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Sample records for field slab gel

  1. Optimization of separation and detection schemes for DNA with pulsed field slab gel and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, David A.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of the Human Genome Project is outlined followed by a discussion of electrophoresis in slab gels and capillaries and its application to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Techniques used to modify electroosmotic flow in capillaries are addressed. Several separation and detection schemes for DNA via gel and capillary electrophoresis are described. Emphasis is placed on the elucidation of DNA fragment size in real time and shortening separation times to approximate real time monitoring. The migration of DNA fragment bands through a slab gel can be monitored by UV absorption at 254 nm and imaged by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Background correction and immediate viewing of band positions to interactively change the field program in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis are possible throughout the separation. The use of absorption removes the need for staining or radioisotope labeling thereby simplifying sample preparation and reducing hazardous waste generation. This leaves the DNA in its native state and further analysis can be performed without de-staining. The optimization of several parameters considerably reduces total analysis time. DNA from 2 kb to 850 kb can be separated in 3 hours on a 7 cm gel with interactive control of the pulse time, which is 10 times faster than the use of a constant field program. The separation of ΦX174RF DNA-HaeIII fragments is studied in a 0.5% methyl cellulose polymer solution as a function of temperature and applied voltage. The migration times decreased with both increasing temperature and increasing field strength, as expected. The relative migration rates of the fragments do not change with temperature but are affected by the applied field. Conditions were established for the separation of the 271/281 bp fragments, even without the addition of intercalating agents. At 700 V/cm and 20°C, all fragments are separated in less than 4 minutes with an average plate number of 2.5 million per meter.

  2. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Balch, Joseph W.; Carrano, Anthony V.; Davidson, James C.; Koo, Jackson C.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  3. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  4. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Balch, J.W.; Carrano, A.V.; Davidson, J.C.; Koo, J.C.

    1998-05-05

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system is described. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate. 4 figs.

  5. System for loading slab-gel holders for electrophoresis separation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Norman G.; Anderson, Norman L.

    1979-01-01

    A slab-gel loading system includes a prismatic chamber for filling a plurality of slab-gel holders simultaneously. Each slab-gel holder comprises a pair of spaced apart plates defining an intermediate volume for gel containment. The holders are vertically positioned in the chamber with their major surfaces parallel to the chamber end walls. A liquid inlet is provided at the corner between the bottom and a side wall of the chamber for distributing a polymerizable monomer solution or a coagulable colloidal solution into each of the holders. The chamber is rotatably supported so that filling can begin with the corner having the liquid inlet directed downwardly such that the solution is gently funneled upwardly, without mixing, along the diverging side and bottom surfaces. As filling proceeds, the chamber is gradually rotated to position the bottom wall in a horizontal mode. The liquid filling means includes a plastic envelope with a septum dividing it into two compartments for intermixing two solutions of different density and thereby providing a liquid flow having a density gradient. The resulting gels have a density gradient between opposite edges for subsequent use in electrophoresis separations.

  6. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K.; Rude, Thomas H.; Fowler, Vance G.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose gel electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single gel with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments. PMID:25682374

  7. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas H; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose gel electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single gel with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments.

  8. A method for horizontal polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bellomy, G R; Record, M T

    1989-01-01

    We present a simplified method of preparation of polyacrylamide gels which is totally analogous to the procedure now widely used to pour and run horizontal agarose gels. The acrylamide is poured into an open air gel mold consisting of a glass plate with a masking tape border and a comb. It is subsequently run in a submarine horizontal electrophoresis apparatus. The electrophoretic mobility and resolution of DNA fragments obtained in such gels are identical to results obtained with gels poured and run in the vertical configuration. Numerous advantages of horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are discussed.

  9. Shotgun electroelution: a proteomic tool for simultaneous sample elution from whole SDS-polyacrylamide gel slabs.

    PubMed

    Antal, József; Bányász, Borbála; Buzás, Zsuzsanna

    2007-02-01

    A high-throughput device has been constructed which allows parallel electroelution of separated SDS-protein bands directly from intact unsectioned polyacrylamide gel slabs as well as single electroelution of certain protein spots into a 384-well standard flat-bottom multiwell plate. The prototype provides complete, quick elution for proteomics from 1-D or from 2-D gels without gel sectioning. Since the elution chamber matrix requires no assembly, sample handling can be easily carried out by existing robotic workstations. The current design is a good candidate for automation of spot elution since there are no moving liquid containing components in the apparatus. Eight SDS-proteins were eluted in test runs and an average 70% sample recovery was achieved by re-electrophoresis of the electro-eluates.

  10. Ion trap electric field measurements using slab coupled optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumway, L.; Chadderdon, S.; Powell, A.; Li, A.; Austin, D.; Hawkins, A.; Selfridge, R.; Schultz, S.

    2014-03-01

    Ion traps are widely used in the field of mass spectrometry. These devices use high electric fields to mass-selectively trap, eject, and count the particles of a material, producing a mass spectrum of the given material. Because of their usefulness, technology pushes for smaller, more portable ion traps for field use. Making internal ion trap field measurements not yet feasible because current electric field sensors are often too bulky or their metallic composition perturbs field measurements. Using slab coupled optical sensor (SCOS) technology, we are able to build sensors that are compatible with the spacing constraints of the ion trap. These sensors are created by attaching a nonlinear crystal slab waveguide to an optical fiber. When a laser propagates through the fiber, certain wavelengths of light couple out of the fiber via the crystal and create "resonances" in the output light spectrum. These resonances shift in proportion to a given applied electric field, and by measuring that shift, we can approximate the electric field. Developing a sensor that can effectively characterize the electric fields within an ion trap will greatly assist in ion trap design, fabrication, and troubleshooting techniques.

  11. Microcapillary reactors using solid-phase DNA sequencing for direct sample introduction into slab gels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Bruch, R C; Soper, S A

    2000-05-01

    Solid-phase micro-reactors have been prepared in glass capillaries for DNA sequencing applications using slab gel electrophoresis, which consisted of a fused silica capillary (i.d. = 100 microns; o.d. = 365 microns; length = 15 cm; volume = 1.2 microL) that contained a covalently bound biotin molecule. With the addition of streptavidin to the capillary, an anchoring site was produced for the tethering of biotinylated DNA sequencing templates to the wall of the capillary. Using a four-lane, single dye primer chemistry sequencing strategy, the individual tracts were prepared in the capillaries using cycle sequencing (20 thermal cycles) on a PCR-generated lambda-bacteriophage template (about 1000 bp). The dye label in this case was a fluorescent tag that displayed emission properties in the near-IR and could be processed on an automated sequencer. The read length was found to be 589 bases, which was determined primarily by the fractionating power of the gel. It was also found that the tethering system was very stable to typical cycle sequencing conditions, with the amount of tethered DNA lost amounting to 40% after 120 thermal cycles. The ability to use dye terminator chemistry was also investigated by using a near-IR dye-labeled terminator (ddGTP). It was found that the quality of the ladder that was generated was comparable to that obtained in a conventional sample preparation format. However, ethanol precipitation was required before gel loading to remove excess terminator.

  12. Flow field predictions for a slab delta wing at incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, R. J.; Thomas, P. D.; Chou, Y. S.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical results are presented for the structure of the hypersonic flow field of a blunt slab delta wing at moderately high angle of attack. Special attention is devoted to the interaction between the boundary layer and the inviscid entropy layer. The results are compared with experimental data. The three-dimensional inviscid flow is computed numerically by a marching finite difference method. Attention is concentrated on the windward side of the delta wing, where detailed comparisons are made with the data for shock shape and surface pressure distributions. Surface streamlines are generated, and used in the boundary layer analysis. The three-dimensional laminar boundary layer is computed numerically using a specially-developed technique based on small cross-flow in streamline coordinates. In the rear sections of the wing the boundary layer decreases drastically in the spanwise direction, so that it is still submerged in the entropy layer at the centerline, but surpasses it near the leading edge. Predicted heat transfer distributions are compared with experimental data.

  13. Slab stress field in the Hellenic subduction zone as inferred from intermediate depth earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontogianni, S.; Konstantinou, K.; Melis, N. S.; Evangelidis, C.

    2010-12-01

    In this study we investigate the stress regime of the subducting slab beneath the Hellenic Arc aiming to answer two fundamental questions; a) How does the slab deformation vary horizontally and vertically along this large curvature arc? b) Which are the mechanisms inferred from global observations that can explain this deformation and have not been identified previously due to dataset limitations. The data are selected from various seismic networks, global and local seismic catalogues and the newly established Hellenic broadband seismic network (http://bbnet.gein.noa.gr/). An updated view of the geometry of the Hellenic Wadati-Benioff zone (WBZ) is gained by the spatial distribution of intermediate depth earthquakes (40 km≤ depth ≤ 180km). Stress tensor inversion is performed on 100 fault plane solutions of intermediate depth earthquakes after quality control has been applied. The stress field parameters are determined along the arc for several depth ranges. The slab is divided into four subsets, each containing enough focal mechanisms for stress inversion to be performed successfully. The Peloponnese segment shows for depths 50-80 km σ1 almost normal to the slab and σ3 steeper than the slab dip that might indicate suction force-the component of the slab pull force that is unbalanced by the subduction resistance. The Kithira-Western Crete segment shows for depths 50-100 km a biaxial deviatoric compression or a state of confined compression with the σ1 along strike. The stress regime in this section of the slab might be related to its complex shape and geometry (width, curvature) reflecting changes in the slab dip between the Peloponnese-Kithira strait and the Crete region as has also been identified by teleseimic receiver functions. The third segment below Crete shows σ1 along strike and σ3 almost subvertical to slab direction. The stress field for the forth segment below Karpathos and Rhodos has been divided into two depth ranges. The shallow subset (50

  14. Numerical calculation of superheating magnetic fields and currents for superconducting slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, I. L.; Rinderer, L.

    1995-08-01

    Numerical calculations of superheating magnetic fields and superheating currents for superconducting slabs for a wide range of the sample thickness are presented. The calculations were made for low values of Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ, i.e., for type-1 superconductors. We propose also experimental procedures to measure superheating fields and currents in films and bulk samples.

  15. Sub-slab pressure field extension in schools and other large buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. B.; Craig, A. B.; Leovic, K. W.

    1991-09-01

    The experiences of EPA are discussed in using pressure field extension (PFE) to design active subslab depressurization (ASD) systems to reduce radon levels in old and new schools, including instances where the data collected resulted in the installation of smaller systems than expected and selection of high vacuum fans instead of normal mitigation fans. A central collection system for use under very large slabs is discussed and PFE data are given for a hospital under construction. The most direct method of projecting or measuring the performance of an ASD system is to measure the strength and extent of the pressure field established under the slab. The PFE can be determined (during diagnostics) to help design an ASD system and (following installation) to ascertain system performance. In schools and other large buildings, these data are invaluable to provide a system that will mitigate the building without undue cost escalation.

  16. Effects of magnetic field on the interaction between terahertz wave and non-uniform plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yuan; Han, YiPing; Guo, LiXin; Ai, Xia

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the interaction between terahertz electromagnetic wave and a non-uniform magnetized plasma slab is investigated. Different from most of the published literatures, the plasma employed in this work is inhomogeneous in both collision frequency and electron density. Profiles are introduced to describe the non-uniformity of the plasma slab. At the same time, magnetic field is applied to the background of the plasma slab. It came out with an interesting phenomenon that there would be a valley in the absorption band as the plasma's electromagnetic characteristic is affected by the magnetic field. In addition, the valley located just near the middle of the absorption peak. The cause of the valley's appearance is inferred in this paper. And the influences of the variables, such as magnetic field strength, electron density, and collision frequency, are discussed in detail. The objective of this work is also pointed out, such as the applications in flight communication, stealth, emissivity, plasma diagnose, and other areas of plasma.

  17. Ion Trap Electric Field Characterization Using Slab Coupled Optical Fiber Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadderdon, Spencer; Shumway, LeGrand; Powell, Andrew; Li, Ailin; Austin, Daniel E.; Hawkins, Aaron R.; Selfridge, Richard H.; Schultz, Stephen M.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a method for characterizing electric field profiles of radio frequency (rf) quadrupole ion trap structures using sensors based on slab coupled optical-fiber sensor (SCOS) technology. The all-dielectric and virtually optical fiber-sized SCOS fits within the compact environment required for ion traps and is able to distinguish electric field orientation and amplitude with minimal perturbation. Measurement of the fields offers insight into the functionality of traps, which may not be obtainable solely by performing simulations. The SCOS accurately mapped the well-known field profiles within a commercially available three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap (Paul trap). The results of this test allowed the SCOS to map the more complicated fields within the coaxial ion trap with a high degree of confidence as to the accuracy of the measurement. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Self-consistent solution for a collisionless plasma slab in motion across a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Echim, Marius M.; Lemaire, Joseph F.; Roth, Michel

    2005-07-15

    The problem of the dynamics of a plasma slab moving across a magnetic field is treated in the framework of the kinetic theory. A velocity distribution function (VDF) is found for each plasma species, electrons and protons, in terms of the constants of motion defined by the geometry of the problem. The zero- and first-order moments of the VDF are introduced into the right-hand side term of Maxwell's equations to compute the electric and magnetic vector potentials and corresponding fields. The solutions are found numerically. We obtain a region of plasma convection--the slab proper--where the plasma moves with a uniform velocity, V{sub x}=V{sub 0}=(ExB/B{sup 2}){sub x}. At the core margins two plasma 'wings' are formed, each being the result of a pair of interpenetrated boundary layers with different transition lengths. Inside these wings, the plasma velocity is not uniform, V{sub x}{ne}(ExB/B{sup 2}){sub x}. It decreases from the maximum value obtained in the core to a minimum value in the central region of the wings where a flow reversal is found with the plasma convecting in the opposite direction to the core motion. There is also an asymmetry of the velocity gradient at the borders of the core, which results in a corresponding asymmetry in the thickness of the wings. Furthermore, it is found that the reversed plasma flow in the thinner wing is larger than that in the broader wing. For a fixed direction of the magnetic field the two plasma wings interchange position with respect to the center of the slab when the plasma bulk velocity reverses sign.

  19. Electric-field sensors utilizing coupling between a D-fiber and an electro-optic polymer slab.

    PubMed

    Chadderdon, Spencer; Gibson, Richard; Selfridge, Richard H; Schultz, Stephen M; Wang, Wen C; Forber, Richard; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2011-07-10

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of electric field sensing using a slab-coupled optical fiber sensor (SCOS). This analysis explains that the best material for the slab waveguide is an inorganic material because of the low RF permittivity combined with the high electro-optic coefficient. The paper also describes the fabrication and testing of a SCOS using an AJL chromophore in amorphous polycarbonate. The high uniform polymer slab waveguide is fabricated using a hot embossing process to create a slab with a thickness of 50 μm. The fabricated polymer SCOS was characterized to have a resonance slope of ΔP/Δλ=6.83E5 W/m and a resonance shift of Δλ/E=1.47E-16 m(2)/V.

  20. Large field enhancement obtained by combining Fabry–Perot resonance and Rayleigh anomaly in photonic crystal slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dossou, Kokou B.

    2017-04-01

    By applying the properties of Fabry–Perot resonance and Rayleigh anomaly, we have shown that a photonic crystal slab can scatter the light from an incident plane wave into a diffracted light with a very large reflection or transmission coefficient. The enhanced field is either a propagating diffracted wave (with a grazing angle of diffraction) or a weakly evanescent diffracted wave, so it can be particularly useful for applications requiring an enhanced propagating field (or an enhanced field with a low attenuation). An efficient effective medium technique is developed for the design of the resonant photonic crystal slabs. Numerical simulations have shown that photonic crystal slabs with low index contrast, such as the ones found in the cell wall of diatoms, can enhance the intensity of the incident light by four orders of magnitude.

  1. Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Pekka; Simovski, Constantin; Tretyakov, Sergei; Belov, Pavel; Hao, Yang

    2007-09-01

    Authors demonstrate numerically the magnification of subwavelength field pattern using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime. The magnifying slab is implemented by radially enlarging the distance between adjacent wires, and the operational frequency is tuned to coincide with the Fabry-Pérot resonance condition. The near-field pattern of a complex-shaped source is canalized over an electrical distance corresponding roughly to three wavelengths (3λ), and the pattern details are magnified by a factor of 3. The performance is also studied at several frequencies deviating from the one of the Fabry-Pérot resonance.

  2. Tunable Lamb wave band gaps in two-dimensional magnetoelastic phononic crystal slabs by an applied external magnetostatic field.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changjiang; Sai, Yi; Chen, Jiujiu

    2016-09-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the band gaps of Lamb mode waves in two-dimensional magnetoelastic phononic crystal slabs by an applied external magnetostatic field. With the assumption of uniformly oriented magnetization, an equivalent piezomagnetic material model is used. The effects of magnetostatic field on phononic crystals are considered carefully in this model. The numerical results indicate that the width of the first band gap is significantly changed by applying the external magnetic field with different amplitude, and the ratio between the maximum and minimum gap widths reaches 228%. Further calculations demonstrate that the orientation of the magnetic field obviously affects the width and location of the first band gap. The contactless tunability of the proposed phononic crystal slabs shows many potential applications of vibration isolation in engineering.

  3. Bistable near field and bistable transmittance in 2D composite slab consisting of nonlocal core-Kerr shell inclusions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Wu, Ya Min; Gao, Lei

    2017-01-23

    We carry out a theoretical study on optical bistability of near field intensity and transmittance in two-dimensional nonlinear composite slab. This kind of 2D composite is composed of nonlocal metal/Kerr-type dielectric core-shell inclusions randomly embedded in the host medium, and we derivate the nonlinear relation between the field intensity in the shell of inclusions and the incident field intensity with self-consistent mean field approximation. Numerical demonstration has been performed to show the viable parameter space for the bistable near field. We show that nonlocality can provide broader region in geometric parameter space for bistable near field as well as bistable transmittance of the nonlocal composite slab compared to local case. Furthermore, we investigate the bistable transmittance in wavelength spectrum, and find that besides the input intensity, the wavelength operation could as well make the transmittance jump from a high value to a low one. This kind of self-tunable nano-composite slab might have potential application in optical switching devices.

  4. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of bacterial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mawer, Julia S P; Leach, David R F

    2013-01-01

    The separation of fragments of DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis is integral to laboratory life. Nevertheless, standard agarose gel electrophoresis cannot resolve fragments bigger than 50 kb. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a technique that has been developed to overcome the limitations of standard agarose gel electrophoresis. Entire linear eukaryotic chromosomes, or large fragments of a chromosome that have been generated by the action of rare-cutting restriction endonucleases, can be separated using this technique. As a result, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has many applications, from karyotype analysis of microbial genomes, to the analysis of chromosomal strand breaks and their repair intermediates, to the study of DNA replication and the identification of origins of replication. This chapter presents a detailed protocol for the preparation of Escherichia coli chromosomal DNA that has been embedded in agarose plugs, digested with the rare-cutting endonuclease NotI, and separated by contour-clamped homogeneous field electrophoresis. The principles in this protocol can be applied to the separation of all fragments of DNA whose size range is between 40 kb and 1 Mb.

  5. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the most applied and effective genetic typing method for epidemiological studies and investigation of foodborne outbreaks caused by different pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. The technique relies on analysis of large DNA fragments generated by th...

  6. Sub-slab pressure-field extension in schools and other large buildings. Rept. for 1988-91

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses EPA's experiences using pressure field extension (PFE) to design active subslab depressurization (ASD) systems to reduce radon levels in old and new schools, including instances where the data collected resulted in the installation of smaller systems than expected and selection of high vacuum fans instead of 'normal' mitigation fans. A central collection system for use under very large slabs is discussed and PFE data are given for a hospital under construction. The most direct method of projecting or measuring the performance of an ASD system is to measure the strength and extent of the pressure field established under the slab. The PFE can be determined (during diagnostics) to help design an ASD system and (following installation) to ascertain system performance. In schools and other large buildings, these data are invaluable to provide a system that will mitigate the building without undue cost escalation.

  7. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis on frozen tumour tissue sections.

    PubMed Central

    Boultwood, J.; Kaklamanis, L.; Gatter, K. C.; Wainscoat, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The application of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the molecular genetic analysis of solid tumours has been restricted by the requirement for whole single cells as a DNA source. A simple technique which allows for the direct analysis of histologically characterised solid tumour material by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was developed. Single frozen tissue sections obtained from colonic carcinoma specimens were embedded without further manipulation in molten, low melting temperature agarose. The tumour DNA contained within the agarose plug was subjected to restriction enzyme digestion and PFGE. Sufficient high molecular weight DNA is yielded by this method to obtain a hybridisation signal with a single copy probe. Histological examination of adjacent tissue sections may also be carried out, permitting correlation between molecular analysis and tumour histology. Images PMID:1401187

  8. Linear polarization of resonance lines in the absence of magnetic fields. I - Slabs of finite optical thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurobert, M.

    1987-05-01

    Effects of partial frequency redistribution on resonance polarization of spectral lines in the absence of magnetic fields are studied for resonance lines formed in finite slabs. The emphasis is on testing the validity (for polarization calculations) of various approximate forms of the so-called RII frequency redistribution function which describes the formation of resonance lines formed in dilute media. Polarization profiles obtained with the angle-dependent RII are compared to profiles calculated with the angle-averaged form of RII and its approximate versions proposed by Kneer and Ayres. A comparison with complete frequency redistribution polarization profiles is also presented.

  9. Present-day stress field on the South American slab underneath the Sandwich Plate (Southern Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giner-Robles, J. L.; Pérez-López, R.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    This work confirms the present-day principal stress orientation on the South Sandwich Plate (SSP) from the analysis of 331 earthquake focal mechanisms (Harvard catalog, HCMT). Principal stress orientation was deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms, examined by fault population analysis methods. The SSP plate is composed by oceanic crust limits an elliptical trench to the east (South Sandwich Trench), a ridge to the west and transforms faults towards the northern and southern boundaries. Within the trench region, the maximum horizontal shortening direction (SHMAX) rotates in trend in a clockwise direction, from NNE, in the northern boundary, to SSE in the southern boundary. Therefore, and keeping in mind the gradual rotation of SHMAX along the trench, three different areas were defined according to the prevailing focal mechanism type: (1) the North Zone, with SHMAX oriented N060°E and reverse and strike-slip focal mechanisms; (2) the Central Zone, with only reverse focal mechanism and SHMAX striking N080°E; (3) the South Zone, with SHMAX oriented N110°E and reverse and strike-slip focal geometry. Furthermore, the accommodation of the strain field in the Northern Zone of the South Sandwich Plate generates a subduction decoupling of the slab at, approximately, 70 km depth. In contrast, the South Zone slab exhibits a gradual stress and strain magnitude decreasing in depth. Finally, we define a sinistral strike-slip parallel to the southern boundary between the South Sandwich Plate and the Antarctic Plate, the South Sandwich Fault Zone.

  10. Friction Control of a Gel by Electric Field in Ionic Surfactant Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masakazu Takata,; Tetsuo Yamaguchi,; Masao Doi,

    2010-06-01

    We observed that the frictional force between acrylamide gel and silicon dioxide substrate is reduced upon application of electric voltage if the gel is swollen with anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The effect was not seen in cationic surfactant. We conjecture that the reduction is due to formation of a lubrication layer by electric field at the gel/solid interface.

  11. The textural properties and microstructure of konjac glucomannan - tungsten gels induced by DC electric fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixia; Zhuang, Yuanhong; Li, Jingliang; Pang, Jie; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-12-01

    Konjac glucomannan - tungsten (KGM-T) gels were successfully prepared under DC electric fields, in the presence of sodium tungstate. The textural properties and microstructure of the gels were investigated by Texture Analyzer, Rheometer and SEM. Based on the response surface methodology (RSM) results, the optimum conditions for KGM-T gel springiness is 0.32% sodium tungstate concentration, 0.54% KGM concentration, 24.66V voltage and 12.37min treatment time. Under these conditions, the maximum springiness value of KGM-T gel is 1.21mm. Steady flow measurement indicated that KGM-T gel showed characteristic non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, with low flow behaviour indexes in the shear thinning region. SEM demonstrated the porosity of the freeze-dried samples. These findings may pave the way to use DC electric fields for the design and development of KGM gels and to apply KGM gels for practical applications.

  12. Electromagnetic eigenstates and the field of an oscillating point electric dipole in a flat-slab composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, Asaf; Bergman, David J.

    2016-06-01

    An exact calculation of the local electric field E (r ) is described for the case of a time-dependent point electric dipole p e-i ω t in the top layer of an ɛ2, ɛ1, ɛ2 three parallel slabs composite structure, where the ɛ1 layer has a finite thickness 2 d but the ɛ2 layers are infinitely thick. For this purpose we first calculate all the eigenstates of the full Maxwell equations for the case where μ =1 everywhere in the system. The eigenvalues appear as special, nonphysical values of ɛ1 when ɛ2 is given. These eigenstates are then used to develop an exact expansion for the physical values of E (r ) in the system characterized by physical values of ɛ1(ω ) and ɛ2(ω ) . Results are compared with those of a previous calculation of the local field of a time-dependent point charge in the quasistatic regime. Numerical results are shown for the local electric field in practically important configurations where attaining an optical image with subwavelength resolution has practical significance.

  13. Quantification of Vapor Intrusion Pathways into a Slab-on-Ground Building: an Integration of Mathematical Modeling and Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Akbariyeh, S.; Patterson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds into buildings can be a significant source of human exposure to hazardous materials. Field assessment is essential to evaluate the vapor intrusion pathways, which has been recognized to be challenging due to the heterogeneity of sites and uncontrolled site environments. Modeling of vapor intrusion processes can predict subsurface vapor and oxygen concentrations and indoor air concentration under various environmental site conditions. However, detailed experimental quantification for model validation is typically unavailable. In this work, we report our efforts to quantifying vapor intrusion pathways into a slab-on-ground building by integrating mathematical modeling with well-controlled field measurements under three different pressure and ventilation site conditions. Comparisons between modeling and field measurements include indoor air concentration, contaminant and oxygen distribution profile beneath and inside the building, diffusive and advective flux under different pressure and air vitalization conditions. In addition to typically identified key factors influencing vapor intrusion (e.g. the building construction, the properties of compounds, and depth to the source), we found several additional parameters, such as anisotropic property of surface soil, locations of crack, and dependency of reaction rates on oxygen concentration, are critical to evaluate vapor intrusion pathways.

  14. Analysis of strains of Campylobacter fetus by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, M; Fujimoto, S; Morooka, T; Amako, K

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus chromosomal DNA from 21 strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The fingerprint patterns generated with SmaI and SalI were distinctive. Using the profiles obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we established the phylogenetic dendrogram of C. fetus to identify the genetic relationship of the strains. PMID:7650215

  15. High electric field measurement with slab coupled optical sensors using nonlinear calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Nikola; Shumway, Legrand; Seng, Frederick; King, Rex; Selfridge, Richard; Schultz, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We describe the application of SCOS technology in non-intrusive, directional and spatially localized measurements of high electric fields. When measuring electric fields above a certain threshold, SCOS measurement sensitivity starts varying to a great extent and the linear approximation that assumes sensitivity to be constant breaks down. This means that a comprehensive nonlinear calibration method is required for accurate calibration of both low and high electric fields, while linear calibration can only be accurately applied for low fields. Nonlinear calibration method relies on the knowledge of the variability of sensitivity, while linear calibration relies on approximation of sensitivity with a constant value, which breaks down for high fields. We analyze and compare the two calibration methods by applying them to a same set of measurements. We measure electric field pulses with magnitudes from 1 MV/m to 8.2 MV/m, with sub-300 ns rise time and fall-off time constant of 60 μs. We show that the nonlinear calibration very accurately predicts all measured fields, both high and low, while the linear calibration becomes increasingly inaccurate for fields above 1 MV/m.

  16. Effect of gel structure of matrix orientation in pulsed alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Stellwagen, N.C.; Stellwagen, J.

    1993-12-31

    Four polymeric gels with different structures, LE agarose, HEEO agarose, beta-carrageenan, and polyacrylamide, were studied by transient electric birefringence to determine the importance of various structural features on the orientation of the gels in pulsed alternating electric fields. The birefrigence relaxation times observed for agarose gels in low voltage electric fields suggest that long fibers and/or domains, ranging up to tens of microns in size, are oriented by the electric field. The sign of the birefringence reverses when the direction of the electric field is reversed, suggesting that the oriented domains change their direction of orientation from parallel to perpendicular (or vice versa) when the polarity of the electric field is reversed. These anamalous orientation effects are observed with both types of agarose gels, but not with beta-carrageenan or polyacrylamide gels, suggesting that the alternating D,L galactose residues in the agarose backbone are responsible for the anomalies.

  17. Polymer slab waveguides for the optical detection of nanoparticles in evanescent field based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teigell Beneitez, Nuria; Missinne, Jeroen; Schleipen, Jean; Orsel, Joke; Prins, Menno W. J.; Van Steenberge, Geert

    2014-02-01

    We present a polymer optical waveguide integration technology for the detection of nanoparticles in an evanescent field based biosensor. In the proposed biosensor concept, super-paramagnetic nanoparticles are used as optical contrast labels. The nanoparticles capture target molecules from a sample fluid and bind to the sensor surface with biological specificity. The surface-bound nanoparticles are then detected using frustration of an evanescent field. In the current paper we elaborate on the polymer waveguides which are used to generate a well-defined optical field for nanoparticle detection.

  18. Absolute dose verifications in small photon fields using BANGTM gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheib, S. G.; Schenkel, Y.; Gianolini, S.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters change their magnetic resonance (MR) and optical properties with the absorbed dose when irradiated and are suitable for narrow photon beam dosimetry in radiosurgery. Such dosimeters enable relative and absolute 3D dose verifications in order to check the entire treatment chain from imaging to dose application during commissioning and quality assurance. For absolute 3D dose verifications in radiosurgery using Gamma Knife B, commercially available BANGTM Gels (BANG 25 Gy and BANG 3 Gy) together with dedicated phantoms were chosen in order to determine the potential of absolute gel dosimetry in radiosurgery.

  19. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Henghang; Leung, Hon-Chiu Eastwood

    2012-01-01

    Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and nonspecific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein recovery efficiency. Here, we describe the enhancement of protein separation efficiency up to twofold in conventional one-dimensional PAG electrophoresis (1D PAGE), two-dimensional (2D) PAGE, and native PAGE by implementing pulses of inverted electric field during gel electrophoresis.

  20. Full-field dye concentration measurement within saturated/unsaturated thin slabs of porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, D.L.; Glass, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents a full-field dye concentration measurement technique that extends our experimental capabilities to the measurement of transient dye concentration fields within steady state flow fields under unsaturated or saturated conditions. Simple light absorption theory provides a basis for translating images into high resolution dye concentration fields. A series of dye pulse experiments that demonstrate the combined use of the full-field saturation and dye concentration techniques was conducted at four different degrees of saturation. Each of these experimental sequences was evaluated with respect to mass balance, the results being within 5% of the known dye mass input. An image windowing technique allowed us to see increased dispersion due to decreasing moisture content, tailing of concentration at the rear of the dye pulse and slight velocity changes of the dispersive front due to changes in moisture content. The exceptional resolution of dye concentration in space and time provided by this laboratory technique allows systematic experimentation for examining basic processes affecting solute transport within saturated/unsaturated porous media. Future challenges for this work will be to use these techniques to analyze more complex systems involving heterogeneities, scaling laws, and detailed investigations of the relationship between transverse and longitudinal dispersion in unsaturated media.

  1. Resolution of high molecular weight proteins in dependence on electric field strength in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Starita-Geribaldi, M; Houri, A

    1997-01-01

    Resolution of high molecular weight proteins, in the upper region of polyacrylamide gels, was studied in relation to the type of electric field. Separations by constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) were compared to those in pulsed oscillatory high-performance electrophoresis (POPE), a novel technique which allows electrophoresis at high field strengths owing to a novel local field distribution. This distribution contributes to structural and mechanical stability of the gel with resultant well-reproducible separation, enhanced resolution, and higher absolute mobility of proteins in POPE.

  2. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  3. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  4. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  5. Evanescent field enhancement due to plasmonic resonances of a metamaterial slab.

    PubMed

    Chiu, K P; Kao, T S; Tsai, D P

    2008-02-01

    The characteristics of plasmonic resonance in a dielectric-sandwiched metamaterial film at visible wavelengths of 650 and 568 nm have been investigated (for both p- and s-polarized light). Our calculated results demonstrate that each mode of plasmonic resonance has maximum resonance strength at a particular film thickness of the metamaterial. We also demonstrated that the effect of evanescent field enhancement is due to plasmonic resonances of the sandwiched metamaterial system. And the stronger the plasmonic resonance strength the larger the evanescent field is enhanced at the interfaces of the metamaterial film. Also we see that the plasmonic resonances in a sandwiched metamaterial are influenced not only by the materials that constitute the interfaces but also by the thickness of surrounding dielectrics or distance between evanescent light source and metamaterial film. Finally, our results show that there might be an effective light propagation length that will let the coupling efficiency between evanescent light source and SPs resonance become a maximum. These properties of plasmonic resonances to structure parameters of metamaterial film and its surrounding dielectrics provide a useful way to control the optical responses of an optoelectronic device when the wavelength of light source is fixed. That is, by suitably choosing light polarizations, thickness of the metamaterial thin film or the surrounding dielectrics and the position of evanescent light source, it is possible to modulate the plasmonic resonance wavenumber or resonance strength of the system. Therefore, the optical responses of the system can be modulated. Our results will be helpful for the structure design to control the behaviours of coupled plasmonic resonances and consequently the optical properties of the dielectric-sandwiched metamaterial film.

  6. Diode end-pumped high-power Q-switched double Nd:YAG slab laser and its efficient near-field second-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Li, Daijun; Qi, Bingsong; Schell, Alexander; Shi, Peng; Haas, Claus; Fu, Shaojun; Wu, Nianle; Du, Keming

    2008-10-01

    We reported on an all-solid-state double Nd:YAG slab laser. The laser was based on two diode end-pumped Nd:YAG slabs and a stable-unstable hybrid resonator. A cw output of 189 W and an average Q-switched output of 169 W at 10 kHz with an M(2) factor of 1.5 in the slow direction and 1.7 in the fast direction were obtained. We demonstrated efficient near-field frequency doubling by imaging the one-dimensional top-hat near-field to a lithium triborate frequency doubler. We obtained 93 W green light at 10 kHz with a pulse width of 10.7 ns. The efficiency of second-harmonic generation was up to 57%.

  7. Electric-field-induced response of a droplet embedded in a polyelectrolyte gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2013-08-01

    The electric-field induced response of a droplet embedded in a quenched polyelectrolyte gel is calculated theoretically. The response comprises the droplet translation and the electric-field induced flow fields within the droplet. The gel is modeled as a soft, and electrically charged porous solid saturated with a salted Newtonian fluid. The droplet is considered an incompressible Newtonian fluid with no free charge. An analytical solution, using the perturbation methodology and linear superposition, is obtained for the leading-order steady response to a DC electric-field. The fluid within the droplet is driven due to hydrodynamic coupling with the electroosmotic flow. The fluid velocity within the droplet is linearly proportional to the electroosmotic flow. Moreover, the microrheological response function of a droplet within a polyelectrolyte gel is also provided, highlighting the importance of boundary conditions at the droplet-gel interface on microrheological measurements.

  8. Solubility of NaCl in water and its melting point by molecular dynamics in the slab geometry and a new BK3-compatible force field.

    PubMed

    Kolafa, Jiří

    2016-11-28

    Saturated concentration of rock salt in water is determined by a simulation of brine in contact with a crystal in the slab geometry. The NaCl crystals are rotated to expose facets with higher Miller indices than [001] to brine. The rock salt melting point is obtained by both the standard and adiabatic simulations in the slab geometry with attention paid to finite size effects as well as to a possible influence of facets with higher Miller indices and applied stress. Two force fields are used, the Lennard-Jones-based model by Young and Cheatham with SPC/E water and the Kiss and Baranyai polarizable model with BK3 water. The latter model is refitted to thermomechanical properties of crystal NaCl leading to better values of solubility and the melting point.

  9. Solubility of NaCl in water and its melting point by molecular dynamics in the slab geometry and a new BK3-compatible force field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolafa, Jiří

    2016-11-01

    Saturated concentration of rock salt in water is determined by a simulation of brine in contact with a crystal in the slab geometry. The NaCl crystals are rotated to expose facets with higher Miller indices than [001] to brine. The rock salt melting point is obtained by both the standard and adiabatic simulations in the slab geometry with attention paid to finite size effects as well as to a possible influence of facets with higher Miller indices and applied stress. Two force fields are used, the Lennard-Jones-based model by Young and Cheatham with SPC/E water and the Kiss and Baranyai polarizable model with BK3 water. The latter model is refitted to thermomechanical properties of crystal NaCl leading to better values of solubility and the melting point.

  10. Rheological properties and formation mechanism of DC electric fields induced konjac glucomannan-tungsten gels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixia; Jiang, Yaoping; Lin, Youhui; Pang, Jie; Liu, Xiang Yang

    2016-05-20

    Konjac glucomannan-tungsten (KGM-T) hydrogel of electrochemical reversibility was successfully produced under DC electric fields in the presence of sodium tungstate. The structure and the effects of sodium tungstate concentration, KGM concentration, voltage and electric processing time on the rheological properties of the gels were investigated. pH experiments showed that KGM sol containing Na2WO4·2H2O in the vicinity of the positive electrode became acidic and the negative electrode basic after the application of DC electric fields. Under acid conditions, WO4(2-) ions transformed into isopoly-tungstic acid ions. FTIR and Raman studies indicated that isopoly-tungstic acid ions absorbed on KGM molecular chain and cross-linked with -OH groups at C-6 position on sugar units of KGM. Frequency sweep data showed with increasing sodium tungstate concentration, voltage, and electric processing time, the viscoelastic moduli, i.e., the storage and the loss moduli of the gel increased, whereas an increase in KGM concentration led to a decrease in gel viscoelastic moduli. The temperature sweep measurements indicated the obtained gel exhibited high thermal stability. Finally, the mechanism of gel formation was proposed. Our work may pave the way to use DC electric fields for the design and development of KGM gels as well as polysaccharide gels.

  11. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir

  12. Molecular stretching of long DNA in agarose gel using alternating current electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Noritada; Ueda, Masanori; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for stretching a long DNA molecule in agarose gel with alternating current (AC) electric fields. The molecular motion of a long DNA (T4 DNA; 165.6 kb) in agarose gel was studied using fluorescence microscopy. The effects of a wide range of field frequencies, field strengths, and gel concentrations were investigated. Stretching was only observed in the AC field when a frequency of approximately 10 Hz was used. The maximal length of the stretched DNA had the longest value when a field strength of 200 to 400 V/cm was used. Stretching was not sensitive to a range of agarose gel concentrations from 0.5 to 3%. Together, these experiments indicate that the optimal conditions for stretching long DNA in an AC electric field are a frequency of 10 Hz with a field strength of 200 V/cm and a gel concentration of 1% agarose. Using these conditions, we were able to successfully stretch Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA molecules (225-2,200 kb). These results may aid in the development of a novel method to stretch much longer DNA, such as human chromosomal DNA, and may contribute to the analysis of a single chromosomal DNA from a single cell. PMID:11751320

  13. Subducted Farallon Plate Carries Water for Hydration Above the Flat Slab and Deep into the Mantle: Evidence from the Navajo Volcanic Field HP and UHP Xenolith Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, D. J.; Helmstaedt, H. H.; Davis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Xenoliths in the Navajo Volcanic Field diatremes include HP-LT and UHP metamorphic eclogites (with lawsonite, phengite, coesite, zircon), exotic hydrous Cr-omphacitites (with guyanaite - CrOOH, carmichaelite, eskolaite, tawmawite, redledgeite) and hydrous and anhydrous peridotite, pyroxenite and lower crustal rocks. The eclogites (primarily dated at 30-80 Ma), omphacitites (30 Ma) and some of the (serpentinized) peridotites were derived from the subducted Farallon Plate (and possibly near-trench mantle wedge material accompanying the slab) from the flat slab by the diatremes at 30 Ma, approximately 700 km from the trench. Dehydration reactions in this assemblage (primarily prograde metamorphism of serpentinite yielding peridotite but also breakdown of guyanaite to eskolaite + water) provided water that hydrated overlying mantle materials (garnet and spinel peridotite to antigorite/chlorite serpentinite, garnet pyroxenite to chlorite-bearing eclogite, garnet and spinel pyroxenite to pargasite + chlorite). The accompanying volume expansion contributed to uplift of the Colorado Plateau, as originally suggested by Hess (1955). Phengite and possibly lawsonite remained stable and continued to carry water to greater depths. Guyanaite is stable to over 13.5 GPa and can transport water at least into the transition zone and thus may be a vehicle for hydrating ringwoodite in the transition zone (the present location of the Farallon slab). It is not known to how deep other hydrous minerals in these assemblages are stable (e.g., carmichaelite, redledgeite, tawmawite) but they, too, have potential for carrying water deep into the mantle.

  14. Microchip gel electrophoresis with programmed field strength gradients for ultra-fast detection of canine T-cell lymphoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kumar K; Lee, Mi-Jin; Park, Jinho; Kang, Seong Ho

    2008-03-15

    This paper describes the applicability of microchip gel electrophoresis using a programmed field strength gradients (MGE-PFSG) method coupled with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the ultra-fast diagnosis of canine T-cell lymphoma. The variable region in the T-cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) gene from a T-cell lymphoma was used in PCR amplification. The contributions of the various parameters, including the effects of the molecular weight, concentration of the sieving matrix and field strength in MGE, were examined. 0.5% poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO, M(r) 8000000) was used as the sieving matrix for the ultra-rapid separation of the amplified-PCR products (90 and 130-bp DNA fragments) from the PFSG at an effective length of 20mm in a glass microchip. The PCR products (90 and 130-bp DNA) of the T-cell lymphoma were analyzed within 41.7+/-0.1s, 15.5+/-0.2s and only 7.0+/-0.1s using a low-constant field strength, high-constant field strength and the PFSG, respectively. When 11 clinical samples were analyzed using the MGE-PFSG method, there was a 100% correlation with those obtained using conventional slab gel electrophoresis. The ultra-fast detection and rapid separation capabilities of MGE-PFSG make it an efficient tool for diagnosing T-cell lymphoma in clinical samples with high sensitivity.

  15. The effects of fully implicit coupling on heat conduction between a flow field and conduction between a flow field and conduction slab in TRAC-PF1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.C.; Baratta, A.J.; Mahaffy, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Numerical techniques used in thermal-hydraulic computer analysis codes must be fast to enable modeling of complex transients and accurate to provide a high degree of fidelity. In an attempt to satisfy these conflicting requirements, the best-estimate code TRAC-PF1 uses a semi-implicit technique to couple heat transfer between a flow field and a conduction slab. To test the accuracy of the current semi-implicit method used in TRAC-PF1, a series of simple tube experiments were modeled with TRAC-PF1 version 3.9B. To overcome identified problems, fully implicit techniques were developed and incorporated into TRAC-PF1. The new methods treat the heat transfer coefficient and wall temperature in the energy source term of both the convection and the conduction equation implicitly. One method uses a linear extrapolation and the other a nonlinear iterative technique. In general, both methods produced higher wall temperature and a lattice quench in better agreement with the experimental data. These methods also eliminated the double-valued results obtained for the other experiments. In general, these techniques have given more accurate results and saved computer time in the film boiling heat transfer regime.

  16. Small-Field Measurements of 3D Polymer Gel Dosimeters through Optical Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Cheng-Ting; Lee, Yao-Ting; Wu, Shin-Hua; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    With advances in therapeutic instruments and techniques, three-dimensional dose delivery has been widely used in radiotherapy. The verification of dose distribution in a small field becomes critical because of the obvious dose gradient within the field. The study investigates the dose distributions of various field sizes by using NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter. The dosimeter consists of 5% gelatin, 5% monomers, 3% cross linkers, and 5 mM THPC. After irradiation, a 24 to 96 hour delay was applied, and the gel dosimeters were read by a cone beam optical computed tomography (optical CT) scanner. The dose distributions measured by the NIPAM gel dosimeter were compared to the outputs of the treatment planning system using gamma evaluation. For the criteria of 3%/3 mm, the pass rates for 5 × 5, 3 × 3, 2 × 2, 1 × 1, and 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 were as high as 91.7%, 90.7%, 88.2%, 74.8%, and 37.3%, respectively. For the criteria of 5%/5 mm, the gamma pass rates of the 5 × 5, 3 × 3, and 2 × 2 cm2 fields were over 99%. The NIPAM gel dosimeter provides high chemical stability. With cone-beam optical CT readouts, the NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter has potential for clinical dose verification of small-field irradiation. PMID:26974434

  17. Model and computer simulations of the motion of DNA molecules during pulse field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.B.; Bustamante, C. ); Heller, C. )

    1991-05-28

    A model is presented for the motion of individual molecules of DNA undergoing pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The molecule is represented by a chain of charged beads connected by entropic springs, and the gel is represented by a segmented tube surrounding the beads. This model differs from earlier reptation/tube models in that the tube is allowed to leak in certain places and the chain can double over and flow out of the side of the tube in kinks. It is found that these kinks often lead to the formation of U shapes, which are a major source of retardation in PFGE. The results of computer simulations using this model are compared with real DNA experimental results for the following cases: steady field motion as seen in fluorescence microscopy, mobility in steady fields, mobility in transverse field alternation gel electrophoresis (TFAGE), mobility in field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE), and linear dichroism (LD) of DNA in agarose gels during PFGE. Good agreement between the simulations and the experimental results is obtained.

