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Sample records for field pea crops

  1. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... crop. Dry peas. Peas (Pisum sativum L.), Austrian Peas (Pisum sativum spp arvense), Lentils (Lens... with grading under the United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas, Split Peas and Lentils will not be... example, if damaged smooth green and yellow pea acreage is replanted to lentils, the price election and...

  2. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... crop. Dry peas. Peas (Pisum sativum L.), Austrian Peas (Pisum sativum spp arvense), Lentils (Lens... with grading under the United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas, Split Peas and Lentils will not be... example, if damaged smooth green and yellow pea acreage is replanted to lentils, the price election and...

  3. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... crop. Dry peas. Peas (Pisum sativum L.), Austrian Peas (Pisum sativum spp arvense), Lentils (Lens... with grading under the United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas, Split Peas and Lentils will not be... example, if damaged smooth green and yellow pea acreage is replanted to lentils, the price election and...

  4. Assessment of soil nitrogen and related enzymes as influenced by the incorporation time of field pea cultivated as a catch crop in Alfisol.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Długosz, Anna; Wilczewski, Edward

    2014-12-01

    The effect of the time of catch crop (field pea) incorporation [catch crop incorporated in the autumn (A) or in the spring (B) versus plots without a catch crop (C)] on the soil enzymes related to N transformation (urease - UR, protease - PRO, nitrate reductase - NR, arginine ammonification rate - AAR), the total N and mineral N as well as microbial biomass N (MBN) contents were investigated in a 3-year experiment. The catch crop was sown at the beginning of August and plowed in the autumn in 2008, 2009 and 2010 or left as mulch during the winter. Soil samples for microbial activity were taken from spring barley plots that were grown in 2009, 2010 and 2011 before sowing (March), during the tillering phase (May), shooting (June) and after the harvesting of spring barley (August). The use of catch crop significantly increased the soil mineral and MBN contents as well as the activities of PRO and NR as compared to the control soil. The spring incorporation of the field pea significantly increased the MBN content in contrast to the autumn application, while the activity of N-cycle enzymes were clearly unaffected (UR and AAR) regardless of the time of the incorporation of field pea or else the results were inconsistent (PRO and NR). When the catch crop was incorporated in the spring, a significantly higher content of mineral N as compared to autumn incorporation was noted on only two of the four sampling dates. The enzymatic activity (PRO and AAR) was about 1.3-2.8 times higher in May and June as compared with March and August. Both spring or autumn incorporation of catch crop can be a useful management practice to increase the soil mineral N content and enhance the soil biological activity.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  6. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance... operation of harvesting equipment; and (ii) Abnormally hot or cold temperatures that cause an unexpected...

  7. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance... harvesting equipment; and (ii) Abnormally hot or cold temperatures that cause an unexpected number of acres...

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, rapeseed and dry pea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas, originate from soils at global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes allow to reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emission. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and during the residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed-rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted during 4 consecutive years, aiming at comparing the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly linked with the site soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after pea. These results, combined with the emission reduction allowed by the production and transport of the N fertiliser not applied on the pea crop, should be confirmed in a larger range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emission linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease of N2O emissions to 20-25% by including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. At a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be cumulated with the reduction of GHG emissions linked with the lower level of production and transport of the N

  9. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host–parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  10. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  11. Effects of tillage practices on pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) biology and crop damage: a farm-scale study in the US Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Hanavan, R P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2012-12-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L., is periodically a significant pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA. Previous on-station research demonstrated significantly greater adult pea leaf weevil colonization, immature survival, adult emergence and plant damage in conventional-tillage compared to no-tillage plots of pea. In experiments conducted during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, aerial and ground adult pea leaf weevil colonization of large-scale commercial pea fields under different tillage regimes in northern Idaho and eastern Washington was examined for the first time. Initial pea leaf weevil feeding damage, immature weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence from the fields were also assessed. During both years, significantly more adult pea leaf weevils were captured in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage fields during the crop establishment period in May. No-tillage soils remained wet longer in the spring and could not be planted by growers until later than conventional-tillage fields. Pea planted under conventional-tillage emerged earlier and had significantly greater feeding damage by the pea leaf weevil than no-tillage pea. Significantly, greater immature pea leaf weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence were observed in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage pea fields. Delayed development of root nodules in the cooler, moister conditions of no-tillage pea fields likely resulted in escape from attack and injury during the critical growth stages that ultimately influence yield. Results indicate that large-scale commercial no-tillage pea fields are less suitable for colonization and survival of the pea leaf weevil and suffer less weevil damage than fields under conventional tillage.

  12. Evaluation of Pea and Soybean as Trap Crops for Managing Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Porter, P. M.; Reese, C. D.; Klossner, L. D.; Stienstra, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Trap crops that stimulate nematode egg hatching but not reproduction have been reported as an effective means for managing certain nematodes. Studies were carried out at two field sites each year in 1998 and 1999 to evaluate the potential of trapping the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) with soybean and pea in the corn year to manage the nematode in Minnesota. The trap crops were planted on the same day as corn at each site and later killed with the herbicide glyphosate. Nematode egg densities were determined at planting, 1 and 2 months after planting, and at harvest. Treatments included four seeding rates (0, 124,000, 247,000, and 494,000 seeds/ha) of resistant soybean as a trap crop and four kill dates (3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after planting). No effects of the trap-crop and kill-date treatments on H. glycines population density, corn yield, and the followingyear soybean yield were observed at the two locations. In a second study, the experiment included four trap-crop comparisons (resistant soybean at 494,000 seeds/ha, susceptible soybean at 494,000 seeds/ha, pea at 1,482,000 seeds/ha, and no trap crop) and five kill dates (3, 4, 5, 6 weeks after planting, and no-kill). At the Waseca site, egg density at harvest was lower where resistant soybean was grown for 6 weeks and where pea was grown for 5 and 6 weeks compared with where no trap crop was grown. Maintaining pea plants for more than 5 weeks, however, reduced corn yield by 20% at the Waseca site. At the Lamberton site, egg density at harvest was lower where the susceptible soybean was grown for 5 weeks compared with where no trap crop was grown. Even with significant reduction of eggs in some treatments, use of soybean and pea as trap crops in the corn year was not an effective means for managing H. glycines. PMID:19265884

  13. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Green peas genetically developed to be eaten without shelling (e.g., snap peas, snow peas, and Chinese... peas genetically developed to be shelled prior to eating, canning or freezing. 2. Unit Division (a) For..., either of which causes the acreage to be bypassed. (2) Fire; (3) Insects, but not damage due to...

  14. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  15. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems.

  16. Genetic control and identification of QTLs associated with visual quality traits of field pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ubayasena, Lasantha; Bett, Kirstin; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Warkentin, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Visual quality of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the most important determinants of the market value of the harvested crop. Seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling are the major components of visual seed quality of field pea and are considered as important breeding objectives. The objectives of this research were to study the genetics and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling of green and yellow field peas. Two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) consisting of 120 and 90 lines of F(5)-derived F(7) (F(5:7)) yellow pea (P. sativum 'Alfetta' × P. sativum 'CDC Bronco') and green pea (P. sativum 'Orb' × P. sativum 'CDC Striker'), respectively, were evaluated over two years at two locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. Quantitative inheritance with polygenic control and transgressive segregation were observed for all visual quality traits studied. All 90 RILs of the green pea population and 92 selected RILs from the yellow pea population were screened using AFLP and SSR markers and two linkage maps were developed. Nine QTLs controlling yellow seed lightness, 3 for yellow seed greenness, 15 for seed shape, and 9 for seed dimpling were detected. Among them, five QTLs located on LG II, LG IV, and LG VII were consistent in at least two environments. The QTLs and their associated markers will be useful tools to assist pea breeding programs attempting to pyramid positive alleles for the traits.

  17. Bean α-amylase inhibitor 1 in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) provides complete protection from pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Roger L.; Schroeder, Hart E.; Bateman, Kaye S.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Eric; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two α-amylase inhibitors, called αAI-1 and αAI-2, that share 78% amino acid sequence identity and have a differential specificity toward mammalian and insect α-amylases are present in different accessions of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using greenhouse-grown transgenic peas (Pisum sativum), we have shown previously that expression of αAI-1 in pea seeds can provide complete protection against the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). Here, we report that αAI-1 also protects peas from the weevil under field conditions. The high degree of protection is explained by our finding that αAI-1 inhibits pea bruchid α-amylase by 80% over a broad pH range (pH 4.5–6.5). αAI-2, on the other hand, is a much less effective inhibitor of pea bruchid α-amylase, inhibiting the enzyme by only 40%, and only in the pH 4.0–4.5 range. Nevertheless, this inhibitor was still partially effective in protecting field-grown transgenic peas against pea weevils. The primary effect of αAI-2 appeared to be a delay in the maturation of the larvae. This contrasts with the effect of αAI-1, which results in larval mortality at the first or second instar. These results are discussed in relationship to the use of amylase inhibitors with different specificities to bring about protection of crops from their insect pests or to decrease insect pest populations below the economic injury level. PMID:10759552

  18. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Adequate stand. A population of live plants per acre that will produce at least the yield used to establish... processor/seed company contract, you retain control of the acreage on which the dry peas are grown, you are... not damage due to insufficient or improper application of pest control measures; (d) Plant disease...

  19. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Adequate stand. A population of live plants per acre that will produce at least the yield used to establish... processor/seed company contract, you retain control of the acreage on which the dry peas are grown, you are... not damage due to insufficient or improper application of pest control measures; (d) Plant disease...

  20. Aggressiveness Changes in Populations of Didymella pinodes over Winter and Spring Pea Cropping Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Laloi, G.; Montarry, J.; Guibert, M.; Andrivon, D.; Michot, D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ascochyta blight, caused by the necrotrophic ascomycete Didymella pinodes, is responsible for severe losses in winter and spring pea crops. Despite different climatic conditions, epidemics on winter and spring crops are due to a single population of D. pinodes, suggesting gene flow either between the two crops or from reservoir sources during the cropping season. This should lead to similar pathogenicity characteristics in isolates sampled from the two crops. However, these hypotheses have never been formally tested. We therefore sampled a total of 520 D. pinodes strains throughout a growing season from winter and spring pea plots (WP and SP, respectively) and from winter and spring trap plants (TWP and TSP). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed high genetic diversity within subpopulations, whereas pathogenicity tests showed that mean aggressiveness increases over the course of an epidemic. These results support the idea that alloinoculum contributes to the carryover of epidemics between winter and spring crops and that the most aggressive isolates are selected as an epidemic progresses. IMPORTANCE Ascochyta blight, caused by Didymella pinodes, is responsible for severe losses in pea crops. While previous studies have shown that ascochyta blight epidemics on winter and spring crops are due to a single population of D. pinodes, suggesting that isolates from the two crops present similar pathogenicity characteristics, that hypothesis have never been tested. Genetic analysis of subpopulations sampled throughout a growing season from winter and spring pea plots revealed high genetic diversity within subpopulations, whereas pathogenicity tests showed that mean aggressiveness increases over the course of an epidemic. PMID:27208102

  1. Diazotroph community structure and abundance in wheat-fallow and wheat-pea crop rotations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological input of nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere either through free-living diazotrophs or legume-associated rhizobia can help alleviate fertilizer use in agricultural systems. In this study, we investigated the effect of N fertilizer and winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) crop on the diversity and a...

  2. Occurrence of Ditylenchus weischeri and Not D. dipsaci in Field Pea Harvest Samples and Cirsium arvense in the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Mario; Madani, Mehrdad; Briar, Shabeg; Molina, Oscar; Gulden, Robert; Subbotin, Sergei A

    2014-12-01

    The stem nematode, a parasite of the herbaceous perennial weed, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and identified as Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev, was reported in the Canadian prairies in 1979. Recently, D. weischeri Chizhov parasitizing Cirsium arvense was described in Russia, and it has been shown that this species is not an agricultural pest. In this study, we examined Ditylenchus species found in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain harvest samples in 2009 and 2010 and from C. arvense shoots in pea fields in the Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba provinces. Samples from 538 fields (mainly yellow pea) were provided by 151 growers throughout the main pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies. Of the samples collected, 2% were positive for Ditylenchus. The population density of the nematode ranged between 4 and 1,500 nematodes kg(-1) pea harvest sample and related to presence of C. arvense seeds. Positive samples occurred in 2009 but not in 2010 and were from throughout the pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies and not related to cropping history. C. arvense collected from yellow pea fields in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but not Alberta, were infested with Ditylenchus. Morphological and molecular (ITS-PCR-RFLP) traits indicated that this species belongs to D. weischeri. The results indicated the stem nematode found in yellow pea grain is D. weischeri which resided with C. arvense seeds and debris to pea samples. Unlike D. dipsaci, D. weischeri is not a nematode pest of economic importance; therefore, its presence in the pea harvest samples was not a concern.

  3. Occurrence of Ditylenchus weischeri and Not D. dipsaci in Field Pea Harvest Samples and Cirsium arvense in the Canadian Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Tenuta, Mario; Madani, Mehrdad; Briar, Shabeg; Molina, Oscar; Gulden, Robert; Subbotin, Sergei A.

    2014-01-01

    The stem nematode, a parasite of the herbaceous perennial weed, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and identified as Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev, was reported in the Canadian prairies in 1979. Recently, D. weischeri Chizhov parasitizing Cirsium arvense was described in Russia, and it has been shown that this species is not an agricultural pest. In this study, we examined Ditylenchus species found in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain harvest samples in 2009 and 2010 and from C. arvense shoots in pea fields in the Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba provinces. Samples from 538 fields (mainly yellow pea) were provided by 151 growers throughout the main pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies. Of the samples collected, 2% were positive for Ditylenchus. The population density of the nematode ranged between 4 and 1,500 nematodes kg-1 pea harvest sample and related to presence of C. arvense seeds. Positive samples occurred in 2009 but not in 2010 and were from throughout the pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies and not related to cropping history. C. arvense collected from yellow pea fields in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but not Alberta, were infested with Ditylenchus. Morphological and molecular (ITS-PCR-RFLP) traits indicated that this species belongs to D. weischeri. The results indicated the stem nematode found in yellow pea grain is D. weischeri which resided with C. arvense seeds and debris to pea samples. Unlike D. dipsaci, D. weischeri is not a nematode pest of economic importance; therefore, its presence in the pea harvest samples was not a concern. PMID:25580031

  4. Dry pea and lentil can improve semiarid crop production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop diversity and no-till are changing crop production in the semiarid Great Plains. Crop diversity gains a benefit with some sequences; growth efficiency is improved, which we term synergism. For example, winter wheat water-use-efficiency is more than 30% higher in a winter wheat-corn-proso mill...

  5. Morphometric and genetics properties of pea crops grown in space greenhouse Lada"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M.; Sychev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Gostimsky, S.; Bingham, G.

    Results of the experiments with higher plants performed in greenhouse Svet aboard the MIR space station in 1996-1999 made it evident that the main biological characteristics of plants growth development reproduction and metabolism did not undergo modifications in consequence of microgravity It was shown that at least two ontogenetic cycles of plants could pass in the normal way in this environment However the initial experimental data was insufficient for fiducial conclusions on the delayed effects of cultivating a sequence of plant generations on the background of spaceflight factors Hence these investigations are given precedence in the space life sciences research programs In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment of the International space station The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations According to our results pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis from seed to seed taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants In addition four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the space and ground seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of

  6. First report of occurrence of two viruses on pea field in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G H; Mozafari, J

    2005-01-01

    An intensive survey was conducted to identify virus diseases affecting pea crops in Tehran province of Iran. A total of 270 pea samples were collected randomly from pea fields. samples were tested by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) using polyclonal antisera prepared against PSBMV (AS-0129, DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany) and TSWV (AS-0580, DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany). Virus disease incidence in pea samples was followed by PSBMV (33%) TSWV (24.4%) and PSBMV+TSWV (17.77). The positive samples with PSBMV were extracted in 0.05M phosphate buffer pH 6.5-7 containing 2% pvp and inoculated on Pisum sativum, Vicia faba, Chenopodium quinoa, Chenopodium amaranticolor. That produced in Pisum sativum; leaflets roll downwards, shoots curl, internodes shorten and plants are rosetted. Early infections reduce flower and fruit formation or eliminate their development. Broad bean has symptoms accompanied by a certain margin rolling and leaflet distortion. In Chenopodium amaranticolor necrotic local lesions and Chenopodium quinoa chlorotic local lesions had produced. The positive samples with TSWV were extracted in 0.01 M phosphate buffer containing 1% Na2 SO3 and inoculated on Petunia hybrida, Pisum sativum. TSWV causes several symptoms in infected peas, including brown leaf petiole and stem coloration, leaflet spotting, vein necrosis. In petunia hybrida after approximately 5 days showed local necrotic lesion. Biological purification in TSWV with chlorotic local lesions in Petunia hybrida and in PSBMV; chlorotic local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa were done. In PSBMV, back inoculated on Pisum sativum and Vicia faba also tested with DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR confirmed the results. This is the first report of PSBMV and TSWV naturally infecting pea in Iran.

  7. De novo assembly and characterisation of the field pea transcriptome using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Sudheesh, Shimna; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Cogan, Noel Oi; Kennedy, Peter; Forster, John W; Kaur, Sukhjiwan

    2015-08-16

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a cool-season grain legume that is cultivated world-wide for both human consumption and stock-feed purposes. Enhancement of genetic and genomic resources for field pea will permit improved understanding of the control of traits relevant to crop productivity and quality. Advances in second-generation sequencing and associated bioinformatics analysis now provide unprecedented opportunities for the development of such resources. The objective of this study was to perform transcriptome sequencing and characterisation from two genotypes of field pea that differ in terms of seed and plant morphological characteristics. Transcriptome sequencing was performed with RNA templates from multiple tissues of the field pea genotypes Kaspa and Parafield. Tissue samples were collected at various growth stages, and a total of 23 cDNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina high-throughput sequencing platforms. A total of 407 and 352 million paired-end reads from the Kaspa and Parafield transcriptomes, respectively were assembled into 129,282 and 149,272 contigs, which were filtered on the basis of known gene annotations, presence of open reading frames (ORFs), reciprocal matches and degree of coverage. Totals of 126,335 contigs from Kaspa and 145,730 from Parafield were subsequently selected as the reference set. Reciprocal sequence analysis revealed that c. 87% of contigs were expressed in both cultivars, while a small proportion were unique to each genotype. Reads from different libraries were aligned to the genotype-specific assemblies in order to identify and characterise expression of contigs on a tissue-specific basis, of which 87% were expressed in more than one tissue, while others showed distinct expression patterns in specific tissues, providing unique transcriptome signatures. This study provided a comprehensive assembled and annotated transcriptome set for field pea that can be used for development of genetic markers, in order to assess

  8. Fatty acid profiling of the seed oils of some varieties of field peas (Pisum sativum) by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS: towards the development of an oilseed pea.

    PubMed

    Villalobos Solis, Manuel Ivan; Patel, Anil; Orsat, Valérie; Singh, Jaswinder; Lefsrud, Mark

    2013-08-15

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS) was used to study the fatty acid profile from the oil of harvested field pea (Pisum sativum) varieties as part of a research project to develop this legume as a commercial oilseed for Canada. The seed oils from pea samples contained palmitic and stearic acids as major saturated fatty acids. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids found. Small percentages of other long chain fatty acids were also detected. This profile suggests that the species of field pea investigated might have the potential to be used as raw materials to develop a future new oilseed crop for the food industry. Fatty acid extracts did not require further manipulation before final analysis by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS, indicating the utility and relative simplicity of this technique for future screening studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Formation of electric dipoles in pea stem tissue due to an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Farahani, Elham

    2016-07-01

    For examining the effect of an electrical field (DC) on pea seed, we exposed the pea seeds to electric fields with intensities 1, 4 and 7 kV/cm for 30, 230, 430 and 630 seconds. The tests were repeated three times, and each iteration had 5 seeds. Then, the seeds were moved to packaged plates. Finally, microscopic observation of the pea stem tissue showed that the application of a DC electrical field caused a deformation in the pea stem tissue. The results led us to examine the deformation of the tissue theoretically and to address that deformation as an electrostatic problem. In this regard, we modeled the pea stem based on the formation of electric dipoles. Then, theoretically, we calculated the force acting on each xylem section by coding, and the results were consistent with the experimental data.

  11. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculants on subsequent arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization in pot-cultured field pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jin, Hongyan; Germida, James J; Walley, Fran L

    2013-01-01

    The use of commercial inoculants containing non-resident arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is an emerging technology in field crop production in Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of AMF inoculants containing either a single species (Glomus irregulare) or mixed species (G. irregulare, Glomus mosseae, and Glomus clarum) on AMF root colonization and consequent plant growth parameters of field pea grown using pot cultures. Field pea was grown in both sterilized and non-sterile (i.e., natural) field-collected soil containing resident AMF and received three inoculation treatments: uninoculated control, G. irregulare only, and a mixture of AMF species of G. irregulare, G. mosseae, and G. clarum. After 42 days, the AMF community assembled in field pea roots was assessed by cloning and sequencing analysis on the LSU-ITS-SSU rDNA gene, together with a microscopic assessment of colonization, biomass production, nutrient uptake, and N(2) fixation. The identity of AMF inoculants had a significant effect on field pea performance. The mixed species AMF inoculant performed better than the single species G. irregulare alone by promoting mycorrhizal colonization, field pea biomass, N and P uptake, and N(2) fixation and did not result in a significant compositional change of the AMF community that subsequently assembled in field pea roots. In contrast, the single species G. irregulare inoculant did not significantly enhance field pea biomass, N and P uptake, and N(2) fixation, although a significant compositional change of the subsequent AMF community was observed. No significant interactions affecting these measurements were detected between the resident AMF and the introduced AMF inoculants. The observation that the mixed species AMF inoculant promoted plant growth parameters without necessarily affecting the subsequent AMF community may have important implications regarding the use of non-resident AMF inoculants in agricultural production.

  12. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  13. Molecular diversity of native rhizobia trapped by five field pea genotypes in Indian soils.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, K; Dudeja, S S; Yadav, R K

    2011-02-01

    Five pea cultivars; HFP 4, HVP 3-5, HFP 9426, Jayanti and Hariyal, being grown in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm were used to isolate native rhizobia. Selected 54 rhizobia, from all cultivars, were authenticated as rhizobia by plant infectivity test. Along with nodulation, symbiotic effectiveness in terms of symbiotic ratios showed wide range of effectiveness of pea rhizobia from 1.11 to 5.0. DNA of all the 54 rhizobia was extracted and amplified by PCR, using ERIC and 16S rDNA primers. Dendrogram based on ERIC profiles of these 54 rhizobia showed the formation of 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. Dendrogram based on RFLP of 16S rDNA by three restriction endonucleases; Msp I, Csp 6I and Rsa I; also formed 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. However, positioning of subclusters was different from that of ERIC based dendrogram. Majority of the isolates i.e. 64.8% by ERIC profiles and 44.4% by RFLP of 16S rDNA formed one cluster. Isolates from same nodule were not 100% similar. Considering each cluster representing a rhizobial genotype, both techniques used to assess molecular diversity indicated the presence of 13 genotypes of field pea rhizobia in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm soil. Two pea rhizobial genotypes were able to nodulate all the five pea cultivars. Furthermore, high strain richness index (0.43-0.5) of field pea rhizobia was observed by both the techniques.

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity in Ethiopian field pea (Pisum sativum L.) accessions with newly developed EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Dagne, Kifle; Geleta, Mulatu

    2015-08-19

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is among the prominent crops in the world as food and feed. There are relatively few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in P. sativum. In the present study, 15 new EST-SSR markers were developed from publicly available ESTs. These markers have successfully amplified their target loci across seven Pisum sativum subsp. sativum accessions. Eleven (73%) of these SSRs were trinucleotide repeats, two (13%) dinucleotide and two (13%) were hexanucleotide repeats. Across-taxa transferability of these new markers was also tested on other subspecies of Pisum as well as on P. fulvum, Vicia faba and Lens culinaris. In Pisum sativum subsp. sativum, 13 of the 15 markers were polymorphic and 12 of them subsequently used for genetic diversity analysis. Forty six accessions, of which 43 were from Ethiopia, were subjected to genetic diversity analysis using these newly developed markers. All accessions were represented by 12 individuals except two (NGB103816 and 237508) that were represented by 9 and 11 individuals, respectively. A total of 37 alleles were detected across all accessions. PS10 was the most polymorphic locus with six alleles, and the average number of alleles per locus over the 12 polymorphic loci was 3.1. Several rare and private alleles were also revealed. The most distinct accession (32048) had private alleles at three loci with 100% frequency. These newly developed EST-SSR primer-pairs successfully amplified expected loci in P. sativum subsp. sativum as well as in other subspecies of the genus Pisum and related genera. High levels of genetic variation were detected in field pea accessions from Ethiopia using these markers. This result implies the potential of the Ethiopian field pea gene pool for improvement of field peas in various desirable traits. In addition, these markers could be a valuable asset in resolving the inconsistency in the taxonomic status of the different subspecies of

  15. Characterization of regenerated butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) accessions for morphological, phenology, reproductive and potential nutraceutical, pharmaceutical trait utilization.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea, has been used in Africa as a companion crop and in the United States as an ornamental. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 28 butterfly pea accessions. Butterfly pea accessions were transplanted from about 30-day-old seedlings to the field in Griffin, GA, around 01 June ...

  16. Screening of pea genotypes for resistance to root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8, 2012.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 is one of the major pathogens that causes pea root rot and stunting in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. The disease is most severe in fields where wheat has been mono-cropped for a number of years or where cereal cover crops are incorporated just before pea seedin...

  17. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  18. Twentieth-century changes in the genetic composition of Swedish field pea metapopulations

    PubMed Central

    Leino, M W; Boström, E; Hagenblad, J

    2013-01-01

    Landrace crops are formed by local adaptation, genetic drift and gene flow through seed exchange. In reverse, the study of genetic structure between landrace populations can reveal the effects of these forces over time. We present here the analysis of genetic diversity in 40 Swedish field pea (Pisum sativum L.) populations, either available as historical seed samples from the late nineteenth century or as extant gene bank accessions assembled in the late twentieth century. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-population diversity, whereas the extant accessions show varying, and overall lower, levels of within-population diversity. Structure and principal component analysis cluster most accessions, both extant and historical, in groups after geographical origin. County-wise analyses of the accessions show that the genetic diversity of the historical accessions is largely overlapping. In contrast, most extant accessions show signs of genetic drift. They harbor a subset of the alleles found in the historical accessions and are more differentiated from each other. These results reflect how, historically present metapopulations have been preserved during the twentieth century, although as genetically isolated populations. PMID:23169556

  19. Forage intake, meal patterns, and milk production of lactating dairy cows fed grass silage or pea-wheat bi-crop silages.

    PubMed

    Salawu, M B; Adesogan, A T; Dewhurst, R J

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the feed intake, milk production, and plasma nutrient status in dairy cows fed inter-cropped pea-wheat (bi-crop) silages comprised of contrasting ratios of pea to wheat. Spring peas (cv. Magnus) and wheat (cv. Axona) sown at either high (75:25) or low (25:75) pea inclusion rates were harvested after 13 (Cut 1) or 15 (Cut 2) wk. Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows between wk 9 and 10 of lactation were used in a cyclical changeover design with three 28-d periods. Cows were fed the bi-crop silages and 6 kg of concentrates or second-cut grass silage supplemented with 6 (GS6) or 9 (GS9) kg/d of concentrates. Forage intakes were higher when bi-crops were fed (10.3 to 11.4 kg dry matter [DM]/d) than when grass silage was fed (8.6 kg DM/d). Total DM intake was similar among cows fed the bi-crop silages and GS9 diets, but intakes for GS6 were at least 1.7 kg DM/d lower. Increasing the pea inclusion rate increased the crude protein (CP) content of the ration, but it did not enhance forage quality or animal performance. The rate of intake of the different forages was similar, so that the higher intakes of bi-crop silages were associated with more time spent at the feedbunk and an increased number of meals. Diet digestibility ranged from 531 to 650 g/kg, and the highest value was given by the Cut 1 bi-crop silage diet. Milk yield tended to be similar for cows fed the Cut 2 bi-crop and GS9 diets, and these values were at least 1.7 kg higher than those for cows fed on other treatments. Generally, the bi-crop diets resulted in higher milk fat contents and lower polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. Milk protein content was highest for cows fed the GS9 diet. Blood metabolite content was unaffected by treatment except for blood urea nitrogen content, which was higher in cows fed the bi-crop silages, reflecting reduced N-use efficiency with these diets. The study showed that pea-wheat bi-crop silages can be used to replace moderate-quality grass silage in dairy

  20. Phosphorus application and elevated CO2 enhance drought tolerance in field pea grown in a phosphorus-deficient vertisol

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jian; Lauricella, Dominic; Armstrong, Roger; Sale, Peter; Tang, Caixian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Benefits to crop productivity arising from increasing CO2 fertilization may be offset by detrimental effects of global climate change, such as an increasing frequency of drought. Phosphorus (P) nutrition plays an important role in crop responses to water stress, but how elevated CO2 (eCO2) and P nutrition interact, especially in legumes, is unclear. This study aimed to elucidate whether P supply improves plant drought tolerance under eCO2. Methods A soil-column experiment was conducted in a free air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE) system. Field pea (Pisum sativum) was grown in a P-deficient vertisol, supplied with 15 mg P kg−1 (deficient) or 60 mg P kg−1 (adequate for crop growth) and exposed to ambient CO2 (aCO2; 380–400 ppm) or eCO2 (550–580 ppm). Drought treatments commenced at flowering. Measurements were taken of soil and leaf water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, total soluble sugars and inorganic P content (Pi). Key Results Water-use efficiency was greatest under eCO2 when the plants were supplied with adequate P compared with other treatments irrespective of drought treatment. Elevated CO2 decreased stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and increased the concentration of soluble sugars and relative water contents in leaves. Adequate P supply increased concentrations of soluble sugars and Pi in drought-stressed plants. Adequate P supply but not eCO2 increased root length distribution in deeper soil layers. Conclusions Phosphorus application and eCO2 interactively enhanced periodic drought tolerance in field pea as a result of decreased stomatal conductance, deeper rooting and high Pi availability for carbon assimilation in leaves. PMID:25429008

  1. Phosphorus application and elevated CO2 enhance drought tolerance in field pea grown in a phosphorus-deficient vertisol.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Lauricella, Dominic; Armstrong, Roger; Sale, Peter; Tang, Caixian

    2015-11-01

    Benefits to crop productivity arising from increasing CO2 fertilization may be offset by detrimental effects of global climate change, such as an increasing frequency of drought. Phosphorus (P) nutrition plays an important role in crop responses to water stress, but how elevated CO2 (eCO2) and P nutrition interact, especially in legumes, is unclear. This study aimed to elucidate whether P supply improves plant drought tolerance under eCO2. A soil-column experiment was conducted in a free air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE) system. Field pea (Pisum sativum) was grown in a P-deficient vertisol, supplied with 15 mg P kg(-1) (deficient) or 60 mg P kg(-1) (adequate for crop growth) and exposed to ambient CO2 (aCO2; 380-400 ppm) or eCO2 (550-580 ppm). Drought treatments commenced at flowering. Measurements were taken of soil and leaf water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, total soluble sugars and inorganic P content (Pi). Water-use efficiency was greatest under eCO2 when the plants were supplied with adequate P compared with other treatments irrespective of drought treatment. Elevated CO2 decreased stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and increased the concentration of soluble sugars and relative water contents in leaves. Adequate P supply increased concentrations of soluble sugars and Pi in drought-stressed plants. Adequate P supply but not eCO2 increased root length distribution in deeper soil layers. Phosphorus application and eCO2 interactively enhanced periodic drought tolerance in field pea as a result of decreased stomatal conductance, deeper rooting and high Pi availability for carbon assimilation in leaves. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Characterization and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia and Rhizoctonia-like spp. from pea crops in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 179 isolates of Rhizoctonia and Rhizoctonia-like species were obtained from soil and plant samples collected from irrigated pea crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington from 2011 to 2013, and characterized to species, subspecies, and anastomosis groups (AG) based on ...

  3. Symbiotic activity of pea (Pisum sativum) after application of Nod factors under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-04-29

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10⁻¹¹ M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  4. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions. PMID:24786094

  5. Dissipation of pendimethalin in the soil of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and detection of terminal residues in plants.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Dissipation of pendimethalin in the soil of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) at 0 to 110 days, and terminal residues in green and mature pea were studied under field conditions. Pendimethalin was applied as pre-emergence herbicide at 750, to 185 g a.i. ha(-1) in winter, in field peas. Dissipation of pendimethalin in the soil at 0 to 110 days followed first-order kinetics showing a half-life of 19.83 days averaged over all doses. Low pendimethalin residues were found in mature pea grain (0.004, 0.003, <0.001 μg g(-1)), and straw (0.007, 0.002, <0.001 μg g(-1)) at 750, 350 and 185 g a.i. ha(-1) treatments, respectively. The study indicated that residues of pendimethalin in green and mature pea were within the prescribed MRL limits.

  6. Intensifying a semi-arid dryland crop rotation by replacing fallow with pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing dryland cropping system intensity in the semi-arid central Great Plains by reducing frequency of fallow can add diversity to cropping systems and decrease erosion potential. However elimination of the periodic fallow phase has been shown to reduce yields of subsequent crops in this region...

  7. SNP marker discovery, linkage map construction and identification of QTLs for enhanced salinity tolerance in field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, cool-season food legume. Crop production is constrained by multiple biotic and abiotic stress factors, including salinity, that cause reduced growth and yield. Recent advances in genomics have permitted the development of low-cost high-throughput genotyping systems, allowing the construction of saturated genetic linkage maps for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of interest. Genetic markers in close linkage with the relevant genomic regions may then be implemented in varietal improvement programs. Results In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were developed and used to generate comprehensive linkage maps for field pea. From a set of 36,188 variant nucleotide positions detected through in silico analysis, 768 were selected for genotyping of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 705 SNPs (91.7%) successfully detected segregating polymorphisms. In addition to SNPs, genomic and EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were assigned to the genetic map in order to obtain an evenly distributed genome-wide coverage. Sequences associated with the mapped molecular markers were used for comparative genomic analysis with other legume species. Higher levels of conserved synteny were observed with the genomes of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) than with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), Lotus japonicus L. and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.). Parents and RIL progeny were screened at the seedling growth stage for responses to salinity stress, imposed by addition of NaCl in the watering solution at a concentration of 18 dS m-1. Salinity-induced symptoms showed normal distribution, and the severity of the symptoms increased over time. QTLs for salinity tolerance were identified on linkage groups Ps III and VII, with flanking SNP markers suitable for

  8. The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages

    PubMed Central

    Soycan-Önenç, Sibel; Koc, Fisun; Coşkuntuna, Levent; Özdüven, M. Levent; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate and 20% water applied at a rate of 5 g/kg fresh forage (Silofarm Liquid, Farmavet); origanum (ORE) group, Origanum onites essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; cinnamon (CIN) group, cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; origanum+cinnamon (ORECIN) group, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg/kg fresh forage. Cinnamon decreased acetic acid (AA), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and weight loss (WL) at the end of 60 days silage. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) increased by cinnamon essential oil. Yeasts were not detected in any treatments, including the control, after 7 days of air exposure. The CO2 amount decreased and the formation mold was inhibited in the aerobic period by the addition of cinnamon oil. Oregano did not show a similar effect, but when it was used with cinnamon, it showed synergic effect on AA and during aerobic period, it showed antagonistic effect on mold formation and DM losses. It was found in this study that cinnamon can be an alternative to organic acids. PMID:26323518

  9. The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages.

    PubMed

    Soycan-Önenç, Sibel; Koc, Fisun; Coşkuntuna, Levent; Özdüven, M Levent; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate and 20% water applied at a rate of 5 g/kg fresh forage (Silofarm Liquid, Farmavet); origanum (ORE) group, Origanum onites essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; cinnamon (CIN) group, cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; origanum+cinnamon (ORECIN) group, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg/kg fresh forage. Cinnamon decreased acetic acid (AA), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and weight loss (WL) at the end of 60 days silage. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) increased by cinnamon essential oil. Yeasts were not detected in any treatments, including the control, after 7 days of air exposure. The CO2 amount decreased and the formation mold was inhibited in the aerobic period by the addition of cinnamon oil. Oregano did not show a similar effect, but when it was used with cinnamon, it showed synergic effect on AA and during aerobic period, it showed antagonistic effect on mold formation and DM losses. It was found in this study that cinnamon can be an alternative to organic acids.

  10. Remediation of cadmium toxicity in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) through exogenous silicon.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Farhadur; Ghosal, Anubrata; Alam, Mohammad Firoz; Kabir, Ahmad Humayan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important phytotoxic element causing health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) influences the alleviation of Cd toxicity in field peas at biochemical and molecular level. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants noticeably increased growth and development as well as total protein and membrane stability of Cd-stressed plants, suggesting that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in peas. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed simultaneous significant increase and decrease of Cd and Fe in roots and shoots, respectively, compared with Cd-stressed plants. At molecular level, GSH1 (phytochelatin precursor) and MTA (metallothionein) transcripts predominantly expressed in roots and strongly induced due to Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants compared with Cd-free conditions, suggesting that these chelating agents may bind to Cd leading to vacuolar sequestration in roots. Furthermore, pea Fe transporter (RIT1) showed downregulation in shoots when plants were treated with Si along with Cd compared with Cd-treated conditions. It is consistent with the physiological observations and supports the conclusion that alleviation of Cd toxicity in pea plants might be associated with Cd sequestration in roots and reduced Cd translocation in shoots through the regulation of Fe transport. Furthermore, increased CAT, POD, SOD and GR activity along with elevated S-metabolites (cysteine, methionine, glutathione) implies the active involvement of ROS scavenging and plays, at least in part, to the Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in pea. The study provides first mechanistic evidence on the beneficial effect of Si on Cd toxicity in pea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seed set, pollen morphology and pollen surface composition response to heat stress in field pea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunfei; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Kumar, Saroj; Davis, Arthur R; Bueckert, Rosalind A

    2015-11-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a major legume crop grown in a semi-arid climate in Western Canada, where heat stress affects pollination, seed set and yield. Seed set and pod growth characteristics, along with in vitro percentage pollen germination, pollen tube growth and pollen surface composition, were measured in two pea cultivars (CDC Golden and CDC Sage) subjected to five maximum temperature regimes ranging from 24 to 36 °C. Heat stress reduced percentage pollen germination, pollen tube length, pod length, seed number per pod, and the seed-ovule ratio. Percentage pollen germination of CDC Sage was greater than CDC Golden at 36 °C. No visible morphological differences in pollen grains or the pollen surface were observed between the heat and control-treated pea. However, pollen wall (intine) thickness increased due to heat stress. Mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) spectra revealed that the chemical composition (lipid, proteins and carbohydrates) of each cultivar's pollen grains responded differently to heat stress. The lipid region of the pollen coat and exine of CDC Sage was more stable compared with CDC Golden at 36 °C. Secondary derivatives of ATR spectra indicated the presence of two lipid types, with different amounts present in pollen grains from each cultivar. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. RADIO DETECTION OF GREEN PEAS: IMPLICATIONS FOR MAGNETIC FIELDS IN YOUNG GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Cardamone, Carolin

    2012-02-10

    Green Peas are a new class of young, emission line galaxies that were discovered by citizen volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their low stellar mass, low metallicity, and very high star formation rates make Green Peas the nearby (z {approx} 0.2) analogs of the Lyman break galaxies which account for the bulk of the star formation in the early universe (z {approx} 2-5). They thus provide accessible laboratories in the nearby universe for understanding star formation, supernova feedback, particle acceleration, and magnetic field amplification in early galaxies. We report the first direct radio detection of Green Peas with low frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations and our stacking detection with archival Very Large Array FIRST data. We show that the radio emission implies that these extremely young galaxies already have magnetic fields ({approx}> 30 {mu}G) even larger than that of the Milky Way. This is at odds with the present understanding of magnetic field growth based on amplification of seed fields by dynamo action over a galaxy's lifetime. Our observations strongly favor models with pregalactic magnetic fields at {mu}G levels.

  13. Ecophysiological patterns in field crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langensiepen, M.; Stadler, A.; Kupisch, M.; Ewert, F.

    2013-12-01

    Soils in agricultural fields are often characterized by different degrees of heterogeneities in physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Plants may respond distinctively to these patterns by adjusting ecophysiological processes and architectural growth at different organizational, spatial, and temporal, scales. The purpose of this research was to quantify the heterogeneity in physical soil conditions at a key research field of the Transregio 32 collaborative research center (www.tr32.de) near Jülich (50°52' N , 6° 27‧ E) and to characterize their effects on the magnitudes of photosynthesis, transpiration, and sap-flow rates at the leaf, point, and field scales. Such information is a necessary prerequisite for deciding which theoretical model representations should be taken for quantifying these processes and which routines are appropriate for scaling the chosen model types from point to field level and beyond. Outputs from the gas-exchange and sap-flow equipment were initially validated against independent eddy-covariance measurements of H2O and CO2 fluxes in a uniform wheat-field 10 km apart from the research site to ensure good data quality. The actual experiment was subsequently carried during two wheat growing years (2010/11 and 2011/12) at the actual field site in. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) and soil measurements were carried out to quantify heterogeneities in soil physical conditions which showed distinctive patterns. These patterns were reflected in observed spatial and temporal patterns of leaf area development and biomass growth which were carried out at bi-weekly intervals. Surprisingly, spatial patterns in soil heterogeneity did not significantly affect field patterns of stomatal conductance, leaf gas-exchange and sap-flow which reflects whole-plant transpiration, whereas canopy fluxes of H2O and CO2 were strongly distinct in different field locations. Morphological adaptations at the plant and canopy levels to soil heterogeneity were

  14. Feeding value of field pea as a protein source in forage-based diets fed to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Encinias, A M; Bauer, M L; Lardy, G P; Caton, J S

    2012-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of field peas as a protein source in diets for beef cattle. In the first study, 4 cultivars of field pea were incubated in situ to determine rate and extent of CP disappearance. Results indicate that field pea cultivars vary in CP content (22.6, 26.1, 22.6, and 19.4%, DM basis for Profi, Arvika, Carneval, and Trapper, respectively). Soluble protein fraction ranged from 34.9% for Trapper to 54.9% for Profi. Degradable CP fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for Trapper compared with the other cultivars, and no differences (P ≥ 0.25) were observed among Profi, Arvika, and Carneval. Rate of CP degradation differed (P ≤ 0.03) for all cultivars, with Profi being the greatest and Trapper the smallest (10.8, 10.0, 8.1, and 6.3 ± 1.4%/h for Profi, Carneval, Arvika, and Trapper, respectively). Estimated RDP was not different (P = 0.21) for all 4 cultivars. In the second study, 30 crossbred beef steers (301 ± 15 kg) were individually fed and used to evaluate effects of field pea processing (whole, rolled, or ground) on steer performance. Diets contained 40% field pea grain. Growing steers consuming whole field pea had greater ADG (P = 0.08) than those consuming processed field pea (1.69, 1.52, and 1.63 ± 0.05 kg/d, for whole, rolled, and ground, respectively). However, DMI (kg/d and as % of BW) and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.24). In the third study, 35 individually fed gestating beef cows (694 ± 17 kg) were used to evaluate the use of field pea as a protein supplement for medium quality grass hay (9.3% CP). Treatments consisted of whole field peas at 1) 0 g (CON), 2) 680 g (FP680), 3) 1,360 g (FP1360), and 4) 2,040 g (FP2040), and 5) 1,360 g of 74% barley and 26% canola meal (BCM). Total intake (forage + supplement) of gestating beef cows increased with increasing field pea level (linear, P = 0.01; supplemented vs. nonsupplemented, P = 0.01). In summary, protein quantity and rate of ruminal protein degradation

  15. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  16. Horseweed control in field nursery crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is one of the most problematic weeds across all crops in agriculture. Its economic impact worsened when it developed resistance to glyphosate-containing herbicides. Nursery growers in the Midwest have recently reported difficulty in controlling horseweed in field-nurs...

  17. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  18. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the…

  19. Traditional Field Crops. Appropriate Technologies for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David

    This manual, primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills, deals with traditional field crops. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and practices, and providing basic…

  20. The influence of dietary field peas (Pisum sativum L.) on pig performance, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Stein, H H; Everts, A K R; Sweeter, K K; Peters, D N; Maddock, R J; Wulf, D M; Pedersen, C

    2006-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that field peas may replace soybean meal in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs without negatively influencing pig performance, carcass quality, or pork palatability. Forty-eight pigs (initial average BW 22.7 +/- 1.21 kg) were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments with 2 pigs per pen. There were 8 replications per treatment, 4 with barrows and 4 with gilts. The treatments were control, medium field peas, and maximum field peas. Pigs were fed grower diets for 35 d, early finisher diets for 35 d, and late finisher diets for 45 d. Pigs receiving the control treatment were fed corn-soybean meal diets. All diets fed to pigs receiving the medium field peas treatment contained 36% field peas and varying amounts of corn; soybean meal was also included in the grower and the early finisher diets fed to pigs on this treatment. In contrast, no soybean meal was included in diets fed to pigs on the maximum field peas treatment, and field peas were included at concentrations of 66, 48, and 36% in the grower, early finisher, and late finisher diets, respectively. Pig performance was monitored within each phase and for the entire experimental period. At the conclusion of the experiment, carcass composition, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork chops and pork patties were measured. Results showed that there were no effects of dietary treatments on ADFI, ADG, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in carcass composition among the treatment groups, but gilts had larger (P = 0.001) and deeper (P = 0.003) LM, less backfat (P = 0.007), and a greater (P = 0.002) lean meat percentage than barrows. The pH and marbling of the LM, and the 10th rib backfat were not influenced by treatment, but there was a trend (P = 0.10) for more marbling in barrows than in gilts. The subjective color scores (P = 0.003) and the objective color score (P = 0.06) indicated that dietary field peas made the LM darker and more desirable. Pork chops from

  1. Validation of molecular markers associated with boron tolerance, powdery mildew resistance and salinity tolerance in field peas

    PubMed Central

    Javid, Muhammad; Rosewarne, Garry M.; Sudheesh, Shimna; Kant, Pragya; Leonforte, Antonio; Lombardi, Maria; Kennedy, Peter R.; Cogan, Noel O. I.; Slater, Anthony T.; Kaur, Sukhjiwan

    2015-01-01

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important grain legume consumed both as human food and animal feed. However, productivity in low rainfall regions can be significantly reduced by inferior soils containing high levels of boron and/or salinity. Furthermore, powdery mildew (PM) (Erysiphe pisi) disease also causes significant yield loss in warmer regions. Breeding for tolerance to these abiotic and biotic stresses are major aims for pea breeding programs and the application of molecular markers for these traits could greatly assist in developing improved germplasm at a faster rate. The current study reports the evaluation of a near diagnostic marker, PsMlo, associated with PM resistance and boron (B) tolerance as well as linked markers associated with salinity tolerance across a diverse set of pea germplasm. The PsMlo1 marker predicted the PM and B phenotypic responses with high levels of accuracy (>80%) across a wide range of field pea genotypes, hence offers the potential to be widely adapted in pea breeding programs. In contrast, linked markers for salinity tolerance were population specific; therefore, application of these markers would be suitable to relevant crosses within the program. Our results also suggest that there are possible new sources of salt tolerance present in field pea germplasm that could be further exploited. PMID:26579164

  2. Structural and electrical properties of electric field assisted spray deposited pea structured ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Neha; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2016-05-01

    Spray deposition of ZnO film was carried out. The uneven growth of ZnO nanostructures is resulted for spray deposited ZnO film. Application of DC voltage (1000V) during spray deposition provides formation of pea like structures with uniform coverage over the substrate. Electric field assisted spray deposition provides increased crystallinity with reduced resistivity and improved mobility of the ZnO film as compared to spray deposited ZnO film without electric field. This with large area deposition makes the process more efficient than other techniques.

  3. Evaluation of Legumes Common to the Pacific Northwest as Hosts for the Pea Cyst Nematode, Heterodera goettingiana

    PubMed Central

    Tedford, E. C.; Inglis, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Seventeen leguminous species common to the Pacific Northwest were evaluated as potential hosts of the pea cyst nematode, Heterodera goettingiana, in both greenhouse and field experiments. In all experiments, juveniles of H. goettingiana penetrated roots of these 17 species with the exception of greenhouse-grown chickpea. Nematodes molted and developed into swollen third-stage or fourth-stage juveniles in many of the plants, but cyst development occurred only in the field on green pea, edible dry pea, and faba bean. More H. goettingiana cysts developed on fava bean than on green pea or edible dry pea. In H. goettingiana-infested soils, cropping sequences that include fava bean and pea should be avoided. However, certain legumes, such as winter vetch, may have the potential of serving as trap crops for H. goettingiana in this region. PMID:19270885

  4. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (< 1.0 mM) on nodulation are unknown. In the present experiments we examine the effects of static concentrations of NH4+ at 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM in flowing, hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  5. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (< 1.0 mM) on nodulation are unknown. In the present experiments we examine the effects of static concentrations of NH4+ at 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM in flowing, hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  6. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    PubMed

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  7. Pigeon Pea and Cowpea-Based Cropping Systems Improve Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonisation of Subsequent Maize on the Alfisols in Central Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Semu, Ernest; Mrema, Jerome P.; Nalivata, Patson C.

    2017-01-01

    Mycorrhizal associations contribute to the sustainability of crop production systems through their roles in nutrient cycling and other benefits in the soil-plant ecosystems. A two-year study was conducted on the Alfisols of Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Central Malawi, to assess the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal colonisation levels in pigeon pea, cowpea, and maize grown in sole cropping, legume-cereal, and legume-legume intercropping systems and in the maize grown in short rotation (year 2) as influenced by the previous cropping systems and N fertilizer application. The gridline intersect method was used to assess the VAM fungal colonisation levels. Results showed that all treatments that included legumes whether grown as sole crop, in legume-cereal or in legume-legume cropping systems in the previous year, had significantly higher (P < 0.05) VAM fungal colonisation of the rotational maize crop roots by a range 39% to 50% and 19% to 47% than those in maize supplied and not supplied with N fertilizer, respectively, in a maize-maize short rotation, at the Lilongwe site. A similar trend was reported for the Dowa site. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between VAM fungal colonisation and the plant P content, dry matter yield, and nodule numbers. Further studies may help to assess the diversity of VAM fungal species in Malawi soils and identify more adaptive ones for inoculation studies. PMID:28584528

  8. A Single, Plastic Population of Mycosphaerella pinodes Causes Ascochyta Blight on Winter and Spring Peas (Pisum sativum) in France

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Michèle; Leclerc, Aurélie; Andrivon, Didier; Tivoli, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Plant diseases are caused by pathogen populations continuously subjected to evolutionary forces (genetic flow, selection, and recombination). Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is one of the most damaging necrotrophic pathogens of field peas worldwide. In France, both winter and spring peas are cultivated. Although these crops overlap by about 4 months (March to June), primary Ascochyta blight infections are not synchronous on the two crops. This suggests that the disease could be due to two different M. pinodes populations, specialized on either winter or spring pea. To test this hypothesis, 144 pathogen isolates were collected in the field during the winter and spring growing seasons in Rennes (western France), and all the isolates were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore, the pathogenicities of 33 isolates randomly chosen within the collection were tested on four pea genotypes (2 winter and 2 spring types) grown under three climatic regimes, simulating winter, late winter, and spring conditions. M. pinodes isolates from winter and spring peas were genetically polymorphic but not differentiated according to the type of cultivars. Isolates from winter pea were more pathogenic than isolates from spring pea on hosts raised under winter conditions, while isolates from spring pea were more pathogenic than those from winter pea on plants raised under spring conditions. These results show that disease developed on winter and spring peas was initiated by a single population of M. pinodes whose pathogenicity is a plastic trait modulated by the physiological status of the host plant. PMID:23023742

  9. A single, plastic population of Mycosphaerella pinodes causes ascochyta blight on winter and spring peas (Pisum sativum) in France.

