within highly fractured rocks is held responsible for the initiation of the disastrous 1998 debris avalanche at Casita volcano, Nicaragua. Here, we postulate that the presence of smectite clay (up to 50 wt.%) in the hydrothermally-altered bedrock contributed to slope instability. Over decades or more, the clayey material probably (i) acted as an efficient barrier to water infiltration, (ii) progressively decreased shear-strength, and (iii) gradually destabilized the overlying rock mass. These effects are explained by the shrink-swell behavior of the clay-rich bedrock. During intense rainfall, formation of incipient weak failure surfaces in the superficial rock mass could have been favoured due to rapid alteration in the mechanical properties of smectite-containing clays deposited in fracture, joint and gouge interfaces.

  9. North America: A better second half for drilling--Maybe. [Oil and gas exploration and development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper provides data on the exploration, production, and drilling activity of the oil and gas industry in Canada, the US, and Central America. The section on the US discusses trends in drilling activity in both the first and second half of 1993. Statistical information on all oil and gas producing states if provided in a tabular format. Information on exploration and development expenditures is also discussed. Data is also provided drilling and production information for Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, and other minor production areas.

  10. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. II. PROPERTIES OF WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE NDWFS BOOeTES FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blain, A. W.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Donoso, E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Yan, L.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Stanford, S. A.; Wu, J.

    2013-07-20

    Stern et al. presented a study of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 2 deg{sup 2} COSMOS field, finding that a simple criterion W1-W2 {>=} 0.8 provides a highly reliable and complete AGN sample for W2 < 15.05, where the W1 and W2 passbands are centered at 3.4 {mu}m and 4.6 {mu}m, respectively. Here we extend this study using the larger 9 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field which also has considerably deeper WISE observations than the COSMOS field, and find that this simple color cut significantly loses reliability at fainter fluxes. We define a modified selection criterion combining the W1-W2 color and the W2 magnitude to provide highly reliable or highly complete AGN samples for fainter WISE sources. In particular, we define a color-magnitude cut that finds 130 {+-} 4 deg{sup -2} AGN candidates for W2 < 17.11 with 90% reliability. Using the extensive UV through mid-IR broadband photometry available in this field, we study the spectral energy distributions of WISE AGN candidates. We find that, as expected, the WISE AGN selection can identify highly obscured AGNs, but that it is biased toward objects where the AGN dominates the bolometric luminosity output. We study the distribution of reddening in the AGN sample and discuss a formalism to account for sample incompleteness based on the step-wise maximum-likelihood method of Efstathiou et al. The resulting dust obscuration distributions depend strongly on AGN luminosity, consistent with the trend expected for a receding torus. At L{sub AGN} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}, 29% {+-} 7% of AGNs are observed as Type 1, while at {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} the fraction is 64% {+-} 13%. The distribution of obscuration values suggests that dust in the torus is present as both a diffuse medium and in optically thick clouds.

  11. Breaking the cycles of poverty: Strategies, achievements, and lessons learned in Los Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2014

    PubMed Central

    Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Källestål, Carina; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Berglund, Staffan; Contreras, Mariela; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua. Methods: Data were derived from project records and a Health and Demographic Surveillance System that was initiated in 2004. The area had 25,893 inhabitants living in 5,966 households in 2014. Results: A participatory process with local stakeholders and community representatives resulted in a long-term strategic plan.