  18. Pulsed field electrophoresis for the separation of protein-sodium dodecyl sulfate-complexes in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Houri, A; Starita-Geribaldi, M

    1994-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins was studied using a pulsed-current mode. A new "local field" distribution was used to correct the gel patterns and optimize migration. A corrective field was applied at fixed 2 s intervals to a constant field, inducing a complex relaxation mechanism. Calculated variations in the local field directions decreased the electric strain on the gel during the run, with resultant optimum gel structure. The relaxation mechanism was found to enhance the absolute mobility of proteins with shorter running times compared to constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) and other pulsed field techniques. The enhancement of molecular mobility was explored by transverse pore gradient gel electrophoresis. Ferguson curves which exhibited a convex shape in CFGE were linearized by the new pulsed-field method named pulsed oscillatory high-performance electrophoresis (POPE).

  19. Preface: Deep Slab and Mantle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suetsugu, Daisuke; Bina, Craig R.; Inoue, Toru; Wiens, Douglas A.

    2010-11-01

    We are pleased to publish this special issue of the journal Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors entitled "Deep Slab and Mantle Dynamics". This issue is an outgrowth of the international symposium "Deep Slab and Mantle Dynamics", which was held on February 25-27, 2009, in Kyoto, Japan. This symposium was organized by the "Stagnant Slab Project" (SSP) research group to present the results of the 5-year project and to facilitate intensive discussion with well-known international researchers in related fields. The SSP and the symposium were supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (16075101) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese Government. In the symposium, key issues discussed by participants included: transportation of water into the deep mantle and its role in slab-related dynamics; observational and experimental constraints on deep slab properties and the slab environment; modeling of slab stagnation to constrain its mechanisms in comparison with observational and experimental data; observational, experimental and modeling constraints on the fate of stagnant slabs; eventual accumulation of stagnant slabs on the core-mantle boundary and its geodynamic implications. This special issue is a collection of papers presented in the symposium and other papers related to the subject of the symposium. The collected papers provide an overview of the wide range of multidisciplinary studies of mantle dynamics, particularly in the context of subduction, stagnation, and the fate of deep slabs.

  20. Pulsed electric field assisted sol-gel preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Rajaboopathi; Han, Bing; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta

    2016-10-01

    This work studies the effect of a pulsed electric field (PEF) on the precipitation and properties of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using pulsed DC electric field assisted sol-gel method. The duration of the PEF treatment was varied to investigate its effect on the particle size of TiO2 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that TiO2 particles prepared with pulsed electric field assisted sol-gel method had enhanced average crystallite size due to the effect of the pulsed electric field on primary nucleation. The effect of electric field on nanoparticle preparation is interesting which can be used to control the grain and crystallite size of nanoparticle.

  1. Dynamics of slab detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, T.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Gerya, T. V.

    2012-04-01

    Our study investigates the dynamics of slab detachment and evaluates the amount of time necessary for slabs to detach. We combine both the results of two-dimensional numerical modeling with the prediction of a one-dimensional analytical solution for viscous necking under gravity. This tidy suggest that the dominant deformation mechanisms leading to slab detachment is viscous necking, independently of the depth of slab detachment. Localised simple shear may also occur when the slab dip is moderate, especially in the colder parts of the slab. Brittle fracturing, or breaking, plays a minor role during the slab detachment process. 2D thermo-mechanical simulations indicate that the duration of slab detachment is short (< 4 Ma) and can occur in less than 0.5 Ma. No simple correlation between the slab detachment depth and duration was found. Our results suggest that deep slab detachments (> 250 km) can also occur within a short time (< 1 Ma). On the other hand, slab detachments taking place between 35 and 250 km depth may last less than 2 Ma. This aspect has implications for geodynamic interpretations using slab detachment as explanation for processes such as melting, exhumation or surface uplift.

  2. Three-dimensional dosimetry of small megavoltage radiation fields using radiochromic gels and optical CT scanning.

    PubMed

    Babic, Steven; McNiven, Andrea; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin

    2009-04-21

    The dosimetry of small fields as used in stereotactic radiotherapy, radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy can be challenging and inaccurate due to partial volume averaging effects and possible disruption of charged particle equilibrium. Consequently, there exists a need for an integrating, tissue equivalent dosimeter with high spatial resolution to avoid perturbing the radiation beam and artificially broadening the measured beam penumbra. In this work, radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) and leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gels were used to measure relative dose factors (RDFs), percent depth dose profiles and relative lateral beam profiles of 6 MV x-ray pencil beams of diameter 28.1, 9.8 and 4.9 mm. The pencil beams were produced via stereotactic collimators mounted on a Varian 2100 EX linear accelerator. The gels were read using optical computed tomography (CT). Data sets were compared quantitatively with dosimetric measurements made with radiographic (Kodak EDR2) and radiochromic (GAFChromic EBT) film, respectively. Using a fast cone-beam optical CT scanner (Vista), corrections for diffusion in the FX gel data yielded RDFs that were comparable to those obtained by minimally diffusing LCV gels. Considering EBT film-measured RDF data as reference, cone-beam CT-scanned LCV gel data, corrected for scattered stray light, were found to be in agreement within 0.5% and -0.6% for the 9.8 and 4.9 mm diameter fields, respectively. The validity of the scattered stray light correction was confirmed by general agreement with RDF data obtained from the same LCV gel read out with a laser CT scanner that is less prone to the acceptance of scattered stray light. Percent depth dose profiles and lateral beam profiles were found to agree within experimental error for the FX gel (corrected for diffusion), LCV gel (corrected for scattered stray light), and EBT and EDR2 films. The results from this study reveal that a three-dimensional dosimetry method utilizing

  3. A self-consistent mean-field model for polyelectrolyte gels.

    PubMed

    Rud, Oleg; Richter, Tobias; Borisov, Oleg; Holm, Christian; Košovan, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present a novel approach to modeling polyelectrolyte gels, exploiting the analogy between star-branched polymers and polymer networks as a computationally inexpensive yet reliable alternative to full-scale simulations. In the numerical mean-field model of a star-like polymer we modify the boundary conditions to represent an infinite network. We validate the predictions of our new model against a coarse-grained simulation model. We also validate it against a phenomenological analytical model which has been previously shown to agree with simulations in a limited range of parameters. The mean-field model explicitly considers local density gradients and agrees with the simulation results in a broad range of parameters, beyond that of the analytical model. Finally, we use the mean-field model for predictions of the swelling behaviour of weak polyelectrolyte gels under different pH conditions. We demonstrate that the local density gradients are important and that the ionization of the weak polyelectrolyte gel is significantly suppressed. Under the studied conditions the effective pKA is about one unit higher than that of the free monomer. This shift in the effective pKA stems from the different pH values inside and outside the gel.

  4. A dosimetric study of small photon fields using polymer gel and Gafchromic EBT films

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, Hossein; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Zahmatkesh, Mohammad Hassan; Shirani, Kaveh

    2014-04-01

    The use of small field sizes is increasingly becoming important in radiotherapy particularly since the introduction of stereotactic radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques. The reliable measurement of delivered dose from such fields with conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chambers, is a challenging task. In this work, methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper polymer gel dosimeters are employed to measure dose in 3 dimensions. Field sizes of 5 × 5 mm{sup 2}, 10 × 10 mm{sup 2}, 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}, and 30 × 30 mm{sup 2} are investigated for a 6-MV x-rays. The results show an agreement with Gafchromic film, with some variation in measured doses near the edge of the fields, where the film data decrease more rapidly than the other methods. Dose penumbra widths obtained with gel dosimeters and Gafchormic film were generally in agreement with each other. The results of this work indicate that polymer gel dosimetry could be invaluable for the quantification of the 3-dimensional dose distribution in small field size.

  5. Trapping and breaking of in vivo nicked DNA during pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharik R; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2013-12-15

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) offers a high-resolution approach to quantify chromosomal fragmentation in bacteria, measured as percentage of chromosomal DNA entering the gel. The degree of separation in pulsed field gel (PFG) depends on the size of DNA as well as various conditions of electrophoresis such as electric field strength, time of electrophoresis, switch time, and buffer composition. Here we describe a new parameter, the structural integrity of the sample DNA itself, that influences its migration through PFGs. We show that subchromosomal fragments containing both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced nicks are prone to breakage during PFGE. Such breakage at single-strand interruptions results in artifactual decrease in molecular weight of linear DNA making accurate determination of the number of double-strand breaks difficult. Although breakage of nicked subchromosomal fragments is field strength independent, some high-molecular-weight subchromosomal fragments are also trapped within wells under the standard PFGE conditions. This trapping can be minimized by lowering the field strength and increasing the time of electrophoresis. We discuss how breakage of nicked DNA may be mechanistically linked to trapping. Our results suggest how to optimize conditions for PFGE when quantifying chromosomal fragmentation induced by DNA damage.

  6. Transport in polymer-gel composites: theoretical methodology and response to an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Reghan J.

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical model of electromigrative, diffusive and convective transport in polymer-gel composites is presented. Bulk properties are derived from the standard electrokinetic model with an impenetrable charged sphere embedded in an electrolyte-saturated Brinkman medium. Because the microstructure can be carefully controlled, these materials are promising candidates for enhanced gel-electrophoresis, chemical sensing, drug delivery, and microfluidic pumping technologies. The methodology provides solutions for situations where perturbations from equilibrium are induced by gradients of electrostatic potential, concentration and pressure. While the volume fraction of the inclusions should be small, Maxwell's well-known theory of conduction suggests that the model may also be accurate at moderate volume fractions. In this work, the theory is used to compute ion fluxes, electrical current density, and convective flow driven by an electric field applied to an homogeneous composite. The electric-field-induced (electro-osmotic) flow is a sensitive indicator of the inclusion zeta-potential and size, electrolyte concentration, and Darcy permeability of the gel, while the electrical conductivity is usually independent of the polymer gel and is relatively insensitive to characteristics of the inclusions and electrolyte.

  7. Differentiation of human and animal strains of Streptococcus dysgalactiae by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bert, F; Branger, C; Poutrel, B; Lambert-Zechovsky, N

    1997-05-01

    The genetic diversity among 54 human isolates and 33 animal isolates belonging to the species Streptococcus dysgalactiae (20 alpha-haemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 23 Streptococcus equisimilis, 43 group G streptococci and one group L streptococcus) was evaluated by macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA with SmaI and resolution by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This technique revealed a high degree of intraspecies polymorphism, leading to the differentiation of 80 distinct banding patterns, and identified the presence of two major clusters, one containing isolates of human origin and the other isolates of animal origin. These results suggest than human and animal isolates of S.dysgalactiae are genetically distinct, and support the recent proposal of the subspecies S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis for human isolates. The heterogeneity revealed within isolates from the same host type indicates that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a powerful epidemiological tool for studying S. dysgalactiae infections.

  8. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; de Forcrand, Philippe; Gerber, Urs

    2015-12-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Clostridium tetani Strains by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Colony PCR

    PubMed Central

    Plourde-Owobi, Lucile; Seguin, Delphine; Baudin, Marie-Anne; Moste, Catherine; Rokbi, Bachra

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR were applied for the first time to the molecular characterization of Clostridium tetani. Among five strains tested, one (CN1339) turned out to contain a mixture of two genetically different clones and two (D11 and G761) to contain bacteria differing by the presence or absence of the 74-kb plasmid harboring the tetX gene. PMID:16151158

  10. Molecular characterization of Clostridium tetani strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and colony PCR.

    PubMed

    Plourde-Owobi, Lucile; Seguin, Delphine; Baudin, Marie-Anne; Moste, Catherine; Rokbi, Bachra

    2005-09-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR were applied for the first time to the molecular characterization of Clostridium tetani. Among five strains tested, one (CN1339) turned out to contain a mixture of two genetically different clones and two (D11 and G761) to contain bacteria differing by the presence or absence of the 74-kb plasmid harboring the tetX gene.

  11. DNA electrophoresis in agarose gels: effects of field and gel concentration on the exponential dependence of reciprocal mobility on DNA length.

    PubMed

    Rill, Randolph L; Beheshti, Afshin; Van Winkle, David H

    2002-08-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities of DNA molecules ranging in length from 200 to 48 502 base pairs (bp) were measured in agarose gels with concentrations T = 0.5% to 1.3% at electric fields from E = 0.71 to 5.0 V/cm. This broad data set determines a range of conditions over which the new interpolation equation nu(L) = (beta+alpha(1+exp(-L/gamma))(-1) can be used to relate mobility to length with high accuracy. Mobility data were fit with chi(2) > 0.999 for all gel concentrations and fields ranging from 2.5 to 5 V/cm, and for lower fields at low gel concentrations. Analyses using so-called reptation plots (Rousseau, J., Drouin, G., Slater, G. W., Phys. Rev. Lett. 1997, 79, 1945-1948) indicate that this simple exponential relation is obeyed well when there is a smooth transition from the Ogston sieving regime to the reptation regime with increasing DNA length. Deviations from this equation occur when DNA migration is hindered, apparently by entropic-trapping, which is favored at low fields and high gel concentrations in the ranges examined.

  12. Equilibrium intermediate-state patterns in a type-I superconducting slab in an arbitrarily oriented applied magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Clem, John; Prozorov, Ruslan; Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    2013-09-04

    The equilibrium topology of superconducting and normal domains in flat type-I superconductors is investigated. Important improvements with respect to previous work are that (1) the energy of the external magnetic field, as deformed by the presence of superconducting domains, is calculated in the same way for three different topologies and (2) calculations are made for arbitrary orientation of the applied field. A phase diagram is presented for the minimum-energy topology as a function of applied field magnitude and angle. For small (large) applied fields, normal (superconducting) tubes are found, while for intermediate fields, parallel domains have a lower energy. Themore » range of field magnitudes for which the superconducting-tubes structure is favored shrinks when the field is more in-plane oriented.« less

  13. Equilibrium intermediate-state patterns in a type-I superconducting slab in an arbitrarily oriented applied magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, John; Prozorov, Ruslan; Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    2013-09-04

    The equilibrium topology of superconducting and normal domains in flat type-I superconductors is investigated. Important improvements with respect to previous work are that (1) the energy of the external magnetic field, as deformed by the presence of superconducting domains, is calculated in the same way for three different topologies and (2) calculations are made for arbitrary orientation of the applied field. A phase diagram is presented for the minimum-energy topology as a function of applied field magnitude and angle. For small (large) applied fields, normal (superconducting) tubes are found, while for intermediate fields, parallel domains have a lower energy. The range of field magnitudes for which the superconducting-tubes structure is favored shrinks when the field is more in-plane oriented.

  14. Use of conductive gels for electric field homogenization increases the antitumor efficacy of electroporation therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivorra, Antoni; Al-Sakere, Bassim; Rubinsky, Boris; Mir, Lluis M.

    2008-11-01

    Electroporation is used in tissue for gene therapy, drug therapy and minimally invasive tissue ablation. The electrical field that develops during the application of the high voltage pulses needs to be precisely controlled. In the region to be treated, it is desirable to generate a homogeneous electric field magnitude between two specific thresholds whereas in other regions the field magnitude should be as low as possible. In the case of irregularly shaped tissue structures, such as bulky tumors, electric field homogeneity is almost impossible to be achieved with current electrode arrangements. We propose the use of conductive gels, matched to the conductivity of the tissues, to fill dead spaces between plate electrodes gripping the tissue so that the electric field distribution becomes less heterogeneous. Here it is shown that this technique indeed improves the antitumor efficacy of electrochemotherapy in sarcomas implanted in mice. Furthermore, we analyze, through finite element method simulations, how relevant the conductivity mismatches are. We found that conductivity mismatching errors are surprisingly well tolerated by the technique. Gels with conductivities ranging from 5 mS cm-1 to 10 mS cm-1 will be a proper solution for most cases.

  15. Interlaboratory Agreement of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Identification of Leptospira Serovars

    PubMed Central

    Mende, Katrin; Galloway, Renee L.; Becker, Sara J.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Murray, Clinton K.; Hospenthal, Duane R.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis may be caused by > 250 Leptospira serovars. Serovar classification is a complex task that most laboratories cannot perform. We assessed the interlaboratory reproducibility of a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identification technique developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Blinded exchange of 93 Leptospiraceae strains occurred between San Antonio Military Medical Center (SAMMC) and the CDC. PFGE was performed and gel images were analyzed and compared with patterns present in each laboratory's database (CDC database: > 800 strain patterns; SAMMC database: > 300 strain patterns). Overall, 93.7% (74 of 79) of strains present in each receiving laboratory's database were correctly identified. Five isolates were misidentified, and two isolates did not match serovar PFGE patterns in the receiving laboratory's database. Patterns for these seven isolates were identical between laboratories; four serovars represented misidentified reference strains. The PFGE methodology studied showed excellent interlaboratory reproducibility, enabling standardization and data sharing between laboratories. PMID:23817329

  16. Strong Static Magnetic Fields Increase the Gel Signal in Partially Hydrated DPPC/DMPC Membranes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jennifer; Alsop, Richard J; Schmalzl, Karin; Epand, Richard M; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-09-29

    NIt was recently reported that static magnetic fields increase lipid order in the hydrophobic membrane core of dehydrated native plant plasma membranes [Poinapen, Soft Matter 9:6804-6813, 2013]. As plasma membranes are multicomponent, highly complex structures, in order to elucidate the origin of this effect, we prepared model membranes consisting of a lipid species with low and high melting temperature. By controlling the temperature, bilayers coexisting of small gel and fluid domains were prepared as a basic model for the plasma membrane core. We studied molecular order in mixed lipid membranes made of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) using neutron diffraction in the presence of strong static magnetic fields up to 3.5 T. The contribution of the hydrophobic membrane core was highlighted through deuterium labeling the lipid acyl chains. There was no observable effect on lipid organization in fluid or gel domains at high hydration of the membranes. However, lipid order was found to be enhanced at a reduced relative humidity of 43%: a magnetic field of 3.5 T led to an increase of the gel signal in the diffraction patterns of 5%. While all biological materials have weak diamagnetic properties, the corresponding energy is too small to compete against thermal disorder or viscous effects in the case of lipid molecules. We tentatively propose that the interaction between the fatty acid chains' electric moment and the external magnetic field is driving the lipid tails in the hydrophobic membrane core into a better ordered state.

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of an indoxacarb gel bait against two cockroach species (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae, Blattidae) in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anikwe, Joseph Chuks; Adetoro, Fouad Abidemi; Anogwih, Joy Anuri; Makanjuola, Winifred Ayinke; Kemabonta, Kehinde Abike; Akinwande, Kayode Lawrence

    2014-08-01

    Indoxacarb gel bait was evaluated for its efficacy in the laboratory and field against American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), and German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.). Advion 0.6% indoxacarb gel bait was toxic to both P. americana and B. germanica. There were no significant differences in the LT50 (h) values for treatment levels of 0.25 g, 0.5 g, and 1.0 g gel applied against P. americana, whereas gel applied at 0.5 g to B. germanica had a significantly greater LT50 (h) in the laboratory than the gel treatments on P. americana. The LT50 for both cockroach species ranged from 40.65 to 145.60 h. There was no control mortality in the laboratory bioassays. In the field, 55 houses were treated with 0.5 g of 6-8 spots of indoxacarb gel bait per kitchen of two or three bedroom bungalows from three Local Government Areas of Lagos State, comprising Surulere (22), Alimosho (12), and Shomolu (21). Mean reduction in cockroach populations varied from location to location based on the level of infestations. Percentage reductions in the indoxacarb gel-treated units ranged from 3.5% at 1 d after treatment to 99.8% at 14 d at Surulere, while reductions ranged from 8.9% at 1 d after treatment to 99.7% at 14 d at Shomolu; a similar trend was observed for Alimosho. Indoxacarb gel bait was highly effective in the control of cockroaches.

  18. Direct observation by laser scanning confocal microscopy of microstructure and phase migration of PVC gels in an applied electric field.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong; Ueki, Takamitsu; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2011-02-01

    The fluorescent probe lucigenin was incorporated in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) gels, and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used to clarify the internal structures of the gels. From the two-dimensional and three-dimensional information by LSCM, we first observed the internal structure of the PVC gel at a wet status, where the PVC gels comprised a polymer-rich phase and a polymer-poor phase uniformly with a three-dimensional network structure. After an electric field was applied, an effect of the electric field resulted in the change of internal structure in the gels. The polymer-poor phase moved from the cathode to the anode and the polymer-rich phase formed linelike arrangement between electrodes due to the attraction force. On the other hand, the freeze-dried PVC gels with/without in-situ dc voltage casting were particularly fabricated to confirm above results by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). It was found that many craters remained on the surface of the gel near the anode due to sublimation in freeze-drying. This phenomenon did not appear on the surface near the cathode. The results of in-situ dc voltage casting also suggested that a substantial amount of polymer-poor phase was moved and fixed at the anode. Thus, results of both LSCM and in-situ dc voltage casting corresponded to the effect of electric field on PVC gels and provided a convincing evidence for the interpretation of the deformation mechanism of PVC gel actuators by an applied electric field.

  19. Biochemical Identification of the Two Races of Radopholus similis by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Huettel, R N; Dickson, D W; Kaplan, D T

    1983-07-01

    Analysis of proteins of the banana and citrus race of Radopholus similis was carried out by several different types of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These included standard slab gel, SDS slab gel, gradient slab gel, and two-ditnensional slab gel electrophoresis. A major band difference was detected between the two races by slab gel electrophoresis. However, several other poorly resolved but consistent hands of high molecular weight proteins near the gel origin also were considered as diagnostic. Resolution of protein bands was greatly improved by SDS and gradient slab gel electrophoresis, but no differences could be detected among the proteins resolved between the two rares with these techniques. Two-dimensional gels revealed a large number of proteins, but background staining obscured them hindering interpretation. When nematode races were reared on three different host plants, no differences in protein patterns were detected between them, indicating host preferences does not play a role in determining the types proteins occurring in these nematodes.

  20. Genetic profiling of Klebsiella pneumoniae: comparison of pulsed field gel electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ashayeri-Panah, Mitra; Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Ghamsari, Maryam Mobarak; Parvin, Mahmood; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the discriminatory power of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) methods for subtyping of 54 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were compared. All isolates were typeable by RAPD, while 3.6% of them were not typeable by PFGE. The repeatability of both typing methods were 100% with satisfying reproducibility (≥ 95%). Although the discriminatory power of PFGE was greater than RAPD, both methods showed sufficient discriminatory power (DI > 0.95) which reflects the heterogeneity among the K. pneumoniae isolates. An optimized RAPD protocol is less technically demanding and time consuming that makes it a reliable typing method and competitive with PFGE. PMID:24516423

  1. Interaction of electromagnetic fields with chondrocytes in gel culture. Final report, February-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Grodzinsky, A.J.; Gluzband, Y.A.; Buschmann, M.D.

    1990-02-01

    The research accomplished during this project period focused on control experiments designed to establish whether cartilage cells from normal cartilage will continue to synthesize and accumulate normal extracellular matrix in agarose gel culture. This information is essential to properly design experiments to qualify changes in chondrocyte biosynthesis due to applied electromagnetic fields. The results suggest that both normal chondrocytes and swarm rat chondrosarcoma cells in agarose culture can continue to synthesize matrix macromolecules at a rate similar to or slightly higher than that in normal cartilage; also, that chondrocytes in agarose can successfully mediate assembly and accumulation of normal, mechanically functional extracellular matrix.

  2. Molecular subtyping of Clostridium botulinum by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lúquez, Carolina; Joseph, Lavin A; Maslanka, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) has been extensively used to estimate the genetic diversity of Clostridium botulinum. In addition, PFGE is the standard method for investigating foodborne outbreaks associated with various enteric pathogens, including C. botulinum. PFGE can be used to exclude a suspected but not confirmed food source when the patterns of the food and clinical isolates are different. Indistinguishable PFGE patterns may also be useful for linking isolates between patients or to a food source, but results must be interpreted within an epidemiological context to ensure isolates are truly related. Here, we describe a standardized laboratory protocol for molecular subtyping of C. botulinum by PFGE.

  3. XPCS study of dynamic correlation in polyurethane gel-carbonyl iron composite under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriew, Helena; Wiegart, Lutz; Boczkowska, Anna; Mirkowska, Monika

    2010-10-01

    An X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) study of composite-type material consisting of polyurethane gel and carbonyl iron micrometric spheres was performed under magnetic fields of 0, 300 and 600 mT. The onion-like spheres structure was destroyed during the composite processing. The following conclusions were obtained from the study: -The polyurethane matrix is preferred as a source for the observed dynamic effects. -Below 300mT the material dynamics in direction of the outer magnetic field are very clear. -For 600 mT the dependence of the dynamics on magnetic field direction disappears, but the correlation rate is much higher. These findings may be caused by a disturbance of the polymer mesostructure by larger strain leading to its cross-linking.

  4. An exactly solvable Ogston model of gel electrophoresis: X. Application to high-field separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Michel G; Slater, Gary W

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we generalized our lattice model of gel electrophoresis to study the net velocity of particles being pulled by a high-intensity electric field through an arbitrary distribution of immobile obstacles (Gauthier, M. G., Slater, G. W., J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 6745-6756). In this article, we show how the high-field version of our model can be used to compare the velocity of particles with different electric charges and/or physical sizes. We then investigate specific two-dimensional distributions of obstacles that can be used to separate particles, e.g., in a microfluidic device. More precisely, we compare the velocity of differently charged or sized analytes in sieving, trapping and deflecting systems to model various electrophoretic separation techniques. In particular, we study the nonlinear effects present in ratchet systems and how they can be combined with time-asymmetric pulsed fields to provide new modes of separation.

  5. Effects of change in slab geometry on the mantle flow and slab fabric in Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, Sanja; Wagner, Lara S.; Beck, Susan L.; Long, Maureen D.; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando

    2016-10-01

    The effects of complex slab geometries on the surrounding mantle flow field are still poorly understood. Here we combine shear wave velocity structure with Rayleigh wave phase anisotropy to examine these effects in southern Peru, where the slab changes its geometry from steep to flat. To the south, where the slab subducts steeply, we find trench-parallel anisotropy beneath the active volcanic arc that we attribute to the mantle wedge and/or upper portions of the subducting plate. Farther north, beneath the easternmost corner of the flat slab, we observe a pronounced low-velocity anomaly. This anomaly is caused either by the presence of volatiles and/or flux melting that could result from southward directed, volatile-rich subslab mantle flow or by increased temperature and/or decompression melting due to small-scale vertical flow. We also find evidence for mantle flow through the tear north of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Finally, we observe anisotropy patterns associated with the fast velocity anomalies that reveal along strike variations in the slab's internal deformation. The change in slab geometry from steep to flat contorts the subducting plate south of the Nazca Ridge causing an alteration of the slab petrofabric. In contrast, the torn slab to the north still preserves the primary (fossilized) petrofabric first established shortly after plate formation.

  6. 5 × 5 cm2 silicon photonic crystal slabs on glass and plastic foil exhibiting broadband absorption and high-intensity near-fields

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C.; Wyss, P.; Eisenhauer, D.; Probst, J.; Preidel, V.; Hammerschmidt, M.; Burger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline silicon photonic crystal slabs are widely used in various photonics applications. So far, the commercial success of such structures is still limited owing to the lack of cost-effective fabrication processes enabling large nanopatterned areas (≫ 1 cm2). We present a simple method for producing crystalline silicon nanohole arrays of up to 5 × 5 cm2 size with lattice pitches between 600 and 1000 nm on glass and flexible plastic substrates. Exclusively up-scalable, fast fabrication processes are applied such as nanoimprint-lithography and silicon evaporation. The broadband light trapping efficiency of the arrays is among the best values reported for large-area experimental crystalline silicon nanostructures. Further, measured photonic crystal resonance modes are in good accordance with light scattering simulations predicting strong near-field intensity enhancements greater than 500. Hence, the large-area silicon nanohole arrays might become a promising platform for ultrathin solar cells on lightweight substrates, high-sensitive optical biosensors, and nonlinear optics. PMID:25073935

  7. Mixing characterization in a slab tank

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Gavlak, A.M.; Calabrese, R.V.; Kyser, E.A.; Tatterson, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Due to safety requirements, slab tanks are often used to process radioactive materials. The configuration is that of a slit or a tank of rectangular cross section with very low aspect ratio. Due to its nonconventional geometry, very little is known about the slab tank mixing environment. To better understand it, experiments have been performed in a full scale standard configuration equipped with two stirrer shafts, each containing several axial impellers. To characterize the velocity field, mean and RMS turbulent velocities have been measured at several impeller speeds with a two-component Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA). The LDA data have been supplemented with flow visualization, circulation time, and mixing time studies. Since the slab tank is often used as a precipitator, solids suspension studies have also been performed. The results of the various experiments will be presented and will be interpreted to elucidate slab tank dynamics. The implication to mixing efficiency will also be discussed.

  8. Dc to ac field conversion due to leaky-wave excitation in a plasma slab behind an ionization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostin, V. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.

    2015-03-01

    We present a way for generating coherent tunable electromagnetic radiation through dc to ac field conversion by an ionization front. The conversion is caused by the excitation of leaky waves behind the transversely limited ionization front propagating in a uniform electrostatic field. This differs significantly from the well-known dc-to-ac-radiation-converter models which consider Doppler-like frequency conversion by a transversely unlimited ionization front propagating in a spatially periodic electric field. We explore the dispersion properties and excitation of these leaky waves radiated through the transverse plasma boundary at the Cherenkov angle to the direction of propagation of a superluminal ionization front as dependent on the parameters of the plasma produced and on the speed of the ionization front. It is shown that not only the center frequency but also the duration and waveform of the generated pulse may significantly depend on the speed of the ionization front. The results indicate the possibility of using such converters based on planar photoconductive antennas to create sources of microwave and terahertz radiation with controllable waveforms that are transformed from video to radio pulse when the angle of incident ionizing radiation is tuned.

  9. Conformational Entropy Mechanism for Periodic Motion of DNA under Constant-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Ryuzo; Takayama, Hajime

    2006-06-01

    Entropic elasticity of a single charged polymer undergoing gel electrophoresis is a fundamental theme of polymer statistical physics since the discovery of “periodic” behavior in constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE). In the present work we address the problem numerically by two steps. In the first step, we carry out Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations on CFGE by solving semi-microscopic Langevin equations of a polymer consisting of beads separated by a mean distance much smaller than the Kuhn length. Results are analyzed based on coarse-graining over the Kuhn length scale. We show the averaged elongation-contraction motion involves asymmetric V-shaped configurations whose shorter arm length depends on the field and the temperature consistently with what is expected when the BD chain is described by the freely-jointed chain (FJC) model with a suitable Kuhn length. To our knowledge, this is the first numerical confirmation of the FJC model itself from a submicroscopic description of polymer motion. The saturation of chain mobility in high fields agrees well with the nonlinear dependence of this shorter arm length on the field. In the second step, we discuss the periodic elongation-contraction motion of the coarse-grained chain by such a simplified model as a one-dimensional chain consisting of beads, elastic strings, and obstacles. The results from these two chain models indicate that the periodic elongation-contraction motion of DNA under CFGE is self-organized by a balance between the field force and the conformational entropic force.

  10. Deepest hypocentral distributions associated with stagnant slabs and penetrated slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Y.; Obayashi, M.

    2013-12-01

    We constructed a new P-wave tomographic model of the mantle, GAP_P4, using more than ten millions of travel time data, including waveform-based differential travel times from ocean bottoms, to all of which the finite frequency kernels were applied in the inversion. Based on this model, we made a systematic survey for subducted slab images around the Circum Pacific. This survey revealed a progressive lateral variation of slab configuration along arc(s), where a subducted slab is in general in one or two of the following four stages: I. slab stagnant above the 660, II. slab penetrating the 660, III. slab trapped in the uppermost lower mantle (660 to ˜1000 km in depth), and IV. slab descending well into the deep lower mantle. The majority of the slab images are either at stage I or III. We interpret I to IV as the successive stages of slab subduction through the transition region with the 660 at the middle. There is a remarkable correlation of the slab configuration with the deepest shock hypocentral distribution. Subhorizontal distributions of deepest shocks are associated with stagnant slabs in the transition zone (slabs at stage I). Their focal depths are limited to shallower than ˜620 km. Steeply dipping deepest shock distributions are associated with penetrating slabs across the 660-km discontinuity or trapped slabs below it (slabs at stages II and III). Their focal depths extend well beyond ˜620 km. There are no cases of association of either a stagnant slab (at stage I) with subvertical distribution of deepest shocks or a trapped slab (at stage II or III) with their subhorizontal distribution. Only steeply dipping slabs appear to penetrate the 660 to be trapped in the uppermost lower mantle. The along-arc variations of stagnant-slab configuration and deepest shock distribution beneath the Bonin arc indicate a process of how the slab begins to penetrate the 660-km discontinuity after the slab stagnation. Those beneath the Java arc and Kermadec arc commonly

  11. Theory of gel electrophoresis in high fields: Evolution of a population of hernias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Didier; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    1997-02-01

    We consider long polyelectrolytes that are initially at rest in a gel and suddenly submitted to a strong electric field. The evolution of the conformation regime is described up to the final disengagement from the initial tube. Just after the field has been applied, the chain adopts a comb-like conformation with several “hernias”, which evolve in competition with each other. As long as the conformation has many hernias, the distribution of their size follows a self-similar law, first described by Deutsch. The number of hernias decreases, and ultimately the chain disengages from its initial tube. Various predictions for the conformation of the chain in this last stage and for time constants are proposed. In particular, the disengagement times are found to follow a self-similar law in the size of the chains.

  12. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to measure DNA damage and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Scicchitano, D.A. New York Univ., New York )

    1991-03-11

    A method is described here for the analysis of single-strand break formation and repair in genomic DNA. The procedure involves exposing cells to a DNA-damaging agent, allowing time for recovery, and embedding the cells in agarose. After lysis and digestion with a protease, the DNA, which remains in the agarose plug, is denatured with glyoxal and separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The DNA in the gel is then transferred to a support membrane and quantitated with a radioanalytic imaging system to determine the average size of the DNA at each time point of recovery. The results indicate that the repair of methyl-induced breaks in total genomic DNA is approximately 80% complete in 48 hr in CHO B11 and ARL 14 cells exposed to dimethyl sulfate. These results are in agreement with those obtained by using other techniques like alkaline sucrose sedimentation. The method developed and described here has several advantages over existing techniques for repair measurements: It can be used to monitor genotoxic agents that nick DNA, to study the removal of breaks from genomic DNA, and to test for repair of damage in specific domains of chromatin that would be too large to examine by conventional electrophoresis.

  13. Megabase-scale mapping of the HLA gene complex by pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrance, S.K.; Smith, C.L.; Srivastava, R.; Cantor, C.R.; Weissman, S.M.

    1987-03-13

    In the study of the genetic structure of mammalian chromosomes, there exists a resolution gap between molecular cloning experiments and meiotic linkage analyses. This gap has discouraged attempts to construct full-scale genetic maps of mammalian chromosomes. The organization of the human major histocompatibility complex was examined within this range by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The data obtained indicate that the complex spans over 3000 kilobases and enable the construction of a megabase-scale molecular map. These results indicate that the techniques employed in DNA extraction, enzymatic digestion, electrophoresis, and hybridization are suitable for the efficient analysis of megabase regions of mammalian chromosomes and effectively bridge the resolution gap between molecular cloning and classical genetics.

  14. Campylobacter coli pulsed field gel electrophoresis genotypic diversity among sows and piglets in a farrowing barn.

    PubMed

    Hume, Michael E; Droleskey, Robert E; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Harvey, Roger B

    2002-08-01

    Genotypes of Campylobacter coli isolates from feces of three sows and rectal swabs of 17 piglets were examined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All of the animals originated from a single farrowing barn of a farrow-to-finish swine operation. Five Campylobacter colonies were picked from a single agar plate for each sample after broth enrichment and growth on Campy-Cefex agar. Genotypes were examined by PFGE after genomic DNA digestion with SmaI and SacII restriction endonucleases. Twenty SmaI genotypes and 12 SacII genotypes were detected among 99 Campylobacter coli isolates. There was no pattern of shared genotypes between sows and their respective piglets, nor between littermates. Results indicate that a high number of Campylobacter genotypes may coexist in related pigs from a single housing facility.

  15. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of multicellular DNA double-strand break damage and repair.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nina; Grant, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    This assay quantifies the extent of double-strand break (DSB) DNA damage in cell populations embedded in agarose and analyzed for migratory DNA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining. The assay can measure preexisting damage as well as induction of DSB by chemical (e.g., bleomycin), physical (e.g., X-irradiation), or biological (e.g., restriction enzymes) agents. By incubating the cells under physiological conditions prior to processing, the cells can be allowed to repair DSB, primarily via the process of nonhomologous end joining. The amount of repair, corresponding to the repair capacity of the treated cells, is then quantified by determining the ratio of the fractions of activity released in the lanes in comparison to the total amount of DNA fragmentation following determination of an optimal exposure for maximum initial fragmentation. Repair kinetics can also be analyzed through a time-course regimen.

  16. Molecular Typing by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis of Spanish Animal and Human Listeria monocytogenes Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Vela, A. I.; Fernandez-Garayzabal, J. F.; Vazquez, J. A.; Latre, M. V.; Blanco, M. M.; Moreno, M. A.; de la Fuente, L.; Marco, J.; Franco, C.; Cepeda, A.; Rodriguez Moure, A. A.; Suarez, G.; Dominguez, L.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 153 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from different sources (72 from sheep, 12 from cattle, 18 from feedstuffs, and 51 from humans) in Spain from 1989 to 2000 were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The strains of L. monocytogenes displayed 55 pulsotypes. The 84 animal, 51 human, and 18 feedstuff strains displayed 31, 29, and 7 different pulsotypes, respectively, indicating a great genetic diversity among the Spanish L. monocytogenes isolates studied. L. monocytogenes isolates from clinical samples and feedstuffs consumed by the diseased animals were analyzed in 21 flocks. In most cases, clinical strains from different animals of the same flock had identical pulsotypes, confirming the existence of a listeriosis outbreak. L. monocytogenes strains with pulsotypes identical to those of clinical strains were isolated from silage, potatoes, and maize stalks. This is the first study wherein potatoes and maize stalks are epidemiologically linked with clinical listeriosis. PMID:11722943

  17. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Claudia; Vidal, Lorena; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cattle feces and ground beef, to characterize these strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to compare them to three listeria strains found in humans. Cattle from different origins (n = 250) and ground beef obtained from supermarkets (n = 40) were sampled. The results show low occurrence in cattle feces (0.4 %) but a higher presence in ground beef (37 %). An important part of the ground beef strains (80 %) had > 95 % similarity with a strain isolated from a human sporadic case and the ATCC 19115 used as control. The strain isolated from cattle feces had 93 % similarity to clone 009, previously associated with a listeriosis outbreak related to cheese. Cattle and ground beef can harbor virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Further studies in animals and animal products are needed to improve listeriosis control.

  18. Molecular analysis of chromosomal rearrangements using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Many human genetic diseases, including some cancers, are characterized by consistent chromosome abnormalities, such as deletions and translocations. Analyses of these mutations often prove crucial to the eventual cloning and characterization of the gene(s) responsible for the disease. Two methods for analyzing these chromosome abnormalities have been developed in recent years: somatic cell hybridization and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Somatic cell hybridization is a technique for segregating an aberrant chromosome from its normal homologue in a cell derived from an unrelated species, which is usually a rodent. Demonstrations of these analytic techniques are presented, using as an example chromosomal abnormalities involving human chromosome band 11p13, the locus for the Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormality, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome.

  19. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Escherichia coli O157 isolates from Kansas feedlots.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Shi, X; Sanderson, M W; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of Escherichia coli O157 genetic types within and among feedlots using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to separate XbaI-digested DNA. The study population consisted of 300 pens of cattle in 30 feedlots in Kansas that were sampled (feces, water, and water sediment) within a month of being shipped for slaughter. The prevalence of E. coli O157 was 8.5% in feces, 3.1% in water, and 4.5% in water sediment samples. A total of 424 E. coli O157 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 139 subtypes (100% Dice similarity with no band differences) were identified. The majority of subtypes (70/139) was identified only once, but nine were identified 10 or more times. Identical subtypes were recovered from both feces and water tanks in 10 feedlots. The majority of subtypes were identified in only one feedlot, and the number of subtypes ranged from one to 23 within a feedlot and from one to seven within a pen. There were 10 feedlots with at least 15 positive samples. In these 10 feedlots, the most common subtype accounted for 16.9-78.6% of the isolates. Common subtypes differed among feedlots. In eight of the 10 feedlots, the most common subtype was identified in multiple pens. The results support a complex ecology for E. coli O157 in feedlot operations, with factors associated with exposure and transmission likely acting at a common level for multiple feedlots, within feedlots, and within pens of cattle.

  20. Cordilleran slab windows

    SciTech Connect

    Thorkelson, D.J.; Taylor, R.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The geometry and geologic implications of subducted spreading ridges are topics that have bedeviled earth scientists ever since the recognition of plate tectonics. As a consequence of subduction of the Kula-Farallon and East Pacific rises, slab windows formed and migrated beneath the North American Cordillera. The probable shape and extent of these windows, which represent the asthenosphere-filled gaps between two separating, subducting oceanic plates, are depicted from the Late Cretaceous to the present. Possible effects of the existence and migration of slab windows on the Cordillera at various times include cessation of arc volcanism and replacement by rift or plate-edge volcanism; lithospheric uplift, attenuation, and extension; and increased intensity of compressional tectonism. Eocene extensional tectonism and alkaline magmatism in southern British Columbia and the northwestern United States were facilitated by slab-window development.

  1. Separation of chromosomal DNA molecules from C.albicans by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Snell, R G; Wilkins, R J

    1986-01-01

    Modifications have been made to standard pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) systems to enable very large DNA molecules to be resolved. The single most important modification was to elevate the temperature of electrophoresis to 35 degrees C. This enabled the largest Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome to be reproducibly resolved. More impressively, it enabled the DNA of Candida albicans to be clearly resolved into six bands, a feat which was very difficult at lower temperatures. Even so, optimal resolution could only be obtained by carefully adjusting field voltages and switching times. The DNA from the two largest C. albicans chromosomes, which was estimated to be at least 5-10Mbp in size, ran somewhat anomalously, giving fuzzy bands which did not migrate in the direction of the average electric field. That the highest molecular weight band was a distinct chromosome was demonstrated by specific hybridisation to the C. albicans ADE2 gene probe. With further fine tuning, the PFGE system described here should be capable of resolving DNA from the smallest human chromosomes. Images PMID:3520483

  2. DNA electrophoresis in agarose gels: Effects of electric field and gel concentration on the exponential dependence of reciprocal mobility on DNA length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Afshin; van Winkle, David; Randolph, Rill

    2002-03-01

    Electrophoresis was performed on double stranded DNA fragments ranging in length from 200 bp to 48502 bp at agarose gel concentrations T = 0.5% - 1.5% and electric fields E = 0.71 V/cm to 5 V/cm. A wide range of electric fields and gel concentrations were used to find what range of conditions work with the new interpolation equation, 1/μ(L) = 1/μl - (1/μl - 1/μ_s)e^-L/γ. The equation fit extremely well (\\chi^2 >= 0.999) to data with E = 2.5 V/cm to 5 V/cm and for lower fields (E < 2.5 V/cm) at low gel concentrations (T = 0.5% and 0.7%). This exponential relation seemed to hold when there is a smooth transition from the Ogston sieving regime to the reptation regime when looking at the “reptation plots” (plotting 3μL/μo vs. L) (Rousseau, J., Drouin, G., and Slater, G. W., Phys Rev Lett. 1997, 79, 1945-1948). For separations of single-stranded DNA in polyacrylamide, similar reptation plots have a region with a negative slope between the Ogston sieving regime and the reptation regime which has been interpreted as the signature of entropic trapping. When separating double-stranded DNA in agarose it was observed that fits deviate from the data when three different slopes are observed in the reptation plots. Failure of the simple exponential relationship between reciprocal mobility and DNA length appears to be the consequence of entropic trapping.