    PubMed

    Le May, Christophe; Guibert, Michèle; Leclerc, Aurélie; Andrivon, Didier; Tivoli, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Plant diseases are caused by pathogen populations continuously subjected to evolutionary forces (genetic flow, selection, and recombination). Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is one of the most damaging necrotrophic pathogens of field peas worldwide. In France, both winter and spring peas are cultivated. Although these crops overlap by about 4 months (March to June), primary Ascochyta blight infections are not synchronous on the two crops. This suggests that the disease could be due to two different M. pinodes populations, specialized on either winter or spring pea. To test this hypothesis, 144 pathogen isolates were collected in the field during the winter and spring growing seasons in Rennes (western France), and all the isolates were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore, the pathogenicities of 33 isolates randomly chosen within the collection were tested on four pea genotypes (2 winter and 2 spring types) grown under three climatic regimes, simulating winter, late winter, and spring conditions. M. pinodes isolates from winter and spring peas were genetically polymorphic but not differentiated according to the type of cultivars. Isolates from winter pea were more pathogenic than isolates from spring pea on hosts raised under winter conditions, while isolates from spring pea were more pathogenic than those from winter pea on plants raised under spring conditions. These results show that disease developed on winter and spring peas was initiated by a single population of M. pinodes whose pathogenicity is a plastic trait modulated by the physiological status of the host plant.

  10. Applying simulation model to uniform field space charge distribution measurements by the PEA method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Salama, M.M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Signals measured under uniform fields by the Pulsed Electroacoustic (PEA) method have been processed by the deconvolution procedure to obtain space charge distributions since 1988. To simplify data processing, a direct method has been proposed recently in which the deconvolution is eliminated. However, the surface charge cannot be represented well by the method because the surface charge has a bandwidth being from zero to infinity. The bandwidth of the charge distribution must be much narrower than the bandwidths of the PEA system transfer function in order to apply the direct method properly. When surface charges can not be distinguished from space charge distributions, the accuracy and the resolution of the obtained space charge distributions decrease. To overcome this difficulty a simulation model is therefore proposed. This paper shows their attempts to apply the simulation model to obtain space charge distributions under plane-plane electrode configurations. Due to the page limitation for the paper, the charge distribution originated by the simulation model is compared to that obtained by the direct method with a set of simulated signals.

  11. In vitro digestibility, protein composition and techno-functional properties of Saskatchewan grown yellow field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by processing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Saskatchewan grown yellow field pea was subjected to different processing conditions including dehulling, micronization, roasting, conventional/microwave cooking, germination, and combined germination and conventional cooking/roasting. Their nutritional and antinutritional compositions, functional properties, microstructure, thermal properties, in vitro protein and starch digestibility, and protein composition were studied. Processed field peas including conventional cooked yellow peas (CCYP), microwave cooked yellow peas (MCYP), germinated-conventional cooked yellow peas (GCCYP), and germinated-roasted yellow peas (GRYP) exhibited the significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), which was in accordance with their significantly lower trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. The SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC profiles of untreated pea proteins and their hydrolysates also confirmed the IVPD result that these four treatments facilitated the hydrolysis of pea proteins to a greater extent. The CCYP, MCYP, GCCYP, and GRYP also exhibited significantly higher starch digestibility which was supported by their lower onset (To), peak (Tp), and conclusion (Tc) temperatures obtained from DSC thermogram, their lower pasting properties and starch damage results, as well as their distinguished amorphous flakes' configuration observed on the scanning electron microscopic image. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis following in-gel digests of SDS-PAGE separated proteins allowed detailed compositional characterization of pea proteins. The present study would provide fundamental information to help to better understand the functionality of field peas as ingredients, and particularly in regards to agri-food industry to improve the process efficiency of field peas with enhanced nutritional and techno-functional qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality traits analysis and protein profiling of field pea (Pisum sativum) germplasm from Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Rana, Jai Chand

    2015-04-01

    The grain and flour characteristics of different field pea (FP) accessions were evaluated. Accessions with higher grain weight had less compact structure with a greater proportion of large-sized starch granules. Accessions with higher protein content had lower starch content, blue value and λ(max) whereas accessions with higher amylose showed higher resistant starch (RS) and final viscosity and lower rapidly digestible starch (RDS). Ca, Zn, K and Fe content vary significantly amongst different accessions and creamish green and white seeds accessions showed higher Fe and Zn content. Yellow coloured accessions (1.36-3.71%) showed lower antioxidant activity as compared to brownish and green coloured accessions (4.06-9.30%). Out of 21 major polypeptides observed (9-100 kDa), 11 showed differential trypsin inhibitory activity (TIA) under non-reducing conditions. Polypeptides of 68, 46, 33 and 22 kDa showed prominent TIA.

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions from cropped fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mosier, A.R.; Hutchinson, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    From mid-May to mid-September 1978, nitrous oxide (N/sub 2/O) emissions from an irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) field in northern Colorado totaled only 2.5 kg N ha/sup -1/, and even smaller losses were measured from a nearby sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) field. Fluxes measured by a simple soil cover method compared favorably with micrometeorological estimates of vertical N/sub 2/O flux density. About 30% of the N/sub 2/O lost from the corn field was emitted during the 2 weeks following fertilization while NH/sub 3/ was being rapidly nitrified, and 59% was evolved during the week following the field's first irrigation, when restricted oxygen diffusion favored denitrification. Other occurrences of irrigation or precipitation exceeding 0.7 cm were also followed by rapid, though much smaller, increases in N/sub 2/O emissions. The flux of N/sub 2/O was not significantly correlated with soil nitrate concentration but was strongly correlated with soil water content and N/sub 2/O concentration in the soil atmosphere, which always exceeded the ambient atmospheric concentration. We found no evidence that either site ever behaved as a sink for tropspheric N/sub 2/O. Total N/sub 2/O emissions from the corn field amounted to only 1.3% of the 200 kg NH/sub 3/-N ha/sup -1/ applied to the crop, a much smaller fraction than has been used in models predicting the effect of agricultural fertilizers upon stratospheric ozone depletion.

  14. Field Crop Nutrition--Applied Science Concepts. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Charles R.

    This manual is designed to help agricultural education students to determine and provide the proper kinds and amounts of nutrients for the field crops they produce. The manual provides many learning situations regarding field crops--for example, determining nutrient needs, diagnosing nutrient shortages, and selecting and applying fertilizer and…

  15. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Ivelina Mitkova

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L.) to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar). The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2), and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3) and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of the pea varieties. Healthy and damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (first and second seed types) provide a very good opportunity for growth and development while plants from damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes had poor germination and vigor and low productivity. These seeds cannot provide the creation of well-garnished seeding and stable crop yields. Among tested varieties, the Ukrainian variety Glyans had considerably higher seed weight, field germination, and index germination and weak egg-laying activity of B. pisorum compared to others. Use of spring pea cultivars that are weakly preferred by the pea weevil in breeding programs would reduce losses due to pea weevil and provide an environmentally safer option to its control. PMID:27042379

  16. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M.; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed. PMID:26539198

  17. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes.

    PubMed

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  18. Growth of pea epicotyl in low magnetic field implication for space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Y.; Hashimoto, A.; Tsushima, M.; Dobrota, C.; Yamashita, M.; Nakamura, T.

    1999-01-01

    A magnetic field is an inescapable environmental factor for plants on the earth. However, its impact on plant growth is not well understood. In order to survey how magnetic fields affect plant, Alaska pea seedlings were incubated under low magnetic field (LMF) and also in the normal geo-magnetic environment. Two-day-old etiolated seedlings were incubated in a magnetic shield box and in a control box. Sedimentation of amyloplasts was examined in the epicotyls of seedlings grown under these two conditions. The elongation of epicotyls was promoted by LMF. Elongation was most prominent in the middle part of the epicotyls. Cell elongation and increased osmotic pressure of cell sap were found in the epidermal cells exposed to LMF. When the gravitational environment was 1G, the epicotyls incubated under both LMF and normal geomagnetic field grew straight upward and amyloplasts sedimented similarly. However, under simulated microgravity (clinostat), epicotyl and cell elongation was promoted. Furthermore, the epicotyls bent and amyloplasts were dispersed in the cells in simulated microgravity. The dispersion of amyloplasts may relate to the posture control in epicotyl growth under simulated microgravity generated by 3D clinorotation, since it was not observed under LMF in 1G. Since enhanced elongation of cells was commonly seen both at LMF and in simulated microgravity, all elongation on the 3D-clinostat could result from pseudo-low magnetic field, as a by-product of clinorotation. (i.e., clinostat results could be based on randomization of magnetic field together with randomization of gravity vector.) Our results point to the possible use of space for studies in magnetic biology. With space experiments, the effects of dominant environmental factors, such as gravity on plants, could be neutralized or controlled for to reveal magnetic effects more clearly.

  19. Growth of pea epicotyl in low magnetic field: implication for space research.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Y; Hashimoto, A; Tsushima, M; Dobrota, C; Yamashita, M; Nakamura, T

    1999-01-01

    A magnetic field is an inescapable environmental factor for plants on the earth. However, its impact on plant growth is not well understood. In order to survey how magnetic fields affect plant, Alaska pea seedlings were incubated under low magnetic field (LMF) and also in the normal geo-magnetic environment. Two-day-old etiolated seedlings were incubated in a magnetic shield box and in a control box. Sedimentation of amyloplasts was examined in the epicotyls of seedlings grown under these two conditions. The elongation of epicotyls was promoted by LMF. Elongation was most prominent in the middle part of the epicotyls. Cell elongation and increased osmotic pressure of cell sap were found in the epidermal cells exposed to LMF. When the gravitational environment was 1G, the epicotyls incubated under both LMF and normal geomagnetic field grew straight upward and amyloplasts sedimented similarly. However, under simulated microgravity (clinostat), epicotyl and cell elongation was promoted. Furthermore, the epicotyls bent and amyloplasts were dispersed in the cells in simulated microgravity. The dispersion of amyloplasts may relate to the posture control in epicotyl growth under simulated microgravity generated by 3D clinorotation, since it was not observed under LMF in 1G. Since enhanced elongation of cells was commonly seen both at LMF and in simulated microgravity, all elongation on the 3D-clinostat could result from pseudo-low magnetic field, as a by-product of clinorotation. (i.e., clinostat results could be based on randomization of magnetic field together with randomization of gravity vector.) Our results point to the possible use of space for studies in magnetic biology. With space experiments, the effects of dominant environmental factors, such as gravity on plants, could be neutralized or controlled for to reveal magnetic effects more clearly. c1999 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Ultrastructure and calcium balance in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to extremely low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigations of low magnetic field (LMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planned space flights to other planets where the field intensity does not exceed 10 -5 Oe. Pea ( Pisum sativum L.) seeds were grown in an environment of LMF 3 days. In meristem cells of roots exposed to LMF, one could observe such ultrastructural peculiarities as a noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids. Mitochondria were the most sensitive organelle to LMF application. Their size and relative volume in cells increased, matrix was electron-transparent, and cristae reduced. Because of the significant role of calcium signalling in plant responses to different environmental factors, calcium participation in LMF effects was investigated using a pyroantimonate method to identify the localization of free calcium ions. The intensity of cytochemical reaction in root cells after LMF application was strong. The Ca 2+ pyroantimonate deposits were observed both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells. Data obtained suggest that the observed LMF effects on ultrastructure of root cells were due to disruptions in different metabolic systems including effects on Ca 2+ homeostasis.

  1. Ascochyta blight of peas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identification, taxonomy & nomenclature, epidemiology, symptoms, host ranges, and management are described for three fungal pathogens which collectively and individually cause Ascochyta blight of field pea (Pisum sativum): Ascochyta pisi, Ascochyta pinodes, and Ascochyta pinodella. The first two are...

  2. Local analogues of high-redshift star-forming galaxies: integral field spectroscopy of green peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofthouse, E. K.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Kaviraj, S.

    2017-10-01

    We use integral field spectroscopy, from the SWIFT and PALM3K instruments, to perform a spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of four nearby highly star-forming 'green pea' (GP) galaxies, that are likely analogues of high-redshift star-forming systems. By studying emission-line maps in H α, [N II] λλ6548,6584 and [S II] λλ6716,6731, we explore the kinematic morphology of these systems and constrain properties such as gas-phase metallicities, electron densities and gas-ionization mechanisms. Two of our GPs are rotationally supported while the others are dispersion-dominated systems. The rotationally supported galaxies both show evidence for recent or ongoing mergers. However, given that these systems have intact discs, these interactions are likely to have low-mass ratios (i.e. minor mergers), suggesting that the minor-merger process may be partly responsible for the high star formation rates seen in these GPs. Nevertheless, the fact that the other two GPs appear morphologically undisturbed suggests that mergers (including minor mergers) are not necessary for driving the high star formation rates in such galaxies. We show that the GPs are metal-poor systems (25-40 per cent of solar) and that the gas ionization is not driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) in any of our systems, indicating that the AGN activity is not coeval with star formation in these starbursting galaxies.

  3. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Field Crops Producer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schienbein, Allen

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in field crop production and gives examples of cutting costs of fertilizer use, irrigation, grain drying, tobacco drying, forate production, and tractor and truck use. Recordkeeping is also discussed. (BB)

  4. Crop improvement using life cycle datasets acquired under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke; Hirayama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Crops are exposed to various environmental stresses in the field throughout their life cycle. Modern plant science has provided remarkable insights into the molecular networks of plant stress responses in laboratory conditions, but the responses of different crops to environmental stresses in the field need to be elucidated. Recent advances in omics analytical techniques and information technology have enabled us to integrate data from a spectrum of physiological metrics of field crops. The interdisciplinary efforts of plant science and data science enable us to explore factors that affect crop productivity and identify stress tolerance-related genes and alleles. Here, we describe recent advances in technologies that are key components for data driven crop design, such as population genomics, chronological omics analyses, and computer-aided molecular network prediction. Integration of the outcomes from these technologies will accelerate our understanding of crop phenology under practical field situations and identify key characteristics to represent crop stress status. These elements would help us to genetically engineer “designed crops” to prevent yield shortfalls because of environmental fluctuations due to future climate change. PMID:26442053

  5. Peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Grant, Jan; Cooper, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a robust method for transformation of peas that has been successfully used in our laboratory since 1992. Using immature pea seed collected from field- or greenhouse-grown plants, we have produced transgenic lines for over 30 genotypes including named pea cultivars and advanced breeding lines. This method uses immature cotyledons as the explant, and the transformation efficiency is in the range 0.2 to 13.5% of cotyledons producing at least one independently transformed line. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AGL1 and KYRT1 are the most successful in our procedure, and kanamycin, phosphinothricin, and hygromycin are reliable selectable markers. Potentially useful genes have been introduced for pest and disease resistance, altering quality traits, and investigating metabolic pathways and are being studied in transgenic pea lines.

  6. Effect of field pea level on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and in situ disappearance in beef steers fed forage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Reed, J J; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Gilbery, T C; Caton, J S

    2004-07-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated crossbred beef steers (397+/-55 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the effects of increasing level of field pea supplementation on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and in situ disappearance in steers fed moderate-quality (8.0% CP, DM basis) grass hay. Basal diets, offered ad libitum twice daily, consisted of chopped (15.2-cm screen) grass hay. Supplements were 0, 0.81, 1.62, and 2.43 kg (DM basis) per steer daily of rolled field pea (23.4% CP, DM basis) offered in equal proportions twice daily. Steers were adapted to diets on d 1 to 9; on d 10 to 14, DMI were measured. Field pea and grass hay were incubated in situ, beginning on d 10, for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h. Ruminal fluid was collected and pH recorded at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after feeding on d 13. Duodenal samples were taken for three consecutive days beginning on d 10 in a manner that allowed for a collection to take place every other hour over a 24-h period. Linear, quadratic, and cubic contrasts were used to evaluate the effects of increasing field pea level. Total DMI and OMI increased quadratically (P = 0.09), whereas forage DMI decreased quadratically (P = 0.09) with increasing field pea supplementation. There was a cubic effect (P < 0.001) for ruminal pH. Ruminal (P = 0.02) and apparent total-tract (P = 0.09) NDF disappearance decreased linearly with increasing field pea supplementation. Total ruminal VFA concentrations responded cubically (P = 0.008). Bacterial N flow (P = 0.002) and true ruminal N disappearance (P = 0.003) increased linearly, and apparent total-tract N disappearance increased quadratically (P = 0.09) with increasing field pea supplementation. No treatment effects were observed for ruminal DM fill (P = 0.82), true ruminal OM disappearance (P = 0.38), apparent intestinal OM digestion (P = 0.50), ruminal ADF disappearance (P = 0.17), apparent total-tract ADF

  7. Field Hydraulic and Air-Blast Sprayers for Row Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses techniques and equipment used in spraying field crops. In the discussion of field hydraulic sprayers, specific topics include types of sprayers, tanks, pumps, pressure regulators, hoses, boom spraying, directed spraying, and nozzle bodies. In the discussion…

  8. Field Hydraulic and Air-Blast Sprayers for Row Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses techniques and equipment used in spraying field crops. In the discussion of field hydraulic sprayers, specific topics include types of sprayers, tanks, pumps, pressure regulators, hoses, boom spraying, directed spraying, and nozzle bodies. In the discussion…

  9. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Treesearch

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  10. Ultrastructure of pea and cress root statocytes exposed to high gradient magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.; Chernishov, V. I.; Polishchuk, O. V.; Kondrachuk, A. V.

    As it was demonstrated by Kuznetsov & Hasenstein (1996) the high gradient magnetic field (HGMF) can produce a ponderomotive force that results in displacements of amyloplasts and causes the root response similar to the graviresponse. It was suggested that the HGMF could allow to imitate the effects of gravity in microgravity and/or change them in laboratory conditions correspondingly, as well as to study statolith-related processes in graviperception. Therefore, the correlation between the direction of the ponderomotive force resulting in statolith displacements and the direction of the HGMF-induced plant curvature can be the serious argument to support this suggestion and needs the detailed ultrastructural analysis. Seeds of dicotyledon Pisum sativum L. cv. Damir-2 and monocotyledon Lepidium sativum L. cv. P896 were soaked and grown in a vertical position on moist filter paper in chambers at room temperature. Tips of primary roots of vertical control, gravistimulated and exposed to HGMF seedlings were fixed for electron microscopy using conventional techniques. At ultrastructural level, we observed no significant changes in the volume of the individual statocytes or amyloplasts, relative volumes of cellular organelles (except vacuoles), number of amyloplasts per statocyte or surface area of endoplasmic reticulum. No consistent contacts between amyloplasts and any cellular structures, including plasma membrane, were revealed at any stage of magneto- and gravistimulation. By 5 min after onset of magnetostimulation, amyloplasts were located along cell wall distant from magnets. In HGMF, the locations of amyloplasts in columella cells were similar to those in horizontally-oriented roots up to 1 h stimulation. In the latter case, there were sometimes cytoplasmic spherical bodies with a dense vesicle-rich cytoplasm in pea statocytes, which were absent in seedlings exposed to HGMF. In cress root statocytes, both gravi- and magnetostimulation were found to cause the

  11. Spectral signature measurements during the whole life cycle of annual crops and sustainable irrigation management over Cyprus using remote sensing and spectro-radiometric data: the cases of spring potatoes and peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, George; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2009-09-01

    This research paper focus on how spectral signatures and evapotranspiration (ET) vary during the whole life cycle of specific annual crops cultivated in the area located in Mandria village, in Paphos District area in Cyprus. The spectral signatures of these crops are collected for the whole life cycle in order to examine how ET changes due to morphological changes of the crops. The GER 1500 spectro-radiometer has been used to collect the spectral signatures of the crops for the whole crop season. The spectral signatures of two main crops -potatoes and peas- have been acquired in-situ, from the beginning of March to the end of April 2009. The purpose of this paper is to enlighten irrigation managers how ET fluctuates during the crop season and how irrigation scheduling is related to spectral signature of the crops. The data extracted from this paper will also assist the decision makers on irrigation level to have a general idea how crops need to be irrigated during their whole life cycle. This project has been funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the Regional Development Fund of European Union.

  12. Soil and foliar zinc biofortification in field pea (Pisum sativum L.): Grain accumulation and bioavailability in raw and cooked grains.

    PubMed

    Poblaciones, M J; Rengel, Z

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the potential of cooked field peas to be used in Zn biofortification programs, all combinations of soil Zn application of 0, 4 and 8mgZnSO4·7H2Okg(-1) and foliar Zn application of 0 and two sprays of 0.25% or 0.5% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O before flowering and at early grain-filling stage were tested. Soil Zn application increased Zn-DTPA concentration 3.7- to 5.6-times depending on the Zn soil treatments. Grain Zn concentrations higher than 60mgZnkg(-1) were obtained with all foliar Zn applications, alone or in combination with soil Zn applications, and grain Zn bioavailability was adequate (phytate:Zn ratios lower than 15). Processing (freezing and cooking) caused a decrease of about 30% in grain Zn concentration and a 17%-increase in phytate:Zn ratios (to ⩽9.5). The combined application of 8mgZnSO4·7H2Okg(-1) soil+0.25% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O foliarly could be a good option for biofortifying field peas.

  13. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  14. Growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in the dry regions of eastern Kenya, due to its drought tolerance and high protein content; however, farmer’s yield is limiting. Ojwang et al. (HortTech Vol 26 (1), 2016) evaluated twelve pigeon pea cultivars for flowering, plant height, branches, pod length and yield...

  15. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg(-1) , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of acidic precipitation on field crops

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Gmur, N.F.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of acid rain on yields of field-grown soybeans has been investigated. Plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of pH 4.1, 3,3 and 2.7 had decreased seed yields of 10.6, 16.8 and 23.9% below yields of plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of pH 5.6. (ACR)

  17. Microbial Communities of Continuously Cropped, Irrigated Rice Fields

    PubMed Central

    Reichardt, W.; Mascarina, G.; Padre, B.; Doll, J.

    1997-01-01

    In continuously cropped, irrigated rice fields, soil microbial biomass as measured by total phospholipid fatty acid concentrations declined during the second half of the crop cycle. This decline was also observed in other components of the microbial community assessed by viable counts, including denitrifiers and sporeformers. Simultaneous with total biomass decline was the increase in potential indicators of nutrient stress--such as ratios of cyclopropanol ((Sigma)[cy/(omega)7c]) and trans ((Sigma)[(omega)7t/(omega)7c]) phospholipid fatty acids--in plain crop soil but not in the rhizosphere. Polyhydroxyalkanoate levels were enhanced in the root environment of mature rice. Polyunsaturated eukaryotic biomarkers accounted for only 13 to 16 mol% of the total phospholipids, including 2 mol% of 18:2(omega)6, which is considered a fungal biomarker. Single biomarkers for defined physiological groups of bacteria did not follow the declining trend of total microbial biomass. Signature compounds for gram-positive and gram-negative fermenters (plasmalogen phospholipids), methanogenic bacteria (diether lipids), and methanotrophs (18:1(omega)8c) increased as the crop approached maturity. Methanotrophs were not particularly enriched in the rhizosphere. Methanogenic biomarkers were, however, most abundant in root extracts from mature rice plants. Assuming that soil microbial biomass plays a significant role as a passive nutrient pool, its reduction during the second half of the cropping season suggests a mechanism that may ultimately contribute to declining productivity in irrigated, continuous rice cropping systems. PMID:16535489

  18. Changes in growth, leaf anatomy and pigment concentrations in pea under modulated UV-B field treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Day, T.A.; Howells, B.W.; Ruhland, C.T.

    1995-06-01

    In growth-chamber and greenhouse studies, garden pea is typically quite sensitive to enhanced UV-B radiation (280-320 nm). We assessed whether growth of pea was reduced under more ecologically relevant UV-B enhancements by employing modulated field lampbanks simulating 0, 16 or 24% ozone depletion. We also examined if these UV-B treatments altered leaf anatomy and concentrations of chlorophyll and UV-B-absorbing compounds, and whether this was dependent on leaf age. We used Pisum sativum mutant Argenteum which has an easily detachable epidermis that allowed us to compare concentrations in epidermal and mesophyll tissues. There were no significant UV-B effects on whole-plant growth. Of the 15 leaf-level parameters we examined, UV-B had a strong effect on only two parameters: the ratio of UV-B-absorbing compounds to chlorophyll (which increased with UV-B dose), and stomatal density of the adaxial surface (which decreased with UV-B dose). Chlorophyll concentrations tended to decrease, while the proportion of UV-B-absorbing compounds in the adaxial epidermis tended to increase with UV-B dose (p = 0.11 for both). In contrast to UV-B effects, we found strong leaf-age effects on nearly all parameters except the ratio of UV-B-absorbing compounds to chlorophyll, which remained relatively constant with leaf age.

  19. A field test of recursive calculation of crop evapotranspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous methods to calculate the evapotranspiration (ET) rate from field crops have been proposed, but few have convincingly demonstrated to be usefully accurate. The direct measurement of ET requires weighable lysimeters. However, the use of a surface energy balance to calculate ET requires a corr...

  20. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim, and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area. PMID:27148177

  1. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim, and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area.

  2. Nitrogen accumulation profiles of selected grain and vegetable crops: A bibliography (1940-1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Meischen, S.J.; Byrd, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    A bibliography of nitrogen accumulation profile data for 25 vegetable and grain crops reported between 1940 and 1992 is presented. The selected crops are asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn, cotton, cucumber, field bean, field pea, garlic, lettuce, onions, and peppers.

  3. Towards the re-introduction of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) in the West Balkan Countries: the case of Serbia and Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Mikić, A; Mihailović, V; Ćupina, B; Durić, B; Krstić, D; Vasić, M; Vasiljević, S; Karagić, D; Dorđević, V

    2011-03-01

    Vetchlings (Lathyrus spp.) are widely distributed in both Serbia and Srpska, and represent a valuable component of local floras all over the Balkan Peninsula. Despite this and the existence of a traditional Serbian name for grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), sastrica, and a pan-Slavic name for all vetchlings, grahor, today they are almost forgotten crops. The joint action of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops and the Faculty of Agriculture is aimed at re-introducing grass pea and other vetchlings as multifunctional crops. Within the legume collection in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, a small Lathyrus spp. collection, including about 100 accessions of 16 species, most of them being grass pea, was established in 2002. The landraces of grass pea were collected in several regions of Serbia and Srpska, where they are used for human consumption. Grass pea is commonly used boiled and along with other pulses, with no reports on lathyrism among the local people. The first Serbian breeding programme in Novi Sad produced already two grass pea lines that were registered in November 2009 under the names of Studenica and Sitnica, developed from the crosses of Polish cultivars and local Serbian landraces.

  4. Pulsed magnetic field improves seed quality of aged green pea seeds by homeostasis of free radical content.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Jyotsna; Anand, Anjali; Pandita, V K; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanism responsible for magnetic field induced seed invigoration in aged seeds an experiment was conducted on six year old garden pea seeds stored under controlled (20 °C and 40% RH) condition. Aged seeds were magnetoprimed by exposing to pulsed magnetic field (PMF) of 100 mT for 1 h in three pulsed modes. The 6 min on and off PMF showed significant improvement in germination (7.6%) and vigor (84.8%) over aged seeds. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production increased in germinating primed seeds by 27 and 52%, respectively, over aged seeds. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) (NADH) peroxidase and superoxide dismutase involved in generation of hydrogen peroxide showed increased activity in PMF primed seeds. Increase in catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity after 36 h of imbibition in primed seeds demonstrated its involvement in seed recovery during magnetopriming. An increase in total antioxidants also helped in maintaining the level of free radicals for promoting germination of magnetoprimed seeds. A 44% increase in level of protein carbonyls after 36 h indicated involvement of protein oxidation for counteracting and/or utilizing the production of ROS and faster mobilization of reserve proteins. Higher production of free radicals in primed seeds did not cause lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde content was low. Lipoxygenase was involved in the germination associated events as the magnitude of activity was higher in primed aged seeds compared to aged seeds. Our study elucidated that PMF mediated improvement in seed quality of aged pea seeds was facilitated by fine tuning of free radicals by the antioxidant defense system and protein oxidation.

  5. Tillage Requirements Of Sweet Corn, Field Pea, and Watermelon Following Stocker Cattle Grazing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter annual grazing combined with vegetable production can potentially improve the sustainability of farming operations, particularly in the Southeast. However, winter grazing creates excessive soil compaction, which can adversely affect yields of subsequent summer crops. We initiated a study to...

  6. Effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase for growth promotion of peas (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Z A; Munir, A; Asghar, H N; Shaharoona, B; Arshad, M

    2008-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase for growth promotion of peas under drought conditions. Ten rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of different crops (peas, wheat, and maize) were screened for their growth promoting ability in peas under axenic condition. Three rhizobacterial isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5), P. fluorescens (ACC-14), and P. putida biotype A (Q-7), were selected for pot trial on the basis of their source, ACC deaminase activity, root colonization, and growth promoting activity under axenic conditions. Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (4 seeds/pot) at different soil moisture levels (25, 50, 75, and 100% of field capacity). Results revealed that decreasing the soil moisture levels from 100 to 25% of field capacity significantly decreased the growth of peas. However, inoculation of peas with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on growth of peas, although with variable efficacy at different moisture levels. At the lowest soil moisture level (25% field capacity), rhizobacterial isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5) was found to be more promising compared with the other isolates, as it caused maximum increases in fresh weight, dry weight, root length, shoot length, number of leaves per plant, and water use efficiency on fresh and dry weight basis (45, 150, 92, 45, 140, 46, and 147%, respectively) compared with respective uninoculated controls. It is highly likely that rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase might have decreased the drought-stress induced ethylene in inoculated plants, which resulted in better growth of plants even at low moisture levels. Therefore, inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase could be helpful in eliminating the inhibitory effects of drought stress on the

  7. Soil carbon and nitrogen fractions and crop yields affected residue placement and crop species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High variability in soil properties in the field results in non-response of management practices on soil C and N fractions. We evaluated the effects of crop species (spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], pea [Pisum sativum L.], and fallow), N fertilization (0.11 and 0.96 g N pot-1), and residue place...

  8. Intercropping of oat and field pea in Alaska: an alternative approach to quality forage production and weed control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intercropping of legumes with non-legumes is an ancient crop production method used to improve quality and dry matter (DM) yields of forage and grain, and to control weeds. However, there is little information regarding intercropping at high latitudes. The objectives of this field study were to eval...

  9. Arthropod diversity in peas with normal or reduced waxy bloom

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Gary C.; Rutledge, Claire E.; Biggam, Russell C.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2004-01-01

    Crop traits can alter economically important interactions between plants, pests, and biological control agents. For example, a reduced waxy bloom on the surface of pea plants alters interactions between pea aphids and their natural enemies. In this study, we assess whether the effect of wax reduction extends beyond the 2 or 3 arthropod species closely associated with the plants and into the structure of the broader arthropod community of over 200 taxa at our site. We sampled arthropods on lines of peas with normal and reduced wax in Latah Co., Idaho using pitfall traps within randomly assigned pairs of 5 × 5 meter plots. During the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons, we collected 12,113 individual arthropods from 221 unambiguously identified morphospecies. The number of individuals collected from each morphospecies responded idiosyncratically to the reduced wax peas. To test whether arthropod community structure differed between the collections from plots having peas with normal or reduced wax, we performed a randomization test. The collection from peas with reduced wax had higher species evenness and thus higher community diversity despite having lower species richness. Our results demonstrate the potential of a single plant trait, epicuticular wax, to affect a community of arthropods. Two pests of peas had opposite responses to peas with reduced wax. The number of pea aphids collected was greater from peas with normal wax peas than those with reduced wax. In contrast, the number of pea leaf weevils collected was greater from peas with reduced wax. PMID:15861234

  10. Association mapping of yield candidate gene homologs in a diverse collection of pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Association mapping, based on linkage disequilibrium (LD), is used increasingly to describe associations between allelic variation and phenotype. Yield is a key economic trait for most field crops, including pea (Pisum sativum L.). Recent reports in plant systems have identified candidate genes fo...

  11. Insertional mutation at the Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase gene reduces virulence of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on pea (Pisum sativum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes white mold disease on pea and on many other economically important pulse, vegetable and field crops, demonstrating a non-host-specific pathogenic mechanism. Despite extensive studies on this pathogen, its pathogenic mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In ord...

  12. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  13. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  14. Production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows fed ground field peas with or without ruminally protected lysine and methionine.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Whitehouse, N L; Aragona, K M; Schwab, C S; Reis, S F; Brito, A F

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has shown that cows fed ≥24% of the diet dry matter (DM) as field peas decreased milk yield as well as concentration and yield of milk protein, possibly due to reduced DM intake and limited supply of Lys and Met. Twelve multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The diets contained (DM basis) 34.8% corn silage, 15.2% grass-legume silage, 5.9% roasted soybean, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premix, 2.0% alfalfa pellets, and either (1) 36% ground corn, 2.4% soybean meal, and 1.3% urea (UR), (2) 29.7% ground corn, 9.8% soybean meal, 0.13% ruminally protected (RP) Lys, and 0.07% RP-Met (CSBAA), (3) 25% ground field peas, 12.3% ground corn, and 2.4% soybean meal (FP), or (4) FP supplemented with 0.15% RP-Lys and 0.05% RP-Met (FPAA). Our objective was to test the effects of FP versus UR, FPAA versus CSBAA, and FPAA versus FP on milk yield and composition, N utilization, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation profile, and plasma concentration of AA. Milk yield did not differ across diets. Compared with cows fed UR, those fed FP had greater DM intake, concentration and yield of milk true protein, apparent total-tract digestibility of fiber, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen and Lys in plasma, and less milk urea N and ruminal NH3-N. The concentration of milk urea N, as well as the concentration and yield of milk fat increased in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Moreover, cows fed FPAA had greater ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids, increased proportions of acetate and isobutyrate, and decreased proportions of propionate and valerate than those fed CSBAA. The plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Phe decreased, whereas plasma Met increased and plasma Lys tended to increase in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Concentration of milk true protein, but not yield, was increased in cows fed FPAA

  15. First Report of Pratylenchus neglectus, Pratylenchus thornei and Paratylenchus hametus nematodes causing yield reduction to dry land peas and lentils in Idaho

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In June 2006, stunted, chlorotic, plants in large patches were observed in two 100-acre fields of dry land peas (Pisum sativum) in Latah County Idaho which resulted in 90% and 75% crop loss. In the same region a 300 acre field of dry land lentils (Lens culinaris) also had plants showing poor growth,...

  16. Genetic diversity and trait genomic prediction in a pea diversity panel.

    PubMed

    Burstin, Judith; Salloignon, Pauline; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Magnin-Robert, Jean-Bernard; Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chauveau, Aurélie; Pont, Caroline; Aubert, Grégoire; Delaitre, Catherine; Truntzer, Caroline; Duc, Gérard

    2015-02-21

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a major pulse crop grown for its protein-rich seeds, is an important component of agroecological cropping systems in diverse regions of the world. New breeding challenges imposed by global climate change and new regulations urge pea breeders to undertake more efficient methods of selection and better take advantage of the large genetic diversity present in the Pisum sativum genepool. Diversity studies conducted so far in pea used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Retrotransposon Based Insertion Polymorphism (RBIP) markers. Recently, SNP marker panels have been developed that will be useful for genetic diversity assessment and marker-assisted selection. A collection of diverse pea accessions, including landraces and cultivars of garden, field or fodder peas as well as wild peas was characterised at the molecular level using newly developed SNP markers, as well as SSR markers and RBIP markers. The three types of markers were used to describe the structure of the collection and revealed different pictures of the genetic diversity among the collection. SSR showed the fastest rate of evolution and RBIP the slowest rate of evolution, pointing to their contrasted mode of evolution. SNP markers were then used to predict phenotypes -the date of flowering (BegFlo), the number of seeds per plant (Nseed) and thousand seed weight (TSW)- that were recorded for the collection. Different statistical methods were tested including the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage ans Selection Operator), PLS (Partial Least Squares), SPLS (Sparse Partial Least Squares), Bayes A, Bayes B and GBLUP (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) methods and the structure of the collection was taken into account in the prediction. Despite a limited number of 331 markers used for prediction, TSW was reliably predicted. The development of marker assisted selection has not reached its full potential in pea until now. This paper shows that the high-throughput SNP arrays that are being

  17. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research.

  18. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

  19. PRN 93-2: Waiver of Crop Field Trial Data for Aerial Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice is to inform all pesticide registrants that the requirement for crop field trials reflecting aerial applications may be waived under certain circumstances provided adequate data are available on the same crop with use of ground equipment.

  20. Comparative investigation of concentrations of major and trace elements in organic and conventional Danish agricultural crops. 1. Onions (Allium cepa Hysam) and peas (Pisum sativum ping pong).

    PubMed

    Gundersen, V; Bechmann, I E; Behrens, A; Stürup, S

    2000-12-01

    210 samples of onions (Allium cepa Hysam) from 11 conventionally and 10 organically cultivated sites and 190 samples of peas (Pisum sativum Ping Pong) from 10 conventionally and 9 organically cultivated sites in Denmark were collected and analyzed for 63 and 55 major and trace elements, respectively, by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sampling, sample preparation, and analysis of the samples were performed under carefully controlled contamination-free conditions. Comparative statistical tests of the element concentration mean values for each site show significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of Ca, Mg, B, Bi, Dy, Eu, Gd, Lu, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, U, and Y between the organically and conventionally grown onions and significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of P, Gd, and Ti between the organically and conventionally grown peas. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the 63 elements measured in the individual onion samples from the 21 sites split up the sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the first and third principal components were plotted against each other. Correspondingly, for peas, a PCA applied to the 55 elements measured as mean values for each site split up the 19 sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the third and fourth principal component were plotted against each other. The methodology may be used as authenticity control for organic cultivation after further method development.

  1. Association of sugar content QTL and PQL with physiological traits relevant to frost damage resistance in pea under field and controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Estelle; Fontaine, Véronique; Vuylsteker, Christophe; Sellier, Hélène; Bodèle, Sylvie; Voedts, Najia; Devaux, Rosemonde; Frise, Marlène; Avia, Komlan; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Bahrman, Nasser; Hanocq, Eric; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Delbreil, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    To increase yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.), autumn sowing would be preferable. Hence, frost tolerance of pea became a major trait of interest for breeders. In order to better understand the cold acclimation in pea, Champagne a frost tolerant line and Terese, a frost sensitive line, and their recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were studied. RIL frost tolerance was evaluated by a frost damage scale under field as well as controlled conditions. A quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach was used to identify chromosomal regions linked to frost tolerance. The detected QTL explained from 6.5 to 46.5% of the phenotypic variance. Amongst them, those located on linkage groups 5 and 6 were consistent with over all experiments, in field as well as in controlled environments. In order to improve the understanding of the frost tolerance mechanisms, several cold acclimation key characters such as concentration of sugars, electrolyte leakage, osmotic pressure, and activity of RuBisCO were assessed. Some of these physiological QTL colocalised with QTL for frost damage, in particular two raffinose QTL on LG5 and LG6 and one RuBisCO activity QTL on LG6, explaining 8.8 to 27.0% of the phenotypic variance. In addition, protein quantitative loci were mapped; some of them colocalised with frost damage and physiological QTL on LG5 and LG6, explaining 16.0-43.6% of the phenotypic variance. Raffinose metabolism and RuBisCO activity and its effect on photosynthesis might play a major role in cold acclimation of pea.

  2. A diversified no-till crop rotation reduces nitrous oxide emissions, increases soybean yields, and promotes soil C accrual

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the impact of crop rotational diversity on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming potential (GWP), and crop yields. Under no-till, rain-fed conditions, a two-yr (corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)) rotation and a four-yr (corn-field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-winte...

  3. Effect of field peas, chickpeas, and lentils on rumen fermentation, digestion, microbial protein synthesis, and feedlot performance in receiving diets for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gilbery, T C; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Bauer, M L; Anderson, V L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of pulse grains in receiving diets for cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein (615 +/- 97 kg of initial BW) and 8 Angus-crossbred steers (403 +/- 73 kg of initial BW) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were blocked by breed and used in a randomized complete block design to assess the effects of pulse grain inclusion in receiving diets on intake, ruminal fermentation, and site of digestion. Experiment 2 was a 39-d feedlot receiving trial in which 176 mixed-breed steers (254 +/- 19 kg of initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of pulse grains on DMI, ADG, and G:F in newly received feedlot cattle. In both studies, pulse grains (field peas, lentils, or chickpea) replaced corn and canola meal as the grain component in diets fed as a total mixed ration. Treatments included 1) corn and canola meal (control); 2) field pea; 3) lentil; and 4) chickpea. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were conducted between control vs. chickpea, control vs. field pea, and control vs. lentil. In Exp. 1, there were no differences among treatments for DMI (11.63 kg/d, 2.32% of BW daily, P = 0.63) or OM intake (P = 0.63). No treatment effects for apparent ruminal (P = 0.10) and total tract OM digestibilities (P = 0.40) were detected when pulse grains replaced corn and canola meal. Crude protein intake (P = 0.78), microbial CP flow (P = 0.46), total tract CP digestibility (P = 0.45), and microbial efficiency (P = 0.18) were also not influenced by treatment. Total-tract ADF (P = 0.004) and NDF (P = 0.04) digestibilities were greater with field pea vs. control. Total VFA concentrations were lower for field pea (P = 0.009) and lentil (P < 0.001) compared with control. Chickpea, field pea, and lentil had lower (P < or = 0.03) acetate molar proportion than control. Ruminal pH (P = 0.18) and NH3 (P = 0.14) were not different among treatments. In Exp. 2, calves fed chickpea, field pea, and lentil had greater

  4. Emamectin, a novel insecticide for controlling field crop pests.

    PubMed

    Ishaaya, Isaac; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Horowitz, A Rami

    2002-11-01

    Emamectin is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide with low toxicity to non-target organisms and the environment, and is considered an important component in pest-management programmes for controlling field crop pests. It is a powerful compound for controlling the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). A spray concentration of 25 mg AI litre-1 in a cotton field resulted in over 90% suppression of H armigera larvae up to day 28 after treatment, while similar mortality of the Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval, under the same conditions, was maintained for 3 days only. Emamectin is a potent compound for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) under both laboratory and field conditions and its activity on adults was over 10-fold greater than that of abamectin. Spray concentrations of 10 and 50 mg AI litre-1 in Ageratum houstonianum Mill flowers resulted in total suppression of adults up to day 11 and of larvae up to day 20 after treatment. Under standard laboratory conditions, emamectin exhibits a considerable activity on the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and the leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard). Further studies are required to evaluate its potential activity on the latter pests under field conditions.

  5. Potential alternative hosts for a powdery mildew on pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Powdery mildew of pea (Pisum sativum) is an important disease in the field and in the greenhouse. The most widely documented powdery mildew on pea is Erysiphe pisi, but E. trifolii and E. baeumleri have also been reported. From greenhouse-grown peas, we obtained powdery mildew samples with rDNA ITS ...

  6. Pea Disease Diagnostic Series- Rhizoctonia seed, seedling and root rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea disease diagnostic cards that growers can carry with them into the field that are water resistant and durable which can be used to identify the signs and symptoms of major pea pathogens were developed. Color photographs of major fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens on peas and a brief descript...

  7. Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in dry land and semi-arid regions and is a supplementary source of dietary protein for the resource-constrained farmers. The aim of this research was to evaluate growth parameters of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes at two locations in Eastern Kenya. The number o...

  8. Effect of field pea-based creep feed on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and performance by nursing calves grazing native range in western North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Gelvin, A A; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Landblom, D G; Caton, J S

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated digestive and performance effects of field pea-based creep feed in nursing calf diets. In Exp.1, eight nursing steer calves (145 +/- 27 kg initial BW) with ruminal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of supplementation and advancing season on dietary composition, intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Treatments were unsupplemented control (CON) and field pea-based creep (SUP; 19.1% CP, DM basis) fed at 0.45% BW (DM basis) daily. Calves grazed native range with their dams from early July through early November. Periods were 24 d long and occurred in July (JUL), August (AUG), September (SEP), and October (OCT). Experiment 2 used 80 crossbred nursing calves, 48 calves in yr 1 and 32 calves in yr 2 (yr 1 = 144 +/- 24 kg; yr 2 = 121 +/- 20 kg initial BW), to evaluate effects of field pea-based creep on calf performance. Treatments included unsupplemented control (CON); field pea-based creep feeds containing either 8% (LS); or 16% (HS) salt; and soybean meal/field pea-based creep containing (as-fed basis) 16% salt (HIPRO). Masticate samples from SUP calves in Exp.1 had greater CP (P = 0.05) than those from CON calves. Forage CP and ADIN decreased linearly with advancing season (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). In vitro OM digestibility of diet masticate decreased from JUL to OCT (P < 0.01; 58.5 to 41.3%). Forage intake did not differ (P = 0.33) between treatments but increased linearly with advancing season (1.67, 1.90, 3.12, 3.38 kg/d for JUL, AUG, SEP, and OCT, respectively; P < 0.01). Milk intake (percentage of BW) did not differ (P = 0.56) between CON and SUP calves but decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with advancing season. Supplemented calves had greater (P = 0.03) total intake (g/kg of BW; forage + milk + creep) compared with CON calves. Treatment did not affect (P < 0.30) rate of in situ disappearance of forage or creep. Forage DM, CP, and creep DM disappearance rate decreased linearly (P < or = 0.02) with

  9. Can leguminous cover crops partially replace nitrogen fertilization in Mississippi delta cotton production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Petroleum prices impacts cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) N fertilization cost. A 3-year field study was conducted on a Dundee silt loam to assess the interactions of leguminous cover crops [none, Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum L.) or hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth] and N fertilization rate...

  10. Field-omics—understanding large-scale molecular data from field crops

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersson, Erik; Jacobson, Dan; Vivier, Melané A.; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Andreasson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The recent advances in gene expression analysis as well as protein and metabolite quantification enable genome-scale capturing of complex biological processes at the molecular level in crop field trials. This opens up new possibilities for understanding the molecular and environmental complexity of field-based systems and thus shedding light on the black box between genotype and environment, which in agriculture always is influenced by a multi-stress environment and includes management interventions. Nevertheless, combining different types of data obtained from the field and making biological sense out of large datasets remain challenging. Here we highlight the need to create a cross-disciplinary platform for innovative experimental design, sampling and subsequent analysis of large-scale molecular data obtained in field trials. For these reasons we put forward the term field-omics: “Field-omics strives to couple information from genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes and metagenomes to the long-established practice in crop science of conducting field trials as well as to adapt current strategies for recording and analysing field data to facilitate integration with ‘-omics’ data.” PMID:24999347

  11. Tendril-less Regulates Tendril Formation in Pea Leaves[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Julie; Turner, Lynda; Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike; Isaac, Peter; Butcher, Susan; Weller, James; Dupin, Adeline; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ellis, Noel

    2009-01-01

    Tendrils are contact-sensitive, filamentous organs that permit climbing plants to tether to their taller neighbors. Tendrilled legume species are grown as field crops, where the tendrils contribute to the physical support of the crop prior to harvest. The homeotic tendril-less (tl) mutation in garden pea (Pisum sativum), identified almost a century ago, transforms tendrils into leaflets. In this study, we used a systematic marker screen of fast neutron–generated tl deletion mutants to identify Tl as a Class I homeodomain leucine zipper (HDZIP) transcription factor. We confirmed the tendril-less phenotype as loss of function by targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) in garden pea and by analysis of the tendril-less phenotype of the t mutant in sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus). The conversion of tendrils into leaflets in both mutants demonstrates that the pea tendril is a modified leaflet, inhibited from completing laminar development by Tl. We provide evidence to show that lamina inhibition requires Unifoliata/LEAFY-mediated Tl expression in organs emerging in the distal region of the leaf primordium. Phylogenetic analyses show that Tl is an unusual Class I HDZIP protein and that tendrils evolved either once or twice in Papilionoid legumes. We suggest that tendrils arose in the Fabeae clade of Papilionoid legumes through acquisition of the Tl gene. PMID:19208900

  12. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  13. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  14. Effect of crop rotation on soil nutrient balance and weediness in soddy podzolic organic farming fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarina, Livija; Zarina, Liga

    2017-04-01

    The nutrient balance in different crop rotations under organic cropping system has been investigated in Latvia at the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics since 2006. Latvia is located in a humid and moderate climatic region where the rainfall exceeds evaporation (soil moisture coefficient > 1) and the soil moisture regime is characteristic with percolation. The average annual precipitation is 670-850 mm. The average temperature varies from -6.7° C in January to 16.5 °C in July. The growing season is 175 - 185 days. The most widespread are podzolic soils and mainly they are present in agricultural fields in all regions of Latvia. In a wider sense the goal of the soil management in organic farming is a creation of the biologically active flora and fauna in the soil by maintaining a high level of soil organic matter which is good for crops nutrient balance. Crop rotation is a central component of organic farming systems and has many benefits, including growth of soil microbial activity, which may increase nutrient availability. The aim of the present study was to calculate nutrient balance for each crop in the rotations and average in each rotation. Taking into account that crop rotations can limit build-up of weeds, additionally within the ERA-net CORE Organic Plus transnational programs supported project PRODIVA the information required for a better utilization of crop diversification for weed management in North European organic arable cropping systems was summarized. It was found that the nutrient balance was influenced by nutrients uptake by biomass of growing crops in crop rotation. The number of weeds in the organic farming fields with crop rotation is dependent on the cultivated crops and the succession of crops in the crop rotation.