  3. The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Thin Dielectric Slabs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Continue on reverse if recessary, and identify by block number) This report precents the solutions of Maxwell’s equations for the TE and TM modes of...field versus distance from slab center for two even and two odd TM modes .... 25 5. Electric field for TE even mode and magnetic field for TM even mode...34 vi1and/or ’it Special 6MEN Figures 6. Electric field versus distance from slab center for a slab of 0.35 [ tm thickness and dielectric coefficients of

  4. Slab Leaf Bowls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    In science class, fourth graders investigate the structure of plants and leaves from trees and how the process of photosynthesis turns sunlight into sugar proteins. In this article, the author fuses art and science for a creative and successful clay slab project in her elementary art classroom. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  5. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  6. Genetic fingerprinting of Brevibacterium linens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping.

    PubMed

    Lima, P T; Correia, A M

    2000-07-01

    Members of Brevibacterium linens display physiological features that are relevant for cheese production. The genomes of five B. linens strains deposited on culture collections were compared by examining large restriction fragments on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of polymorphism at the level of 16S rRNA genes. Pulsed-field analysis with the endonucleases DraI and AsnI showed a characteristic restriction profile for each strain and allowed the calculation of genome sizes ranging between 3.2 and 3.9 Mbp. No linear genomic elements were detected. Polymorphisms at the level of 16S rRNA genes were revealed by hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe complementary to a universal domain of the 16S genes. An EcoRI fragment of 1.4 kb was identified as common to all strains under study. According to the number of positive bands detected by the probe, at least four rRNA operons must be present on the genome of the B. linens strains here studied.

  7. Application of multiplex PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and BOX-PCR for molecular analysis of enterococci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to use band-based molecular methods including BOX-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine if genetically related enterococci were found among different stores, food types, or years. Enterococci were also characterized f...

  8. Genetic diversity demonstrated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from diverse sources in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from a variety of sources using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess their possible relatedness. Salmonella was isolated from ca. 52% of samples from a pepper var. Bell production system. A to...

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in an Asymmetric Magnetic Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allcock, Matthew; Erdélyi, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Analytical models of solar atmospheric magnetic structures have been crucial for our understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave behaviour and in the development of the field of solar magneto-seismology. Here, an analytical approach is used to derive the dispersion relation for MHD waves in a magnetic slab of homogeneous plasma enclosed on its two sides by non-magnetic, semi-infinite plasma with different densities and temperatures. This generalises the classic magnetic slab model, which is symmetric about the slab. The dispersion relation, unlike that governing a symmetric slab, cannot be decoupled into the well-known sausage and kink modes, i.e. the modes have mixed properties. The eigenmodes of an asymmetric magnetic slab are better labelled as quasi-sausage and quasi-kink modes. Given that the solar atmosphere is highly inhomogeneous, this has implications for MHD mode identification in a range of solar structures. A parametric analysis of how the mode properties (in particular the phase speed, eigenfrequencies, and amplitudes) vary in terms of the introduced asymmetry is conducted. In particular, avoided crossings occur between quasi-sausage and quasi-kink surface modes, allowing modes to adopt different properties for different parameters in the external region.

  10. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiological study of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during a food-borne outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J M; Weagant, S D; Jinneman, K C; Bryant, J L

    1995-01-01

    Food and patient isolates from an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with undercooked ground beef were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Shiga-like toxin genotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed the epidemiologically implicated source of the two-state outbreak and differentiated between outbreak and sporadic strains. PMID:7618896

  11. Genetic variability among Chlamydia trachomatis reference and clinical strains analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, P; Allardet-Servent, A; de Barbeyrac, B; Ramuz, M; Bebear, C

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied to Chlamydia trachomatis reference strains representing each of the 18 serovars and to 29 clinical isolates from genital specimens collected in Bordeaux, France, or Malmö, Sweden. Comparison of the fingerprint patterns of the reference strains revealed a high level of polymorphism of the total DNA when SmaI was used (14 profiles), whereas the other enzymes, Sse8387I and ApaI, showed fewer differences. Some serovars, considered to be closely related on the basis of their antigenic determinants located on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), such as D and Da or I and Ia, were shown to be different after PFGE of their genomic DNAs. However, serovars B and Ba and serovars L2 and L2a had identical patterns after analysis with the three endonucleases. When applied to clinical isolates, which were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the MOMP gene, PFGE allowed the detection of intragenotype polymorphisms and showed the identity of two strains successively isolated from the same patient. This technique seems to be an efficient tool for epidemiological studies when used in addition to serotyping or genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the MOMP gene. Images PMID:7883878

  12. Typing of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Using DNA Fingerprints by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Rebic, Velma; Budimir, Ana; Aljicevic, Mufida; Bektas, Sabaheta; Vranic, Sabina Mahmutovic; Rebic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for a wide spectrum of nosocomial and community associated infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze MRSA strains from the general population in Canton Sarajevo, B&H. Methods: Our investigation including either phenotypic and genotypic markers such as antimicrobial resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), SCC typing, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) detection. Results: Antimicrobial susceptibility: all MRSA isolates were resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics tested, and all isolates were susceptible trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole, rifampicin, fusidic acid, linezolid and vancomycin. Sixty-eight per cent of the MRSA isolates were resistant to erythromycin, 5% to clindamycin, 5% to gentamicin and 4% to ciprofloxacin. After the PFGE analysis, the isolates were grouped into five similarity groups: A-E. The largest number of isolates belonged to one of two groups: C: 60 (60%) and D: 27 (27%). In both groups C and D, SCCmec type IV was predominant (60% and 88, 8%, respectively). A total of 24% of the isolates had positive expression of PVL genes, while 76% showed a statistically significantly greater negative expression of PVL genes. Conclusion: SCCmec type IV, together with the susceptibility profile and PFGE grouping, is considered to be typical of CA-MRSA PMID:27708486

  13. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotype profiles of clinical and environmental Vibrio vulnificus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Tamplin, M L; Jackson, J K; Buchrieser, C; Murphree, R L; Portier, K M; Gangar, V; Miller, L G; Kaspar, C W

    1996-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus belongs to the autochthonous bacterial flora of warm estuarine waters. It can cause life-threatening extraintestinal disease in persons who have underlying illness and who consume raw shellfish or contact wounds with estuarine water. Currently, very little is known about genetic diversity within this species. In this report, we describe high-level variation in restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles among 53 clinical and 78 environmental isolates, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In contrast, ribotype profiles showed greater similarity. When combined ribotype profiles of clinical and environmental isolates were analyzed, four predominant clusters were observed. Interestingly, a low number (16%) of clinical isolates were found in cluster C, compared with clusters A, B, and D (range, 50 to 83%). In addition, 83% of all Hawaiian isolates were located in a single cluster, indicating a possible relationship between geography and genotype. We also report that spontaneous translucent colonial morphotypes were distinct by both restriction fragment length polymorphism and biochemical profiles, compared with opaque parent strains. PMID:8837412

  14. Epidemiological Validation of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Patterns for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, D. S.; Struelens, M. J.; Deplano, A.; De Ryck, R.; Hauser, P. M.; Petignat, C.; Francioli, P.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the stability of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the nosocomial setting, we analyzed isolates from long-term carriers (>1 month) and from patients involved in well-defined nosocomial epidemics. The number of fragment differences between the first isolate and subsequent isolates in long-term carriers showed a bimodal distribution, with one group having 0 to 6 fragment differences and the other group having 14 to 24 fragment differences. The PFGE patterns of isolates involved in epidemics also presented a similar bimodal distribution of the number of fragment differences. Typing these isolates with another molecular method (inter-IS256 PCR) showed that isolates of the first group (i.e., with 1 to 6 fragment differences) were clonally related, whereas the second group (with 14 to 24 fragment differences) could be considered genetically different. Among long-term carriers with clonally related isolates, 74 of 84 (88%) of consecutive isolates showed indistinguishable patterns, whereas 10 of 84 (12%) showed related patterns differing by one to six fragments. Moreover, the frequency of apparition of related patterns is higher when the time between the first and the subsequent isolate is longer. During seven nosocomial epidemics lasting from 1 to 15 months, only 2 of 120 isolates (1.7%) showed a pattern which was different, although related, from the predominant one involved in each of these outbreaks. PMID:11574553

  15. The limitations of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, B J; Robson, B; Lin, S; Hudson, J A; Weaver, L; Dufour, M; Strydom, H

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the analysis of 432 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE had a high level of discrimination with biotype 1A isolates (Simpson's Diversity Index 0.997), but with the clinically important biotypes 2, 3 and 4, the discriminatory ability of PFGE was so low as to severely limit its usefulness (DI <0.6). For biotypes 2, 3 and 4, 79% or more of isolates of each biotype were of just three different PFGE profiles. Because of this, four known outbreaks of yersiniosis would not have been identified by PFGE analysis. However, a previously unrecognized potential outbreak of yersiniosis caused by biotype 4 isolates was identified on the basis of a rare PFGE genotype with spatial and temporal clustering. We conclude that PFGE has a very limited application to the genotyping of Y. enterocolitica biotypes 2, 3 and 4, and inferences based on finding indistinguishable PFGE profiles among cases or between cases and sources need to be substantiated using alternative typing tools, or strong epidemiological evidence.

  16. Application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to identify potential outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Brent; Cornelius, Angela; Robson, Beth; Boxall, Naomi; Ferguson, Alan; Nicol, Carolyn; Henderson, Tom

    2006-02-01

    Since 2002, New Zealand's incidence of campylobacteriosis has exceeded 300 cases per 100,000 people per annum. To evaluate genetic variation in human isolates, 183 Campylobacter isolates were collected from a single clinical laboratory in Christchurch: 77 during an 8-week period in spring, and the rest 3 months later over a second 8-week period in autumn. Isolates were identified to the species level and subtyped using Penner serotyping (Campylobacter jejuni only) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using both SmaI and KpnI. Approximately two-thirds of the isolates could be grouped into clusters of between 2 and 26 isolates with indistinguishable SmaI and KpnI patterns. Less than 10% of the isolates were of the same type between the two sampling periods. The epidemiological relevance of the PFGE clusters was supported by temporal clustering, some spatial clustering, and some statistically significant demographic similarities among cases in a cluster. Conversely, patient cases yielding isolates which did not cluster with isolates from other cases were more likely to report recent overseas travel and less likely to live within larger urban centers. To identify whether these clusters actually represent common-source outbreaks, however, would require the detailed, rapid, and reiterative epidemiological investigation of cases within a PFGE cluster. The combined and timely application of subtyping and epidemiological investigation would appear to be a promising strategy for understanding campylobacteriosis in New Zealand.

  17. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from Bulgaria by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Iliana; Urshev, Zoltan; Hristova, Petya; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Moncheva, Penka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize genetically Bulgarian Erwinia amylovora strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Fifty E. amylovora strains isolated from different hosts, locations, as well as in different years were analysed by PFGE after XbaI, SpeI, and XhoI digestion of the genomic DNA. The strains were distributed into four groups according to their XbaI-generated profile. About 82% of the strains displayed a PFGE profile identical to that of type Pt2. Three strains belonged to the Central Europe Pt1 type. Two new PFGE profiles, not reported so far, were established--one for a strain isolated from Malus domestica and another for all Fragaria spp. strains. The same grouping of the strains was obtained after analysis of the SpeI digestion patterns. On the basis of PFGE profiles, after XbaI and SpeI digestion, a genetic differentiation between the strains associated with subfamily Maloideae and subfamily Rosoideae was revealed. The presence of more than one PFGE profile in the population of E. amylovora in Bulgaria suggests a multiple source of inoculum.

  18. High-frequency alternating-crossed-field gel electrophoresis with neutral or slightly charged interpenetrating networks to improve DNA separation.

    PubMed

    Boyd, B M; Prausnitz, J M; Blanch, H W

    1998-12-01

    Toward improving DNA separations, this work reports the effects of high-frequency square-wave AC fields superimposed perpendicular to the direct current (DC) separation field on DNA migration in both polyacrylamide-based interpenetrating networks (IPNs) and in agarose networks. Compared to standard polyacrylamide gels, IPNs allow the separation of larger DNA (9000 bp vs. 5000 bp at 5 V/cm). In novel polyacrylamide-based IPNs, an alternating current (AC) field of 5 Hz increased the maximum DNA size separable. This effect was extended to larger DNA sizes with increasing electric-field strength up to and apparently beyond the power supply-limited maximum electric-field strength of 48 V/cm. The orthogonal AC field also increased mobility. These two results combine to yield a reduction in separation time of up to a factor of 20 in novel polyacrylamide-based IPNs. When negatively charged acrylic-acid groups were incorporated into the IPNs, the use of the AC field changed the DNA-network interaction, which altered the size dependence of DNA mobility. In agarose gels, an AC field of 50 Hz increased the size range separable; however, there was no increase in DNA mobility. There was no change in size dependence of mobility in an AC field when the number of charged groups in the agarose network was increased. Based on results in the literature, possible mechanisms were examined for the effects of the AC field on DNA separation.

  19. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica in beef calves via nasopharyngeal culture and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; Mosier, Derek A; Larson, Robert L; Murray, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is a major bacterial component of bovine respiratory disease (BRD); unfortunately, very little is known about M. haemolytica transmission dynamics among cattle. Identifying potential variation in M. haemolytica populations over time and induction of nasopharyngeal colonization and subsequent shedding are 2 areas where knowledge is lacking. In our study, 2 separate loads of 20 mixed-origin, male calves were purchased through an order buyer on different dates. Deep nasopharyngeal cultures (NPC) were performed on all calves on arrival and, if M. haemolytica-negative, a second screening culture was obtained. Calves that were negative on 2 initial NPCs (NEG; n = 4) were subsequently challenged with a previously isolated field strain of M. haemolytica in both the upper and lower respiratory tract, individually housed, and then monitored for M. haemolytica shedding via NPCs at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days postchallenge. Naturally M. haemolytica-positive calves (2 per load) were kept for additional daily cultures (POS; n = 4). Individual calf M. haemolytica status for both the POS and NEG groups was inconsistent between study days. Additionally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis performed on isolates from the positive cultures showed that the NEG calves did not shed the M. haemolytica challenge strain, but rather 2 distinct clusters of M. haemolytica were shared among POS and NEG calves regardless of their initial status. Although sample sizes were small, these findings illustrate how variable the results of a single nasopharyngeal swab can be and the challenges of using an individual culture to truly represent animal M. haemolytica status.

  20. Piled-Slab Searches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    tinuously as one moves away from the origin (Figure 1). Because such a search is both strategically optimal and locally random, we will refer to it as SOLR ...approximating the inverted cup with a solid composed of n piled slabs. The resulting detection proba- bility will, of course, be smaller than the SOLR ...total effort density in the annulus between Ri−1 and Ri (Figure 2). The total Figure 1. The inverted SOLR cup has the greatest search effort density at

  1. Carbon dioxide slab laser

    SciTech Connect

    Tulip, J.

    1988-01-12

    A gas slab laser is described comprising: first and second elongated electrodes each including a planar light reflecting surface disposed so as to form a light guide only in a plane perpendicular to the planar surface and to define a gas discharge gap therebetween; a laser gas disposed in the gap; and means for applying a radio frequency current between the first and second electrodes to establish a laser-exciting discharge in the laser gas.

  2. Slab-geometry Nd:glass laser performance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, J. M.; Kane, T. J.; Byer, R. L.; Unternahrer, J.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that slab-geometry solid-state lasers potentially provide significant performance improvements relative to conventional rod-geometry lasers. Experimental measurements that use an Nd:glass test-bed slab laser are presented. A comparison is made between the results and computer-model predictions of the slab-geometry approach. The computer model calculates and displays the temperature and stress fields in the slab, and on the basis of these predicts birefringence and index-of-refraction distributions. The effect that these distributions have on optical propagation is determined in a polarization-sensitive ray-tracing section of the model. Calculations are also made of stress-induced surface curvature and the resulting focusing effects. The measurements are found to be in good agreement with the computer-model predictions. It is concluded that the slab configuration offers significant laser-performance advantages in comparison with the traditional rod-laser geometry.

  3. Electromagnetic Tunneling and Resonances in Pseudochiral Omega Slabs

    PubMed Central

    Razzaz, Faroq; Alkanhal, Majeed A. S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical investigation of the electromagnetic wave tunneling and anomalous transmission around the trapped modes in a pseudochiral omega slab. The dispersion relation, the conditions of the trapped modes, and the evanescent wave coupling and tunneling in two different reciprocal pseudochiral omega slab structures are derived. The Berreman’s matrix method is applied to obtain the transmission coefficients across the pseudochiral omega slab. When the structure is perturbed, a resonance phenomenon is detected around the trapped modes. This resonance results in transmission anomalies (total transmission and total reflection) and dramatic field amplifications around the trapped modes. The number of the discrete trapped modes and then the resonance frequencies are prescribed by the parameters of the pseudochiral omega slab such as the value of the omega parameter and its orientation and the slab thickness. PMID:28165058

  4. On the parametric transparency of a magnetized plasma slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1981-06-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the nonlinear transparency of a dense magnetized plasma slab to electromagnetic radiation. The mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of surface waves in a cold magnetized plasma slab. It is shown that a significant proportion of incident radiation will be able to penetrate the slab due to saturation caused by the nonlinear resonant absorption of the surface waves generated. The mechanism also predicts the presence of transmitted radiation at a frequency less than that of the incident radiation in a direction parallel to the incident pump-wave electric field, the external constant magnetic field and the plasma layer.

  5. High-Frequency Alternating-Crossed-Field Gel Electrophoresis WithNeutral or Slightly Charged Interpenetrating Networks to Improve DNASeparation

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, B.; Prausnitz, J.; Blanch, H.

    1998-07-01

    Toward improving DNA separations, this work reports theeffects of high-frequency square-wave AC fields superimposedperpendicular to the direct current (DC) separation field on DNAmigration in both polyacrylamide-based interpenetrating networks (IPNs)and in agarose networks. Compared to standard polyacrylamide gels, IPNsallow the separation of larger DNA (9000 bp vs. 5000 bp at 5 V/cm). Innovel polyacrylamide-based IPNs, an alternating current (AC) field of 5Hz increased the maximum DNA size separable. This effect was extended tolarger DNA sizes with increasing electric-field strength up to andapparently beyond the power supply-limited maximum electric-fieldstrength of 48 V/cm. The orthogonal AC field also increased mobility.These two results combine to yield a reduction in separation time of upto a factor of 20 in novel polyacrylamide-based IPNs. When negativelycharged acrylic-acid groups were incorporated into the IPNs, the use ofthe AC field changed the DNA-network interaction, which altered the sizedependence of DNA mobility. In agarose gels, an AC field of 50 Hzincreased the size range separable; however, there was no increase in DNAmobility. There was no change in size dependence of mobility in an ACfield when the number of charged groups in the agarose network wasincreased. Based on results in the literature, possible mechanisms wereexamined for the effects of the AC field on DNA separation.

  6. Interior view of groundfloor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab system, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Diversity of Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum Strains, Determined by a Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nevas, Mari; Lindström, Miia; Hielm, Sebastian; Björkroth, K. Johanna; Peck, Michael W.; Korkeala, Hannu

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied to the study of the similarity of 55 strains of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum group I) types A, AB, B, and F. Rare-cutting restriction enzymes ApaI, AscI, MluI, NruI, PmeI, RsrII, SacII, SmaI, and XhoI were tested for their suitability for the cleavage of DNA of five proteolytic C. botulinum strains. Of these enzymes, SacII, followed by SmaI and XhoI, produced the most convenient number of fragments for genetic typing and were selected for analysis of the 55 strains. The proteolytic C. botulinum species was found to be heterogeneous. In the majority of cases, PFGE enabled discrimination between individual strains of proteolytic C. botulinum types A and B. The different toxin types were discriminated at an 86% similarity level with both SacII and SmaI and at an 83% similarity level with XhoI. Despite the high heterogeneity, three clusters at a 95% similarity level consisting of more than three strains of different origin were noted. The strains of types A and B showed higher diversity than the type F organisms which formed a single cluster. According to this survey, PFGE is to be considered a useful tool for molecular epidemiological analysis of proteolytic C. botulinum types A and B. However, epidemiological conclusions based on PFGE data only should be made with discretion, since highly similar PFGE patterns were noticed, especially within the type B strains. PMID:15746333

  8. Diversity of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum strains, determined by a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis approach.

    PubMed

    Nevas, Mari; Lindström, Miia; Hielm, Sebastian; Björkroth, K Johanna; Peck, Michael W; Korkeala, Hannu

    2005-03-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied to the study of the similarity of 55 strains of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum group I) types A, AB, B, and F. Rare-cutting restriction enzymes ApaI, AscI, MluI, NruI, PmeI, RsrII, SacII, SmaI, and XhoI were tested for their suitability for the cleavage of DNA of five proteolytic C. botulinum strains. Of these enzymes, SacII, followed by SmaI and XhoI, produced the most convenient number of fragments for genetic typing and were selected for analysis of the 55 strains. The proteolytic C. botulinum species was found to be heterogeneous. In the majority of cases, PFGE enabled discrimination between individual strains of proteolytic C. botulinum types A and B. The different toxin types were discriminated at an 86% similarity level with both SacII and SmaI and at an 83% similarity level with XhoI. Despite the high heterogeneity, three clusters at a 95% similarity level consisting of more than three strains of different origin were noted. The strains of types A and B showed higher diversity than the type F organisms which formed a single cluster. According to this survey, PFGE is to be considered a useful tool for molecular epidemiological analysis of proteolytic C. botulinum types A and B. However, epidemiological conclusions based on PFGE data only should be made with discretion, since highly similar PFGE patterns were noticed, especially within the type B strains.

  9. First clinical isolates of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) in Argentina: characterization and subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Asato, Valeria C; Vilches, Viviana E; Pineda, María G; Casanueva, Enrique; Cane, Alejandro; Moroni, Mirian P; Brengi, Silvina P; Pichel, Mariana G

    2013-01-01

    Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens associated with severe infections in neonates and immunocompromised infants. From January 2009 through September 2010, two cases of neonatal infections associated with Cronobacter malonaticus and one case associated with Cronobacter sakazakii, two of them fatal, were reported in the same hospital. These are the first clinical isolates of Cronobacter spp. in Argentina. The objective of this work was to characterize and subtype clinical isolates of Cronobacter spp. in neonate patients, as well as to establish the genetic relationship between these isolates and the foodborne isolates previously identified in the country. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed a genetic relationship between the C. malonaticus isolates from two patients. Different results were found when the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of clinical isolates were compared with those deposited in the National Database of Cronobacter spp.

  10. The use of biphasic linear ramped pulsed field gel electrophoresis to quantify DNA damage based on fragment size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, T.S.; Normolle, D.P.; Davis, M.A.; Maybaum, J.

    1993-10-20

    The development of biphasic linear pulse ramping gel electrophoresis has permitted resolution of DNA fragments from 200 Kbp to 6 Mbp in a single gel. We used this technique to measure radiation-induced DNA damage based on fragment size. Human colon cancer cells (HT29 and LS174T) and Chinese hamster ovary cells were embedded in agarose, deproteinized, irradiated with 5-80 Gy, and assessed for DNA double strand breakage using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The frequency of DNA double strand breakage determined using a previously published method was compared to the breakage frequency calculated using the fragment size distribution. Both methods produced similar estimates for breakage frequency of approximately 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} breaks Gy{sup {minus}1} bp{sup {minus}1}. These findings suggest that biphasic linear pulse ramping gel electrophoresis can yield a quantitative estimate of DNA fragment distribution resulting from irradiation. The ability to quantify the distribution of DNA fragment sizes produced by irradiation should yield information concerning the mechanisms of both DNA double strand break induction and repair. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Molecular Typing of Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolates from Thailand by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tapchaisri, Pramuan; Na-Ubol, Mathukorn; Tiyasuttipan, Watcharee; Chaiyaroj, Sansanee C.; Yamasaki, Shinji; Wongsaroj, Thitima; Hayashi, Hideo; Nair, G. Balakrish; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from cholera patients in various provinces of Thailand. Two hundred and forty V. cholerae O1 strains, isolated from patients with cholera during two outbreaks, i.e. March 1999–April 2000 and December 2001–February 2002, in Thailand, were genotypically characterized by NotI digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 17 PFGE banding patterns were found and grouped into four Dice-coefficient clusters (PF-I to PF-IV). The patterns of V. cholerae O1, El Tor reference strains from Australia, Peru, Romania, and the United States were different from the patterns of reference isolates from Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, India, and Thailand, indicating a close genetic relationship or clonal origin of the isolates in the same geographical region. The Asian reference strains, regardless of their biotypes and serogroups (classical O1, El Tor O1, O139, or O151), showed a genetic resemblance, but had different patterns from the strains collected during the two outbreaks in Thailand. Of 200 Ogawa strains collected during the first outbreak in Thailand, two patterns (clones)—PF-I and PF-II—predominated, while other isolates caused sporadic cases and were grouped together as pattern PF-III. PF-II also predominated during the second outbreak, but none of the 40 isolates (39 Inaba and 1 Ogawa) of the second outbreak had the pattern PF-I; a minority showed a new pattern—PF-IV, and others caused single cases, but were not groupable. In summary, this study documented the sustained appearance of the pathogenic V. cholerae O1 clone PF-II, the disappearance of clones PF-I and PF-III, and the emergence of new pathogenic clones during the two outbreaks of cholera. Data of the study on molecular characteristics of indigenous V. cholerae clinical isolates have public-health implications, not only for epidemic tracing of existing strains but also for the

  12. Determination of the Genetic Diversity of Different Bioluminescent Bacteria by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Omeroglu, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are 4 different genera (i.e. Vibrio, Aliivibrio, Photobacterium, and Shewanella) in the new classification of bioluminescent bacteria. The mechanism of bioluminescence has yet to be fully elucidated. Therefore, the determination of physiological and genetic characteristics of bioluminescent bacteria isolated from different sources is very important. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) has the highest discriminatory power among the different molecular typing methods for the investigation of the clonal relationships between bacteria. For the PFGE analysis of bioluminescent bacteria, the NotI-HF™ is the method of choice among the restriction enzymes. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine genetic relatedness via PFGE in 41 bioluminescent bacteria (belonging to 10 different species) isolated and identified from various marine sources. Materials and Methods: Different bioluminescent bacteria (i.e. Vibrio gigantis, V. azureus, V. harveyi, V. lentus, V. crassostreae, V. orientalis, Aliivibrio logei, A. fischeri, Shewanella woodyi, and Photobacterium kishitanii) were analyzed by PFGE using the NotI-HF™ restriction enzyme. The whole DNA of the strains embedded into the agarose plugs was digested with enzyme at 37°C for 30 minutes. CHEF-Mapper PFGE system was used for electrophoresis and band profile of the strains for the NotI-HF™ restriction enzyme were analyzed by Bio-Profil-1D++ software (Vilber Lourmat) at 10% homology coefficient. Results: Although all experiments were performed three times, four of forty-one bioluminescent strains (V. gigantis E-16, H-16 and S3W46 strains and A. fischeri E-4 strain) could not be typed by PFGE technique with NotI-HF™ enzyme. While only two strains (V. crassostreae H-12 and H-19 strains) were exhibiting same band pattern profiles (100% genome homology), thirty-six different PFGE band patterns were obtained. Pattern homologies changed between 66% - 92%, 73% - 83% and 49% - 100% for V. gigantis, V

  13. Comparison between pulsed-field and constant-field gel electrophoresis for measurement of DNA double-strand breaks in irradiated Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Wlodek, D; Banáth, J; Olive, P L

    1991-11-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is one of the most sensitive methods for detecting DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. However, it has been observed that constant-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE), when optimized, can detect breaks with equal efficiency. The migration of DNA from the well and the separation of DNA molecules according to size appear to be different processes; only the latter requires the application of PFGE. CFGE is very sensitive and can detect DNA damage produced by less than 5 Gy of radiation. Low voltage (ca. 0.6 V/cm) during electrophoresis appears to be essential for the migration of the largest fraction of DNA from the agarose plug containing the cells; the electrophoresis run time, cell density in the plug, agarose concentration, nature of detergent and extent of radiolabelling are less important. It is concluded that CFGE is equally sensitive but more rapid and economical than PFGE for the measurement of DNA damage.

  14. SUB-SLAB PROBE INSTALLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sub-slab sampling has become an integral part of vapor intrusion investigations. It is now recommended in guidance documents developed by EPA and most states. A method for sub-slab probe installation was devised in 2002, presented at conferences through 2005, and finally docume...

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, U; Thomson-Carter, F M; Pennington, T H

    1996-01-01

    One hundred twenty-four Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates were characterized by pulse-field gel electrophoresis, bacteriophage typing, and PCR of verotoxin genes. Diversity indices obtained--0.786 for phage types and 0.987 for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types--demonstrated that phage typing falls below the critical value (0.9) required for confident interpretation of results. PMID:8815116

  16. Tunneling field effect transistor integrated with black phosphorus-MoS2 junction and ion gel dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiao; Jia, Jingyuan; Lai, Shen; Ju, Jaehyuk; Lee, Sungjoo

    2017-01-01

    We report an interband tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) integrated with a Black Phosphorus (BP)-MoS2 junction and ion gel as a top gate dielectric. The operation of the BP-MOS2 TFET is based on the modulation of the energy band alignment of the BP-MoS2 junction with electrostatic gating control on the MoS2 channel from the top gate through the ion gel dielectric and the supply of tunneling carriers from the BP source, which is degenerately doped with ion gel. The obtained subthreshold swing of the BP-MoS2 TFET reached 65 mV/dec at room temperature and 51 mV/dec at 160 K, maintaining low SS values in more than 2 orders of drain current range. The demonstrated interband TFET based on the BP-MoS2 junction shows significant promise for further application to a new class of two-dimensional functional devices.

  17. Leaky unstable modes and electromagnetic radiation amplification by an anisotropic plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Vagin, K. Yu. Uryupin, S. A.

    2015-09-15

    The interaction between electromagnetic radiation and a photoionized plasma slab with an anisotropic electron velocity distribution is studied. It is shown that the fields of leaky modes are amplified due to the development of aperiodic instability in the slab, which leads to an increase in both the reflected and transmitted fields. The transmitted field can significantly increase only if the slab thickness does not exceed the ratio of the speed of light to the electron plasma frequency, whereas there is no upper bound on the slab thickness for the reflected signal to be amplified.

  18. DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate a nosocomial pneumonia caused by Legionella bozemanii serogroup 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lück, P C; Helbig, J H; Hagedorn, H J; Ehret, W

    1995-01-01

    We typed 18 isolates of Legionella bozemanii obtained from clinical and environmental sources by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Each of the unrelated strains showed individual restriction patterns of the genomic DNA when either the SfiI or NotI restriction enzyme was used. One strain isolated from a patient with nosocomial legionellosis and two strains from the corresponding hospital water supply were indistinguishable, arguing for a transmission of L. bozemanii from the water supply to the patient. In conclusion, macrorestriction analysis is a valuable tool for studies of the molecular epidemiology of L. bozemanii. PMID:7618888

  19. Transmission of Citrobacter koseri from mother to infant documented by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Papasian, C J; Kinney, J; Coffman, S; Hollis, R J; Pfaller, M A

    1996-10-01

    We describe a case in which Citrobacter koseri (formerly C. diversus) was transmitted from a pregnant mother with chorioamnionitis and bacteremia to her infant who was bacteremic at birth and in apparent septic shock. Two highly discriminating molecular methods, ribotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis, were used to examine restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the genomic DNA of maternal and infant isolates. Both techniques identified the maternal and infant isolates as the same strain, distinct from epidemiologically unrelated controls, thus confirming their common origin.

  20. The association of serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotype in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bar-Meir, M; Naaman, G; Assous, M; Korenman, Z; Valinsky, L; Picard, E

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing invasive infections in children admitted to a single center in central Israel was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and serotyping. Although there was a close correlation between serotype and PFGE clone, the genetic diversity varied by serotype, with some genotypes comprising multiple serotypes. Additionally, clones C and D were associated with higher penicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Serotyping alone may be insufficient for epidemiological mapping of pneumococcal isolates in the era of pneumococcal conjugate polysaccharide vaccines.

  1. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli.

  2. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.; Thorsness, C.; Suratwala, T.; Steele, R.; Rogowski, G.

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  3. General eigenstates of Maxwell's equations in a two-constituent composite medium and their application to a calculation of the local electric field in a flat-slab microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, Asaf; Bergman, David J.

    2016-09-01

    An exact calculation of the local electric field E(r) is described for the case of an external current or plane wave source in a setup of an E1, μ1 slab in an E2, μ2 medium. For this purpose we first calculate all the general eigenstates of the full Maxwell equations. These eigenstates are then used to develop an exact expansion for the physical values of E(r) in the system characterized by physical values of E1, E2, μ1, and μ2. Results are compared with those of a previous calculation of the local field where μ = 1 everywhere. Numerical results are shown for the eigenvalues in practically important configurations where attaining an optical image with sub-wavelength resolution has practical significance. We show that the k >> k2 components are enhanced for the TM field when E1/E2 = -1 and for the TE field when μ1/μ2 = -1 where the enhancement of the evanescent waves starts from lower k values as we approach a setup with both E1/E2 = -1 and μ1/μ2 = -1. We also show that the eigenfunctions for the setup where μ = 1 everywhere correspond to configurations of 3D phased arrays.

  4. Optimization of reinforced concrete slabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferritto, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Reinforced concrete cells composed of concrete slabs and used to limit the effects of accidental explosions during hazardous explosives operations are analyzed. An automated design procedure which considers the dynamic nonlinear behavior of the reinforced concrete of arbitrary geometrical and structural configuration subjected to dynamic pressure loading is discussed. The optimum design of the slab is examined using an interior penalty function. The optimization procedure is presented and the results are discussed and compared with finite element analysis.

  5. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli by antimicrobial resistance profiles, plasmid replicon typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Rebecca L; Frye, Jonathan G; Thitaram, Sutawee N; Meinersmann, Richard J; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Englen, Mark D

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli in relation to plasmid replicon types, animal sources, and genotypes. E. coli isolates (n = 35) from seven different animal sources were selected and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relationships among the E. coli isolates. Plasmid types based on their incompatibility (Inc) replicon types were determined, and linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed for antimicrobial resistance profiles, replicon types, and animal source. A high degree of genotypic diversity was observed: 34 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types among the 35 isolates examined. Twelve different plasmid Inc types were detected, and all isolates carried at least one replicon type. IncF (n = 25; 71.4%) and IncFIB (n = 19; 54.3%) were the most common replicon types identified. Chloramphenicol resistance was significantly linked with four Inc types (A/C, FIIA, F, and Y), and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was linked with three Inc types (B/O, P and Y). Resistance to any other antimicrobial was linked to two or fewer replicon types. The isolate source was linked with resistance to seven antimicrobials and IncI1. We conclude that commensal E. coli from animal sources are highly variable genotypically and are reservoirs of a diverse array of plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance.

  6. Efficient Vortex Generation in Subwavelength Epsilon-Near-Zero Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Marini, Andrea; Rizza, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order 2 in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the transverse magnetic and transverse electric asymmetric response of the rotationally invariant system. In addition, in the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in subwavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime. This physically stems from the fact that a vacuum paraxial field can excite a nonparaxial field inside an epsilon-near-zero slab since it hosts slowly varying fields over physically large portions of the bulk. Our theoretical predictions indicate that epsilon-near-zero media hold great potential as nanophotonic elements for manipulating the angular momentum of the radiation, since they are available without resorting to complicated micro- or nanofabrication processes and can operate even at very small (ultraviolet) wavelengths.

  7. The history and principles of chemical dosimetry for 3-D radiation fields: gels, polymers and plastics.

    PubMed

    Doran, Simon J

    2009-03-01

    Over recent decades, modern protocols of external beam radiotherapy have been developed that involve very steep dose gradients and are thus extremely sensitive to errors in treatment delivery. A recent credentialling study by the Radiological Physics Center at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Texas, USA) has noted potentially significant inaccuracies in test treatments at a variety of institutions. 3-D radiation dosimetry (often referred to as "gel dosimetry") may have an important role in commissioning new treatment protocols, to help prevent this type of error. This article discusses the various techniques of 3-D radiation dosimetry, with a focus on the types of radiosensitive samples used and on the optical computed tomography readout technique.

  8. Interaction of electromagnetic fields with chondrocytes in gel culture. Final report, 15 Jan 92-14 Jan 94

    SciTech Connect

    Grodzinsky, A.J.; Buschmann, M.D.; Gluzband, Y.A.

    1992-01-14

    The specific objectives of this research period were: (1) to quantify the effect of applied electric fields on chondrocyte metabolism, using a range of stimulation frequencies and amplitudes; (2) to compare the chondrocyte biosynthetic response to applied fields at early times in agarose gel culture before an extracellular matrix has accumulated and at later times after significant deposition of matrix around and between the cells; and (3) to begin to interpret the biosynthetic response to applied fields in terms of models of physical mechanisms. The results of these studies suggest that electric fields applied to chondrocytes in agarose can modulate the synthesis of proteoglycans and protein constituents. Biosynthesis may be inhibited or stimulated depending on the amplitude of the applied current density. In addition, the presence of extracellular matrix may enhance the ability of normal chondrocytes and cells in intact cartilage to respond to electric fields, although the presence of matrix was not required for the stimulatory response to be observed with Swarm rat chondrosarcoma cells.

  9. Structural analysis of mitochondrial DNA molecules from fungi and plants using moving pictures and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bendich, A J

    1996-02-02

    The size and structure of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules was investigated by conventional and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by analyzing moving pictures during electrophoresis of individual fluorescently labelled mtDNA molecules. Little or no mtDNA that migrated into the gel was found in circular form for fungi (Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa) or plants (Brassica hirta, tobacco, voodoo lily and maize). Most mtDNA migrated as a smear of linear DNA sizes from about 50 to 100 or 250 kilobases (kb), depending on the species, irrespective of the size of the mitochondrial genome over a range of 0.06 to 570 kb. S. cerevisiae, B. hirta and tobacco also yielded a linear mtDNA fraction containing molecules > 1000 kb in size. About half the mtDNA remained in the well of the gel after PFGE. Moving pictures revealed that this well-bound (wb) mtDNA contained molecules larger than the genome size in linear form for all species (except N. crassa) and in multi-fibered, comet-like forms for most of the wb mtDNA of N. crassa and Sc. pombe. A minor amount of the wb mtDNA with visually interpretable structure was circular: circle sizes were both larger and smaller than the 80-kb genome of S. cerevisiae, larger than the 19-kb genome of Sc. pombe and smaller than the 208-kb and 570-kb genomes of B. hirta and maize, respectively. About 25 to 75% of the wb mtDNA from cultured tobacco cells was found in circles smaller than its genome size. Partial digestion of Sc. pombe mtDNA with restriction endonucleases that cleave once per genome revealed gel bands at about 38 kb and 19 kb with a smear of sizes between the bands and below the 19-kb band, suggesting a head-to-tail genomic concatemer as the most prominent form in extracted mtDNA. A pattern of bands with smears was also found for complete digests (with multiply cleaving enzymes) of mtDNA from Sc. pombe, S. cerevisiae and N. crassa, but bands without smears were found for

  10. Modeling radon entry into Florida slab-on-grade houses.

    PubMed

    Revzan, K L; Fisk, W J; Sextro, R G

    1993-10-01

    Radon entry into a Florida house whose concrete slab is supported by a permeable concrete-block stem wall and a concrete footer is modeled. The slab rests on backfill material; the same material is used to fill the footer trench. A region of undisturbed soil is assumed to extend 10 m beyond and below the footer. The soil is assumed homogeneous and isotropic except for certain simulations in which soil layers of high permeability or radium content are introduced. Depressurization of the house induces a pressure field in the soil and backfill. The Laplace equation, resulting from Darcy's law and the continuity equation, is solved using a steady-state finite-difference model to determine this field. The mass-transport equation is then solved to obtain the diffusive and advective radon entry rates through the slab; the permeable stem wall; gaps at the intersections of the slab, stem wall, and footer; and gaps in the slab. These rates are determined for variable soil, backfill, and stem-wall permeability and radium content, slab-opening width and position, slab and stem-wall diffusivity, and water table depth. The variations in soil permeability and radium content include cases of horizontally stratified soil. We also consider the effect of a gap between the edge of the slab and the stem wall that restricts the passage of soil gas from the stem wall into the house. Calculations indicate that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. Variations in most of the factors, other than the soil permeability and radium content, have only a small effect on the total radon entry rate. However, for a fixed soil permeability, the total radon entry rate may be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by decreasing the backfill permeability, by making the stem wall impermeable and gap-free, (possibly by constructing a one-piece slab/stem-wall/footer), or by increasing the pressure in the interior of the stem wall (by

  11. Time-based distribution of Staphylococcus saprophyticus pulsed field gel-electrophoresis clusters in community-acquired urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Viviane Santos de; Rabello, Renata Fernandes; Dias, Rubens Clayton da Silva; Martins, Ianick Souto; Santos, Luisa Barbosa Gomes da Silva dos; Alves, Elisabeth Mendes; Riley, Lee Woodford; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2013-02-01

    The epidemiology of urinary tract infections (UTI) by Staphylococcus saprophyticus has not been fully characterised and strain typing methods have not been validated for this agent. To evaluate whether epidemiological relationships exist between clusters of pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes of S. saprophyticus from community-acquired UTI, a cross-sectional surveillance study was conducted in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 32 (16%) female patients attending two walk-in clinics were culture-positive for S. saprophyticus. Five PFGE clusters were defined and evaluated against epidemiological data. The PFGE clusters were grouped in time, suggesting the existence of community point sources of S. saprophyticus. From these point sources, S. saprophyticus strains may spread among individuals.

  12. Diagnosis of an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gornatti Churria, Carlos D; Vigo, Germán B; Origlia, Javier; Campos, Josefina; Caffer, María; Píscopo, Miguel; Herrero Loyola, Miguel; Petruccelli, Miguel; Pichel, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Adult chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) that had suddenly died in a commercial farm located in La Plata City, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in July 2012 were macroscopically, histopathologically, and microbiologically examined. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) was isolated from the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and intestines from each of the five animals evaluated. The five strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalotin, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and resistant to tetracycline. Each of the five S. Typhimurium isolates was analyzed by XbaI- pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), showing an identical electrophoretic profile with 15 defined bands, which was found to be identical to pattern ARJPXX01.0220 of the PulseNet Argentine National database of Salmonella PFGE patterns. This is the first work describing the postmortem diagnosis of an outbreak of salmonellosis in chinchillas by using molecular methods such as PFGE.

  13. Development of a multispecies identification field test by modified agar-gel immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Cutufelli, M E; Mageau, R P; Schwab, B; Johnston, R W

    1993-01-01

    A multispecies identification field test (MULTI-SIFT) was developed for detection of beef, poultry, pork, sheep, horse, and deer in a wide variety of raw meat products. The test is an adaptation of previously developed field screening immunodiffusion tests for detection of single species. MULTI-SIFT was demonstrated to be specific, relatively sensitive, and accurate in the complete speciation of 100 meat samples.

  14. Analysis of Genomic Diversity among Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Iranian Children by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Falsafi, Tahereh; Sotoudeh, Nazli; Feizabadi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Mahjoub, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Presence of genomic diversity among Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains have been suggested by numerous investigators. Little is known about diversity of H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian children and their association with virulence of the strains. Our purpose was to assess the degree of genomic diversity among H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian-children, on the basis of vacA genotype, cagA status of the strains, sex, age as well as the pathological status of the patients. Methods: Genomic DNA from 44 unrelated H. pylori strains isolated during 1997–2009, was examined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Pathological status of the patients was performed according to the modified Sydney-system and genotype/status of vacA/cagA genes was determined by PCR. PFGE was performed using XbaI restriction-endonuclease and the field inversion-gel electrophoresis system. Findings: No significant relationship was observed between the patterns of PFGE and the cagA/vacA status/genotype. Also no relationship was observed between age, sex, and pathological status of the children and the PFGE patterns of their isolates. Similar conclusion was obtained by Total Lab software. However, more relationship was observed between the strains isolated in the close period (1997–2009, 2001–2003, 2005–2007, and 2007–2009) and more difference was observed among those obtained in the distant periods (1997 and 2009). Conclusion: H. pylori strains isolated from children in Iran are extremely diverse and this diversity is not related to their virulence characteristics. Occurrence of this extreme diversity may be related to adaptation of H. pylori strains to variable living conditions during transmission between various host individuals. PMID:26019775

  15. Photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, Peter Schwarz, Benedikt; Harrer, Andreas; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Maxwell Andrews, Aaron; Gansch, Roman; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2013-12-09

    In this Letter, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of a photonic crystal slab quantum cascade detector (PCS-QCD). By employing a specifically designed resonant cavity, the performance of the photodetector is improved in three distinct ways. The PCS makes the QCD sensitive to surface normal incident light. It resonantly enhances the photon lifetime inside the active zone, thus increasing the photocurrent significantly. And, the construction form of the device inherently decreases the noise. Finally, we compare the characteristics of the PCS-QCD to a PCS - quantum well infrared photodetector and outline the advantages for certain fields of applications.

  16. Higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Gansch, Roman; Kalchmair, Stefan; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron M; Klang, Pavel; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2011-08-15

    We present a detailed investigation of higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs. In such structures the resonances exhibit a blue-shift compared to an ideal two-dimensional photonic crystal, which depends on the order of the slab mode and the polarization. By fabricating a series of photonic crystal slab photo detecting devices, with varying ratios of slab thickness to photonic crystal lattice constant, we are able to distinguish between 0th and 1st order slab modes as well as the polarization from the shift of resonances in the photocurrent spectra. This method complements the photonic band structure mapping technique for characterization of photonic crystal slabs.

  17. The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of Mycoplasma bovis in French calf feedlots.

    PubMed

    Arcangioli, Marie-Anne; Aslan, Hamidé; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Le Grand, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major cause of respiratory outbreaks in cattle feedlots. In this study pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to trace field strains and provide information on M. bovis patterns of spread in calf feedlots. The suitability of KpnI, MluI and SmaI restriction enzymes was assessed on different sets of strains. The discriminative power of the first two enzymes was first assessed using 28 epidemiologically unrelated strains; stability was 100% on multiple isolates from in vivo experimental infection. Thirty-nine field isolates from six feedlots were then evaluated. In contrast to the unique fingerprints displayed by the unrelated strains, the isolates from the feedlots showed identical patterns at the time of the outbreak of respiratory disease and 4 weeks later. The PFGE typing results suggest that M. bovis strains follow a clonal epidemic spread pattern at the herd level and that the same strain persists in calves of the herd after the clinical signs have disappeared.

  18. The Dynamics of Double Slab Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, A. F.; Royden, L. H.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    We use numerical models to investigate the dynamics of two interacting slabs with parallel trenches. Cases considered are: a single slab reference, outward dipping slabs (out-dip), inward dipping slabs (in-dip), and slabs dipping in the same direction (same-dip). Where trenches converge over time (same-dip and out-dip systems), large positive dynamic pressures in the asthenosphere are generated beneath the middle plate, and large trench-normal extensional forces are transmitted through the middle plate. This results in slabs that dip away from the middle plate at depth, independent of trench geometry. The single slab, the front slab in the same-dip case, and both out-dip slabs undergo trench retreat and exhibit stable subduction. However, slabs within the other double subduction systems tend to completely overturn at the base of the upper mantle, and exhibit either trench advance (rear slab in same-dip), or near-stationary trenches (in-dip). For all slabs, the net slab-normal dynamic pressure at 330 km depth is nearly equal to the slab normal force induced by slab buoyancy. For double subduction, the net outward force on the slabs due to dynamic pressure from the asthenosphere is effectively counterbalanced by the net extensional force transmitted through the middle plate. Thus, dynamic pressure at depth, inter-plate coupling, and lithospheric stresses are closely linked and their effects cannot be isolated. Our results provide insights into both the temporal evolution of double slab systems on Earth and, more generally, how the various components of subduction systems, from mantle flow/pressure to inter-plate coupling, are dynamically linked.

  19. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  20. Molecular typing of Japanese field isolates and live commercial vaccine strain of Mycoplasma synoviae using improved pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and vlhA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Kijima-Tanaka, Mayumi; Uchiyama, Mariko; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Oishi, Koji; Arao, Megumi; Takahashi, Toshio

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and vlhA gene sequence analysis were applied and verified for typing the Mycoplasma synoviae live vaccine MS-H strain and field isolates from diseased chickens in Japan. The previously published PFGE protocol using SmaI digestion could not allow the discrimination of two of the 11 M. synoviae field isolates from the vaccine strain and had relatively low discrimination power (D = 0.885). On the other hand, our new PFGE protocols using BlnI and BamHI digestions as well as the vlhA sequence analysis allowed the discrimination of all 11 M. synoviae field isolates from the vaccine strain. In addition, these PFGE protocols using BlnI and BamHI digestions generated unique fragment patterns in epidemiologically unrelated isolates, including those with identical SmaI-digested patterns or vlhA gene sequences (D = 0.987 and 1.000, respectively), and generated indistinguishable or closely related patterns in epidemiologically related isolates. Therefore, we believe that they would be useful tools to determine whether M. synoviae clinical isolates from diseased chickens are derived from the vaccine strain or wild-type strain and to further elucidate the epidemiology of M. synoviae infection.

  1. Genotypes, antibiogram, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of Escherichia coli strains from piglets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su In; Rayamahji, Nabin; Lee, Won Jung; Cha, Seung Bin; Shin, Min Kyung; Roh, Yu Mi; Yoo, Han Sang

    2009-07-01

    Adherence factors and enterotoxins are major virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Antibiotics have been used frequently for the treatment and prevention of ETEC infection in piggeries worldwide, including Korea. Therefore, data on both virulence profiles and antibiotic resistance patterns are useful in the epidemiological study of ETEC. A total number of 198 E. coli field isolates were examined. The most prevalent pathotype was F1, followed by a combination of F1 and EAST1. All of the 71 isolates were resistant to more than 2 antibiotics used in a disk diffusion test, and 87.94% of the isolates were found to be resistant to more than 4 antibiotics. Investigations were also conducted to correlate the virulence gene profiles with antibiogram and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Although a high degree of polymorphism was noted among strains having the same virulence patterns, the highest similarity pattern was observed carrying the same virulence profiles and similar antibiogram. Thus, investigation of both virulence profiles and antibiogram is essential to the epidemiological study of ETEC. Moreover, the PFGE method might be applicable as a tool to reveal genetic relatedness among E. coli strains from piggeries in Korea.

  2. Modeling radon entry into Florida slab-on-grade houses

    SciTech Connect

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Sextro, R.G. )

    1993-10-01

    Radon entry into a Florida house whose concrete slab is supported by a permeable concrete-block stem wall and a concrete footer is modeled. The slab rests on backfill material; the same material is used to fill the footer trench. A region of undisturbed soil is assumed to extend 10 m beyond and below the footer. The soil is assumed homogeneous and isotropic except for certain simulations in which soil layers of high permeability or radium content are introduced. Depressurization of the house induces a pressure field in the soil and backfill. The Laplace equation, resulting from Darcy's law and the continuity equation, is solved using a steady-state finite-difference model to determine this field. The mass-transport equation is then solved to obtain the diffusive and advective radon entry rates through the slab; the permeable stem wall; gaps at the intersections of the slab, stem wall, and footer; and gaps in the slab. These rates are determined for variable soil, backfill, and stem-wall permeability and radium content, slab-opening width and position, slab and stem-wall diffusivity, and water table depth. The variations in soil permeability and radium content include cases of horizontally stratified soil. We also consider the effect of a gap between the edge of the slab and the stem wall that restricts the passage of soil gas from the stem wall into the house. Calculations indicate that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. Variations in most of the factors, other than the soil permeability and radium content, have only a small effect on the total radon entry rate. However, for a fixed soil permeability, the total radon entry rate may be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by decreasing the backfill permeability, by making the stem wall impermeable and gap-free, (possibly by constructing a one-piece slab/stem-wall/footer), or by increasing the pressure in the interior of the stem wall.

  3. The dynamics of double slab subduction from numerical and semi-analytic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, A.; Royden, L.; Becker, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Regional interactions between multiple subducting slabs have been proposed to explain enigmatic slab kinematics in a number of subduction zones, a pertinent example being the rapid pre-collisional plate convergence of India and Eurasia. However, dynamically consistent 3-D numerical models of double subduction have yet to be explored, and so the physics of such double slab systems remain poorly understood. Here we build on the comparison of a fully numerical finite element model (CitcomCU) and a time-dependent semi-analytic subduction models (FAST) presented for single subduction systems (Royden et. al., 2015 AGU Fall Abstract) to explore how subducting slab kinematics, particularly trench and plate motions, can be affected by the presence of an additional slab, with all of the possible slab dip direction permutations. A second subducting slab gives rise to a more complex dynamic pressure and mantle flow fields, and an additional slab pull force that is transmitted across the subduction zone interface. While the general relationships among plate velocity, trench velocity, asthenospheric pressure drop, and plate coupling modes are similar to those observed for the single slab case, we find that multiple subducting slabs can interact with each other and indeed induce slab kinematics that deviate significantly from those observed for the equivalent single slab models. References Jagoutz, O., Royden, L. H., Holt, A. F. & Becker, T. W., 2015, Nature Geo., 8, 10.1038/NGEO2418. Moresi, L. N. & Gurnis, M., 1996, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 138, 15-28. Royden, L. H. & Husson, L., 2006, Geophys. J. Int. 167, 881-905. Zhong, S., 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi: 10.1029/2005JB003972.

  4. A comparison of non-typhoidal Salmonella from humans and food animals using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoida...

  5. A comparison of BOX-PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine genetic relatedness of enterococci from different environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The genetic relatedness of enterococci from poultry litter to enterococci from nearby surface water and groundwater in the Lower Fraser Valley regions of British Columbia, Canada was determined. Methods and Results: BOX-PCR and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to subtype en...

  6. Calculation and comparison of thermal effect in laser diode pumped slab lasers with different pumping structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Yuefeng; Dong, Wei; Niu, Yanxiong

    2008-03-01

    Laser diode (LD) pumped slab laser, as an important high average power solid-state laser, is a promising laser source in military and industrial fields. The different laser diode pumping structures lead to different thermal effect in the slab gain medium. The thermal and stress analysis of slab laser with different pumping structure are performed by finite element analysis (FEA) with the software program ANSYS. The calculation results show that the face pumped and cooled laser results in a near one-dimension temperature distribution and eliminates thermal stress induced depolarization. But the structure is low pump efficiency due to the small thickness of slabs and the requirement to cool and pump through the same faces. End-pumped slab laser is high pump efficiency and excellent mode match, but its pumping arrangement is fairly complicated. The edge-pumped face-cooling slab laser's pump efficiency is better than face-pumping, and its pumping structure is simpler than end-pumped laser, but the tensile stress on surfaces may initiate failure of the gain medium so it is important to design so that the stress is well below the stress fracture limit. The comparison of the thermal effects with different pumping structure shows that, the edge-pumped slab laser has engineering advantages in high power slab laser's application. Furthermore, the end-pumped slab laser tends to get the best beam quality, so it is fit for the application which has a special requirement on laser beam quality.

  7. Acupuncture injection for field amplified sample stacking and glass microchip-based capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Won; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Acupuncture sample injection is a simple method to deliver well-defined nanoliter-scale sample plugs in PDMS microfluidic channels. This acupuncture injection method in microchip CE has several advantages, including minimization of sample consumption, the capability of serial injections of different sample solutions into the same microchannel, and the capability of injecting sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. Herein, we demonstrate that the simple and cost-effective acupuncture sample injection method can be used for PDMS microchip-based field amplified sample stacking in the most simplified straight channel by applying a single potential. We achieved the increase in electropherogram signals for the case of sample stacking. Furthermore, we present that microchip CGE of ΦX174 DNA-HaeⅢ digest can be performed with the acupuncture injection method on a glass microchip while minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware.

  8. BANANA GEL.

    PubMed

    McGuire, G; Falk, K G

    1922-03-20

    The conditions for the formation of gels from banana extracts were studied. Gels were obtained with extracts more alkaline than pH 7.0 with very small quantities of calcium, strontium, and barium salts, the gel formation with these salts decreasing in the indicated order. In solutions more acid than pH 6.0, no gels were obtained with these salts. Magnesium, lithium, and sodium salts did not cause gel formation either in acid or alkaline solutions. Pancreatine gave a gel on incubation with banana extract at pH 5.0. The gel-forming property of banana extracts was destroyed on boiling.

  9. A charge-coupled-device camera image analysis system for quantifying DNA distributions in agarose gels after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, W.C.; Thompson, L.L.; Trinh, M.L.; Latz, D.L. |; Ward, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    A charge-coupled-device camera system was coupled to a personal computer and, with uniformity in illumination and detection (within 4-8%) along each lane, was used for quantifying the distribution of DNA molecules that migrate from the PFGE well (plug) into the lane at distances varying from 1 to 50 mm (with 0.5 mm/pixel). By using a specially designed transmission filter for transmitting 470-725 nm fluorescence from ethidium bromide-stained DNA while eliminating most of the fluorescence (<400 nm) from the agarose gel, and by using neutral density filters to prevent saturation of the camera, the fluorescence intensity is linearly related to the amount of DNA varying from {approximately} 0.03 {mu}g in a 3-mm-diameter cylindrical plug 5 mm long (equal to background) to {approximately} 4 {mu}g (where ethidium bromide staining saturates). The percentage DNA released from the plug and distribution in the lane (with 1-2 mm resolution) obtained by quantifying DNA fluorescence were not significantly different from the same data obtained by analysis of radioactivity of the same DNA labeled with [{sup 3}H]dThd. However, scattering of fluorescence from one lane into an adjacent lane 3 mm away and as far as 10 mm from the plug into the lane presented a problem. This problem was overcome by using a form with slots to cover every other lane when the images were obtained and either (1) cutting the lane from the plug and moving it 15 mm away or (2) imaging the intact gel and applying a correction for {approximately} 7% of the fluorescence from the plug tailing out {approximately} 10 mm beyond the first 1 mm in the lane. In addition, the following were required: (1) carefully controlled staining and destaining procedures, and (2) a low background that is obtained as an average uniform background in each lane 5 mm beyond where DNA migration stops. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Genotyping of Taylorella equigenitalis Isolates Collected in the United States from 1978 to 2010▿

    PubMed Central

    Aalsburg, Alan M.; Erdman, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the etiologic agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a venereal disease of horses. A total of 82 strains of T. equigenitalis isolated in the United States were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzyme ApaI. Twenty-eight of those strains isolated from horses in the 2009 U.S. outbreak (CEM09) were further analyzed with NotI and NaeI enzymes. When ApaI alone was used for analysis, the 82 isolates clustered into 15 different genotypes that clearly defined groups of horses with known epidemiological connections. The PFGE profiles of the CEM09 isolates were indistinguishable after digestion with ApaI, NotI, and NaeI and did not match those of isolates from previous U.S. outbreaks in 1978 and 2006 or of any other isolate from the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) culture library. Coupled with the fact that the CEM09 isolates are epidemiologically related, these results suggest a common source for the outbreak not linked to previous occurrences of CEM in the United States. PMID:21191049

  11. Temporal and spatial distribution of Cronobacter isolates in a milk powder processing plant determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hein, Ingeborg; Gadzov, Boris; Schoder, Dagmar; Foissy, Helmut; Malorny, Burkhard; Wagner, Martin

    2009-03-01

    A milk powder processing line was sampled for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and the opportunistic neonatal pathogen Cronobacter at six different sampling sites during an 11-month period. The highest number of Enterobacteriaceae-positive samples was recovered from the raw milk concentrate before pasteurization (78.2%) and from nonproduct samples of the processing line (86.5%), which included swabs from the drying tower and screw conveyers, swabs from the explosion chamber, waste water after the automated cleaning-in-place procedure, air filter cut-outs, and floor samples underneath the outlet of the packaging machine. The prepackaged and packaged final product was contaminated at a rate of 6.6% and 7.1%, respectively. The prevalence of Cronobacter in the prefinal product and the prepackaged and packaged final product was 14.3%, 3.8%, and 2.1%, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 133 Cronobacter isolates yielded 40 different PFGE profiles. Long-term persistence in the processing line of some of these PFGE profiles was observed. Comparison of the PFGE profiles recovered at different sampling sites revealed the supply air as a potential source for extrinsic Cronobacter contamination. In addition, recovery of the same PFGE profiles before and after CIP events followed by heat treatment indicated the inefficiency of these hygiene measures to completely eliminate Cronobacter from all areas of the processing line. This information provides an essential basis for developing control and prevention strategies concerning this opportunistic pathogen.

  12. Evaluation of the discriminatory power of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR fingerprinting for epidemiologic typing of Candida species.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Pfaller, Michael A.; Hollis, Richard J.; Melchers, Willem J.G.; Meis, Jacques F.G.M.

    1998-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the discriminatory power of genotyping methods (PCR fingerprinting and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) validated for Candida albicans in other Candida species. METHODS: Molecular typing methods are increasingly being applied for studies where the interpretation of data essentially relies on the typing results rather than epidemiologic data. In this situation, the discriminatory power (ability to identify differences among epidemiologically unrelated strains) of the typing method is important in allowing one to draw valid conclusions. By applying PCR fingerprinting, electrophoretic karyotyping, and restriction fragment endonuclease analysis using standard restriction enzymes and primers proven to be useful in previous studies, we evaluated whether the use of multiple genotyping methods is sufficient to delineate known unrelated strains among seven Candida species. RESULTS: All three methods identified individual genotypes for each of the seven Candida species studied. However, optimal strain delineation required the combined use of all three typing methods and was observed only within the small number of C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates tested in this study. CONCLUSION: Typing assays that are able to delineate a certain Candida species may not be used blindly for other species of that genus. Regarding the limited number of strains tested, further validation of the discriminative power of genotyping methods (including in C. tropicalis) should be done.

  13. Differences between two clinical Staphylococcus capitis subspecies as revealed by biofilm, antibiotic resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Daley, Andrew J; Deighton, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci have been identified as major causes of late-onset neonatal bacteremia in neonatal intensive care units. Sixty isolates of Staphylococcus capitis obtained from blood cultures of neonates between 2000 and 2005 were examined in this study. Biochemical analysis confirmed that 52 of these isolates belonged to the subsp. urealyticus, and the remaining 8 belonged to the subsp. capitis. Isolates of the predominant subsp. urealyticus clones were characterized by their resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and oxacillin and their biofilm formation ability, whereas subsp. capitis isolates were generally antibiotic susceptible and biofilm negative. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SacII digestion separated the 60 isolates into five major clusters. Sequence analysis showed that, in S. capitis, the ica operon plus the negative regulator icaR was 4,160 bp in length. PCRs demonstrated the presence of the ica operon in all isolates. Further analysis of five isolates (two biofilm-positive subsp. urealyticus, one biofilm-negative subsp. urealyticus, and two biofilm-negative subsp. capitis) revealed that the ica operons were identical in all of the biofilm-positive subsp. urealyticus strains; however, the biofilm-negative isolates showed variations. The distinctive phenotypic and genotypic characteristics revealed by this study may affect the epidemiology of the two subspecies of S. capitis in the clinical setting. These results may provide a better understanding of the contribution of these two species to bloodstream infections in neonates.

  14. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid profiles of Escherichia coli strains isolated from foods.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ahmet; Durak, Yusuf

    2012-11-01

    Bacterial contamination in foods and antimicrobial resistance levels of common pathogenic strains causing food-borne disease are important in human health. Thus, typing technologies are important tools to determine primary sources of bacterial contamination. In this study, 40 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 85 food samples were evaluated in terms of genetic diversity, susceptibility to certain antibiotics, and plasmid profiles. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to identify the genetic relations of E. coli isolates. It was determined that the 40 E. coli strains revealed 32 different pulsotypes represented by 6 subtypes. Antibiotic susceptibility tests conducted by using a disc diffusion method against 15 antibiotics showed that although the isolates revealed 14 different types of resistance profiles, the strains showed the greatest resistance to ampicillin (77.5%), followed by ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (30%), tetracycline (22.5%), and cephalothin (14.5%). Plasmid isolations studies of the strains conducted by the method of alkaline lysis revealed that 18 (45%) of 40 E. coli strains contain 31 different plasmid bands ranging between 64.4 and 1 kb. The results showed that PFGE was a powerful method in tracking sources of food contamination and that the antibiotic resistance levels of food isolates were high and should be monitored.

  15. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) map of twelve loci on chromosome 11q11-q13

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, E.M.; Bale, A.E. ); Arnold, A. ); Marx, S.J. )

    1993-02-01

    We report a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis map of 12 loci on proximal human chromosome 11q. Linkage studies have shown that this region of chromosome 11 contains the genes for familial atopic disease (APY) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) (4). A physical map containing polymorphic loci will aid in the isolation of these disease genes. The map reported here has two noncontiguous groups of loci accounting for 8 of the 12 loci evaluated. One group spans a maximum distance of 1600 kb and included D11S146, BCL1, PRAD1, INT2, and HSTF1. The other group includes FTY1, C1NH, and COX8. TCN1, PGA, and PYGM did not yield any comigrating fragments and could not be physically linked on this PFGE map. These data enhance previously published physical maps of proximal 11q by refining the localization of and distances between markers in the BCL1 region. Additionally, new information about the locations and physical relationships between FTH1, C1NH, and COX 8 is presented. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Incidence and molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremias in patients with acute leukemia: analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fanci, R; Paci, C; Anichini, P; Pecile, P; Marra, G; Casini, C; Nicoletti, P

    2003-10-01

    The incidence and molecular epidemiology of P. aeruginosa bacteremias, were monitored in patients with acute leukemia to define mechanisms of possible nosocomial transmission. From September 1997 to March 2001 febrile episodes were examined and blood isolates of P. aeruginosa were studied employing Pulsed-Field gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Evaluation of DNA correlation was performed according to Tenover criteria. A total of 309 febrile episodes occurred in 187 patients. Of 139 organisms isolated in 116 bacteremias, 48% were gram negative bacilli (GNB); P. aeruginosa bacteremias were recorded in 34 (51%) of GNB sepsis. Evaluation of DNA correlation showed 2 related in 1997, 7 related in 1998, 10 related in 1999, 6 related in 2000-2001 (mainly closely and possibly related); therefore isolates closely related among themselves were also possibly related with other strains. About 60% of patients with related strains were hospitalized in the same room or in different rooms but became infected in the same period. Our data suggest a horizontal spread among the patients even if other sources were possible. The study assessed the usefulness of PFGE in bacteriological epidemiology.

  17. Frequencies of virulence genes and pulse field gel electrophoresis fingerprints in Escherichia coli isolates from canine pyometra.

    PubMed

    Maluta, Renato P; Borges, Clarissa A; Beraldo, Lívia G; Cardozo, Marita V; Voorwald, Fabiana A; Santana, André M; Rigobelo, Everlon C; Toniollo, Gilson H; Avila, Fernando A

    2014-11-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial agent isolated from canine pyometra. The frequencies of 24 virulence genes and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles were determined for 23 E. coli isolates from cases of canine pyometra in Brazil. The frequencies of virulence genes were 91.3% fimH, 91.3% irp-2, 82.6% fyuA, 56.5% iroN, 47.8% traT, 39.1% usp, 34.8% sfaD/E, 34.8% tsh, 30.4% papC, 30.4% hlyA, 26.1% papGIII, 26.1% cnf-1, 21.7% papE/F, 21.7% iss, 17.4% iutA, 17.4% ompT, 17.4% cvaC, 17.4% hlyF, 17.4% iucD, 13.0% iucC, 13.0% astA, 4.3% papGII, 0% afaB/C and 0% papGI. The high frequency of yersiniabactin (fyuA and irp2) and salmochelin (iroN) genes suggests that iron uptake systems might be important in the pathogenesis of canine pyometra. PFGE profiles of 19 isolates were heterogeneous, confirming that E. coli isolates from canine pyometra are unlikely to be epidemic clones.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Streptococcus suis Strains Isolated from Pigs and Humans as Revealed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot-Hérault, Florence; Marois, Corinne; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Kobisch, Marylène

    2002-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 123 Streptococcus suis strains of capsular types 2, 1/2, 3, 7, and 9, isolated from pigs in France and from humans in different countries, was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA restricted with SmaI. The method was highly discriminative (D = 0.98), results were reproducible, and the PFGE analysis was easy to interpret. Among all S. suis strains, 74 PFGE patterns were shown. At 60% homology, three groups (A, B, and C) were identified, and at 69% homology, eight subgroups (a to h) were observed. Strains isolated from diseased pigs or from humans were statistically clustered in group B, especially in subgroup d. By contrast, S. suis strains isolated from clinically healthy pigs were preferentially included in subgroup b of group A. Relationships could be established between capsular types 1/2, 3, and 9 and groups A, e, and B, respectively. S. suis strains isolated from humans were homogeneous, and a very high level of association between these strains and four DNA patterns was observed. The PFGE used in this study is a very useful tool for evaluating the genetic diversity of S. suis strains, and it would be used for epidemiological investigations. PMID:11825980

  19. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs and humans as revealed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Berthelot-Hérault, Florence; Marois, Corinne; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Kobisch, Marylène

    2002-02-01

    The genetic diversity of 123 Streptococcus suis strains of capsular types 2, 1/2, 3, 7, and 9, isolated from pigs in France and from humans in different countries, was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA restricted with SmaI. The method was highly discriminative (D = 0.98), results were reproducible, and the PFGE analysis was easy to interpret. Among all S. suis strains, 74 PFGE patterns were shown. At 60% homology, three groups (A, B, and C) were identified, and at 69% homology, eight subgroups (a to h) were observed. Strains isolated from diseased pigs or from humans were statistically clustered in group B, especially in subgroup d. By contrast, S. suis strains isolated from clinically healthy pigs were preferentially included in subgroup b of group A. Relationships could be established between capsular types 1/2, 3, and 9 and groups A, e, and B, respectively. S. suis strains isolated from humans were homogeneous, and a very high level of association between these strains and four DNA patterns was observed. The PFGE used in this study is a very useful tool for evaluating the genetic diversity of S. suis strains, and it would be used for epidemiological investigations.

  20. Diversity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of cereulide-producing isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis.

    PubMed

    Castiaux, Virginie; N'guessan, Elise; Swiecicka, Izabela; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Dierick, Katelijne; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important foodborne pathogen causing diarrhoea, emesis and in, rare cases, lethal poisonings. The emetic syndrome is caused by cereulide, a heat-stable toxin. Originally considered as a rather homogenous group, the emetic strains have since been shown to display some diversity, including the existence of two clusters of mesophilic B. cereus and psychrotolerant B. weihenstephanensis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, this research aimed to better understand the diversity and spatio-temporal occurrence of emetic strains originating from environmental or food niches vs. those isolated from foodborne cases. The diversity was evaluated using a set of 52 B. cereus and B. weihenstephanensis strains isolated between 2000 and 2011 in ten countries. PFGE analysis could discriminate 17 distinct profiles (pulsotypes). The most striking observations were as follows: (1) more than one emetic pulsotype can be observed in a single outbreak; (2) the number of distinct isolates involved in emetic intoxications is limited, and these potentially clonal strains frequently occurred in successive and independent food poisoning cases; (3) isolates from different countries displayed identical profiles; and (4) the cereulide-producing psychrotolerant B. weihenstephanensis were, so far, only isolated from environmental niches.

  1. Arcobacter species and their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes in Finnish raw milk during summer 2011.

    PubMed

    Revez, Joana; Huuskonen, Marianne; Ruusunen, Marjo; Lindström, Miia; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Arcobacter species in raw milk in Finland. A total of 177 raw milk samples, each from a separate farm, were examined from June to August 2011. Arcobacter species were isolated using an enrichment and selective detection procedure. Overall, 26 (15 % ) of the 177 samples yielded Arcobacter spp. Samples from 25 farms were positive for Arcobacter butzleri and from 1 farm for Arcobacter cryaerophilus. Moreover, both Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus were recovered from 1 positive sample. To evaluate a possible genetic variability, one strain of A. butzleri from each farm and the A. cryaerophilus sample were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping revealed that Arcobacter spp. populations are heterogeneous, and no dominant clone has spread in the investigated samples. Our study is the first report on the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in raw milk in Finland. Based on our findings, the presence of Arcobacter species in raw milk may pose a potential hazard for human health, in particular for consumers who prefer drinking unpasteurized milk.

  2. Genotyping of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains from clinical and nonclinical origins by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Campioni, Fábio; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-06-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A (B1A) strains are considered mainly nonpathogenic. However, some studies considered strains of this biotype to be the causal agents of infections in humans and animals. In South America, there are no studies that have compared clinical and nonclinical strains of B1A typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and none that have compared the capability of different enzymes on typing these strains. This study typed 51 Y. enterocolitica B1A strains isolated in Brazil and Chile by PFGE, testing the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI. The resulting dendrograms discriminated the strains in 47, 40, and 49 pulsotypes generated by the cleavage with the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI, respectively. The majority of the strains were grouped independently of their clinical or nonclinical origins. The high discriminatory power of PFGE confirmed the heterogeneity of B1A strains but could not divide the strains studied into clusters that differed in the frequency of some virulence genes as observed in studies using other methodologies.

  3. Development and validation of a PulseNet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K L F; Luey, C K Y; Bird, M; Terajima, J; Nair, G B; Kam, K M; Arakawa, E; Safa, A; Cheung, D T; Law, C P; Watanabe, H; Kubota, K; Swaminathan, B; Ribot, E M

    2006-01-01

    PulseNet is a network that utilizes standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols with the purpose of conducting laboratory-based surveillance of foodborne pathogens. PulseNet standardized PFGE protocols are subject to rigorous testing during the developmental phase and careful evaluation during a validation process assessing its robustness and reproducibility in different laboratories. Here we describe the development and validation of a rapid PFGE protocol for subtyping Vibrio cholerae for use in PulseNet International activities. While the protocol was derived from the existing PulseNet protocol for Escherichia coli O157, various aspects of this protocol were optimized for use with V. cholerae, most notably a change of the primary and secondary restriction enzyme to SfiI and NotI, respectively, and the use of a two-block electrophoresis program. External validation of this protocol was undertaken through a collaboration between three PulseNet Asia Pacific laboratories (Public Health Laboratory Centre, Hong Kong, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, and International Center for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research-Bangladesh) and PulseNet USA. Comparison of PFGE patterns generated by each of the participating laboratories demonstrated that the protocol is robust and reproducible.

  4. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: genetic characterization of midwest US isolates and live commercial vaccines using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, T; Hoffman, L J; Harris, D L; Gaul, S B; Halbur, P G

    2004-03-01

    This is the first report of molecular characterization of US erysipelas field isolates and vaccine strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Erysipelas in pigs is mainly caused by E. rhusiopathiae serotypes 1a, 1b, and 2. In 2001, erysipelas reemerged as a clinical problem in pigs in the midwestern United States. In this work 90 erysipelas isolates (58 recent and 28 archived field isolates as well as 4 live-vaccine strains) were genetically characterized. Because of the limited availability of antiserum, 74/90 isolates (44/58 recent isolates) were serotyped. The serotype of the majority (79.6%) of the 44 recent isolates tested was determined to be 1a, 13.6% were serotype 1b, and 6.8% of recent isolates were serologically untypeable. Among all 90 isolates, 23 different PFGE patterns were identified. There were 43 isolates identified as serotype 1a with 4 genetic patterns: 38/43, 1A(I); 3/43, 1A(III); 1/43, 1B(V); and 1/43, 3B. Sixteen serotype 1b isolates had 11 unique genetic patterns: 4/16 were genotype 1B(III), 2/16 were genotype 3A(I), and 1/16 was in genotype groups 1A(V), 1A(VI), 1A(VII), 1B(I), 1B(IV), 1B(VII), 2, 4, and 5. Six genetic patterns were distinguished among the 10 serotype 2 isolates: 1A(IV) (1/10), 1A(V) (1/10), 1B(VI) (1/10), 2 (4/10), 7 (1/10), and 8 (2/8). Erysipelas vaccine strains (modified live) were similar to each other but different from current field strains, sharing 78.6% identity with the most prevalent genotype 1A(I) based on the PFGE-SmaI pattern. Compared with serotyping, PFGE genotyping is a more distinguishing technique, easy to perform and not dependent on the limited availability of antiserum.

  5. What really causes flat slab subduction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V. C.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Manea, M.

    2014-12-01

    How flat slab geometries are generated has been long debated. It has been suggested thattrenchward motion of thick cratons in some areas of South America and Cenozoic NorthAmerica progressively closed the asthenospheric wedge and induced flat subduction. Here wedevelop time-dependent numerical experiments to explore how trenchward motion of thickcratons may result in flat subduction. We find that as the craton approaches the trench andthe wedge closes, two opposite phenomena control slab geometry: the suction between oceanand continent increases, favoring slab flattening, while the mantle confined within the closingwedge dynamically pushes the slab backward and steepens it. When the slab retreats, as inthe Peru and Chile flat slabs, the wedge closure rate and dynamic push are small and suctionforces generate, in some cases, flat subduction. We model the past 30 m.y. of subduction in theChilean flat slab area and demonstrate that trenchward motion of thick lithosphere, 200-300km, currently ~700-800 km away from the Peru-Chile Trench, reproduces a slab geometrythat fits the stress pattern, seismicity distribution, and temporal and spatial evolution ofdeformation and volcanism in the region. We also suggest that varying trench kinematics mayexplain some differing slab geometries along South America. When the trench is stationaryor advances, the mantle flow within the closing wedge strongly pushes the slab backward andsteepens it, possibly explaining the absence of flat subduction in the Bolivian orocline.

  6. Role of Hydrogen in stagnant slabs and big mantle wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, E.; Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    Eastern China, Europe, and United State (e.g., [7]). According to the BMW model by Zhao [2], the intra-plate volcanisms in Northeast China including Mt. Changbai are different from the hot plumes and they might be generated due to some processes related to the deep-seated dehydration from the stagnant slab. Recent geochemical studies on volcanic rocks and associated mantle xenoliths in Northeast China (e.g., [8]) indicated that there is no geochemical evidence for involvement of subducting slab in most basalts, i.e., no depletion of high field strength elements and no enrichment of large ion lithophile elements. There is no clear evidence for a high-3He/4He mantle plume component in these rocks, i.e., 3He/4He ratios are significantly below the high 3He/4He ratios of mantle plumes such as those beneath Hawaii and Iceland. The geochemical signatures of the deep dehydration should be different from those in the conventional mantle wedge, since the fluids generated at such depths are completely different from those at the shallow depths. Further studies including the element partitioning between fluids and mantle under the deep upper mantle and the transition zone conditions are necessary to clarify the possible role of the Big Mantle Wedge on the intra-plate volcanism. [1] Fukao, et al., J. G. R. 108, doi:10.1029/2001JB000989, 2003. [2] Zhao et al., Chin. Sci. Bulletin 49, 1401, 2004, [3] Ohtani, Elements, 1, 25, 2005. [4] Richard et al., EPSL, 251, 156, 2006. [5] Hae et al., EPSL, 243, 141, 2006. [6] Litasov and Ohtani, PEPI, 134, 105, 2002. [7] Song et al., Nature, 427, 530, 2004. [8] Chen et al., Lithos, 96, 108, 2007

  7. A pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) study that suggests a major world-wide clone of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Chiu, Tsai-Hsin; Helmuth, Reiner; Schroeter, Andreas; Guerra, Beatriz; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2007-05-30

    Since human infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) have been increasing world-wide over the past years and epidemiological studies have implicated the consumption of meat, poultry, eggs and egg products, elucidation of the predominant subtypes for this Salmonella spp. is important. In this study, 107 poultry and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis obtained from Germany were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the subtypes were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan. Results showed that for these 107 poultry and food isolates, when XbaI, SpeI and NotI were used for chromosomal DNA digestion followed by PFGE analysis, a total of 19, 20 and 19 PFGE patterns, respectively, were identified. Of them, 51 (47.7%), 52 (48.6%) and 42 (39.3%) strains belong to a single pattern of X3, S3 and N3, respectively, and 34 strains belong to a pattern combination of X3S3N3, which was the major subtype. When PFGE patterns of these 107 German isolates were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan, pattern combination of X3S3N3 was found as the most common pattern shared by isolates from both areas. PT4 is a major phage type for German and Taiwan isolates. Although most of the X3S3N3 strains are of this phage type, some strains of other PFGE patterns are also of this phage type. Since strains used in this study were unrelated, i.e., they were isolated from different origins in areas geographically far apart from each other, the PFGE study suggests a major world-wide clone of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis.

  8. Genomic Diversity within the Genus Pediococcus as Revealed by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA PCR and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, P. J.; Stanton, C.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Ross, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    The genomic diversity of 33 previously assigned strains from six species within the genus Pediococcus was assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The RAPD PCR patterns produced by two separate random primers, termed P1 (ACGCGCCCT) and P2 (ATGTAACGCC), were compared by the Pearson correlation coefficient and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages clustering algorithm. Pattern variations between repeat samples set a strain discrimination threshold of less than 70% similarity. P1 and P2 primers alone and in combination produced 14, 21, and 28 distinct patterns, respectively. When each strain was assigned with a type strain with which it shared the highest level of similarity, both primers grouped 17 of the 27 strains to their proposed species. PFGE following genomic digestion with the restriction enzymes ApaI, NotI, and AscI produced 30, 32, and 28 distinct macrorestriction patterns, respectively. Specific DNA fragments within the NotI and AscI macrorestriction patterns for each strain were observed that allowed 27 of the 33 strains to be assigned to their proposed species. For example, following digestion with AscI, all Pediococcus parvulus strains were characterized by two DNA fragments, one of approximately 220 kb and another between 700 and 800 kb. The exceptions correlated with those observed with both RAPD PCR primers and included three P. damnosus and two P. pentosaceus strains that grew at temperatures regarded as nonpermissive for their proposed species but not for those with which they grouped. PMID:11823217

  9. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine genomic diversity in strains of Helicobacter hepaticus from geographically distant locations.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, K E; McGovern, K J; Fox, J G

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 a helical microorganism associated with chronic active hepatitis and a high incidence of hepatocellular tumors was identified in the hepatic parenchyma of A/JCr mice. By using biochemical tests, phenotypic characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was classified as a novel Helicobacter species and named Helicobacter hepaticus. Recent surveys completed in our laboratory indicate that H. hepaticus is widespread in academic and commercial mouse colonies. The aim of this study was to examine the H. hepaticus genome by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the degree of genomic variation and genomic size. This technique has been used to identify significant genomic diversity among strains of Helicobacter pylori and to demonstrate only slight genomic diversity among strains of Helicobacter mustelae. Genomic DNAs from 11 isolates of H. hepaticus from the United States, Germany, France, and The Netherlands were subjected to PFGE after digestion with SmaI. Isolates from three independent sources within the United States had very similar PFGE patterns, suggesting that the genomic DNAs of these isolates are conserved. Genomic DNA isolated from a fourth source within the United States had a PFGE pattern different from those of the other U.S. isolates. Isolates obtained from Germany, France, and The Netherlands had PFGE patterns that differed markedly from those of the U.S. isolates and from one another. The use of DNA fingerprinting may be useful in subsequent epidemiological studies of H. hepaticus when the source and method of spread of this murine pathogen need to be ascertained. By PFGE, the genomic size of H. hepaticus is estimated to be roughly 1.3 Mb, which compares to 1.67 Mb for H. pylori and 1.7 Mb for H. mustelae. PMID:9350747

  10. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barancelli, Giovana V; Camargo, Tarsila M; Gagliardi, Natália G; Porto, Ernani; Souza, Roberto A; Campioni, Fabio; Falcão, Juliana P; Hofer, Ernesto; Cruz, Adriano G; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-03-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products.

  11. Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Streptococcus suis Clinical Isolates from Pigs in Spain by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Ana I.; Goyache, Joaquin; Tarradas, Carmen; Luque, Inmaculada; Mateos, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A.; Borge, Carmen; Perea, J. Anselmo; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to investigate the diversity of Streptococcus suis isolates of various serotypes recovered from swine clinical samples in Spain. Capsular types 9 (64.9%) and 2 (14.8%) were the most frequently isolated serotypes followed by serotype 7 (5.9%) and serotype 8 (4.3%). The PFGE results of this study with 60 different pulsotypes indicate a great genetic diversity among the S. suis isolates, which is consistent with the broad distribution of S. suis in the swine population. Forty-five percent of the pulsotypes corresponded to single isolates, no pulsotype was common to all farms, and at least 3 different pulsotypes were isolated in 56% of herds in which more than 3 clinical isolates were analyzed. These results reveal a great diversity both between and within herds throughout the strains of S. suis studied, demonstrating that different strains of S. suis are associated with infection in pigs. Some pulsotypes were more frequently isolated and exhibited a wider distribution over herds than others, and were the unique or predominant strains in several herds, suggesting the existence of a prevalent or a few prevalent clones responsible for a large proportion of clinical cases. Overall, the great genetic heterogeneity of the clinical strains of S. suis, the isolation of different strains within the same herd, and the predominance of particular strains in some herds are evidence that infection by S. suis is a dynamic process and reinforce the idea that the epidemiology of S. suis infection is very complex. PMID:12791872

  12. Analysis of genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis clinical isolates from pigs in Spain by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vela, Ana I; Goyache, Joaquin; Tarradas, Carmen; Luque, Inmaculada; Mateos, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Borge, Carmen; Perea, J Anselmo; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F

    2003-06-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to investigate the diversity of Streptococcus suis isolates of various serotypes recovered from swine clinical samples in Spain. Capsular types 9 (64.9%) and 2 (14.8%) were the most frequently isolated serotypes followed by serotype 7 (5.9%) and serotype 8 (4.3%). The PFGE results of this study with 60 different pulsotypes indicate a great genetic diversity among the S. suis isolates, which is consistent with the broad distribution of S. suis in the swine population. Forty-five percent of the pulsotypes corresponded to single isolates, no pulsotype was common to all farms, and at least 3 different pulsotypes were isolated in 56% of herds in which more than 3 clinical isolates were analyzed. These results reveal a great diversity both between and within herds throughout the strains of S. suis studied, demonstrating that different strains of S. suis are associated with infection in pigs. Some pulsotypes were more frequently isolated and exhibited a wider distribution over herds than others, and were the unique or predominant strains in several herds, suggesting the existence of a prevalent or a few prevalent clones responsible for a large proportion of clinical cases. Overall, the great genetic heterogeneity of the clinical strains of S. suis, the isolation of different strains within the same herd, and the predominance of particular strains in some herds are evidence that infection by S. suis is a dynamic process and reinforce the idea that the epidemiology of S. suis infection is very complex.

  13. Diversity of Campylobacter isolates from retail poultry carcasses and from humans as demonstrated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dickins, M Avery; Franklin, Sharon; Stefanova, Rossina; Schutze, Gordon E; Eisenach, Kathleen D; Wesley, Irene; Cave, M Donald

    2002-06-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a major contaminant of poultry. Eating undercooked chicken and handling raw poultry have been identified as risk factors for campylobacteriosis in humans. Previous studies have found Campylobacter spp. on 90% of poultry carcasses. In the present study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to assess the genetic diversity of strains on retail poultry carcasses. PFGE patterns of isolates from campylobacteriosis cases were compared to those from the poultry isolates. Over a 1-year study period (March 2000 through February 2001), whole fresh young chickens (n = 72) were obtained from three retail outlets in an urban community in the south-central United States. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 82% of these carcasses. Strains (n = 70) were defined on the basis of their PFGE pattern. Sixty-seven percent of the carcasses from which Campylobacter spp. were isolated were contaminated with more than one PFGE-distinguishable strain. During the 1-year study period, most of the PFGE patterns (59%) were limited to isolates obtained from a single carcass. Forty-one percent of the PFGE-distinguishable strains were recovered from more than one carcass. Ninety-seven percent of the carcasses contaminated with the same strain were purchased at the same time from the same store. To examine the degree of genetic stability, four strains were followed in vitro over an estimated 1,000 doublings. The PFGE pattern of one of these isolates underwent minor changes during in vitro growth. The data indicate extensive variability in the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from humans and from poultry carcasses. In spite of difficulties caused by such diversity and the fact that some carcasses are contaminated with more than one strain, the pattern variation provides a useful method for linking a particular strain to its source.