  15. Finding linked markers to En for efficient selection of pea enation Mosaic Virus resistance in pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) causes an important disease of cool season food legumes, resulting in significant yield loss worldwide. The present investigation was carried out to study the inheritance and identify the molecular markers linked with the PEMV resistance gene (En) in field pea (Pisum ...

  16. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  17. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  18. Extrapolating non-target risk of Bt crops from laboratory to field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tiered approach to assessing the ecological risk of insect-resistant transgenic crops rests on the assumption that lower-tier laboratory studies, which expose surrogate non-target organisms to insecticidal proteins, accurately predict the ecological effects of these crops under field conditions....

  19. Improving crop condition monitoring at field scale by using optimal Landsat and MODIS images

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Satellite remote sensing data at coarse resolution (kilometers) have been widely used in monitoring crop condition for decades. However, crop condition monitoring at field scale requires high resolution data in both time and space. Although a large number of remote sensing instruments with different...

  20. Use of a Laboratory Field Project in an Introductory Crop Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    Assesses the benefits resulting from a laboratory field project and report for agricultural students in an introductory crop science course. Student responses to evaluation statements indicated that the project helped them identify crops, understand cultural and management practices, and recognize environmental influences that affect crop…

  1. Toward mapping crop progress at field scales through fusion of Landsat and MODIS imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop progress and condition are required for crop management and yield estimation. In the United States, they are reported weekly at state or district level by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) using the field observations provided by local far...

  2. Soil carbon and nitrogen fractions and crop yields affected by residue placement and crop types.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Sainju, Upendra M

    2014-01-01

    Soil labile C and N fractions can change rapidly in response to management practices compared to non-labile fractions. High variability in soil properties in the field, however, results in nonresponse to management practices on these parameters. We evaluated the effects of residue placement (surface application [or simulated no-tillage] and incorporation into the soil [or simulated conventional tillage]) and crop types (spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], pea [Pisum sativum L.], and fallow) on crop yields and soil C and N fractions at the 0-20 cm depth within a crop growing season in the greenhouse and the field. Soil C and N fractions were soil organic C (SOC), total N (STN), particulate organic C and N (POC and PON), microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN), potential C and N mineralization (PCM and PNM), NH4-N, and NO3-N concentrations. Yields of both wheat and pea varied with residue placement in the greenhouse as well as in the field. In the greenhouse, SOC, PCM, STN, MBN, and NH4-N concentrations were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow. In the field, MBN and NH4-N concentrations were greater in no-tillage than conventional tillage, but the trend reversed for NO3-N. The PNM was greater under pea or fallow than wheat in the greenhouse and the field. Average SOC, POC, MBC, PON, PNM, MBN, and NO3-N concentrations across treatments were higher, but STN, PCM and NH4-N concentrations were lower in the greenhouse than the field. The coefficient of variation for soil parameters ranged from 2.6 to 15.9% in the greenhouse and 8.0 to 36.7% in the field. Although crop yields varied, most soil C and N fractions were greater in surface placement than incorporation of residue and greater under wheat than pea or fallow in the greenhouse than the field within a crop growing season. Short-term management effect on soil C and N fractions were readily obtained with reduced variability under controlled soil and

  3. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  4. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  5. Discrimination of wheat and oat crops using field hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Allison; Duchesne-Onoro, Rocio

    2017-04-01

    In this study we attempt to identify the most suitable spectral bands to discriminate among wheat and oat crops using field hyperspectral remote sensing. Discrimination of these crops using ordinary aerial or multispectral satellite imagery can be challenging. Even though multispectral images could have a high spatial resolution, their few wide spectral bands hinder crop discrimination. Therefore, both high spatial resolution and spectral resolution are necessary to accurately discriminate between visually similar crops. One field each of oats and spring wheat, each at least 10 acres in size, was selected in southeastern Wisconsin. Biweekly spectral readings were taken using a spectroradiometer during the growing season from May to July. In each field, seven 10 m x 10 m quadrants were randomly placed and in each quadrants five points were selected from which 20 radiometric readings were taken. Radiometric measurements taken at each sampling point were averaged to derive a single reflectance curve per sampling date, covering the spectral range of 300 nm to 2,500 nm. Each spectral curve was divided into hyperspectral bands each 3 nm wide. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to estimate how separable the two crops were. Results show that selected regions of the visible light and infrared radiation spectrum have the potential to discriminate between these crops. Crop discrimination is one of the first steps to support crop monitoring and agricultural surveys efforts.

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus effluent loads from a paddy-field district adopting collective crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Hama, T; Aoki, T; Osuga, K; Sugiyama, S; Iwasaki, D

    2012-01-01

    Japanese paddy rice systems commonly adopt the rotation of vegetables, wheat and soybeans with paddy rice. Crop rotation may, however, increase the nutrient load in effluent discharged from the district because more fertilizer is applied to the rotation crops than is applied to paddy crops. We investigated a paddy-field district subject to collective crop rotation and quantified the annual nutrient load of effluent from the district in three consecutive years. The total annual exports of nitrogen and phosphorus over the investigation period ranged from 30.3 to 40.6 kg N ha(-1) and 2.62 to 3.13 kg P ha(-1). The results suggest that rotation cropping increases the effluent nutrient load because applied fertilizer is converted to nitrate, and surface runoff is increased due to the absence of shuttering boards at the field outlets.

  7. A scalable satellite-based crop yield mapper: Integrating satellites and crop models for field-scale estimation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Food security will be challenged over the upcoming decades due to increased food demand, natural resource degradation, and climate change. In order to identify potential solutions to increase food security in the face of these changes, tools that can rapidly and accurately assess farm productivity are needed. With this aim, we have developed generalizable methods to map crop yields at the field scale using a combination of satellite imagery and crop models, and implement this approach within Google Earth Engine. We use these methods to examine wheat yield trends in Northern India, which provides over 15% of the global wheat supply and where over 80% of farmers rely on wheat as a staple food source. In addition, we identify the extent to which farmers are shifting sow date in response to heat stress, and how well shifting sow date reduces the negative impacts of heat stress on yield. To identify local-level decision-making, we map wheat sow date and yield at a high spatial resolution (30 m) using Landsat satellite imagery from 1980 to the present. This unique dataset allows us to examine sow date decisions at the field scale over 30 years, and by relating these decisions to weather experienced over the same time period, we can identify how farmers learn and adapt cropping decisions based on weather through time.

  8. Ecological impacts of genetically modified crops: ten years of field research and commercial cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on the environment resulting from the use of these crops. Consequently, the risks of GM crops for the environment, and especially for biodiversity, have been extensively assessed before and during their commercial cultivation. Substantial scientific data on the environmental effects of the currently commercialized GM crops are available today. We have reviewed this scientific knowledge derived from the past 10 years of worldwide experimental field research and commercial cultivation. The review focuses on the currently commercially available GM crops that could be relevant for agriculture in Western and Central Europe (i.e., maize, oilseed rape, and soybean), and on the two main GM traits that are currently commercialized, herbicide tolerance (HT) and insect resistance (IR). The sources of information included peer-reviewed scientific journals, scientific books, reports from regions with extensive GM crop cultivation, as well as reports from international governmental organizations. The data available so far provide no scientific evidence that the cultivation of the presently commercialized GM crops has caused environmental harm. Nevertheless, a number of issues related to the interpretation of scientific data on effects of GM crops on the environment are debated controversially. The present review highlights these scientific debates and discusses the effects of GM crop cultivation on the environment considering the impacts caused by cultivation practices of modern agricultural systems.

  9. Modelling soil properties in a crop field located in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunovic, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Millan, Mesic; Percin, Aleksandra; Zgorelec, Zeljka

    2016-04-01

    Development of tillage activities had negative effects on soil quality as destruction of soil horizons, compacting and aggregates destruction, increasing soil erosion and loss of organic matter. For a better management in order to mitigate the effects of intensive soil management in land degradation it is fundamental to map the spatial distribution of soil properties (Brevik et al., 2016). The understanding the distribution of the variables in space is very important for a sustainable management, in order to identify areas that need a potential intervention and decrease the economic losses (Galiati et al., 2016). The objective of this work is study the spatial distribution of some topsoil properties as clay, fine silt, coarse silt, fine sand, coarse sand, penetration resistance, moisture and organic matter in a crop field located in Croatia. A grid with 275x25 (625 m2) was designed and a total of 48 samples were collected. Previous to data modelling, data normality was checked using the Shapiro wilk-test. As in previous cases (Pereira et al., 2015), data did not followed the normal distribution, even after a logarithmic (Log), square-root, and box cox transformation. Thus, for modeling proposes, we used the log transformed data, since was the closest to the normality. In order to identify groups among the variables we applied a principal component analysis (PCA), based on the correlation matrix. On average clay content was 15.47% (±3.23), fine silt 24.24% (±4.08), coarse silt 35.34% (±3.12), fine sand 20.93% (±4.68), coarse sand 4.02% (±1.69), penetration resistance 0.66 MPa (±0.28), organic matter 1.51% (±0.25) and soil moisture 32.04% (±3.27). The results showed that the PCA identified three factors explained at least one of the variables. The first factor had high positive loadings in soil clay, fine silt and organic matter and a high negative loading in fine sand. The second factor had high positive loadings in coarse sand and moisture and a high

  10. High-resolution Crop Surface Models (CSM) and Crop Volume Models (CVM) on field level by terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Bolten, Andreas; Curdt, Constanze; Waldhoff, Guido; Bareth, Georg

    2010-11-01

    The interdisciplinary Transregional Collaborative Research Center 32 (CRC/TR 32) works on exchange processes between soil, vegetation, and the adjacent atmospheric boundary layer (SVA). Within this research project a terrestrial laser scanning sensor is used in a multitemporal approach for determining agricultural plant parameters. In contrast to other studies with phase-change or optical probe sensors, time-of-flight measurements are used. On three dates in the year 2008 a sugar beet field (4.3 ha) in Western Germany was surveyed by a terrestrial laser scanner (Riegl LMS-Z420i). Point clouds are georeferenced, trimmed, and compared with official elevation data. The estimated plant parameters are (i) surface model comparison between different crop surfaces and (ii) crop volumes as well as (iii) soil roughness parameters for SVA-Modelling. The results show, that the estimation of these parameters is possible and the method should be validated and extended.

  11. Field Heterogeneity Patterns as a Crucial Factor for Improving Crop Growth Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, A.; Kupisch, M.; Langensiepen, M.; Ewert, F.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural ecosystems depend on environmental factors, especially the weather and the soil characteristics. Heterogeneous conditions within a field cause spatial variations of biomass, leaf area index and yield. The effects of varying spatial conditions on crop growth are generally examined on different spatial scales, but just few studies address spatial heterogeneity at the field level. Since crop growth models try to represent an image of reality, they should consider variations in field conditions, especially regarding small-scale simulations and precision agriculture. Some studies already described that the tested models are able to represent spatial heterogeneity at regional scale, if parameters of environmental conditions are adapted. Therefore, we hypothesize that taking into account the effects of soil heterogeneity on plant water and nutrient uptake also improves the accuracy of crop growth models at field scale. A crop growth model was applied using information from winter wheat and sugar beet field trials carried out near Jülich, located in the central western part of Germany. These fields are all characterized by strong spatial variability in soil conditions and managed according to standard agronomic practice. The crop growth model was calibrated separately for each winter wheat and sugar beet cultivar grown on these fields by adjusting the respective parameters with the help of crop physiological measurements at point level. The soil model was parameterized for different field sample points with electromagnetic induction measurements to account for the spatial heterogeneity in soil conditions within each field. After that, the crop growth model was tested whether it could reproduce the observed spatial patterns of crop growth in the selected fields (2010 - 2012) by considering the spatial variability in soil properties. The analysis of our measurements on heterogeneous winter wheat fields showed a distribution of soil properties whose patterns are

  12. Investigation the growth, yield and yield components of rice varieties in rotation with garlic, Faba bean, lettuce, pea and fallow in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Morteza; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Tari, Davood Barari

    2007-08-15

    In order to investigating the effects of second crop cultivation on growth, yield and yield components of rice, a field experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Iran-Deputy of Mazandaran (Amol) during 2004 and 2005. Tarom as a traditional variety and Fajr as a improved variety were used in this research. Faba, pea, Lettuce and garlic were used as a second crop in rotation with rice. Second crop cultivation, variety and interaction between them had a significant effect on tiller number at 0.01 probability level. Results showed that rice yield after lettuce and garlic rotation was lower than with Faba bean, pea and fallow rotation. These results indicated that rice varieties had different reaction to second crop cultivation. For example, Tarom variety in rotation with lettuce and garlic had higher yield deficiency than Fajr variety. These results suggested that Lettuce and garlic can not be a permanent second crop in paddy field. According to results, pea and faba bean in rotation with rice for the best performance of yield attributes of rice varieties were recommended.

  13. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that in order to develop the full potential of multispectral measurements acquired from satellite or aircraft sensors to monitor, map, and inventory agricultural resources, increased knowledge and understanding of the spectral properties of crops and soils are needed. The present state of knowledge is reviewed, emphasizing current investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to their spectral properties of crops and soils are discussed. Future research needs are also indicated.

  14. Methanol and the productivity of tropical crops

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, T.U.

    1995-12-31

    Studies are being conducted in Trinidad and Tobago, St. Lucia and St. Kitts/Nevis to determine the effect of aqueous solutions of methanol on the growth and yield of a wide range of vegetable, field and perennial crops. The paper presents a summary of results to data for ten of the crops studied. Six of these crops, lettuce, sweet pepper, tomato, mango and breadfruit, have shown significant increases in growth or yield with methanol application, while others such as pigeon pea, rice, banana and cocoa have shown more limited responses. There appears to be some potential for the use of methanol in tropical crop production but further studies are required before this apparent potential can be harnessed.

  15. Field trials and tribulations--making sense of the regulations for experimental field trials of transgenic crops in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Twyman, Richard M; Sparrow, Penelope A C; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Custers, René; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic plants that are being developed for commercial cultivation must be tested under field conditions to monitor their effects on surrounding wildlife and conventional crops. Developers also use this opportunity to evaluate the performance of transgenic crops in a typical environment, although this is a matter of commercial necessity rather than regulatory compliance. Most countries have adapted existing regulations or developed new ones to deal specifically with transgenic crops and their commodities. The European Union (EU) is renowned, or perhaps notorious, for having the broadest and most stringent regulations governing such field trials in the world. This reflects its nominal adherence to the precautionary approach, which assumes all transgenic crops carry an inherent risk. Therefore, field trials in the EU need to demonstrate that the risk associated with deploying a transgenic crop has been reduced to the level where it is regarded as acceptable within the narrowly defined limits of the regulations developed and enforced (albeit inconsistently) by national and regional governments, that is, that there is no greater risk than growing an equivalent conventional crop. The involvement of national and regional competent authorities in the decision-making process can add multiple layers of bureaucracy to an already-intricate process. In this review, we use country-based case studies to show how the EU, national and regional regulations are implemented, and we propose strategies that could increase the efficiency of regulation without burdening developers with further unnecessary bureaucracy.

  16. Automatic Rice Crop Height Measurement Using a Field Server and Digital Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-01

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required. PMID:24451465

  17. Automatic rice crop height measurement using a field server and digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-07

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required.

  18. Retrieval of crop variables with field-based X-band microwave remote sensing of ladyfinger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2009-05-01

    Modeling in agriculture has been widely used to retrieve and monitor various soil and crop growth variables. Remote sensing, especially radar sensors can be useful for temporal and spatial monitoring of the soil and plant variables. Therefore, in this paper field measurements of crop ladyfinger were carried out to examine the dependency of radar backscatter on crop-soil variables and to develop a method for monitoring and retrieving crop variables for ladyfinger. A crop-bed was prepared to observe scatterometer response in the angular range of incidence angle 20-70° at 9.89 GHz in the X-band for VV- and HH-polarization. At the same time, soil moisture, plant height, leaf area index and aboveground biomass were measured at various growth stages of crop ladyfinger. The angular variation of scattering coefficient decreases with the age of crop ladyfinger shows the dominance of crop effect on soil moisture effect at the older age. Thus, angular trends are more flat as the plant grows since the effects of soil is masked by developing vegetation. Scattering coefficient increases with the increase of leaf area index for both polarizations (i.e. VV- and HH-). It was found that leaf area index and aboveground biomass of crop ladyfinger are highly correlated with microwave frequency more than with plant height and soil moisture. Leaf area index and biomass of ladyfinger crop were retrieved by polarization based model and non-linear least square optimization model. These two models gave very good results for the retrieval of leaf area index and aboveground biomass.

  19. Crop Type Mapping from a Sequence of Terrasar-X Images with Dynamic Conditional Random Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenduiywo, B. K.; Bargiel, D.; Soergel, U.

    2016-06-01

    Crop phenology is dynamic as it changes with times of the year. Such biophysical processes also look spectrally different to remote sensing satellites. Some crops may depict similar spectral properties if their phenology coincide, but differ later when their phenology diverge. Thus, conventional approaches that select only images from phenological stages where crops are distinguishable for classification, have low discrimination. In contrast, stacking images within a cropping season limits discrimination to a single feature space that can suffer from overlapping classes. Since crop backscatter varies with time, it can aid discrimination. Therefore, our main objective is to develop a crop sequence classification method using multitemporal TerraSAR-X images. We adopt first order markov assumption in undirected temporal graph sequence. This property is exploited to implement Dynamic Conditional Random Fields (DCRFs). Our DCRFs model has a repeated structure of temporally connected Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). Each node in the sequence is connected to its predecessor via conditional probability matrix. The matrix is computed using posterior class probabilities from association potential. This way, there is a mutual temporal exchange of phenological information observed in TerraSAR-X images. When compared to independent epoch classification, the designed DCRF model improved crop discrimination at each epoch in the sequence. However, government, insurers, agricultural market traders and other stakeholders are interested in the quantity of a certain crop in a season. Therefore, we further develop a DCRF ensemble classifier. The ensemble produces an optimal crop map by maximizing over posterior class probabilities selected from the sequence based on maximum F1-score and weighted by correctness. Our ensemble technique is compared to standard approach of stacking all images as bands for classification using Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and standard CRFs. It

  20. Pest insect control in organically-produced crops of field vegetables.

    PubMed

    Collier, R H; Finch, S; Davies, G

    2001-01-01

    In the UK, the demand for organic vegetable and salad crops is increasing, mainly as a result of the requirements of the multiple retailers. However, approximately 85% of the organic fruit and vegetable produce sold in the UK is imported. A major constraint to growing field vegetable crops, and particularly organically-produced crops, is the reduction in crop yield and quality caused by pest insects. This paper will consider the control techniques currently available to organic growers and other techniques that may become available in the future. Growing plant varieties with complete or even partial resistance to pest insects can be an effective way of reducing crop damage. There are already varieties of carrot, with resistance to carrot fly, and lettuce, with resistance to certain pest aphid species, which are available commercially. Cultural techniques to exclude, deter or avoid pest insects are also being used by some organic growers. Although isolating new crops from sources of infestation can be a highly effective control strategy, many organic growers cannot use it, as the land converted for organic production is still limited. Various crop covers can be used to prevent pest insects from damaging field crops, but to be effective such covers have to be in place before the pests enter the crop. Several researchers have tried to develop techniques to prevent pest insects from finding their host-plants. No technique involving semiochemicals has been sufficiently successful to be used in field vegetable production in the UK. Other studies have shown that the numbers of pest insects found on crop plants are reduced considerably when the crop is allowed to become weedy, is intercropped with another plant species, or is undersown with a living mulch. Hence, work is now needed to select background plant species that will both reduce pest insect numbers and cause the least reduction in yield to the harvested crop plants. There is also a need to obtain a better

  1. Field kites: Crop-water production functions and the timing of water application for supplementary irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilovic, M.; Gleeson, T.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production is directly related to water management and water supply. The temporal distribution of water use throughout the growing season can significantly influence crop yield, and the facility to manage both the timing and amount of irrigation water may result in higher yields. The crop-water production function quantitatively evaluates the relationship between seasonal water use and crop yield. Previous efforts have attempted to describe and formalize the crop-water production function as a single-variable function of seasonal water use. However, these representations do not account for the effects of temporal distribution of water use and trivialize the associated variability in yields by assuming an optimized or arbitrary temporal distribution of soil moisture. This over-simplification renders the function inappropriate for recommendations related to irrigation scheduling, water management, economically optimal irrigation, water and agricultural productivity, and assessing the role of full and supplementary irrigation. We propose field kites, a novel representation of the crop-water production function that explicitly acknowledges crop yield variability as a function of both seasonal water use and associated temporal distributions of water use. Field kites are a tool that explicitly considers the farmers' capacity to manage their water resources, to more appropriately evaluate the optimal depth of irrigation water under water-limiting conditions. The field kite for winter wheat is presented both generally and cultivar- and climate-specific for Western Canada. The field kites are constructed using AquaCrop and previously validated cultivar-specific variables. Field kites provide the tools for water authorities and policy makers to evaluate agricultural production as it relates to farm water management, and to determine appropriate policies related to developing and supporting the necessary irrigation infrastructure to increase water productivity.

  2. Gene-based SNP discovery and genetic mapping in pea.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Anoop; Ramsay, Larissa; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Stonehouse, Robert; Li, Rong; Condie, Janet; Shunmugam, Arun S K; Liu, Yong; Jha, Ambuj B; Diapari, Marwan; Burstin, Judith; Aubert, Gregoire; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Bett, Kirstin E; Warkentin, Thomas D; Sharpe, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Gene-based SNPs were identified and mapped in pea using five recombinant inbred line populations segregating for traits of agronomic importance. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the world's oldest domesticated crops and has been a model system in plant biology and genetics since the work of Gregor Mendel. Pea is the second most widely grown pulse crop in the world following common bean. The importance of pea as a food crop is growing due to its combination of moderate protein concentration, slowly digestible starch, high dietary fiber concentration, and its richness in micronutrients; however, pea has lagged behind other major crops in harnessing recent advances in molecular biology, genomics and bioinformatics, partly due to its large genome size with a large proportion of repetitive sequence, and to the relatively limited investment in research in this crop globally. The objective of this research was the development of a genome-wide transcriptome-based pea single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker platform using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 1,536 polymorphic SNP loci selected from over 20,000 non-redundant SNPs identified using deep transcriptome sequencing of eight diverse Pisum accessions were used for genotyping in five RIL populations using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. The first high-density pea SNP map defining all seven linkage groups was generated by integrating with previously published anchor markers. Syntenic relationships of this map with the model legume Medicago truncatula and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) maps were established. The genic SNP map establishes a foundation for future molecular breeding efforts by enabling both the identification and tracking of introgression of genomic regions harbouring QTLs related to agronomic and seed quality traits.

  3. Full-field digital mammography image data storage reduction using a crop tool.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; An, Yeong Yi; Choi, Byung Gil

    2015-05-01

    The storage requirements for full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a picture archiving and communication system are significant, so methods to reduce the data set size are needed. A FFDM crop tool for this purpose was designed, implemented, and tested. A total of 1,651 screening mammography cases with bilateral FFDMs were included in this study. The images were cropped using a DICOM editor while maintaining image quality. The cases were evaluated according to the breast volume (1/4, 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4) in the craniocaudal view. The image sizes between the cropped image group and the uncropped image group were compared. The overall image quality and reader's preference were independently evaluated by the consensus of two radiologists. Digital storage requirements for sets of four uncropped to cropped FFDM images were reduced by 3.8 to 82.9 %. The mean reduction rates according to the 1/4-4/4 breast volumes were 74.7, 61.1, 38, and 24 %, indicating that the lower the breast volume, the smaller the size of the cropped data set. The total image data set size was reduced from 87 to 36.7 GB, or a 57.7 % reduction. The overall image quality and the reader's preference for the cropped images were higher than those of the uncropped images. FFDM mammography data storage requirements can be significantly reduced using a crop tool.

  4. Response of different crop growth and yield to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Youfei; Gao, Wei; Slusser, James R.; Grant, Richard H.; Wang, Chuanhai

    2004-10-01

    Enhanced UV-B radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion may have impacts on the productivity of agricultural crops. Which crop will be more sensitive to increased UV-B has received little attention. This paper presents a comparative study of the effects of supplemental UV-B on plant height, leaf area, biomass and yield among soybean, cotton, corn and wheat which were cultivated in fields in Nanjing, China. The experimental results showed that the four crops response to enhanced UV-B irradiation was shortened plant height, decreased leaf area and reduced biomass and yield of crops. Using the same criteria, the response of soybean and cotton to elevated UV-B is bigger than that of wheat and corn. RI (response index) is an integrated index which is the accumulation of relative change in plant height, leaf area, biomass and yield, reflecting general impact of increased UV-B on crops. The results suggested that the RI for the four crops was minus, demonstrating a negative impact of enhanced UV-B on the crops. According to the RI, the soybean and cotton belong to the sensitive plants category, wheat is a moderately sensitive plant and corn is a tolerant plant.

  5. Nematodes in Dryland Field Crops in the Semiarid Pacific Northwest United States

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Richard W.; Merrifield, Kathy; Patterson, Lisa-Marie; Whittaker, Ruth G.; Gourlie, Jennifer A.; Easley, Sandra A.

    2004-01-01

    Soils and roots of field crops in low-rainfall regions of the Pacific Northwest were surveyed for populations of plantparasitic and non-plant-parasitic nematodes. Lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) were recovered from 123 of 130 non-irrigated and 18 of 18 irrigated fields. Pratylenchus neglectus was more prevalent than P. thornei, but mixed populations were common. Population densities in soil were affected by crop frequency and rotation but not by tillage or soil type (P < 0.05). Many fields (25%) cropped more frequently than 2 of 4 years had potentially damaging populations of lesion nematodes. Pratylenchus neglectus density in winter wheat roots was inversely correlated with grain yield (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.002), providing the first field-derived evidence that Pratylenchus is economically important in Pacific Northwest dryland field crops. Stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus clarus and Geocenamus brevidens) were detected in 35% of fields and were occasionally present in high numbers. Few fields were infested with pin (Paratylenchus species) and root-knot (Meloidogyne naasi and M. chitwoodi) nematodes. Nematodes detected previously but not during this survey included cereal cyst (Heterodera avenae), dagger (Xiphinema species), and root-gall (Subanguina radicicola) nematodes. PMID:19262788

  6. Effect of genotype and environment on the concentrations of starch and protein in, and the physicochemical properties of starch from, field pea and fababean.

    PubMed

    Hood-Niefer, Shannon D; Warkentin, Thomas D; Chibbar, Ravindra N; Vandenberg, Albert; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-01-15

    The effects of genotype and environment and their interaction on the concentrations of starch and protein in, and the amylose content and thermal and pasting properties of starch from, pea and fababean are not well known. Differences due to genotype were observed in the concentrations of starch and protein in pea and fababean, in the onset temperature (To) and peak temperature (Tp) of gelatinization of fababean starch, and in the pasting, trough, cooling and final viscosities of pea starch and fababean starch. Significant two-way interactions (location × genotype) were observed for the concentration of starch in fababean and the amylose content, To, endothermic enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) and trough viscosity of fababean starch. Significant three-way interactions (location × year × genotype) were observed for the concentration of starch in pea and the pasting, trough, cooling and final viscosities of pea starch. Differences observed in the concentrations of starch and protein in pea and fababean were sufficient to be of practical significance to end-users, but the relatively small differences in amylose content and physicochemical properties of starch from pea and fababean were not. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Do the effects of crops on skylark (Alauda arvensis) differ between the field and landscape scales?

    PubMed Central

    Barbottin, Aude; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The promotion of biodiversity in agricultural areas involves actions at the landscape scale, and the management of cropping patterns is considered an important means of achieving this goal. However, most of the available knowledge about the impact of crops on biodiversity has been obtained at the field scale, and is generally grouped together under the umbrella term “crop suitability.” Can field-scale knowledge be used to predict the impact on populations across landscapes? We studied the impact of maize and rapeseed on the abundance of skylark (Alauda arvensis). Field-scale studies in Western Europe have reported diverse impacts on habitat selection and demography. We assessed the consistency between field-scale knowledge and landscape-scale observations, using high-resolution databases describing crops and other habitats for the 4 km2 grid scales analyzed in the French Breeding Bird Survey. We used generalized linear models to estimate the impact of each studied crop at the landscape scale. We stratified the squares according to the local and geographical contexts, to ensure that the conclusions drawn were valid in a wide range of contexts. Our results were not consistent with field knowledge for rapeseed, and were consistent for maize only in grassland contexts. However, the effect sizes were much smaller than those of structural landscape features. These results suggest that upscaling from the field scale to the landscape scale leads to an integration of new agronomic and ecological processes, making the objects studied more complex than simple “crop ∗ species” pairs. We conclude that the carrying capacity of agricultural landscapes cannot be deduced from the suitability of their components. PMID:26213656

  8. Transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in crop fields during monsoon season.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Yol; Ruidisch, Marianne; Huwe, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have documented the occurrence of veterinary sulfonamide antibiotics in groundwater and rivers located far from pollution sources, although their transport and fate is relatively unknown. In mountainous agricultural fields, the transport behaviour can be influenced by climate, slope and physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides. The objective of this research is to describe the transport behaviour of three sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in sloped agricultural fields located in the Haean catchment, South Korea. During dry and monsoon seasons, a solute transport experiment was conducted in two typical sandy loam agricultural fields after application of antibiotics and potassium bromide as conservative tracers. Field measurement and modelling revealed that frequency and amount of runoff generation indicate a relation between slope and rain intensity during monsoon season. Since the steepness of slope influenced partitioning of precipitation between runoff and subsurface flow, higher loss of sulfonamide antibiotics and bromide by runoff was observed at the steeper sloped field. Bromide on topsoil rapidly infiltrated at high infiltration rates. On the contrary, the sulfonamides were relatively retarded in the upper soil layer due to adsorption onto soil particles. Presence of furrows and ridges affected the distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in the subsurface due to gradient from wetter furrows to drier ridges induced by topography. Modelling results with HydroGeoSphere matched with background studies that describe physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides interaction between soil and the antibiotic group, solute transport through vadose zone and runoff generation by storm events.

  9. Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, D B; Bohan, D A; Haughton, A J; Hill, M O; Osborne, J L; Clark, S J; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Firbank, L G

    2003-01-01

    The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed for 59 maize, 66 beet and 67 spring oilseed rape sites. Fields were split into halves, one being sown with a GMHT crop and the other with the equivalent conventional non-GMHT crop. Margin vegetation was recorded in three components of the field margins. Most differences were in the tilled area, with fewer smaller effects mirroring them in the verge and boundary. In spring oilseed rape fields, the cover, flowering and seeding of plants were 25%, 44% and 39% lower, respectively, in the GMHT uncropped tilled margins. Similarly, for beet, flowering and seeding were 34% and 39% lower, respectively, in the GMHT margins. For maize, the effect was reversed, with plant cover and flowering 28% and 67% greater, respectively, in the GMHT half. Effects on butterflies mirrored these vegetation effects, with 24% fewer butterflies in margins of GMHT spring oilseed rape. The likely cause is the lower nectar supply in GMHT tilled margins and crop edges. Few large treatment differences were found for bees, gastropods or other invertebrates. Scorching of vegetation by herbicide-spray drift was on average 1.6% on verges beside conventional crops and 3.7% beside GMHT crops, the difference being significant for all three crops. PMID:14561320

  10. Nitrate and dissolved nitrous oxide in groundwater within cropped fields and riparian buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-G.; Isenhart, T. M.; Parkin, T. B.; Schultz, R. C.; Loynachan, T. E.

    2009-01-01

    Transport and fate of dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) in groundwater and its significance to nitrogen dynamics within agro-ecosystems are poorly known in spite of significant potential of N2O to global warming and ozone depletion. Increasing denitrification in riparian buffers may trade a reduction in nitrate (NO3-) transport to surface waters for increased N2O emissions resulting from denitrification-produced N2O dissolved in groundwater being emitted into the air when groundwater flows into a stream or a river. This study quantifies the transport and fate of NO3- and dissolved N2O moving from crop fields through riparian buffers, assesses whether groundwater exported from crop fields and riparian buffers is a significant source of dissolved N2O emissions, and evaluates the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology to estimate dissolved N2O emission. We measured concentrations of NO3-; chloride (Cl-); pH; dissolved N2O, dissolved oxygen (DO), and organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater under a multi-species riparian buffer, a cool-season grass filter, and adjacent crop fields located in the Bear Creek watershed in central Iowa, USA. In both the multi-species riparian buffer and the cool-season grass filter, concentrations of dissolved N2O in the groundwater did not change as it passed through the sites, even when the concentrations of groundwater NO3- were decreased by 50% and 59%, respectively, over the same periods. The fraction of N lost to leaching and runoff (0.05) and the modified N2O emission factor, [ratio of dissolved N2O flux to N input (0.00002)] determined for the cropped fields indicate that the current IPCC methodology overestimates dissolved N2O flux in the sites. A low ratio between dissolved N2O flux and soil N2O emission (0.0003) was estimated in the cropped fields. These results suggest that the riparian buffers established adjacent to crop fields for water quality functions (enhanced denitrification) decreased NO3- and were not a

  11. Potential alternative hosts for the pea powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe trifolii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Powdery mildew of pea (Pisum sativum) is an important disease in the field and in the greenhouse. The most widely documented powdery mildew pathogen on pea is Erysiphe pisi, but E. baeumleri and E. trifolii have also been reported. We recently showed that E. trifolii is frequently found on pea in th...

  12. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and OM than those offered the GS diets. Lambs offered the WCP silages had an increased (P < 0.05) N intake, N output, and digestibility of GE compared with those offered GS. Mean N digestibility was greatest (P < 0.05) in lambs offered LTPS. Lambs offered HP diets had increased (P < 0.001) digestibility of DM, OM, GE and N, and N- intake, output, retention, and digestibility compared with those offered the LP diets. In Exp. 2, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P < 0.05) ADG than those offered the GS diets. Feeding diets containing HP increased (P < 0.001) total DMI, slaughter BW, ADG, and FCE. Lambs offered the WCP had a greater (P < 0.05) plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and urea concentration compared with those offered the GS diets. Feeding lambs HP diets

  13. Evaluating the effects of triclosan on 3 field crops grown in 4 formulations of biosolids.

    PubMed

    Shahmohamadloo, René S; Lissemore, Linda; Prosser, Ryan S; Sibley, Paul K

    2017-07-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that amending soil with biosolids can be an integral component of sustainable agriculture. Despite strong evidence supporting its beneficial use in agriculture, there are concerns that chemicals, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, could present a risk to terrestrial ecosystems and human health. Triclosan is one of the most commonly detected compounds in biosolids. To date, laboratory studies indicate that triclosan likely poses a de minimis risk to field crops; however, these studies were either conducted under unrealistic exposure conditions or only assessed 1 or 2 formulations of biosolids. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effects of triclosan on field crops in soils amended with 4 different formulations of biosolids (liquid, dewatered, compost, and alkaline-hydrolyzed), containing both background and spiked triclosan concentrations, following best management practices used in the province of Ontario. Three crop species (corn, soybean, and spring wheat) were evaluated using several plant growth endpoints (e.g., root wet mass, shoot length, shoot wet/dry mass) in 70-d to 90-d potted soil tests. The results indicated no adverse impact of triclosan on any crop-biosolids combination. Conversely, amending soil with biosolids either enhanced or had no negative effect, on the growth of plants. Results of the present study suggest little risk of triclosan to crops in agricultural fields amended with biosolids. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1896-1908. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. High-throughput development of SSR markers from pea (Pisum sativum L.) based on next generation sequencing of a purified Chinese commercial variety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lag...

  15. Association mapping of agronomic and quality traits in USDA pea single-plant collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Association mapping is an efficient approach for the identification of the molecular basis of agronomic traits in crop plants. For this purpose in pea (Pisum sativum L.), we genotyped and phenotyped individual lines of the single-plant derived core collection of the USDA pea single-plant (PSP) colle...

  16. Scaling up Satellite-Based Crop Yield Mapping at the Field Scale: Recent Progress and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobell, D. B.; Seifert, C.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, low-cost crop yield estimates at the scale of individual fields or finer would be helpful for a range of applications. To date, progress has been limited by various factors including (i) a lack of available imagery with relatively fine (<100m) spatial resolution, (ii) time and expense needed to process imagery, (iii) methods that rely too much on local calibration to be useful in other settings; and (iv) lack of extensive independent datasets to test remote sensing estimates. Here we report on a new approach that relies on an easily scalable crop-model based method for yield estimation and leverages Google Earth Engine to access atmospherically corrected Landsat data for multiple sites and years. Estimates for yields in the U.S. Corn Belt are obtained and compared against >10,000 field-specific records of crop yields based on insurance records from the USDA. Possibilities for extending this approach to other sensors and regions will be discussed.

  17. Sustainable biochar effects for low carbon crop production: A 5-crop season field experiment on a low fertility soil from Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar's effects on improving soil fertility, enhancing crop productivity and reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission from croplands had been well addressed in numerous short-term experiments with biochar soil amendment (BSA) mostly in a single crop season / cropping year. However, the persistence of these effects, after a single biochar application, has not yet been well known due to limited long-term field studies so far. Large scale BSA in agriculture is often commented on the high cost due to large amount of biochar in a single application. Here, we try to show the persistence of biochar effects on soil fertility and crop productivity improvement as well as GHGs emission reduction, using data from a field experiment with BSA for 5 crop seasons in central North China. A single amendment of biochar was performed at rates of 0 (C0), 20 (C20) and 40 t ha-1 (C40) before sowing of the first crop season. Emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O were monitored with static closed chamber method throughout the crop growing season for the 1st, 2nd and 5th cropping. Crop yield was measured and topsoil samples were collected at harvest of each crop season. BSA altered most of the soil physic-chemical properties with a significant increase over control in soil organic carbon (SOC) and available potassium (K) content. The increase in SOC and available K was consistent over the 5 crop seasons after BSA. Despite a significant yield increase in the first maize season, enhancement of crop yield was not consistent over crop seasons without corresponding to the changes in soil nutrient availability. BSA did not change seasonal total CO2 efflux but greatly reduced N2O emissions throughout the five seasons. This supported a stable nature of biochar carbon in soil, which played a consistent role in reducing N2O emission, which showed inter-annual variation with changes in temperature and soil moisture conditions. The biochar effect was much more consistent under C40 than under C20 and with

  18. Origin of the words denoting some of the most ancient old world pulse crops and their diversity in modern European languages.

    PubMed

    Mikić, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary research was aimed at finding the roots in various Eurasian proto-languages directly related to pulses and giving the words denoting the same in modern European languages. Six Proto-Indo-European roots were indentified, namely arnk(')- ('a leguminous plant'), *bhabh- ('field bean'), *[Formula: see text] ('a kernel of leguminous plant', 'pea'), ghArs- ('a leguminous plant'), *kek- ('pea') and *lent- ('lentil'). No Proto-Uralic root was attested save hypothetically *kača ('pea'), while there were two Proto-Altaic roots, *bŭkrV ('pea') and *[Formula: see text] ('lentil'). The Proto-Caucasianx root *[Formula: see text] denoted pea, while another one, *hōwł(ā) ('bean', 'lentil') and the Proto-Basque root *iłha-r ('pea', 'bean', 'vetch') could have a common Proto-Sino-Caucasian ancestor, *hVwłV ('bean') within the hypothetic Dené-Caucasian language superfamily. The Modern Maltese preserved the memory of two Proto-Semitic roots, *'adaš- ('lentil') and *pūl- ('field bean'). The presented results prove that the most ancient Eurasian pulse crops were well-known and extensively cultivated by the ancestors of all modern European nations. The attested lexicological continuum witnesses the existence of a millennia-long links between the peoples of Eurasia to their mutual benefit. This research is meant to encourage interdisciplinary concerted actions between plant scientists dealing with crop evolution and biodiversity, archaeobotanists and language historians.

  19. Histo-chemical and biochemical analysis reveals association of er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance and redox balance in pea.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Chand, Ramesh; Navathe, Sudhir; Sharma, Sandeep

    2016-09-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi is one of the important diseases responsible for heavy yield losses in pea crop worldwide. The most effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant varieties. The resistance to powdery mildew in pea is recessive and governed by a single gene er1. The objective of present study is to investigate if er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance is associated with changes in the redox status of the pea plant. 16 pea genotypes were screened for powdery mildew resistance in field condition for two years and, also, analyzed for the presence/absence of er1 gene. Histochemical analysis with DAB and NBT staining indicates accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in surrounding area of powdery mildew infection which was higher in susceptible genotypes as compared to resistant genotypes. A biochemical study revealed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, enzymes involved in scavenging ROS, was increased in, both, resistant and susceptible genotypes after powdery mildew infection. However, both enzymes level was always higher in resistant than susceptible genotypes throughout time course of infection. Moreover, irrespective of any treatment, the total phenol (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly high and low in resistant genotypes, respectively. The powdery mildew infection elevated the MDA content but decreased the total phenol in pea genotypes. Statistical analysis showed a strong positive correlation between AUDPC and MDA; however, a negative correlation was observed between AUDPC and SOD, CAT and TP. Heritability of antioxidant was also high. The study identified few novel genotypes resistant to powdery mildew infection that carried the er1 gene and provided further clue that er1 mediated defense response utilizes antioxidant machinery to confer powdery mildew resistance in pea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing for Field-Based Crop Phenotyping: Current Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guijun; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Chunjiang; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Yanbo; Yu, Haiyang; Xu, Bo; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ruyang; Feng, Haikuan; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Li, Zhenhai; Li, Heli; Yang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Phenotyping plays an important role in crop science research; the accurate and rapid acquisition of phenotypic information of plants or cells in different environments is helpful for exploring the inheritance and expression patterns of the genome to determine the association of genomic and phenotypic information to increase the crop yield. Traditional methods for acquiring crop traits, such as plant height, leaf color, leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, biomass and yield, rely on manual sampling, which is time-consuming and laborious. Unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing platforms (UAV-RSPs) equipped with different sensors have recently become an important approach for fast and non-destructive high throughput phenotyping and have the advantage of flexible and convenient operation, on-demand access to data and high spatial resolution. UAV-RSPs are a powerful tool for studying phenomics and genomics. As the methods and applications for field phenotyping using UAVs to users who willing to derive phenotypic parameters from large fields and tests with the minimum effort on field work and getting highly reliable results are necessary, the current status and perspectives on the topic of UAV-RSPs for field-based phenotyping were reviewed based on the literature survey of crop phenotyping using UAV-RSPs in the Web of Science™ Core Collection database and cases study by NERCITA. The reference for the selection of UAV platforms and remote sensing sensors, the commonly adopted methods and typical applications for analyzing phenotypic traits by UAV-RSPs, and the challenge for crop phenotyping by UAV-RSPs were considered. The review can provide theoretical and technical support to promote the applications of UAV-RSPs for crop phenotyping.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing for Field-Based Crop Phenotyping: Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guijun; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Chunjiang; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Yanbo; Yu, Haiyang; Xu, Bo; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ruyang; Feng, Haikuan; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Li, Zhenhai; Li, Heli; Yang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Phenotyping plays an important role in crop science research; the accurate and rapid acquisition of phenotypic information of plants or cells in different environments is helpful for exploring the inheritance and expression patterns of the genome to determine the association of genomic and phenotypic information to increase the crop yield. Traditional methods for acquiring crop traits, such as plant height, leaf color, leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, biomass and yield, rely on manual sampling, which is time-consuming and laborious. Unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing platforms (UAV-RSPs) equipped with different sensors have recently become an important approach for fast and non-destructive high throughput phenotyping and have the advantage of flexible and convenient operation, on-demand access to data and high spatial resolution. UAV-RSPs are a powerful tool for studying phenomics and genomics. As the methods and applications for field phenotyping using UAVs to users who willing to derive phenotypic parameters from large fields and tests with the minimum effort on field work and getting highly reliable results are necessary, the current status and perspectives on the topic of UAV-RSPs for field-based phenotyping were reviewed based on the literature survey of crop phenotyping using UAV-RSPs in the Web of Science™ Core Collection database and cases study by NERCITA. The reference for the selection of UAV platforms and remote sensing sensors, the commonly adopted methods and typical applications for analyzing phenotypic traits by UAV-RSPs, and the challenge for crop phenotyping by UAV-RSPs were considered. The review can provide theoretical and technical support to promote the applications of UAV-RSPs for crop phenotyping. PMID:28713402

  2. Analysis of the community compositions of rhizosphere fungi in soybeans continuous cropping fields.

    PubMed

    Bai, Li; Cui, Jiaqi; Jie, Weiguang; Cai, Baiyan

    2015-11-01

    We used rhizosphere soil sampled from one field during zero year and two years of continuous cropping of high-protein soybean to analyze the taxonomic community compositions of fungi during periods of high-incidence of root rot. Our objectives were to identify the dominant pathogens in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis as well as control tactics for soybean root rot induced by continuous cropping. A total of 17,801 modified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from three different soybean rhizosphere soil samples after zero year and 1 or 2 years of continuous cropping using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The dominant eumycote fungal were identified to be Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the three soil samples. Continuous cropping of soybean affected the diversity of fungi in rhizosphere soils and increased the abundance of Thelebolus and Mortierellales significantly. Thanatephorus, Fusarium, and Alternaria were identified to be the dominant pathogenic fungal genera in rhizosphere soil from continuously cropped soybean fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-04

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  4. Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: definition, theory, and data.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Van Rensburg, J B J; Carrière, Yves

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect pest control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we review the definition of field-evolved resistance, the relationship between resistance and field control problems, the theory underlying strategies for delaying resistance, and resistance monitoring methods. We also analyze resistance monitoring data from five continents reported in 41 studies that evaluate responses of field populations of 11 lepidopteran pests to four Bt toxins produced by Bt corn and cotton. After more than a decade since initial commercialization of Bt crops, most target pest populations remain susceptible, whereas field-evolved resistance has been documented in some populations of three noctuid moth species: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) to Cry1F in Bt corn in Puerto Rico, Busseola fusca (Fuller) to CrylAb in Bt corn in South Africa, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) to CrylAc and Cry2Ab in Bt cotton in the southeastern United States. Field outcomes are consistent with predictions from theory, suggesting that factors delaying resistance include recessive inheritance of resistance, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants, and two-toxin Bt crops deployed separately from one-toxin Bt crops. The insights gained from systematic analyses of resistance monitoring data may help to enhance the durability of transgenic insecticidal crops. We recommend continued use of the longstanding definition of resistance cited here and encourage discussions about which regulatory actions, if any, should be triggered by specific data on the magnitude, distribution, and impact of field-evolved resistance.

  5. Organic supplemental nitrogen sources for field corn production following a hairy vetch cover crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The combined use of legume cover crops and animal byproduct organic amendments could provide agronomic and environmental benefits to organic farmers by increasing corn grain yield while optimizing N and P inputs. To test this hypothesis we conducted a two-year field study and a laboratory soil incu...

  6. Stink bugs (Hemitera: Pentatomidae) in pheromone-baited traps near crop field edges in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton. Our specific objective for this 3-yr study was to use traps baited with Euschistus spp. pheromone to monitor stink bugs in habitats near cotton and peanut field edges before, during, and after crop growth and development. Plant-feedi...

  7. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

  8. High throughput phenotyping to accelerate crop breeding and monitoring of diseases in the field.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Nadia; Lee, Scott; Mockler, Todd C

    2017-08-01

    Effective implementation of technology that facilitates accurate and high-throughput screening of thousands of field-grown lines is critical for accelerating crop improvement and breeding strategies for higher yield and disease tolerance. Progress in the development of field-based high throughput phenotyping methods has advanced considerably in the last 10 years through technological progress in sensor development and high-performance computing. Here, we review recent advances in high throughput field phenotyping technologies designed to inform the genetics of quantitative traits, including crop yield and disease tolerance. Successful application of phenotyping platforms to advance crop breeding and identify and monitor disease requires: (1) high resolution of imaging and environmental sensors; (2) quality data products that facilitate computer vision, machine learning and GIS; (3) capacity infrastructure for data management and analysis; and (4) automated environmental data collection. Accelerated breeding for agriculturally relevant crop traits is key to the development of improved varieties and is critically dependent on high-resolution, high-throughput field-scale phenotyping technologies that can efficiently discriminate better performing lines within a larger population and across multiple environments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Delineating crop management zones in small fields using multi-temporal Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanpillai, Ramesh

    2016-05-01

    Remotely sensed imagery data are widely used for monitoring crop growth and prescribing management practices. However, acquiring multiple images throughout the growing season for several years could be cost prohibitive. Moderate spatial (30m) resolution Landsat data could be a potential source for accomplishing these objectives. While delineating within-field management zones in large fields using Landsat data is well documented, fewer attempts have been made in smaller fields because of the restrictions imposed by the spatial resolution. On the other hand, Landsat data are acquired once every 16 days which increases the possibility of obtaining several images in a growing season. Landsat spectral bands are rigorously calibrated enabling multi-year comparison. This paper reports on the utility of multi-year Landsat images for monitoring crop growth and delineating management zones in small fields in Wyoming (USA). Spectral reflectance values derived from Landsat images acquired in each growing season were converted to vegetation indices. Based on these values the pixels within the field were grouped into low, medium and high growth classes. Using multi-year growth patterns, crop management zones were delineated for each field. Results from this study could provide valuable insights for farmers to identify problem areas within their fields and better manage them.

  10. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  11. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  12. Genome-wide association mapping of partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in pea.

    PubMed

    Desgroux, Aurore; L'Anthoëne, Virginie; Roux-Duparque, Martine; Rivière, Jean-Philippe; Aubert, Grégoire; Tayeh, Nadim; Moussart, Anne; Mangin, Pierre; Vetel, Pierrick; Piriou, Christophe; McGee, Rebecca J; Coyne, Clarice J; Burstin, Judith; Baranger, Alain; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria; Bourion, Virginie; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure

    2016-02-20

    Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping has recently emerged as a valuable approach for refining the genetic basis of polygenic resistance to plant diseases, which are increasingly used in integrated strategies for durable crop protection. Aphanomyces euteiches is a soil-borne pathogen of pea and other legumes worldwide, which causes yield-damaging root rot. Linkage mapping studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance to A. euteiches in pea. However the confidence intervals (CIs) of these QTL remained large and were often linked to undesirable alleles, which limited their application in breeding. The aim of this study was to use a GWA approach to validate and refine CIs of the previously reported Aphanomyces resistance QTL, as well as identify new resistance loci. A pea-Aphanomyces collection of 175 pea lines, enriched in germplasm derived from previously studied resistant sources, was evaluated for resistance to A. euteiches in field infested nurseries in nine environments and with two strains in climatic chambers. The collection was genotyped using 13,204 SNPs from the recently developed GenoPea Infinium® BeadChip. GWA analysis detected a total of 52 QTL of small size-intervals associated with resistance to A. euteiches, using the recently developed Multi-Locus Mixed Model. The analysis validated six of the seven previously reported main Aphanomyces resistance QTL and detected novel resistance loci. It also provided marker haplotypes at 14 consistent QTL regions associated with increased resistance and highlighted accumulation of favourable haplotypes in the most resistant lines. Previous linkages between resistance alleles and undesired late-flowering alleles for dry pea breeding were mostly confirmed, but the linkage between loci controlling resistance and coloured flowers was broken due to the high resolution of the analysis. A high proportion of the putative candidate genes underlying resistance loci encoded stress-related proteins and

  13. Can sucrose content in the phloem sap reaching field pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) be an accurate indicator of seed growth potential?

    PubMed

    Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Salon, Christophe

    2003-11-01

    The composition of the translocates reaching the seeds of pea plants having various nitrogen (N) nutrition regimes was investigated under field situations. Sucrose flow in the phloem sap increased with the node number, but was not significantly different between N nutrition levels. Because N deficiency reduced the number of flowering nodes and the number of seeds per pod, the sucrose flow bleeding from cut peduncles was divided by the number of seeds to give the amount of assimilates available per seed. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap supplied to seeds at the upper nodes was higher than that at the lower nodes. The flow of sucrose delivered to the seeds during the cell division period was correlated with seed growth potential. Seeds from the more N-stressed plants had both the highest seed growth rate and received a higher sucrose flux per seed during the cell division period. As seed growth rate is highly correlated with the number of cotyledonary cells produced during the cell division period, sucrose flow in phloem sap is proposed to be an important determinant of mitotic activity in seed embryos. The carbon (C)/N ratio of the flow of translocates towards seeds was higher under conditions of N-deficiency than with optimal N nutrition, indicating that N flux towards seeds, in itself, is not the main determinant of seed growth potential.

  14. Dissipation of Pendimethalin in Soybean Crop Under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Shishir

    2016-05-01

    Persistence of pendimethalin was studied in soil, soybean pods, straw and water under field conditions. Pendimethalin was applied at 1 and 2 kg a.i. ha(-1). Residues in soil were detected up to 60 and 90 days at the recommended and double dose, respectively. Dissipation followed first order kinetics and was accounted for by a biphasic pattern. The half-life for the initial phase and later phase was 12.73 and 26.60 days, respectively, for recommended and 7.25 and 37.91 days, respectively, for double dose. The limit of quantification was 0.005 µg g(-1) of sample. Percent recovery from soil, oil, defatted cake, straw and water samples fortified with 0.01-1.0 mg kg(-1) varied from 84.5 %-89.6 %, 84.6 %-88.7 %, 79.4 %-86.0 %, 78.2 %-85.6 % and 90.2 %-93.0 %, respectively. At harvest, pendimethalin residue in soybean pods, straw, and soil were below detectable limits. No residues of pendimethalin were detected in ground water. Current application of pendimethalin in the environment is not expected to cause adverse health effects form the consumption of soybeans.

  15. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  16. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  17. Effects of hydrophilic and hydrophobic kaolin-based particle films on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its entomopathogen Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae).

    PubMed

    Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ding, Hongjian; Neufeld, Jeffrey; Duetting, Patrick

    2006-02-01

    Hydrophobic and hydrophilic kaolin-based particle films are effective for control of insect pests in certain agricultural crops. How these products interact with potential biological control agents is not well documented. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the hydrophobic (M96-018) and hydrophilic (Surround WP) kaolin-based particle films (Engelhard Corporation, Iselin, NJ) on pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), on peas (Pisum spp.), and on the fungal aphid pathogen Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière and Hennebert) Humber. Over two field seasons (2001 and 2002) in northern Idaho, applications of M96-018 significantly reduced the rate of pea aphid increase on pea, but Surround WP, tested only in 2001, did not reduce aphid population growth rate. Neither particle film treatment was as effective as a standard application of esfenvalerate (DuPont Asana). In the laboratory, particle films suppressed pea aphid populations by up to 30%. M96-018 seemed to have some repellent activity based on aphid distributions after treating plants. When applied along with P. neoaphidis conidia, M96-018 but not Surround WP caused higher percentage of infection mortality of pea aphids by P. neoaphidis than occurred on controls treated only with P. neoaphidis conidia. P. neoaphidis conidia deposited on glass slides coated with M96-018, produced more germ tubes and secondary conidia than those deposited on untreated glass slides or slides treated with Surround WP. This result suggests that greater infection of pea aphids on plants treated with M96-018 is in part a result of a direct enhancement of fungal germination by the particle film.

  18. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaohui; Hua, Yumei; Deng, Liangwei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003) compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils. PMID:27058548

  19. Crop Uptake of Arsenic from Flooded Paddy Fields in the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, K.; Boye, K.

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic is found naturally in the soils in the Mekong delta in Vietnam and Cambodia. It originates from erosion in the Himalayas. When similar levels of arsenic are present in well aerated soil, it is not dangerous, because it is strongly bound to soil particles and not readily plant available. Arsenic is released when the soil is saturated with water, and therefore contaminates crops grown in flooded fields. This results in people being exposed to unsafe levels of arsenic from their food, such as rice and lotus, which are normally grown under flooded conditions. Rice is a staple food in these regions, so the transfer of arsenic from soil, to water, and ultimately into the grain, poses a threat to human health. We have conducted a limited, preliminary field survey of arsenic levels in soil, flood water, and crops from distinctly different paddy fields in the lower Mekong delta in Vietnam and Cambodia. The purpose of the study was to identify soils and crops (or specific plant parts) that are especially prone to arsenic transfer from soil to crop, and vice versa (i.e. arsenic uptake is prevented in spite of being present in the soil). In addition to arsenic concentration in soil, plant and water, we are examining other elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and iron, which give us clues about what chemical and microbial processes that control the overall arsenic uptake.

  20. Use of field reflectance data for crop mapping using airborne hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidamanuri, Rama Rao; Zbell, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    Recent developments in hyperspectral remote sensing technologies enable acquisition of image with high spectral resolution, which is typical to the laboratory or in situ reflectance measurements. There has been an increasing interest in the utilization of in situ reference reflectance spectra for rapid and repeated mapping of various surface features. Here we examined the prospect of classifying airborne hyperspectral image using field reflectance spectra as the training data for crop mapping. Canopy level field reflectance measurements of some important agricultural crops, i.e. alfalfa, winter barley, winter rape, winter rye, and winter wheat collected during four consecutive growing seasons are used for the classification of a HyMAP image acquired for a separate location by (1) mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF), (2) spectral feature fitting (SFF), and (3) spectral angle mapper (SAM) methods. In order to answer a general research question "what is the prospect of using independent reference reflectance spectra for image classification", while focussing on the crop classification, the results indicate distinct aspects. On the one hand, field reflectance spectra of winter rape and alfalfa demonstrate excellent crop discrimination and spectral matching with the image across the growing seasons. On the other hand, significant spectral confusion detected among the winter barley, winter rye, and winter wheat rule out the possibility of existence of a meaningful spectral matching between field reflectance spectra and image. While supporting the current notion of "non-existence of characteristic reflectance spectral signatures for vegetation", results indicate that there exist some crops whose spectral signatures are similar to characteristic spectral signatures with possibility of using them in image classification.

  1. Sunflower as a Potential Trap Crop of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Pepper Fields.

    PubMed

    Soergel, D C; Ostiguy, N; Fleischer, S J; Troyer, R R; Rajotte, E G; Krawczyk, G

    2015-12-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), feeds on a variety of fruits and vegetables, and is an economically important invasive hemipteran pest. Trap cropping of H. halys was examined at the Pennsylvania State University Southeast Agriculture Research and Extension Center (SEAREC) in Lancaster Co., PA, from 2012 to 2013, with sunflowers used as a trap crop to protect bell pepper. H. halys were observed frequently on sunflowers planted surrounding the pepper field, and in both years of this experiment significantly more H. halys were observed in sunflowers than peppers. Both adults and nymphs were observed with equal frequency, with higher numbers of both observed in September. A 2:1 ratio of females to males was observed throughout both years. While sunflowers were attractive to H. halys, no difference in fruit damage was observed in peppers surrounded by the sunflower trap crop versus those peppers surrounded by peppers. While sunflowers present an interesting potential trap crop for H. halys, future research is needed to clarify the feasibility of this crop protection technique.

  2. The genetic diversity and evolution of field pea (Pisum) studied by high throughput retrotransposon based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) marker analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genetic diversity of crop species is the result of natural selection on the wild progenitor and human intervention by ancient and modern farmers and breeders. The genomes of modern cultivars, old cultivated landraces, ecotypes and wild relatives reflect the effects of these forces and provide insights into germplasm structural diversity, the geographical dimension to species diversity and the process of domestication of wild organisms. This issue is also of great practical importance for crop improvement because wild germplasm represents a rich potential source of useful under-exploited alleles or allele combinations. The aim of the present study was to analyse a major Pisum germplasm collection to gain a broad understanding of the diversity and evolution of Pisum and provide a new rational framework for designing germplasm core collections of the genus. Results 3020 Pisum germplasm samples from the John Innes Pisum germplasm collection were genotyped for 45 retrotransposon based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) markers by the Tagged Array Marker (TAM) method. The data set was stored in a purpose-built Germinate relational database and analysed by both principal coordinate analysis and a nested application of the Structure program which yielded substantially similar but complementary views of the diversity of the genus Pisum. Structure revealed three Groups (1-3) corresponding approximately to landrace, cultivar and wild Pisum respectively, which were resolved by nested Structure analysis into 14 Sub-Groups, many of which correlate with taxonomic sub-divisions of Pisum, domestication related phenotypic traits and/or restricted geographical locations. Genetic distances calculated between these Sub-Groups are broadly supported by principal coordinate analysis and these, together with the trait and geographical data, were used to infer a detailed model for the domestication of Pisum. Conclusions These data provide a clear picture of the major distinct gene

  3. Spatial-Temporal Conditional Random Fields Crop Classification from Terrasar-X Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenduiywoa, B. K.; Bargiel, D.; Soergel, U.

    2015-03-01

    The rapid increase in population in the world has propelled pressure on arable land. Consequently, the food basket has continuously declined while global demand for food has grown twofold. There is need to monitor and update agriculture land-cover to support food security measures. This study develops a spatial-temporal approach using conditional random fields (CRF) to classify co-registered images acquired in two epochs. We adopt random forest (RF) as CRF association potential and introduce a temporal potential for mutual crop phenology information exchange between spatially corresponding sites in two epochs. An important component of temporal potential is a transitional matrix that bears intra- and inter-class changes between considered epochs. Conventionally, one matrix has been used in the entire image thereby enforcing stationary transition probabilities in all sites. We introduce a site dependent transition matrix to incorporate phenology information from images. In our study, images are acquired within a vegetation season, thus perceived spectral changes are due to crop phenology. To exploit this phenomena, we develop a novel approach to determine site-wise transition matrix using conditional probabilities computed from two corresponding temporal sites. Conditional probability determines transitions between classes in different epochs and thus we used it to propagate crop phenology information. Classification results show that our approach improved crop discrimination in all epochs compared to state-of-the-art mono-temporal approaches (RF and CRF monotemporal) and existing multi-temporal markov random fields approach by Liu et al. (2008).

  4. Long-term iron deficiency: Tracing changes in the proteome of different pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lyon, David; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Lüthje, Sabine

    2016-05-17

    Iron deficiency (-Fe) is one of the major problems in crop production. Dicots, like pea (Pisum sativum L.), are Strategy I plants, which induce a group of specific enzymes such as Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FRO), Fe responsive transporter (IRT) and H(+)-ATPase (HA) at the root plasma membrane under -Fe. Different species and cultivars have been shown to react diversely to -Fe. Furthermore, different kinds of experimental set-ups for -Fe have to be distinguished: i) short-term vs. long-term, ii) constant vs. acute alteration and iii) buffered vs. unbuffered systems. The presented work compares the effects of constant long-term -Fe in an unbuffered system on roots of four different pea cultivars in a timely manner (12, 19 and 25days). To differentiate the effects of -Fe and plant development, control plants (+Fe) were analyzed in comparison to -Fe plants. Besides physiological measurements, an integrative study was conducted using a comprehensive proteome analysis. Proteins, related to stress adaptation (e.g. HSP), reactive oxygen species related proteins and proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport were identified to be changed in their abundance. Regulations and possible functions of identified proteins are discussed. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) belongs to the legume family (Fabaceae) and is an important crop plant due to high Fe, starch and protein contents. According to FAOSTAT data (September 2015), world production of the garden pea quadrupled from 1970 to 2012. Since the initial studies by Gregor Mendel, the garden pea became the most-characterized legume and has been used in numerous investigations in plant biochemistry and physiology, but is not well represented in the "omics"-related fields. A major limitation in pea production is the Fe availability from soils. Adaption mechanisms to Fe deficiency vary between species, and even cultivars have been shown to react diversely. A label-free proteomic approach, in combination with physiological measurements

  5. Environmental risk assessment of blight-resistant potato: use of a crop model to quantify nitrogen cycling at scales of the field and cropping system.

    PubMed

    Young, Mark W; Mullins, Ewen; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2017-07-25

    Environmental risk assessment of GM crops in Europe proceeds by step-wise estimation of effect, first in the plant, then the field plot (e.g. 10-100 m(-2)), field (1000-10,000 m(-2)) and lastly in the environment in which the crop would be grown (100-10,000 km(2)). Processes that operate at large scales, such as cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), are difficult to predict from plot scales. Here, a procedure is illustrated in which plot scale data on yield (offtake) and N inputs for blight resistant (both GM and non-GM) and blight-susceptible potato are upscaled by a model of crop resource use to give a set of indicators and metrics defining N uptake and release in realistic crop sequences. The greatest potential damage to environment is due to loss of N from the field after potato harvest, mainly because of the large quantity of mineral and plant matter, high in N, that may die or be left in the field. Blight infection intensifies this loss, since less fertiliser N is taken up by plants and more (as a proportion of plant mass) is returned to the soil. In a simulation based on actual crop sequences, N returns at harvest of potato were raised from 100 kg ha(-1) in resistant to 150 kg ha(-1) in susceptible varieties subject to a 40% yield loss. Based on estimates that blight-resistant types would require ~20% of the fungicide applied to susceptible types, introduction of resistant types into a realistic 6-year cropping sequence would reduce overall fungicide use to between 72 and 54% depending on the inputs to other crops in the sequence.

  6. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them un...

  7. Estimating Field Scale Crop Evapotranspiration using Landsat and MODIS Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A.; Jin, Y.; Snyder, R. L.; Daniele, Z.; Gao, F.

    2016-12-01

    Irrigation accounts for 80% of human freshwater consumption, and most of it return to the atmosphere through Evapotranspiration (ET). Given the challenges of already-stressed water resources and ground water regulation in California, a cost-effective, timely, and consistent spatial estimate of crop ET, from the farm to watershed level, is becoming increasingly important. The Priestley-Taylor (PT) approach, calibrated with field data and driven by satellite observations, shows great promise for accurate ET estimates across diverse ecosystems. We here aim to improve the robustness of the PT approach in agricultural lands, to enable growers and farm managers to tailor irrigation management based on in-field spatial variability and in-season variation. We optimized the PT coefficients for each crop type with available ET measurements from eddy covariance towers and/or surface renewal stations at six crop fields (Alfalfa, Almond, Citrus, Corn, Pistachio and Rice) in California. Good agreement was found between satellite-based estimates and field measurements of net radiation, with a RMSE of less than 36 W m-2. The crop type specific optimization performed well, with a RMSE of 30 W m-2 and a correlation of 0.81 for predicted daily latent heat flux. The calibrated algorithm was used to estimate ET at 30 m resolution over the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region for 2015 water year. It captures well the seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution of ET in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. A continuous monitoring of the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of canopy and consumptive water use at a field scale, will help the growers to be well prepared and informed to adaptively manage water, canopy, and grove density to maximize the yield with the least amount of water.

  8. Mapping Surface Soil Organic Carbon for Crop Fields with Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Feng; Kissel, David E.; West, Larry T.; Rickman, Doug; Luvall, J. C.; Adkins, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The organic C concentration of surface soil can be used in agricultural fields to vary crop production inputs. Organic C is often highly spatially variable, so that maps of soil organic C can be used to vary crop production inputs using precision farming technology. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping soil organic C on three fields, using remotely sensed images of the fields with a bare surface. Enough soil samples covering the range in soil organic C must be taken from each field to develop a satisfactory relationship between soil organic C content and image reflectance values. The number of soil samples analyzed in the three fields varied from 22 to 26. The regression equations differed between fields, but gave highly significant relationships with R2 values of 0.93, 0.95, and 0.89 for the three fields. A comparison of predicted and measured values of soil organic C for an independent set of 2 soil samples taken on one of the fields gave highly satisfactory results, with a comparison equation of % organic C measured + 1.02% organic C predicted, with r2 = 0.87.

  9. Spatial Field Variability Mapping of Rice Crop using Clustering Technique from Space Borne Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharana, S.; Dutta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Precision farming refers to field-specific management of an agricultural crop at a spatial scale with an aim to get the highest achievable yield and to achieve this spatial information on field variability is essential. The difficulty in mapping of spatial variability occurring within an agriculture field can be revealed by employing spectral techniques in hyperspectral imagery rather than multispectral imagery. However an advanced algorithm needs to be developed to fully make use of the rich information content in hyperspectral data. In the present study, potential of hyperspectral data acquired from space platform was examined to map the field variation of paddy crop and its species discrimination. This high dimensional data comprising 242 spectral narrow bands with 30m ground resolution Hyperion L1R product acquired for Assam, India (30th Sept and 3rd Oct, 2014) were allowed for necessary pre-processing steps followed by geometric correction using Hyperion L1GST product. Finally an atmospherically corrected and spatially deduced image consisting of 112 band was obtained. By employing an advanced clustering algorithm, 12 different clusters of spectral waveforms of the crop were generated from six paddy fields for each images. The findings showed that, some clusters were well discriminated representing specific rice genotypes and some clusters were mixed treating as a single rice genotype. As vegetation index (VI) is the best indicator of vegetation mapping, three ratio based VI maps were also generated and unsupervised classification was performed for it. The so obtained 12 clusters of paddy crop were mapped spatially to the derived VI maps. From these findings, the existence of heterogeneity was clearly captured in one of the 6 rice plots (rice plot no. 1) while heterogeneity was observed in rest of the 5 rice plots. The degree of heterogeneous was found more in rice plot no.6 as compared to other plots. Subsequently, spatial variability of paddy field was

  10. Conterminous United States Crop Field Size Quantification from Multi-temporal Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Field sizes are indicative of the degree of agricultural capital investment, mechanization and labor intensity. Information on the size of fields is needed to plan and understand these factors, and may help the allocation of agricultural resources. The Landsat satellites provide the longest global land observation record and their data have potential for monitoring field sizes. A recently published automated methodology to extract agricultural crop fields was refined and applied to 30 m weekly Landsat 5 and 7 time series of year 2010 in the range of all the conterminous United States (CONUS). For the first time, spatially explicit CONUS field size maps and derived information are presented. A total of 4.18 million fields were extracted with mean and median field sizes of 0.193 km2 and 0.278 km2, respectively. There were discernable patterns between field size and the majority crop type as defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data layer (CDL) classification. In general, larger field sizes occurred where a greater proportion of the land was dedicated to agriculture, predominantly in the U.S. Wheat and Corn belts, and in regions of irrigated agriculture. The CONUS field size histogram was skewed, and 50% of the extracted fields had sizes greater than or smaller than 0.361 km2, and there were four distinct peaks that corresponded closely to sizes equivalent to fields with 0.25 × 0.25 mile, 0.25 × 0.5 mile, 0.5 × 0.5 mile, and 0.5 × 1 mile side dimensions. The results of validation by comparison with independent field boundaries at 48 subsets selected across the 16 states with the greatest harvested cropland area are summarized. The presentation concludes with a discussion of the implications of this NASA funded research and challenges for field size extraction from global coverage long term satellite data.

  11. Application of SNPs to improve yield of Pisum sativum L. (pea).

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2017-06-01

    Nanotechnology opens an enormous scope of novel application in the fields of biotechnology and agricultural industries, because nanoparticles (NPs) have unique physicochemical properties, i.e. high surface area, high reactivity, tunable pore size and particle morphology. Present study was carried out to determine the role of silver NPs (SNPs) to improve yield of Pisum sativum L. SNPs (10-100 nm) were synthesised by green method using extract of Berberis lycium Royle. Pea seeds were soaked and seedling were foliage sprayed by 0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm SNPs. The experiment was arranged as split-split plot randomised complete block design with three replicates. The application of SNPs enhanced significantly number of seeds pod(-1), number of pods plant(-1), hundred seed weight, biological yield and green pod yield over control. The highest yield was found when 60 ppm SNPs were applied. However, exposure to 90 ppm SNPs, the yield of the pea decreased significantly as compared with 30 and 60 ppm. This research shows that SNPs have definite ability to improve growth and yield of crops. Nevertheless, a comprehensive experimentation is needed to establish the most appropriate concentration, size and mode of application of SNPs for higher growth and maximum yield of pea.

  12. Capturing field-scale variability in crop performance across a regional-scale climosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, E. S.; Poggio, M.; Anderson, T. R.; Gasch, C.; Yourek, M. A.; Ward, N. K.; Magney, T. S.; Brown, D. J.; Huggins, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing availability of variable rate technology for applying fertilizers and other agrichemicals in dryland agricultural production systems there is a growing need to better capture and understand the processes driving field scale variability in crop yield and soil water. This need for a better understanding of field scale variability has led to the recent designation of the R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) (Pullman, WA, USA) as a United States Department of Agriculture Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. Field scale variability at the CAF is closely monitored using extensive environmental sensor networks and intensive hand sampling. As investigating land-soil-water dynamics at CAF is essential for improving precision agriculture, transferring this knowledge across the regional-scale climosequence is challenging. In this study we describe the hydropedologic functioning of the CAF in relation to five extensively instrumented field sites located within 50 km in the same climatic region. The formation of restrictive argillic soil horizons in the wetter, cooler eastern edge of the region results in the development of extensive perched water tables, surface saturation, and surface runoff, whereas excess water is not an issue in the warmer, drier, western edge of the region. Similarly, crop and tillage management varies across the region as well. We discuss the implications of these regional differences on field scale management decisions and demonstrate how we are using proximal soil sensing and remote sensing imagery to better understand and capture field scale variability at a particular field site.

  13. Field size, length, and width distributions based on LACIE ground truth data. [large area crop inventory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of agricultural remote sensing systems requires knowledge of agricultural field size distributions so that the sensors, sampling frames, image interpretation schemes, registration systems, and classification systems can be properly designed. Malila et al. (1976) studied the field size distribution for wheat and all other crops in two Kansas LACIE (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment) intensive test sites using ground observations of the crops and measurements of their field areas based on current year rectified aerial photomaps. The field area and size distributions reported in the present investigation are derived from a representative subset of a stratified random sample of LACIE sample segments. In contrast to previous work, the obtained results indicate that most field-size distributions are not log-normally distributed. The most common field size observed in this study was 10 acres for most crops studied.

  14. Field size, length, and width distributions based on LACIE ground truth data. [large area crop inventory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of agricultural remote sensing systems requires knowledge of agricultural field size distributions so that the sensors, sampling frames, image interpretation schemes, registration systems, and classification systems can be properly designed. Malila et al. (1976) studied the field size distribution for wheat and all other crops in two Kansas LACIE (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment) intensive test sites using ground observations of the crops and measurements of their field areas based on current year rectified aerial photomaps. The field area and size distributions reported in the present investigation are derived from a representative subset of a stratified random sample of LACIE sample segments. In contrast to previous work, the obtained results indicate that most field-size distributions are not log-normally distributed. The most common field size observed in this study was 10 acres for most crops studied.

  15. Effect of Mixed Systems on Crop Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.

  16. [Research on crop-weed discrimination using a field imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Fang, Jun-yong; Liu, Xue; Zhang, Li-Fu; Zhang, Bing; Tong, Qing-xi

    2010-07-01

    Discrimination of weeds from crop is the first and important step for variable herbicides application and precise physical weed control. Using a new field imaging spectrometer developed by our group, hyperspectral images in the wavelength range 380-870 nm were taken in the wild for the investigation of crop-weed discrimination. After normalizing the data to reduce or eliminate the influence of varying illuminance, stepwise forward variable selection was employed to select the proper band sets and fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed to discriminate crop and weeds. For the case of considering each species as a different class, classification accuracy reached 85% with eight selected bands while for the case of considering overall weed species as a class, classification accuracy was higher than 91% with seven selected bands. In order to develop a low-cost device and system in future, all combinations of two and three bands were evaluated to find the best combinations. The result showed that the best three bands can achieve a performance of 89% comparable to the performance achieved by five bands selected using stepwise selection. The authors also found that "red edge" could afford abundant information in the discrimination of weed and crop.

  17. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Planting cover crops is an effective method to reduce both nitrogen leaching and sedimentation into waterways. Winter cover crops are planted post-harvest on corn and soybean fields to scavenge residual nitrogen that remains in the soil, and to meet soil erosion guidelines, providing positive water...

  18. Field pennycress: A new oilseed crop for the production of biofuels, lubricants, and high-quality proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) has numerous positive attributes that make it a very promising industrial oilseed crop. Its short growing season makes it suitable as an off-season crop between corn and soybean production in most of the upper Midwestern U.S. Fall planting of pennycress may also...

  19. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based–organic, management practices for a corn–soybean–wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world. PMID:28096409

  20. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2017-01-31

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based-organic, management practices for a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world.

  1. Estimating demand for perennial pigeon pea in Malawi using choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Kurt B; Ortega, David L; Richardson, Robert B; Snapp, Sieglinde S

    2017-01-01

    Perennial crops have numerous ecological and agronomic advantages over their annual counterparts. We estimate discrete choice models to evaluate farmers' preferences for perennial attributes of pigeon pea intercropped with maize in central and southern Malawi. Pigeon pea is a nitrogen-fixing leguminous crop, which has the potential to ameliorate soil fertility problems related to continuous maize cultivation, which are common in Southern Africa. Adoption of annual pigeon pea is relatively low but perennial production of pigeon pea may be more appealing to farmers due to some of the ancillary benefits associated with perenniality. We model perennial production of pigeon pea as a function of the attributes that differ between annual and perennial production: lower labor and seed requirements resulting from a single planting with multiple harvests, enhanced soil fertility and higher levels of biomass production. The primary tradeoff associated with perennial pigeon pea intercropped with maize is competition with maize in subsequent years of production. While maize yield is approximately twice as valuable to farmers as pigeon pea yield, we find positive yet heterogeneous demand for perenniality driven by soil fertility improvements and pigeon pea grain yield.

  2. Linkage Maps in Pea

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, THN.; Turner, L.; Hellens, R. P.; Lee, D.; Harker, C. L.; Enard, C.; Domoney, C.; Davies, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have analyzed segregation patterns of markers among the late generation progeny of several crosses of pea. From the patterns of association of these markers we have deduced linkage orders. Salient features of these linkages are discussed, as is the relationship between the data presented here and previously published genetic and cytogenetic data. PMID:1551583

  3. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  4. Plant waxy bloom on peas affects infection of pea aphids by Pandora neoaphidis.

    PubMed

    Duetting, Patrick S; Ding, Hongjian; Neufeld, Jeffrey; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the effects of the surface wax bloom of pea plants, Pisum sativum, on infection of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, by the fungal pathogen Pandora neoaphidis. In prior field surveys, a higher proportion of P. neoaphidis-killed pea aphids (cadavers) had been observed on a pea line with reduced wax bloom, as compared with a sister line with normal surface wax bloom. Laboratory bioassays were conducted in order to examine the mechanisms. After plants of each line infested with aphids were exposed to similar densities of conidia, the rate of accumulation of cadavers on the reduced wax line was significantly greater than on the normal wax bloom line; at the end of the experiment (13d), the proportion of aphid cadavers on the reduced wax line was approximately four times that on the normal wax bloom line. When plants were exposed to conidia first and then infested with aphids, the rate of accumulation of cadavers was slightly but significantly greater on the reduced wax line, and infection at the end of the experiment (16d) did not differ between the lines. When aphids were exposed first and then released onto the plants, no differences in the proportion of aphid cadavers were observed between the pea lines. Greater infection of pea aphid on reduced wax peas appears to depend upon plants being exposed to inoculum while aphids are settled in typical feeding positions on the plant. Additional experiments demonstrated increased adhesion and germination by P. neoaphidis conidia to leaf surfaces of the reduced wax line as compared with normal wax line, and this could help explain the higher infection rate by P. neoaphidis on the reduced wax line. In bioassays using surface waxes extracted from the two lines, there was no effect of wax source on germination of P. neoaphidis conidia.

  5. UAS imaging for automated crop lodging detection: a case study over an experimental maize field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tianxing; Starek, Michael J.; Brewer, Michael J.; Masiane, Tiisetso; Murray, Seth C.

    2017-05-01

    Lodging has been recognized as one of the major destructive factors for crop quality and yield, particularly in corn. A variety of contributing causes, e.g. disease and/or pest, weather conditions, excessive nitrogen, and high plant density, may lead to lodging before harvesting season. Traditional lodging detection strategies mainly rely on ground data collection, which is insufficient in efficiency and accuracy. To address this problem, this research focuses on the use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for automated detection of crop lodging. The study was conducted over an experimental corn field at the Texas A and M AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, Texas, during the growing season of 2016. Nadir-view images of the corn field were taken by small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade RGB and NIR cameras on a per week basis, enabling a timely observation of the plant growth. 3D structural information of the plants was reconstructed using structure-from-motion photogrammetry. The structural information was then applied to calculate crop height, and rates of growth. A lodging index for detecting corn lodging was proposed afterwards. Ground truth data of lodging was collected on a per row basis and used for fair assessment and tuning of the detection algorithm. Results show the UAS-measured height correlates well with the ground-measured height. More importantly, the lodging index can effectively reflect severity of corn lodging and yield after harvesting.

  6. Identification of tolerance to Fusarium root rot in wild pea germplasm with high levels of partial resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a serious root rot pathogen affecting peas in all pea growing areas of the USA and is damaging in both dryland and irrigated pea fields. Partial resistance to Fusarium root rot in 44 accessions from the Pisum Core Collection located in Pu...

  7. Changes in the topography of cellular components in pea root statocytes exposed to high gradient magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, Ninel A.; Polishchuk, Olexandr V.; Kondrachuk, Alexander V.

    2005-08-01

    High-gradient magnetic field (HGMF) is one of methods, by which gravitropism in plants is studied. The aim of our study was elucidation of HGMF effects on topography of cellular components in root statocytes of 4- day Pisum sativum L. seedlings in comparison to gravistimulation. Under gravistimulation during 5, 30 and 60 min seedlings were rotated 45o; magnetostimulation was carried out along gap between two NdFeB magnets (0.7 T). Morphometric measurements were made from images of whole statocytes, for upper, middle and lower thirds of cells, and proximal and distal halves of cells. Morphometric analysis revealed that HGMF resulted in the redistribution of all cellular components in statocytes. The correlation in the amyloplast distribution between gravistimulation and magnetostimulation was established.

  8. Antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) do not affect root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Jagroop Gill; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg; Cahill, James F; Hall, Linda M

    2017-06-12

    Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established. Transgene insertion, as single gene or stacked genes, did not alter root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) or root nodulation by rhizobium inoculation in the field. We found no effect of transgenes on the plant growth and performance although, having a dual inoculant with both AMF and rhizobium yielded higher fresh weight shoot-to-root ratio in all the lines tested. This initial risk assessment of transgenic peas expressing antifungal genes showed no deleterious effect on non-target organisms.

  9. Characterization of protein and carbohydrate mid-IR spectral features in crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hangshu; Zhang, Yonggen; Wang, Mingjun; Li, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhibo; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-08-01

    To the best of our knowledge, a few studies have been conducted on inherent structure spectral traits related to biopolymers of crop residues. The objective of this study was to characterize protein and carbohydrate structure spectral features of three field crop residues (rice straw, wheat straw and millet straw) in comparison with two crop vines (peanut vine and pea vine) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). Also, multivariate analyses were performed on spectral data sets within the regions mainly related to protein and carbohydrate in this study. The results showed that spectral differences existed in mid-IR peak intensities that are mainly related to protein and carbohydrate among these crop residue samples. With regard to protein spectral profile, peanut vine showed the greatest mid-IR band intensities that are related to protein amide and protein secondary structures, followed by pea vine and the rest three field crop straws. The crop vines had 48-134% higher spectral band intensity than the grain straws in spectral features associated with protein. Similar trends were also found in the bands that are mainly related to structural carbohydrates (such as cellulosic compounds). However, the field crop residues had higher peak intensity in total carbohydrates region than the crop vines. Furthermore, spectral ratios varied among the residue samples, indicating that these five crop residues had different internal structural conformation. However, multivariate spectral analyses showed that structural similarities still exhibited among crop residues in the regions associated with protein biopolymers and carbohydrate. Further study is needed to find out whether there is any relationship between spectroscopic information and nutrition supply in various kinds of crop residue when fed to animals.

  10. A community resource for exploring and utilizing genetic diversity in the USDA Pea Single Plant Plus Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Globally, pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important temperate legume crop for food, feed, and fodder, and many breeding programs exist to develop cultivars adapted to these end uses. In order to conserve genetic diversity useful to researchers, large pea collections have been constructed by numerous na...

  11. Field scale spatio-temporal soil moisture variability for trafficability and crop water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Coleen; van der Ploeg, Martine; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture have been studied mostly for inputs in land surface models for weather and climate predictions. Remote sensing techniques for estimation of soil moisture have been explored because of the good spatial coverage at different scales. Current available satellite data provide surface soil moisture as microwave systems only measure soil moisture content up to 5cm soil depth. The OWAS1S project will focus on estimation of soil moisture from freely available Sentinel-1 datasets for operational water management in agricultural areas. As part of the project, it is essential to develop spatio-temporal methods to estimate root zone soil moisture from surface soil moisture. This will be used for crop water availability and trafficability in selected agricultural fields in the Netherlands. A network of single capacitance sensors installed per field will provide continuous measurements of soil moisture in the study area. Ground penetrating radar will be used to measure soil moisture variability within a single field for different time periods. During wetter months, optimal conditions for traffic will be assessed using simultaneous soil strength and soil moisture measurements. Towards water deficit periods, focus is on the relation (or the lack thereof) between surface soil moisture and root zone soil moisture to determine the amount of water for crops. Spatio-temporal distribution will determine important physical controls for surface and root zone soil moisture and provide insights for root-zone soil moisture. Existing models for field scale soil-water balance and data assimilation methods (e.g. Kalman filter) will be combined to estimate root zone soil moisture. Furthermore, effects of root development on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties and subsequent effects on trafficability and crop water availability will be investigated. This research project has recently started, therefore we want to present methods and framework of

  12. Locus-dependent selection in crop-wild hybrids of lettuce under field conditions and its implication for GM crop development.

    PubMed

    Hooftman, Danny A P; Flavell, Andrew J; Jansen, Hans; den Nijs, Hans C M; Syed, Naeem H; Sørensen, Anker P; Orozco-Ter Wengel, Pablo; van de Wiel, Clemens C M

    2011-09-01

    Gene escape from crops has gained much attention in the last two decades, as transgenes introgressing into wild populations could affect the latter's ecological characteristics. However, different genes have different likelihoods of introgression. The mixture of selective forces provided by natural conditions creates an adaptive mosaic of alleles from both parental species. We investigated segregation patterns after hybridization between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative, L. serriola. Three generations of hybrids (S1, BC1, and BC1S1) were grown in habitats mimicking the wild parent's habitat. As control, we harvested S1 seedlings grown under controlled conditions, providing very limited possibility for selection. We used 89 AFLP loci, as well as more recently developed dominant markers, 115 retrotransposon markers (SSAP), and 28 NBS loci linked to resistance genes. For many loci, allele frequencies were biased in plants exposed to natural field conditions, including over-representation of crop alleles for various loci. Furthermore, Linkage disequilibrium was locally changed, allegedly by selection caused by the natural field conditions, providing ample opportunity for genetic hitchhiking. Our study indicates that when developing genetically modified crops, a judicious selection of insertion sites, based on knowledge of selective (dis)advantages of the surrounding crop genome under field conditions, could diminish transgene persistence.

  13. Locus-dependent selection in crop-wild hybrids of lettuce under field conditions and its implication for GM crop development

    PubMed Central

    Hooftman, Danny A P; Flavell, Andrew J; Jansen, Hans; den Nijs, Hans C M; Syed, Naeem H; Sørensen, Anker P; Orozco-ter Wengel, Pablo; van de Wiel, Clemens C M

    2011-01-01

    Gene escape from crops has gained much attention in the last two decades, as transgenes introgressing into wild populations could affect the latter's ecological characteristics. However, different genes have different likelihoods of introgression. The mixture of selective forces provided by natural conditions creates an adaptive mosaic of alleles from both parental species. We investigated segregation patterns after hybridization between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative, L. serriola. Three generations of hybrids (S1, BC1, and BC1S1) were grown in habitats mimicking the wild parent's habitat. As control, we harvested S1 seedlings grown under controlled conditions, providing very limited possibility for selection. We used 89 AFLP loci, as well as more recently developed dominant markers, 115 retrotransposon markers (SSAP), and 28 NBS loci linked to resistance genes. For many loci, allele frequencies were biased in plants exposed to natural field conditions, including over-representation of crop alleles for various loci. Furthermore, Linkage disequilibrium was locally changed, allegedly by selection caused by the natural field conditions, providing ample opportunity for genetic hitchhiking. Our study indicates that when developing genetically modified crops, a judicious selection of insertion sites, based on knowledge of selective (dis)advantages of the surrounding crop genome under field conditions, could diminish transgene persistence. PMID:25568012

  14. Hemispherical directional reflectance factor using UAV and a hyperspectral camera, validation and crop field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, T.; Honkavaara, E.; Markelin, L.

    2014-10-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a prototype hyperspectral imaging camera (HSI) was used to measure the hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) of a test field with known light scattering properties. The HSI acquires a burst of 24 images within two seconds and all of these images are acquired with different spectral content. By using the autopilot of the UAV, the flight can be preplanned so that the target area is optimally covered with overlapping images from multiple view angles. Structure from motion (SFM) algorithm is used to accurately determine the view angles for each image. The HDRF is calculated for each ground pixel by determining view directions from all of the images for that particular pixel. The pixel intensity values are then processed to reflectance by using a reference panel, which has been measured in laboratory with Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO). The UAV flight was performed over a test field with different gravel targets. The targets have known HDRF and this allows us to validate the UAV results. Another test was performed over a crop field to display the potential of this method for crop monitoring.

  15. Genetic dissection of nitrogen nutrition in pea through a QTL approach of root, nodule, and shoot variability.

    PubMed

    Bourion, Virginie; Rizvi, Syed Masood Hasan; Fournier, Sarah; de Larambergue, Henri; Galmiche, Fabien; Marget, Pascal; Duc, Gérard; Burstin, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the third most important grain legume worldwide, and the increasing demand for protein-rich raw material has led to a great interest in this crop as a protein source. Seed yield and protein content in crops are strongly determined by nitrogen (N) nutrition, which in legumes relies on two complementary pathways: absorption by roots of soil mineral nitrogen, and fixation in nodules of atmospheric dinitrogen through the plant-Rhizobium symbiosis. This study assessed the potential of naturally occurring genetic variability of nodulated root structure and functioning traits to improve N nutrition in pea. Glasshouse and field experiments were performed on seven pea genotypes and on the 'Cameor' x 'Ballet' population of recombinant inbred lines selected on the basis of parental contrast for root and nodule traits. Significant variation was observed for most traits, which were obtained from non-destructive kinetic measurements of nodulated root and shoot in pouches, root and shoot image analysis, (15)N quantification, or seed yield and protein content determination. A significant positive relationship was found between nodule establishment and root system growth, both among the seven genotypes and the RIL population. Moreover, several quantitative trait loci for root or nodule traits and seed N accumulation were mapped in similar locations, highlighting the possibility of breeding new pea cultivars with increased root system size, sustained nodule number, and improved N nutrition. The impact on both root or nodule traits and N nutrition of the genomic regions of the major developmental genes Le and Af was also underlined.

  16. Molecular characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Mohsin; Hameed, Sohail; Yasmeen, Tahira; Zahid, Mehwish; Zafar, Marriam

    2014-02-01

    Root nodule accommodates various non-nodulating bacteria at varying densities. Present study was planned to identify and characterize the non-nodulating bacteria from the pea plant. Ten fast growing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of cultivated pea plants. These bacterial isolates were unable to nodulate pea plants in nodulation assay, which indicate the non-rhizobial nature of these bacteria. Bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for plant growth promoting properties including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, root colonization and biofilm formation. Six isolates were able to produce IAA at varying level from 0.86 to 16.16 μg ml(-1), with the isolate MSP9 being most efficient. Only two isolates, MSP2 and MSP10, were able to fix nitrogen. All isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus ranging from 5.57 to 11.73 μg ml(-1), except MSP4. Bacterial isolates showed considerably better potential for colonization on pea roots. Isolates MSP9 and MSP10 were most efficient in biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride, which indicated their potential to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas the remaining isolates showed a very poor biofilm formation ability. The most efficient plant growth promoting agents, MSP9 and MSP10, were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum and Enterobacter, respectively, with 99% similarity. It is suggested the potential endophytic bacterial strains, Ochrobactrum sp. MSP9 and Enterobacter sp. MSP10, can be used as biofertilizers for various legume and non-legume crops after studying their interaction with the host crop and field evaluation.

  17. Prevalence of plasmid mediated pesticide resistant bacterial assemblages in crop fields.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, S; Murali, M

    2010-11-01

    Three crop fields namely paddy sugarcane and tomato exposed to bavistin [Methyl (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl) carbomate], monocrotophos[Dimethyl(E)-1-methyl-2-(methyl-carbamoyl) vinyl phosphate] and kinado plus [(EZ)-2-chloro-3-dimethoxyphosphinoyloxy-X1, X1-diethylbut-2-enamide], respectively were chosen for the present investigation to know the bacterial population and degradation of pesticides. The chemical nature of the soil and water samples from the pesticide contaminated fields was analysed along with counting of the total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), Staphylococci and Enterococcci population. Mean calcium, phosphate and biological oxygen demand were maximum in tomato field water Field water recorded maximum phophate and silicate content, whereas, sugarcane field water elicited maximum dissolved oxygen content. On the other hand, available phosphate and exchangeable potassium were maximum is sugarcane field soil. Significant variations in the bacterial population were evident between the treatments in sugarcane field soil and tomato field water exposed to monocrotophos and kinado plus, respectively In addition, significant variations between THB, Staphlyococci and Enterococci population were also evinced in both the sugarcane andtomato fields. The dominant pesticide resistant bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa harboured plasmids and the resistant trait observed were found to be plasmid borne.

  18. a Method to Estimate Temporal Interaction in a Conditional Random Field Based Approach for Crop Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, P. M. A.; Feitosa, R. Q.; Sanches, I. D.; Costa, G. A. O. P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the temporal interaction in a Conditional Random Field (CRF) based approach for crop recognition from multitemporal remote sensing image sequences. This approach models the phenology of different crop types as a CRF. Interaction potentials are assumed to depend only on the class labels of an image site at two consecutive epochs. In the proposed method, the estimation of temporal interaction parameters is considered as an optimization problem, whose goal is to find the transition matrix that maximizes the CRF performance, upon a set of labelled data. The objective functions underlying the optimization procedure can be formulated in terms of different accuracy metrics, such as overall and average class accuracy per crop or phenological stages. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were carried out upon a dataset consisting of 12 co-registered LANDSAT images of a region in southeast of Brazil. Pattern Search was used as the optimization algorithm. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method was able to substantially outperform estimates related to joint or conditional class transition probabilities, which rely on training samples.

  19. Influence of cover crops and crop residue treatment on soil organic carbon stocks evaluated in Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural soils are strongly controlled by management. In this study we quantified the effect of cover crops and crop residue management on SOC stocks in Swedish long-term experiments. Eight pairs of cover crop (undersown ryegrass) vs. no cover crop were investigated in Swedish long-term field experiments (16 to 24 years). Yields of the main crop were not affected by the cover crop. Cover crops significantly increased SOC stocks, with a mean carbon sequestration rate in all experiments (excluding one) of 0.32±0.29 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Interestingly, this sequestration is similar to that estimated for a U.S.experiment, where ryegrass growth is much less temperature- and light-limited than under Swedish conditions. This sequestration rate is also the same as that recently reported for many other cover crops in a global meta-analysis but less than SOC changes in ley-dominated rotations which under Nordic conditions were shown to accumulate in average 0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 more carbon compared to exclusively annual cropping systems. Thus, originally introduced in agricultural rotations to reduce nitrate leaching, cover crops are also an effective practice to increase SOC stocks, even at relatively high latitudes. The effect of crop residue treatment was studied in 16 pairs of straw incorporated (SI) vs. straw removed (SR) treatments in six Swedish long-term field experiments. Data series on SOC with 5-28 sampling dates during 27-53 years were analysed using ICBM, a dynamic SOC model. At five out of six sites, the humification coefficient for straw (hlitter; the fraction of straw C that is entering the slow C pool) was much smaller (0-0.09) than the ICBM default h-value for plant material estimated in previous studies (0.125). The derived hlitter-values and thus the stabilization of straw-derived carbon increased significantly with clay content. For an Italian site (with five pairs of SI vs. SR) that was used for model validation we found

  20. Building Exposure Maps Of Urban Infrastructure And Crop Fields In The Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, E.; Weichselbaum, J.; Gangkofner, U.; Miltzer, J.; Wali, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the frame of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) initiative for the Mekong river basin World Bank is collaborating with the Mekong River Commission and governmental organizations in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam to build national and regional capacities for managing the risks associated with natural disasters, such as floods, flash floods and droughts. Within ‘eoworld', a joint initiative set up by ESA and World Bank to foster the use of Earth Observation (EO) for sustainable development work, a comprehensive database of elements at risk in the Lower Mekong river basin has been established by GeoVille, including urban infrastructure and crops (primarily rice paddies). In the long term, this exposure information shall be fed into an open-source multi- hazard modeling tool for risk assessment along the Mekong River, which then shall be used by national stakeholders as well as insurance and financial institutions for planning, disaster preparedness and emergency management. Earth Observation techniques can provide objective, synoptic and repetitive observations of elements at risk including buildings, infrastructure and crops. Through the fusion of satellite-based with in-situ data from field surveys and local knowledge (e.g. on building materials) features at risk can be characterised and mapped with high accuracy. Earth Observation data utilised comprise bi-weekly Envisat ASAR imagery programmed for a period of 9 months in 2011 to map the development of the rice cultivation area, identify predominant cropping systems (wet-season vs. dry season cultivation), crop cycles (single /double / triple crop per year), date of emergence/harvest and the distinction between rice planted under intensive (SRI) vs. regular rice cultivation techniques. Very High Resolution (VHR) optical data from SPOT, KOMPSAT and QuickBird were used for mapping of buildings and infrastructure, such as building footprints, residential / commercial areas, industrial

  1. Eclipse effects on field crops and marine zooplankton: the 29 March 2006 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, G.; Christou, E. D.; Giannakourou, A.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kotoulas, V.; Lyra, D.; Tsakalis, N.; Tziortzou, M.; Vahamidis, P.; Papathanassiou, E.; Karamanos, A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects in the biosphere from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 were investigated in field crops and marine zooplankton. Taking into account the decisive role of light on the photoenergetic and photoregulatory plant processes, measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour were conducted on seven important field-grown cereal and leguminous crops. A drop in photosynthetic rates, by more than a factor of 5 in some cases, was observed, and the minimum values of photosynthetic rates ranged between 3.13 and 10.13 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. However, since solar irradiance attenuation has not at the same time induced stomatal closure thus not blocking CO2 uptake by plants, it is probably other endogenous factors that has been responsible for the observed fall in photosynthetic rates. Field studies addressing the migratory responses of marine zooplankton (micro-zooplankton (ciliates), and meso-zooplankton) due to the rapid changes in underwater light intensity were also performed. The light intensity attenuation was simulated with the use of accurate underwater radiative transfer modeling techniques. Ciliates, responded to the rapid decrease in light intensity during the eclipse adopting night-time behaviour. From the meso-zooplankton assemblage, various vertical migratory behaviours were adopted by different species.

  2. Eclipse effects on field crops and marine zooplankton: the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, G.; Christou, E. D.; Giannakourou, A.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kotoulas, V.; Lyra, D.; Tsakalis, N.; Tzortziou, M.; Vahamidis, P.; Papathanassiou, E.; Karamanos, A.

    2008-08-01

    Some effects in the biosphere from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 were investigated in field crops and marine zooplankton. Taking into account the decisive role of light on plant life and productivity, measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour were conducted on seven important field-grown cereal and leguminous crops. A drop in photosynthetic rates, by more than a factor of 5 in some cases, was observed, and the minimum values of photosynthetic rates ranged between 3.13 and 10.13 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The drop in solar irradiance and the increase in mesophyll CO2-concentration during the eclipse did not induce stomatal closure thus not blocking CO2 uptake by plants. Light effects on the photochemical phase of photosynthesis may be responsible for the observed depression in photosynthetic rates. Field studies addressing the migratory responses of marine zooplankton (micro-zooplankton (ciliates), and meso-zooplankton) due to the rapid changes in underwater light intensity were also performed. The light intensity attenuation was simulated with the use of accurate underwater radiative transfer modeling techniques. Ciliates, responded to the rapid decrease in light intensity during the eclipse adopting night-time behaviour. From the meso-zooplankton assemblage, various vertical migratory behaviours were adopted by different species.

  3. Operation of agricultural test fields for study of stressed crops by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toler, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A test site for the study of winter wheat development and collection of ERTS data was established in September of 1973. The test site is a 10 mile square area located 12.5 miles west of Amarillo, Texas on Interstate Hwy. 40, in Randall and Potter counties. The center of the area is the Southwestern Great Plains Research Center at Bushland, Texas. Within the test area all wheat fields were identified by ground truth and designated irrigated or dryland. The fields in the test area other than wheat were identified as to pasture or the crop that was grown. A ground truth area of hard red winter wheat was established west of Hale Center, Texas. Maps showing the location of winter wheat fields in excess of 40 acres in size within a 10 mile radius were supplied NASA. Satellite data was collected for this test site (ERTS-1).