  14. Comparison of multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella spp. identification in surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chou Chiu, Yi; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important pathogens of waterborne diseases with outbreaks from contaminated water reported worldwide. In addition, Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods in aquatic environments. To realize genotypes and serovars of Salmonella in aquatic environments, we isolated the Salmonella strains by selective culture plates to identify the serovars of Salmonella by serological assay, and identify the genotypes by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on the sequence data from University College Cork (UCC), respectively. The results show that 36 stream water samples (30.1%) and 18 drinking water samples (23.3%) were confirmed the existence of Salmonella using culture method combined PCR specific invA gene amplification. In this study, 24 cultured isolates of Salmonella from water samples were classified to fifteen Salmonella enterica serovars. In addition, we construct phylogenetic analysis using phylogenetic tree and Minimum spanning tree (MST) method to analyze the relationship of clinical, environmental, and geographical data. Phylogenetic tree showed that four main clusters and our strains can be distributed in all. The genotypes of isolates from stream water are more biodiversity while comparing the Salmonella strains genotypes from drinking water sources. According to MST data, we can found the positive correlation between serovars and genotypes of Salmonella. Previous studies revealed that the result of Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method can predict the serovars of Salmonella strain. Hence, we used the MLST data combined phylogenetic analysis to identify the serovars of Salmonella strain and achieved effectiveness. While using the geographical data combined phylogenetic analysis, the result showed that the dominant strains were existed in whole stream area in rainy season. Keywords: Salmonella spp., MLST, phylogenetic analysis, PFGE

  15. Analysis of Molecular Epidemiology of Chilean Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Bacteriophage Typing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Jorge; Fica, Alberto; Ebensperger, German; Calfullan, Hector; Prat, Soledad; Fernandez, Alda; Alexandre, Marcela; Heitmann, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    Human Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections emerged in Chile in 1994. S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 1 isolates predominated in the north, and phage type 4 isolates predominated in the central and southern regions. A study was planned to characterize this epidemic using the best discriminatory typing technique. Research involved 441 S. enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates, including clinical preepidemic samples (n = 74; 1975 to 1993) and epidemic (n = 199), food (n = 72), poultry (n = 57), and some Latin American (n = 39) isolates. The best method was selected based on a sample of preepidemic isolates, analyzing the discriminatory power (DP) obtained by phage typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The highest DP was associated with BlnI PFGE-bacteriophage typing analysis (0.993). A total of 38 BlnI patterns (B patterns) were identified before the epidemic period, 19 since 1994, and only 4 in both periods. Two major clusters were identified by phylogenetic analysis, and the predominant B patterns clustered in the same branch. Combined analysis revealed that specific B pattern-phage type combinations (subtypes) disappeared before 1994, that different genotypes associated with S. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 had been observed since 1988, and that strain diversity increased before the expansion of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in 1994. Predominant subtype B3-phage type 4 was associated with the central and southern regions, and subtype B38-phage type 1 was associated with the north (P < 0.0001). Food and poultry isolates matched the predominant S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes, but isolates identified in neighboring countries (Peru and Bolivia) did not match S. enterica serotype Enteritidis subtypes identified in the north of Chile. The results of this work demonstrate that genetic diversity, replacement, and expansion of specific S. enterica serotype

  16. Slab Driven Mantle Deformation and Plate-Mantle Decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadamec, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Fischer, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of shear wave splitting derived from local sources in subduction zones suggest viscous flow in the mantle wedge is commonly non-parallel to both the subducting plate velocity vector and the motion of the overriding plate. However, far from the subduction zone trench, observations indicate the fast axis of shear wave splitting tends to align with the velocity vector of the surface plates. Similarly, previous 3D geodynamic models show the slab can drive local decoupling of the mantle and surface plates, in both direction and speed. This suggests that there is some distance from the trench over which there is significant decoupling of the mantle flow from surface plate motion, and that this decoupling zone then decays with continued distance from the trench, resulting in far-field plate-mantle coupling. Here we present results from geodynamic models of subduction coupled with calculations of olivine fabric deformation and synthetic splitting to 1) examine the influence of slab strength, slab dip, and non-Newtonian viscosity on the deformation fabric in the mantle wedge and subslab mantle and 2) quantify the spatial extent and intensity of this slab driven decoupling zone. We compare the deformation fabric in a 2D corner flow solution with varying dip to that of a 2D free subduction model with varying initial dip and slab strength. The results show that using an experimentally derived flow law to define viscosity (both diffusion creep and dislocation creep deformation mechanisms) has a first order effect on the viscosity structure and flow velocity in the upper mantle. The free subduction models using the composite viscosity formulation produce a zone of subduction induced mantle weakening that results in reduced viscous support of the slab and lateral variability in coupling of the mantle to the base of the surface plates. The maximum yield stress, which places an upper bound on the slab strength, can also have a significant impact on the viscosity

  17. Laser applications in machining slab materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping

    1990-10-01

    Since the invention of the laser back in 1960, laser technology has been extensively applied in many fields of science and technology. These has been a history of nearly two decades of using lasers as an energy source in machining materials, such as cutting, welding, ruling and boring, among other operations. With the development of flexible automation in production, the advantages of laser machining have has grown more and more obvious. The combination of laser technology and computer science further promotes the enhancement and upgrading of laser machining and related equipment. At present, many countries are building high quality laser equipment for machining slab materials, such as the Coherent and Spectra Physics corporations in the United States, the Trumpf Corporation in West Germany, the Amada Corporation in Japan, and the Bystronic Corporation in Switzerland, among other companies.

  18. Slab melting versus slab dehydration in subduction-zone magmatism

    PubMed Central

    Mibe, Kenji; Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Matsukage, Kyoko N.; Fei, Yingwei; Ono, Shigeaki

    2011-01-01

    The second critical endpoint in the basalt-H2O system was directly determined by a high-pressure and high-temperature X-ray radiography technique. We found that the second critical endpoint occurs at around 3.4 GPa and 770 °C (corresponding to a depth of approximately 100 km in a subducting slab), which is much shallower than the previously estimated conditions. Our results indicate that the melting temperature of the subducting oceanic crust can no longer be defined beyond this critical condition and that the fluid released from subducting oceanic crust at depths greater than 100 km under volcanic arcs is supercritical fluid rather than aqueous fluid and/or hydrous melts. The position of the second critical endpoint explains why there is a limitation to the slab depth at which adakitic magmas are produced, as well as the origin of across-arc geochemical variations of trace elements in volcanic rocks in subduction zones. PMID:21536910

  19. Slab melting versus slab dehydration in subduction-zone magmatism.

    PubMed

    Mibe, Kenji; Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Matsukage, Kyoko N; Fei, Yingwei; Ono, Shigeaki

    2011-05-17

    The second critical endpoint in the basalt-H(2)O system was directly determined by a high-pressure and high-temperature X-ray radiography technique. We found that the second critical endpoint occurs at around 3.4 GPa and 770 °C (corresponding to a depth of approximately 100 km in a subducting slab), which is much shallower than the previously estimated conditions. Our results indicate that the melting temperature of the subducting oceanic crust can no longer be defined beyond this critical condition and that the fluid released from subducting oceanic crust at depths greater than 100 km under volcanic arcs is supercritical fluid rather than aqueous fluid and/or hydrous melts. The position of the second critical endpoint explains why there is a limitation to the slab depth at which adakitic magmas are produced, as well as the origin of across-arc geochemical variations of trace elements in volcanic rocks in subduction zones.

  20. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of more than one clinical isolate of Campylobacter spp. from each of 49 patients in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Lin, Susan; Scholes, Paula; On, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis demonstrated that while 76% of patients had only one genotype of campylobacter, 10% carried two different but related genotypes (Dice coefficients > 0.78), and 14% carried at least two unrelated genotypes (Dice coefficients < 0.65). This supports the clustering of Campylobacter isolates with similar PFGE patterns, highlights the need to analyze multiple isolates from both sources and patients, and confirms that caution should be exercised before epidemiological links between patients or sources are dismissed.

  1. The influence of particle size and static magnetic fields on the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into three dimensional cell-seeded collagen gel cultures.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Emily E L; Child, Hannah W; Hursthouse, Andrew; Stirling, David; McCully, Mark; Paterson, David; Mullin, Margaret; Berry, Catherine C

    2015-08-01

    Over recent decades there has been and continues to be major advances in the imaging, diagnosis and potential treatment of medical conditions, by the use of magnetic nanoparticles. However, to date the majority of cell delivery studies employ a traditional 2D monolayer culture. This article aims to determine the ability of various sized magnetic nanoparticles to penetrate and travel through a cell seeded collagen gel model, in the presence or absence of a magnetic field. Three different sized (100, 200, and 500 nm) nanoparticles were employed in the study. The results showed cell viability was unaffected by the presence of nanoparticles over a 24-h test period. The initial uptake of the 100 nm nanoparticle into the collagen gel structure was superior compared to the larger sized nanoparticles under the influence of a magnetic field and incubated for 24 h. Interestingly, it was the 200 nm nanoparticles, which proved to penetrate the gel furthest, under the influence of a magnetic field, during the initial culture stage after 1-h incubation.

  2. Electromagnetic fluctuation-induced interactions in randomly charged slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvani, Vahid; Sarabadani, Jalal; Naji, Ali; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2012-09-01

    Randomly charged net-neutral dielectric slabs are shown to interact across a featureless dielectric continuum with long-range electrostatic forces that scale with the statistical variance of their quenched random charge distribution and inversely with the distance between their bounding surfaces. By accounting for the whole spectrum of electromagnetic field fluctuations, we show that this long-range disorder-generated interaction extends well into the retarded regime where higher order (non-zero) Matsubara frequencies contribute significantly. This occurs even for highly clean samples with only a trace amount of charge disorder and shows that disorder effects can be important down to the nanoscale. As a result, the previously predicted non-monotonic behavior for the total force between dissimilar slabs as a function of their separation distance is substantially modified by higher order contributions, and in almost all cases of interest, we find that the equilibrium inter-surface separation is shifted to substantially larger values compared to predictions based solely on the zero-frequency component. This suggests that the ensuing non-monotonic interaction is more easily amenable to experimental detection. The presence of charge disorder in the intervening dielectric medium between the two slabs is shown to lead to an additional force that can be repulsive or attractive depending on the system parameters and can, for instance, wash out the non-monotonic behavior of the total force when the intervening slab contains a sufficiently large amount of disorder charges.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of a combined fluid-loss-control additive and gel breaker for fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu, L.A.; Boyd, P.A. )

    1990-08-01

    More than 200% increase in fracture conductivity and permeability was obtained when a new degradable fluid-loss-control additive was used in place of silica flour (SF) in 40-lbm crosslinked hydroxypropyl-guar (HPG) fracturing-fluid systems. The new additive, and organic acid particulate (OAP), slowly degraded into water-soluble monomeric units at temperatures {ge}150{degrees}F after fracture stimulation experiments. The high-acid-content degradation product then acted as an excellent HPG gel breaker and effectively cleaned the proppant packs. As a fluid-loss-control additive, the measured wall-building coefficients were as good as, or better than, those of SF in crosslinked-gel, linear-gel, and N{sub 2}-foam systems. This paper summarizes a 2-year study of the evaluation and application of this new product in fracturing-fluid systems.

  4. Insights on slab-driven mantle flow from advances in three-dimensional modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadamec, Margarete A.

    2016-10-01

    The wealth of seismic observations collected over the past 20 years has raised intriguing questions about the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the mantle flow field close to subduction zones and provided a valuable constraint for how the plate geometry may influence mantle flow proximal to the slab. In geodynamics, there has been a new direction of subduction zone modelling that has explored the 3D nature of slab-driven mantle flow, motivated in part by the observations from shear wave splitting, but also by the observed variations in slab geometries worldwide. Advances in high-performance computing are now allowing for an unprecedented level of detail to be incorporated into numerical models of subduction. This paper summarizes recent advances from 3D geodynamic models that reveal the complex nature of slab-driven mantle flow, including trench parallel flow, toroidal flow around slab edges, mantle upwelling at lateral slab edges, and small scale convection within the mantle wedge. This implies slab-driven mantle deformation zones occur in the asthenosphere proximal to the slab, wherein the mantle may commonly flow in a different direction and rate than the surface plates, implying laterally variable plate-mantle coupling. The 3D slab-driven mantle flow can explain, in part, the lateral transport of geochemical signatures in subduction zones. In addition, high-resolution geographically referenced models can inform the interpretation of slab structure, where seismic data are lacking. The incorporation of complex plate boundaries into high-resolution, 3D numerical models opens the door to a new avenue of research in model construction, data assimilation, and modelling workflows, and gives 3D immersive visualization a new role in scientific discovery.

  5. Subducting slabs: Jellyfishes in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiselet, Christelle; Braun, Jean; Husson, Laurent; Le Carlier de Veslud, Christian; Thieulot, Cedric; Yamato, Philippe; Grujic, Djordje

    2010-08-01

    The constantly improving resolution of geophysical data, seismic tomography and seismicity in particular, shows that the lithosphere does not subduct as a slab of uniform thickness but is rather thinned in the upper mantle and thickened around the transition zone between the upper and lower mantle. This observation has traditionally been interpreted as evidence for the buckling and piling of slabs at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle, where a strong contrast in viscosity may exist and cause resistance to the penetration of slabs into the lower mantle. The distribution and character of seismicity reveal, however, that slabs undergo vertical extension in the upper mantle and compression near the transition zone. In this paper, we demonstrate that during the subduction process, the shape of low viscosity slabs (1 to 100 times more viscous than the surrounding mantle) evolves toward an inverted plume shape that we coin jellyfish. Results of a 3D numerical model show that the leading tip of slabs deform toward a rounded head skirted by lateral tentacles that emerge from the sides of the jellyfish head. The head is linked to the body of the subducting slab by a thin tail. A complete parametric study reveals that subducting slabs may achieve a variety of shapes, in good agreement with the diversity of natural slab shapes evidenced by seismic tomography. Our work also suggests that the slab to mantle viscosity ratio in the Earth is most likely to be lower than 100. However, the sensitivity of slab shapes to upper and lower mantle viscosities and densities, which remain poorly constrained by independent evidence, precludes any systematic deciphering of the observations.

  6. Subducting Slabs: Jellyfishes in the Earth's Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiselet, C.; Braun, J.; Husson, L.; Le Carlier de Veslud, C.; Thieulot, C.; Yamato, P.; Grujic, D.

    2010-12-01

    The constantly improving resolution of geophysical data, seismic tomography and seismicity in particular, shows that the lithosphere does not subduct as a slab of uniform thickness but is rather thinned in the upper mantle and thickened around the transition zone between the upper and lower mantle. This observation has traditionally been interpreted as evidence for the buckling and piling of slabs at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle, where a strong contrast in viscosity may exist and cause resistance to the penetration of slabs into the lower mantle. The distribution and character of seismicity reveal, however, that slabs undergo vertical extension in the upper mantle and compression near the transition zone. In this paper, we demonstrate that during the subduction process, the shape of low viscosity slabs (1 to 100 times more viscous than the surrounding mantle) evolves toward an inverted plume shape that we coin jellyfish. Results of a 3D numerical model show that the leading tip of slabs deform toward a rounded head skirted by lateral tentacles that emerge from the sides of the jellyfish head. The head is linked to the body of the subducting slab by a thin tail. A complete parametric study reveals that subducting slabs may achieve a variety of shapes, in good agreement with the diversity of natural slab shapes evidenced by seismic tomography. Our work also suggests that the slab to mantle viscosity ratio in the Earth is most likely to be lower than 100. However, the sensitivity of slab shapes to upper and lower mantle viscosities and densities, which remain poorly constrained by independent evidence, precludes any systematic deciphering of the observations.

  7. The transition from stress softening to stress hardening under cyclic loading induced by magnetic field for magneto-sensitive polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yangguang; Liao, Guojiang; Zhang, Canyang; Wan, Qiang; Liu, Taixiang

    2016-04-01

    Magneto-sensitive polymer gel (MSPG) is a kind of ferromagnetic particle filled smart polymer composite, whose magneto-mechanical coupling mechanism has attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this work, the magneto-induced rheological response of MSPG under cyclic shear loading was investigated. It was found that magnetic field is the critical reason for the transition from stress softening to stress hardening under cyclic loading. Besides, the particle concentration and temperature are the controlling factors in the structure optimization of MSPG in the presence of magnetic field. The magneto-induced hardening mechanism was further proposed based on the related experimental results.

  8. The impact of two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques for the consistent and complete mapping of bacterial genomes: refined physical map of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.

    PubMed Central

    Römling, U; Tümmler, B

    1991-01-01

    The SpeI/DpnI map of the 5.9 Mb Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO (DSM 1707) genome was refined by two-dimensional (2D) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques (PFGE) which allow the complete and consistent physical mapping of any bacterial genome of interest. Single restriction digests were repetitively separated by PFGE employing different pulse times and ramps in order to detect all bands with optimum resolution. Fragment order was evaluated from the pattern of 2D PFGE gels: 1. Partial-complete digestion. A partial restriction digest was separated in the first dimension, redigested to completion, and subsequently perpendicularly resolved in the second dimension. 2D-gel comparisons of the ethidium bromide stain of all fragments and of the autoradiogram of end-labeled partial digestion fragments was nearly sufficient for the construction of the macrorestriction map. 2. Reciprocal gels. A complete restriction digest with enzyme A was run in the first dimension, redigested with enzyme B, and separated in the second orthogonal direction. The order of restriction digests was reverse on the second gel. In case of two rare-cutters, fragments were visualized by ethidium bromide staining or hybridization with genomic DNA. If a frequent and a rare cutter were employed, linking fragments were identified by end-labeling of the first digest. 3. A few small fragments were isolated by preparative PFGE and used as a probe for Southern analysis.--38 SpeI and 15 DpnI fragments were positioned on the map. The zero point was relocated to the 'origin of replication'. The anonymous mapping techniques described herein are unbiased by repetitive DNA, unclonable genomic regions, unfavourable location of restriction sites, or cloning artifacts as frequently encountered in other top-down or bottom-up approaches. Images PMID:1905802

  9. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains as Determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Henri, Clémentine; Félix, Benjamin; Guillier, Laurent; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Michelon, Damien; Mariet, Jean-François; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Hendriksen, René S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous bacterium that may cause the foodborne illness listeriosis. Only a small amount of data about the population genetic structure of strains isolated from food is available. This study aimed to provide an accurate view of the L. monocytogenes food strain population in France. From 1999 to 2014, 1,894 L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from food at the French National Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes and classified according to the five risk food matrices defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). A total of 396 strains were selected on the basis of different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clusters, serotypes, and strain origins and typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the MLST results were supplemented with MLST data available from Institut Pasteur, representing human and additional food strains from France. The distribution of sequence types (STs) was compared between food and clinical strains on a panel of 675 strains. High congruence between PFGE and MLST was found. Out of 73 PFGE clusters, the two most prevalent corresponded to ST9 and ST121. Using original statistical analysis, we demonstrated that (i) there was not a clear association between ST9 and ST121 and the food matrices, (ii) serotype IIc, ST8, and ST4 were associated with meat products, and (iii) ST13 was associated with dairy products. Of the two major STs, ST121 was the ST that included the fewest clinical strains, which might indicate lower virulence. This observation may be directly relevant for refining risk analysis models for the better management of food safety. IMPORTANCE This study showed a very useful backward compatibility between PFGE and MLST for surveillance. The results enabled better understanding of the population structure of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from food and management of the health risks associated with L. monocytogenes food strains. Moreover, this work provided an accurate view

  10. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to monitor a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in frankfurter packages.

    PubMed

    Porto, Anna C S; Wonderling, Laura; Call, Jeffrey E; Luchansky, John B

    2003-08-01

    In a previous study, the viability of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes (including Scott A [serotype 4b, clinical isolate], 101M [serotype 4b, beef-pork sausage isolate], F6854 [serotype 1/2a, turkey frankfurter isolate], H7776 [serotype 4b, frankfurter isolate], and MFS-2 [serotype 1/2a, pork plant isolate]) was monitored during refrigerated storage of frankfurters prepared with and without 3.0% added potassium lactate. Throughout a 90-day period of storage at 4 degrees C, the initial inoculum level of 20 CFU per package remained relatively constant in packages containing frankfurters prepared with potassium lactate, but pathogen counts increased to 4.6 log10 CFU in packages containing frankfurters prepared without added potassium lactate. To determine which of the five strains persisted under these conditions, randomly selected colonies obtained after 28 and 90 days of refrigerated storage of frankfurters were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with the restriction enzyme SmaI to generate distinct banding patterns for each of the five strains. Then, with the use of PFGE as a tool for identification, the percentages of the strains on days 28 and 90 of the growth study were compared. In the absence of any added potassium lactate in the product, 43% of the 58 isolates recovered on day 28 were identified as strain Scott A, 12% were identified as strain 101M, 22% were identified as strain F6854, 10% were identified as strain H7776, and 12% were identified as strain MFS-2. However, by day 90, an appreciable number (83%) of the 60 isolates analyzed were identified as strain MFS-2. In packages containing frankfurters formulated with 3.0% potassium lactate, all five strains were present at frequencies of 5 to 36% among the 19 isolates tested on day 28; however, by day 90, strain MFS-2 made up the statistical majority (63%) of the 27 isolates tested. The results of this study indicate that strain MFS-2, a serotype 1/2a isolate recovered from

  11. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE BUILDING 3550 SLAB AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-05-08

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Building 3550 Slab. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey is to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) to document that the final radiological condition of the slab meets the release guidelines. Verification survey activities on the Building 3550 Slab that included scans, measurements, and the collection of smears. Scans for alpha, alpha plus beta, and gamma activity identified several areas that were investigated.

  12. High-resolution separation and accurate size determination in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA. 1. DNA size standards and the effect of agarose and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, M.K.; Smith, C.L.; Cantor, C.R. )

    1988-12-27

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PGF) subjects DNA alternately to two electrical fields to resolve DNA ranging from 10,000 base pairs (10 kb) to 10,000 kb in size. The separations are quite sensitive to a variety of experimental variables. This makes it critical to have a wide range of reliable size standards. A technique is described for preparing mixtures of bacteriophage DNA oligomers that span a size range from monomer to more than 30-mer. The relationship between size and mobility of oligomers of different bacteriophage DNA monomers is generally self-consistent. Thus, these samples can serve as primary length standards for DNAs ranging from 10 kb to more than 1,500 kb. They have been used to estimate the size of the chromosomal DNAs from various Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and to test the effect of gel concentration and temperature on PFG. DNA resolution during PFG is slightly improved in agarose gels with small pore sizes, in contrast to continuous electrophoresis where the opposite is observed. PFG mobility is surprisingly sensitive to changes in the running temperature.

  13. The slab geometry laser. I - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, J. M.; Kane, T. J.; Kuhn, K.; Byer, R. L.; Unternahrer, J.

    1984-01-01

    Slab geometry solid-state lasers offer significant performance improvements over conventional rod-geometry lasers. A detailed theoretical description of the thermal, stress, and beam-propagation characteristics of a slab laser is presented. The analysis includes consideration of the effects of the zig-zag optical path, which eliminates thermal and stress focusing and reduces residual birefringence.

  14. Applying MHD technology to the continuous casting of steel slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Eiichi

    1995-05-01

    The application of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in the continuous casting process started with the electromagnetic stirring of the stand pool with a traveling magnetic field. It has now advanced to the electromagnetic stirring of molten steel in the mold and the control of molten steel flow by an in-mold direct current magnetic field brake. These applied MHD techniques are designed to further improve the continuous casting process capability. They improve the surface quality of cast steel by homogenizing the meniscus temperature, stabilizing initial solidification, and cleaning the surface layer. They also improve the internal quality of cast steel by preventing inclusions from penetrating deep into the pool and promoting the flotation of argon bubbles. Applied MHD technology is still advancing in scope and methods in addition to the improvement of conventional continuously cast slab qualities. The continuous casting of bimetallic slab by suppressing mixing in the pool is one example of this progress.

  15. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  16. Magnetoelectric sensor excitations in hexaferrite slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-06-01

    We developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric (ME) hexaferrite slabs in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz. Novel circuit designs incorporating both spiral and solenoid coils and single and multi-capacitor banks were developed to probe the physics and properties of ME hexaferrites and explore ME effects for sensor detections. Fundamental measurements of the anisotropic tensor elements of the magneto-electric coupling parameter were performed using these novel techniques. In addition, for H-field sensing experiments we measured sensitivity of about 3000 Vm-1/G using solenoid coils and 8000 Vm-1/G using spiral coils. For E-field, sensing the sensitivity was 10-4 G/Vm-1 and using single capacitor detector. Sensitivity for multi-capacitor detectors was measured to be in the order of 10-3 G/Vm-1 and frequency dependent exhibiting a maximum value at ˜1 MHz. Tunability of 0.1%-90% was achieved for tunable inductor applications using both single and multi-capacitors excitation. We believe that significant (˜106) improvements in sensitivity and tunability are feasible with simple modifications of the fabrication process.

  17. Slab stagnation and detachment under northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Results of tomography models around the Japanese Islands show the existence of a gap between the horizontally lying (stagnant) slab extending under northeastern China and the fast seismic velocity anomaly in the lower mantle. A simple conversion from the fast velocity anomaly to the low-temperature anomaly shows a similar feature. This feature appears to be inconsistent with the results of numerical simulations on the interaction between the slab and phase transitions with temperature-dependent viscosity. Such numerical models predict a continuous slab throughout the mantle. I extend previous analyses of the tomography model and model calculations to infer the origins of the gap beneath northeastern China. Results of numerical simulations that take the geologic history of the subduction zone into account suggest two possible origins for the gap: (1) the opening of the Japan Sea led to a breaking off of the otherwise continuous subducting slab, or (2) the western edge of the stagnant slab is the previous subducted ridge, which was the plate boundary between the extinct Izanagi and the Pacific plates. Origin (2) suggesting the present horizontally lying slab has accumulated since the ridge subduction, is preferable for explaining the present length of the horizontally lying slab in the upper mantle. Numerical models of origin (1) predict a stagnant slab in the upper mantle that is too short, and a narrow or non-existent gap. Preferred models require rather stronger flow resistance of the 660-km phase change than expected from current estimates of the phase transition property. Future detailed estimates of the amount of the subducted Izanagi plate and the present stagnant slab would be useful to constrain models. A systematic along-arc variation of the slab morphology from the northeast Japan to Kurile arcs is also recognized, and its understanding may constrain the 3D mantle flow there.

  18. Microchip capillary gel electrophoresis using programmed field strength gradients for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Jeong; Chae, Joon-Seok; Chang, Jun Keun; Kang, Seong Ho

    2005-08-12

    We have developed a novel method for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in soybeans by microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (MCGE) using programmed field strength gradients (PFSG) in a conventional glass double-T microchip. Under the programmed electric field strength and 0.3% poly(ethylene oxide) sieving matrix, the GMO in soybeans was analyzed within only 11 s of the microchip. The MCGE-PFSG method was a program that changes the electric field strength during GMO analysis, and was also applied to the ultra-fast analysis of PCR products. Compared to MCGE using a conventional and constantly applied electric field, the MCGE-PFSG analysis generated faster results without the loss of resolving power and reproducibility for specific DNA fragments (100- and 250-bp DNA) of GM-soybeans. The MCGE-PFSG technique may prove to be a new tool in the GMO analysis due to its speed, simplicity, and high efficiency.

  19. Three-dimensional Numerical Models of Slab Edges: Implications for Mantle Upwelling and Anomalous Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadamec, M.; Moresi, L. N.; Durance-Sie, P. M.; Mclean, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    addition, higher temperatures in the mantle wedge in regions of active back arc spreading and young oceanic lithosphere in the upper plate can enhance slab melting and lead to increased mantle flow velocities due to the reduction in the temperature-dependent viscosity. Models of this kind can provide a framework for interpreting how the 3D solid state flow field may influence melt migration patterns in subduction zones with slab edges.

  20. A numerical model for calculating vibration due to a harmonic moving load on a floating-slab track with discontinuous slabs in an underground railway tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a new method for modelling floating-slab tracks with discontinuous slabs in underground railway tunnels. The track is subjected to a harmonic load moving with a constant velocity. The model consists of two sub-models. The first is an infinite track with periodic double-beam unit formulated as a periodic infinite structure. The second is modelled with a new version of the Pipe-in-Pipe (PiP) model that accounts for a tunnel wall embedded in a half-space. The two sub-models are coupled by writing the force transmitted from the track to the tunnel as a continuous function using Fourier series representation and satisfying the compatibility condition. The displacements at the free surface are calculated for a track with discontinuous slab and compared with those of a track with continuous slab. The results show that the far-field vibration can be significantly increased due to resonance frequencies of slabs for tracks with discontinuous slabs.

  1. Cretaceous Arctic magmatism: Slab vs. plume? Or slab and plume?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, E. S.; Miller, E. L.; Andronikov, A. V.; Brumley, K.; Mayer, L. A.; Mukasa, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    Tectonic models for the Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent landmasses propose that rifting in the Amerasia Basin (AB) began in Jura-Cretaceous time, accompanied by the development of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). During the same timespan, deformation and slab-related magmatism, followed by intra-arc rifting, took place along the Pacific side of what was to become the Arctic Ocean. A compilation and comparison of the ages, characteristics and space-time variation of circum-Arctic magmatism allows for a better understanding of the role of Pacific margin versus Arctic-Atlantic plate tectonics and the role of plume-related magmatism in the origin of the Arctic Ocean. In Jura-Cretaceous time, an arc built upon older terranes overthrust the Arctic continental margins of North America and Eurasia, shedding debris into foreland basins in the Brooks Range, Alaska, across Chukotka, Russia, to the Lena Delta and New Siberian Islands region of the Russian Arctic. These syn-tectonic sediments have some common sources (e.g., ~250-300 Ma magmatic rocks) as determined by U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology. They are as young as Valanginian-Berriasian (~136 Ma, Gradstein et al., 2004) and place a lower limit on the age of formation of the AB. Subsequent intrusions of granitoid plutons, inferred to be ultimately slab-retreat related, form a belt along the far eastern Russian Arctic continental margin onto Seward Peninsula and have yielded a continuous succession of zircon U-Pb ages from ~137-95 Ma (n=28) and a younger suite ~91-82 Ma (n=16). All plutons dated were intruded in an extensional tectonic setting based on their relations to wall-rock deformation. Regional distribution of ages shows a southward migration of the locus of magmatism during Cretaceous time. Basaltic lavas as old as 130 Ma and as young as 80 Ma (40Ar/39Ar)) erupted across the Canadian Arctic Islands, Svalbard and Franz Josef Land and are associated with

  2. Tunable structures comprising two photonic crystal slabs--optical study in view of multi-analyte enhanced detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lina; Pottier, Pierre; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Peter, Yves-Alain

    2009-06-22

    Using finite-difference time-domain method, we characterize the normal-incidence transmission properties of a two slab photonic crystal device in a view of its applications in fluorescence enhancement and multi-analyte detection. Individual slabs consist of a square or a triangular lattice of air holes embedded into a silicon nitride slab. The geometrical parameters are chosen so that the individual slabs operate in a guided resonance regime where strong reflectivity under the normal incidence angle is observed in a broad spectral range. When placed in the close proximity of each other, the two photonic crystal slab system exhibits a narrow Fabry-Perot type transmission peak corresponding to the excitation of a resonant mode in the cavity formed by the two slabs. We then study the effects of the size of the air gap between the two photonic crystal slabs on the spectral position and bandwidth of a resonance transmission peak. Finally, we investigate the electromagnetic energy distributions at the wavelength of a transmission resonance in the double slab photonic crystals. As a final result we demonstrate that this structure can provide electric field enhancement at the slab surface, which can be used for fluorescence enhancement.

  3. A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J. T.; Phillips, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    In May and July, 1997, a consortia of operators and service companies conducted a series of hydraulic fracture imaging tests in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of East Texas (Walker, 1997). Microseismic data were collected and processed for six hydraulic fracture treatments in two wells (3 completion intervals per well) (Mayerhofer et al., 2000). One well was completed with gel-proppant treatments in which a viscous crosslink gel was injected to entrain high concentrations of sand proppant into formation. The second well was completed using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs). Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost. Mayerhofer and Meehan (1998) suggest two possible reasons why waterfracs are successful: (1) Induced shear displacement along natural and hydraulic fractures results in self-propping (shear dilation enhanced by fracture branching, proppant and spalled rock fragments), and (2) Fracture extension and cleanup is easier to achieve with low-viscosity fluids. With improved source location precision and focal mechanism determination (fracture plane orientation and sense of slip), we have reexamined the Cotton Valley data, comparing the seismicity induced by water and gel-proppant treatments at common depth intervals. We have improved the location precision and computed focal mechanism of microearthquakes induced during a series of hydraulic fracture completions within the Cotton Valley formation of East Texas. Conventional gel-proppant treatments and treatments using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs) were monitored. Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost (Mayerhofer and Meehan, 1998). Comparison of the seismicity induced by the two treatment types show similar distributions of

  4. Detecting slab structure beneath the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Sun, Daoyuan; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    The presence of subducted slabs in the Mediterranean has been well documented with seismic tomography, however, these images, which are produced by smoothed, damped inversions, underestimate the sharpness of the structures. The position and extent of the slabs and the presence possible tears or gaps in the subducted lithosphere are still debated, yet the shape and location these structures are important for kinematic reconstructions and evolution of the entire subduction zone system. Extensive distribution of broadband seismic instrumentation in the Mediterranean (Italian National Seismic Network in Italy and the NSF-PICASSO project in Spain and Morocco) has allowed us to use alternative methodologies to detect the position of the slabs and slab tears beneath the Central and Western Mediterranean. Using S receiver functions we are able to identify S-to-p conversions from the bottom of the subducted slab and a lack of these signals where there are gaps or tears in the slab. We also analyze broadband waveforms for changes in P wave coda from deep (> 300 km depth) local earthquakes. The waveform records for stations in southern Italy and around the Betic-Rif show large amplitude, high frequency (f > 5 Hz) late arrivals with long coda after relatively low-frequency onset. High frequency arrivals are the strongest from events whose raypaths travel within the slab to the stations where they are recorded allowing for mapping of where the subducted material is located within the upper mantle. These two methods, along with inferring the slab position from fast P-wave velocity perturbations in tomography and intermediate depth seismicity, provide additional geophysical evidence to aid in interpretation of the complex, segmented slab structure beneath the Mediterranean.

  5. Emergence of a mutL mutation causing multilocus sequence typing-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis discrepancy among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a cystic fibrosis patient.

    PubMed

    García-Castillo, María; Máiz, Luis; Morosini, María-Isabel; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Suarez, Lucrecia; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; del Campo, Rosa

    2012-05-01

    A multilocus sequence type (MLST) shift (from ST242 to ST996) was detected in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a uniform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern obtained from a chronically colonized patient. MLST mutational change involved the mutL gene with the consequent emergence of a hypermutable phenotype. This observation challenges the required neutrality of mutL as an appropriate marker in MLST and alerts researchers to the limitations of MLST-only-based population studies in chronic infections under constant antibiotic selective pressure.

  6. Emergence of a mutL Mutation Causing Multilocus Sequence Typing–Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Discrepancy among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    García-Castillo, María; Máiz, Luis; Morosini, María-Isabel; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Suarez, Lucrecia; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    A multilocus sequence type (MLST) shift (from ST242 to ST996) was detected in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a uniform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern obtained from a chronically colonized patient. MLST mutational change involved the mutL gene with the consequent emergence of a hypermutable phenotype. This observation challenges the required neutrality of mutL as an appropriate marker in MLST and alerts researchers to the limitations of MLST-only-based population studies in chronic infections under constant antibiotic selective pressure. PMID:22322352

  7. An improved protocol for the preparation and restriction enzyme digestion of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis agarose plugs for the analysis of Legionella isolates.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bin; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Watanabe, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which determines the genomic relatedness of isolates, is currently used for the epidemiological investigation of infectious agents such as bacteria. In particular, this method has been used for the epidemiological investigation of Legionella outbreaks. However, it takes 4 days to complete a Legionella-PFGE analysis. Due to partial digestion and DNA damage, the reproducibility of the obtained fragment digestion patterns is poor for this pathogen. In this study, we report an improved protocol that takes only 2 days to complete and that allows clear discrimination of the restriction profile with higher reproducibility than that previously achieved.

  8. Application Improvements of Slab-Coupled Optical Fiber Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadderdon, Spencer Lee

    This dissertation explores techniques for improving slab-coupled optical fiber sensor (SCOS) technology for use in specific applications and sensing configurations. SCOS are advantageous for their small size and all-dielectric composition which permit non-intrusive measurement of electric fields within compact environments; however, their small size also limits their sensitivity. This work performs a thorough analysis of the factors contributing to the performance of SCOS and demonstrates methods which improve SCOS, while maintaining its small dimensions and high level of directional sensitivity. These improvements include increasing the sensitivity by 9x, improving the frequency response to include sub 300 kHz frequencies, and developing a method to tune the resonances. The analysis shows that the best material for the slab waveguide is an electro-optic polymer because of its low RF permittivity combined with high electro-optic coefficient. Additional improvements are based on changing the crystal orientation to a transverse configuration, which enhances the sensitivity due to a combined increase in the effective electro-optic coefficient and electric field penetration into the slab. The transverse SCOS configuration not only improves the overall sensitivity but increases the directional sensitivity of the SCOS. Lithium niobate and electro-optic polymer are both experimentally shown to exhibit minimal frequency dependent sensitivity making them suitable for broad frequency applications. Simultaneous interrogation of multiple SCOS with a single tunable laser is achieved by tuning the resonant wavelengths of KTP SCOS so their resonances overlap.

  9. Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Despoja, Vito

    2011-05-15

    We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

  10. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.S.; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1989-04-25

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower and of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  11. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, Carol S.; Tollaksen, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  12. Seismic evidence for rotating mantle flow around subducting slab edge associated with oceanic microplate capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Stephen G.; Audet, Pascal; L'Heureux, Ivan

    2014-07-01

    Tectonic plate reorganization at a subduction zone edge is a fundamental process that controls oceanic plate fragmentation and capture. However, the various factors responsible for these processes remain elusive. We characterize seismic anisotropy of the upper mantle in the Explorer region at the northern limit of the Cascadia subduction zone from teleseismic shear wave splitting measurements. Our results show that the mantle flow field beneath the Explorer slab is rotating anticlockwise from the convergence-parallel motion between the Juan de Fuca and the North America plates, re-aligning itself with the transcurrent motion between the Pacific and North America plates. We propose that oceanic microplate fragmentation is driven by slab stretching, thus reorganizing the mantle flow around the slab edge and further contributing to slab weakening and increase in buoyancy, eventually leading to cessation of subduction and microplate capture.

  13. The Implementation of Slab Geometry for Membrane-Channel Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bostick, David; Berkowitz, Max L.

    2003-01-01

    Slab geometric boundary conditions are applied in the molecular dynamics simulation of a simple membrane-channel system. The results of the simulation were compared to those of an analogous system using normal three-dimensional periodic boundary conditions. Analysis of the dynamics and electrostatics of the system show that slab geometric periodicity eliminates the artificial bulk water orientational polarization that is present while using normal three-dimensional periodicity. Furthermore, even though the water occupancy and volume of our simple channel is the same when using either method, the electrostatic properties are considerably different when using slab geometry. In particular, the orientational polarization of water is seen to be different in the interior of the channel. This gives rise to a markedly different electric field within the channel. We discuss the implications of slab geometry for the future simulation of this type of system and for the study of channel transport properties. PMID:12829468

  14. The use of high field strength and parallel imaging techniques for MRI-based gel dosimetry in stereotactic radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seimenis, I.; Moutsatsos, A.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Kantemiris, I.; Benekos, O.; Efstathopoulos, E.; Papagiannis, P.; Spevacek, V.; Semnicka, J.; Dvorak, P.

    2009-07-01

    The poor clinical acceptance of polymer gel dosimetry for dose verification in stereotactic radio-surgery applications stems, inter alia, from the increased MRI acquisition times needed to meet the associated spatial resolution demands. To examine whether this could be partly alleviated by the employment of 3 Tesla imagers and parallel imaging techniques, a PolyAcrylamide Gel filled tube was irradiated in a Leksell Gamma Knife unit with two single irradiation shots (4 mm and 8 mm) and underwent four different scanning sessions using an optimised, volume selective, 32 echo CPMG pulse sequence: One performed on a 1.5 T imager with 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 in-plane spatial resolution and 0.75 mm slice thickness (scan A), while the rest three on a 3.0 T imager; one with the same spatial resolution as in scan A (scan B) and two with finer in-plane resolution (scans C and D). In scans B and C the sensitivity encoding (SENSE) parallel imaging technique was employed. Relative dose distributions derived by scan A were benchmarked against Monte Carlo and treatment planning system calculations, and then used as the reference for the comparison of 2D relative dose distributions derived by each scan in terms of dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria (γ index tool). Findings suggest that careful MRI planning based on a figure of merit accounting for scanning time and precision for a given increase in spatial resolution, could facilitate the introduction of polymer gel dosimetry into the clinical setting as a practical quality assurance tool for complex radio-surgery techniques.

  15. Three-dimensional Numerical Models of Mantle Flow Through the Cocos-Nazca Slab Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadamec, M.; Fischer, K. M.

    2013-05-01

    , seafloor ages, and geologic history are used to construct the variable thickness of the overriding Caribbean and South American plates (Feng et al., 2007; Muller et al., 2008; Rychert et al., 2008; Abt et al., 2010b; Lekic and Romanowicz, 2011; Yuan et al., 2011). The predicted motion of the Cocos and Nazca plates are compared to observed plate motions (DeMets and Dixon, 1999) and the predicted mantle flow fields are compared to local S wave and teleseismic SK(K)S observations of seismic anisotropy (Abt et al., 2009, 2010a). The direction of Cocos and Nazca surface plate motion is reasonably well reproduced regardless of whether the Cocos and Nazca slabs are a continuous slab at depth or separated by a gap. However, the inclusion of a gap between the Cocos and Nazca slabs has a significant effect on the mantle flow field, reversing the direction of the slab entrained flow beneath the Caribbean plate and resulting in counterclockwise toroidal flow around the southern Cocos slab edge and clockwise toroidal flow around the northern Nazca slab edge. The results have implications for the initiation slab tears and indicate complexity in the coupling between the lithosphere and mantle in subduction zones.

  16. A simple analytical solution for slab detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2011-04-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the nonlinear dynamics of high amplitude necking in a free layer of power-law fluid extended in layer-parallel direction due to buoyancy stress. The solution is one-dimensional (1-D) and contains three dimensionless parameters: the thinning factor (i.e. ratio of current to initial layer thickness), the power-law stress exponent, n, and the ratio of time to the characteristic deformation time of a viscous layer under buoyancy stress, t/ tc. tc is the ratio of the layer's effective viscosity to the applied buoyancy stress. The value of tc/ n specifies the time for detachment, i.e. the time it takes until the layer thickness has thinned to zero. The first-order accuracy of the 1-D solution is confirmed with 2-D finite element simulations of buoyancy-driven necking in a layer of power-law fluid embedded in a linear or power-law viscous medium. The analytical solution is accurate within a factor about 2 if the effective viscosity ratio between the layer and the medium is larger than about 100 and if the medium is a power-law fluid. The analytical solution is applied to slab detachment using dislocation creep laws for dry and wet olivine. Results show that one of the most important parameters controlling the dynamics of slab detachment is the strength of the slab which strongly depends on temperature and rheological parameters. The fundamental conclusions concerning slab detachment resulting from both the analytical solution and from earlier published thermo-mechanical numerical simulations agree well, indicating the usefulness of the highly simplified analytical solution for better understanding slab detachment. Slab detachment resulting from viscous necking is a combination of inhomogeneous thinning due to varying buoyancy stress within the slab and a necking instability due to the power-law viscous rheology ( n > 1). Application of the analytical solution to the Hindu Kush slab provides no "order-of-magnitude argument" against

  17. Photocatalytic, highly hydrophilic porcelain stoneware slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, M.; Guarini, G.; Zanelli, C.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.; Dondi, M.

    2011-10-01

    Photocatalytic, highly hydrophilic industrial porcelain stoneware large slabs were realized by deposition of nanostructured TiO2 coatings. Different surface finishing and experimental conditions were considered in order to assess the industrial feasibility. Photocatalytic and wetting behaviour of functionalized slabs mainly depends on surface phase composition in terms of anatase/rutile ratio, this involving - as a key issue - the deposition of TiO2 on industrially sintered products with an additional annealing step to strengthen coatings' performances and durability.

  18. Behavior of Partially Restrained Reinforced Concrete Slabs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Experimental Deflections and Coupling Forces. ........ 72 3.4 Method of Approximating Support Rotations . . . 76 3.5 Free-Body Diagram Used in Computing...common types of structural elements. Slabs are found in practically every type of structural system, ’ whether steel or concrete, single -story or...Because of the nature of reinforced concrete slabs, accurate evaluations of stresses, strains, and deflections are difficult to make by elasticity

  19. Differential single nucleotide polymorphism-based analysis of an outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Manhattan reveals epidemiological details missed by standard pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Scaltriti, Erika; Sassera, Davide; Comandatore, Francesco; Morganti, Marina; Mandalari, Carmen; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bandi, Claudio; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pongolini, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    We retrospectively analyzed a rare Salmonella enterica serovar Manhattan outbreak that occurred in Italy in 2009 to evaluate the potential of new genomic tools based on differential single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in comparison with the gold standard genotyping method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 39 isolates were analyzed from patients (n=15) and food, feed, animal, and environmental sources (n=24), resulting in five different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Isolates epidemiologically related to the outbreak clustered within the same pulsotype, SXB_BS.0003, without any further differentiation. Thirty-three isolates were considered for genomic analysis based on different sets of SNPs, core, synonymous, nonsynonymous, as well as SNPs in different codon positions, by Bayesian and maximum likelihood algorithms. Trees generated from core and nonsynonymous SNPs, as well as SNPs at the second and first plus second codon positions detailed four distinct groups of isolates within the outbreak pulsotype, discriminating outbreak-related isolates of human and food origins. Conversely, the trees derived from synonymous and third-codon-position SNPs clustered food and human isolates together, indicating that all outbreak-related isolates constituted a single clone, which was in line with the epidemiological evidence. Further experiments are in place to extend this approach within our regional enteropathogen surveillance system.

  20. Standing sausage modes in curved coronal slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Magnetohydrodynamic waveguides such as dense coronal loops can support standing modes. The ratios of the periods of oscillations for different longitudinal harmonics depend on the dispersive nature of the waveguide and so may be used as a seismological tool to determine coronal parameters. Aims: We extend models of standing sausage modes in low β coronal loops to include the effects of loop curvature. The behaviour of standing sausage modes in this geometry is used to explain the properties of observed oscillations that cannot be accounted for using straight loop models. Methods: We perform 2D numerical simulations of an oscillating coronal loop, modelled as a dense slab embedded in a potential magnetic field. The loop is field-aligned and so experiences expansion with height in addition to being curved. Standing sausage modes are excited by compressive perturbations of the loop and their properties are studied. Results: The spatial profiles of standing sausage modes are found to be modified by the expanding loop geometry typical for flaring loops and modelled by a potential magnetic field in our simulations. Longitudinal harmonics of order n > 1 have anti-nodes that are shifted towards the loop apex and the amplitude of anti-nodes near the loop apex is smaller than those near the loop footpoints. Conclusions: We find that the observation of standing sausage modes by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph in a flaring coronal loop on 12 January 2000 is consistent with interpretation in terms of the global mode (n = 1) and third harmonic (n = 3). This interpretation accounts for the period ratio and spatial structure of the observed oscillations.

  1. Application of PCR-denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to examine microbial community structure in asparagus fields with growth inhibition due to continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE.

  2. SU-D-213-06: Dosimetry of Modulated Electron Radiation Therapy Using Fricke Gel Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gawad, M Abdel; Elgohary, M; Hassaan, M; Emam, M; Desouky, O; Eldib, A; Ma, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) has been proposed as an effective modality for treatment of superficial targets. MERT utilizes multiple beams of different energies which are intensity modulated to deliver optimized dose distribution. Energy independent dosimeters are thus needed for quantitative evaluations of MERT dose distributions and measurements of absolute doses delivered to patients. Thus in the current work we study the feasibility of Fricke gel dosimeters in MERT dosimetry. Methods: Batches of radiation sensitive Fricke gel is fabricated and poured into polymethyl methacrylate cuvettes. The samples were irradiated in solid water phantom and a thick layer of bolus was used as a buildup. A spectrophotometer system was used for measuring the color changes (the absorbance) before and after irradiation and then we calculate net absorbance. We constructed calibration curves to relate the measured absorbance in terms of absorbed dose for all available electron energies. Dosimetric measurements were performed for mixed electron beam delivery and we also performed measurement for segmented field delivery with the dosimeter placed at the junction of two adjacent electron beams of different energies. Dose measured by our gel dosimetry is compared to that calculation from our precise treatment planning system. We also initiated a Monte Carlo study to evaluate the water equivalence of our dosimeters. MCBEAM and MCSIM codes were used for treatment head simulation and phantom dose calculation. PDDs and profiles were calculated for electron beams incident on a phantom designed with 1cm slab of Fricke gel. Results: The calibration curves showed no observed energy dependence with all studied electron beam energies. Good agreement was obtained between dose calculated and that obtained by gel dosimetry. Monte Carlo results illustrated the tissue equivalency of our Gel dosimeters. Conclusion: Fricke Gel dosimeters represent a good option for the dosimetric

  3. Embedded ceria nanoparticles in gel improve electrophoretic separation: a preliminary demonstration.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Goharshadi, Elaheh K

    2015-07-07

    Slab gel electrophoresis is still the gold standard method for the separation of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA with advantages such as simplicity, affordability, and high throughput, but it suffers from inadequate separation speed and resolution. Single capillary gel electrophoresis, on the other hand, offers faster separation time and improved resolution at the expense of higher cost and loss of high throughput capability. The high surface to volume ratio of the capillary causes improved heat dissipation leading to a reduced Joule heating and a higher resolution. Here, for the first time, we show the use of dispersed ceria nanoparticles (NPs) to improve the resolution and speed of protein separation in slab gel electrophoresis. We measured the rheological parameters of separation medium in order to find a meaningful relationship between viscosity changes, Joule heating, and band broadening. The results showed that ceria NPs decrease the viscosity of polyacrylamide gel. By loading 0.03% (w/v) ceria NPs into polyacrylamide gel at 25 °C, the viscosity decreased 22% and the thermal conductivity increased to 81%, which resulted in 35% reduction in Joule heating and 47% increase in resolution. This work is a cross disciplinary of theoretical physical chemistry for thermal conductivity and rheological measurements of PA and ceria suspensions and application in slab gel electrophoresis. We report here, for the first time, that embedded NPs in PA gel could potentially interface high throughput capability of slab gel electrophoresis with high separation speed of single capillary electrophoresis.

  4. Crystallization from Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  5. Was there a Laramide "flat slab"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Slab-continent interactions drive most non-collisional orogenies; this has led us to usually anticipate that temporal changes or spatial variations in orogenic style are related to changes in the slab, most especially in the slab's dip. This is most dramatically evident for orogenies in the foreland, well away from the trench, such as the Laramide orogeny. However, the physical means of connecting slab geometry to crustal deformation remain obscure. Dickinson and Snyder (1978) and Bird (1984) laid out a conceptually elegant means of creating foreland deformation from shear between a slab and overriding continental lithosphere, but such strong shear removed all of the continental lithosphere in the western U.S. when included in a numerical simulation of flat slab subduction (Bird, 1988), a removal in conflict with observations of volcanic rocks and xenoliths in many locations. Relying on an increase in edge normal stresses results, for the Laramide, in requiring the little-deformed Colorado Plateau to either be unusually strong or to have risen rapidly enough and high enough to balance edge stresses with body forces. Early deformation in the Plateau rules out unusual strength, and the accumulation and preservation of Late Cretaceous near-sea level sedimentary rocks makes profound uplift unlikely (though not impossible). Relying on comparisons with the Sierras Pampeanas is also fraught with problems: the Sierras are not separated from the Andean fold-and-thrust belt by several hundred kilometers of little-deformed crust, nor were they buried under kilometers of marine muds as were large parts of the Laramide foreland. We have instead suggested that some unusual interactions of an obliquely subducting plate with a thick Archean continental root might provide a better explanation than a truly flat slab (Jones et al., 2011). From this, and given that several flat-slab segments today are not associated with foreland orogenesis and noting that direct evidence for truly

  6. Influence of weak layer heterogeneity on slab avalanche release. Application to the evaluation of avalanche release depths.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, J.; Chambon, G.; Eckert, N.; Naaim, M.

    2012-04-01

    Slab avalanches are generally caused by the collapse of a weak layer underlying a cohesive slab. The two key ingredients for the mechanical description of such slab avalanche releases are the heterogeneity of the weak layer and the redistribution of stresses via the elasticity of the slab. The finite element code Cast3M is used to build a complete full-scale mechanical model of the slab-weak layer system including inertial effects. The weak layer is modeled as a cohesive Mohr-Coulomb interface with cohesion softening which accounts for shear-induced collapse. The overlying slab is represented by an elastic layer. The system is loaded by increasing the slope angle until rupture. We first study the influence of a single weak spot in the weak layer in order to validate the model against analytical solutions. The interaction between two weak spots is also analyzed. The case of heterogeneous weak layers represented through Gaussian stochastic distributions of the cohesion with a spherical spatial covariance is then studied. Several simulations for different realizations of the heterogeneity of the weak layer are carried out and the influence of slab depth and heterogeneity correlation length on avalanche release angle distributions is examined. In particular a heterogeneity smoothing effect caused by slab elasticity and characterized by a typical length scale of the system is evidenced. Finally the model is coupled with extreme snowfall distributions belonging to the GEV class, which allows to recover with very good accuracy release depth distributions obtained from field data.

  7. Calculation of spin and orbital magnetizations in Fe slab systems at finite temperature.

    PubMed

    Garibay-Alonso, R; Reyes-Reyes, M; Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; López-Sandoval, R

    2010-02-10

    The temperature dependence of spin and orbital local magnetizations is theoretically determined for the non-bulk atomic region of (001) and (110) Fe slab systems. A d band Hamiltonian, including spin-orbit coupling terms, was used to model the slabs, which were emulated by using Fe films of sufficient thickness to reach a bulk behavior at their most inner atomic layers. The temperature effects were considered within the static approximation and a simple mean field theory was used to integrate the local magnetic moment and charge thermal fluctuations. The results reflect a clear interplay between electronic itinerancy and the local atomic environment and they can be physically interpreted from the local small charge transfers occurring in the superficial region of the slabs. For recovering the experimental behavior on the results for the (001) slab system, the geometrical relaxations at its non-bulk atomic layers and a d band filling variation are required. A study on the magnetic anisotropy aspects in the superficial region of the slabs is additionally performed by analyzing the results for the orbital local magnetization calculated along two different magnetization directions in both slab systems.

  8. Ultra-low field T1 vs. T1rho at 3T and 7T: study of rotationally immobilized protein gels and animal brain tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Inglis, Ben; Barr, Ian; Clarke, John

    2015-03-01

    Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines operating in static fields of typically 1.5 T or 3 T can capture information on slow molecular dynamics utilizing the so-called T1rho technique. This technique, in which a radiofrequency (RF) spin-lock field is applied with microtesla amplitude, has been used, for example, to determine the onset time of stroke in studies on rats. The long RF pulse, however, may exceed the specific absorption rate (SAR) limit, putting subjects at risk. Ultra-low-field (ULF) MRI, based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), directly detects proton signals at a static magnetic field of typically 50-250 μT. Using our ULF MRI system with adjustable static field of typically 55 to 240 μT, we systematically measured the T1 and T2 dispersion profiles of rotationally immobilized protein gels (bovine serum albumin), ex vivo pig brains, and ex vivo rat brains with induced stroke. Comparing the ULF results with T1rho dispersion obtained at 3 T and 7 T, we find that the degree of protein immobilization determines the frequency-dependence of both T1 and T1rho. Furthermore, T1rho and ULF T1 show similar results for stroke, suggesting that ULF MRI may be used to image traumatic brain injury with negligible SAR. This research was supported by the Henry H. Wheeler, Jr. Brain Imaging Center and the Donaldson Trust.

  9. Cracking behavior of structural slab bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baah, Prince

    Bridge deck cracking is a common problem throughout the United States, and it affects the durability and service life of concrete bridges. Several departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States prefer using continuous three-span solid structural slab bridges without stringers over typical four-lane highways. Recent inspections of such bridges in Ohio revealed cracks as wide as 0.125 in. These measured crack widths are more than ten times the maximum limit recommended in ACI 224R-01 for bridge decks exposed to de-icing salts. Measurements using digital image correlation revealed that the cracks widened under truck loading, and in some cases, the cracks did not fully close after unloading. This dissertation includes details of an experimental investigation of the cracking behavior of structural concrete. Prism tests revealed that the concrete with epoxy-coated bars (ECB) develops the first crack at smaller loads, and develops larger crack widths compared to the corresponding specimens with uncoated (black) bars. Slab tests revealed that the slabs with longitudinal ECB developed first crack at smaller loads, exhibited wider cracks and a larger number of cracks, and failed at smaller ultimate loads compared to the corresponding test slabs with black bars. To develop a preventive measure, slabs with basalt and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete were also included in the test program. These test slabs exhibited higher cracking loads, smaller crack widths, and higher ultimate loads at failure compared to the corresponding slab specimens without fibers. Merely satisfying the reinforcement spacing requirements given in AASHTO or ACI 318-11 is not adequate to limit cracking below the ACI 224R-01 recommended maximum limit, even though all the relevant design requirements are otherwise met. Addition of fiber to concrete without changing any steel reinforcing details is expected to reduce the severity and extent of cracking in reinforced concrete bridge decks.

  10. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in a slab defected with monolayer graphene nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solookinejad, Gh.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) properties of weak probe light in a defect dielectric medium doped by four-level graphene nanostructure is theoretically discussed. The double dark resonance can arise by linear polarized control laser fields which consist of linear left and right circularly polarized light. We show that by adjusting the Rabi-frequencies of control fields, frequency detuning of bichromatic electric fields, the intensity threshold and hysteric curves of OB and OM can be manipulated. Moreover, the thickness of the slab is considered as a controllable parameter which can impact the OB and OM behaviors of weak probe light in a defect slab. We find that the transition from OB to OM or vice versa can be possible by adjusting the thickness of the slab. Our results may provide some new application on Nano-scale devices in future all-optical communication and quantum information technologies.

  11. Evaluation and comparison of random amplification of polymorphic DNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ADSRRS-fingerprinting for typing Serratia marcescens outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Beata; Naumiuk, Lukasz; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Baraniak, Anna; Gniadkowski, Marek; Samet, Alfred; Kur, Józef

    2003-10-15

    Amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS-fingerprinting) is a novel assay based on suppression of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This phenomenon allows the amplification of only a limited subset of DNA fragments, since only those with two different oligonucleotides ligated at the ends of complementary DNA strands are amplified in the PCR. The DNA fragments can be easily analyzed on polyacrylamide gels, stained with ethidium bromide. We have implemented this method using a set of clinical Serratia marcescens isolates from three outbreaks ongoing in the Public Hospital in Gdańsk (Poland). Clustering of ADSRRS-fingerprinting data matched epidemiological, microbiological, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. Based on this study, we found that there is at least a similar power of discrimination between the present 'gold-standard' PFGE and the novel method, ADSRRS-fingerprinting. Although the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method may appear to be more complex than the RAPD technique, we found it fast and reproducible.

  12. Use of a ring chromosome and pulsed-field gels to study interhomolog recombination, double-strand DNA breaks and sister-chromatid exchange in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Game, J.C. ); Sitney, K.C.; Cook, V.E.; Mortimer, R.K. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors describe a system that uses pulsed-field gels for the physical detection of recombinant DNA molecules, double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) and sister-chromatid exchange in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system makes use of a circular variant of chromosome II (Chr. III). Meiotic recombination between this ring chromosome and a linear homolog produces new molecules of sizes distinguishable on gels from either parental molecule. They demonstrate that these recombinant molecules are not present either in strains with two linear Chr. III molecules or in rad50 mutants, which are defective in meiotic recombination. In conjunction with the molecular endpoints. They present data on the timing of commitment to meiotic recombination scored genetically. They have used x-rays to linearize circular Chr. III, both to develop a sensitive method for measuring frequency of DSB and as a means of detecting double-size circles originating in part from sister-chromatid exchange, which they find to be frequent during meiosis.

  13. Characterization of anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    In an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial, the off-diagonal components of its effective mass density tensor should be considered in order to describe the anisotropic behavior produced by arbitrarily shaped inclusions. However, few studies have been carried out to characterize anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. In this paper, we propose a method that uses the non-diagonal effective mass density tensor to determine the behavior of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials. Our method accurately evaluates the effective properties of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials by separately dealing with slabs made of single and multiple unit cells along the thickness direction. To determine the effective properties, the reflection and transmission coefficients of an acoustic metamaterial slab are calculated, and then the wave vectors inside of the slab are determined using these coefficients. The effective material properties are finally determined by utilizing the spatial dispersion relation of the anisotropic acoustic metamaterial. Since the dispersion relation of an anisotropic acoustic metamaterial is explicitly used, its effective properties can be easily determined by only using a limited number of normal and oblique plane wave incidences into a metamaterial slab, unlike existing approaches requiring a large number of wave incidences. The validity of the proposed method is verified by conducting wave simulations for anisotropic acoustic metamaterial slabs with Z-shaped elastic inclusions of tilted principal material axes.

  14. Goos-Hänchen shifts of the reflected waves from a cold, inhomogeneous, and magnetized plasma slab.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoding; Zang, Taocheng; Pan, Tao

    2010-01-01

    We discuss theoretically the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts of the reflected waves from a cold, inhomogeneous, and magnetized plasma slab by using the invariant imbedding approach. Aiming at the linear and parabolic electron-density profiles, we demonstrate numerically the dependences of the co- and cross-polarized GH shifts on the angle of incidence, external static magnetic field, and the thickness of the plasma slab. The results show that the different electron-density profiles of plasma can result in the very different dependences of the GH shifts on the angle of incidence, external magnetic field, and the slab's thickness; the GH shifts can be switched between the considerably large positive and negative values under certain conditions. Particularly, without altering the structure of the plasma slab, the GH shifts can be manipulated by modifying the angle of incident or the external static magnetic field.

  15. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The

  16. Detecting lower-mantle slabs beneath Asia and the Aleutians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, L.; Thomas, C.

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the descend of subducted slabs we search for and analyse seismic arrivals that reflected off the surface of the slab. In order to distinguish between such arrivals and other seismic phases, we search for waves that reach a seismic array with a backazimuth deviating from the theoretical backazimuth of the earthquake. Source-receiver combinations are chosen in a way that their great circle paths do not intersect the slab region, hence the direct arrivals can serve as reference. We focus on the North and Northwest Pacific region by using earthquakes from Japan, the Philippines and the Hindu Kush area recorded at North American networks (e.g. USArray, Alaska and Canada). Using seismic array techniques for analysing the data and record information on slowness, backazimuth and traveltime of the observed out-of-plane arrivals we use these measurements to trace the wave back through a 1-D velocity model to its scattering/reflection location. We find a number of out-of-plane reflections. Assuming only single scattering, most out-of-plane signals have to travel as P-to-P phases and only a few as S-to-P phases, due to the length of the seismograms we processed. The located reflection points present a view of the 3-D structures within the mantle. In the upper mantle and the transition zone they correlate well with the edges of fast velocity regions in tomographic images. We also find reflection points in the mid- and lower mantle and their locations generally agree with fast velocities mapped by seismic tomography models suggesting that in the subduction regions we map, slabs enter the lower mantle. To validate our approach, we calculate and process synthetic seismograms for 3-D wave field propagation through a model containing a slab-like heterogeneity. We show, that depending on the source-receiver geometry relative to the reflection plane, it is indeed possible to observe and back-trace out-of-plane signals.

  17. Comparison of Campylobacter isolates from poultry and humans: association between in vitro virulence properties, biotypes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Eric; Messier, Serge; Quessy, Sylvain

    2003-10-01

    The in vitro virulence properties of 197 temporally and geographically related Campylobacter isolates from chicken broilers and humans were compared. Comparisons of the virulence properties associated with genotypes and biotypes were made. All isolates adhered to, and 63% invaded, INT-407 cells, whereas 13% were cytotoxic for CHO cells. CHO cell-cytotoxic extracts were also cytotoxic for INT-407 cells, but the sensitivity for Vero cells was variable. The proportion of isolates demonstrating a high invasiveness potential (>1,000 CFU ml(-1)) or Vero cell cytotoxicity was significantly higher for human than for poultry isolates. Invasiveness was associated with Campylobacter jejuni isolates of biotypes 1 and 2, whereas CHO and INT-407 cell cytotoxicity was associated with C. jejuni isolates of biotypes 3 and 4. Cytotoxic isolates were also clustered according to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella spp. isolates from gulls, fish-meal factories, feed factories, animals and humans in Norway based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, L. L.; Refsum, T.; Heir, E.; Nordby, K.; Vardund, T.; Holstad, G.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of 98 isolates of Salmonella serovar Agona (n = 27), S. Montevideo (n = 42) and S. Senftenberg (n = 29) from wild-living gulls, fish-meal factories, feed factories, humans and domestic animals was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and computerized numerical analysis. Two of the S. Agona profiles were identified both in gulls and in two of the factories. In addition, one of these profiles was detected in two infected poultry farms. Two of the S. Montevideo profiles were also identified both in gulls and in two of the factories, and one of these profiles was observed in a human isolate. Four factories shared an identical S. Senftenberg profile. The S. Senftenberg profile found in gulls was not identified in any other source investigated. The presence of isolates with identical PFGE profiles indicates potential epidemiological links between different factories, as well as between gulls and factories. PMID:15724711

  19. Characterization of nosocomial Serratia marcescens isolates: comparison of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA fragments and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Irmscher, H M; Fischer, R; Beer, W; Seltmann, G

    1999-07-01

    A total of 66 Serratia marcescens isolates from 46 patients was investigated by macrorestriction using XbaI followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. 7 restriction fragment patterns attributable to more than one patient and 9 individual patterns were identified. The isolates were additionally characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The macrorestriction patterns and the multilocus enzyme electrophoresis patterns corresponded fairly well while the classifications derived from these methods were not completely congruent. The grouping achieved by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy on the basis of high (> 1000) and moderately high heterogeneity values (300) was consistent with the macrorestriction results. Grouping on a lower heterogeneity level did not contribute to further discrimination. In general, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was less discriminatory than the two other methods, but easier to perform. Therefore, laboratories equipped with the necessary devices may use it to rapidly select bacterial isolates for macrorestriction or other well established characterization procedures.

  20. Electromagnetic radiation from a plasma slab during the development of Weibel instability

    SciTech Connect

    Vagin, K. Yu.; Romanov, A. Yu.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2012-01-15

    Electromagnetic radiation from an anisotropic plasma slab formed by ionization of matter in the field of a high-power femtosecond pulse is studied. It is shown that the growth of initial field perturbations in the course of Weibel instability is accompanied by the generation of nonmonochromatic radiation with a characteristic frequency on the order of the instability growth rate. It is found that perturbations with characteristic scale lengths less than or on the order of the ratio of the speed of light to the Langmuir frequency are excited and radiated most efficiently, provided that the slab is thicker than this ratio.

  1. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meighan, Hallie E.; Ten Brink, Uri; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  2. Slab dragging and the recent geodynamic evolution of the western Mediterranean plate boundary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spakman, Wim; Chertova, Maria V.; van den Berg, Arie P.; Thieulot, Cedric; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2016-04-01

    and African lithosphere, both plates are dragging the slab by their shared ~NNE component of absolute plate motion, which in fact is invisible in the relative plate convergence frame that is usually adopted. Slab dragging induces mantle resistance that, we demonstrate by numerical modelling, leads in the region to differential lateral motion between the slab and African plate driving indentation of the Africa continental lithosphere leading to crustal shortening explaining the closure of Moroccan seaways and the thickening of the Rif crust. The differential motion also explains the TASZ and the transition from western Betics shortening to eastern Betics extension, both still active today. During Miocene westward slab rollback mantle-resisted slab dragging also provided the driving force of edge delamination of African lithosphere, we propose. These explanations of geological features are fully corroborates by an analysis of the GPS motion field in terms of the strain- and rotation rate fields using the method of Spakman and Nyst (2002), and the predicted crustal flow field. In particular, we derive from the GPS and geological data that the direction of African absolute motion is ~NNE and that the slab experiences at present negligible rollback.

  3. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA topoisomers.

    PubMed

    Roca, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    The electrophoretic velocity of a duplex DNA ring is mainly determined by its overall shape. Consequently, DNA topoisomers of opposite supercoiling handedness can have identical gel velocity, and topoisomers highly supercoiled cannot be separated beyond some point. These problems are overcome by two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, which involves two successive electrophoresis steps in one gel slab. The first and second electrophoresis steps are conducted in orthogonal directions with different concentrations of DNA intercalating agents. These compounds alter the overall shape of the DNA and, thereby, change the relative mobility of individual DNA topoisomers.

  4. Optical bistability in a defect slab with a negative refractive quantum dot nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidnejad, M.; Asadi Amirabadi, E.; Miraboutalebi, S.; Asadpour, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate optical bistability (OB) in a defect slab doped V-type four-level InGaN/GaN quantum dot nanostructure in the negative refraction frequency band. It has been shown that the OB behavior of such a quantum dot nanostructure system can be controlled by the amplitude of the driving fields and a new parameter for controlling the OB behavior as thickness of the slab medium in the negative refraction band. Meanwhile, we show that the negative refraction frequency band can be controlled by tuning electric permittivity and magnetic permeability by the amplitude of the driving fields and electron concentration in the defect slab doped. Under the numerical simulations, due to the effect of quantum coherence and interference, it is possible to switch bistability by adjusting the optimal conditions in the negative refraction frequency band, which is more practical in all-optical switching or coding elements, and technology based nanoscale devices.

  5. Optical bistability in a defect slab with negative refractive quantum dot nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidnejad, M.; Asadi Amirabadi, E.; Miraboutalebi, S.; Asadpour, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate optical bistability (OB) in a defect slab doped V-type four-level InGaN/GaN quantum dot nanostructure in the negative refraction frequency band. In this article, will be shown that the OB behavior of such a quantum dot nanostructure system can be controlled by the amplitude of the driving fields and a new parameter for controlling the OB behavior as thickness of the slab medium in the negative refraction band. Meanwhile, we show that the negative refraction frequency band can be controlled by tuning electric permittivity and magnetic permeability by the amplitude of the driving fields and electron concentration in the defect slab doped. Under the numerical simulations, due to the effect of quantum coherence and interference it is possible to switch bistability by adjusting the optimal conditions in the negative refraction frequency band which is more practical in all-optical switching or coding elements and technology based nanoscale devices.

  6. Low-damping epsilon-near-zero slabs: Nonlinear and nonlocal optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ceglia, Domenico; Campione, Salvatore; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; Capolino, Filippo; Scalora, Michael

    2013-04-01

    We investigate second-harmonic generation, low-threshold multistability, all-optical switching, and inherently nonlocal effects due to the free-electron gas pressure in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial slab made of cylindrical, plasmonic nanoshells illuminated by TM-polarized light. Damping compensation in the ENZ frequency region, achieved by using gain medium inside the nanoshells’ dielectric cores, enhances the nonlinear properties. Reflection is inhibited, and the electric field component normal to the slab interface is enhanced near the effective pseudo-Brewster angle, where the effective ɛ≈0 condition triggers a nonresonant, impedance-matching phenomenon. We show that the slab displays a strong effective, spatial nonlocality associated with leaky modes that are mediated by the compensation of damping. The presence of these leaky modes then induces further spectral and angular conditions, where the local fields are enhanced, thus opening new windows of opportunity for the enhancement of nonlinear optical processes.

  7. Field emission of silicon emitter arrays coated with sol-gel (Ba0.65Sr0.35)1-xLaxTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Pan, J. S.; Chen, X. F.; Zhu, W. G.

    2007-07-01

    (Ba0.65Sr0.35)1-xLaxTiO3 (BSLT) thin films with different La concentrations have been deposited on Si field emitter arrays (FEAs) using sol-gel technology for field electron emission applications. The films exhibit the perovskite structure at low La substitution level (x ≤0.5) and the pyrochlore phase at high La concentration (x ≥0.75). The 30-nm-thick BSLT (x =0.25) thin film has higher crystallinity of perovskite structure in the surface region. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study indicates that the oxygen vacancy concentration decreases with La substitution. With respect to the undoped Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3 thin film, the Fermi level shifts down for the BSLT sample with x =0.1 ascribed to the decreasing oxygen vacancy concentration, and then shifts up for the BSLT sample with x =0.25 attributed to the increasing La substitution level. In highly doped films with an x value over 0.5, it shifts down again associated with the second pyrochlore phase formation. The best enhancement in field emission is found for the BSLT-coated (x =0.25) Si FEAs due to the improved perovskite structure in the surface region and up-moved Fermi level of the coating.

  8. Geomorphic Response to Flat Slab Subduction along the Eastern Foothills of the Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloza, G.; Taylor, M. H.; Gosse, J. C.; Mora, A.; Becker, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    It is thought that in northwest South America flat slab subduction plays a key role in the recent development of the eastern Colombian Andes. Here we show that the geomorphic response to flat slab subduction is presently occurring >500 km inboard of the subduction zone plate boundary. The Llanos basin located along the eastern edge of the Colombian Andes is experiencing active uplift along the seismically active Cusiana, Yopal, Paz de Ariporo and Tame thrust faults, which we refer to as the Llanos Foothills thrust system (LFTS). The LFTS is comprised of east-directed thrust faults that are listric in geometry with shallowly west-dipping decollements. Locally, actively growing north-south plunging folds are cored by blind thrust faults, and are being incised by antecedent east-flowing streams. Using a combination of field-based observations on the geometry of faulted and folded fluvial terraces, and geochronology from terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides, we show that the fluvial terraces have been uplifted, and locally, incised >200 meters at incision rates exceeding 3 mm/yr. The field observations in combination with earthquakes and geodynamic simulations can be reconciled by flat slab subduction, but it is presently unknown whether the flat slab has a Caribbean or Nazca plate affinity. Different geodynamic scenarios can be tested to understand how the leading edge of the flat slab interacts with the South American craton, and how that interaction controls upper crustal deformation.

  9. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  10. Anomalous transmission of electromagnetic energy through a plasma slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1982-05-01

    An electromagnetic wave, incident on a plasma slab, is considered. It is pointed out that the transmitted energy can be larger than the incident energy during restricted time intervals, if the slab density varies properly in time.

  11. Slab Ice Characterization on Martian Richardson Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, F.; Andrieu, F.; Douté, S.

    2016-09-01

    We compare two models: granular and slab in order to study the ice properties in the Richardson crater using spectroscopy. Thanks to radiative transfer modeling, we determine compactness of CO2 ice, grain size, and abundances of water ice and dust.

  12. Oceanic slab melting and mantle metasomatism.

    PubMed

    Scaillet, B; Prouteau, G

    2001-01-01

    Modern plate tectonic brings down oceanic crust along subduction zones where it either dehydrates or melts. Those hydrous fluids or melts migrate into the overlying mantle wedge trigerring its melting which produces arc magmas and thus additional continental crust. Nowadays, melting seems to be restricted to cases of young (< 50 Ma) subducted plates. Slab melts are silicic and strongly sodic (trondhjemitic). They are produced at low temperatures (< 1000 degrees C) and under water excess conditions. Their interaction with mantle peridotite produces hydrous metasomatic phases such as amphibole and phlogopite that can be more or less sodium rich. Upon interaction the slab melt becomes less silicic (dacitic to andesitic), and Mg, Ni and Cr richer. Virtually all exposed slab melts display geochemical evidence of ingestion of mantle material. Modern slab melts are thus unlike Archean Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite rocks (TTG), which suggests that both types of magmas were generated via different petrogenetic pathways which may imply an Archean tectonic model of crust production different from that of the present-day, subduction-related, one.

  13. Multiple stationary solutions of an irradiated slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. D.; Feltham, D. L.

    2005-04-01

    A mathematical model describing the heat budget of an irradiated medium is introduced. The one-dimensional form of the equations and boundary conditions are presented and analysed. Heat transport at one face of the slab occurs by absorption (and reflection) of an incoming beam of short-wave radiation with a fraction of this radiation penetrating into the body of the slab, a diffusive heat flux in the slab and a prescribed incoming heat flux term. The other face of the slab is immersed in its own melt and is considered to be a free surface. Here, temperature continuity is prescribed and evolution of the surface is determined by a Stefan condition. These boundary conditions are flexible enough to describe a range of situations such as a laser shining on an opaque medium, or the natural environment of polar sea ice or lake ice. A two-stream radiation model is used which replaces the simple Beer's law of radiation attenuation frequently used for semi-infinite domains. The stationary solutions of the governing equations are sought and it is found that there exists two possible stationary solutions for a given set of boundary conditions and a range of parameter choices. It is found that the existence of two stationary solutions is a direct result of the model of radiation absorption, due to its effect on the albedo of the medium. A linear stability analysis and numerical calculations indicate that where two stationary solutions exist, the solution corresponding to a larger thickness is always stable and the solution corresponding to a smaller thickness is unstable. Numerical simulations reveal that when there are two solutions, if the slab is thinner than the smaller stationary thickness it will melt completely, whereas if the slab is thicker than the smaller stationary thickness it will evolve toward the larger stationary thickness. These results indicate that other mechanisms (e.g. wave-induced agglomeration of crystals) are necessary to grow a slab from zero initial

  14. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE CENTRAL CAMPUS AND SOUTHEAST LABORATORY COMPLEX BUILDING SLABS AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-07-24

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities/Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORAU/ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Central Campus and Southeast Lab Complex Building Slabs. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey was to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by SEC, and to independently assess whether the final radiological condition of the slabs met the release guidelines.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of natural convection in a vertical porous slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, B. M.; Kumar, Jai; Shivakumara, I. S.

    2017-01-01

    The stability of the conduction regime of natural convection in an electrically conducting fluid saturated porous vertical slab is investigated in the presence of a uniform external transverse magnetic field. The flow in the porous medium is described by modified Brinkman-extended Darcy equation with fluid viscosity different from effective viscosity. The boundaries of the vertical porous slab are assumed to be rigid-isothermal and electrically non-conducting. The resulting stability equations are solved numerically using Galerkin method. The critical Grashof number Gc, the critical wave number αc and the critical wave speed cc are computed for a wide range of porous parameter σp, the ratio of effective viscosity to the fluid viscosity Λ, the Prandtl number Pr and the Hartmann number M. Based on these parameters, the stability characteristics of the system are discussed in detail. The presence of advective inertia is to instill instability on the flow in a porous medium and found that the magnetic field, porous parameter and ratio of viscosities have a stabilizing effect on both stationary and oscillatory wave instabilities. Besides, the value of Pr at which transition occurs from stationary to oscillatory mode of instability decreases with increasing M ,σp and Λ .

  16. Slab waveguide photobioreactors for microalgae based biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Erica Eunjung; Kalontarov, Michael; Doud, Devin F R; Ooms, Matthew D; Angenent, Largus T; Sinton, David; Erickson, David

    2012-10-07

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for sustainable biofuel production. At present, however, there are a number of challenges that limit the economic viability of the process. Two of the major challenges are the non-uniform distribution of light in photobioreactors and the inefficiencies associated with traditional biomass processing. To address the latter limitation, a number of studies have demonstrated organisms that directly secrete fuels without requiring organism harvesting. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel optofluidic photobioreactor that can help address the light distribution challenge while being compatible with these chemical secreting organisms. Our approach is based on light delivery to surface bound photosynthetic organisms through the evanescent field of an optically excited slab waveguide. In addition to characterizing organism growth-rates in the system, we also show here, for the first time, that the photon usage efficiency of evanescent field illumination is comparable to the direct illumination used in traditional photobioreactors. We also show that the stackable nature of the slab waveguide approach could yield a 12-fold improvement in the volumetric productivity.

  17. Deep ultraviolet laser direct write for patterning sol-gel InGaZnO semiconducting micro/nanowires and improving field-effect mobility

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hung-Cheng; Stehlin, Fabrice; Soppera, Olivier; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Li, Chang-Hung; Wieder, Fernand; Ponche, Arnaud; Berling, Dominique; Yeh, Bo-Hung; Wang, Kuan-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) laser was used to directly write indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) precursor solution and form micro and nanoscale patterns. The directional DUV laser beam avoids the substrate heating and suppresses the diffraction effect. A IGZO precursor solution was also developed to fulfill the requirements for direct photopatterning and for achieving semi-conducting properties with thermal annealing at moderate temperature. The DUV-induced crosslinking of the starting material allows direct write of semi-conducting channels in thin-film transistors but also it improves the field-effect mobility and surface roughness. Material analysis has been carried out by XPS, FTIR, spectroscopic ellipsometry and AFM and the effect of DUV on the final material structure is discussed. The DUV irradiation step results in photolysis and a partial condensation of the inorganic network that freezes the sol-gel layer in a homogeneous distribution, lowering possibilities of thermally induced reorganization at the atomic scale. Laser irradiation allows high-resolution photopatterning and high-enough field-effect mobility, which enables the easy fabrication of oxide nanowires for applications in solar cell, display, flexible electronics, and biomedical sensors. PMID:26014902

  18. Necessity of the Ridge for the Flat Slab Subduction: Insights from the Peruvian Flat Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Long, M. D.; Zandt, G.; Tavera, H.

    2014-12-01

    Flattening of the subducting plate has been linked to the formation of various geological features, including basement-cored uplifts, the cessation of arc volcanism, ignimbrite flare-ups, and the formation of high plateaus and ore deposits [Humphreys et al., 2003; Gutscher et al., 2000; Rosenbaum et al., 2005]. However, the mechanism responsible for the slab flattening is still poorly understood. Here we focus on the Peruvian flat slab, where the Nazca plate starts to bend at ~80 km depth and travels horizontally for several hundred kilometers, at which point steep subduction resumes. Based on a 1500 km long volcanic gap and intermediate depth seismicity patterns, the Peruvian flat slab appears to have the greatest along-strike extent and, therefore, has been suggested as a modern analogue to the putative flat slab during the Laramide orogeny in the western United States (~80-55 Ma). Combining 3D shear wave velocity structure and Rayleigh wave phase anisotropy between ~10° and 18° S, we find that the subducting Nazca plate is not uniformly flat along the entire region, but fails to the north of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Our results show that, in combination with trench retreat, rapid overriding plate motion, and/or presence of a thick cratonic root, the subduction of buoyant overthickened oceanic crust, such as the Nazca Ridge, is necessary for the formation and sustainability of flat slabs. This finding has important implications for the formation of flat slabs both past and present.

  19. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis in three sheep farming operations in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A yearlong study was conducted to determine the fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in three sheep ranches. Strain diversity and persistence was compared using multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Ranch C, a feedlot, consisted of young ...

  20. Longitudinal prevalence and molecular typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis in a range cattle herd in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives –(1) Identify the seasonal pattern and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces in range cattle in California, (2) Determine strain diversity and transition over time using Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Samp...

  1. Lamb wave band gaps in one-dimensional radial phononic crystal slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinggang; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the band structures of Lamb wave in one-dimensional radial phononic crystal (PC) slabs composed of a series of alternating strips of epoxy and aluminum. The dispersion relations, the power transmission spectra and the displacement fields of the eigenmodes are calculated by using the finite element method based on two-dimensional axial symmetry models in cylindrical coordinates. The axial symmetry model is validated by three-dimensional finite element model in Cartesian coordinates. Numerical results show that the proposed radial PC slabs can yield several complete band gaps with a variable bandwidth exist for elastic waves. Furthermore, the effects of the filling fraction and the slab thickness on the band gaps are further explored numerically. It is worth observing that, with the increase of the filling fraction, both the lower and upper edges of the band gaps are simultaneously shifted to higher frequency, which results from the enhancement interaction between the rigid resonance of the scatterer and the matrix. The slab thickness is the key parameter for the existence and the width of complete band gaps in the radial PC slabs. These properties of Lamb waves in the radial PC plates can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps, generate filters and design acoustic devices in the rotary machines and structures.

  2. Accuracy of two-color peak-height-encoded DNA sequencing by capillary gel electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay, Sue; Starke, Heather; Elliott, John; Dovichi, Norman J.

    1993-06-01

    The two-color peak-height encoded DNA sequencing technique was evaluated with six clones taken from the malaria genome. This technique produced a sequencing accuracy of at least 97.5%. Capillary gel electrophoresis, using a modest voltage of 200 V/cm, showed a three- fold increase in speed and higher efficiency compared to conventional slab gel technique.

  3. Enhanced detection limit by dark mode perturbation in 2D photonic crystal slab refractive index sensors.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Costa; Lau, Wah Tung; Gad, Raanan; Akhavan, Hooman; Schilling, Ryan; Levi, Ofer

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate for the first time a 300nm thick, 300μm × 300μm 2D dielectric photonic crystal slab membrane with a quality factor of 10,600 by coupling light to slightly perturbed dark modes through alternating nano-hole sizes. The newly created fundamental guided resonances greatly reduce nano-fabrication accuracy requirements. Moreover, we created a new layer architecture resulting in electric field enhancement at the interface between the slab and sensing regions, and spectral sensitivity of >800 nm/RIU, that is, >0.8 of the single-mode theoretical upper limit of spectral sensitivity.

  4. Synthetic Hydrogen Spectra of Oscillating Prominence Slabs Immersed in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapiór, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Heinzel, P.

    2016-08-01

    We study the behavior of Hα and Hβ spectral lines and their spectral indicators in an oscillating solar prominence slab surrounded by the solar corona, using an MHD model combined with a 1D radiative transfer code taken in the line of sight perpendicular to the slab. We calculate the time variation of the Doppler shift, half-width, and maximum intensity of the Hα and Hβ spectral lines for different modes of oscillation. We find a non-sinusoidal time dependence of some spectral parameters with time. Because Hα and Hβ spectral indicators have different behavior for different modes, caused by differing optical depths of formation and different plasma parameter variations in time and along the slab, they may be used for prominence seismology, especially to derive the internal velocity field in prominences.

  5. Beam quality active control of a slab MOPA solid state laser with combined deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Rujian; Xu, Honglai; Li, Guohui; Wu, Jing; Du, Yinglei; Zhang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    A novel phase aberration correcting method based on combined deformable mirrors (DMs) in a slab MOPA (master oscillator and power amplifier) solid state laser system is proposed and validated experimentally. The adaptive optics(AO) system with combined deformable mirrors composed of a one-dimension (1D) DM with 11 actuators and a two-dimension (2D) DM with 67 valid actuators, has been designed to correct the phase aberrations, which doesn't need the high voltage drivers and has an excellent correcting efficiency of the high order phase aberrations. The experimental results show that the wave front of the slab laser beam is compensated well and the residual wave front is less than 0.08 λ rms. The beam quality of the slab laser in the far field is improved to1.67x DL.

  6. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  7. Dexmedetomidine infusion as an anesthetic adjuvant to general anesthesia for appropriate surgical field visibility during modified radical mastectomy with i-gel®: a randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Bhawana; Gupta, Prashant K; Singh, Ivesh; Singh, Vijendra Pal; Jain, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Background Modified radical mastectomy is associated with appreciable blood loss, while endotracheal intubation leads to elevated hemodynamic responses. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine infusion as an anesthetic adjuvant to general anesthesia during modified radical mastectomy with I-Gel. Methods Sixty adult consenting female patients, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 to 2 and aged 4,065 years, were blindly randomized into two groups of 30 patients each. The patients in Group I received intravenous dexmedetomidine at a loading dose of 1 µg/kg over 10 min, followed by maintenance infusion of 0.4 to 0.7 µg/kg/h, while patients in Group II were administered an identical amount of saline infusion until 15 min prior to the end of surgery. The primary end point was bleeding at the surgical field and hemodynamic changes; requirement of isoflurane, intraoperative fentanyl consumption and recovery time were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results The patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion showed significantly less bleeding at the surgical field (P < 0.05). A statistically significant reduction was also observed in the percentage of isoflurane required (0.82 ± 0.80%) to maintain the systolic blood pressure between 100 and 110 mmHg in patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion compared with the Group II (1.50 ± 0.90%). The mean intraoperative fentanyl consumption in patients in the Group I was also significantly lower compared with that of the Group II (38.43 ± 5.40 µg vs. 75.12 ± 4.60 µg). The mean recovery time from anesthesia did not show any clinically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions Dexmedetomidine infusion can be used safely to decrease the bleeding at the surgical field with smooth recovery from anesthesia. PMID:27924197

  8. Slab buckling and its effect on the distributions and focal mechanisms of deep-focus earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhill, R.