  4. Field research on the spectral properties of crops and soils, volume 1. [Purdue Agronomy Farm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1980-01-01

    The experiment design, data acquisition and preprocessing, data base management, analysis results and development of instrumentation for the AgRISTARS Supporting Research Project, Field Research task are described. Results of several investigations on the spectral reflectance of corn and soybean canopies as influenced by cultural practices, development stage and nitrogen nutrition are reported as well as results of analyses of the spectral properties of crop canopies as a function of canopy geometry, row orientation, sensor view angle and solar illumination angle are presented. The objectives, experiment designs and data acquired in 1980 for field research experiments are described. The development and performance characteristics of a prototype multiband radiometer, data logger, and aerial tower for field research are discussed.

  5. A computer-controlled system for exposing field crops to gaseous air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, P.; Greenhalgh, A.; Baker, C.; Unsworth, M.

    A system is described for exposing an area of about 400 m 2 of a normally-managed field crop of winter wheat to controlled concentrations of sulphur dioxide. The gas is released from pipes at a rate which can be varied by a microcomputer which also controls the monitoring of SO 2 concentrations. The SO 2 release rate depends on measured concentration and on wind speed. The system was operated continuously for several months. Examples of the variability of concentrations in time and space are given to show that close control of a predetermined SO 2 concentration can be maintained for long periods over a wide range of atmospheric conditions.

  6. Validating the FAO AquaCrop model for irrigated and water deficient field maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate crop development models are important tools in evaluating the effects of water deficits on crop yield or productivity. The FAO AquaCrop model, predicting crop productivity and water requirement under water-limiting conditions, was calibrated and validated for maize (Zea mays L.) using six ...

  7. Cover crops as a gateway to greater conservation in Iowa?: Integrating crop models, field trials, economics and farmer perspectives regarding soil resilience in light of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesch-McNally, G. E.; Basche, A.; Tyndall, J.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Miguez, F.; Bowman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists predict a number of climate changes for the US Midwest with expected declines in crop productivity as well as eco-hydrological impacts. More frequent extreme rain events particularly in the spring may well increase saturated soils thus complicating agronomic interests and also exacerbate watershed scale impairments (e.g., sediment, nutrient loss). In order to build more resilient production systems in light of climate change, farmers will increasingly need to implement conservation practices (singularly or more likely in combination) that enable farmers to manage profitable businesses yet mitigate consequential environmental impacts that have both in-field and off-farm implications. Cover crops are empirically known to promote many aspects of soil and water health yet even the most aggressive recent estimates show that only 1-2% of the total acreage in Iowa have been planted to cover crops. In order to better understand why farmers are reluctant to adopt cover crops across Iowa we combined agronomic and financial data from long-term field trials, working farm trials and model simulations so as to present comprehensive data-driven information to farmers in focus group discussions in order to understand existing barriers, perceived benefits and responses to the information presented. Four focus groups (n=29) were conducted across Iowa in four geographic regions. Focus group discussions help explore the nuance of farmers' responses to modeling outputs and their real-life agronomic realities, thus shedding light on the social and psychological barriers with cover crop utilization. Among the key insights gained, comprehensive data-driven research can influence farmer perspectives on potential cover crop impacts to cash crop yields, experienced costs are potentially quite variable, and having field/farm benefits articulated in economic terms are extremely important when farmers weigh the opportunity costs associated with adopting new practices. Our work

  8. Analyzing C-band SAR polarimetric information for LAI and crop yield estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molijn, Ramses A.; Iannini, Lorenzo; Mousivand, Ali; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, space remote sensing data and crop specific information from the ESA-led AgriSAR 2009 campaign are used for studying the profiles of C-band SAR backscatter signals and multispectral-based leaf area index (LAI) over the growth period of canola, pea and wheat. In addition, the correlations between radar backscatter parameters and the crop yields were analyzed, based on extracted statistics of temporal profiles. The results show that the HV backscatter and LAI are correlated differently before and after LAI peak. In addition, the coefficient of determination between peakrelated statistics from polarimetric indicator profiles and yield for pea fields can reach up to 0.68, and for canola and wheat up to 0.47 and 0.5, respectively. HV backscatter and coherence between HH and VV are most.

  9. A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology for Tall Biomass Crops.

    PubMed

    Salas Fernandez, Maria G; Bao, Yin; Tang, Lie; Schnable, Patrick S

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in omics technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective, and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short-stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Phenobot 1.0 was equipped with laterally positioned and vertically stacked stereo RGB cameras. Images collected from 307 diverse sorghum lines were reconstructed in 3D for feature extraction. User interfaces were developed, and multiple algorithms were evaluated for their accuracy in estimating plant height and stem diameter. Tested feature extraction methods included the following: (1) User-interactive Individual Plant Height Extraction (UsIn-PHe) based on dense stereo three-dimensional reconstruction; (2) Automatic Hedge-based Plant Height Extraction (Auto-PHe) based on dense stereo 3D reconstruction; (3) User-interactive Dense Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction; and (4) User-interactive Image Patch Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction (IPaS-Di). Comparative genome-wide association analysis and ground-truth validation demonstrated that both UsIn-PHe and Auto-PHe were accurate methods to estimate plant height, while Auto-PHe had the additional advantage of being a completely automated process. For stem diameter, IPaS-Di generated the most accurate estimates of this biomass-related architectural trait. In summary, our technology was proven robust to obtain ground-based high-throughput plant architecture parameters of sorghum, a tall and densely planted crop species. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology for Tall Biomass Crops1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in omics technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective, and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short-stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Phenobot 1.0 was equipped with laterally positioned and vertically stacked stereo RGB cameras. Images collected from 307 diverse sorghum lines were reconstructed in 3D for feature extraction. User interfaces were developed, and multiple algorithms were evaluated for their accuracy in estimating plant height and stem diameter. Tested feature extraction methods included the following: (1) User-interactive Individual Plant Height Extraction (UsIn-PHe) based on dense stereo three-dimensional reconstruction; (2) Automatic Hedge-based Plant Height Extraction (Auto-PHe) based on dense stereo 3D reconstruction; (3) User-interactive Dense Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction; and (4) User-interactive Image Patch Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction (IPaS-Di). Comparative genome-wide association analysis and ground-truth validation demonstrated that both UsIn-PHe and Auto-PHe were accurate methods to estimate plant height, while Auto-PHe had the additional advantage of being a completely automated process. For stem diameter, IPaS-Di generated the most accurate estimates of this biomass-related architectural trait. In summary, our technology was proven robust to obtain ground-based high-throughput plant architecture parameters of sorghum, a tall and densely planted crop species. PMID:28620124

  11. Effect of Crop Rotation on Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. Populations in Strawberry Fields in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P.; Tsay, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in population levels of Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, Pratylenchus coffeae, and P. penetrans were studied in 12 strawberry fields in the Dahu region of Taiwan. Ten potential rotation crops and two cultural practices were evaluated for their effect on nematode populations and influence on strawberry yield. Rotation with rice or taro and the cultural practice of flooding and bare fallowing for four months were found to reduce nematode soil populations to two or fewer nematodes per 100 ml soil. Average strawberry yields increased between 2.4% to 6.3% following taro compared to the bare fallow treatment. Corn suppressed M. incognita and M. hapla populations and resulted in an increased in strawberry yield compared to bare fallow. Other phytopathogens also present in these fields limited taro as the rotation choice for nematode management. Results of this research and economic analysis of the input requirements for various rotation crops, corn and bare fallow were recommended as the most appropriate rotation strategies for nematode management in strawberry in this region. PMID:19259538

  12. Cunaxidae (Acari: Prostigmata) diversity and population dynamics in garlic (Allium sativum) crop fields.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Recamier, B E; Vázquez, I M; Callejas-Chaveros, A; Estrada-Venegas, E G

    2013-10-01

    Agroecosystems are altered systems whose soil structure has changed affecting the dynamics of soil organisms. This paper aims at evaluation of the effects of garlic farming practices on phenology, richness, abundance, composition and diversity of soil-dwelling Cunaxidae. Ten pilot plots in Guanajuato State were sampled from August 2002 to July 2005, every month, 8 months per year. Ten soil samples (1 kg) were taken from each plot and extracted in Berlese-Tullgren funnels. A total of 108 cunaxids were found, belonging to 11 species. Neocunaxoides andrei was the most abundant, and Cunaxa evansi and Armascirus sp. were least abundant. Relative abundance was highest after harvesting and during plant growth, and lowest during planting. Dactyloscirus nicobarensis and D. candylus were present from planting to harvesting. According to Sörensen's similarity coefficient between cultivation stages, Cunaxidae communities were similar during plant growth and harvesting, sharing 80 % of the species. The highest abundance and diversity were found in 2004, during and after harvesting. Cunaxid species increased over 100 % from planting to the harvesting phase, suggesting that they play an important role in the soil agrosystems food web. Species composition and diversity in cunaxid communities present in garlic crop fields varied with agricultural phase, but little change was observed among the years studied. All species found in this study are new records for the state of Guanajuato and for the garlic crop fields.

  13. Effect of Crop Rotation on Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. Populations in Strawberry Fields in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, P; Tsay, T T

    2006-09-01

    Changes in population levels of Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, Pratylenchus coffeae, and P. penetrans were studied in 12 strawberry fields in the Dahu region of Taiwan. Ten potential rotation crops and two cultural practices were evaluated for their effect on nematode populations and influence on strawberry yield. Rotation with rice or taro and the cultural practice of flooding and bare fallowing for four months were found to reduce nematode soil populations to two or fewer nematodes per 100 ml soil. Average strawberry yields increased between 2.4% to 6.3% following taro compared to the bare fallow treatment. Corn suppressed M. incognita and M. hapla populations and resulted in an increased in strawberry yield compared to bare fallow. Other phytopathogens also present in these fields limited taro as the rotation choice for nematode management. Results of this research and economic analysis of the input requirements for various rotation crops, corn and bare fallow were recommended as the most appropriate rotation strategies for nematode management in strawberry in this region.

  14. WEED POPULATION IN RELATION TO CROP ROTATION AND NITROGEN FERTILISATION.

    PubMed

    Derycke, V; Latré, J; Van De Vijver, E; De Roo, B; De Cauwer, B; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of crop rotation and nitrogen fertilisation in an agro system, a long-term field experiment has been established in 2006 at the experimental farm of Ghent University and University College Ghent (Bottelare-Belgium). The trial comprises 11 different crop rotations in combination with four nitrogen fertilizer regimes. The different crop rotations are monoculture of grain- and silage maize, whether or not followed by Italian ryegrass, permanent and temporary grass-clover and six other rotations of maize in combination with potatoes, wheat, fodder beet and peas. Normal crop husbandry measures were taken for each crop. The experiment was set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a strip plot design with 3 replicates. In the course of the experiment, crop rotation was the horizontal factor and fertilizer nitrogen (N) the vertical factor. The effect of crop rotation on yield, disease pressure, soil structure and earthworm abundance were evaluated yearly. In autumn 2013 the weed seed bank was analysed for each plot using the seedling emergence method. The obtained results indicated differences between the different crop rotations.

  15. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) method for measurements of soil moisture in cropped fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of soil moisture at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. This study evaluates the applicability of the Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for integral quantification of seasonal soil moisture in the root zone at the scale of a field or small watershed, making use of the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator relative to other landscape materials. GANS measurements were performed at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations and seasonal conditions. Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a lowland Bornim farmland (Brandenburg) cropped with sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. At both sites depth profiles of soil moisture were measured at several locations in parallel by frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) for comparison and calibration. Initially, calibration parameters derived from a previous study with corn cover were tested under sunflower and winter rye periods at the same farmland. GANS soil moisture based on these parameters showed a large discrepancy compared to classical soil moisture measurements. Therefore, two new calibration approaches and four different ways of integration the soil moisture profile to an integral value for GANS were evaluated in this study. This included different sets of calibration parameters based on different growing periods of sunflower. New calibration parameters showed a good agreement with FDR network during sunflower period (RMSE = 0.023 m3 m-3), but they underestimated soil moisture in the winter rye period. The GANS approach resulted to be highly affected by temporal changes of biomass and crop types which suggest the need of neutron corrections for long-term observations with crop rotation. Finally

  16. Grass pea and neurolathyrism: farmers' perception on its consumption and protective measure in North Shewa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Anteneh; Tefera, Beneberu; Dadi, Legesse

    2011-03-01

    Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia is caused by food dependency on grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). In the study area, a large proportion of the farmers are growing grass pea since it can withstand harsh environments. Socio-economic factors (poverty; lack of money to buy other food legumes) and environmental problems (such as water logging and frost hazards) influence consumption of grass pea. Most of the respondents have the idea that some chemical contained in grass pea causes a health problem. Different processing and preparation methods are used to prepare grass pea into different food forms. The major processing methods include washing and soaking, as the farmers apply these methods mainly because they assume that the chemical that causes lathyrism, scientifically known as β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) is reduced through washing and soaking. The farmers adopt different strategies to avoid the problem of lathyrism such as avoiding consumption of grass pea in the form that they suspect to cause the problem, blending/mixing with other crops, applying different processing/detoxification methods. Since grass pea is consumed with a fear of lathyrism, future research should concentrate either on developing grass pea varieties with safe level of β-ODAP content or improving the traditional/indigenous processing methods.

  17. Effects of Winter Cover Crops Straws Incorporation on CH4 and N2O Emission from Double-Cropping Paddy Fields in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hai-Ming; Xiao, Xiao-Ping; Tang, Wen-Guang; Wang, Ke; Sun, Ji-Min; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Guang-Li

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is believed to improve soil quality. However, the effects of residue management on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from paddy field in Southern China have not been well researched. The emissions of CH4 and N2O were investigated in double cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems with straw returning of different winter cover crops by using the static chamber-gas chromatography technique. A randomized block experiment with three replications was established in 2004 in Hunan Province, China, including rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (Ry-R-R), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (Mv-R-R) and rice–rice with winter fallow (Fa-R-R). The results showed that straw returning of winter crops significantly increased the CH4 emission during both rice growing seasons when compared with Fa-R-R. Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emissions during the early rice growing season with 14.235 and 15.906 g m−2 in 2012 and 2013, respectively, when Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emission during the later rice growing season with 35.673 and 38.606 g m−2 in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The Ry-R-R and Mv-R-R also had larger N2O emissions than Fa-R-R in both rice seasons. When compared to Fa-R-R, total N2O emissions in the early rice growing season were increased by 0.05 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.063 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.058 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.068 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. Similar result were obtained in the late rice growing season, and the total N2O emissions were increased by 0.104 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.073 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.108 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.076 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. The global warming potentials (GWPs) from paddy fields were ranked as Ry-R-R>Mv-R-R>Fa-R-R. As a result, straw returning of winter cover crops has significant effects on increase of CH4 and N2O emission from paddy field in double cropping rice system

  18. Effects of winter cover crops straws incorporation on CH4 and N2O emission from double-cropping paddy fields in southern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hai-Ming; Xiao, Xiao-Ping; Tang, Wen-Guang; Wang, Ke; Sun, Ji-Min; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Guang-Li

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is believed to improve soil quality. However, the effects of residue management on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from paddy field in Southern China have not been well researched. The emissions of CH4 and N2O were investigated in double cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems with straw returning of different winter cover crops by using the static chamber-gas chromatography technique. A randomized block experiment with three replications was established in 2004 in Hunan Province, China, including rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (Ry-R-R), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (Mv-R-R) and rice-rice with winter fallow (Fa-R-R). The results showed that straw returning of winter crops significantly increased the CH4 emission during both rice growing seasons when compared with Fa-R-R. Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emissions during the early rice growing season with 14.235 and 15.906 g m(-2) in 2012 and 2013, respectively, when Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emission during the later rice growing season with 35.673 and 38.606 g m(-2) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The Ry-R-R and Mv-R-R also had larger N2O emissions than Fa-R-R in both rice seasons. When compared to Fa-R-R, total N2O emissions in the early rice growing season were increased by 0.05 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.063 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.058 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.068 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. Similar result were obtained in the late rice growing season, and the total N2O emissions were increased by 0.104 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.073 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.108 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.076 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. The global warming potentials (GWPs) from paddy fields were ranked as Ry-R-R>Mv-R-R>Fa-R-R. As a result, straw returning of winter cover crops has significant effects on increase of CH4 and N2O emission from paddy field in double cropping rice system.

  19. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from weeds in bean crop fields.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sanz, A M; Rodicio, M R; González, A J

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causative agent of halo blight in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), was isolated from weeds associated with bean crops in Spain. The bacterium was recovered from Fumaria sp, Mercurialis annua, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus. Ps. s. pv. phaseolicola had previously been isolated from leguminous plants and S. nigrum, but to our knowledge, this is the first time it was recovered from the other three species. The isolates were phenotypically and genetically characterized, and they were compared with isolates recovered from common beans. Five different genotypic profiles were detected by PmeI-PFGE, two of them being of new description. Weed isolates were as pathogenic on bean plants as bean isolates, but they were not pathogenic on S. nigrum. Regarding the survival of the pathogen in weeds, Ps. s. pv. phaseolicola was isolated from So. oleraceus 11 weeks after the end of the bean crop. These results strongly support the idea of weeds as a potential source of inoculum for halo blight in bean. It has traditionally been considered that the main source of inoculum of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola causing halo blight disease in Phaseolus vulgaris are the bean seeds, and that the host range of the bacterium is almost restricted to leguminous plants. In this study, the bacterium was recovered from four nonleguminous weed species collected in bean fields, and its permanence in weeds for at least 11 weeks after the harvesting of the beans was demonstrated. We have also proved that the strains isolated from weeds were pathogenic on bean plants. Accordingly, the host range of Ps. s. pv. phaseolicola could be broader than previously thought and weeds appear to be acting as a reservoir of the pathogen until the next crop. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Keeping soil in the field - runoff and erosion management in asparagus crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziolomski, Joanna; Simmons, Robert; Rickson, Jane; Hann, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Row crop production (including potatoes, onions, carrots, asparagus, bulbs and lettuce) is regarded as one of the most erosive agricultural cropping systems. This is a result of the many practices involved that increase erosion risk including: fine seedbed preparation, a typically short growing season where adequate ground cover protects the soil, permanent bare soil areas between crops, and often intensive harvesting methods that can damage soil structure and result in soil compaction. Sustained exposure of bare soil coupled with onsite compaction on slightly sloping land results in soil and water issues in asparagus production. Asparagus production is a growing British industry covering > 2000 ha and is worth approximately £30 million yr-1. However, no tried and tested erosion control measurements currently exist to manage associated problems. Research has recently been undertaken investigating the effectiveness of erosion control measures suitable for asparagus production systems. These consisted of surface applied wheat straw mulch and shallow soil disturbance (< 350 mm) using several tine configurations: a currently adopted winged tine, a narrow with two shallow leading tines, and a modified para-plough. These treatments were tested individually and in combination (straw mulch with each shallow soil disturbance tine configuration) using triplicated field plots situated on a working asparagus farm in Herefordshire, UK. Testing was conducted between May and November 2013. Rainfall-event based runoff and erosion measurements were taken including; runoff volume, runoff rate and total soil loss. Runoff and soil erosion was observed from all treatments. However, the surface application of straw mulch alone out performed each shallow soil disturbance practice. This suggests that runoff and erosion from asparagus production can be reduced using the simple surface application of straw.

  1. Accumulation of Phosphorus-Containing Compounds in Developing Seeds of Low-Phytate Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Shunmugam, Arun S.K.; Bock, Cheryl; Arganosa, Gene C.; Georges, Fawzy; Gray, Gordon R.; Warkentin, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Low phytic acid (lpa) crops are low in phytic acid and high in inorganic phosphorus (Pi). In this study, two lpa pea genotypes, 1-150-81, 1-2347-144, and their progenitor CDC Bronco were grown in field trials for two years. The lpa genotypes were lower in IP6 and higher in Pi when compared to CDC Bronco. The total P concentration was similar in lpa genotypes and CDC Bronco throughout the seed development. The action of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) (EC 5.5.1.4) is the first and rate-limiting step in the phytic acid biosynthesis pathway. Aiming at understanding the genetic basis of the lpa mutation in the pea, a 1530 bp open reading frame of MIPS was amplified from CDC Bronco and the lpa genotypes. Sequencing results showed no difference in coding sequence in MIPS between CDC Bronco and lpa genotypes. Transcription levels of MIPS were relatively lower at 49 days after flowering (DAF) than at 14 DAF for CDC Bronco and lpa lines. This study elucidated the rate and accumulation of phosphorus compounds in lpa genotypes. The data also demonstrated that mutation in MIPS was not responsible for the lpa trait in these pea lines. PMID:27135314

  2. Vertical Distribution of the Plant-Parasitic Nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, Under Four Field Crops.

    PubMed

    Pudasaini, Mahesh P; Schomaker, Cornelia H; Been, Thomas H; Moens, Maurice

    2006-03-01

    ABSTRACT The vertical distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans was monitored in four fields cropped with maize, black salsify, carrot, or potato. Soil samples were collected at 21-day intervals from May 2002 until April 2003 from five plots (2 x 5 m(2)) per field. Per plot, 15 cores were taken to a depth of 70 cm and split into seven segments of 10 cm each. Within the plots, segments from corresponding depths were pooled. After mixing, 200-g subsamples were taken and nematodes were extracted by zonal centrifugation from the root fraction and the mineral soil fraction separately. In most crops, the root fraction contained more than 50% of the total number of P. penetrans. Because the ratio between the numbers of nematodes in the root fraction and mineral soil fraction changes during the growing season, numbers of P. penetrans found in the mineral soil fraction cannot be used to estimate the total number in the soil. Therefore, both fractions have to be processed to obtain a reliable estimate of the density. No nematodes were recovered below 50 cm soil depth, except in the maize field where nematodes were found at 70 cm. The optimum sampling depth for maize, black salsify, carrot, and potato was 45, 25, 25, and 35 cm, respectively. The percentage of nematodes per soil layer was independent of the sampling date, indicating that a defined optimum sampling depth will be applicable throughout all seasons. The cumulative vertical distribution, modeled with a logistic equation, can be used to estimate the sampling error when samples are collected at different depths.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops.

  4. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops. PMID:27359342

  5. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  6. Crop losses from air pollutants: A computer and field-based assessment program and crop and forest losses from air pollutants: An assessment program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.; Guzy, M.; Thompson, C.R.

    1993-10-01

    The Air Resources Board-sponsored Crop Loss Assessment Program quantifies potential ozone-caused yield losses in 26 crops grown in California. Statewide yield loss estimates were made with aggregated county statistics, and at a subcounty level for the southern San Joaquin Valley. Interpolations of statewide 7-hr mean zone levels were made for selected air basins delimited by a 2000-ft altitudinal barrier. Estimated yield losses were calculated using 2.50 pphm as a background 12-hr average concentration. Regression analyses were performed in a detailed analysis of cotton yield responses in Kern County. Statistically significant regressions of yield vs. ozone concentration, soil characteristics and cotton variety were observed. A field survey to identify ozone injury in cotton, almond and grape was conducted at 11 sites in the Central Valley.

  7. Pea Chaperones under Centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalaiev, Oleksandr

    2008-06-01

    Etiolated Pisum sativum seedlings were subjected to altered g-forces by centrifugation (3-14g). By using semiquantitative RT-PCR, we studied transcripts of pea genes coding for chaperones that are representatives of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) family. Four members from the different classes of sHsps: cytosolic Hsp17.7 and Hsp18.1 (class I and class II accordingly), chloroplast Hsp21 (class III) and endoplasmic reticulum Hsp22.7 (class IV) were investigated. We conclude that exposure to 3, 7, 10 and 14g for 1h did not affect the level of sHsp transcripts.

  8. Transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation to import countries for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Shuichi; Hoshikawa, Kana; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-12-01

    Requirement of in-country confined field trials for genetically modified (GM) crops prior to unrestricted release is well-established among countries with domestic regulations for the cultivation approval of GM crops. However, the requirement of in-country confined field trials is not common in countries where the scope of the application does not include cultivation. Nonetheless, Japan and China request in-country confined field trials for GM crops which are intended only for use as food, feed and processing. This paper considers the transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation countries (e.g. United States, Canada, and South American countries) to import countries like Japan for the environmental risk assessment of GM crops by reviewing: (1) the purpose of confined field trial assessment, (2) weediness potential, defined as "an ability to establish and persist in an unmanaged area that is frequently disturbed by human activity", of host crops, and (3) reliability of the confined field trial data obtained from cultivation countries. To review the reliability of the confined field data obtained in the US, this paper describes actual examples of three confined field trials of approved GM corn events conducted both in the US and Japan. Based on the above considerations, this paper concludes that confined field data of GM corn and cotton is transportable from cultivation countries to importing countries (e.g. from the US to Japan), regardless of the characteristics of the inserted gene(s). In addition, this paper advocates harmonization of protocols for confined field trials to facilitate more efficient data transportability across different geographies.

  9. Monitoring crop condition at field scale using multiple remote sensing data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop growth condition is affected by both environmental variables (climate, weather and soil condition etc.) and anthropogenic activities (fertilization and irrigation etc.). Crop condition varies by year and location and is critical for crop management and yield estimation. In the United States, cr...

  10. Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

    2000-06-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

  11. Chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and transfers during duck pellet feed processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Wei, Wei; He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide in agricultural crops (including food) and animal feeds in China, resulting in heavy contamination. Many studies have focused on the food-processing effects on chlorpyrifos removal, but sufficient information is not observed for feed-processing steps. Here, chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and its transfers in duck pellet feed-processing steps were evaluated. In field trials, the highest residues for rice grain, shelled corn, and soybean seed were 12.0, 0.605, and 0.220 mg/kg, respectively. Residues of all rice grain and about half of shelled corn exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China, and five soybean seeds exceeded the MRL of China. Chlorpyrifos residue was reduced 38.2% in brown rice after the raw rice grain was hulled. The residue in bran increased 71.2% after milling from brown rice. During the squashing step, the residue reduced 73.8% in soybean meal. The residues reduced significantly (23.7-36.8%) during the process of granulating for rice, maize, and soybean products. Comparatively, the grinding process showed only limited influence on chlorpyrifos removal (<10%). The residues of duck pellet feeds produced from highly contaminated raw materials of this study were 1.01 mg/kg (maize-soybean feed) and 3.20 mg/kg (rice-soybean feed), which were much higher than the generally accepted value (>0.1 mg/kg) for animal feeding. Chlorpyrifos residues were removed significantly by processing steps of pellet feeds, but the residue of raw materials was the determining factor for the safety of duck feeding.

  12. Field based measurements of albedo for two candidate perennial cellulosic feedstocks and row crops in Central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; VanLoocke, A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy present the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as a climate 'regulators' due to a number of biogeochemical and biophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observationally and modeling based approaches, including life cycle analyses have investigated biogeochemical tradeoffs, such as increased carbon sequestration and biophysical increased water use, associated with growing cellulosic feedstocks. A less understood aspect is the biophysical changes associated with the difference in albedo, which will alter the local energy balance and could cause a local to regional cooling several times larger than that associated with offsetting carbon. To address this factor an experiment consisting of paired fields of Miscanthus and Switchgrass, two of the leading perennial cellulosic feedstock candidates, and traditional row crops was established in central Illinois. Data from the first two growing seasons indicate that this effect is most pronounced during the spring and fall as perennial biofuel crops green up earlier and senesce later than common annual row crops. The albedo of the perennials converges to that of the row crops during the growing season as the canopies develop. During the early winter, before the perennial crops are harvested, the albedo over fallow soybean and maize fields can vary greatly depending on snowfall and, to a lesser extent, soil moisture, whereas perennials show less variation. Thus, perennial biofuel crops also have the potential to buffer the local environment against short-term variations in climate. These factors should be considered when evaluating the tradeoffs and climate-regulation services associated with large-scale planting of bioenergy crops.

  13. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of native Azospirillum strains from rice fields to improve crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Pradhan, Madhusmita; Dangar, Tushar K; Mohanty, Santanu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-07-01

    Beneficial microorganisms have been considered as an important tool for crop improvement. Native isolates of Azospirillum spp. were obtained from the rhizospheres of different rice fields. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characterizations of these isolates led to the identification of six efficient strain of Azospirillum. PCR amplification of the nif genes (nifH, nifD and nifK) and protein profile of Azospirillum strains revealed inter-generic and inter-specific diversity among the strains. In vitro nitrogen fixation performance and the plant growth promotion activities, viz. siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were found to vary among the Azospirillum strains. The effect of Azospirillum formulations on growth of rice var. Khandagiri under field condition was evaluated, which revealed that the native formulation of Azospirillum of CRRI field (As6) was most effective to elevate endogenous nutrient content, and improved growth and better yield are the result. The 16S rRNA sequence revealed novelty of native Azospirillum lipoferum (As6) (JQ796078) in the NCBI database.

  14. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Su

    2015-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anthocorid Orius sauteri (Poppius). We compared the attractiveness of pollens from crops and banker plants to that of common prey homogenates (aphids and thrips, respectively). Attractiveness of the tested odor sources was checked via field trapping experiments conducted in organic apple orchards and by release-recapture assays in organic greenhouse tomato crops. Maize and canola pollen were attractive to both P. japonica and O. sauteri, in laboratory and field assays. P. japonica was highly attracted by balm mint pollen, whereas O. sauteri was attracted by alfalfa pollen. Our results encourage the use of pollen from crops and banker plants as low-cost and eco-friendly attractors to enhance the monitoring and attraction of arthropod predators in biological control programs. PMID:26235136

  15. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Su

    2015-08-03

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anthocorid Orius sauteri (Poppius). We compared the attractiveness of pollens from crops and banker plants to that of common prey homogenates (aphids and thrips, respectively). Attractiveness of the tested odor sources was checked via field trapping experiments conducted in organic apple orchards and by release-recapture assays in organic greenhouse tomato crops. Maize and canola pollen were attractive to both P. japonica and O. sauteri, in laboratory and field assays. P. japonica was highly attracted by balm mint pollen, whereas O. sauteri was attracted by alfalfa pollen. Our results encourage the use of pollen from crops and banker plants as low-cost and eco-friendly attractors to enhance the monitoring and attraction of arthropod predators in biological control programs.

  16. Modeling surface energy fluxes from a patchwork of fields with different soils and crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Heinlein, Florian; Priesack, Eckart

    2017-04-01

    Agroecosystems are a dominant terrestrial land-use on planet earth and cover about 36% of the ice-free surface (12% pasture, 26% agriculture) [Foley2011]. Within this land use type, management practices vary strongly due to climate, cultural preferences, degree of industrialization, soil properties, crop rotations, field sizes, degree of land use sustainability, water availability, sowing and harvest dates, tillage, etc. These management practices influence abiotic environmental factors like water flow and heat transport within the ecosystem leading to changes of land surface fluxes. The relevance of vegetation (e.g. crops), ground cover, and soil properties to the moisture and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere is well known [McPherson 2007], but the impact of vegetation growth dynamics on energy fluxes is only partly understood [Gayler et al. 2014]. Thus, the structure of turbulence and the albedo evolve during the cropping period and large variations of heat can be measured on the field scale [Aubinet2012]. One issue of local distributed mixture of different land use is the measurement process which makes it challenging to evaluate simulations. Unfortunately, for meteorological flux-measurements like the Flux-Gradient or the Eddy Covariance (EC) method, comparability with simulations only exists in the ideal case, where fields have to be completely uniform in land use and flat within the reach of the footprint. Then a model with one specific land use would have the same underlying source area as the measurement. An elegant method to avoid the shortcoming of grid cell resolution is the so called mixed approach, which was recently implemented into the ecosystem model framework Expert-N [Biernath et al. 2013]. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the characteristics of five managed field plots, planted with winter wheat, potato and maize on the near surface soil moistures and on the near surface energy flux exchanges of the

  17. Mustard catch crop enhances denitrification in shallow groundwater beneath a spring barley field.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, M M R; Minet, E P; Johnston, P; Premrov, A; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Richards, K G

    2014-05-01

    Over-winter green cover crops have been reported to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in groundwater, which can be used as an energy source for denitrifiers. This study investigates the impact of a mustard catch crop on in situ denitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an aquifer overlain by arable land. Denitrification rates and N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) mole fractions were measured in situ with a push-pull method in shallow groundwater under a spring barley system in experimental plots with and without a mustard cover crop. The results suggest that a mustard cover crop could substantially enhance reduction of groundwater nitrate NO3--N via denitrification without significantly increasing N2O emissions. Mean total denitrification (TDN) rates below mustard cover crop and no cover crop were 7.61 and 0.002 μg kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. Estimated N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) ratios, being 0.001 and 1.0 below mustard cover crop and no cover crop respectively, indicate that denitrification below mustard cover crop reduces N2O to N2, unlike the plot with no cover crop. The observed enhanced denitrification under the mustard cover crop may result from the higher groundwater DOC under mustard cover crop (1.53 mg L(-1)) than no cover crop (0.90 mg L(-1)) being added by the root exudates and root masses of mustard. This study gives insights into the missing piece in agricultural nitrogen (N) balance and groundwater derived N2O emissions under arable land and thus helps minimise the uncertainty in agricultural N and N2O-N balances.

  18. Five crop seasons' records of greenhouse gas fluxes from upland fields with repetitive applications of biochar and cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akira; Ikeya, Kosuke; Kanazaki, Naoya; Makabe, Shuhei; Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Akira

    2014-11-01

    The application of char to agricultural land is recognized as a potential way to sequester atmospheric carbon (C) assimilated by plants in soil, thus decelerating global warming. Such a process would also be expected to improve plant growth and the physical and chemical properties of soil. However, field investigations of the effects of continuous char application have not been reported. In the present study, the effects of repetitive bamboo char application on CO2, CH4, and N2O flux from soil, soil C content, and crop yield were investigated at two upland fields over five crop seasons. Three treatments: chemical fertilizer (CF) applied plots (Control plot); cattle manure (CM) (10 t ha(-1)) and CF applied plot (CM plot); and bamboo char (20 t ha(-1)), cattle manure (10 t ha(-1)), and CF applied plot (Char/CM plot), were arranged in each field. After three crop seasons, the fourth treatment with char was applied without CF (Char plot) was given to one of the fields. CM and/or char were applied every crop season. Gas fluxes were measured using the static chamber method. Seasonal variations in CO2 flux and total CO2 emissions were consistently similar between the CM and Char/CM plots and between the Char and Control plots. As such, the decomposition rate of bamboo char was quite small, and the positive or negative effect of char on CM decomposition was not significant in the fields. Soil C analysis provided confirmation of this. CM application enhanced N2O emission mainly in the summer crop season. The differences in total N2O emission between the Char/CM and CM plots as well as between the Char and Control plots were insignificant in most cases. Total CH4 flux was negligibly small in all cases. Although the yield of winter crop (broccoli) in the Char/CM plots was twice observed to be higher than that in the Control and CM plots at one of the fields, in general, the char application had no effect on overall crop yield. Thus, the repeated application of bamboo

  19. Overestimation of Crop Root Biomass in Field Experiments Due to Extraneous Organic Matter

    PubMed Central

    Hirte, Juliane; Leifeld, Jens; Abiven, Samuel; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Hammelehle, Andreas; Mayer, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Root biomass is one of the most relevant root parameters for studies of plant response to environmental change, soil carbon modeling or estimations of soil carbon sequestration. A major source of error in root biomass quantification of agricultural crops in the field is the presence of extraneous organic matter in soil: dead roots from previous crops, weed roots, incorporated above ground plant residues and organic soil amendments, or remnants of soil fauna. Using the isotopic difference between recent maize root biomass and predominantly C3-derived extraneous organic matter, we determined the proportions of maize root biomass carbon of total carbon in root samples from the Swiss long-term field trial “DOK.” We additionally evaluated the effects of agricultural management (bio-organic and conventional), sampling depth (0–0.25, 0.25–0.5, 0.5–0.75 m) and position (within and between maize rows), and root size class (coarse and fine roots) as defined by sieve mesh size (2 and 0.5 mm) on those proportions, and quantified the success rate of manual exclusion of extraneous organic matter from root samples. Only 60% of the root mass that we retrieved from field soil cores was actual maize root biomass from the current season. While the proportions of maize root biomass carbon were not affected by agricultural management, they increased consistently with soil depth, were higher within than between maize rows, and were higher in coarse (>2 mm) than in fine (≤2 and >0.5) root samples. The success rate of manual exclusion of extraneous organic matter from root samples was related to agricultural management and, at best, about 60%. We assume that the composition of extraneous organic matter is strongly influenced by agricultural management and soil depth and governs the effect size of the investigated factors. Extraneous organic matter may result in severe overestimation of recovered root biomass and has, therefore, large implications for soil carbon modeling and

  20. Overestimation of Crop Root Biomass in Field Experiments Due to Extraneous Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Hirte, Juliane; Leifeld, Jens; Abiven, Samuel; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Hammelehle, Andreas; Mayer, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Root biomass is one of the most relevant root parameters for studies of plant response to environmental change, soil carbon modeling or estimations of soil carbon sequestration. A major source of error in root biomass quantification of agricultural crops in the field is the presence of extraneous organic matter in soil: dead roots from previous crops, weed roots, incorporated above ground plant residues and organic soil amendments, or remnants of soil fauna. Using the isotopic difference between recent maize root biomass and predominantly C3-derived extraneous organic matter, we determined the proportions of maize root biomass carbon of total carbon in root samples from the Swiss long-term field trial "DOK." We additionally evaluated the effects of agricultural management (bio-organic and conventional), sampling depth (0-0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-0.75 m) and position (within and between maize rows), and root size class (coarse and fine roots) as defined by sieve mesh size (2 and 0.5 mm) on those proportions, and quantified the success rate of manual exclusion of extraneous organic matter from root samples. Only 60% of the root mass that we retrieved from field soil cores was actual maize root biomass from the current season. While the proportions of maize root biomass carbon were not affected by agricultural management, they increased consistently with soil depth, were higher within than between maize rows, and were higher in coarse (>2 mm) than in fine (≤2 and >0.5) root samples. The success rate of manual exclusion of extraneous organic matter from root samples was related to agricultural management and, at best, about 60%. We assume that the composition of extraneous organic matter is strongly influenced by agricultural management and soil depth and governs the effect size of the investigated factors. Extraneous organic matter may result in severe overestimation of recovered root biomass and has, therefore, large implications for soil carbon modeling and estimations

  1. Gully evolution in field crops on vertic soils under conventional agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael; Mora, Jose; Gómez, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    Gully erosion is a major process contributing to soil degradation on cultivated areas. Its effects are especially intense in farms under conventional agriculture characterised by the use of heavy machinery for land levelling and herbicides leading to the depletion of natural vegetation in valley locations. When the soil (e.g. vertic soils) and parent material conditions (e.g. soft erodible marls) are favourable to incision, gully features may present large dimensions, producing the loss of significant proportions of productive land. This study evaluates the evolution of several gully networks located in Córdoba (Spain) within the Campiña area (a rolling landscape on Miocene marls) with conventional agriculture and gully filling operations as the predominant farm practices. The area of the catchments ranged from 10 to 100 ha, they were covered by field crops (mostly bean, sunflower and wheat) on vertic soils. Firstly, we carried out a historical analysis of the gully development during the last six decades by aerial image interpretation. Secondly, a number of field surveys were conducted to characterise the evolution of the gully morphology in a period of five years (2010-2014). For this purpose, a range of measurement techniques were used: pole and tape, differential GPS and 3D photo-reconstruction. Finally, the influence of topography (slope and drainage area) on gully dimensions along the longitudinal profile was assessed.

  2. Cover crops impact on excess rainfall and soil erosion rates in orchards and potato fields, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egozi, Roey; Gil, Eshel

    2015-04-01

    Bare soil and high drainage densities are common characteristics of intensive agriculture land. The couplings of these characteristics lead to high runoff and eroded soil volumes leaving the field or the orchard via the local drainage system into the fluvial system. This process increase flood risk due to massive deposition of the coarse fraction of the eroded soil and therefore reduces channel capacity to discharge the increase volumes of concentrated runoff. As a result drainage basin authorities are forced to invest large amount of money in maintaining and enlarging the drainage network. However this approach is un-sustainable. On the other hand, implementing cover crops (CC) and modification to current agricultural practices over the contributing area of the watershed seems to have more benefits and provide sustainable solution. A multi-disciplinary approach applied in commercial potatoes fields and orchards that utilize the benefit of CC shows great success as means of soil and water conservation and weed disinfestation without reduction in the yield, its quality or its profitability. The results indicate that it is possible to grow potatoes and citrus trees under CC with no reduction in yield or nutrient uptake, with more than 95% reduction in soil loss and more than 60% in runoff volumes and peak discharges.

  3. Field and vegetable crops as hosts of larval western spotted cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-06-01

    The western spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim, is an important pest of melons (Cucurmis melo L.) in northern California. Recent observations indicate that adults are using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as a feeding host and larvae may be developing on the roots. Greenhouse studies were conducted during the winters of 2009 and 2010 in which larval development was compared on the roots of six field and vegetable crops commonly grown in the southern Sacramento Valley. The growth parameters used to evaluate the hosts were larval and pupal head capsule width, body width, and body length as well as total survival percentage and survival percentage to the third instar. According to larval growth and survivorship in 2009, maize (Zea mays L.) was the best host, followed by alfalfa and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) that were roughly equivalent to one another. Melon was a slightly weaker host than alfalfa and tomato; sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was a completely incompatible host and thus dropped from the 2010 study. In 2010, melon was the weakest host for larval development. Maize was the superior host again followed closely by alfalfa that performed slightly better than tomato and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Data suggest that larval western spotted cucumber beetles may primarily develop outside of melon fields and the adults emigrate to melons.

  4. The effect of within-crop habitat manipulations on the conservation biological control of aphids in field-grown lettuce.

    PubMed

    Skirvin, D J; Kravar-Garde, L; Reynolds, K; Wright, C; Mead, A

    2011-12-01

    Within-crop habitat manipulations have the potential to increase the biological control of pests in horticultural field crops. Wildflower strips have been shown to increase the abundance of natural enemies, but there is little evidence to date of an impact on pest populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether within-crop wildflower strips can increase the natural regulation of pests in horticultural field crops. Aphid numbers in plots of lettuce grown adjacent to wildflower strips were compared with those in plots grown in the absence of wildflowers. The presence of wildflower strips led to a decrease in aphid numbers on adjacent lettuce plants during June and July, but had less impact in August and September. The decrease in aphid numbers was greatest close to the wildflower strips and, the decrease in aphid numbers declined with increasing distance from the wildflower strips, with little effect at a distance of ten metres. The main natural enemies found in the crop were those that dispersed aerially, which is consistent with data from previous studies on cereal crops. Analysis and interpretation of natural enemy numbers was difficult due to low recovery of natural enemies, and the numbers appeared to follow changes in aphid abundance rather than being directly linked to the presence of wildflower strips. Cutting the wildflower strips, to remove floral resources, had no impact on the reduction in aphid numbers achieved during June and July, but decreased the effect of the wildflower strips during August and September. The results suggest that wildflower strips can lead to increased natural regulation of pest aphids in outdoor lettuce crops, but more research is required to determine how this is mediated by natural enemies and how the impact of wildflower strips on natural pest regulation changes during the growing season.

  5. [Distribution characteristics of soil profile nitrous oxide concentration in paddy fields with different rice-upland crop rotation systems].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping-li; Zhang, Xiao-lin; Xiong, Zheng-qin; Huang, Tai-qing; Ding, Min; Wang, Jin-yang

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the dynamic distribution patterns of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the soil profiles in paddy fields with different rice-upland crop rotation systems, a special soil gas collection device was adopted to monitor the dynamics of N2O at the soil depths 7, 15, 30, and 50 cm in the paddy fields under both flooding and drainage conditions. Two rotation systems were installed, i.e., wheat-single rice and oilseed rape-double rice, each with or without nitrogen (N) application. Comparing with the control, N application promoted the N2O production in the soil profiles significantly (P < 0.01), and there existed significant correlations in the N2O concentration among the four soil depths during the whole observation period (P < 0.01). In the growth seasons of winter wheat and oilseed rape under drainage condition and with or without N application, the N2O concentrations at the soil depths 30 cm and 50 cm were significantly higher than those at the soil depths 7 cm and 15 cm; whereas in the early rice growth season under flooding condition and without N application, the N2O concentrations at the soil depth 7 cm and 15 cm were significantly higher than those at the soil depths 30 cm and 50 cm (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the N2O concentrations at the test soil depths among the other rice cropping treatments. The soil N2O concentrations in the treatments without N application peaked in the transitional period from the upland crops cropping to rice planting, while those in the treatments with N application peaked right after the second topdressing N of upland crops. Relatively high soil N2O concentrations were observed at the transitional period from the upland crops cropping to rice planting.

  6. Field-scale and Regional Variability in Evapotranspiration over Crops in California using Eddy Covariance and Surface Renewal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, E. R.; Clay, J. M.; Leinfelder-Miles, M.; Lambert, J. J.; Little, C.; Monteiro, R. O. C.; Monteiro, P. F. C.; Shapiro, K.; Rice, S.; Snyder, R. L.; Daniele, Z.; Paw U, K. T.

    2016-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) estimated using a single crop coefficient and a grass reference largely ignores variability due to heterogeneity in microclimate, soils, and crop management. We employ a relatively low cost energy balance residual method using surface renewal and eddy covariance measurements to continuously estimate half-hourly and daily ET across more than 15 fields and orchards spanning four crops and two regions of California. In the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, measurements were taken in corn, pasture, and alfalfa fields, with 4-5 stations in each crop type spread across the region. In the Southern San Joaquin Valley, measurements were taken in three different pistachio orchards, with one orchard having six stations instrumented to examine salinity-induced heterogeneity. We analyze field-scale and regional variability in ET and measured surface energy balance components. Cross comparisons between the eddy covariance and the surface renewal measurements confirm the robustness of the surface renewal method. A hybrid approach in which remotely sensed net radiation is combined with in situ measurements of sensible heat flux is also investigated. This work will provide ground-truth data for satellite and aerial-based ET estimates and will inform water management at the field and regional scales.

  7. Cultivos Tradicionales (Traditional Field Crops). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David

    Written in Spanish, this manual, which deals with traditional field crops, is primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and…

  8. Capture of non-target flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae, Chloropidae, Anthomyiidae) on traps baited with volatile chemicals in field crop habitats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina (Loew) and Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell], Chloropidae (Olcella sp.) and Anthomyiidae (Delia spp.) in field crops. With cotton rolls as dispensers, baiting with 2-phenylethanol increased catch of H...

  9. Denitrification in restored and constructed wetlands adjacent to crop fields on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fertilizer applications on crop fields are a significant source of nitrate (NO3), and groundwater concentrations are frequently 500-1000 µM. We show that groundwater transport of agricultural NO3 results in significant denitrification in adjacent wetlands in the Choptank Basin on the Delmarva Penins...

  10. Comparison of SVM RBF-NN and DT for crop and weed identification based on spectral measurement over corn fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is important to find an appropriate pattern-recognition method for in-field plant identification based on spectral measurement in order to classify the crop and weeds accurately. In this study, the method of Support Vector Machine (SVM) was evaluated and compared with two other methods, Decision ...

  11. Low-altitude, high-resolution aerial imaging systems for row and field crop phenotyping: A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global plant genetics research efforts have focused on developing high yielding, stress tolerant and disease resistant row and field crop varieties that are more efficient in their use of agronomic inputs (water, nutrients, pesticides, etc.). Until recently, a key bottleneck in such research was the...

  12. Pea Xyloglucan and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahisa; Marsden, Margery P. F.; Delmer, Deborah P.

    1987-01-01

    Since xyloglucan is believed to bind to cellulose microfibrils in the primary cell walls of higher plants and, when isolated from the walls, can also bind to cellulose in vitro, the binding mechanism of xyloglucan to cellulose was further investigated using radioiodinated pea xyloglucan. A time course for the binding showed that the radioiodinated xyloglucan continued to be bound for at least 4 hours at 40°C. Binding was inhibited above pH 6. Binding capacity was shown to vary for celluloses of different origin and was directly related to the relative surface area of the microfibrils. The binding of xyloglucan to cellulose was very specific and was not affected by the presence of a 10-fold excess of (1→2)-β-glucan, (1→3)-β-glucan, (1→6)-β-glucan, (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucan, arabinogalactan, or pectin. When xyloglucan (0.1%) was added to a cellulose-forming culture of Acetobacter xylinum, cellulose ribbon structure was partially disrupted indicating an association of xyloglucan with cellulose at the time of synthesis. Such a result suggests that the small size of primary wall microfibrils in higher plants may well be due to the binding of xyloglucan to cellulose during synthesis which prevents fasciation of small fibrils into larger bundles. Fluorescent xyloglucan was used to stain pea cell wall ghosts prepared to contain only the native xyloglucan:cellulose network or only cellulose. Ghosts containing only cellulose showed strong fluorescence when prepared before or after elongation; as predicted, the presence of native xyloglucan in the ghosts repressed binding of added fluorescent xyloglucan. Such ghosts, prepared after elongation when the ratio of native xyloglucan:cellulose is substantially reduced, still showed only faint fluorescence, indicating that microfibrils continue to be coated with xyloglucan throughout the growth period. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665254

  13. Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae from pea are phylogenetically and pathogenically diverse.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sanz, Alberto; de la Vega, Marcelino Pérez; Murillo, Jesús; Caminero, Constantino

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes extensive yield losses in the pea crop worldwide, although there is little information on its host specialization and its interactions with pea. A collection of 88 putative P. syringae pv. syringae strains (including 39 strains isolated from pea) was characterized by repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and syrB amplification and evaluated for pathogenicity and virulence. rep-PCR data grouped the strains from pea into two groups (1B and 1C) together with strains from other hosts; a third group (1A) was formed exclusively with strains isolated from non-legume species. MLST data included all strains from pea in the genomospecies 1 of P. syringae pathovars defined in previous studies; they were distributed in the same three groups defined by rep-PCR. The inoculations performed in two pea cultivars showed that P. syringae pv. syringae strains from groups 1A and 1C were less virulent than strains from group 1B, suggesting a possible pathogenic specialization in this group. This study shows the existence of genetically and pathogenically distinct P. syringae pv. syringae strain groups from pea, which will be useful for the diagnostic and epidemiology of this pathogen and for disease resistance breeding.

  14. Greenhouse studies of thiamethoxam effects on pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor; Herle, Carolyn; Hervet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has recently emerged as an important pest of field peas in the Canadian prairies. Systemic seed-coated insecticides may provide a tool for the integrated pest management of this pest. Therefore, several controlled assays were performed in order to determine effects of a recently registered neonicotinoid, (thiamethoxam) on S. lineatus damage to foliage, weevil mortality, fertility, egg viability, larval mortality, and root nodule damage. Foliage damage was reduced by thiamethoxam relative to untreated controls during the seedling stage (2(nd)-5(th) nodes), but weevil adult mortality was only 15-30%. Fertility was reduced substantially through an extra seven-day delay in the preoviposition period and reduced egg-laying rate during the first 20 days of the study (92% lower than controls). Overall egg viability was lower in females fed foliage grown from thiamethoxamtreated seeds. Larval survivorship and nodule damage were also lower, but only when eggs were added to treated plants at the 2(nd) node stage. When eggs were added late, at the 5th node stage, thiamethoxam had no effect on larval survivorship or nodule damage. The results of this study led to the conclusion that seed treatments such as thiamethoxam have potential to be used as tools that will aid in the integrated pest management of S. lineatus, especially in combination with other methods such as biocontrol and trap crops.