    2013-02-01

    This integrated study of deep earthquake locations and focal mechanisms investigates the relationship between the shape of subducting slabs and seismic behaviour in Wadati-Benioff zones. High quality earthquake locations are used to map the shapes of subducting slabs which have reached the upper-lower mantle boundary. The resulting slab models reveal the presence of large slab folds in the mantle transition zone. The distributions and focal mechanisms of deep earthquakes are analysed to determine whether these folds have a role in governing Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity. Bands or lineations of dense seismicity are associated with the hinge zones of identified folds. The focal mechanisms of earthquakes within these bands reveal that the mapped fold hinges are commonly perpendicular to the directions of maximum coseismic extension and compression. The hinges plunge at a variety of angles, resulting in systematic deviations from the downdip stress field expected within planar slabs. Slab synforms are typified by earthquake focal mechanisms indicating in-plane compression (e.g. Izu-Bonin, Tonga), while antiforms have earthquake focal mechanisms indicating in-plane extension (e.g. Solomons) or a mixture of in-plane compression and extension (e.g. Tonga). Slab buckling explains both the clustering of earthquakes and the observed focal mechanism orientations within fold hinges. The localization of strain within buckle zones results in several of the peaks observed in regional earthquake depth distributions. During buckling, the directions of maximum shortening and extension are expected to be perpendicular to the fold hinges, in agreement with deep earthquake moment tensors. Displacement of the minimum-strain surface away from the centre of each seismogenic zone can explain the predominance of in-plane compression within synforms and in-plane extension within antiforms. More complex local variation in focal mechanism orientations in the Tonga slab can be explained by a

  9. Slab stagnation and buckling in the mantle transition zone: Rheology, phase transition, trench migration, and seismic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, Craig; Cizkova, Hana

    2014-05-01

    observations better than a flat-lying slab (Zhang et al., 2013). Earthquake hypocentral distributions and focal mechanisms may provide clearer insights into slab buckling, as they appear to vary systematically across regions of slab stagnation (Fukao and Obayashi, 2013). Stress fields computed from our dynamical models may help to illuminate such observations. References: Bina, C.R., and H. Kawakatsu, Buoyancy, bending, and seismic visibility in deep slab stagnation, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 183, 330-340, 2010. Čížková, H., and C.R. Bina, Effects of mantle and subduction-interface rheologies on slab stagnation and trench rollback, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 379, 95-103, 2013. Fukao, Y., and M. Obayashi, Deepest hypocentral distributions associated with stagnant slabs and penetrated slabs, Fall Meeting Abstracts, AGU, DI14A-01, 2013. Li, Z.-H., and N.M. Ribe, Dynamics of free subduction from 3-D boundary element modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B06408. Matthews, D.C., L. Zheng, and R.G. Gordon, Do trenches advance? Fall Meeting Abstracts, AGU, T43D-2682, 2013. Zhang, Y., Y. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Bina, Z. Jin, and S. Dong, Phase transitions of harzburgite and buckled slab under eastern China, Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 14, 1182-1199, 2013.

  10. Causes for the Onset and Stability of Flat Slabs and Associated Overriding Plate Deformation Inferred from Numerical Thermo-Mechanical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, R. V. S.; Lowry, A. R.; Buiter, S. J.; Ellis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Flat slab subduction comprises only ~10% of the present-day subduction systems. We systematically explore flat-slab subduction and over-riding plate deformation due to previously recognized factors (including a weak mantle wedge, a buoyant oceanic plateau/ridge, slab-age, presence of thick cratonic upper plate), as well as additional factors not considered before (transient plate-velocity variations, and the presence of stagnant slabs at the mantle transition zone). We use a visco-elasto-plastic code, SULEC (Buiter & Ellis, 2012), restrict ourselves to 2D models, and ignore phase transformations. We model a 6000 km by 1500 km domain with 1-10 km variable grid spacing using up-to-date laboratory-derived constitutive laws, and explore the effects of: (a) lateral/vertical structure of the crust and lithosphere (e.g., continental lithosphere with/without a craton; oceanic lithosphere with thickness governed by plate cooling, and a harzburgite layer); (b) a true free upper-surface to predict surface topography; and (c) only far-field (boundary) velocities driving plates, with trench-velocity depending on over-riding plate deformation and slab pull. As in previous studies, we find that positive trench-retreat velocity and weak integrated slab-strength (as measured by differential stress) are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for flat-slab subduction. While mantle-wedge suction associated with the presence of a craton does promote flat slab subduction, models without a craton also produce flat-slabs when (a) trench-retreat velocities are large and (b) either the slab is positively (structurally or thermally) buoyant or there is an underlying slab at the mantle transition zone. In our models, the duration of flat slab subduction depends on overall slab buoyancy. Younger oceanic lithosphere, esp. if it contains a plateau/ridge, provides a longer-lasting flat-slab (~ 10 Myr or longer, e.g., central Mexico), while older slabs with oceanic ridge/plateau (e.g., Peru

  11. Enhancement of specific absorption rate in lossy dielectric objects using a slab of left-handed material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Cui, Tie Jun

    2005-12-01

    An enhancement of the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside a lossy dielectric object has been investigated theoretically based on a slab of left-handed medium (LHM). In order to make an accurate analysis of SAR distribution, a proper Green’s function involved in the LHM slab is proposed, from which an integral equation for the electric field inside the dielectric object is derived. Such an integral equation has been solved accurately and efficiently using the conjugate gradient method and the fast Fourier transform. We have made a lot of numerical experiments on the SAR distributions inside the dielectric object excited by a line source with and without the LHM slab. Numerical experiments show that SAR can be enhanced tremendously when the LHM slab is involved due to the proper usage of strong surface waves, which will be helpful in the potential biomedical applications for hyperthermia. The physical insight for such a phenomenon has also been discussed.

  12. Slab photonic crystals with dimer colloid bases

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Erin K.; Liddell Watson, Chekesha M.

    2014-06-14

    The photonic band gap properties for centered rectangular monolayers of asymmetric dimers are reported. Colloids in suspension have been organized into the phase under confinement. The theoretical model is inspired by the range of asymmetric dimers synthesized via seeded emulsion polymerization and explores, in particular, the band structures as a function of degree of lobe symmetry and degree of lobe fusion. These parameters are varied incrementally from spheres to lobe-tangent dimers over morphologies yielding physically realizable particles. The work addresses the relative scarcity of theoretical studies on photonic crystal slabs with vertical variation that is consistent with colloidal self-assembly. Odd, even and polarization independent gaps in the guided modes are determined for direct slab structures. A wide range of lobe symmetry and degree of lobe fusion combinations having Brillouin zones with moderate to high isotropy support gaps between odd mode band indices 3-4 and even mode band indices 1-2 and 2-3.

  13. Subduction zone earthquakes and stress in slabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassiliou, M. S.; Hager, B. H.

    1988-01-01

    Simple viscous fluid models of subducting slabs are used to explain observations of the distribution of earthquakes as a function of depth and the orientation of stress axes of deep (greater than 300 km) and intermediate (70-300 km) earthquakes. Results suggest the following features in the distribution of earthquakes with depth: (1) an exponential decrease from shallow depths down to 250 to 300 km, (2) a minimum near 250 to 300 km, and (3) a deep peak below 300 km. Many shallow subducting slabs show only the first characteristic, while deeper extending regions tend to show all three features, with the deep peak varying in position and intensity. These data, combined with the results on the stress orientations of various-depth earthquakes, are consistent with the existence of a barrier of some sort at 670-km depth and a uniform viscosity mantle above this barrier.

  14. The effect of subducting slabs in global shear wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chang; Grand, Stephen P.

    2016-05-01

    Subducting slabs create strong short wavelength seismic anomalies in the upper mantle where much of Earth's seismicity is located. As such, they have the potential to bias longer wavelength seismic tomography models. To evaluate the effect of subducting slabs in global tomography, we performed a series of inversions using a global synthetic shear wave traveltime data set for a theoretical slab model based on predicted thermal anomalies within slabs. The spectral element method was applied to predict the traveltime anomalies produced by the 3-D slab model for paths corresponding to our current data used in actual tomography models. Inversion tests have been conducted first using the raw traveltime anomalies to check how well the slabs can be imaged in global tomography without the effect of earthquake mislocation. Our results indicate that most of the slabs can be identified in the inversion result but with smoothed and reduced amplitude. The recovery of the total mass anomaly in slab regions is about 88 per cent. We then performed another inversion test to investigate the effect of mislocation caused by subducting slabs. We found that source mislocation largely removes slab signal and significantly degrades the imaging of subducting slabs-potentially reducing the recovery of mass anomalies in slab regions to only 41 per cent. We tested two source relocation procedures-an iterative relocation inversion and joint relocation inversion. Both methods partially recover the true source locations and improve the inversion results, but the joint inversion method worked significantly better than the iterative method. In all of our inversion tests, the amplitudes of artefact structures in the lower mantle caused by the incorrect imaging of slabs (up to ˜0.5 per cent S velocity anomalies) are comparable to some large-scale lower-mantle heterogeneities seen in global tomography studies. Based on our inversion tests, we suggest including a-priori subducting slabs in the

  15. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma hyorhinis isolated from pigs using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguti, Maurício; Oliveira, Rosângela C; Marques, Lucas M; Buzinhani, Melissa; Buim, Marcos R; Neto, Renata L; Guimarães, Ana Márcia S; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Economic loss in pig breeding is common due to respiratory disorders, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, namely, are the most common infectious agents. The aim of this study is to recover these mollicutes and detect their genotypic variations by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing the 16 s rRNA gene. One hundred and twenty-six swabs from tonsil and nasal mucus of pigs with respiratory disorders were analysed. A total of 78 lungs were sampled, as well as two trachea and two tonsils obtained from animals with respiratory disorder. A total of 59 isolates were obtained: 1 (1.70 per cent) of M hyopneumoniae, 2 (3.40 per cent) of Mycoplasma flocculare and 56 (94.90 per cent) of M hyorhinis. The PFGE for M hyorhinis showed 10 profiles with enzyme AvaI and 9 profiles with XhoI. A low polymorphism of the 16sRNS gene was detected in M hyorhinis isolates compared with the type strain in the GenBank. M hyorhinis isolates of different herds showed a large heterogenicity with enzymes AvaI and XhoI. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed for analysing the interspecific and intraspecific variations of isolated mycoplasmas. PMID:26688737

  16. Comparative typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by random amplification of polymorphic DNA or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA macrorestriction fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Renders, N; Römling, Y; Verbrugh, H; van Belkum, A

    1996-01-01

    Eighty-seven strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments. Stains were clustered on the basis of interpretative criteria as presented previously for the PFGE analysis. Clusters of strains were also defined on the basis of epidemiological data and subsequently reanalyzed by RAPD. It was found that in an RAPD assay employing the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence ERIC2 as a primer, single band differences can be ignored; in this case, clonally related strains could be grouped as effectively and reliably as with PFGE. These data could be corroborated by the use of other primer species. However, some primers either showed reduced resolution or, in contrast, identified DNA polymorphisms beyond epidemiologically and PFGE-defined limits. Apparently, different primers define different windows of genetic variation. It is suggested that criteria for interpretation of the ERIC2 PCR fingerprints can be simple and straightforward: when single band differences are ignored, RAPD-determined grouping of P. aeruginosa is congruent with that obtained by PFGE. Consequently, this implies that RAPD can be used with trust as a first screen in epidemiological characterization of P. aeruginosa. The ability to measure the rate of molecular evolution of the P. aeruginosa genome clearly depends on the choice of restriction enzyme or primer when RAPD or PFGE, respectively, is applied for the detection of DNA polymorphisms. PMID:8940470

  17. Induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks using constant-field gel electrophoresis and apoptosis as predictive markers for sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ekram M; El-Awady, Raafat A; Anis, Noha; El-Sharkawy, Nahla

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate some parameters that may play a role in the prediction of cancer cells sensitivity to cisplatin (CIS). Sensitivity, induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis were measured in four cancer cell lines with different sensitivities to CIS. Using a sulphorhodamine-B assay, the cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) were found to be the most sensitive to CIS followed by breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7) and liver carcinoma cells (HepG2). Colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were the most resistant. As measured by constant-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE), DSB induction, but not residual DSB exhibited a significant correlation with the sensitivity of cells to CIS. Flow cytometric DNA ploidy analysis revealed that 67% of HeLa cells and 10% of MCF-7 cells shift to sub-G1 phase after incubation with CIS. Additionally, CIS induced the arrest of MCF-7 cells in S-phase and the arrest of HepG2 and HCT116 cells in both S phase and G2/M phase. Determination of the Fas-L level and Caspase-9 activity indicated that CIS-induced apoptosis results from the mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway. These results, if confirmed using clinical samples, indicate that the induction of DNA DSB as measured by CFGE and the induction of apoptosis should be considered, along with other predictive markers, in future clinical trials to develop predictive assays for platinum -based therapy.

  18. Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis & repetitive sequence-based PCR methods for molecular epidemiological studies of Escherichia coli clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Kim, Juwon; Sun, Je Young Hannah; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Yong-Rok; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: PFGE, rep-PCR, and MLST are widely used to identify related bacterial isolates and determine epidemiologic associations during outbreaks. This study was performed to compare the ability of repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the genetic relationships among Escherichia coli isolates assigned to various sequence types (STs) by two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes. Methods: A total of 41 extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) and/or AmpC β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical isolates were included in this study. MLST experiments were performed following the Achtman's MLST scheme and the Whittam's MLST scheme, respectively. Rep-PCR experiments were performed using the DiversiLab system. PFGE experiments were also performed. Results: A comparison of the two MLST methods demonstrated that these two schemes yielded compatible results. PFGE correctly segregated E. coli isolates belonging to different STs as different types, but did not group E. coli isolates belonging to the same ST in the same group. Rep-PCR accurately grouped E. coli isolates belonging to the same ST together, but this method demonstrated limited ability to discriminate between E. coli isolates belonging to different STs. Interpretation & conclusions: These results suggest that PFGE would be more effective when investigating outbreaks in a limited space, such as a specialty hospital or an intensive care unit, whereas rep-PCR should be used for nationwide or worldwide epidemiology studies. PMID:25579152

  19. Genomic fingerprinting of shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains: comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and fluorescent amplified-fragment-length polymorphism (FAFLP).

    PubMed

    Heir, E; Lindstedt, B A; Vardund, T; Wasteson, Y; Kapperud, G

    2000-12-01

    For epidemiological studies of shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, rapid, reproducible and highly discriminative methods are required. In this study, we examined the performance of the fluorescent amplified-fragment-length polymorphism (FAFLP) technique for epidemiological fingerprinting of STEC isolates and compared it to the acknowledged fingerprinting method pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A total of 88 STEC isolates, including 82 of serotype O157:H7 or O157:H-, were subjected to fingerprinting by both PFGE and FAFLP. The isolates included sporadic and epidemiologically related strains of both animal and human origin from widespread geographical locations. The FAFLP fingerprint patterns confirmed the clonal nature of STEC O157 strains. Among the 82 O157:H7/H- isolates belonging to 49 distinct groups of epidemiological unrelated isolates, 24 FAFLP profiles and 51 PFGE patterns were obtained. Thus, PFGE had a higher discriminatory power than FAFLP and overall correlated better to available epidemiological data. Consequently, the PFGE technique remains the method of choice in epidemiological investigations of STEC infections.

  20. Molecular characterization of Salmonella paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; Hume, Michael; León, Maribel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enriqué; Vives Flores, Martha J; Clavijo, Viviana; Holguin, Ángela; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J; Castellanos, Ricardo; Tafur, McAllister; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are pathogens of public health importance that are frequently isolated from poultry. As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance, this study characterized molecular patterns of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from poultry farms, fecal samples, and retail chicken meat using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship among isolates and to determine potential geographically predominant genotypes. Based on PFGE analysis, both serovars exhibited high heterogeneity: the chromosomal DNA fingerprints of 82 Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ isolates revealed 42 PFGE patterns, whereas the 21 isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg revealed 10 patterns. Similar genotypes of both serovars were demonstrated to be present on farms and in retail outlets. For Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+, closely genetically related strains were found among isolates coming from different farms and different integrated poultry companies within two departments (Santander and Cundinamarca) and also from farms located in the two geographically distant departments. For Salmonella Heidelberg, there were fewer farms with genetically related isolates than for Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+. A possible dissemination of similar genotypes of both serovars along the poultry production chain is hypothesized, and some facilitating factors existing in Colombia are reviewed.

  1. Molecular Typing of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Broilers in Japan Using Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Manao; Hiki, Mototaka; Kawanishi, Michiko; Abo, Hitoshi; Kojima, Akemi; Asai, Tetsuo; Hamamoto, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broilers in Japan were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to elucidate the genetic relationship between these strains. Forty-three of the isolates were classified into 20 sequence types and were clustered into 21 PFGE types with 70% similarity. The most dominant clonal complex (CC) was CC-21 (41.9%). Diverse PFGE patterns were observed within the same CC, but the combined analysis of PFGE type and CC revealed that the strains with the same combination were isolated from the same district or neighboring districts. On the other hand, strains with the same combination pattern were also isolated from geographically distant districts. Our results elucidate two possible reasons for the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni among broiler farms: (1) the resistant C. jejuni is clonally disseminated within the limited area, and (2) susceptible C. jejuni acquired fluoroquinolone resistance during the use of fluoroquinolone on the farms.

  2. Construction of a 5. 2-megabase physical map of the human X chromosome at Xq22 using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and yeast artificial chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Vetrie, D.; Bobrow, M. St. Thomas's Hospital, London ); Harris, A. )

    1993-03-01

    Several genes involved in human genetic diseases map to the Xq22 band on the long arm of the human X chromosome. The authors have constructed a long-range restriction map of the most proximal part of Xq22. Initially, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, in combination with rare-cutting restruction enzymes, was used to try and establish physical linkage of 11 polymorphic and nonpolymorphic DNA markers. This approach resulted in the construction of three long-range restriction maps around groups of physically linked Xq22 markers that spanned over 5.0 Mb of DNA. Yeast artificial chromosome clones were used to organize the three long-range maps onto a contiguous 5.2-Mb stretch of Xq22. The order of markers in this region was shown to be cen-GLA-DXS178-DXS101-DXS83-DXS24-DXS101-DXS54-PLP-DXS94-DXS147-DXS17-DXS87-tel. The results of this study suggest that the proximal part of Xq22 may be rich in genes. Construction of a physical map for this region will, therefore, facilitate the localization and subsequent isolation of novel genes. 60 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Laboratory investigation of a multistate food-borne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and phage typing.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, T J; Lior, H; Green, J H; Khakhria, R; Wells, J G; Bell, B P; Greene, K D; Lewis, J; Griffin, P M

    1994-01-01

    Two hundred thirty-three isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were analyzed by both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage typing. All 26 isolates from persons whose illness was associated with a recent multistate outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infections linked to the consumption of undercooked hamburgers and all 27 isolates from incriminated lots of hamburger meat had the same phage type and the same PFGE pattern. Twenty-five of 74 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from Washington State and 10 of 27 isolates from other states obtained during the 6 months before the outbreak had the same phage type as the outbreak strain, but only 1 isolate had the same PFGE pattern. PFGE thus appeared to be a more sensitive method than bacteriophage typing for distinguishing outbreak and non-outbreak-related strains. The PFGE patterns of seven preoutbreak sporadic isolates and five sporadic isolates from the outbreak period differed from that of the outbreak strain by a single band, making it difficult to identify these isolates as outbreak or non-outbreak related. Phage typing and PFGE with additional enzymes were helpful in resolving this problem. While not as sensitive as PFGE, phage typing was helpful in interpreting PFGE data and could have been used as a simple, rapid screen to eliminate the need for performing PFGE on unrelated isolates. Images PMID:7883892

  4. Molecular Subtyping of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis in Hong Kong: Correlation with Epidemiological Events from 1994 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Kai Man; Luey, Cindy Kit Yee; Tsang, Yee Man; Law, Choi Ping; Chu, Man Yu; Cheung, Tze Leung; Chiu, Agatha Wai Huen

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred twenty isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 collected from 1994 to 2002 in Hong Kong were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal DNAs from all V. cholerae isolates in agarose plugs were digested with the restriction enzyme NotI, resulting in 20 to 27 bands. Sixty distinctive PFGE patterns in the range of 10 to 300 kb were noted among 213 isolates typeable by PFGE. By comparing the common PFGE patterns obtained from four well-defined outbreaks of V. cholerae O1 and O139 with those obtained from other, epidemiologically unrelated isolates during the study period, indistinguishable and similar PFGE patterns were identified, indicating their close relatedness, in agreement with the results of epidemiological investigations. Heterogeneous PFGE patterns (with four to six banding differences), however, were identified among strains that were imported from other parts of Asia, including Indonesia, India, and Pakistan. Correlations with epidemiological information further support the usefulness of PFGE as an epidemiological tool in laboratory investigations of suspected outbreaks. Standardization of PFGE methodology will allow international comparison of fingerprint patterns and will form the basis of a laboratory network for tracking V. cholerae. PMID:14532174

  5. Genetic characterization of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from ewes' milk, sheep farm environments, and humans by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Otero, Verónica; Rodríguez-Calleja, José-María; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A

    2013-10-01

    A collection of 81 isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was obtained from samples of bulk tank sheep milk (62 isolates), ovine feces (4 isolates), sheep farm environment (water, 4 isolates; air, 1 isolate), and human stool samples (9 isolates). The strains were considered atypical EPEC organisms, carrying the eae gene without harboring the pEAF plasmid. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 19 sequence types (ST) were detected, with none of them having been previously reported for atypical EPEC. The most frequent ST included 41 strains isolated from milk and human stool samples. Genetic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 57 patterns which grouped in 24 clusters. Comparison of strains isolated from the different samples showed phylogenetic relationships between milk and human isolates and also between milk and water isolates. The results obtained show a possible risk for humans due to the presence of atypical EPEC in ewes' milk and suggest a transmission route for this emerging pathogen through contaminated water.

  6. High genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing from a hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Weng, Poh Leng; Ramli, Ramliza; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types (STs): ST17 (2 isolates), ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern.

  7. Genomic DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as an epidemiological marker for study of nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyama, S; Ohta, M; Shimokata, K; Kato, N; Takeuchi, J

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we have compared genomic DNA fingerprintings among isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal fragments digested with SmaI were most suitable for the PFGE separation. SmaI cut genomic DNA into 15 to 20 fragments whose sizes ranged from about 30 to 1,500 kb. Thirty-one distinctive fragment patterns were identified in 111 infecting and colonizing MRSA isolates from six different hospitals in Japan. On the basis of the genomic typing by PFGE, we performed an epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of nosocomial MRSA infections among inpatients in Nagoya University Hospital. Ten types of chromosomal digestion were identified in the 20 strains isolated from 18 infected patients and 1 from colonized hospital personnel. According to the restriction patterns, we found that four types of these strains had caused epidemic infections among 13 patients in the outbreak. Two types (types 1 and 4) of the strains were involved in the death of five patients. The other infections were sporadic. The clarity and polymorphism of the chromosomal digestion patterns enabled us to discriminate between isolates which could not be differentiated by antibiogram or plasmid analysis. Classification of the genomic DNA fingerprinting patterns by PFGE is therefore proposed as a useful method for investigating the source, transmission, and spread of nosocomial MRSA infections. Images PMID:1757534

  8. Prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in Finnish Trout Farms: Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Typing Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity among Type E Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hielm, Sebastian; Björkroth, Johanna; Hyytiä, Eija; Korkeala, Hannu

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of Clostridium botulinum serotypes A, B, E, and F in Finnish trout farms was examined. A total of 333 samples were tested with a neurotoxin-specific PCR assay. C. botulinum type E was found in 68% of the farm sediment samples, in 15% of the fish intestinal samples, and in 5% of the fish skin samples. No other serotypes were found. The spore counts determined by the most-probable-number method were considerably higher for the sediments than for the fish intestines and skin; the average values were 2,020, 166, and 310 C. botulinum type E spores kg−1, respectively. The contamination rates in traditional freshwater ponds and marine net cages were high, but in concrete ponds equipped with sediment suction devices the contamination rates were significantly lower. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of 42 isolates obtained in this survey and 12 North American reference strains generated 28 pulsotypes upon visual inspection, suggesting that there was extensive genetic diversity and that the discriminatory power of PFGE typing in C. botulinum type E was high. A numerical analysis of SmaI-XmaI macrorestriction profiles confirmed these findings, as it divided the 54 isolates into 15 clusters at a similarity level of 76%. For this material, this level of similarity corresponded to a three-band difference in the macrorestriction profiles, which indicated that there is no genotypic proof of a close epidemiological relationship among the clusters. PMID:9797260

  9. Role of real-time molecular typing in the surveillance of Campylobacter enteritis and comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles from chicken and human isolates.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Sophie; Ménard, Suzanne; Arbeit, Robert D

    2005-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess the contribution of real-time molecular typing, used alone or with clinical surveillance, to the prompt identification of clusters of Campylobacter enteritis. Potential poultry sources were sought by comparing the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes of human and fresh whole retail chicken isolates collected during the same study period. Among 183 human isolates, 82 (45%) had unique genotypes, 72 (39%) represented 26 clusters of 2 to 7 isolates each, and 29 (16%) represented three clusters of 8 to 11 isolates each. Molecular typing was useful for the confirmation of outbreaks suspected on the basis of epidemiological surveillance, but for most small clusters, no epidemiological link could be established. Thus, the added value of real-time molecular typing is questionable, since the numerous small clusters identified were of unclear public health significance. Among 177 chickens, 41 (23%) yielded campylobacter isolates; of these, 19 (46%) had genotypes similar to those of 41 (22%) human isolates. However, a temporal association was demonstrated in only a minority of cases, and most genotypes were present only in a single species, suggesting that sources other than chickens are important in human campylobacteriosis. Further investigation with samples from water and other possible environmental sources is needed to define the most efficient strategy for the application of molecular typing and identification of the source(s) of sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis.

  10. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the genome of Rhodococcus fascians: genome size and linear and circular replicon composition in virulent and avirulent strains.

    PubMed

    Pisabarro, A; Correia, A; Martín, J F

    1998-05-01

    Total DNA of virulent and avirulent strains of Rhodococcus fascians was resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) into a discrete number of fragments by digestion with the endonucleases AseI and DraI. Restriction endonucleases PacI, PmeI, and SwaI yielded no fragments upon digestion of R. fascians genome, and all the other tested endonucleases recognizing 6 bp released too many fragments. The genome size was 5.6 megabases for the type strain R. fascians DSM 20669, and 5.8 megabases for the virulent R. fascians D188 strain. However the genome size of R. fascians CECT 3001 (NRRL B15096) was 8.0 megabases. No linear chromosome in the megabase range was observed under pulse conditions in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosomes were perfectly resolved, suggesting that the R. fascians chromosome is circular. A new linear plasmid pIRN640 of 640 kb was found in the avirulent R. fascians CECT 3001 that did not hybridize with a probe internal to the fas region of pFiD188 known to be involved in plant pathogenicity in the virulent strain R. fascians D188. Virulence was correlated in all strains tested with the presence of the fas region. The AseI and DraI bands corresponding to the extrachromosomal elements were identified providing the basis for a physical map of this organism.

  11. Real-time imaging of the reorientation mechanisms of YOYO-labelled DNA molecules during 90 degrees and 120 degrees pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Gurrieri, S; Smith, S B; Wells, K S; Johnson, I D; Bustamante, C

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) techniques have been developed to overcome the limitations of conventional electrophoresis and to increase the separation to DNA chromosomes of few megabase pairs in size. Despite of the large success of these techniques, the various separation protocols employed for PFGE experiments have been determined empirically. However, a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of motion responsible for DNA separation becomes necessary for the rational optimization of these techniques. This paper shows the first clear observations of individual molecules of DNA during the reorientation process in 90 degrees PFGE and 120 degrees PFGE. Real-time visualization of the DNA dynamics during PFGE was possible with the use of an epi-illumination fluorescence microscope specifically equipped to run these experiments and by staining the DNA with YOYO-1 (1,1'-(4,4,7,7-tetramethyl-4,7-diazaundecamethylene)-bis-4-[3-meth yl -2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-oxazole)-2-methyl-idene]-quinolinium tetraiodide). This dye forms a very stable, highly fluorescent complex with double-stranded DNA and dramatically improves the quality of the DNA images. The results of computer simulations used to reproduce the molecular mechanisms of motion as well as the DNA separation features are also discussed. PMID:8972863

  12. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing to study an outbreak of infection due to Serratia marcescens in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, G; Kelly, C; Solorzano, F; Leanos, B; Coria, R; Patterson, J E

    1996-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is a well-known cause of nosocomial infections and outbreaks, particularly in critically ill neonates and immunocompromised patients. Numerous methods have been proposed for typing. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to analyze an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We included 23 patient isolates from an outbreak (March to July 1995), and 10 patient isolates from different wards during the same time period. PFGE of whole-cell DNA digested by SpeI was used as a marker of strain identity. The most common presentation of the infection was sepsis in 18 of 23 (78%) neonates. Only four different biotypes were identified; biotype A8d accounted for 84% of the strains. PFGE typing revealed two clones responsible for two different clonal strain dissemination outbreaks from March to July, with 24 patient isolates being pattern A and 4 patient isolates being pattern E. PFGE typing suggests cross transmission between patients in the NICU and other wards. The isolates from 5 other patients showed distinct PFGE patterns. Extensive investigation and cultures failed to identify any environmental or staff reservoir of S. marcescens. This is one of the first reports applying PFGE to the study of S. marcescens, and this method was a useful marker of strain identity. PFGE typing distinguished strains which appeared to be the same by biotyping. PMID:8940460

  13. Isolation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Listeria monocytogenes from modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut vegetables collected in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gillian A; O'Beirne, David

    2006-10-01

    The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut fruits and vegetables from chill cabinets of a supermarket in Ireland was investigated over a 2-year period. Overall, 9.58% of fresh-cut produce was contaminated with Listeria spp. Various species of Listeria were isolated from samples, including L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. ivanovii. No fruit samples contained detectable L. monocytogenes. Overall, a total of 21 L. monocytogenes isolates (2.9% of samples) were recovered from a range of products, including dry coleslaw mix (80% shredded cabbage and 20% shredded carrot), bean sprouts, and leafy vegetables such iceberg, romaine, and radicchio lettuce and mixed salad leaves (curly endive, escarole, and radicchio leaves). Dry coleslaw mix appeared to have the highest incidence of Listeria contamination (20%) compared with other products. Listeria contamination was more frequent (P < 0.05) during the summer and autumn months than during the winter and spring months. The 21 L. monocytogenes isolates were subsequently subtyped by genomic macrorestriction techniques using ApaI with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE of digested DNA produced bands of 79 to 518 kb. Four PFGE profiles were identified, and approximately 50% of the isolates were associated with profile 1. This study indicates that fresh-cut vegetables packaged under a modified atmosphere can support growth of numerous species of Listeria, including L. monocytogenes.

  14. Virulence patterns and long-range genetic mapping of extraintestinal Escherichia coli K1, K5, and K100 isolates: use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, M; Bender, L; Blum, G; Schmittroth, M; Achtman, M; Tschäpe, H; Hacker, J

    1991-01-01

    A total of 127 extraintestinal Escherichia coli strains of the capsule serotypes K1, K5, and K100 from human and animal sources were analyzed for DNA sequences specific for the genes for various adhesins (P fimbriae [pap] and P-related sequences [prs], S fimbriae [sfa]/F1C fimbriae [foc], and type I fimbriae [fim]), aerobactin (aer), and hemolysin (hly). The expression of corresponding virulence factors was also tested. Twenty-four selected strains were analyzed by long-range DNA mapping to evaluate their genetic relationships. DNA sequences for the adhesins were often found in strains not expressing them, while strains with hemolysin and aerobactin genes usually did express them. Different isolates of the same serotype often expressed different virulence patterns. The use of virulence-associated gene probes for Southern hybridization with genomic DNA fragments separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that a highly heterogeneous restriction fragment length and hybridization pattern existed even within strains of the same serotype. Long-range DNA mapping is therefore useful for the evaluation of genetic relatedness among individual isolates and facilitates the performance of precise molecular epidemiology. Images PMID:1677349

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates Determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis: Comparison of Isolates from Avian Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and the Environment in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Refsum, Thorbjørn; Heir, Even; Kapperud, Georg; Vardund, Traute; Holstad, Gudmund

    2002-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of 142 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from avian wildlife, domestic animals, and the environment in Norway was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and computerized numerical analysis of the data. The bacterial isolates comprised 79 isolates from wild-living birds, including 46 small passerines and 26 gulls, and 63 isolates of nonavian origin, including 50 domestic animals and 13 environmental samples. Thirteen main clusters were discernible at the 90% similarity level. Most of the isolates (83%) were grouped into three main clusters. These were further divided into 20 subclusters at the 95% similarity level. Isolates from passerines, gulls, and pigeons dominated within five subclusters, whereas isolates from domestic animals and the environment belonged to many different subclusters with no predominance. The results support earlier results that passerines constitute an important source of infection to humans in Norway, whereas it is suggested that gulls and pigeons, based on PFGE analysis, represent only a minor source of human serovar Typhimurium infections. Passerines, gulls, and pigeons may also constitute a source of infection of domestic animals and feed plants or vice versa. Three isolates from cattle and a grain source, of which two were multiresistant, were confirmed as serovar Typhimurium phage type DT 104. These represent the first reported phage type DT 104 isolates from other sources than humans in Norway. PMID:12406755

  16. Variable number of tandem repeats and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis cluster analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serovar O157 strains.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Eiji; Uchimura, Masako

    2007-11-01

    Ninety-five enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serovar O157 strains, including 30 strains isolated from 13 intrafamily outbreaks and 14 strains isolated from 3 mass outbreaks, were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, and the resulting data were subjected to cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the VNTR typing data revealed that 57 (60.0%) of 95 strains, including all epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with at least 95% similarity. Cluster analysis of the PFGE patterns revealed that 67 (70.5%) of 95 strains, including all but 1 of the epidemiologically linked strains, formed clusters with 90% similarity. The number of epidemiologically unlinked strains forming clusters was significantly less by VNTR cluster analysis than by PFGE cluster analysis. The congruence value between PFGE and VNTR cluster analysis was low and did not show an obvious correlation. With two-step cluster analysis, the number of clustered epidemiologically unlinked strains by PFGE cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent VNTR cluster analysis was significantly higher than the number by VNTR cluster analysis that were divided by subsequent PFGE cluster analysis. These results indicate that VNTR cluster analysis is more efficient than PFGE cluster analysis as an epidemiological tool to trace the transmission of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157.

  17. Effect of bromodeoxyuridine on radiation-induced DNA damage and repair based on DNA fragment size using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, T.S.; Davis, M.A.; Normolle, D.P.

    1995-12-01

    We have used biphasic linear ramping pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to understand the effect of incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) on radiation-induced DNA damage and repair. This technique permits a determination of the fragment size distribution produced immediately after irradiation as well as during the repair period. We found that incorporation of BrdUrd increased the induction and decreased the repair of radiation damage. The fragment size distribution was consistent with a random breakage model. When we found that significantly more damage was detected after irradiation of deproteinized DNA compared to intact cells, we studied the effects of BrdUrd incorporation on the radiation response of cells or DNA at various phases of preparation for electrophoresis: cells adherent to the culture dish (A), trypsinized cells (B), agarose-embedded cells (C) and deproteinized DNA (D). Although there was a general tendency to detect more damage when irradiation was performed later in the preparation process, steps B and C were the only successive steps which were significantly different. These findings demonstrate that incorporation of BrdUrd randomly increases the induction of radiation damage and decreases its repair at the level of 200 kbp to 5 Mbp fragments. Furthermore, they confirm that the amount of damage detected depends upon the conditions of the cells or DNA at the time of irradiation. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Reconciling surface plate motions with rapid three-dimensional mantle flow around a slab edge.

    PubMed

    Jadamec, Margarete A; Billen, Magali I

    2010-05-20

    The direction of tectonic plate motion at the Earth's surface and the flow field of the mantle inferred from seismic anisotropy are well correlated globally, suggesting large-scale coupling between the mantle and the surface plates. The fit is typically poor at subduction zones, however, where regional observations of seismic anisotropy suggest that the direction of mantle flow is not parallel to and may be several times faster than plate motions. Here we present three-dimensional numerical models of buoyancy-driven deformation with realistic slab geometry for the Alaska subduction-transform system and use them to determine the origin of this regional decoupling of flow. We find that near a subduction zone edge, mantle flow velocities can have magnitudes of more than ten times the surface plate motions, whereas surface plate velocities are consistent with plate motions and the complex mantle flow field is consistent with observations from seismic anisotropy. The seismic anisotropy observations constrain the shape of the eastern slab edge and require non-Newtonian mantle rheology. The incorporation of the non-Newtonian viscosity results in mantle viscosities of 10(17) to 10(18) Pa s in regions of high strain rate (10(-12) s(-1)), and this low viscosity enables the mantle flow field to decouple partially from the motion of the surface plates. These results imply local rapid transport of geochemical signatures through subduction zones and that the internal deformation of slabs decreases the slab-pull force available to drive subducting plates.

  19. Fast Waves in Smooth Coronal Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the effect of transverse density structuring in coronal slab-like waveguides on the properties of fast waves. We generalized previous results obtained for the exponential and Epstein profiles to the case of an arbitrary transverse density distribution. The criteria are given to determine the possible (trapped or leaky) wave regime, depending on the type of density profile function. In particular, there are plasma slabs with transverse density structuring that support pure trapped fast waves for all wavelengths. Their phase speed is nearly equal to the external Alfvén speed for the typical parameters of coronal loops. Our findings are obtained on the basis of Kneser’s oscillation theorem. To confirm the results, we analytically solved the wave equation evaluated at the cutoff point and the original wave equation for particular cases of transverse density distribution. We also used the WKB method and obtained approximate solutions of the wave equation at the cutoff point for an arbitrary transverse density profile. The analytic results were supplemented by numerical solutions of the obtained dispersion relations. The observed high-quality quasi-periodic pulsations of flaring loops are interpreted in terms of the trapped fundamental fast-sausage mode in a slab-like coronal waveguide.

  20. Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.

  1. Implementing slab solar water heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveendran, S. K.; Shen, C. Q.

    2015-08-01

    Water heating contributes a significant part of energy consumption in typical household. One of the most employed technologies today that helps in reducing the energy consumption of water heating would be conventional solar water heating system. However, this system is expensive and less affordable by most family. The main objective of this project is to design and implement an alternative type of solar water heating system that utilize only passive solar energy which is known as slab solar water heating system. Slab solar water heating system is a system that heat up cold water using the solar radiance from the sun. The unique part of this system is that it does not require any form of electricity in order to operate. Solar radiance is converted into heat energy through convection method and cold water will be heated up by using conduction method [1]. The design of this system is governed by the criteria of low implementation cost and energy saving. Selection of material in the construction of a slab solar water heating system is important as it will directly affect the efficiency and performance of the system. A prototype has been built to realize the idea and it had been proven that this system was able to provide sufficient hot water supply for typical household usage at any given time.

  2. DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells exposed to gamma-rays and very heavy ions. Fragment-size distributions determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kraxenberger, F; Weber, K J; Friedl, A A; Eckardt-Schupp, F; Flentje, M; Quicken, P; Kellerer, A M

    1998-07-01

    The spatial distribution of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) was assessed after treatment of mammalian cells (V79) with densely ionizing radiation. Cells were exposed to beams of heavy charged particles (calcium ions: 6.9 MeV/u, 2.1.10(3) keV/microm; uranium ions: 9.0 MeV/u, 1.4.10(4) keV/microm) at the linear accelerator UNILAC of GSI, Darmstadt. DNA was isolated in agarose plugs and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis under conditions that separated DNA fragments of size 50 kbp to 5 Mbp. The measured fragment distributions were compared to those obtained after gamma-irradiation and were analyzed by means of a convolution and a deconvolution technique. In contrast to the finding for gamma-radiation, the distributions produced by heavy ions do not correspond to the random breakage model. Their marked overdispersion and the observed excess of short fragments reflect spatial clustering of DSB that extends over large regions of the DNA, up to several mega base pairs (Mbp). At fluences of 0.75 and 1.5/microm2, calcium ions produce nearly the same shape of fragment spectrum, merely with a difference in the amount of DNA entering the gel; this suggests that the DNA is fragmented by individual calcium ions. At a fluence of 0.8/microm2 uranium ions produce a profile that is shifted to smaller fragment sizes in comparison to the profile obtained at a fluence of 0.4/microm2; this suggests cumulative action of two separate ions in the formation of fragments. These observations are not consistent with the expectation that the uranium ions, with their much larger LET, should be more likely to produce single particle action than the calcium ions. However, a consideration of the greater lateral extension of the tracks of the faster uranium ions explains the observed differences; it suggests that the DNA is closely coiled so that even DNA locations several Mbp apart are usually not separated by less than 0. 1 or 0.2 microm.

  3. A two- and three-dimensional numerical modelling benchmark of slab detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Glerum, Anne; Hillebrand, Bram; Schmalholz, Stefan; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond

    2014-05-01

    Subduction is likely to be the most studied phenomenon in Numerical Geodynamics. Over the past 20 years, hundreds of publications have focused on its various aspects (influence of the rheology and thermal state of the plates, slab-mantle coupling, roll-back, mantle wedge evolution, buoyancy changes due to phase change, ...) and results were obtained with a variety of codes. Slab detachment has recently received some attention (e.g. Duretz, 2012) but remains a field worth exploring due to its profound influence on dynamic topography, mantle flow and subsequent stress state of the plates, and is believed to have occured in the Zagros, Carpathians and beneath eastern Anatolia, to name only a few regions. Following the work of Schmalholz (2011), we propose a two- and three-dimensional numerical benchmark of slab detachment. The geometry is simple: a power-law T-shaped plate including an already subducted slab overlies the mantle whose viscosity is either linear or power-law. Boundary conditions are free-slip on the top and the bottom of the domain, and no-slip on the sides. When the system evolves in time, the slab stretches out vertically and shows buoyancy-driven necking, until it finally detaches. The benchmark is subdivided into several sub-experiments with gradually increase in complexity (free surface, coupling of the rheology with temperature, ...). An array of objective measurements is recorded throughout the simulation such as the width of the necked slab over time and the exact time of detachment. The experiments will be run in two-dimensions and repeated in three-dimensional, the latter case being designed so as to allow both poloidal and toroidal flow. We show results obtained with a multitude of Finite Element and Finite Difference codes, using either compositional fields, level sets or tracers to track the compositions. A good agreement is found for most of the measurements in the two-dimensional case, and preliminary three-dimensional measurements will

  4. Temporal evolution of crack propagation propensity in snow in relation to slab and weak layer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Jürg; Reuter, Benjamin; van Herwijnen, Alec; Richter, Bettina; Gaume, Johan

    2016-11-01

    If a weak snow layer below a cohesive slab is present in the snow cover, unstable snow conditions can prevail for days or even weeks. We monitored the temporal evolution of a weak layer of faceted crystals as well as the overlaying slab layers at the location of an automatic weather station in the Steintälli field site above Davos (Eastern Swiss Alps). We focussed on the crack propagation propensity and performed propagation saw tests (PSTs) on 7 sampling days during a 2-month period from early January to early March 2015. Based on video images taken during the tests we determined the mechanical properties of the slab and the weak layer and compared them to the results derived from concurrently performed measurements of penetration resistance using the snow micro-penetrometer (SMP). The critical cut length, observed in PSTs, increased overall during the measurement period. The increase was not steady and the lowest values of critical cut length were observed around the middle of the measurement period. The relevant mechanical properties, the slab effective elastic modulus and the weak layer specific fracture, overall increased as well. However, the changes with time differed, suggesting that the critical cut length cannot be assessed by simply monitoring a single mechanical property such as slab load, slab modulus or weak layer specific fracture energy. Instead, crack propagation propensity is the result of a complex interplay between the mechanical properties of the slab and the weak layer. We then compared our field observations to newly developed metrics of snow instability related to either failure initiation or crack propagation propensity. The metrics were either derived from the SMP signal or calculated from simulated snow stratigraphy (SNOWPACK). They partially reproduced the observed temporal evolution of critical cut length and instability test scores. Whereas our unique dataset of quantitative measures of snow instability provides new insights into the

  5. Dynamic buckling of subducting slabs reconciles geological and geophysical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changyeol; King, Scott D.