  15. Greenhouse Studies of Thiamethoxam Effects on Pea Leaf Weevil, Sitona lineatus

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, Héctor; Herle, Carolyn; Hervet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has recently emerged as an important pest of field peas in the Canadian prairies. Systemic seed-coated insecticides may provide a tool for the integrated pest management of this pest. Therefore, several controlled assays were performed in order to determine effects of a recently registered neonicotinoid, (thiamethoxam) on S. lineatus damage to foliage, weevil mortality, fertility, egg viability, larval mortality, and root nodule damage. Foliage damage was reduced by thiamethoxam relative to untreated controls during the seedling stage (2nd–5th nodes), but weevil adult mortality was only 15–30%. Fertility was reduced substantially through an extra seven-day delay in the preoviposition period and reduced egg-laying rate during the first 20 days of the study (92% lower than controls). Overall egg viability was lower in females fed foliage grown from thiamethoxamtreated seeds. Larval survivorship and nodule damage were also lower, but only when eggs were added to treated plants at the 2nd node stage. When eggs were added late, at the 5th node stage, thiamethoxam had no effect on larval survivorship or nodule damage. The results of this study led to the conclusion that seed treatments such as thiamethoxam have potential to be used as tools that will aid in the integrated pest management of S. lineatus, especially in combination with other methods such as biocontrol and trap crops. PMID:23461362

  16. Effects of Winter Cover Crops Residue Returning on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Community in Double-Cropping Rice Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice–rice–rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice–rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

  17. Characterization of proanthocyanidin metabolism in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Kiva; Jin, Alena L; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Reinecke, Dennis M; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2014-09-16

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) accumulate in the seeds, fruits and leaves of various plant species including the seed coats of pea (Pisum sativum), an important food crop. PAs have been implicated in human health, but molecular and biochemical characterization of pea PA biosynthesis has not been established to date, and detailed pea PA chemical composition has not been extensively studied. PAs were localized to the ground parenchyma and epidermal cells of pea seed coats. Chemical analyses of PAs from seeds of three pea cultivars demonstrated cultivar variation in PA composition. 'Courier' and 'Solido' PAs were primarily prodelphinidin-types, whereas the PAs from 'LAN3017' were mainly the procyanidin-type. The mean degree of polymerization of 'LAN3017' PAs was also higher than those from 'Courier' and 'Solido'. Next-generation sequencing of 'Courier' seed coat cDNA produced a seed coat-specific transcriptome. Three cDNAs encoding anthocyanidin reductase (PsANR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (PsLAR), and dihydroflavonol reductase (PsDFR) were isolated. PsANR and PsLAR transcripts were most abundant earlier in seed coat development. This was followed by maximum PA accumulation in the seed coat. Recombinant PsANR enzyme efficiently synthesized all three cis-flavan-3-ols (gallocatechin, catechin, and afzalechin) with satisfactory kinetic properties. The synthesis rate of trans-flavan-3-ol by co-incubation of PsLAR and PsDFR was comparable to cis-flavan-3-ol synthesis rate by PsANR. Despite the competent PsLAR activity in vitro, expression of PsLAR driven by the Arabidopsis ANR promoter in wild-type and anr knock-out Arabidopsis backgrounds did not result in PA synthesis. Significant variation in seed coat PA composition was found within the pea cultivars, making pea an ideal system to explore PA biosynthesis. PsANR and PsLAR transcript profiles, PA localization, and PA accumulation patterns suggest that a pool of PA subunits are produced in specific seed coat cells early in

  18. [Influence of paddy rice-upland crop rotation of cold-waterlogged paddy field on crops produc- tion and soil characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Qing-hua; Lin, Cheng; He, Chun-mei; Zhong, Shao-jie; Li, Yu; Lin, Xin-jian; Huang, Jian-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Two consecutive years (4-crop) experiments were conducted to study the influence of different paddy rice-upland crop rotation in cold-waterlogged paddy field on the growth of crops and soil characteristics. The result showed that compared with the rice-winter fallow (CK) pattern, the two-year average yield of paddy rice under four rotation modes, including rape-rice (R-R), spring corn-rice (C-R), Chinese milk vetch-rice (M-R) and bean-rice (B-R), were increased by 5.3%-26.7%, with significant difference observed in C-R and R-R patterns. Except for M-R pattern, the annual average total economic benefits were improved by 79.0%-392.4% in all rotation pattern compared with the CK, and the ration of output/input was enhanced by 0.06-0.72 unit, with the most significant effect found in the C-R pattern. Likewise, compared with the CK, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of rice plant were all increased during the full-tillering stage of rice in all rotation patterns. The rusty lines and rusty spots of soils were more obvious compared with the CK during the rice harvest, particularly in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns. The ratio of water-stable soil macro aggregates of plough layer of soil (> 2 mm) decreased at different levels in all rotation patterns while the ratios of middle aggregate (0.25-2 mm, expect for M-R) and micro aggregate of soil (< 0.25 mm) were opposite. There was a decreasing trend for soil active reducing agents in all rotation patterns, whereas the available nutrient increased. The amounts of soil bacteria in C-R and B-R patterns, fungi in B-R rotation pattern, cellulose bacteria in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns and N-fixing bacteria in B-R pattern were improved by 285.7%-403.0%, 221.7%, 64.6-92.2% and 162.2%, respectively. Moreover, the differences in all microorganisms were significant. Thus, based on the experimental results of cold-waterlogged paddy field, it was concluded that changing from single cropping rice system

  19. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) isolates to the adult pea leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and prospects of an autoinoculation device for infection in the field.

    PubMed

    Migiro, L N; Maniania, N K; Chabi-Olaye, A; Vandenberg, J

    2010-04-01

    Seventeen isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin and three isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated for their pathogenicity to the adult pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in the laboratory. Flies were contaminated with dry conidia through a velvet material wrapped around the inner side of a cylindrical plastic tube. All the isolates were pathogenic to the pea leafminer, causing mortality between 40 and 100% at 5 d after exposure. The lethal time for 50% mortality (LT(50)) ranged from 2.6 to 5.4 d, whereas the LT(90) values varied between 3.2 and 9.1 d depending on the isolate. An autoinoculation device was evaluated in cage field experiments using only one of the virulent isolates, M. anisopliae ICIPE 20. The device was loaded with 2-3 g of dry conidia. Mortality of up to 100% was observed in flies captured from fungus-treated cages held under laboratory conditions. The average number of spores picked up by a single fly visiting the device increased with days after inoculation. One day after the inoculation, adults picked up an average of 4.1 +/- 0.7 x 10(5) conidia and 39.6 +/- 4.0 x 10(5) conidia 5 d after inoculation. Depending on the sampling date, the LT(50) varied between 1.8 and 3.4 d. Results indicate that some isolates of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae are highly pathogenic to L. huidobrensis, suggesting a potential for their use in the control of this pest. They also suggest the possibility of L. huidobrensis suppression with fungi using an autoinoculation device.

  20. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done…

  1. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done…

  2. Greenhouse evaluation of solum and substratum materials in the southern Illinois coal field: I. forage crops

    SciTech Connect

    Dancer, W.S.; Jansen, I.J.

    1981-09-01

    More than 75% of the surface-mined coal in Illinois is produced in southern counties, where soils have a very strongly acid and nutrient-deficient subsoil that limits root penetration and water availability. Slightly acid (pH 6.2) C/sub 1/-material and mildly alkaline glacial till (pH 7.5) overburden strata are readily available in these coal fields, and could be used in post-mining soil construction. The objective is to identify overburden materials that can be used as an alternative to the very strongly acid (pH 4.7) subsoil. This study compared the growth of three forage test crops on representative Weir silt loam topsoil (Ap) and subsoil (B/sub 2/), with deeper C/sub 1/-material (B/sub 3/ and C/sub 1/ strata), and Illinoian glacial till (IIIC stratum). All of the overburden materials studied significantly responded to lime and fertilizer with topsoil supporting the best plant growth without amendment. The very strongly acid subsoil was shown to be inferior to the leached C/sub 1/-material found immediately below it. Amendment with high levels of lime and fertilizer was required to achieve maximum productivity on the native subsoil. Blending the subsoil with the C/sub 1/-material was shown to be a viable alternative to liming it, and provided a more desirable texture as well.

  3. Assessing the effects of architectural variations on light partitioning within virtual wheat–pea mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Barillot, Romain; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.; Fournier, Christian; Huynh, Pierre; Combes, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Predicting light partitioning in crop mixtures is a critical step in improving the productivity of such complex systems, and light interception has been shown to be closely linked to plant architecture. The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationships between plant architecture and light partitioning within wheat–pea (Triticum aestivum–Pisum sativum) mixtures. An existing model for wheat was utilized and a new model for pea morphogenesis was developed. Both models were then used to assess the effects of architectural variations in light partitioning. Methods First, a deterministic model (L-Pea) was developed in order to obtain dynamic reconstructions of pea architecture. The L-Pea model is based on L-systems formalism and consists of modules for ‘vegetative development’ and ‘organ extension’. A tripartite simulator was then built up from pea and wheat models interfaced with a radiative transfer model. Architectural parameters from both plant models, selected on the basis of their contribution to leaf area index (LAI), height and leaf geometry, were then modified in order to generate contrasting architectures of wheat and pea. Key results By scaling down the analysis to the organ level, it could be shown that the number of branches/tillers and length of internodes significantly determined the partitioning of light within mixtures. Temporal relationships between light partitioning and the LAI and height of the different species showed that light capture was mainly related to the architectural traits involved in plant LAI during the early stages of development, and in plant height during the onset of interspecific competition. Conclusions In silico experiments enabled the study of the intrinsic effects of architectural parameters on the partitioning of light in crop mixtures of wheat and pea. The findings show that plant architecture is an important criterion for the identification/breeding of plant ideotypes, particularly

  4. Assessing the effects of architectural variations on light partitioning within virtual wheat-pea mixtures.

    PubMed

    Barillot, Romain; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Fournier, Christian; Huynh, Pierre; Combes, Didier

    2014-09-01

    Predicting light partitioning in crop mixtures is a critical step in improving the productivity of such complex systems, and light interception has been shown to be closely linked to plant architecture. The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationships between plant architecture and light partitioning within wheat-pea (Triticum aestivum-Pisum sativum) mixtures. An existing model for wheat was utilized and a new model for pea morphogenesis was developed. Both models were then used to assess the effects of architectural variations in light partitioning. First, a deterministic model (L-Pea) was developed in order to obtain dynamic reconstructions of pea architecture. The L-Pea model is based on L-systems formalism and consists of modules for 'vegetative development' and 'organ extension'. A tripartite simulator was then built up from pea and wheat models interfaced with a radiative transfer model. Architectural parameters from both plant models, selected on the basis of their contribution to leaf area index (LAI), height and leaf geometry, were then modified in order to generate contrasting architectures of wheat and pea. By scaling down the analysis to the organ level, it could be shown that the number of branches/tillers and length of internodes significantly determined the partitioning of light within mixtures. Temporal relationships between light partitioning and the LAI and height of the different species showed that light capture was mainly related to the architectural traits involved in plant LAI during the early stages of development, and in plant height during the onset of interspecific competition. In silico experiments enabled the study of the intrinsic effects of architectural parameters on the partitioning of light in crop mixtures of wheat and pea. The findings show that plant architecture is an important criterion for the identification/breeding of plant ideotypes, particularly with respect to light partitioning.

  5. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Lentil Handbook, which is available on GIPSA's public Web site at: http://www.gipsa.usda.gov/Publications... under the AMA include those for rice, whole dry peas, split peas, feed peas, lentils and beans. The U.S. standards for whole dry peas, split peas, feed peas, lentils and beans no longer appear in the Code of...

  6. Applying neural networks to hyperspectral and multispectral field data for discrimination of cruciferous weeds in winter crops.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Ana-Isabel; Jurado-Expósito, Montserrat; Gómez-Casero, María-Teresa; López-Granados, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    In the context of detection of weeds in crops for site-specific weed control, on-ground spectral reflectance measurements are the first step to determine the potential of remote spectral data to classify weeds and crops. Field studies were conducted for four years at different locations in Spain. We aimed to distinguish cruciferous weeds in wheat and broad bean crops, using hyperspectral and multispectral readings in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. To identify differences in reflectance between cruciferous weeds, we applied three classification methods: stepwise discriminant (STEPDISC) analysis and two neural networks, specifically, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF). Hyperspectral and multispectral signatures of cruciferous weeds, and wheat and broad bean crops can be classified using STEPDISC analysis, and MLP and RBF neural networks with different success, being the MLP model the most accurate with 100%, or higher than 98.1%, of classification performance for all the years. Classification accuracy from hyperspectral signatures was similar to that from multispectral and spectral indices, suggesting that little advantage would be obtained by using more expensive airborne hyperspectral imagery. Therefore, for next investigations, we recommend using multispectral remote imagery to explore whether they can potentially discriminate these weeds and crops.

  7. Applying Neural Networks to Hyperspectral and Multispectral Field Data for Discrimination of Cruciferous Weeds in Winter Crops

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Ana-Isabel; Jurado-Expósito, Montserrat; Gómez-Casero, María-Teresa; López-Granados, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    In the context of detection of weeds in crops for site-specific weed control, on-ground spectral reflectance measurements are the first step to determine the potential of remote spectral data to classify weeds and crops. Field studies were conducted for four years at different locations in Spain. We aimed to distinguish cruciferous weeds in wheat and broad bean crops, using hyperspectral and multispectral readings in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. To identify differences in reflectance between cruciferous weeds, we applied three classification methods: stepwise discriminant (STEPDISC) analysis and two neural networks, specifically, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF). Hyperspectral and multispectral signatures of cruciferous weeds, and wheat and broad bean crops can be classified using STEPDISC analysis, and MLP and RBF neural networks with different success, being the MLP model the most accurate with 100%, or higher than 98.1%, of classification performance for all the years. Classification accuracy from hyperspectral signatures was similar to that from multispectral and spectral indices, suggesting that little advantage would be obtained by using more expensive airborne hyperspectral imagery. Therefore, for next investigations, we recommend using multispectral remote imagery to explore whether they can potentially discriminate these weeds and crops. PMID:22629171

  8. Rapid phenotyping of crop root systems in undisturbed field soils using X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Johannes; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Colombi, Tino; Walter, Achim

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a powerful tool for root phenotyping. Compared to rather classical, destructive methods, CT encompasses various advantages. In pot experiments the growth and development of the same individual root can be followed over time and in addition the unaltered configuration of the 3D root system architecture (RSA) interacting with a real field soil matrix can be studied. Yet, the throughput, which is essential for a more widespread application of CT for basic research or breeding programs, suffers from the bottleneck of rapid and standardized segmentation methods to extract root structures. Using available methods, root segmentation is done to a large extent manually, as it requires a lot of interactive parameter optimization and interpretation and therefore needs a lot of time. Based on commercially available software, this paper presents a protocol that is faster, more standardized and more versatile compared to existing segmentation methods, particularly if used to analyse field samples collected in situ. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first study approaching to develop a comprehensive segmentation method suitable for comparatively large columns sampled in situ which contain complex, not necessarily connected root systems from multiple plants grown in undisturbed field soil. Root systems from several crops were sampled in situ and CT-volumes determined with the presented method were compared to root dry matter of washed root samples. A highly significant (P < 0.01) and strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) was found, demonstrating the value of the presented method in the context of field research. Subsequent to segmentation, a method for the measurement of root thickness distribution has been used. Root thickness is a central RSA trait for various physiological research questions such as root growth in compacted soil or under oxygen deficient soil conditions, but hardly assessable in high throughput until today, due

  9. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming.

  10. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Peas, and Lentils AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA ACTION: Notice... Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To ensure that the standards and... current U.S. Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils are meeting the needs in today's marketing...

  11. [Effects of different multiple cropping systems on paddy field weed community under long term paddy-upland rotation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Xu, Ning; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Based on a long term field experiment, this paper studied the effects of different multiple cropping systems on the weed community composition and species diversity under paddy-upland rotation. The multiple cropping rotation systems could significantly decrease weed density and inhibited weed growth. Among the rotation systems, the milk vetch-early rice-late maize --> milk vetchearly maize intercropped with early soybean-late rice (CCSR) had the lowest weed species dominance, which inhibited the dominant weeds and decreased their damage. Under different multiple cropping systems, the main weed community was all composed of Monochoia vaginalis, Echinochloa crusgalli, and Sagittaria pygmae, and the similarity of weed community was higher, with the highest similarity appeared in milk vetch-early rice-late maize intercropped with late soybean --> milk vetch-early maize-late rice (CSCR) and in CCSR. In sum, the multiple cropping rotations in paddy field could inhibit weeds to a certain extent, but attentions should be paid to the damage of some less important weeds.

  12. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Millimeters Inch Extra small Up to 7.5 0.295 Very small Up to 8.2 .32 Small Up to 8.75 .34 Medium Up to 10.2... peas, i.e., yellow or white but edible peas; (ii) Not more than 10 percent by weight blemished peas, i... cotyledons and loose skins, but excluding entire intact peas with skins detached; (v) Not more than...

  13. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  14. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  15. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  16. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  17. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If they...

  18. UAV-based high-throughput phenotyping in legume crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Khot, Lav R.; Quirós, Juan; Vandemark, George J.; McGee, Rebecca J.

    2016-05-01

    In plant breeding, one of the biggest obstacles in genetic improvement is the lack of proven rapid methods for measuring plant responses in field conditions. Therefore, the major objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing high-throughput remote sensing technology for rapid measurement of phenotyping traits in legume crops. The plant responses of several chickpea and peas varieties to the environment were assessed with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) integrated with multispectral imaging sensors. Our preliminary assessment showed that the vegetation indices are strongly correlated (p<0.05) with seed yield of legume crops. Results endorse the potential of UAS-based sensing technology to rapidly measure those phenotyping traits.

  19. Remote Estimation of Gross Primary Production in Crops at Field and Regional Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Vina, A.; Verma, S. B.; Rundquist, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate estimation of spatially distributed CO2 fluxes is of great importance for regional and global studies of carbon balance. We have found that in irrigated and rainfed crops (maize and soybean), GPP is closely related to total crop chlorophyll content. The finding allowed development of a new technique for remote estimation of crop chlorophyll specifically for assessing gross primary production. The technique is based on reflectance in two spectral channels: the near-infrared and either the green or the red-edge. The technique provided accurate estimations of daily GPP in both crops. Validation using independent datasets for irrigated and rainfed maize and soybean documented the robustness of the technique. We report also about applying the developed technique for GPP retrieval from data acquired by both an airborne imaging spectrometer (AISA-Eagle) and Landsat ETM+. The Chlorophyll Index, retrieved from Landsat ETM+ data, was found to be an accurate surrogate measure for daily crop GPP with a root mean square error of GPP prediction of less than 1.58 g C m-2d-1 in a GPP range of 1.88 g C m-2d-1 to 23.1 g C m-2d-1. These results suggest new possibilities for analyzing the spatio-temporal variation of the GPP of crops using not only the extensive archive of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery acquired since the early 1980s but also the 500-m/pixel data currently being acquired by MODIS.

  20. Hyperspectral remote sensing of crop leaf chlorophyll content using reflectance simulation model and field data in open canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Yanhong; Liu, Liangyun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content -a and -b content (Cab) is an indicator for crop nutrition status and photosynthetic capacity. Remote sensing of Cab plays an important role in crop growth monitoring, pest and disease diagnosis, and crop yield assessment, yet the feasibility and stability of such estimation has not been assessed thoroughly for mixed pixels when crop canopies are not closed. This study analyzes the influence of spectral mixing on leaf chlorophyll content estimation using canopy spectra simulated by the PROSAIL reflectance model and the spectral linear mixture concept. It is observed that the accuracy of leaf chlorophyll content estimation would be degraded for mixed pixels using the well accepted approach of the combination of TCARI and OSAVI. A two-step method was thus developed for winter wheat chlorophyll content estimation by taking into consideration the fractional vegetation cover using a look-up table approach. The two methods were validated using ground spectra, airborne hyperspectral data and leaf chlorophyll content measured the same time over experimental winter wheat fields. Using the two-step method, the leaf chlorophyll content of the open canopy was estimated from the airborne hyperspectral imagery with a root mean square error of 5.18 μg cm-2, which is an improvement of about 8.9% relative to the accuracy obtained using the TCARI/OSAVI ratio directly. This implies that the method proposed in this study has great potential for hyperspectral applications in agricultural management, particularly for applications before crop canopy closure. This study, therefore, offers a feasible technique that might be applied to crop chlorophyll content estimation using large-scale remote sensing data.

  1. Brassinosteroid Mutants of Crops.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gerard J.

    2003-12-01

    Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), were originally isolated from extracts of pollen because of their growth-promoting properties and their potential use for enhancing crop production. Mutants in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of brassinolide (BL), the most bioactive BR, are important resources in helping to establish BRs' essential role in plant growth and development. The dark green and distinctive dwarf phenotype of BR-related mutants identified in pea, tomato, and rice highlights the importance of BRs in crops. These mutants are helping to elucidate both the conserved and the unique features of BR biosynthesis and signaling. Such insights are providing the key knowledge and understanding that will enable the development of strategies towards the production of crops with enhanced qualities.

  2. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  3. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and... CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas. (a) Identity—(1) Product definition. Frozen peas is the food in “package” form as that term...

  4. Grass pea as a nitrogen source for continuous no-till winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sources of organic nitrogen (N) for crop production in the southern Great Plains (SGP) - and methods of their use - need evaluation to find ways to counter the rising cost of N fertilizer. This study examined N availability from the cool-season pulse grass pea (GP) (Lathyrus sativus.L.) for continuo...

  5. Genome-wide association mapping of partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in pea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome-wide association mapping has recently emerged as a valuable approach to refine genetic basis of polygenic resistance to plant diseases, which are increasingly used in integrated strategies for durable crop protection. Aphanomyces euteiches is a soil borne pathogen of pea and other legumes wor...

  6. Mapping QTL for Fusarium wilt Race 2 partial resistance in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi (Fop) is present in pea production regions worldwide, and causes a vascular wilt resulting in significant crop losses. Four races of Fop have been identified and resistance to each reportedly conferred by an individual single dominant gene. Fnw confers resistance to Fop...

  7. Water footprint assessment for crop production based on field measurements: A case study of irrigated paddy rice in East China.

    PubMed

    Xinchun, Cao; Mengyang, Wu; Rui, Shu; La, Zhuo; Dan, Chen; Guangcheng, Shao; Xiangping, Guo; Weiguang, Wang; Shuhai, Tang

    2018-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a comprehensive measure of water consumption by human activities and can be used to assess the impact on both water volume and quality. This study aims to explore the feasibility of evaluating green, blue and grey WFs of crop production based on field measurements. The irrigated paddy rice grown in three different experimental sites in different typical irrigation districts in Huai'an, East China over 2011 to 2014 was taken as study case. With fixed irrigation and fertilization, on the basis of measuring field water and fertilizer balance at daily step, we calculated WF of crop production under different test treatments. Results show that crop water requirement of rice was measured as 667.1mm and 6.2% of the total nitrogen (T-N) was washed away from farmland accompany with drainage and percolation. Average annual WF of paddy rice during 2011-2014 in Huai'an was 1.760m(3)/kg (33.3% green, 25.8% blue and 40.9% grey). The level of WF and blue water proportion in different locations (irrigation districts) and different years changed slightly, while the proportion of green and grey WF changed with the variance of precipitation. Green water proportion was 25.1%, 34.2 and 44.2%, while 48.0%, 40.2% and 31.0% for grey water proportion under precipitation levels of 400, 600 and 800mm, respectively. The reduced grey WF was due to increased drainage. This study not only proved the feasibility of assessing WF of crop production with field experiments, but also provided a new method for WF calculation based on field water and fertilizer migration processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pea Xyloglucan and Cellulose 1

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahisa; Polonenko, Daniel R.; Camirand, Anne; Maclachlan, Gordon

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis and assembly of xyloglucan were examined during early stages of wall regeneration by protoplasts isolated from growing regions of etiolated peas. During early stages of cultivation, fluorescence microscopy showed that the protoplast surface bound Calcofluor and ammonium salt of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid and, in time, it also bound fluorescent fucose-binding lectin. Based on chemical analysis, 1,3-β-glucan was the main polysaccharide formed by protoplasts and xyloglucan and cellulose were minor wall components. Binding between cellulose and xyloglucan was not as strong as that in tissues of intact pea plants, i.e. mild alkali could dissolve most xyloglucan from the protoplast. However, the addition of exogenous pea xyloglucan into the culture medium stimulated the deposition of new polysaccharides into the protoplast wall and enhanced the close association of newly formed xyloglucan with cellulose. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:16665011

  9. Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon

  10. Investigating the use of Active Crop Canopy Sensors for Soybean Management in Field Research and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joshua Jay

    Approximately one-third of soybean yield gain is a result of improved agronomic practices, which includes disease and insect management. Treatments containing fungicide, insecticide, biological, and nutrient components were evaluated in Nebraska soybean fields during 2013 through 2015 to determine effects on soybean yield and profitability. The greatest yield (4.83 Mg ha -1, p=0.019) was achieved with a complete seed and pod set treatment, but resulted in the second lowest calculated net return (US151 ha -1, p=0.019) after accounting for fixed and variable costs at a soybean market price of US0.367 kg-1. The most profitable treatment was the fungicide seed treatment followed by no pod set treatment (US$241 ha-1, p=0.019). The use of pod set treatments in the absence of significant disease and insect pressure was not profitable in most instances. Crop canopy reflectance was measured several times throughout the season during 2014 and 2015 to evaluate normalized difference red edge (NDRE) index to predict soybean productivity. The NDRE values were used to calculate a cumulative reflectance value through the R6 growth stage, defined as area under the reflectance progress curve (AURPC). The AURPC values and seed yield were classified as top 25%, middle 50%, or bottom 25% by location. Multinomial regression determined that bottom AURPC values correctly predicted bottom yield 52.5% of the time (p=0.033), but ranged from 46.7 to 86.2% by location. Misclassifications by incorrectly identifying a bottom yield within the top AURPC ranged from 0.0% to 16.7% by location. The AURPC offers a novel method to delineate management zones in soybean production fields. Soybean canopy reflectance was also evaluated for the relationship between NDRE and soybean response to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) infection. SCN-resistant and -susceptible varieties were planted in SCN-infested and non-infested sites during 2015 and 2016. Susceptible varieties yielded

  11. Comparison of GHG fluxes from conventional and energy crop production from adjacent fields in the UK, using novel technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, James Benjamin; Ineson, Phil; Toet, Sylvia; Stockdale, James; Vallack, Harry; Blei, Emanuel; Bentley, Mark; Howarth, Steve

    2016-04-01

    With combustion of fossil fuels driving anthropogenic climate change, allied to a diminishing global reserve of these resources it is vital for alternative sources of energy production to be investigated. One alternative is biomass; ethanol fermented from corn (Zea mays) or sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) has long been used as a petroleum substitute, and oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) is the principal feedstock for biodiesel production in Germany, the third biggest producer of this fuel globally. Diverting food crops into energy production would seem counter-productive, given there exists genuine concern regarding our ability to meet future global food demand, thus attention has turned to utilising lignocellulosic material: woody tissue and non-food crop by-products such as corn stover. For this reason species such as the perennial grass Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) are being cultivated for energy production, and these are referred to as second generation energy crops. They are attractive since they do not deplete food supplies, have high yields, require less fertiliser input than annual arable crops, and can be grown on marginal agricultural land. To assess the effectiveness of a crop for bioenergy production, it is vital that accurate quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes is obtained for their cultivation in the field. We will present data from a series of studies investigating the GHG fluxes from the energy crops OSR and Miscanthus under various nutrient additions in a comparison with conventional arable cropping at the same site in the United Kingdom (UK). A combination of methods were employed to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from both soil and vegetation, at various temporal and spatial scales. Conventional manual chambers were deployed on a monthly regime to quantify soil GHG fluxes, and were supplemented with automated soil flux chambers measuring soil respiration at an hourly frequency. Additionally, two novel automated chamber systems

  12. Patterns of Genetic Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in a Large Collection of Pea Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Smýkal, Petr; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum, L.) is a major pulse crop used both for animal and human alimentation. Owing to its association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, it is also a valuable component for low-input cropping systems. To evaluate the genetic diversity and the scale of linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in pea, we genotyped a collection of 917 accessions, gathering elite cultivars, landraces, and wild relatives using an array of ∼13,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genetic diversity is broadly distributed across three groups corresponding to wild/landraces peas, winter types, and spring types. At a finer subdivision level, genetic groups relate to local breeding programs and type usage. LD decreases steeply as genetic distance increases. When considering subsets of the data, LD values can be higher, even if the steep decay remains. We looked for genomic regions exhibiting high level of differentiation between wild/landraces, winter, and spring pea, respectively. Two regions on linkage groups 5 and 6 containing 33 SNPs exhibit stronger differentiation between winter and spring peas than would be expected under neutrality. Interestingly, QTL for resistance to cold acclimation and frost resistance have been identified previously in the same regions. PMID:28611254

  13. Patterns of Genetic Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in a Large Collection of Pea Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Smýkal, Petr; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2017-08-07

    Pea (Pisum sativum, L.) is a major pulse crop used both for animal and human alimentation. Owing to its association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, it is also a valuable component for low-input cropping systems. To evaluate the genetic diversity and the scale of linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay in pea, we genotyped a collection of 917 accessions, gathering elite cultivars, landraces, and wild relatives using an array of ∼13,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genetic diversity is broadly distributed across three groups corresponding to wild/landraces peas, winter types, and spring types. At a finer subdivision level, genetic groups relate to local breeding programs and type usage. LD decreases steeply as genetic distance increases. When considering subsets of the data, LD values can be higher, even if the steep decay remains. We looked for genomic regions exhibiting high level of differentiation between wild/landraces, winter, and spring pea, respectively. Two regions on linkage groups 5 and 6 containing 33 SNPs exhibit stronger differentiation between winter and spring peas than would be expected under neutrality. Interestingly, QTL for resistance to cold acclimation and frost resistance have been identified previously in the same regions. Copyright © 2017 Siol et al.

  14. Pesticides selectivity list to beneficial arthropods in four field vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Hautier, L; Jansen, J P; Mabon, N; Schiffers, B

    2007-01-01

    Selectivity of pesticides to beneficial arthropods is a key data for the implementation of IPM program. In the context of field vegetables crop, a set of 16 fungicides, 17 herbicides and 14 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested on 5 indicator species: the parasitic hymenoptera Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), the aphid foliage dwelling predators Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae) and Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae) and the ground-dwelling predators Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphyllinidae) and Bembidion lampros (Col., Carabidae). Pesticides were tested according a testing scheme including a first assessment on inert substrate (glass plates for adults of A. rhopalosiphi, larvae of A. bipunctata and E. balteatus, sand on adults of A. bilineata and B. lampros) and, for product that were toxic, a second assessment on natural substrate (barley seedlings for A. rhopalosiphi, french bean plants for A. bipunctato and E. balteatus and two type of soil for 8. lampros and A. bilineato). The effects of the product were assessed on basis on mortality, except for A. bilineata (Onion fly pupae parasitism). According to the final results obtained at the end of this testing scheme, the product were listed in toxicity class: green list if effect < or =30%, yellow list 30% < effect < 60% and orange list 60% < effect < or =80%. Products with toxicity higher than 80% on plants or on soils, or that reduce parasitism more than 80% on soil were put in red list and are not recommended for IPM. Results showed that all fungicides and herbicides were included in the green list except tebuconazole and boscalid + pyraclostrobin that were labeled as yellow for A. bipunctata. In opposite, no foliar insecticide was totally selective for all beneficial tested. However some products are in green list for one or several species. Soil insecticides were all are very toxic for ground dwelling arthropods and classed in red list. All results

  15. A model-data fusion analysis for examining the response of carbon exchange to environmental variation in crop field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokozawa, M.; Sakurai, G.; Ono, K.; Mano, M.; Miyata, A.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural activities, cultivating crops, managing soil, harvesting and post-harvest treatments, are not only affected from the surrounding environment but also change the environment reversely. The changes in environment, temperature, radiation and precipitation, brings changes in crop productivity. On the other hand, the status of crops, i.e. the growth and phenological stage, change the exchange of energy, H2O and CO2 between crop vegetation surface and atmosphere. Conducting the stable agricultural harvests, reducing the Greenhouse Effect Gas (GHG) emission and enhancing carbon sequestration in soil are preferable as a win-win activity. We conducted model-data fusion analysis for examining the response of cropland-atmosphere carbon exchange to environmental variation. The used model consists of two sub models, paddy rice growth sub-model and soil decomposition sub-model. The crop growth sub-model mimics the rice plant growth processes including formation of reproductive organs as well as leaf expansion. The soil decomposition sub-model simulates the decomposition process of soil organic carbon. Assimilating the data on the time changes in CO2 flux measured by eddy covariance method, rice plant biomass, LAI and the final yield with the model, the parameters were calibrated using a stochastic optimization algorithm with a particle filter. The particle filter, which is one of Monte Carlo filters, enable us to evaluating time changes in parameters based on the observed data until the time and to make prediction of the system. Iterative filtering and prediction with changing parameters and/or boundary condition enable us to obtain time changes in parameters governing the crop production as well as carbon exchange. In this paper, we applied the model-data fusion analysis to the two datasets on paddy rice field sites in Japan: only a single rice cultivation, and a single rice and wheat cultivation. We focused on the parameters related to crop production as well as

  16. Selection of nontarget arthropod taxa for field research on transgenic insecticidal crops: using empirical data and statistical power.

    PubMed

    Prasifka, J R; Hellmich, R L; Dively, G P; Higgins, L S; Dixon, P M; Duan, J J

    2008-02-01

    One of the possible adverse effects of transgenic insecticidal crops is the unintended decline in the abundance of nontarget arthropods. Field trials designed to evaluate potential nontarget effects can be more complex than expected because decisions to conduct field trials and the selection of taxa to include are not always guided by the results of laboratory tests. Also, recent studies emphasize the potential for indirect effects (adverse impacts to nontarget arthropods without feeding directly on plant tissues), which are difficult to predict because of interactions among nontarget arthropods, target pests, and transgenic crops. As a consequence, field studies may attempt to monitor expansive lists of arthropod taxa, making the design of such broad studies more difficult and reducing the likelihood of detecting any negative effects that might be present. To improve the taxonomic focus and statistical rigor of future studies, existing field data and corresponding power analysis may provide useful guidance. Analysis of control data from several nontarget field trials using repeated-measures designs suggests that while detection of small effects may require considerable increases in replication, there are taxa from different ecological roles that are sampled effectively using standard methods. The use of statistical power to guide selection of taxa for nontarget trials reflects scientists' inability to predict the complex interactions among arthropod taxa, particularly when laboratory trials fail to provide guidance on which groups are more likely to be affected. However, scientists still may exercise judgment, including taxa that are not included in or supported by power analyses.

  17. Population Modeling Approach to Optimize Crop Harvest Strategy. The Case of Field Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Dinh T.; Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Tran, Thi L. H.; Quyen, Nguyen T.; Van de Poel, Bram; Mata, Clara I.; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to develop a population model based approach to optimize fruit harvesting strategies with regard to fruit quality and its derived economic value. This approach was applied to the case of tomato fruit harvesting under Vietnamese conditions. Fruit growth and development of tomato (cv. “Savior”) was monitored in terms of fruit size and color during both the Vietnamese winter and summer growing seasons. A kinetic tomato fruit growth model was applied to quantify biological fruit-to-fruit variation in terms of their physiological maturation. This model was successfully calibrated. Finally, the model was extended to translate the fruit-to-fruit variation at harvest into the economic value of the harvested crop. It can be concluded that a model based approach to the optimization of harvest date and harvest frequency with regard to economic value of the crop as such is feasible. This approach allows growers to optimize their harvesting strategy by harvesting the crop at more uniform maturity stages meeting the stringent retail demands for homogeneous high quality product. The total farm profit would still depend on the impact a change in harvesting strategy might have on related expenditures. This model based harvest optimisation approach can be easily transferred to other fruit and vegetable crops improving homogeneity of the postharvest product streams. PMID:28473843

  18. Remote sensing for evaluating crop water stress at field scale using infrared thermography: Potentials and limitations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past few decades, the competition for freshwater resources has substantially increased in arid/semi-arid areas, exacerbating the pressure on the largest user of water, namely agriculture, to consume less water. However, reducing crop consumptive water use or evapotranspiration through water...

  19. USDA-ARS-SPA Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit Annual Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Report on the research activities of the Small Grains and other Crops Research Unit of the USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Laboratory in Stillwater, Oklahoma, was compiled for WERA-066 Meeting that was held in Stillwater, Oklahoma, February 24-26, 2009. Research summaries included predicting the...

  20. USDA-ARS-SPA Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit annual report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Report on the research activities of the Small Grains and other Crops Research Unit of the USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Laboratory in Stillwater, Oklahoma, was compiled for WERA-066 Meeting that was held in Ft. Collins, Colorado, September 2010. Research summaries included predicting the impa...

  1. Tillage and crop rotation effects on soil quality in two Iowa fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil quality is affected by inherent (parent material, climate, and topography) and anthropogenic (tillage and crop rotation) factors. We evaluated effects of five tillage treatments on 23 potential soil quality indicators after 31 years in a corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotat...

  2. Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Hydrogen Oxidation by Pigeon Pea Bradyrhizobium spp. in Symbiotic Association with Pigeon Pea, Cowpea, and Soybean †

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, C. S.; Hegde, S. V.; van Berkum, P.

    1988-01-01

    The pigeon pea strains of Bradyrhizobium CC-1, CC-8, UASGR(S), and F4 were evaluated for nodulation, effectiveness for N2 fixation, and H2 oxidation with homologous and nonhomologous host plants. Strain CC-1 nodulated Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata, Glycine max, and G. soja but did not nodulate Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Trifolium repens. Strain F4 nodulated G. max cv. Peking and PI 434937 (Malayan), but the symbioses formed were poor. Similarly, G. max cv. Peking, cv. Bragg, PI 434937, PR 13-28-2-8-7, and HM-1 were nodulated by strain CC-1, and symbioses were also poor. G. max cv. Williams and cv. Clark were not nodulated. H2 uptake activity was expressed with pigeon pea and cowpea, but not with soybean. G. max cv. Bragg grown in Bangalore, India, in local soil not previously exposed to Bradyrhizobium japonicum formed nodules with indigenous Bradyrhizobium spp. Six randomly chosen isolates, each originating from a different nodule, formed effective symbioses with pigeon pea host ICPL-407, nodulated PR 13-28-2-8-7 soybean forming moderately effective symbioses, and did not nodulate Williams soybean. These results indicate the six isolates to be pigeon pea strains although they originated from soybean nodules. Host-determined nodulation of soybean by pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. may depend upon the ancestral backgrounds of the cultivars. The poor symbioses formed by the pigeon pea strains with soybean indicate that this crop should be inoculated with B. japonicum for its cultivation in soils containing only pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. PMID:16347542

  3. A comprehensive assessment of the correlations between field crop yields and commonly used MODIS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David M.

    2016-10-01

    An exploratory assessment was undertaken to determine the correlation strength and optimal timing of several commonly used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) composited imagery products against crop yields for 10 globally significant agricultural commodities. The crops analyzed included barley, canola, corn, cotton, potatoes, rice, sorghum, soybeans, sugarbeets, and wheat. The MODIS data investigated included the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Gross Primary Production (GPP), in addition to daytime Land Surface Temperature (DLST) and nighttime LST (NLST). The imagery utilized all had 8-day time intervals, but NDVI had a 250 m spatial resolution while the other products were 1000 m. These MODIS datasets were also assessed from both the Terra and Aqua satellites, with their differing overpass times, to document any differences. A follow-on analysis, using the Terra 250 m NDVI data as a benchmark, looked at the yield prediction utility of NDVI at two spatial scales (250 m vs. 1000 m), two time precisions (8-day vs. 16-day), and also assessed the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, at 250 m, 16-day). The analyses spanned the major farming areas of the United States (US) from the summers of 2008-2013 and used annual county-level average crop yield data from the US Department of Agriculture as a basis. All crops, except rice, showed at least some positive correlations to each of the vegetation related indices in the middle of the growing season, with NDVI performing slightly better than FPAR. LAI was somewhat less strongly correlated and GPP weak overall. Conversely, some of the crops, particularly canola, corn, and soybeans, also showed negative correlations to DLST mid-summer. NLST, however, was never correlated to crop yield, regardless of the crop or seasonal timing. Differences between the Terra and Aqua results were found to be minimal. The 1000 m

  4. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  5. Plant/soil concentration ratios for paired field and garden crops, with emphasis on iodine and the role of soil adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-12-01

    In the effort to predict the risks associated with contaminated soils, considerable reliance is placed on plant/soil concentration ratio (CR) values measured at sites other than the contaminated site. This inevitably results in the need to extrapolate among the many soil and plant types. There are few studies that compare CR among plant types that encompass both field and garden crops. Here, CRs for 40 elements were measured for 25 crops from farm and garden sites chosen so the grain crops were in close proximity to the gardens. Special emphasis was placed on iodine (I) because data for this element are sparse. For many elements, there were consistent trends among CRs for the various crop types, with leafy crops > root crops ≥ fruit crops ≈ seed crops. Exceptions included CR values for As, K, Se and Zn which were highest in the seed crops. The correlation of CRs from one plant type to another was evident only when there was a wide range in soil concentrations. In comparing CRs between crop types, it became apparent that the relationships differed for the rare earth elements (REE), which also had very low CR values. The CRs for root and leafy crops of REE converged to a minimum value. This was attributed to soil adhesion, despite the samples being washed, and the average soil adhesion for root crops was 500 mg soil kg⁻¹ dry plant and for leafy crops was 5 g kg⁻¹. Across elements, the log CR was negatively correlated with log Kd (the soil solid/liquid partition coefficient), as expected. Although, this correlation is expected, measures of correlation coefficients suitable for stochastic risk assessment are not frequently reported. The results suggest that r ≈ -0.7 would be appropriate for risk assessment.

  6. Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. I. Effects on abundance and diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Heard, M S; Hawes, C; Champion, G T; Clark, S J; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Parish, A M; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Skellern, M P; Squire, G R; Hill, M O

    2003-01-01

    We compared the seedbanks, seed rains, plant densities and biomasses of weeds under two contrasting systems of management in beet, maize and spring oilseed rape. Weed seedbank and plant density were measured at the same locations in two subsequent seasons. About 60 fields were sown with each crop. Each field was split, one half being sown with a conventional variety managed according to the farmer's normal practice, the other half being sown with a genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) variety, with weeds controlled by a broad-spectrum herbicide. In beet and rape, plant densities shortly after sowing were higher in the GMHT treatment. Following weed control in conventional beet, plant densities were approximately one-fifth of those in GMHT beet. In both beet and rape, this effect was reversed after the first application of broad-spectrum herbicide, so that late-season plant densities were lower in the GMHT treatments. Biomass and seed rain in GMHT crops were between one-third and one-sixth of those in conventional treatments. The effects of differing weed-seed returns in these two crops persisted in the seedbank: densities following the GMHT treatment were about 20% lower than those following the conventional treatment. The effect of growing maize was quite different. Weed density was higher throughout the season in the GMHT treatment. Late-season biomass was 82% higher and seed rain was 87% higher than in the conventional treatment. The difference was not subsequently detectable in the seedbank because the total seed return was low after both treatments. In all three crops, weed diversity was little affected by the treatment, except for transient effects immediately following herbicide application. PMID:14561316

  7. Effects of crop rotation on properties of a Vietnam clay soil under rice-based cropping systems in small-scale farmers' fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In tropical deltas, intensive monocultures with three rice crops per year have been the standard for decades. In recent years, though, rice-based rotations with one or more upland crops per year are being adopted by several farmers. Their trends of increasing grain yields raise the question whether ...

  8. Large-scale gene discovery in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Legeai, Fabrice; Rispe, Claude; Bonhomme, Joël; Dearden, Peter; Dossat, Carole; Duclert, Aymeric; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Ducray, Danièle Giblot; Hunter, Wayne; Dang, Phat; Kambhampati, Srini; Martinez-Torres, David; Cortes, Teresa; Moya, Andrès; Nakabachi, Atsushi; Philippe, Cathy; Prunier-Leterme, Nathalie; Rahbé, Yvan; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Stern, David L; Wincker, Patrick; Tagu, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Aphids are the leading pests in agricultural crops. A large-scale sequencing of 40,904 ESTs from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum was carried out to define a catalog of 12,082 unique transcripts. A strong AT bias was found, indicating a compositional shift between Drosophila melanogaster and A. pisum. An in silico profiling analysis characterized 135 transcripts specific to pea-aphid tissues (relating to bacteriocytes and parthenogenetic embryos). This project is the first to address the genetics of the Hemiptera and of a hemimetabolous insect. PMID:16542494

  9. Potato field colonization by low-density populations of Colorado potato beetle as a function of crop rotation distance.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Picka, J D; Watmough, James

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring of 10 and 12 commercial potato, Solanum tuberosum L., fields in 2004 and 2005, respectively, confirmed for a low-density population of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), that potato fields nearest to the previous year's potato fields are significantly more colonized by this beetle than more distant fields. This pattern is partially explained by the presence of a reservoir of colonizers estimated at 35% of the season-long colonizing population in 2004 and 2005. These beetles, which emerged before potato plants broke the ground, were ready to establish themselves on nearby potato plants. The colonizing Colorado potato beetles dispersed within the maximum range of 1.5 km over a season, and the colonization risk for the new crop decreased with distance from the previous year's crop. There was no evidence that rotation distance delayed colonization. In terms of pest management, although the findings confirm that only long 1.5-km rotations can prevent Colorado potato beetle colonization, they also demonstrate that short rotations of 100 m or more can make substantial contributions to pest management programs for low-density beetle populations.

  10. Aflatoxin Production of Species and Strains of the Aspergillus flavus Group Isolated from Field Crops

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H. W.; Boller, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Peanuts, cottonseed, rice, and sorghum from Texas were sampled over a 3-year period. To insure adequate isolation of alfatoxin-producing species of fungi, low-quality lots were sampled at a rate greater than their respective proportional representation. Aflatoxins were found each year in peanut and cottonseed and were found in 2 of 3 years in rice and sorghum. Aflatoxins were detected in all four crops. The Aspergillus flavus group was much more prevalent in peanut and rice than in cottonseed and sorghum. Of the isolates of the A. flavus group, 96% from peanuts, 79% from cottonseed, 49% from sorghum, and 35% from rice produced aflatoxins. The average toxin production of isolates from rice was much less than that from peanuts, cottonseed, or sorghum. More than 90% of all isolates of the A. flavus group were identified as the species A. flavus. A. parasiticus was isolated from all four crops. Only A. parasiticus produced aflatoxin G. PMID:4197766

  11. Field crop extraction robust to illumination variations based on specularity learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenghong; Li, Cuina; Zhou, Huabing

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we proposed an illumination-invariant crop extraction method based on specularity learning. Several useful contextual cues including object appearance and location inspired by recognition mechanism of human beings were introduced and integrated to machine learning architecture, generating a well-trained highlight region classifier. Combing with the Hue-intensity Look-up table and super-pixel techniques, the classifier gives the final extraction result. Comparing experiment confirmed the validity and feasibility of our method.

  12. SOIL-DIFFUSIVE GRADIENT IN THIN FILMS PARTITION COEFFICIENTS ESTIMATE METAL BIOAVAILABILITY TO CROPS AT FERTILIZED FIELD SITES

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, ANGELA L.

    2014-01-01

    Field trials in four distinct agricultural soils were conducted to examine changes to total recoverable and labile soil Cd and Ni concentrations with applications of commercial phosphate fertilizers. The edible portion of wheat and potato crops grown at the field plots were analyzed for recoverable Cd and Ni. Total recoverable Ni and Cd concentrations in agricultural soils increased by 10 and 22%, respectively, each year of the study at recommended application rates. Labile Cd and Ni were measured using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), a passive sampling device reported to estimate the plant bioavailable metal fraction. Nickel concentrations measured with DGT did not significantly change with treatment nor did they change over time. Cadmium concentrations measured with DGT increased with application rate and over time from 2003 to 2005, then decreased in 2006. Wheat grain Cd concentrations and Cd and Ni levels in tubers increased significantly with fertilizer treatment level. Grain and tuber Cd values exceeded the minimal risk levels for chronic oral exposure. At agronomical P-fertilizer application rates, 25% of plant samples deviated from the Cd minimal risk levels. The present study reports the use of Kd-BIO, defined as the ratio of total recoverable metal to GT measured metal, as a significant indicator of crop metal accumulation in the edible portion. The Kd-BIO values were well correlated with both grain and tuber concentrations over multiple growing seasons. Results from long-term field trials emphasize Kd-BIO as a dynamic term that provides risk characterization information about the fate of Cd and Ni in aged, fertilized agricultural soils and crops. PMID:19432507

  13. Mycotrophy of crops in rotation and soil amendment with peat influence the abundance and effectiveness of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in field soil.

    PubMed

    Vestberg, M; Saari, K; Kukkonen, S; Hurme, T

    2005-09-01

    Mycotrophy of previous crops has been shown to have an impact on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and the growth and productivity of succeeding crops. We studied the impact of 3 years of cultivation of eight crops with different degrees of mycotrophy, including mycorrhizal (strawberry, rye, timothy, onion, caraway) and non-mycorrhizal (turnip rape, buckwheat, fiddleneck) hosts, as well as the impact of peat amendment, on the effectiveness, amount and diversity of indigenous AMF. A field experiment having a split-plot design with peat amendment as the main plot, crop cultivation as a sub-plot and three replications, was carried out on silt clay mineral soil in 1999-2001. A well-humified dark peat was applied immediately before establishment of the field experiment. Each year, the relative mycorrhizal effectiveness of soil collected in September, in terms of shoot dry weight (RME(DW)), was determined in a bioassay. In the 3rd year of the experiment, AMF spores were also extracted and identified from the field soil. Expressed as the mean of 3 years of cropping in unamended soil, the mycorrhizal crops strawberry and caraway maintained RME(DW) most effectively, while the values were lower in the non-host crops buckwheat, turnip rape and fiddleneck. In addition, the numbers of AM spores detected in soil were considerably greater during 3 years of strawberry cultivation. In soil under caraway, there were high numbers of AM spores compared to the other crops. In soil amended with peat, the situation was in some cases opposite of that of unamended soil; RME(DW) was highest in rye and onion and lowest in strawberry and caraway. The reasons behind the negative impact of peat on mycorrhizal effectiveness in strawberry soil may be due to the microbiological properties of peat. The importance of including mycotrophic species in crop rotations for maintaining high soil quality and for increasing yields of subsequent crops is discussed.

  14. The Direct Effects of Atmospheric Change on Vegetation: From Gene Expression to Crop Production in the Field

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Stephen

    2005-08-31

    The CO2 and ozone (O3) concentrations of the troposphere are rising with direct impacts on plants. O3 currently costs crop production > 5bn Euro a year with parallel damage to natural ecosystems. In the short-term, elevated CO2 stimulates and elevated O3 depresses photosynthesis in highly predictable ways. Longer-term effects are less predictable, but new patterns are now emerging via meta-analysis of realistic field treatment in Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) facilities. The chain of effects from gene expression to acclimated phenotype that result from long-term growth in elevated CO2 or O3 will be reviewed. Significant season long increases in photosynthesis and production with CO2 are found, with some surprising changes in plant development that were not apparent or suspected in studies with field enclosures. Season-long exposures to the moderate increases in O3 observed in the field cause: more gene transcripts to be down-regulated than up-regulated; a chronic decrease in photosynthetic capacity, largely attributable to decreased activity of the primary carboxylation step; and accelerated senescence. The large FACE facilities, a biologists equivalent of the physicists accelerators, are providing new insights into plant responses to atmospheric change and will provide a basis for adapting crop plants to change.

  15. Accounting for vegetation height and wind direction to correct eddy covariance measurements of energy fluxes over hilly crop fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna-Chebbi, Rim; Prévot, Laurent; Jacob, Frédéric; Voltz, Marc

    2015-05-01

    As agricultural hilly watersheds are widespread throughout the world, there is a strong need for reliable estimates of land surface fluxes, especially evapotranspiration, over crop fields on hilly slopes. In order to obtain reliable estimates from eddy covariance (EC) measurements in such conditions, the current study aimed at proposing adequate planar fit tilt corrections that account for the combined effects of topography, wind direction, and vegetation height on airflow inclinations. EC measurements were collected within an agricultural hilly watershed in northeastern Tunisia, throughout the growth cycles of cereals, legumes, and pasture. The wind had two dominant directions that induced upslope and downslope winds. For upslope winds, the airflows were parallel to the slopes and slightly came closer to the horizontal plane when vegetation grew. For downslope winds, over fields located in the lee of the rim top, the airflows were almost horizontal over bare soil and came closer to the topographical slope when vegetation grew. We therefore adjusted the planar fit tilt correction on EC measurements according to vegetation height and by discriminating between upslope and downslope winds. This adjusted tilt correction improved the energy balance closure in most cases, and the obtained energy balance closures were similar to that reported in the literature for flat conditions. We conclude that EC data collected within crop fields on hilly slopes can be used for monitoring land surface fluxes, provided planar fit tilt corrections are applied in an appropriate manner.

  16. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  17. Field Measurement on the Emissions of PM, OC, EC and PAHs from Indoor Crop Straw Burning in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Siye; Shen, Guofeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Xue, Miao; Xie, Han; Lin, Pengchuan; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Field measurements were conducted to measure emission factors of particulate matter (EFPM), organic carbon (EFOC), elemental carbon (EFEC), 28 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EF28pPAHs), and 4 oxygenated PAHs (EF4oPAHs) for four types of crop straws burnt in two stoves with similar structure but different ages. The average EFPM, EFOC, EFEC, EF28pPAHs, and EF4oPAHs were 9.1±5.7 (1.8 – 22 as range), 2.6±2.9 (0.30 – 12), 1.1±1.2 (0.086 – 5.5), 0.26±0.19 (0.076 – 0.96), 0.011±0.14 (1.3×10−4 – 0.063) g/kg, respectively. Much high EF28pPAHs was observed in field compared with the laboratory derived EFs and significant difference in EF28pPAHs was identified among different crop residues, indicating considerable underestimation when laboratory derived EFs were used in the inventory. The field measured EFPM, EFOC, and EFEC were significantly affected by stove age and the EFs of carbonaceous particles for the 15-year old stove were approximately 2.5 times of those for the 1-year old stove. PMID:24012787

  18. Changes in field workability and drought risk from projected climate change drive spatially variable risks in Illinois cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tomasek, Bradley J; Williams, Martin M; Davis, Adam S

    2017-01-01

    As weather patterns become more volatile and extreme, risks introduced by weather variability will become more critical to agricultural production. The availability of days suitable for field work is driven by soil temperature and moisture, both of which may be altered by climate change. We projected changes in Illinois season length, spring field workability, and summer drought risk under three different emissions scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) down to the crop district scale. Across all scenarios, thermal time units increased in parallel with a longer frost-free season. An increase in late March and Early April field workability was consistent across scenarios, but a decline in overall April through May workable days was observed for many cases. In addition, summer drought metrics were projected to increase for most scenarios. These results highlight how the spatial and temporal variability in climate change may present unique challenges to mitigation and adaptation efforts.

  19. Changes in field workability and drought risk from projected climate change drive spatially variable risks in Illinois cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Tomasek, Bradley J.; Williams, Martin M.; Davis, Adam S.

    2017-01-01

    As weather patterns become more volatile and extreme, risks introduced by weather variability will become more critical to agricultural production. The availability of days suitable for field work is driven by soil temperature and moisture, both of which may be altered by climate change. We projected changes in Illinois season length, spring field workability, and summer drought risk under three different emissions scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) down to the crop district scale. Across all scenarios, thermal time units increased in parallel with a longer frost-free season. An increase in late March and Early April field workability was consistent across scenarios, but a decline in overall April through May workable days was observed for many cases. In addition, summer drought metrics were projected to increase for most scenarios. These results highlight how the spatial and temporal variability in climate change may present unique challenges to mitigation and adaptation efforts. PMID:28231329

  20. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences on the number of pods per plant, above ground biomass and grain yield of chick pea. However, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield

  1. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greehouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.) and peas (Pisum sataivum L.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and exp...

  2. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greehouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.) and peas (Pisum sataivum L.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and exp...

  3. Single season effects of mixed-species cover crops on tomato health (cultivar Celebrity) in multi-state field trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crop use can help mitigate the deleterious effects of common cropping practices (e.g., tillage) and is, therefore, an important component of soil health maintenance. While known to be beneficial in the long term, the short-term effects of cover crops, specifically mixed-species cover crops in ...

  4. Organic marker compounds in surface soils of crop fields from the San Joaquin Valley fugitive dust characterization study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Fugitive dust from the erosion of arid and fallow land, after harvest and during agricultural activities, can at times be the dominant source of airborne particulate matter. In order to assess the source contributions to a given site, chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling is typically used together with source-specific profiles for organic and inorganic constituents. Yet, the mass balance closure can be achieved only if emission profiles for all major sources are considered. While a higher degree of mass balance closure has been achieved by adding individual organic marker compounds to elements, ions, EC, and organic carbon (OC), major source profiles for fugitive dust are not available. Consequently, neither the exposure of the population living near fugitive dust sources from farm land, nor its chemical composition is known. Surface soils from crop fields are enriched in plant detritus from both above and below ground plant parts; therefore, surface soil dust contains natural organic compounds from the crops and soil microbiota. Here, surface soils derived from fields growing cotton, safflower, tomato, almonds, and grapes have been analyzed for more than 180 organic compounds, including natural lipids, saccharides, pesticides, herbicides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The major result of this study is that selective biogenically derived organic compounds are suitable markers of fugitive dust from major agricultural crop fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Aliphatic homologs exhibit the typical biogenic signatures of epicuticular plant waxes and are therefore indicative of fugitive dust emissions and mechanical abrasion of wax protrusions from leaf surfaces. Saccharides, among which α- and β-glucose, sucrose, and mycose show the highest concentrations in surface soils, have been proposed to be generic markers for fugitive dust from cultivated land. Similarly, steroids are strongly indicative of fugitive dust. Yet, triterpenoids reveal the most

  5. Greenhouse gases emission from soils under major crops in Northwest India.

    PubMed

    Jain, N; Arora, P; Tomer, R; Mishra, Shashi Vind; Bhatia, A; Pathak, H; Chakraborty, D; Kumar, Vinod; Dubey, D S; Harit, R C; Singh, J P

    2016-01-15

    Quantification of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from agriculture is necessary to prepare the national inventories and to develop the mitigation strategies. Field experiments were conducted during 2008-2010 at the experimental farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soils under cereals, pulses, millets, and oilseed crops. Total cumulative N2O emissions were significantly different (P>0.05) among the crop types. Emission of N2O as percentage of applied N was the highest in pulses (0.67%) followed by oilseeds (0.55%), millets (0.43%) and cereals (0.40%). The emission increased with increasing rate of N application (r(2)=0.74, P<0.05). The cumulative flux of CH4 from the rice crop was 28.64±4.40 kg ha(-1), while the mean seasonal integrated flux of CO2 from soils ranged from 3058±236 to 3616±157 kg CO2 ha(-1) under different crops. The global warming potential (GWP) of crops varied between 3053 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) (pigeon pea) and 3968 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) (wheat). The carbon equivalent emission (CEE) was least in pigeon pea (833 kg C ha(-1)) and largest in wheat (1042 kg C ha(-1)). The GWP per unit of economic yield was the highest in pulses and the lowest in cereal crops. The uncertainties in emission values varied from 4.6 to 22.0%. These emission values will be useful in updating the GHGs emission inventory of Indian agriculture.

  6. Carbon decomposition process of the residual biomass in the paddy soil of a single-crop rice field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Iwata, T.

    2014-12-01

    In cultivated fields, residual organic matter is plowed into soil after harvest and decaying in fallow season. Greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 is generated by the decomposition of the substantial organic matter and released into the atmosphere. In some fields, open burning is carried out by tradition, when carbon in residual matter is released into atmosphere as CO2. However, burning effect on carbon budget between crop lands and atmosphere is not entirely considered yet. In this study, coarse organic matter (COM) in paddy soil of a single-crop rice field was sampled on regular intervals between January, 2011 and August, 2014 The amount of carbon release from residual matter was estimated by analyzing of the variations in carbon content of COM. Effects of soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at the paddy field on the rate of carbon decomposition was investigated. Though decreasing rate of COM was much smaller in winter season, it is accelerated at the warming season between April and June every year. Decomposition was resisted for next rice cultivated season despite of highest soil temperature. In addition, the observational field was divided into two areas, and three time open burning experiments were conducted in November, 2011, 2012, and 2013. In each year, three sampling surveys, or plants before harvest and residuals before and after the burning experiment, were done. From these surveys, it is suggested that about 48±2% of carbon contents of above-ground plant was yield out as grain by harvest, and about 27±2% of carbon emitted as CO2 by burning. Carbon content of residuals plowed into soil after the harvest was estimated 293±1 and 220±36gC/m2 in no-burned and burned area, respectively, based on three-years average. It is estimated that 70 and 60% of the first input amount of COM was decomposed after a year in no-burned and burned area, respectively.

  7. Showy partridge pea [Chamaecrista fasciculate (Michx.) Greene] with potential for cultivation as a multi-functional species in the United States.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Partridge pea, Chamaecrista fasciculata is used in the U.S. for cover cropping, ornate flowers in native gardens, honey crop, and as an annual reseeding bean for restoration and conservation plantings. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 36 accessions originating from the states of Arkansas, Georgia, Kan...

  8. Strigolactones promote nodulation in pea.

    PubMed

    Foo, Eloise; Davies, Noel W

    2011-11-01

    Strigolactones are recently defined plant hormones with roles in mycorrhizal symbiosis and shoot and root architecture. Their potential role in controlling nodulation, the related symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria, was explored using the strigolactone-deficient rms1 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.). This work indicates that endogenous strigolactones are positive regulators of nodulation in pea, required for optimal nodule number but not for nodule formation per se. rms1 mutant root exudates and root tissue are almost completely deficient in strigolactones, and rms1 mutant plants have approximately 40% fewer nodules than wild-type plants. Treatment with the synthetic strigolactone GR24 elevated nodule number in wild-type pea plants and also elevated nodule number in rms1 mutant plants to a level similar to that seen in untreated wild-type plants. Grafting studies revealed that nodule number and strigolactone levels in root tissue of rms1 roots were unaffected by grafting to wild-type scions indicating that strigolactones in the root, but not shoot-derived factors, regulate nodule number and provide the first direct evidence that the shoot does not make a major contribution to root strigolactone levels.

  9. Application of PCR-denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to examine microbial community structure in asparagus fields with growth inhibition due to continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE.

  10. Application of PCR-Denaturing-Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) Method to Examine Microbial Community Structure in Asparagus Fields with Growth Inhibition due to Continuous Cropping

    PubMed Central

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE. PMID:22200640

  11. National-scale crop type mapping and area estimation using multi-resolution remote sensing and field survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X. P.; Potapov, P.; Adusei, B.; King, L.; Khan, A.; Krylov, A.; Di Bella, C. M.; Pickens, A. H.; Stehman, S. V.; Hansen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable and timely information on agricultural production is essential for ensuring world food security. Freely available medium-resolution satellite data (e.g. Landsat, Sentinel) offer the possibility of improved global agriculture monitoring. Here we develop and test a method for estimating in-season crop acreage using a probability sample of field visits and producing wall-to-wall crop type maps at national scales. The method is first illustrated for soybean cultivated area in the US for 2015. A stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design was used to collect field data to estimate national soybean area. The field-based estimate employed historical soybean extent maps from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cropland Data Layer to delineate and stratify U.S. soybean growing regions. The estimated 2015 U.S. soybean cultivated area based on the field sample was 341,000 km2 with a standard error of 23,000 km2. This result is 1.0% lower than USDA's 2015 June survey estimate and 1.9% higher than USDA's 2016 January estimate. Our area estimate was derived in early September, about 2 months ahead of harvest. To map soybean cover, the Landsat image archive for the year 2015 growing season was processed using an active learning approach. Overall accuracy of the soybean map was 84%. The field-based sample estimated area was then used to calibrate the map such that the soybean acreage of the map derived through pixel counting matched the sample-based area estimate. The strength of the sample-based area estimation lies in the stratified design that takes advantage of the spatially explicit cropland layers to construct the strata. The success of the mapping was built upon an automated system which transforms Landsat images into standardized time-series metrics. The developed method produces reliable and timely information on soybean area in a cost-effective way and could be implemented in an operational mode. The approach has also been applied for other crops in

  12. Senior Research Connects Students with a Living Laboratory As Part of an Integrated Crop and Livestock System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil, water, soil microbes, and solar energy are the main sources that sustain life on this planet. Without them working in concert, neither plants nor animals would survive. Considering the efficiency of animal production targets, soil must be protected and improved. Therefore, through our sustainable integrated crop and livestock research, we are studying animal and soil interactions from the soil to the plate. Integrating beef cattle systems into a diverse cropping system is providing a living laboratory for education beyond the traditional classroom setting. To establish the living learning laboratory at the Dickinson Research Extension Center, a five-crop rotation was established that included adapted cool and warm season grasses and broadleaf crops. The crop rotation is: sunflower > hard red spring wheat > fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop > Corn (85-95 day varieties) > field pea-barley intercrop. Sunflower and spring wheat are harvested for cash crop income in the rotation. Livestock integration occurs when yearling steers that had previously grazed perennial pastures until mid-August graze field pea-barley and subsequently unharvested corn. Average grazing days for field pea-barley and unharvested corn is 30 and 70 days, respectively. At the end of the grazing period, the yearling steers average 499-544 kg and are moved to a feedlot and fed an additional 75 days until slaughter. Maximizing grazing days and extending the grazing season through integration with the cropping system reduces custom feeding costs and enhances animal profit. Beef cows do not require high quality feed after their calves have been weaned. Therefore, gestating beef cows are an ideal animal to graze cover crops and crop aftermath (residue) after yearling steer grazing and farming operations have been completed. Extending the grazing season for beef cows by grazing cover crops and residues reduces winter feed cost, which is one of the

  13. Accidental Strangulation Due to Entrapment of Saree in Crop Thrasher Machine in an Elderly Women Working at Agricultural Field.

    PubMed

    Parchake, Manoj Bhausaheb; Kumre, Vikas; Kachare, Rajesh V

    2016-09-01

    Strangulation is generally considered as homicidal death and in accidental strangulation circumstantial evidence alone can point toward the accidental nature of incidence. In present case, a 71-year-old woman, wearing a saree (garment worn by traditional women in India) working in agricultural field, got entangled in the crop thrasher machine and got strangled. Immediately, she was taken to the nearest hospital, where she survived for 6 to 8 hours and then died. The autopsy reveals cross ribbon-shaped ligature mark on neck and anterior chest along with 1 puncture wound at the right lateral aspect of the neck. A lack of proper precaution and safety measures at agricultural field are other contributing factors. Accidental strangulation by saree is extremely rare, hence, this case is presented for its rarity and pattern of injury.

  14. Soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content under dryland crops. I. Effects of tillage and crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil CO2 emission and C content can be influenced by types of tillage and crops. The CO2 flux at the soil surface, soil total C at 0- to 120-cm depth, and soil temperature and water content at 0- to 15-cm were measured under dryland no-tilled malt barley (NTB), no-tilled pea (NTP), no-tilled fallow ...

  15. Dissecting the proteome of pea mature seeds reveals the phenotypic plasticity of seed protein composition.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Michael; Jacquin, Françoise; Savois, Vincent; Sommerer, Nicolas; Labas, Valérie; Henry, Céline; Burstin, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the most cultivated European pulse crop and the pea seeds mainly serve as a protein source for monogastric animals. Because the seed protein composition impacts on seed nutritional value, we aimed at identifying the determinants of its variability. This paper presents the first pea mature seed proteome reference map, which includes 156 identified proteins (http://www.inra.fr/legumbase/peaseedmap/). This map provides a fine dissection of the pea seed storage protein composition revealing a large diversity of storage proteins resulting both from gene diversity and post-translational processing. It gives new insights into the pea storage protein processing (especially 7S globulins) as a possible adaptation towards progressive mobilization of the proteins during germination. The nonstorage seed proteome revealed the presence of proteins involved in seed defense together with proteins preparing germination. The plasticity of the seed proteome was revealed for seeds produced in three successive years of cultivation, and 30% of the spots were affected by environmental variations. This work pinpoints seed proteins most affected by environment, highlighting new targets to stabilize storage protein composition that should be further analyzed.

  16. Linking canopy reflectance to crop structure and photosynthesis to capture and interpret spatiotemporal dimensions of per-field photosynthetic productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Wei; Jeong, Seungtaek; Ko, Jonghan; Tenhunen, John

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen and water availability alter canopy structure and physiology, and thus crop growth, yielding large impacts on ecosystem-regulating/production provisions. However, to date, explicitly quantifying such impacts remains challenging partially due to lack of adequate methodology to capture spatial dimensions of ecosystem changes associated with nitrogen and water effects. A data fitting, where close-range remote-sensing measurements of vegetation indices derived from a handheld instrument and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system are linked to in situ leaf and canopy photosynthetic traits, was applied to capture and interpret inter- and intra-field variations in gross primary productivity (GPP) in lowland rice grown under flooded conditions (paddy rice, PD) subject to three nitrogen application rates and under rainfed conditions (RF) in an East Asian monsoon region of South Korea. Spatial variations (SVs) in both GPP and light use efficiency (LUEcabs) early in the growing season were enlarged by nitrogen addition. The nutritional effects narrowed over time. A shift in planting culture from flooded to rainfed conditions strengthened SVs in GPP and LUEcabs. Intervention of prolonged drought late in the growing season dramatically intensified SVs that were supposed to seasonally decrease. Nevertheless, nitrogen addition effects on SV of LUEcabs at the early growth stage made PD fields exert greater SVs than RF fields. SVs of GPP across PD and RF rice fields were likely related to leaf area index (LAI) development less than to LUEcabs, while numerical analysis suggested that considering strength in LUEcabs and its spatial variation for the same crop type tends to be vital for better evaluation in landscape/regional patterns of ecosystem photosynthetic productivity at critical phenology stages.

  17. Efficacy of seed treatments in reducing seed and root rot of peas in the presence of metalaxyl-resistant Pythium, 2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five organic seed treatments and eighteen commercial seed treatments were evaluated in a commercial pea field (sandy loam soil) in Paterson, WA to manage seed and root rot of processed peas. The soil from the field site had a mean of 89 total Pythium colonies and 27 metalaxyl-resistant Pythium colo...

  18. Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  19. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  20. COSMO-SkyMed potentiality to identify crop-specific behavior and monitor phenological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarini, Rocchina; Segalini, Federica; Mastronardi, Giovanni; Notarnicola, Claudia; Vuolo, Francesco; Dini, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    This work aims at investigating the capability of COSMO-SkyMed® (CSK®) constellation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system to monitor the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of different crops. The experiment was conducted in the Marchfeld Region, an agricultural Austrian area, and focused on five crop species: sugar beet, soybean, potato, pea and corn. A linear regression analysis was carried out to assess the sensitivity of CSK® backscattering coefficients to crops changes base on LAI values. CSK® backscattering coefficients were averaged at a field scale (<σ°dB>) and were compared to the DEIMOS-1 derived values of estimated LAI. LAI were as well averaged over the corresponding fields (). CSK® data acquired at three polarizations (HH, VV and VH), four incidence angles (23°, 33°, 40° and 57°) and at different pixel spacings (2.5 m and 10 m) were tested to assess whether spatial resolution may influence results at a field scale and to find the best combination of polarizations and CSK® acquisition beams which indicate the highest sensitivity to crop LAI values. The preliminary results show that sugar beet can be well monitored (r = 0.72 - 0.80) by CSK® by using any of the polarization acquisition modes, at moderate to shallow incidence angles (33° - 57°). Slightly weaker correlations were found, at VH polarization only, between CSK® < σ°dB> and for potato (r = 0.65), pea (r = 0.65) and soybean (r = -0.83). Shallower view incidence angles seem to be preferable to steep ones in most cases. CSK® backscattering coefficients were no sensitive at all to LAI changes for already developed corn fields.

  1. Comparative morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of lentil and grass pea genotypes under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) in the family Fabaceae are two important cool-season food legumes, often experiencing water stress conditions during growth and maturity. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the response of these two crops under different water stress regimes. Materials and Methods: Different morpho-physiological and biochemical parameters were studied in a pot experiment under controlled environmental conditions. Along with control (proper irrigation, 0 stress), three sets of plants were subjected to mild (6 d), moderate (13 d) and severe (20 d) water stress by withholding irrigation at the appropriate time. Results: Compared with control, plant growth traits and seed yield components reduced significantly in both crops with increasing period of water stress, resulting in lowering of dry mass with more severe effect on lentil compared with grass pea. Foliar Relative Water Content (RWC) (%), K+/Na+ ratio, chlorophyll (chl) a, chl a/b ratio, stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate declined considerably in both crops under water stress. Leaf-free proline level increased significantly in both crops, but it decreased markedly in nodules of lentil and remained unchanged in grass pea. Nodulation was also affected due to water stress. The impairment in growth traits and physio-biochemical parameters under water stress was manifested in reduction of drought tolerance efficiency of both crops. Conclusion: Impact of water stress was more severe on lentil compared with grass pea, and modulation of growth traits signified necessity of a detailed strategy in breeding of food legumes under water stress. PMID:24082740

  2. 16S rRNA-based PCR-DGGE analysis of actinomycete communities in fields with continuous cotton cropping in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Long, XuanQi; Huo, XiangDong; Chen, YiFeng; Lou, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variations in the microbial community structure of soil actinomycetes in fields with continuous cropping of cotton in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China. Soil samples were collected from four depths in fields with 7-year continuous cotton cropping. The community structure of soil actinomycetes was examined using the 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-density gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques. The microbial diversity indices of the soil samples from different depths generally decreased along with the period of continuous cotton cropping. When the period of continuous cropping of cotton reached 5 years, the diversity indices rose again and gradually stabilized at a level slightly lower than that of soils with original ecology (i.e., 0-year cotton cropping). Cluster analysis showed that at the 1-20-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure of the soil subjected to 1-year cotton cropping was similar to that of soil subjected to 0-year cotton cropping, whereas that of soils after 3-year continuous cotton cropping showed high similarity. At the 21-40-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure showed various changes but generally recovered to its original pattern after repeated fluctuations. Principal component analysis showed that at the 1-30-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure varied similarly regardless of the period of continuous cotton cropping. In contrast, there were no clear actinomycete community structure variation trends at the 31-40-cm soil depth. Homology comparison of sequences recovered from the DGGE bands showed that the obtained sequences shared similarities >88 %. Alignment with the known homologous sequences indicated a lack of microorganisms related to soil-borne cotton diseases. Continuous cotton cropping exerted significant influences on the community structure of soil actinomycetes in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, which were largely determined by the soil depth and

  3. Carbon sequestration strategies for crop- and grasslands evaluated in long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Improved management of grass- and croplands is a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of N fertilization, organic amendments and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks by analyzing data from long-term field experiments in Nordic countries. Increasing net primary production was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by about 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. We also quantified the effect of organic amendments on soil carbon stocks. Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely from about 15% for above-ground crop residues to about 90% for composted household waste. We also emphasize that increased soil carbon stocks not always lead to carbon sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and discuss misunderstandings related to mitigation options earlier proposed for carbon sequestration such as organic farming, manure application, residue handling or application of biochar. Finally, the consequences of different land use and management are discussed, taking into account two critical boundaries - the limited area of agricultural land on Earth and requirements to produce sufficient food, fibres and energy for a growing population.

  4. Sampling Strategies for Evaluating the Rate of Adventitious Transgene Presence in Non-Genetically Modified Crop Fields.

    PubMed

    Makowski, David; Bancal, Rémi; Bensadoun, Arnaud; Monod, Hervé; Messéan, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    According to E.U. regulations, the maximum allowable rate of adventitious transgene presence in non-genetically modified (GM) crops is 0.9%. We compared four sampling methods for the detection of transgenic material in agricultural non-GM maize fields: random sampling, stratified sampling, random sampling + ratio reweighting, random sampling + regression reweighting. Random sampling involves simply sampling maize grains from different locations selected at random from the field concerned. The stratified and reweighting sampling methods make use of an auxiliary variable corresponding to the output of a gene-flow model (a zero-inflated Poisson model) simulating cross-pollination as a function of wind speed, wind direction, and distance to the closest GM maize field. With the stratified sampling method, an auxiliary variable is used to define several strata with contrasting transgene presence rates, and grains are then sampled at random from each stratum. With the two methods involving reweighting, grains are first sampled at random from various locations within the field, and the observations are then reweighted according to the auxiliary variable. Data collected from three maize fields were used to compare the four sampling methods, and the results were used to determine the extent to which transgene presence rate estimation was improved by the use of stratified and reweighting sampling methods. We found that transgene rate estimates were more accurate and that substantially smaller samples could be used with sampling strategies based on an auxiliary variable derived from a gene-flow model. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development.

    PubMed

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L

    2015-04-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development

    PubMed Central

    Sussmilch, Frances C.; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K.; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L.

    2015-01-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species. PMID:25804541

  7. Translational Genomics in Legumes Allowed Placing In Silico 5460 Unigenes on the Pea Functional Map and Identified Candidate Genes in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Bordat, Amandine; Savois, Vincent; Nicolas, Marie; Salse, Jérome; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bourgeois, Michael; Potier, Jean; Houtin, Hervé; Rond, Céline; Murat, Florent; Marget, Pascal; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2011-07-01

    To identify genes involved in phenotypic traits, translational genomics from highly characterized model plants to poorly characterized crop plants provides a valuable source of markers to saturate a zone of interest as well as functionally characterized candidate genes. In this paper, an integrated view of the pea genetic map was developed. A series of gene markers were mapped and their best reciprocal homologs were identified on M. truncatula, L. japonicus, soybean, and poplar pseudomolecules. Based on the syntenic relationships uncovered between pea and M. truncatula, 5460 pea Unigenes were tentatively placed on the consensus map. A new bioinformatics tool, http://www.thelegumeportal.net/pea_mtr_translational_toolkit, was developed that allows, for any gene sequence, to search its putative position on the pea consensus map and hence to search for candidate genes among neighboring Unigenes. As an example, a promising candidate gene for the hypernodulation mutation nod3 in pea was proposed based on the map position of the likely homolog of Pub1, a M. truncatula gene involved in nodulation regulation. A broader view of pea genome evolution was obtained by revealing syntenic relationships between pea and sequenced genomes. Blocks of synteny were identified which gave new insights into the evolution of chromosome structure in Papillionoids and Eudicots. The power of the translational genomics approach was underlined.

  8. Evaluation of 129I mobility in the crop field soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Maki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Tuchiya, Yoko Sunohara; Nakano, Chuichiro; Matsushi, Yuki; Maejima, Yuji; Nagai, Hisao

    2013-04-01

    Five soil cores from almost the same position in the crop field 20km apart from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (F1NPP) for a period of May 2011 to June 2012 were analyzed. We previously know that the sampling site soil was tilled and well mixed by a farmer to the depth of 30cm until just before the F1NPP accident. Under the condition it is speculated that the crop field soil had been made homogeneous and then contaminated by F1NPP accident, so that the direct accumulation from the accident should be clearly observed. This was confirmed by the observations that depth profiles of 127I concentration (measured by ICP-MS), as well as carbon content (measured by NC analyzer), of these soil cores were roughly constant. In contrast, 129I (measured by AMS) concentration (or specific activity) was particularly high at the top most layer and immediately decreased exponentially along with depth. And below 10 cm depth, it went constant. This enhancement in the top 10cm layer can be considered as the direct accumulation from the F1NPP after the accident. Considering constant level at lower layer (0.0474mBq kg-1) as a background, 129I inventory was estimated as 46mBq m-2 (3.3×1013 atoms m-2). Similar 129I profile was also found in the soil cores of even one year and three months after the F1NPP accident. From these observations, it is concluded that accidental origin 129I had migrated little downward over the years, although the field should have experienced several times of rain and snow. More than 80% of the accidental origin 129I was still present within the top 5cm and more than 90% within the top 10cm.

  9. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned peas. 155.170 Section 155.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of...

  10. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned peas. 155.170 Section 155.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN.... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of...

  11. A draft genome of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) provides tools for the domestication of a new winter biofuel crop

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Kevin M.; Fankhauser, Johnathon D.; Wyse, Donald L.; Marks, M. David

    2015-01-01

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is being domesticated as a new winter cover crop and biofuel species for the Midwestern United States that can be double-cropped between corn and soybeans. A genome sequence will enable the use of new technologies to make improvements in pennycress. To generate a draft genome, a hybrid sequencing approach was used to generate 47 Gb of DNA sequencing reads from both the Illumina and PacBio platforms. These reads were used to assemble 6,768 genomic scaffolds. The draft genome was annotated using the MAKER pipeline, which identified 27,390 predicted protein-coding genes, with almost all of these predicted peptides having significant sequence similarity to Arabidopsis proteins. A comprehensive analysis of pennycress gene homologues involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport pathways revealed high sequence conservation compared with other Brassicaceae species, and helps validate the assembly of the pennycress gene space in this draft genome. Additional comparative genomic analyses indicate that the knowledge gained from years of basic Brassicaceae research will serve as a powerful tool for identifying gene targets whose manipulation can be predicted to result in improvements for pennycress. PMID:25632110

  12. High-resolution historical emission inventories of crop residue burning in fields in China for the period 1990-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Li, Yaqi; Bo, Yu; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution historical emission inventories of crop residue burning in fields in China were developed for the period 1990-2013. More accurate time-varying statistical data and locally observed emission factors were utilized to estimate crop residue open burning emissions at provincial level. Then pollutants emissions were allocated to a high spatial resolution of 10 km × 10 km and a high temporal resolution of 1 day based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fire Product (MOD/MYD14A1). Results show that China's CO emissions have increased by 5.67 times at an annual average rate of 24% from 1.06 Tg in 1990 to 7.06 Tg in 2013; the emissions of CO2, CH4, NMVOCs, N2O, NOx, NH3, SO2, PM2.5, OC, and BC have increased by 595%, 500%, 608%, 584%, 600%, 600%, 543%, 571%, 775%, and 500%, respectively, over the past 24 years. Spatially, the regions with high emissions had been notable expanding over the years, especially in the central eastern districts, the Northeastern of China, and the Sichuan Basin. Strong temporal pattern were observed with the highest emissions in June, followed by March to May and October. This work provides a better understanding of the spatiotemporal representation of agricultural fire emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved accuracy.

  13. Role of biochar in low carbon sustainable crop production of China: a synthesizing analysis of field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jufeng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Afeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Kun; Li, Lianqing; Liu, Yuming; Qu, Jingjing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Kubie, Grace; Muhanmud, Siddie; Pan, Genxing

    2013-04-01

    BSA (BSA) has been proposed as a measure to enhance soil organic C sequestration and mitigate greenhouse gas emission from world croplands. In this study, results of BSA field experiments with rice paddy and dry croplands in 7 sites over China were synthesized for addressing an overall role of biochar in low carbon sustainable crop production. Soil amendment at rates of 0, 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of biochar via pyrolysis from wheat straw at 35o-550°was performed consistently across the sites with local conventional fertilization and crop managements. Soil emission monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) was conducted at 1 week interval during crop growing season in the year of BSA all sites and the subsequent year after BSA in some sites. Yield and properties, greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) and C intensity were assessed. The results from single experiments were synthesized for quantifying the relative changes in yield and GWP with BSA as well as changes in soil properties. BSA increased significantly soil pH, TN, SOC and decrease soil bulk density. On average, crop yield was significantly increased (~6% for rice and 10%~18% for maize) at an extent higher in croplands than in rice paddies. While BSA reduced slightly CH4 uptake in dry cropland, increases in CH4 emission showed a large uncertainty related to soil and climate condition as well as water regime from rice paddies. However,N2O emission from treated croplands were significantly reduced with BSA by 37~48% across sites. As the integration effect, global warming potential (GWP) and C intensity were decreased averagely by over 30% agriculture production (38% ~ 44% in dry cropland and 22% ~ 42% in paddy soil) with BSA, which was a great contribution to mitigation of CO2 in Chinese agriculture. The results further implicated BSA to cropland may to develop sustainable low carbon agriculture as a feasible measure. Key words: Biochar soil application, soil properties, C sequestration, CH4 and N2O

  14. Effect of cover crops on greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated field under integrated soil fertility management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardia, Guillermo; Abalos, Diego; García-Marco, Sonia; Quemada, Miguel; Alonso-Ayuso, María; Cárdenas, Laura M.; Dixon, Elizabeth R.; Vallejo, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Agronomical and environmental benefits are associated with replacing winter fallow by cover crops (CCs). Yet, the effect of this practice on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions remains poorly understood. In this context, a field experiment was carried out under Mediterranean conditions to evaluate the effect of replacing the traditional winter fallow (F) by vetch (Vicia sativa L.; V) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; B) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the intercrop and the maize (Zea mays L.) cropping period. The maize was fertilized following integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) criteria. Maize nitrogen (N) uptake, soil mineral N concentrations, soil temperature and moisture, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and GHG fluxes were measured during the experiment. Our management (adjusted N synthetic rates due to ISFM) and pedo-climatic conditions resulted in low cumulative N2O emissions (0.57 to 0.75 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1), yield-scaled N2O emissions (3-6 g N2O-N kg aboveground N uptake-1) and N surplus (31 to 56 kg N ha-1) for all treatments. Although CCs increased N2O emissions during the intercrop period compared to F (1.6 and 2.6 times in B and V, respectively), the ISFM resulted in similar cumulative emissions for the CCs and F at the end of the maize cropping period. The higher C : N ratio of the B residue led to a greater proportion of N2O losses from the synthetic fertilizer in these plots when compared to V. No significant differences were observed in CH4 and CO2 fluxes at the end of the experiment. This study shows that the use of both legume and nonlegume CCs combined with ISFM could provide, in addition to the advantages reported in previous studies, an opportunity to maximize agronomic efficiency (lowering synthetic N requirements for the subsequent cash crop) without increasing cumulative or yield-scaled N2O losses.

  15. Farm Crop Production Technology: Field and Forage Crop and Fruit and Vine Production Options. A Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division of Vocational and Technical Education, BAVT.

    Prepared by a junior college under contract with the Office of Education, the curriculum materials are designed to assist school administrators, advisory committees, supervisors, and teachers in developing or evaluating postsecondary programs in farm crop production technology. Information was gathered by visits to the important farm regions and…

  16. A spatial ecology study on the effects of field conditions and crop rotation on the incidence of Plectris aliena (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grub damage to sweetpotato roots.

    PubMed

    Brill, Nancy L; Osborne, Jason; Abney, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    A farmscape study was conducted in commercial sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) fields in Columbus County, NC, in 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effects of the following field conditions: soil drainage class, soil texture, field size, border habitat, land elevation, and the previous year's crop rotation on the incidence of damage caused by Plectris aliena Chapman (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larval feeding. Soil drainage and crop rotation significantly affected the incidence of damage to roots, with well drained soils having a low estimated incidence of damaged roots (0.004) compared with all other drainage classes (0.009-0.011 incidence of damaged roots). Fields with soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] planted the preceding year had the highest incidence of root damage (0.15) compared with all other crops. The effects of border habitats, which were adjacent to grower fields where roots were sampled, showed that as the location of the roots was closer to borders of soybean (planted the year before) or grass fields, the chance of damage to roots decreased. Results indicate that growers can use crop rotation as a management technique and avoid planting sweetpotatoes the year after soybeans to reduce the incidence of P. aliena larval feeding on sweetpotato roots. Environmental conditions such as fields with poor drainage and certain border habitats may be avoided, or selected, by growers to reduce risk of damage to roots by P. aliena.

  17. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  18. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  19. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operation of harvesting equipment; and (ii) Abnormally hot or cold temperatures that cause an unexpected... records: (1) For any optional units, we will combine all optional units for which such production records... by uninsured causes or; (D) For which you fail to provide production records that are acceptable to...

  20. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operation of harvesting equipment; and (ii) Abnormally hot or cold temperatures that cause an unexpected... records: (1) For any optional units, we will combine all optional units for which such production records... by uninsured causes or; (D) For which you fail to provide production records that are acceptable to...

  1. Climate Change Impacts for the Conterminous USA: An Integrated Assessment Part 7. Economic Analysis of Field Crops and Land Use with Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, Ronald D.; Edmonds, James A.

    2005-03-01

    PNNL's Agriculture and Land Use (AgLU) model is used to demonstrate the impact of potential changes in climate on agricultural production and land use in the United States. AgLU simulates production of four crop types in several world regions, in 15-year time steps from 1990 to 2095. Changes in yield of major field crops in the United States, for 12 climate scenarios, are obtained from simulations of the EPIC crop growth model. Results from the HUMUS model are used to constrain crop irrigation, and the BIOME3 model is used to simulate productivity of unmanaged ecosystems. Assumptions about changes in agricultural productivity outside the United States are treated on a scenario basis, either responding in the same way as in the United States, or not responding to climate.

  2. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  3. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  4. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  5. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  6. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by § 155.170(a...

  7. Impact of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in soil and transfer rate to leafy vegetable spinach.

    PubMed

    Coumar, M Vassanda; Parihar, R S; Dwivedi, A K; Saha, J K; Rajendiran, S; Dotaniya, M L; Kundu, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of heavy metals in the environment by various anthropogenic activities has become a potential treat to life. Among the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) shows relatively high soil mobility and has high phyto-mammalian toxicity. Integration of soil remediation and ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration in soils through organic amendments, may provide an attractive land management option for contaminated sites. The application of biochar in agriculture has recently received much attention globally due to its associated multiple benefits, particularly, long-term carbon storage in soil. However, the application of biochar from softwood crop residue for heavy metal immobilization, as an alternative to direct field application, has not received much attention. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in a soil-plant system in cadmium-spiked sandy loam soil. The biochar was prepared from pigeon pea stalk through a slow pyrolysis method at 300 °C. The experiment was designed with three levels of Cd (0, 5, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) and three levels of biochar (0, 2.5, and 5 g kg(-1) soil) using spinach as a test crop. The results indicate that with increasing levels of applied cadmium at 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) soil, the dry matter yield (DMY) of spinach leaf decreased by 9.84 and 18.29 %, respectively. However, application of biochar (at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil) significantly increased the dry matter yield of spinach leaf by 5.07 and 15.02 %, respectively, and root by 14.0 and 24.0 %, respectively, over the control. Organic carbon content in the post-harvest soil increased to 34.9 and 60.5 % due to the application of biochar 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil, respectively. Further, there was a reduction in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable cadmium in the soil and in transfer coefficient values (soil to plant), as well as its concentrations in spinach leaf and root, indicating that

  8. Development of two major resources for pea genomics: the GenoPea 13.2K SNP Array and a high-density, high-resolution consensus genetic map.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aluome, Christelle; Falque, Matthieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Klein, Anthony; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Houtin, Hervé; Rond, Céline; Kreplak, Jonathan; Boucherot, Karen; Martin, Chantal; Baranger, Alain; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Warkentin, Thomas D; Brunel, Dominique; Marget, Pascal; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays represent important genotyping tools for innovative strategies in both basic research and applied breeding. Pea is an important food, feed and sustainable crop with a large (about 4.45 Gbp) but not yet available genome sequence. In the present study, 12 pea recombinant inbred line populations were genotyped using the newly developed GenoPea 13.2K SNP Array. Individual and consensus genetic maps were built providing insights into the structure and organization of the pea genome. Largely collinear genetic maps of 3918-8503 SNPs were obtained from all mapping populations, and only two of these exhibited putative chromosomal rearrangement signatures. Similar distortion patterns in different populations were noted. A total of 12 802 transcript-derived SNP markers placed on a 15 079-marker high-density, high-resolution consensus map allowed the identification of ohnologue-rich regions within the pea genome and the localization of local duplicates. Dense syntenic networks with sequenced legume genomes were further established, paving the way for the identification of the molecular bases of important agronomic traits segregating in the mapping populations. The information gained on the structure and organization of the genome from this research will undoubtedly contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the pea genome and to its assembly. The GenoPea 13.2K SNP Array and individual and consensus genetic maps are valuable genomic tools for plant scientists to strengthen pea as a model for genetics and physiology and enhance breeding. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A single-step method for RNA isolation from tropical crops in the field

    PubMed Central

    Breitler, J.-C.; Campa, C.; Georget, F.; Bertrand, B.; Etienne, H.

    2016-01-01

    The RNAzol RT reagent was used to provide pure RNA from human cells. We develop a protocol using RNAzol RT reagent to extract pure RNA from plants tissues and demonstrate that this RNA extraction method works not only at room temperature but also at elevated temperatures and provides the simplest and most effective single-step method to extract pure and undegraded RNA directly from tropical plants in the field. RNA extraction directly in a complex field environment opens up the way for studying gene-environment interactions at transcriptome level to decipher the complex regulatory network involved in multiple-stress responses. PMID:27922073

  10. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of efficient nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter strains from rice fields for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Dangar, Tushar K; Mohanty, Santanu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is highly effective in the field and potentially useful to reduce adverse effects chemical fertilisers. Here, Azotobacter species were selected via phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characterisations from different rice fields. Acetylene reduction assay of Azotobacter spp. showed that Azotobacter vinelandii (Az3) fixed higher amount of nitrogen (121.09 nmol C2H4 mg(-1) bacteria h(-1)). Likewise, its plant growth functions, viz. siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, salicylic acid, IAA, GA3, zeatin, NH3, phosphorus solubilisation, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance, were also higher. The profile of gDNA, plasmid DNA and cellular protein profile depicted inter-generic and inter-specific diversity among the isolates of A. vinelandii. The PCR-amplified genes nifH, nifD and nifK of 0.87, 1.4 and 1.5 kb , respectively, were ascertained by Southern blot hybridisation in isolates of A. vinelandii. The 16S rRNA sequence from A. vinelandii (Az3) was novel, and its accession number (JQ796077) was received from NCBI data base. Biofertiliser formulation of novel A. vinelandii isolates along with commercial one was evaluated in rice (Oriza sativa L. var. Khandagiri) fields. The present finding revealed that treatment T4 (Az3) (A. vinelandii) are highly efficient to improved growth and yield of rice crop.

  11. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Image-Based High-Throughput Field Phenotyping of Crop Roots1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bucksch, Alexander; Burridge, James; York, Larry M.; Das, Abhiram; Nord, Eric; Weitz, Joshua S.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Current plant phenotyping technologies to characterize agriculturally relevant traits have been primarily developed for use in laboratory and/or greenhouse conditions. In the case of root architectural traits, this limits phenotyping efforts, largely, to young plants grown in specialized containers and growth media. Hence, novel approaches are required to characterize mature root systems of older plants grown under actual soil conditions in the field. Imaging methods able to address the challenges associated with characterizing mature root systems are rare due, in part, to the greater complexity of mature root systems, including the larger size, overlap, and diversity of root components. Our imaging solution combines a field-imaging protocol and algorithmic approach to analyze mature root systems grown in the field. Via two case studies, we demonstrate how image analysis can be utilized to estimate localized root traits that reliably capture heritable architectural diversity as well as environmentally induced architectural variation of both monocot and dicot plants. In the first study, we show that our algorithms and traits (including 13 novel traits inaccessible to manual estimation) can differentiate nine maize (Zea mays) genotypes 8 weeks after planting. The second study focuses on a diversity panel of 188 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes to identify which traits are sufficient to differentiate genotypes even when comparing plants whose harvesting date differs up to 14 d. Overall, we find that automatically derived traits can increase both the speed and reproducibility of the trait estimation pipeline under field conditions. PMID:25187526

  13. Isoflavones in soybean seeds: Genetic variation and environmental effects in field-grown crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both controlled environment and field studies indicate that isoflavones, a dietary source of a class of bioactive phytochemicals present primarily in soybean seeds, increase greatly when seeds mature under cooler conditions or when plants are well-watered. Environmental effects can be superimposed ...

  14. Comparison of three pesticide fate models for two herbicides leaching under field conditions in a maize cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Benito, Jesus Maria; Pot, Valérie; Alletto, Lionel; Mamy, Laure; Bedos, Carole; van den Berg, Erik; Barriuso, Enrique; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Losses of pesticides from agricultural soils may influence the quality of groundwater. Therefore, numerous models were developed to assess the transfer of pesticides from the soil surface to groundwater after their application to an agricultural field. Our objective was thus to compare the ability of three pesticide fate models to describe the behavior of water, and S-metolachlor (SMOC) and mesotrione (MES) herbicides as observed under field conditions in a maize monoculture system. Simulations were based on field experimentations set up in Toulouse area (France). The tested scenario focused on a conventional maize monoculture and included two irrigated cropping periods with a fallow period managed with bare soil. SMOC was sprayed annually at 1.25 and 1.52 kg a.i./ha in 2011 and 2012, respectively, while MES was only applied in 2012 but twice, at 0.150 kg a.i./ha. Simulations were performed with the PRZM, PEARL and MACRO models parameterized with field, laboratory, and literature data, and pedotransfer functions. The results of simulations were compared with soil tension, water content and percolation data monitored at different depths in 2011-2012. The comparison of the results obtained by the three models indicated that PRZM was not able to simulate properly the water dynamic in the soil profile and for example, it predicted that microporosity was always saturated at 1 m-depth. On the contrary, PEARL and MACRO simulated quite well the observed water behavior (water pressure head and volumetric water content) at 20 and 50 cm-depth during the irrigated cropping period of 2012. However, simulated soil moisture and water pressure were overestimated before the rainfall event of 20 May 2012. MACRO and PEARL simulations generally showed similar water flow dynamics for the whole period at the three depths. Neither the dynamic nor the total amount of percolated water was correctly simulated by any model. The three models overestimated the total water volume leached at 1 m

  15. Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C J; Alvarado, P; Narváez, C; Miranda, F; Hernández, L; Vanegas, H; Hruska, A; Shelton, A M

    2000-12-01

    Field populations of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), Plutella xylostella (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) were tested for resistance to several insecticides commonly used in Nicariagua. Assays were conducted to estimate the LD50s or LC50s and the corresponding resistance ratios. A diagnostic concentration was used to discriminate between susceptible and resistant strains of H. hampei. The tests with >6,000 H. hampei adults collected from six different sites indicate the absence of resistance to endosulfan. Resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorfluazuron, thiocyclam, and methamidophos was documented in six field populations of P. xylostella. High levels of resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin, but moderate levels of resistance to chlorpyriphos and methomyl, were also documented in two field populations of S. exigua. Moderate levels of resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and chlorpyriphos were also documented in three field populations of H. zea. Moderate to high levels of resistance to bifenthrin, methamidophos and endosulfan were documented in four field populations of B. tabaci. The presence of significant correlations between LD50s or LC50s suggests the occurrence of cross-resistance or simultaneous selection for resistance by different insecticides with different modes of action. Our data could not differentiate between these two possibilities. Because insecticides will continue being used in Nicaragua, a resistance management program is urgently needed. The implementation of integrated pest management tactics must be accompanied by specific regulations for pesticide registration. In the future, pesticide registration regulations in Nicaragua should include periodic resistance monitoring. The mechanisms to cover the costs of resistance monitoring and resistance management should also be established.

  16. Systemic insecticides for control of black vine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in container- and field-grown nursery crops.

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Persad, Anand B

    2009-06-01

    Black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), are serious pests of container- and field-grown nursery crops. Management programs usually target the larval stage in container-grown plants and the adults in field-grown plants. We tested several new systemic insecticides for efficacy against black vine weevil in container-grown Sedum spp. and field-grown Taxus spp. In 2006 and 2007, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole were applied as surface drenches to containerized Sedum plants, and suppression of larval densities and adult feeding were evaluated. Sedum leaf bioassays were used to further examine the influence of clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole on adult feeding. In 2006, pots were infested with adult black vine weevil 1 d after treating, and in 2007 pots were infested 1 or 43 d after treating. All three insecticides significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in 2006, but not in 2007, because of low numbers of larvae in the untreated control plants. Dinotefuran and clothianidin reduced feeding by adult black vine weevil on containerized Sedum plants, resulting in more blossoms, fewer damaged leaves, and a lower percentage of leaves damaged compared with control plants. In bioassays with detached leaves, all three insecticides reduced feeding compared with control plants. Efficacy and timing of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and acephate soil drenches and imidacloprid and acephate soil injections were evaluated for black vine weevil control over a 1-yr period in field-grown Taxus plants. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in field-grown Taxus plants compared with control plants; and all but the spring acephate drench improved the appearance of the Taxus (foliar rating) plants compared with untreated plants. All of the tested insecticides showed potential for preventing infestations of black vine weevil larvae and reducing feeding by the adults in ornamental plants.

  17. Analysis of the accumulation of Pea enation mosaic virus genomes in seed tissues and lack of evidence for seed transmission in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail; Larsen, Richard; Murray, Sarah; McPhee, Kevin; Coyne, Clarice

    2009-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is an important virus disease of pea. International movement of commercial pea cultivars and germplasm can be problematic due to uncertainty about seed transmission of the viruses responsible for the disease. Whether PEMV is seedborne was assessed by collecting developing seed from infected plants and determining the relative concentrations of the PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 viral genomes using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 was approximately 1,240 and 13,000 times higher, respectively, in leaf than in embryo tissues. Accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 RNA was also significantly higher in pod walls and seed coats than in cotyledons or embryo axes. No evidence was obtained for seed transmission of PEMV in pea. Although PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 genomic RNAs were found in developing seed, no PEMV symptoms were observed in the field on more than 50,000 plants from seed derived from PEMV-infected source plants. These data demonstrate that PEMV is seedborne in pea but do not support a previous report that PEMV is seed transmitted. Absence of seed transmission may result from the low abundance of PEMV viral genomes in embryo tissue.

  18. Evaluating evaporation from field crops using airborne radiometry and ground-based meteorological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, R. D.; Moran, M.S.; Gay, L.W.; Raymond, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measurements of reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation were combined with ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, and vapor pressure to calculate instantaneous evaporation (LE) rates using a form of the Penman equation. Estimates of evaporation over cotton, wheat, and alfalfa fields were obtained on 5 days during a one-year period. A Bowen ratio apparatus, employed simultaneously, provided ground-based measurements of evaporation. Comparison of the airborne and ground techniques showed good agreement, with the greatest difference being about 12% for the instantaneous values. Estimates of daily (24 h) evaporation were made from the instantaneous data. On three of the five days, the difference between the two techniques was less than 8%, with the greatest difference being 25%. The results demonstrate that airborne remote sensing techniques can be used to obtain spatially distributed values of evaporation over agricultural fields. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Antibody expressing pea seeds as fodder for prevention of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Jana; Saalbach, Isolde; Jahn, Doreen; Giersberg, Martin; Haehnel, Sigrun; Wedel, Julia; Macek, Jeanette; Zoufal, Karen; Glünder, Gerhard; Falkenburg, Dieter; Kipriyanov, Sergey M

    2009-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis caused by protozoans of genus Eimeria is a chicken parasitic disease of great economical importance. Conventional disease control strategies depend on vaccination and prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs. Alternative solution to prevent and treat coccidiosis could be provided by passive immunization using orally delivered neutralizing antibodies. We investigated the possibility to mitigate the parasitic infection by feeding poultry with antibody expressing transgenic crop seeds. Results Using the phage display antibody library, we generated a panel of anti-Eimeria scFv antibody fragments with high sporozoite-neutralizing activity. These antibodies were expressed either transiently in agrobacteria-infiltrated tobacco leaves or stably in seeds of transgenic pea plants. Comparison of the scFv antibodies purified either from tobacco leaves or from the pea seeds demonstrated no difference in their antigen-binding activity and molecular form compositions. Force-feeding experiments demonstrated that oral delivery of flour prepared from the transgenic pea seeds had higher parasite neutralizing activity in vivo than the purified antibody fragments isolated from tobacco. The pea seed content was found to protect antibodies against degradation by gastrointestinal proteases (>100-fold gain in stability). Ad libitum feeding of chickens demonstrated that the transgenic seeds were well consumed and not shunned. Furthermore, feeding poultry with shred prepared from the antibody expressing pea seeds led to significant mitigation of infection caused both by high and low challenge doses of Eimeria oocysts. Conclusion The results suggest that our strategy offers a general approach to control parasitic infections in production animals using cost-effective antibody expression in crop seeds affordable for the animal health market. PMID:19747368

  20. Effect of Processing and Preparation for Serving on Vitamin Content in T, B, and A Ration Peas and Carrots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    PREPARATION FOR SERVING ON VITAMIN CONTENT IN T, B, AND A RATION PEAS AND CARROTS to o 00 < I Q < o LÜ ti BY YOUNG-KYUNG KIM MAY 1986 FINAL...Vitamin Content in T, B, ami A Ration Peas and Carrots 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Young-Kyung Kim 13a. TYPE OF REPORT Final 13b. TIME COVERED...Acid New feeding concepts 5 Ration Vicamins Vitamin Retention Peas and Carrots 17. COSATI CODES FIELD \\ GROUP SUB-GROUP »19. ABSTRACT

  1. Tile drain losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from fields under integrated and organic crop rotations. A four-year study on a clay soil in southwest Sweden.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Maria; Ulén, Barbro; Söderström, Mats; Roland, Björn; Delin, Karl; Helander, Carl-Anders

    2012-09-15

    In order to explore the influence of site-specific soil properties on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses between individual fields and crop sequences, 16 drained fields with clay soils were investigated in a four-year study. Mean total N (TN) loss was 6.6-11.1 from a conventional, 14.3-21.5 from an organic and 13.1-23.9 kg ha(-1) year(-1) from an integrated cropping system across a 4 year period, with 75% in nitrate form (NO(3)-N). Mean total P (TP) loss was 0.96-3.03, 0.99-4.63 and 0.76-2.67 kg ha(-1) year(-1), from the three systems respectively during the same period, with 25% in dissolved reactive form (DRP). Median N efficiency was calculated to be 70% including gains from estimated N fixation. According to principal component factor (PCA) analysis, field characteristics and cropping system were generally more important for losses of N and P than year. Accumulation of soil mineral N in the autumn and (estimated) N fixation was important for N leaching. No P fertilisers were used at the site in either cropping system. Total P concentration in drainage water from each of the fields was marginally significantly (p<0.05) correlated to TP concentration in the topsoil (r=0.52), measured in hydrochloric acid extract (P-HCl). Mean DRP concentrations were significantly (p<0.01) correlated to degree of P saturation (DPS-AL) and soil carbon (C) content in the topsoil (r=0.63). Good establishment of a crop with efficient nutrient uptake and good soil structure was general preconditions for low nutrient leaching. Incorporation of ley by tillage operations in the summer before autumn crop establishment and repeated operations in autumn as well, increased N leaching. Crop management in sequences with leguminous crops needs to be considered carefully when designing cropping systems high efficiency in N utilisation and low environmental impact.

  2. Bean alpha-amylase inhibitors in transgenic peas inhibit development of pea weevil larvae.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Majer, Maria José; Hardie, Darryl C; Turner, Neil C; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2007-08-01

    This glasshouse study used an improved larval measurement procedure to evaluate the impact of transgenic pea, Pisum sativum L., seeds expressing a-amylase inhibitor (AI)-1 or -2 proteins on pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Seeds of transgenic 'Laura' and 'Greenfeast' peas expressing alpha-(AI)-1 reduced pea weevil survival by 93-98%. Larval mortality occurred at an early instar. Conversely, in nontransgenic cultivars, approximately 98-99% of the pea weevils emerged as adults. By measuring the head capsule size, we determined that larvae died at the first to early third instar in alpha-(AI)-1 transgenic peas, indicating that this inhibitor is highly effective in controlling this insect. By contrast, transgenic Laura and 'Dundale' expressing alpha-(AI)-2 did not affect pea weevil survival, but they did delay larval development. After 77 d of development, the head capsule size indicated that the larvae were still at the third instar stage in transgenic alpha-(AI)-2 peas, whereas adult bruchids had developed in the nontransgenic peas.

  3. Evaluation of two pesticide leaching models in an irrigated field cropped with corn.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Dorothea D; Antonopoulos, Vassilis Z

    2015-03-01

    Pesticide leaching models is an easy and cost effective method used in the prediction of surface and groundwater pollution. In this paper, the ability of two pesticide leaching models, MACRO and PEARL, to describe soil water dynamics and atrazine's transport through the soil profile was examined. The data used for the comparison was obtained from an experiment in an irrigated corn field in the plain of the Ardas River, in north-eastern Greece. Both models were parameterized using pedotransfer functions, field and laboratory data. The uncalibrated simulation showed several discrepancies, therefore the retention curve and the sorption parameters were calibrated according to the trial and error method. The comparison of both models indicated that soil water flow was described similarly. The simulated results of atrazine's concentration were evaluated and compared to the measured concentrations at specific depths, using statistical criteria. Atrazine transport was simulated in a satisfactory manner as confirmed by model efficiency (EF) values, that are very close to unit. Coefficient of residual mass (CRM) values for both models are positive, indicating that both models underestimate the measured data. MACRO estimated higher accumulated actual evapotranspiration values, and less percolated water from soil profile than PEARL, and as a result, change in water content was higher in the latter. PEARL also predicted that half the amount of the applied mass was decayed two days earlier than the day estimated by MACRO. Generally, MACRO simulated the fate of atrazine in soil better than PEARL.

  4. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  5. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Renuka P.; Grusak, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals. PMID:24795736

  6. Test/QA plan for the validation of the verification protocol for low speed pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    This test/QA plan for evaluation the generic test protocol for high speed wind tunnel, representing aerial application, pesticide spray drift reduction technologies (DRT) for row and field crops is in conformance with EPA Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA QA/R...

  7. Test/QA plan for the validation of the verification protocol for high speed pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    This test/QA plan for evaluation the generic test protocol for high speed wind tunnel, representing aerial application, pesticide spray drift reduction technologies (DRT) for row and field crops is in conformance with EPA Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA QA/R...

  8. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  9. Test/QA plan for the validation of the verification protocol for low speed pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    This test/QA plan for evaluation the generic test protocol for high speed wind tunnel, representing aerial application, pesticide spray drift reduction technologies (DRT) for row and field crops is in conformance with EPA Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA QA/R...

  10. Test/QA plan for the validation of the verification protocol for high speed pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    This test/QA plan for evaluation the generic test protocol for high speed wind tunnel, representing aerial application, pesticide spray drift reduction technologies (DRT) for row and field crops is in conformance with EPA Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA QA/R...

  11. Cultures Traditionnelles de Plein Champ (Traditional Field Crops). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Reprint Series No. R-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David

    Written in French, this manual, which deals with traditional field crops, is primarily designed to help Peace Corps volunteers develop and strengthen their agricultural skills. The focus of the manual is on surveying and interpreting local agricultural environment and individual farm units, developing agricultural extension techniques and…

  12. Modelling soil redistribution in a hydrologically defined crop field with WATEM/SEDEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano, Laura; López-Vicente, Manuel; Gaspar, Leticia; Machín, Javier; Navas, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Soil degradation and depletion of soil nutrients is a main effect of soil erosion. In arable land tillage practices produces erosion of fertile topsoil from upslope positions, the subsequent transport of soil and nutrients and their accumulation at depositional sites. The loss of topsoil by tillage and water erosion may affect to important soil properties such as nutrient levels, water holding capacity and soil stability thus reducing the productivity of agricultural systems. Erosion models that simulate soil redistribution rates allow obtaining the spatial distribution of soil loss and deposition, which is useful to identify the areas that might require the application of soil conservation practices. In this study the soil erosion and sediment delivery WATEM/SEDEM 2005 model was applied in a cultivated field of winter cereals (3846 m2) located in NE Spain (42° 01' 42" N, 0° 31' 30" E). The study area was selected as representative of the typical mountain rainfed Mediterranean agro-ecosystems. This area appears as a closed hydrological unit that conforms a defined drainage area, which was delimitated on the basis of a detailed digital elevation model (1 x 1 m of cell size) as well as detailed field observations before and after erosive rainfall events. The WATEM/SEDEM model is a useful tool, which has been widely used to assess soil redistribution by water and tillage processes at different spatial scales. Soil redistribution patterns were simulated and results of the WATEM/SEDEM model were used to map the spatially distributed rates of net soil loss and deposition. In order to perform the calibration procedure, quantified values of soil redistribution in the cultivated field were derived from Caesium-137 measurements. This fallout radionuclide provides information for the whole erosion and deposition processes at medium and long-term. The simulation results from each conversion module were compared with the soil redistribution pattern derived from Cs-137

  13. Predicted versus measured photosynthetic water-use efficiency of crop stands under dynamically changing field environments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liu-Kang; Hsiao, Theodore C

    2004-11-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE) is critical in determining the adaptation and productivity of plants in water-limited areas, either under the present climate or future global change. Data on WUE are often highly variable and a unifying and quantitative approach is needed to analyse and predict WUE for different environments. Hsiao has already proposed a set of paradigm equations based on leaf gas exchange for this purpose, calculating WUE (ratio of assimilation to transpiration) relative to the WUE for a chosen reference situation. This study tests the validity and applicability of these equations to cotton and sweet corn stands with full canopies in the open field. Measured were evapotranspiration and downward flux of atmospheric CO2 into the canopy, soil CO2 efflux, canopy temperature, and CO2 and vapour pressure of the air surrounding the canopy. With the measured mean WUE and conditions at midday serving as the reference, WUE for other times was predicted from the air CO2 and water vapour data, intercellular water vapour pressure calculated from canopy temperature, and an assumed ratio of Ci/Ca based on leaf gas-exchange data. Provided that the stomatal response to humidity as it affected the Ci/Ca ratio was accounted for, the equations predicted the moment-by-moment changes in canopy WUE of cotton over daily cycles reasonably well, and also the variation in midday WUE from day-to-day over a 47 d period. The prediction for sweet corn was fairly good for most parts of the day except the early morning. Measurement uncertainties and possible causes of the differences between predicted and measured WUE are discussed. Overall, the results indicate that the equations may be suitable to simulate changes in WUE without upscaling, and also demonstrate clearly the importance of stomatal response to humidity in determining stand WUE in the field.

  14. Study the effect of insecticide dimethoate on photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea: Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Dubey, Gunjan; Gopal, R

    2015-10-01

    Pigeon pea is one of the most important legume crops in India and dimethoate is a widely used insecticide in various crop plants. We studied the effect of dimethoate on growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants over a short and long term exposure. Plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence response of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) plants treated with various concentrations of the insecticide dimethoate (10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm) have been compared for 30 days at regular intervals of 10 days each. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and fluorescence-induction kinetics (FIK) curve of dimethoate treated pigeon pea plants were recorded after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment. Fluorescence intensity ratio at the two fluorescence maxima (F685/F730) was calculated by evaluating curve-fitted parameters. The variable chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd) was determined from the FIK curves. Our study revealed that after 10 days of treatment, 10 ppm of dimethoate showed stimulatory response whereas 20, 40 and 80 ppm of dimethoate showed inhibitory response for growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants, but after 20 and 30 days of treatment all the tested concentrations of dimethoate became inhibitory. This study clearly shows that dimethoate is highly toxic to the pigeon pea plant, even at very low concentration (10 ppm), if used for a prolonged duration. Our study may thus be helpful in determining the optimal dose of dimethoate in agricultural practices.

  15. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  16. Land Use, Yield and Quality Changes of Minor Field Crops: Is There Superseded Potential to Be Reinvented in Northern Europe?

    PubMed

    Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Lehtonen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Diversification of agriculture was one of the strengthened aims of the greening payment of European Agricultural Policy (CAP) as diversification provides numerous ecosystems services compared to cereal-intensive crop rotations. This study focuses on current minor crops in Finland that have potential for expanded production and considers changes in their cropping areas, yield trends, breeding gains, roles in crop rotations and potential for improving resilience. Long-term datasets of Natural Resources Institute Finland and farmers' land use data from the Agency of Rural Affairs were used to analyze the above-mentioned trends and changes. The role of minor crops in rotations declined when early and late CAP periods were compared and that of cereal monocultures strengthened. Genetic yield potentials of minor crops have increased as also genetic improvements in quality traits, although some typical trade-offs with improved yields have also appeared. However, the gap between potential and attained yields has expanded, depending on the minor crop, as national yield trends have either stagnated or declined. When comparing genetic improvements of minor crops to those of the emerging major crop, spring wheat, breeding achievements in minor crops were lower. It was evident that the current agricultural policies in the prevailing market and the price environment have not encouraged cultivation of minor crops but further strengthened the role of cereal monocultures. We suggest optimization of agricultural land use, which is a core element of sustainable intensification, as a future means to couple long-term environmental sustainability with better success in economic profitability and social acceptability. This calls for development of effective policy instruments to support farmer's diversification actions.

  17. Land Use, Yield and Quality Changes of Minor Field Crops: Is There Superseded Potential to Be Reinvented in Northern Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Lehtonen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Diversification of agriculture was one of the strengthened aims of the greening payment of European Agricultural Policy (CAP) as diversification provides numerous ecosystems services compared to cereal-intensive crop rotations. This study focuses on current minor crops in Finland that have potential for expanded production and considers changes in their cropping areas, yield trends, breeding gains, roles in crop rotations and potential for improving resilience. Long-term datasets of Natural Resources Institute Finland and farmers’ land use data from the Agency of Rural Affairs were used to analyze the above-mentioned trends and changes. The role of minor crops in rotations declined when early and late CAP periods were compared and that of cereal monocultures strengthened. Genetic yield potentials of minor crops have increased as also genetic improvements in quality traits, although some typical trade-offs with improved yields have also appeared. However, the gap between potential and attained yields has expanded, depending on the minor crop, as national yield trends have either stagnated or declined. When comparing genetic improvements of minor crops to those of the emerging major crop, spring wheat, breeding achievements in minor crops were lower. It was evident that the current agricultural policies in the prevailing market and the price environment have not encouraged cultivation of minor crops but further strengthened the role of cereal monocultures. We suggest optimization of agricultural land use, which is a core element of sustainable intensification, as a future means to couple long-term environmental sustainability with better success in economic profitability and social acceptability. This calls for development of effective policy instruments to support farmer’s diversification actions. PMID:27870865

  18. Liming can decrease legume crop yield and leaf gas exchange by enhancing root to shoot ABA signalling.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Shane A; Elphinstone, E David; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    To meet future requirements for food production, sustainable intensive agricultural systems need to optimize nutrient availability to maximize yield, traditionally achieved by maintaining soil pH within an optimal range (6-6.5) by applying lime (calcium carbonate). However, a field trial that applied recommended liming rates to a sandy loam soil (increasing soil pH from 5.5 to 6.2) decreased pod yield of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Fuego) by ~30%. Subsequent pot trials, with liming that raised soil pH to 6.3-6.7, reduced stomatal conductance (g(s)) by 63, 26, and 59% in V. faba, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. Furthermore, liming reduced shoot dry biomass by 16-24% in these species. Ionomic analysis of root xylem sap and leaf tissue revealed a decrease in phosphorus concentration that was correlated with decreased g(s): both reductions were partially reversed by adding superphosphate fertilizer. Further analysis of pea suggests that leaf gas exchange was reduced by a systemic increase (roots, xylem sap, and leaves) in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to lime-induced suboptimal plant phosphorus concentrations. Supplying synthetic ABA via the transpiration stream to detached pea leaves, at the same xylem sap concentrations induced by liming, decreased transpiration. Furthermore, the g(s) of the ABA-deficient mutant pea wilty was unresponsive to liming, apparently confirming that ABA mediates some responses to low phosphorus availability caused by liming. This research provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the physiological processes by which lime application can limit crop yields, and questions the suitability of current liming recommendations.

  19. Liming can decrease legume crop yield and leaf gas exchange by enhancing root to shoot ABA signalling

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Shane A.; Elphinstone, E. David; Dodd, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    To meet future requirements for food production, sustainable intensive agricultural systems need to optimize nutrient availability to maximize yield, traditionally achieved by maintaining soil pH within an optimal range (6–6.5) by applying lime (calcium carbonate). However, a field trial that applied recommended liming rates to a sandy loam soil (increasing soil pH from 5.5 to 6.2) decreased pod yield of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Fuego) by ~30%. Subsequent pot trials, with liming that raised soil pH to 6.3–6.7, reduced stomatal conductance (g s) by 63, 26, and 59% in V. faba, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. Furthermore, liming reduced shoot dry biomass by 16–24% in these species. Ionomic analysis of root xylem sap and leaf tissue revealed a decrease in phosphorus concentration that was correlated with decreased g s: both reductions were partially reversed by adding superphosphate fertilizer. Further analysis of pea suggests that leaf gas exchange was reduced by a systemic increase (roots, xylem sap, and leaves) in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to lime-induced suboptimal plant phosphorus concentrations. Supplying synthetic ABA via the transpiration stream to detached pea leaves, at the same xylem sap concentrations induced by liming, decreased transpiration. Furthermore, the g s of the ABA-deficient mutant pea wilty was unresponsive to liming, apparently confirming that ABA mediates some responses to low phosphorus availability caused by liming. This research provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the physiological processes by which lime application can limit crop yields, and questions the suitability of current liming recommendations. PMID:25740925

  20. Sludge-borne heavy metal availability and uptake by vegetable crops under field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, P.S.; Wright, W.R.; Pelchat, J.

    1980-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge was applied in a single application to an acid (pH 5.6) silt loam soil in a field study at rates of 0, 20, and 60 dry metric tons/ha. Metal concentrations in soil and plant tissue were examined over a 2-year period (1976-1977). Levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn were measured in carrots (Daucus carota L., cv. Danvers), radishes (Raphanus sativus L., cv. Cherrybelle), tomatoes (Lycospersicon esculentum L., cv. New Yorker), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv. crispa, Salad Bowl). Metal uptake in both years was Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. Lettuce tissues generally accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn, while carrot roots accumulated the most Ni. Applications of sewage sludge generally did not increase concentrations of Cd or Cu in plant tissue; the only exceptions were the significant increases of Cd in lettuce and Cu in tomatoes during 1977. Most of the vegetables exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Ni and Zn as a result of sludge applications during both years. Concentrations of heavy metals in plant tissue were generally higher during the second year of the experiment, suggesting an increase in their availability with time. The Cd/Zn ratio of the sludge was 1.3%, while the averages for the edible and nonedible tissue, and DTPA-extractable soil were 2.9, 4.3, and 2.2%, respectively. The availability of heavy metals in the soil, as measured by DTPA-extraction, supported the results of plant tissue analyses. Applications of sewage sludge resulted in significant increases in DTPA-extractable metals. In addition, there was a general increase in the DTPA-extractable heavy metals with time, which appeared to be related to the decomposition of the sludge as pH values were not appreciably different during the second year.

  1. Satellite-based mapping of field-scale stress indicators for crop yield forecasting: an application over Mead, NE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In global agricultural regions, water is one of the most widely limiting factors of crop performance and production. Evapotranspiration (ET) describes crop water use through transpiration and water lost through direct soil evaporation, which makes it a good indicator of soil moisture availability an...

  2. LONG-TERM AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL FIELD CROPS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite increasing interest in organic grain crop production among farmers, government agencies and other stakeholders, there is little information on expected crop yields and production challenges in organic grain production, especially in Coastal Plain soils of the mid-Atlantic region. The USDA-AR...

  3. A decision support system (GesCoN) for managing fertigation in open field vegetable crops. Part I—methodological approach and description of the software

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Antonio; Conversa, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Reduced water availability and environmental pollution caused by nitrogen (N) losses have increased the need for rational management of irrigation and N fertilization in horticultural systems. Decision support systems (DSS) could be powerful tools to assist farmers to improve irrigation and N fertilization efficiency. Currently, fertilization by drip irrigation system (fertigation) is used for many vegetable crops around the world. The paper illustrates the theoretical basis, the methodological approach and the structure of a DSS called GesCoN for fertigation management in open field vegetable crops. The DSS is based on daily water and N balance, considering the water lost by evapotranspiration (ET) and the N content in the aerial part of the crop (N uptake) as subtraction and the availability of water and N in the wet soil volume most effected by roots as the positive part. For the water balance, reference ET can be estimated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) or the Priestley–Taylor and Hargreaves models, specifically calibrated under local conditions. Both single or dual Kc approach can be used to calculate crop ET. Rain runoff and deep percolation are considered to calculate the effective rainfall. The soil volume most affected by the roots, the wet soil under emitters and their interactions are modeled. Crop growth is modeled by a non-linear logistic function on the basis of thermal time, but the model takes into account thermal and water stresses and allows an in-season calibration through a dynamic adaptation of the growth rate to the specific genetic and environmental conditions. N crop demand is related to DM accumulation by the N critical curve. N mineralization from soil organic matter is daily estimated. The DSS helps users to evaluate the daily amount of water and N fertilizer that has to be applied in order to fulfill the water and N-crop requirements to achieve the maximum potential yield, while reducing the risk of nitrate outflows. PMID:26042128

  4. A decision support system (GesCoN) for managing fertigation in open field vegetable crops. Part I-methodological approach and description of the software.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonio; Conversa, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Reduced water availability and environmental pollution caused by nitrogen (N) losses have increased the need for rational management of irrigation and N fertilization in horticultural systems. Decision support systems (DSS) could be powerful tools to assist farmers to improve irrigation and N fertilization efficiency. Currently, fertilization by drip irrigation system (fertigation) is used for many vegetable crops around the world. The paper illustrates the theoretical basis, the methodological approach and the structure of a DSS called GesCoN for fertigation management in open field vegetable crops. The DSS is based on daily water and N balance, considering the water lost by evapotranspiration (ET) and the N content in the aerial part of the crop (N uptake) as subtraction and the availability of water and N in the wet soil volume most effected by roots as the positive part. For the water balance, reference ET can be estimated using the Penman-Monteith (PM) or the Priestley-Taylor and Hargreaves models, specifically calibrated under local conditions. Both single or dual Kc approach can be used to calculate crop ET. Rain runoff and deep percolation are considered to calculate the effective rainfall. The soil volume most affected by the roots, the wet soil under emitters and their interactions are modeled. Crop growth is modeled by a non-linear logistic function on the basis of thermal time, but the model takes into account thermal and water stresses and allows an in-season calibration through a dynamic adaptation of the growth rate to the specific genetic and environmental conditions. N crop demand is related to DM accumulation by the N critical curve. N mineralization from soil organic matter is daily estimated. The DSS helps users to evaluate the daily amount of water and N fertilizer that has to be applied in order to fulfill the water and N-crop requirements to achieve the maximum potential yield, while reducing the risk of nitrate outflows.

  5. Cover Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are a beneficial tool for use in conservation tillage systems. Cover crop residues reduce soil erosion from water and wind, increase soil water availability for subsequent crops, enhance soil organic matter and biological activity, and can decrease labor and energy inputs. Cover crop...

  6. Life-cycle analysis of dryland greenhouse gases affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little information is available about management practices effect on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) under dryland cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of cropping sequences (conventional till malt barley-fallow [CTB-F], no-till malt barley-pea [NTB-P], a...

  7. Multifunctional crop trait ontology for breeders' data: field book, annotation, data discovery and semantic enrichment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rosemary; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Mauleon, Ramil; Senger, Martin; Davenport, Guy F.; Hancock, David; Morrison, Norman; Bruskiewich, Richard; McLaren, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Agricultural crop databases maintained in gene banks of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) are valuable sources of information for breeders. These databases provide comparative phenotypic and genotypic information that can help elucidate functional aspects of plant and agricultural biology. To facilitate data sharing within and between these databases and the retrieval of information, the crop ontology (CO) database was designed to provide controlled vocabulary sets for several economically important plant species. Methodology Existing public ontologies and equivalent catalogues of concepts covering the range of crop science information and descriptors for crops and crop-related traits were collected from breeders, physiologists, agronomists, and researchers in the CGIAR consortium. For each crop, relationships between terms were identified and crop-specific trait ontologies were constructed following the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) format standard using the OBO-Edit tool. All terms within an ontology were assigned a globally unique CO term identifier. Principal results The CO currently comprises crop-specific traits for chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), potato (Solanum tuberosum), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum spp.) and wheat (Triticum spp.). Several plant-structure and anatomy-related terms for banana (Musa spp.), wheat and maize are also included. In addition, multi-crop passport terms are included as controlled vocabularies for sharing information on germplasm. Two web-based online resources were built to make these COs available to the scientific community: the ‘CO Lookup Service’ for browsing the CO; and the ‘Crops Terminizer’, an ontology text mark-up tool. Conclusions The controlled vocabularies of the CO are being used to curate several CGIAR centres' agronomic databases. The use of ontology terms to describe agronomic phenotypes and the accurate mapping of these

  8. Effect of fly ash on persistence, mobility and bio-efficacy of metribuzin and metsulfuron-methyl in crop fields.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neera; Bala Singh, Shashi; Raunaq; Das, T K

    2013-11-01

    Field evaluation of two fly ashes (40t/ha) on persistence, mobility and bioactivity of metribuzin and metsulfuron-methyl was studied in soybean and wheat crops, respectively. Metribuzin was applied as pre-emergence at 0.5kg/ha, while metsulfuron-methyl was applied post-emergence at 8g/ha. Results suggested that metribuzin in surface (0-15cm) soil of fly ash unamended plots reached below detectable limit in 60 days, while herbicide persisted till 112 days in surface soil of fly ash amended plots. No metribuzin leached down to subsurface (15-30cm) soil in fly ash amended plots, while traces of metribuzin (0.6-1.2μg/kg) were recovered in subsurface soil of fly ash unamended plot. Metsulfuron-methyl in surface soil persisted till 15 days in control and 20 days in fly ash amended plots and no metsulfuron-methyl leached down to subsurface soil. Fly ash amendment had no adverse effect on the bioactivity of herbicides and yield of soybean and wheat. The study suggested that fly ash amendment to soil can be exploited to retain applied herbicides in surface soil. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of crop growth and soil water modules in SWAT2000 using extensive field experiment data in an irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; He, C.; Sophocleous, M.; Yin, Z.; Hongrui, R.; Ouyang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    SWAT, a physically-based, hydrological model simulates crop growth, soil water and groundwater movement, and transport of sediment and nutrients at both the process and watershed scales. While the different versions of SWAT have been widely used throughout the world for agricultural and water resources applications, little has been done to test the performance, variability, and transferability of the parameters in the crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in an integrated way with multiple sets of field experimental data at the process scale. Using an multiple years of field experimental data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin, this paper assesses the performance of the plant-soil-groundwater modules and the variability and transferability of SWAT2000. Comparison of the simulated results by SWAT to the observations showed that SWAT performed quite unsatisfactorily in LAI predictions during the senescence stage, in yield predictions, and in soil-water estimation under dry soil-profile conditions. The unsatisfactory performance in LAI prediction might be attributed to over-simplified senescence modeling; in yield prediction to the improper computation of the harvest index; and in soil water under dry conditions to the exclusion of groundwater evaporation from the soil water balance in SWAT. In this paper, improvements in crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in SWAT were implemented. The saturated soil profile was coupled to the oscillating groundwater table. A variable evaporation coefficient taking into account soil water deficit index, groundwater depth, and crop root depth was used to replace the fixed coefficient in computing groundwater evaporation. The soil water balance included the groundwater evaporation. The modifications improved simulations of crop evapotranspiration and biomass as well as soil water dynamics under dry soil-profile conditions. The evaluation shows that the

  10. Effects of pea chips on pig performance, carcass quality and composition, and palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Newman, D J; Harris, E K; Lepper, A N; Berg, E P; Stein, H H

    2011-10-01

    Pea chips are produced as a by-product when field peas are processed to produce split peas for human consumption. The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of pea chips in diets fed to finishing pigs does not negatively influence pig growth performance, carcass composition, and the palatability of pork. A total of 24 barrows (initial BW: 58.0 ± 6.6 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments and fed early finishing diets for 35 d and late finishing diets for 35 d. A corn-soybean meal (SBM) control diet and 3 diets containing pea chips were formulated for each phase. Pea chips replaced 33.3, 66.6, or 100% of the SBM in the control diet. Pigs were housed individually, and all pigs were slaughtered at the conclusion of the experiment. Overall, there were no differences (P > 0.11) in final BW, ADFI, and G:F of pigs among treatments, but there was a quadratic response in ADG (P = 0.04), with the smallest value observed in pigs fed the control diet. Dressing percentage linearly decreased (P = 0.04) as pea chips replaced SBM in diets, but there were no differences (P > 0.20) among treatments in HCW, LM area, 10th-rib backfat, lean meat percentage, and marbling. Likewise, pH in loin and ham, drip loss, and purge loss were not influenced (P > 0.13) by treatment. However, there was a quadratic response (P = 0.08) in 24-h pH in the shoulder, with the smallest value present in pigs fed the diet, in which 66.6% of the SBM was replaced by pea chips. Subjective LM color and Japanese color score standard were reduced (quadratic, P = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) and LM b* values and hue angle were increased (quadratic, P = 0.09 and 0.10, respectively) when pea chips replaced SBM in the diets. Ham L* (quadratic, P = 0.04), a* (linear, P = 0.02), b* (quadratic, P = 0.07), color saturation (linear, P = 0.02), and hue angle (quadratic, P = 0.05) were increased when pea chips replaced SBM. However, there were no differences (P > 0.16) in shoulder and fat

  11. Methane oxidation in an intensively cropped tropical rice field soil under long-term application of organic and mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Nayak, D R; Babu, Y Jagadeesh; Datta, A; Adhya, T K

    2007-01-01

    Methane (CH4) oxidation is the only known biological sink process for mitigating atmospheric and terrestrial emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas. Methane oxidation in an alluvial soil planted to rice (Oryza sativa L.) under long-term application of organic (compost with a C/N ratio of 21.71), and mineral fertilizers was measured in a field-cum-laboratory incubation study. Oxidation rates were quantified in terms of decrease in the concentration of CH4 in the headspace of incubation vessels and expressed as half-life (t(1)2) values. Methane oxidation rates significantly differed among the treatments and growth stages of the rice crop. Methane oxidation rates were high at the maximum tillering and maturity stages, whereas they were low at grain-filling stage. Methane oxidation was low (t(1)2) = 15.76 d) when provided with low concentration of CH4. On the contrary, high concentration of CH4 resulted in faster oxidation (t(1)2) = 6.67 d), suggesting the predominance of "low affinity oxidation" in rice fields. Methane oxidation was stimulated following the application of mineral fertilizers or compost implicating nutrient limitation as one of the factors affecting the process. Combined application of compost and mineral fertilizer, however, inhibited CH4 oxidation probably due to N immobilization by the added compost. The positive effect of mineral fertilizer on CH4 oxidation rate was evident only at high CH4 concentration (t(1)2 = 4.80 d), while at low CH4 concentration their was considerable suppression (t(1) = 17.60 d). Further research may reveal that long-term application of fertilizers, organic or inorganic, may not inhibit CH4 oxidation.

  12. Frequency of Verticillium Species in Commercial Spinach Fields and Transmission of V. dahliae from Spinach to Subsequent Lettuce Crops.

    PubMed

    Short, D P G; Gurung, S; Koike, S T; Klosterman, S J; Subbarao, K V

    2015-01-01

    Verticillium wilt caused by V. dahliae is a devastating disease of lettuce in California (CA). The disease is currently restricted to a small geographic area in central coastal CA, even though cropping patterns in other coastal lettuce production regions in the state are similar. Infested spinach seed has been implicated in the introduction of V. dahliae into lettuce fields but direct evidence linking this inoculum to wilt epidemics in lettuce is lacking. In this study, 100 commercial spinach fields in four coastal CA counties were surveyed to evaluate the frequency of Verticillium species recovered from spinach seedlings and the area under spinach production in each county was assessed. Regardless of the county, V. isaacii was the most frequently isolated species from spinach followed by V. dahliae and, less frequently, V. klebahnii. The frequency of recovery of Verticillium species was unrelated to the occurrence of Verticillium wilt on lettuce in the four counties but was related to the area under spinach production in individual counties. The transmission of V. dahliae from infested spinach seeds to lettuce was investigated in microplots. Verticillium wilt developed on lettuce following two or three plantings of Verticillium-infested spinach, in independent experiments. The pathogen recovered from the infected lettuce from microplots was confirmed as V. dahliae by polymerase chain reaction assays. In a greenhouse study, transmission of a green fluorescence protein-tagged mutant strain of V. dahliae from spinach to lettuce roots was demonstrated, after two cycles of incorporation of infected spinach residue into the soil. This study presents conclusive evidence that V. dahliae introduced via spinach seed can cause Verticillium wilt in lettuce.

  13. A simple method to estimate vegetation indices and crop canopy factors using field spectroscopy for solanum tuberosum during the whole phenological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikou, S.; Papadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, M.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Neofytou, N.

    2013-08-01

    Field spectroscopy is a part of the remote sensing techniques and very important for studies in agriculture. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data of the spring potatoes for estimating spectral vegetation indices (SVI's). A field campaign was undertaken from September to the end of November 2012 for the collection of spectro-radiometric measurements. The study area was in the Mandria Village in Paphos district in Cyprus. This paper demonstrates how crop canopy factors can be statistically related to remotely sensed data, namely vegetation indices. The paper is a part of an EU cofounded project regarding estimating crop water requirements using remote sensing techniques and informing the farmers through 3G smart telephony.

  14. Peas in a Pod: Environment and Ionization in Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Heather; Jaskot, Anne; Drew, Patrick; Pare, Dylan; Griffin, Jon; Petersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Green Peas are extreme, highly ionized, starburst galaxies with strong [OIII] 5007 emission. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present statistics on the environment of Green Peas and investigate its effects on their ionized gas properties. Although most dwarf starburst galaxies are in low-density environments, we identify a sample of Green Peas in dense environments. Emission line observations with the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak reveal that one cluster Green Pea is more highly ionized in the direction of the cluster center. Ram pressure stripping likely generates this ionization gradient. We explore the role of the environment in enhancing star formation rates and ionization, and we compare the nebular properties of Green Peas in high-density environments to those in low-density environments.

  15. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  16. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of <2 mm was mixed with surface soil to a depth of 15 cm in plots of 33 m2 each (n=4). Barley (at the Chernozem soil) and maize (at the Cambisol) were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. The highest crop yields at both

  17. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. © 2016 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Inundative Field Releases and Evaluation of Three Predators for Bemisia tabasi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Management in Three Vegetable Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a global pest on numerous crops, including vegetables. Weekly inundative releases of a coccinellid predator (Coccinella undecimpunctata L.), a mirid predator [Macrophillus caliginosus (Wagner)] and a neuropteran predator [Chrysoperla carnea S...

  19. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    PubMed

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  20. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  1. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  2. Effects of crop rotation and nonfumigant nematicides on peanut and corn yields in fields infested with criconemella species.

    PubMed

    Ayers, A R; Duncan, H E; Barker, K R; Beute, M K

    1989-04-01

    The effects of nematicide treatments and corn-peanut cropping sequences on the population development of Criconemella ornata, and C. sphaerocephala and the related impact on crop yields were investigated at two North Carolina locations. Criconemella ornata and C. sphaerocephala were present at the Norman Perry farm, Bertie County (BERTIE); however, only C. ornata was found at the Central Crops Research Station, Johnston County (CCRS). An untreated control was compared to aldicarb 15G, carbofuran 15G, ethoprop 10G, and terbufos 15G granular formulations applied at a rate of 2.2 kg a.i./ha. The cropping sequences were monocuhured corn (C-C-C); monocultured peanut (P-P-P); and two corn-peanut (C-P-C; P-C-P) rotations. Nematicides were inconsistent in controlling C. sphaerocephala and C. ornata. Nematicide treatments enhanced corn yields in the monoculture-cropping cycle in the final year of the experiment at CCRS. Peanut yields were greater in the rotated cropping sequence than under monoculture at BERTIE, but rotation had less effect on peanut yields at CCRS. Declining yields were correlated with an increase in numbers of nematodes. Corn was an intermediate host for C. sphaerocephala and a moderate to poor host for C. ornata. Peanut was an excellent host for C. ornata and a poor host for C. sphaerocephala.

  3. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.

    2015-07-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012-2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  4. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.

    2015-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012–2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  5. Experimental growing of wild pea in Israel and its bearing on Near Eastern plant domestication

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, S.; Rachamim, E.; Zehavi, Y.; Zezak, I.; Lev-Yadun, S.; Gopher, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The wild progenitors of the Near Eastern legumes have low germination rates mediated by hardseededness. Hence it was argued that cultivation of these wild legumes would probably result in no yield gain. Based on the meagre natural yield of wild lentil and its poor germination, it was suggested that wild Near Eastern grain legumes were unlikely to have been adopted for cultivation unless freely germinating types were available for the incipient farmers. Unlike wild cereals, data from experimental cultivation of wild legumes are lacking. Methods Replicated nurseries of wild pea (Pisum elatius, P. humile and P. fulvum) were sown during 2007–2010 in the Mediterranean district of Israel. To assess the effect of hardseededness on the yield potential, seeds of the wild species were either subjected to scarification (to ensure germination) or left intact, and compared with domesticated controls. Key Results Sowing intact wild pea seeds mostly resulted in net yield loss due to poor establishment caused by wild-type low germination rates, while ensuring crop establishment by scarification resulted in net, although modest, yield gain, despite considerable losses due to pod dehiscence. Harvest efficiency of the wild pea plots was significantly higher (2–5 kg seeds h−1) compared with foraging efficiency in wild pea populations (ranging from a few grams to 0·6 kg h−1). Conclusions Germination and yield data from ‘cultivation’ of wild pea suggest that Near Eastern legumes are unlikely to have been domesticated via a protracted process. Put differently, the agronomic implications of the hardseededness of wild legumes are incompatible with a millennia-long scenario of unconscious selection processes leading to ‘full’ domestication. This is because net yield loss in cultivation attempts is most likely to have resulted in abandonment of the respective species within a short time frame, rather than perpetual unprofitable cultivation for several

  6. Experimental growing of wild pea in Israel and its bearing on Near Eastern plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Abbo, S; Rachamim, E; Zehavi, Y; Zezak, I; Lev-Yadun, S; Gopher, A

    2011-06-01

    The wild progenitors of the Near Eastern legumes have low germination rates mediated by hardseededness. Hence it was argued that cultivation of these wild legumes would probably result in no yield gain. Based on the meagre natural yield of wild lentil and its poor germination, it was suggested that wild Near Eastern grain legumes were unlikely to have been adopted for cultivation unless freely germinating types were available for the incipient farmers. Unlike wild cereals, data from experimental cultivation of wild legumes are lacking. Replicated nurseries of wild pea (Pisum elatius, P. humile and P. fulvum) were sown during 2007-2010 in the Mediterranean district of Israel. To assess the effect of hardseededness on the yield potential, seeds of the wild species were either subjected to scarification (to ensure germination) or left intact, and compared with domesticated controls. Sowing intact wild pea seeds mostly resulted in net yield loss due to poor establishment caused by wild-type low germination rates, while ensuring crop establishment by scarification resulted in net, although modest, yield gain, despite considerable losses due to pod dehiscence. Harvest efficiency of the wild pea plots was significantly higher (2-5 kg seeds h(-1)) compared with foraging efficiency in wild pea populations (ranging from a few grams to 0·6 kg h(-1)). Germination and yield data from 'cultivation' of wild pea suggest that Near Eastern legumes are unlikely to have been domesticated via a protracted process. Put differently, the agronomic implications of the hardseededness of wild legumes are incompatible with a millennia-long scenario of unconscious selection processes leading to 'full' domestication. This is because net yield loss in cultivation attempts is most likely to have resulted in abandonment of the respective species within a short time frame, rather than perpetual unprofitable cultivation for several centuries or millennia.

  7. Real-time monitoring of nitrate transport in the deep vadose zone under a crop field - implications for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkeltaub, Tuvia; Kurtzman, Daniel; Dahan, Ofer

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate is considered the most common non-point pollutant in groundwater. It is often attributed to agricultural management, when excess application of nitrogen fertilizer leaches below the root zone and is eventually transported as nitrate through the unsaturated zone to the water table. A lag time of years to decades between processes occurring in the root zone and their final imprint on groundwater quality prevents proper decision-making on land use and groundwater-resource management. This study implemented the vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) under a commercial crop field. Data obtained by the VMS for 6 years allowed, for the first time known to us, a unique detailed tracking of water percolation and nitrate migration from the surface through the entire vadose zone to the water table at 18.5 m depth. A nitrate concentration time series, which varied with time and depth, revealed - in real time - a major pulse of nitrate mass propagating down through the vadose zone from the root zone toward the water table. Analysis of stable nitrate isotopes indicated that manure is the prevalent source of nitrate in the deep vadose zone and that nitrogen transformation processes have little effect on nitrate isotopic signature. The total nitrogen mass calculations emphasized the nitrate mass migration towards the water table. Furthermore, the simulated pore-water velocity through analytical solution of the convection-dispersion equation shows that nitrate migration time from land surface to groundwater is relatively rapid, approximately 5.9 years. Ultimately, agricultural land uses, which are constrained to high nitrogen application rates and coarse soil texture, are prone to inducing substantial nitrate leaching.

  8. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  9. Limited fitness advantages of crop-weed hybrid progeny containing insect-resistant transgenes (Bt/CpTI) in transgenic rice field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The spread of insect-resistance transgenes from genetically engineered (GE) rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea) populations via gene flow creates a major concern for commercial GE rice cultivation. Transgene flow to weedy rice seems unavoidable. Therefore, characterization of potential fitness effect brought by the transgenes is essential to assess environmental consequences caused by crop-weed transgene flow. Field performance of fitness-related traits was assessed in advanced hybrid progeny of F(4) generation derived from a cross between an insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI) rice line and a weedy strain. The performance of transgene-positive hybrid progeny was compared with the transgene-negative progeny and weedy parent in pure and mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants under environmental conditions with natural vs. low insect pressure. Results showed that under natural insect pressure the insect-resistant transgenes could effectively suppress target insects and bring significantly increased fitness to transgenic plants in pure planting, compared with nontransgenic plants (including weedy parent). In contrast, no significant differences in fitness were detected under low insect pressure. However, such increase in fitness was not detected in the mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants due to significantly reduced insect pressure. Insect-resistance transgenes may have limited fitness advantages to hybrid progeny resulted from crop-weed transgene flow owning to the significantly reduced ambient target insect pressure when an insect-resistant GE crop is grown. Given that the extensive cultivation of an insect-resistant GE crop will ultimately reduce the target insect pressure, the rapid spread of insect-resistance transgenes in weedy populations in commercial GE crop fields may be not likely to happen.

  10. Limited Fitness Advantages of Crop-Weed Hybrid Progeny Containing Insect-Resistant Transgenes (Bt/CpTI) in Transgenic Rice Field

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of insect-resistance transgenes from genetically engineered (GE) rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea) populations via gene flow creates a major concern for commercial GE rice cultivation. Transgene flow to weedy rice seems unavoidable. Therefore, characterization of potential fitness effect brought by the transgenes is essential to assess environmental consequences caused by crop-weed transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Field performance of fitness-related traits was assessed in advanced hybrid progeny of F4 generation derived from a cross between an insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI) rice line and a weedy strain. The performance of transgene-positive hybrid progeny was compared with the transgene-negative progeny and weedy parent in pure and mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants under environmental conditions with natural vs. low insect pressure. Results showed that under natural insect pressure the insect-resistant transgenes could effectively suppress target insects and bring significantly increased fitness to transgenic plants in pure planting, compared with nontransgenic plants (including weedy parent). In contrast, no significant differences in fitness were detected under low insect pressure. However, such increase in fitness was not detected in the mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants due to significantly reduced insect pressure. Conclusions/Significance Insect-resistance transgenes may have limited fitness advantages to hybrid progeny resulted from crop-weed transgene flow owning to the significantly reduced ambient target insect pressure when an insect-resistant GE crop is grown. Given that the extensive cultivation of an insect-resistant GE crop will ultimately reduce the target insect pressure, the rapid spread of insect-resistance transgenes in weedy populations in commercial GE crop fields may be not likely to happen. PMID:22815975

  11. Transcriptional profiling of the pea shoot apical meristem reveals processes underlying its function and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chui E; Bhalla, Prem L; Ottenhof, Harald; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in plant development and organ formation, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling its function is limited. Genomic tools have the potential to unravel the molecular mysteries of the SAM, and legume systems are increasingly being used in plant-development studies owing to their unique characteristics such as nitrogen fixation, secondary metabolism, and pod development. Garden pea (Pisum sativum) is a well-established classic model species for genetics studies that has been used since the Mendel era. In addition, the availability of a plethora of developmental mutants makes pea an ideal crop legume for genomics studies. This study aims to utilise genomics tools in isolating genes that play potential roles in the regulation of SAM activity. Results In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the SAM, we generated 2735 ESTs from three cDNA libraries derived from freshly micro-dissected SAMs from 10-day-old garden peas (Pisum sativum cv Torsdag). Custom-designed oligonucleotide arrays were used to compare the transcriptional profiles of pea SAMs and non-meristematic tissues. A total of 184 and 175 transcripts were significantly up- or down-regulated in the pea SAM, respectively. As expected, close to 61% of the transcripts down-regulated in the SAM were found in the public database, whereas sequences from the same source only comprised 12% of the genes that were expressed at higher levels in the SAM. This highlights the under-representation of transcripts from the meristematic tissues in the current public pea protein database, and demonstrates the utility of our SAM EST collection as an essential genetic resource for revealing further information on the regulation of this developmental process. In addition to unknowns, many of the up-regulated transcripts are known to encode products associated with cell division and proliferation, epigenetic regulation, auxin

  12. Differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas in the pigeon pea witches'-broom group (16SrIX): an update based on multiple gene sequence analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigeon pea witches’-broom phytoplasma group (16SrIX) consists of diverse phytoplasma strains that cause numerous diseases in leguminous trees and herbaceous crops, vegetables, a fruit, a nut tree, and a forest tree. At least 14 strains have been reported worldwide. Comparative phylogenetic analyses ...

  13. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil water conservation and crop yield of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-hua; Li, Jun; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Liu, Bing-feng; Zhao, Hong-li; Shang, Jin-xia

    2011-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2007-2010 to study the effects of no-tillage, subsoiling, and deep-ploughing combined with balanced fertilization, traditional fertilization, and no (or lower amount) fertilization on the soil water storage, crop yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and economic return of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland. Among the tillage measures, no-tillage in fallow period had the best effect in soil water conservation, followed by sub-soiling, and deep-ploughing. The average water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in crop growth period under no-tillage and sub-soiling was 6.7% and 1.9% higher than that under deep-ploughing, respectively. Under the balanced, traditional, and no (or lower amount) fertilizations, subsoiling all showed the highest yield, WUE, and economic return, with the best effect under balanced fertilization. The three-year crop yield under sub-soiling combined with balanced fertilization was 6909, 9689, and 5589 kg x hm(-2), WUE was 18.5, 25.2, and 23.0 kg x hm(-2) x mm(-1), and economic return was 5034, 5045, and 7098 yuan x hm(-2), respectively. It was suggested that balanced fertilization combined with sub-soiling had the best effect in soil water conservation and yield- and income increase, being the more appropriate fertilization and tillage mode for the wheat-maize rotation field in Weibei highland.

  14. Modelling the phenology and carbon budget of major crops at the field scale, supported by remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Williams, M.

    2009-04-01

    Reducing uncertainties involved in estimating the carbon balance of croplands, which are most directly, intensively and continuously