    2011-12-01

    Ever since the early days of the development of plate tectonic theory, subduction zones have been engrained in geological thinking as the place where steady, linear slabs descend into the mantle at a constant, uniform dip angle beneath volcanic arcs. However, growing evidence from geological and geophysical observations as well as analog and numerical modeling indicates that subducting slabs buckle in a time-dependent manner, in contrast to the steady-state, linear cartoons that dominate the literature. To evaluate the implication of time-dependent slab buckling of geological events, we conduct a series of 2-D numerical dynamic/kinematic subduction experiments by varying the viscosity increase across the 660 km discontinuity and the strength of the subducting slab. Our results show that slab buckling is a universal figure in all the experiments when rate of the trench migration ( Vtrench) is relatively slow ( Vtrench| < 2 cm/a) and viscosity increases across the 660 km discontinuity are greater than a factor of 30. Slab buckling is expressed as alternate shallowing and steepening dip of the subducting slab (from ~ 40 to ~ 100°) which is correlated with increasing and decreasing convergent rate of the incoming oceanic plate toward the trench. Further, the slab buckling in our experiments is consistent with the previously developed scaling laws for slab buckling; using reasonable parameters from subducted slabs the buckling amplitude and period are ~ 400 km and ~ 25 Myr, respectively. The slab buckling behavior in our experiments explains a variety of puzzling geological and geophysical observations. First, the period of slab buckling is consistent with short periodic variations (~ 25 Myr) in the motions of the oceanic plates that are anchored by subduction zones. Second, the scattered distributions of slab dips (from ~ 20 to ~ 90°) in the upper mantle are snapshots of time-dependent slab dip. Third, the current compressional and extensional stress environments in

  6. Viscous Dissipation and Criticality of Subducting Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Mike; Karato, Shun; Yuen, Dave

    2016-04-01

    Rheology of subducting lithosphere appears to be complicated. In the shallow part, deformation is largely accomodated by brittle failure, whereas at greater depth, at higher confining pressures, ductile creep is expected to control slab strength. The amount of viscous dissipation ΔQ during subduction at greater depth, as constrained by experimental rock mechanics, can be estimated on the basis of a simple bending moment equation [1,2] 2ɛ˙0(z) ∫ +h/2 2 M (z) = h ṡ -h/2 4μ(y,z)y dy , (1) for a complex multi-phase rheology in the mantle transition zone, including the effects of a metastable phase transition as well as the pressure, temperature, grain-size and stress dependency of the relevant creep mechanisms; μ is here the effective viscosity and ɛ˙0(z) is a (reference) strain rate. Numerical analysis shows that the maximum bending moment, Mcrit, that can be sustained by a slab is of the order of 1019 Nm per m according to Mcrit˜=σp ∗h2/4, where σp is the Peierl's stress limit of slab materials and h is the slab thickness. Near Mcrit, the amount of viscous dissipation grows strongly as a consequence of a lattice instability of mantle minerals (dislocation glide in olivine), suggesting that thermo-mechanical instabilities become prone to occur at places where a critical shear-heating rate is exceeded, see figure. This implies that the lithosphere behaves in such cases like a perfectly plastic solid [3]. Recently available detailed data related to deep seismicity [4,5] seems to provide support to our conclusion. It shows, e.g., that thermal shear instabilities, and not transformational faulting, is likely the dominating mechanism for deep-focus earthquakes at the bottom of the transition zone, in accordance with this suggested "deep criticality" model. These new findings are therefore briefly outlined and possible implications are discussed. References [1] Riedel, M. R., Karato, S., Yuen, D. A. Criticality of Subducting Slabs. University of Minnesota

  7. Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width.

    PubMed

    Schellart, W P; Freeman, J; Stegman, D R; Moresi, L; May, D

    2007-03-15

    Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel extent (that is, two-dimensional) or finite in width but fixed in space. Subduction zones and their associated slabs are, however, limited in lateral extent (250-7,400 km) and their three-dimensional geometry evolves over time. Here we show that slab width controls two first-order features of plate tectonics-the curvature of subduction zones and their tendency to retreat backwards with time. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of free subduction, we show that trench migration rate is inversely related to slab width and depends on proximity to a lateral slab edge. These results are consistent with retreat velocities observed globally, with maximum velocities (6-16 cm yr(-1)) only observed close to slab edges (<1,200 km), whereas far from edges (>2,000 km) retreat velocities are always slow (<2.0 cm yr(-1)). Models with narrow slabs (< or =1,500 km) retreat fast and develop a curved geometry, concave towards the mantle wedge side. Models with slabs intermediate in width ( approximately 2,000-3,000 km) are sublinear and retreat more slowly. Models with wide slabs (> or =4,000 km) are nearly stationary in the centre and develop a convex geometry, whereas trench retreat increases towards concave-shaped edges. Additionally, we identify periods (5-10 Myr) of slow trench advance at the centre of wide slabs. Such wide-slab behaviour may explain mountain building in the central Andes, as being a consequence of its tectonic setting, far from slab edges.

  8. A small (58-nm) attached sphere perturbs the sieving of 40-80-kilobase DNA in 0.2-2.5% agarose gels: analysis of bacteriophage T7 capsid-DNA complexes by use of pulsed field electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Serwer, P; Hayes, S J; Moreno, E T; Park, C Y

    1992-09-15

    Although the icosahedral bacteriophage T7 capsid has a diameter (58 nm) that is 234-fold smaller than the length of the linear, double-stranded T7 DNA, binding of a T7 capsid to T7 DNA is found here to have dramatic effects on the migration of the DNA during both pulsed field agarose gel electrophoresis (PFGE; the field inversion mode is used) and constant field agarose gel electrophoresis (CFGE). For these studies, capsid-DNA complexes were obtained by expelling DNA from mature bacteriophage T7; this procedure yields DNA with capsids bound at a variable position on the DNA. When subjected to CFGE at 2-6 V/cm in 0.20-2.5% agarose gels, capsid-DNA complexes arrest at the electrophoretic origin. Progressively lowering the electrical potential gradient to 0.5 V/cm results in migration; most complexes form a single band. The elevated electrical potential gradient (3 V/cm) induced arrest of capsid-DNA complexes is reversed when PFGE is used instead of CFGE. For some conditions of PFGE, the mobility of capsid-DNA complexes is a function of the position of the capsid on the DNA. During either CFGE (0.5 V/cm) or PFGE, capsid-DNA complexes increasingly separate from capsid-free DNA as the percentage of agarose increases. During these studies, capsid-DNA complexes are identified by electron microscopy of enzymatically-digested pieces of agarose gel; this is apparently the first successful electron microscopy of DNA from an agarose gel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Tectonic controls on earthquake size distribution and seismicity rate: slab buoyancy and slab bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, T.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    There are clear variations in maximum earthquake magnitude among Earth's subduction zones. These variations have been studied extensively and attributed to differences in tectonic properties in subduction zones, such as relative plate velocity and subducting plate age [Ruff and Kanamori, 1980]. In addition to maximum earthquake magnitude, the seismicity of medium to large earthquakes also differs among subduction zones, such as the b-value (i.e., the slope of the earthquake size distribution) and the frequency of seismic events. However, the casual relationship between the seismicity of medium to large earthquakes and subduction zone tectonics has been unclear. Here we divide Earth's subduction zones into over 100 study regions following Ide [2013] and estimate b-values and the background seismicity rate—the frequency of seismic events excluding aftershocks—for subduction zones worldwide using the maximum likelihood method [Utsu, 1965; Aki, 1965] and the epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model [Ogata, 1988]. We demonstrate that the b-value varies as a function of subducting plate age and trench depth, and that the background seismicity rate is related to the degree of slab bending at the trench. Large earthquakes tend to occur relatively frequently (lower b-values) in shallower subduction zones with younger slabs, and more earthquakes occur in subduction zones with deeper trench and steeper dip angle. These results suggest that slab buoyancy, which depends on subducting plate age, controls the earthquake size distribution, and that intra-slab faults due to slab bending, which increase with the steepness of the slab dip angle, have influence on the frequency of seismic events, because they produce heterogeneity in plate coupling and efficiently inject fluid to elevate pore fluid pressure on the plate interface. This study reveals tectonic factors that control earthquake size distribution and seismicity rate, and these relationships between seismicity and

  10. The Cascadia Paradox: Mantle flow and slab fragmentation in the Cascadia subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Maureen D.

    2016-12-01

    The pattern of mantle flow in subduction systems and the processes that control the mantle flow field represent fundamental but still poorly understood aspects of subduction dynamics. The Cascadia subduction zone is a compelling system in which to understand the controls on mantle flow, especially given the dense geophysical observations recently provided by EarthScope, GeoPRISMS, the Cascadia Initiative, and related efforts. Observations of seismic anisotropy, which provide relatively direct constraints on mantle flow, are particularly intriguing in Cascadia because they seem to yield contradictory views of the mantle flow field in different parts of the system. Specifically, observations of seismic anisotropy on the overriding plate, notably in the central portion of the backarc, apparently require a significant component of three-dimensional, toroidal flow around the slab edge. In contrast, new observations from offshore stations are compellingly explained with a simple two-dimensional entrained flow model. Recent evidence from seismic tomography for the likely fragmentation of the Cascadia slab at depth provides a further puzzle: how does a fragmented slab provide a driving force for either two-dimensional entrained flow or three-dimensional toroidal flow due to slab rollback? Resolution of this apparent paradox will require new imaging strategies as well as the integration of constraints from seismology, geodynamics, and geochemistry.

  11. The significance of slab-crusted lava flows for understanding controls on flow emplacement at Mount Etna, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guest, John E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    2005-04-01

    Slab-crusted flows on Mount Etna, Sicily are defined here as those whose crust has ridden on the flow core without significant disruption or deformation and have a high length to width ratio. They typically erupt from ephemeral boccas as late-stage products on dominantly aa flow fields, such as that of the 1983 eruption on Mount Etna. Slab-crusted flows tend to inflate mainly as they approach and after they reach the maximum length of slab-crust formation, the flow interior acting as a preferential pathway for injecting lava under a stable crust. Coalescence of vesicles under successive crusts causes separation between core and crust giving a new cooling surface within the flow, on which ropy surfaces (and occasionally aa textures) of limited areal extent may develop. Slab-crusted flows tend to form at ephemeral boccas together with other surface textural types including toes, ropy pahoehoe sheets and aa flows. This suggests that, on Etna, slab-crusted flows form from lava of the same rheological properties as both aa and pahoehoe textured flows. They do not represent a transition between aa and pahoehoe as argued for toothpaste flows in Hawaii. We conclude that slab-crusted flows on Etna owe their morphology to a relatively high critical ratio of effusion rate to advance rate, related to vent cross-sectional area and the slope over which the flow forms.

  12. A comparison of non-typhoidal Salmonella from humans and food animals using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

    PubMed

    Sandt, Carol H; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Tewari, Deepanker; Ostroff, Stephen; Joyce, Kevin; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food

  13. Analysis of ventilator-associated pneumonia infection route by genome macrorestriction-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and its prevention with combined nursing strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Junping; Li, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the infection route of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and assess the effectiveness of a combined nursing strategy to prevent VAP in intensive care units. Bacteria from the gastric juice and drainage from the hypolarynx and lower respiratory tracts of patients with VAP were analyzed using genome macrorestriction-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (GM-PFGE). A total of 124 patients with tracheal intubation were placed in the intervention group and were treated with a combined nursing strategy, comprising mosapride (gastric motility stimulant) administration and semi-reclining positioning. A total of 112 intubated patients were placed in the control group and received routine nursing care. The incidence rate of VAP, days of ventilation and mortality rate of patients were compared between the two groups. The GM-PFGE fingerprinting results of three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the gastric juice, subglottic secretion drainage and drainage of the lower respiratory tract in patients with VAP were similar across groups. The number of days spent on a ventilator by patients in the intervention group (7.37±5.32 days) was lower compared with that by patients in the control group (12.34±4.98 days) (P<0.05). The incidence rate of VAP was reduced from 40.81 to 21.25% following intervention with the combined nursing strategy (P<0.05); furthermore, the mortality rate of intubated patients in the intervention group was 29.46%, a significant reduction compared with the 41.94% mortality rate observed in the control group (P<0.05). Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) was confirmed as one of the infection routes for VAP. The combined nursing strategy of gastric motility stimulant administration and the adoption of a semi-reclining position was effective in preventing VAP by reducing the occurrence of GER.

  14. High-resolution hydrodynamic chromatographic separation of large DNA using narrow, bare open capillaries: a rapid and economical alternative technology to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis?

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Veerappan, Vijaykumar; Pu, Qiaosheng; Cheng, Chang; Wang, Xiayan; Lu, Liping; Allen, Randy D; Guo, Guangsheng

    2014-01-07

    A high-resolution, rapid, and economical hydrodynamic chromatographic (HDC) method for large DNA separations in free solution was developed using narrow (5 μm diameter), bare open capillaries. Size-based separation was achieved in a chromatographic format with larger DNA molecules being eluting faster than smaller ones. Lambda DNA Mono Cut Mix was baseline-separated with the percentage resolutions generally less than 9.0% for all DNA fragments (1.5 to 48.5 kbp) tested in this work. High efficiencies were achieved for large DNA from this chromatographic technique, and the number of theoretical plates reached 3.6 × 10(5) plates for the longest (48.5 kbp) and 3.7 × 10(5) plates for the shortest (1.5 kbp) fragments. HDC parameters and performances were also discussed. The method was further applied for fractionating large DNA fragments from real-world samples (SacII digested Arabidopsis plant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) DNA and PmeI digested Rice BAC DNA) to demonstrate its feasibility for BAC DNA finger printing. Rapid separation of PmeI digested Rice BAC DNA covering from 0.44 to 119.041 kbp was achieved in less than 26 min. All DNA fragments of these samples were baseline separated in narrow bare open capillaries, while the smallest fragment (0.44 kbp) was missing in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) separation mode. It is demonstrated that narrow bare open capillary chromatography can realize a rapid separation for a wide size range of DNA mixtures that contain both small and large DNA fragments in a single run.

  15. Speciation and strain-typing of Staphylococcus agnetis and Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from bovine milk using a novel multiplex PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Adkins, P R F; Middleton, J R; Calcutt, M J; Stewart, G C; Fox, L K

    2017-03-22

    Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus agnetis are two coagulase variable staphylococcal species that can be isolated from bovine milk and are difficult to differentiate. The objectives of this study were to characterize isolates of bovine milk origin from a collection that had previously been characterized as coagulase positive S. hyicus based on phenotypic speciation methods and to develop a PCR-based method for differentiating S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus. Isolates (n = 62) were selected from a previous study in which milk samples were collected from cows on 15 dairy herds. Isolates were coagulase tested and speciated using housekeeping gene sequencing. A multiplex PCR to differentiate S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus was developed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was conducted to strain type isolates. Based on gene sequencing, 44/62 of the isolates were determined to be either S. agnetis (n = 43) or S. hyicus (n = 1). Overall, 88% (37/42) of coagulase positive S. agnetis isolates were found to be coagulase positive at 4 hours. Herd-level prevalence of coagulase positive S. agnetis ranged from 0 to 2.17%. Strain-typing identified 23 different strains. Six strains were identified more than once and from multiple cows within the herd. Three strains were isolated from cows at more than one time point, with 41-264 days between samplings. These data suggest that S. agnetis is likely more prevalent on dairy farms than S. hyicus Also, some S. agnetis isolates in this study appeared to be contagious and associated with persistent infections.

  16. Diversity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, serovars, and antibiotic resistance among Salmonella isolates from wild amphibians and reptiles in the California Central Coast.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Lisa; Jay-Russell, Michele T; Liang, Anita S; Walker, Samarpita; Bengson, Yingjia; Govoni, Jessica; Mandrell, Robert E

    2013-06-01

    A survey of cold-blooded vertebrates and associated surface waters in a produce-growing region on the Central California Coast was done between May and September 2011 to determine the diversity of Salmonella. Samples from 460 amphibians and reptiles and 119 water samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella. Animals sampled were frogs (n=331), lizards (n=59), newts (n=5), salamanders (n=6), snakes (n=39), and toads (n=20). Salmonella was isolated from 37 individual animals, including frogs, lizards, snakes, and toads. Snakes were the most likely to contain Salmonella, with 59% testing positive followed by 15.3% of lizards, 5% of toads, and 1.2% of frogs. Fifteen water samples (12.6%) were positive. Twenty-two different serovars were identified, and the majority of isolates were S. enterica subsp. IIIb, with subsp. I, II, and IIIa also found. The serovar isolated most frequently was S. enterica subsp. IIIb 16:z₁₀:e,n,x,z₁₅, from snakes and frogs in five different locations. S. enterica subsp. I serovar Typhimurium and the monophasic I 6,8:d:- were isolated from water, and subspecies I Duisburg and its variants were found in animals and water. Some samples contained more than one type of Salmonella. Analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes indicated that some strains persisted in animals and water collected from the same location. Sixty-six isolates displayed antibiotic resistance, with 27 isolates resistant to more than one antibiotic, including a subspecies IIIb isolate from snake having resistance to five different antibiotics. Twenty-three isolates were resistant to more than one class of antibiotic, and six isolates were resistant to three classes. While these subspecies of IIIa and IIIb cause fewer instances of human illness, they may serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, determinants in the environment, and be sources of contamination of leafy greens associated with product recalls.

  17. Genetic Diversity of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 Isolates Obtained from Different Sources as Resolved by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Butler, Robert R.; Reddy, N. Rukma; Skinner, Guy E.; Larkin, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 is a nonpathogenic, nontoxic model organism for proteolytic Clostridium botulinum used in the validation of conventional thermal food processes due to its ability to produce highly heat-resistant endospores. Because of its public safety importance, the uncertain taxonomic classification and genetic diversity of PA 3679 are concerns. Therefore, isolates of C. sporogenes PA 3679 were obtained from various sources and characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing. The phylogenetic relatedness and genetic variability were assessed based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. All C. sporogenes PA 3679 isolates were categorized into two clades (clade I containing ATCC 7955 NCA3679 isolates 1961-2, 1990, and 2007 and clade II containing PA 3679 isolates NFL, UW, FDA, and Campbell and ATCC 7955 NCA3679 isolate 1961-4). The 16S maximum likelihood (ML) tree clustered both clades within proteolytic C. botulinum strains, with clade I forming a distinct cluster with other C. sporogenes non-PA 3679 strains. SNP analysis revealed that clade I isolates were more similar to the genomic reference PA 3679 (NCTC8594) genome (GenBank accession number AGAH00000000.1) than clade II isolates were. The genomic reference C. sporogenes PA 3679 (NCTC8594) genome and clade I C. sporogenes isolates were genetically distinct from those obtained from other sources (University of Wisconsin, National Food Laboratory, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and Campbell's Soup Company). Thermal destruction studies revealed that clade I isolates were more sensitive to high temperature than clade II isolates were. Considering the widespread use of C. sporogenes PA 3679 and its genetic information in numerous studies, the accurate identification and genetic characterization of C. sporogenes PA 3679 are of critical importance. PMID:26519392

  18. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, conventional, and molecular serotyping of Listeria monocytogenes from food proficiency testing trials toward an harmonization of subtyping at European level.

    PubMed

    Félix, Benjamin; Dao, Trinh Tam; Grout, Joël; Lombard, Bertrand; Asséré, Adrien; Brisabois, Anne; Roussel, Sophie

    2012-08-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for Listeria monocytogenes (EURL for L. monocytogenes) coordinates a European network of 29 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). Depending on a national decision, NRLs undertake food, environmental, and veterinary L. monocytogenes strain surveillance in their respective countries. In the framework of the PulseNet Europe network, two pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping proficiency testing (PT) trials were carried out in 2003 and 2006. The obtained data showed that PFGE profiles can be compared and exchanged between laboratories. However, no further PT trial had been performed since 2006. In this context, two PT trials were organized by the EURL to evaluate the ability of NRLs to perform conventional serotyping, molecular serotyping and PFGE subtyping. Eleven well-characterized isolates of L. monocytogenes were used: six and nine isolates were tested in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Three isolates were repeated between the two studies. In the 2010 panel, a strain was tested in duplicate, and two strains were related to the same epidemiological group. The strains were analyzed blind in different laboratories (17 in 2009 and 25 in 2010) using (1) their own in-house method for serotyping methods and (2) standardized protocols based on the PulseNet protocol for PFGE. For conventional serotyping, 86.0% in 2009 and 91.0% in 2010 of the serotypes obtained were in agreement with the EURL data. For molecular serotyping, 93.5% of the results in 2009 and 95.2% in 2010 matched the EURL data. For PFGE, 68.9% in 2009 and 81.7% of the combined AscI/ApaI profiles were indistinguishable from the EURL reference profiles. The variations observed could be attributed to slight standardization defaults or, in a few cases, to a failure in DNA extraction. These PT trials provided a valuable opportunity to improve the subtyping ability of NRLs and facilitate exchanges of subtyping data in the future.

  19. Electron emission produced by photointeractions in a slab target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thinger, B. E.; Dayton, J. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The current density and energy spectrum of escaping electrons generated in a uniform plane slab target which is being irradiated by the gamma flux field of a nuclear reactor are calculated by using experimental gamma energy transfer coefficients, electron range and energy relations, and escape probability computations. The probability of escape and the average path length of escaping electrons are derived for an isotropic distribution of monoenergetic photons. The method of estimating the flux and energy distribution of electrons emerging from the surface is outlined, and a sample calculation is made for a 0.33-cm-thick tungsten target located next to the core of a nuclear reactor. The results are to be used as a guide in electron beam synthesis of reactor experiments.

  20. Fracture problems of a superconducting slab with a central kinked crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S. W.; Feng, W. J.; Liu, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the central kinked crack problem is investigated for a long rectangular superconducting slab under electromagnetic forces. The distributions of both the current density and the magnetic flux density in the slab are obtained analytically in the Kim critical state model for both the zero-field cooling and the field cooling magnetization processes. And based on the finite element method, the stress intensity factors at the crack tips for decreasing magnetic fields are numerically calculated. Numerical results obtained show that the zero-field cooling activation process generally has more significant influence on the stress intensity factors than the field cooling activation process, and that for every activation process, as the applied field decreases, the superconducting slab is most dangerous when the currents in the crack region are just be influenced. In general, both the maximal mode-I stress intensity factors (SIFs) and mode-II SIFs decrease with the increasing of either the introduced dimensionless parameter p in the Kim model or the crack length. However, the effects of kinked angles on the SIFs are complex. The present study should be helpful to the design and application of high-temperature superconductors.

  1. Penetration effect in gyrotropic slab: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Vytovtov, Konstantin; Mospan, Lyudmila

    2012-06-01

    Scattering properties of a homogeneous anisotropic slab are investigated at fixed crystal anisotropy axis orientation. The penetration phenomenon for an incident wave propagating tangentially to the crystal surface is discussed. Slab-based nonreciprocal optical devices are proposed. Their operating principles are based on the slab scattering properties, but not on the Faraday effect. Numerical data for an optical isolator and frequency detector are presented.

  2. Highly sensitive analysis of nucleic acids using capillary gel electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection based on the combination of matrix field-amplified and head-column field-amplified stacking injection.

    PubMed

    Lian, Dong-Sheng; Zhao, Shu-Jin

    2015-01-26

    To develop a highly sensitive method for analyzing nucleic acids using capillary gel electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection (CGE-UV), we combined matrix field-amplified with head-column field-amplified stacking injection (C-FASI) to employ the advantages of two methods. Without diminishing the resolution, a limit of detection of 0.13 ng/ml (signal/noise=3) in a 300,000-fold diluted sample was obtained, the sensitivity is 102,308 times higher than that achieved with normal pressure injection, 3077 times that with normal electrokinetic injection, 154 times that with pressure field-amplified sample stacking injection, and 31 times that with matrix field-amplified stacking injection. After establishing the method, we tested the detection of a φX174-Hae III digest DNA product without purification and with a high ionic strength. At the lowest dilution of 5000-fold, sample at a concentration of 10 ng/ml was enriched and detected. The relative standard deviations for migration time and peak area (n=3) were 0.03-1.15 and 0.72-6.42, respectively. To further validate C-FASI was applicable for real sample, a 400 bp PCR product without purification was directly detected with a limit of detection at the concentration of 6000-fold dilution (signal/noise=3), The relative standard deviations for migration time and peak area (n=6) were 0.44 and 4.8, respectively. These results indicated that C-FASI had good qualitative and quantitative detection abilities and CGE-UV based on C-FASI is easy to perform, practical, highly-sensitive and robust for nucleic acid detection, which makes it a highly valuable tool for genetic diagnostics based on nucleic acid analysis.

  3. Automated inspection of hot steel slabs

    DOEpatents

    Martin, R.J.

    1985-12-24

    The disclosure relates to a real time digital image enhancement system for performing the image enhancement segmentation processing required for a real time automated system for detecting and classifying surface imperfections in hot steel slabs. The system provides for simultaneous execution of edge detection processing and intensity threshold processing in parallel on the same image data produced by a sensor device such as a scanning camera. The results of each process are utilized to validate the results of the other process and a resulting image is generated that contains only corresponding segmentation that is produced by both processes. 5 figs.

  4. Automated inspection of hot steel slabs

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald J.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a real time digital image enhancement system for performing the image enhancement segmentation processing required for a real time automated system for detecting and classifying surface imperfections in hot steel slabs. The system provides for simultaneous execution of edge detection processing and intensity threshold processing in parallel on the same image data produced by a sensor device such as a scanning camera. The results of each process are utilized to validate the results of the other process and a resulting image is generated that contains only corresponding segmentation that is produced by both processes.

  5. Photonic crystal slab quantum well infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchmair, S.; Detz, H.; Cole, G. D.; Andrews, A. M.; Klang, P.; Nobile, M.; Gansch, R.; Ostermaier, C.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter we present a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP), which is fabricated as a photonic crystal slab (PCS). With the PCS it is possible to enhance the absorption efficiency by increasing photon lifetime in the detector active region. To understand the optical properties of the device we simulate the PCS photonic band structure, which differs significantly from a real two-dimensional photonic crystal. By fabricating a PCS-QWIP with 100x less quantum well doping, compared to a standard QWIP, we are able to see strong absorption enhancement and sharp resonance peaks up to temperatures of 170 K.

  6. Behavior of Restrained Two-Way Slabs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-22

    AC-AGOG "I NEWMARK (NATHAN M) CONSULTING ENGINEERING SERVICES U-ETC F/G 13/13 BEHAVIOR OF RESTRAINED TWO-WAY SLABS. (U) L FEB 79 1 D HALTIWANGER, W J...Building Urbana, Illinois 61801 22 February 1979 Interim Report for Period 1 September 1978-22 February 1979 CONTRACT No. DNA 0O1-78-C-0300 APPROVED FOR...FORM 1 . REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO, 3 HECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER DNA 4959Z ) -,A TYI-t OD 4. TITLE (and Subbiti. 5 rYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD

  7. Inclined crack problem in a rectangular slab of superconductor under an electromagnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Yong, Huadong; Xue, Cun; Zhou, Youhe

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, the critical state Bean model is employed to estimate the effect of the electromagnetic force on the fracture behavior of the superconductor slab. The superconductor slab with an inclined crack is subjected to an applied field. Based on the finite element method, the stress intensity factors are computed for two activation processes, zero field cooling and field cooling. Numerical results obtained show that the crack length and the inclined angle have significant effects on the fracture behavior. Generally, maximum of mode-I stress intensity factor is larger than that of mode-II stress intensity factor. The stress intensity factors analyzed in the paper are useful to learn fracture behavior and mechanical failure of superconductors.

  8. MULTIPLE SETS OF TWIN SLABS ON THE RUN OUT. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MULTIPLE SETS OF TWIN SLABS ON THE RUN OUT. THE RUN OUT INCLUDES THE TRAVELING TORCH WHICH CUTS SLABS TO DESIRED LENGTH, AN IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM TO INDICATE HEAT NUMBER AND TRACE IDENTITY OF EVERY SLAB, AND A DEBURRING DEVICE TO SMOOTH SLABS. AT LEFT OF ROLLS IS THE DUMMY BAR. DUMMY BAR IS INSERTED UP THROUGH CONTAINMENT SECTION INTO MOLD PRIOR TO START OF CAST. WHEN STEEL IS INTRODUCED INTO MOLD IT CONNECTS WITH BAR AS CAST BEGINS, AT RUN OUT DUMMY BAR DISCONNECTS AND IS STORED. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  9. MULTIPLE SETS OF TWIN SLABS ON THE RUN OUT. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MULTIPLE SETS OF TWIN SLABS ON THE RUN OUT. THE RUN OUT INCLUDES THE TRAVELING TORCH WHICH CUTS SLABS TO DESIRED LENGTH, AN IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM TO INDICATE HEAT NUMBER AND TRACE IDENTITY OF EVERY SLAB, AND A DEBURRING DEVICE TO SMOOTH SLABS. AT LEFT OF ROLLS IS THE DUMMY BAR. DUMMY BAR IS INSERTED UP THROUGH CONTAINMENT SECTION INTO MOLD PRIOR TO START OF CAST. WHEN STEEL IS INTRODUCED INTO MOLD IT CONNECTS WITH BAR AS CAST BEGINS, AT RUN OUT DUMMY BAR DISCONNECTS AND IS STORED - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Sub-slab vs. Near-slab Soil Vapor Profiles at a Chlorinated Solvent Site (1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical issue in assessing the vapor intrusion pathway is the distribution and migration of VOCs from the subsurface source to the near surface environment. Of particular importance is the influence of a slab. Therefore, EPA/ORD is funding a research program with the primary...

  11. Slab temperature controls on the Tonga double seismic zone and slab mantle dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Wei, S. Shawn; Wiens, Douglas A.; van Keken, Peter E.; Cai, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Double seismic zones are two-layered distributions of intermediate-depth earthquakes that provide insight into the thermomechanical state of subducting slabs. We present new precise hypocenters of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Tonga subduction zone obtained using data from local island–based, ocean-bottom, and global seismographs. The results show a downdip compressional upper plane and a downdip tensional lower plane with a separation of about 30 km. The double seismic zone in Tonga extends to a depth of about 300 km, deeper than in any other subduction system. This is due to the lower slab temperatures resulting from faster subduction, as indicated by a global trend toward deeper double seismic zones in colder slabs. In addition, a line of high seismicity in the upper plane is observed at a depth of 160 to 280 km, which shallows southward as the convergence rate decreases. Thermal modeling shows that the earthquakes in this “seismic belt” occur at various pressures but at a nearly constant temperature, highlighting the important role of temperature in triggering intermediate-depth earthquakes. This seismic belt may correspond to regions where the subducting mantle first reaches a temperature of ~500°C, implying that metamorphic dehydration of mantle minerals in the slab provides water to enhance faulting. PMID:28097220

  12. Slab temperature controls on the Tonga double seismic zone and slab mantle dehydration.

    PubMed

    Wei, S Shawn; Wiens, Douglas A; van Keken, Peter E; Cai, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Double seismic zones are two-layered distributions of intermediate-depth earthquakes that provide insight into the thermomechanical state of subducting slabs. We present new precise hypocenters of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Tonga subduction zone obtained using data from local island-based, ocean-bottom, and global seismographs. The results show a downdip compressional upper plane and a downdip tensional lower plane with a separation of about 30 km. The double seismic zone in Tonga extends to a depth of about 300 km, deeper than in any other subduction system. This is due to the lower slab temperatures resulting from faster subduction, as indicated by a global trend toward deeper double seismic zones in colder slabs. In addition, a line of high seismicity in the upper plane is observed at a depth of 160 to 280 km, which shallows southward as the convergence rate decreases. Thermal modeling shows that the earthquakes in this "seismic belt" occur at various pressures but at a nearly constant temperature, highlighting the important role of temperature in triggering intermediate-depth earthquakes. This seismic belt may correspond to regions where the subducting mantle first reaches a temperature of ~500°C, implying that metamorphic dehydration of mantle minerals in the slab provides water to enhance faulting.

  13. GEM printer: 3D gel printer for free shaping of functional gel engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Muroi, Hisato; Yamamoto, Kouki; Serizawa, Ryo; Gong, Jin

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. The gels have both low surface friction and well permeability due to a large amount of water absorbed in the gels, which are superiority of the gels compering to the polyester fibers. It is, however, difficult for gels to be forked structure or cavity structure by using cutting or mold. Consequently, it is necessary to develop the additive manufacturing device to synthesize and mode freely gels at the same time. Here we try to develop an optical 3D gel printer that enables gels to be shaped precisely and freely. For the free forming of high-strength gels, the 1st gels are ground to particles and mixed with 2nd pregel solution, and the mixed solution is gelled by the irradiation of UV laser beam through an optical fiber. The use of the optical fiber makes one-point UV irradiation possible. Since the optical fiber is controlled by 3D-CAD, the precise and free molding in XYZ directions is easily realized. We successfully synthesized tough gels using the gel printer.

  14. Sol-gel composite material characteristics caused by different dielectric constant sol-gel phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimoto, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Makoto; Kaneko, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Makiko

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic transducers prepared by a sol-gel composite method have been investigated in the field of nondestructive testing (NDT). Sol-gel composite materials could be ideal piezoelectric materials for ultrasonic transducer applications in the NDT field, and a new sol-gel composite with desirable characteristics has been developed. Three kinds of sol-gel composite materials composed of different dielectric constant sol-gel phases, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT), and BaTiO3 (BT), and the same piezoelectric powder phase, PbTiO3 (PT), were fabricated and their properties were compared quantitatively. As a result, the PT/BT, sol-gel composite with the highest dielectric constant sol-gel phase showed the highest d 33 and signal strength. In addition, only PT/BT was successfully poled by room-temperature corona poling with reasonable signal strength.

  15. Snow fracture in relation to slab avalanche release: critical state for the onset of crack propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Johan; van Herwijnen, Alec; Chambon, Guillaume; Wever, Nander; Schweizer, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    The failure of a weak snow layer buried below cohesive slab layers is a necessary, but insufficient, condition for the release of a dry-snow slab avalanche. The size of the crack in the weak layer must also exceed a critical length to propagate across a slope. In contrast to pioneering shear-based approaches, recent developments account for weak layer collapse and allow for better explaining typical observations of remote triggering from low-angle terrain. However, these new models predict a critical length for crack propagation that is almost independent of slope angle, a rather surprising and counterintuitive result. Based on discrete element simulations we propose a new analytical expression for the critical crack length. This new model reconciles past approaches by considering for the first time the complex interplay between slab elasticity and the mechanical behavior of the weak layer including its structural collapse. The crack begins to propagate when the stress induced by slab loading and deformation at the crack tip exceeds the limit given by the failure envelope of the weak layer. The model can reproduce crack propagation on low-angle terrain and the decrease in critical length with increasing slope angle as modeled in numerical experiments. The good agreement of our new model with extensive field data and the ease of implementation in the snow cover model SNOWPACK opens a promising prospect for improving avalanche forecasting.

  16. A new look at the fetus: thick-slab T2-weighted sequences in fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Peter C; Mittermayer, Christoph; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetus is considered an established adjunct to fetal ultrasound, stacks of images alone cannot provide an overall impression of the fetus. The present study evaluates the use of thick-slab T2-weighted MR images to obtain a three-dimensional impression of the fetus using MRI. A thick-slab T2-weighted sequence was added to the routine protocol in 100 fetal MRIs obtained for various indications (19th to 37th gestational weeks) on a 1.5 T magnet using a five-element phased-array surface coil. Slice thickness adapted to fetal size and uterine geometry varied between 25 and 50mm, as did the field of view (250-350 mm). Acquisition of one image took less than 1s. The pictorial essay shows that these images visualize fetal anatomy in a more comprehensive way than is possible with a series of 3-4mm thick slices. These thick-slab images facilitate the assessment of the whole fetus, fetal proportions, surface structures, and extremities. Fetal pathology may be captured in one image. Thick-slab T2-weighted images provide additional information that cannot be gathered from a series of images and are considered a valuable adjunct to conventional 2D MR images.

  17. Ray-tracing technique and imaging properties by a PC slab with neff=-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Chen, Jiabi; Qian, W.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, negative refractive media as the representation of new electromagnetic medium has become the front and the very popular researching field, and the production of the flat lens is one of its major applications. In our study, the imaging behaviors by two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs have been investigated systematically. We suggest a ray-tracing technique to discuss the action of photonic crystal slab with negative refraction. The propagation of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional hexagonal lattice photonic crystal slab is investigated through dispersion characteristics analysis and numerical simulation of field patterns. Imaging and focusing with effective negative refractive index of -1 have been observed in these systems for both polarized waves, that is TE- and TM-polarized point source be considered simultaneously. Based on the exact finite-difference time-domain method to perform numerical simulation and physical analysis, we have demonstrated that the two-dimensional photonic crystal we designed can realize nearly perfect imaging with TM-polarized point source in the near field and far field, and the results are consistent with the ray-tracing technique quite well, while to TE-polarized point source the imaging is not perfect although it have neff=-1 in the same direction.

  18. [Characterization of Shigella strains isolated in ankara, Turkey by antimicrobial resistance models, plasmid profile analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Saran, Begüm; Erdem, Birsel; Tekeli, Fazıl Alper; Sahin, Fikret; Aysev, Ahmet Derya

    2013-01-01

    Shigella is one of the most important causative agents of diarrhea especially in childhood. Since man is the main reservoir of Shigella and human to human transmission is possible, Shigella can easily spread in public and cause outbreaks. In this study, a total of 60 Shigella strains isolated in Ankara, Turkey by years 2001, 2008 and 2009 were investigated by their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, plasmid profile analysis (PPA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). For epidemiological investigation, the results obtained by antibiotic resistance typing (ART) which was the phenotyping method, was compared to the results of the genotyping methods which were PPA and PFGE. Of the isolates 49 (81.6%) were S.sonnei, 10 (16.6%) were S.flexneri and one was (1.6%) S.dysenteriae. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were evaluated by disc diffusion method and the highest resistance rates were found against trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (91.6%), followed by tetracycline (68.3%) and ampicillin (26.6%). Resistance against ampicillin, chloramphenicol and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid were found higher in S.flexneri isolates than S.sonnei (p< 0.001). All isolates were found to be susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ceftazidime. S.sonnei demonstrated 12 and S.flexneri demonstrated 4 antibiotic resistance models. All isolates were carrying plasmids with varying sizes and varying numbers between 1 to 7. S.sonnei isolates demonstrated 27 and S.flexneri isolates demonstrated 8 plasmid profiles. S.sonnei isolates were clustered in 4 patterns and S.flexneri were clustered in 5 patterns by PFGE. This method demonstrated obvious clonal similarity among S.sonnei strains isolated in Ankara and discriminative power (DP) was calculated as 0.26. PPA and ART demonstrated higher DP among S.sonnei strains (0.97 and 0.75, respectively). In this study gain or loss of instable genetic mobile elements were thought to be responsible for higher discriminative powers of PPA and ART methods

  19. Laboratory Investigation of Salmonella enterica serovar Poona Outbreak in California: Comparison of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) Results

    PubMed Central

    Kozyreva, Varvara K.; Crandall, John; Sabol, Ashley; Poe, Alyssa; Zhang, Peng; Concepción-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Schroeder, Morgan N.; Wagner, Darlene; Higa, Jeffrey; Trees, Eija; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Poona caused a multistate outbreak, with 245 out of 907 cases occurring in California. We report a comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results with whole genome sequencing (WGS) for genotyping of Salmonella Poona isolates. Methods: CA Salmonella Poona isolates, collected from July to August 2015, were genotyped by PFGE using XbaI restriction enzyme. WGS was done using Nextera XT library kit with 2x300 bp or 2x250 bp sequencing chemistry on the Illumina MiSeq Sequencer.  Reads were mapped to the de novo assembled serovar Poona draft genome (48 contigs, N50= 223,917) from the outbreak using CLCbio GW 8.0.2. The phylogenetic tree was generated based on hqSNPs calling. Genomes were annotated with CGE and PHAST online tools. In silico MLST was performed using the CGE online tool. Results: Human (14) and cucumber (2) Salmonella Poona isolates exhibited 3 possibly related PFGE patterns (JL6X01.0018 [predominant], JL6X01.0375, JL6X01.0778).  All isolates that were related by PFGE also clustered together according to the WGS. One isolate with a divergent PFGE pattern (JL6X01.0776) served as an outlier in the phylogenetic analysis and substantially differed from the outbreak clade by WGS. All outbreak isolates were assigned to MLST sequence type 447. The majority of the outbreak-related isolates possessed the same set of Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands with few variations. One outbreak isolate was sequenced and analyzed independently by CDC and CDPH laboratories; there was 0 SNP difference in results. Additional two isolates were sequenced by CDC and the raw data was processed through CDPH and CDC analysis pipelines. Both data analysis pipelines also generated concordant results.  Discussion: PFGE and WGS results for the recent CA Salmonella enterica serovar Poona outbreak provided concordant assignment of the isolates to the outbreak cluster. WGS allowed more robust determination of genetic

  20. Salmonella enterica Subclinical Infection: Bacteriological, Serological, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles—Longitudinal Study in a Three-Site Farrow-to-Finish Farm

    PubMed Central

    Vigo, German B.; Cappuccio, Javier A.; Salve, Angela; Machuca, Mariana A.; Quiroga, Maria A.; Moredo, Fabiana; Giacoboni, Gabriel; Cancer, Jose L.; Caffer, Ines G.; Binsztein, Norma; Pichel, Mariana; Perfumo, Carlos J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this surveillance was to study both Salmonella spp. shedding patterns and the time course of serological response in farrow-to-finish reared pigs from a subclinically infected farm. Antimicrobial resistance profile, molecular subtyping, and the relationship among the isolates were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A farrow-to-finish farm of 6000 sows, with a history of Salmonella Typhimurium septicemia, was selected. A longitudinal bacteriological and serological study was conducted in 25 sows before farrowing (M/S1) and in 50 offspring at 21 (M/S2), 35 (M/S3), 65 (M/S4), 86 (M/S5), 128 (M/S6), and 165 (M/S7) days of age. Serum antibodies were tested using Herdcheck® Swine Salmonella antibody test kit (Idexx Laboratories, ME). Bacteria were isolated from pooled fecal samples. Suspected isolates were confirmed by conventional biochemical assays, and those identified as Salmonella spp. were serotyped. A variation between seropositive percentages and positive fecal samples was observed. Serologically positive pigs decreased from S1 to S4, and subsequently increased from S4 to S7. The percentages of fecal positive culture increased from M1 to M3, and then declined in M4, increased in M5, and were negative in M6 and M7. In the study three serovars, Salmonella 3,10:e,h:-, Salmonella Muenster, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans, were identified with low pathogenicity for swine. Three multidrug resistance strains (one belonged to Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- and two belonged to Salmonella Muenster) were found. PFGE results showed three different but closely related patterns among the 13 isolates of Salmonella Bovismorbificans, and two patterns for the three Salmonella Muenster and Salmonella 3,10:e,h:- isolates. This longitudinal study established critical points of Salmonella spp. infection in the farm and the production stages, where appropriate control measures must be taken. PFGE showed clonal relationships in each serovar. Antibiotic

  1. Unveiling contamination sources and dissemination routes of Salmonella sp. in pigs at a Portuguese slaughterhouse through macrorestriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Tenreiro, Rogério; Martins, Conceição

    2006-07-01

    Sixty-nine isolates of Salmonella sp. isolated from the ileum, tonsils, carcass and mandibular and ileocolic lymph nodes of individual pigs slaughtered for consumption in one abattoir were analyzed using serotyping and macrorestriction profiling by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (RFLP-PFGE), in order to identify clonal relationships. XbaI macrorestriction was able to distinguish 18 genotypes among the eight identified serotypes: Salmonella Typhimurium (4 genotypes), Salmonella Rissen (3), Salmonella Tennessee (2), Salmonella Enteritidis (2), Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- (4), Salmonella Give (1), Salmonella Anatum (1), and Salmonella Derby (1). Except for one sample, the serotype and the genotype identified in the samples from the same pork were always the same, allowing to unravel possible dissemination routes of Salmonella sp. through these pork tissues and equate presumptive sources of contamination or infection. Highly significant associations (p < 0.001) were observed for the presence of Salmonella sp. in the ileum and in the ileocolic lymph nodes, as well as between the carcass contamination and the presence of Salmonella sp. in others samples of the correspondent slaughtered pig, such as the ileum, the ileocolic and mandibular lymph nodes and the tonsils. Moreover, 80% of the pigs with ileum and ileocolic lymph nodes positive samples also presented the same salmonella genotype in the correspondent tonsils and, among pigs with positive tonsils, 70% also carried the same genotype in the corresponding mandibular lymph nodes. The occurrence of cross-contamination was also detected, since a genotype identified in other pigs slaughtered in the same day was found in 31% of positive carcasses. The global analysis of the genotypes suggested three different sources of pig infection: the farm of origin, the transportation and the lairage. A particular attention should be paid to the last one, since the majority of the isolates from pig samples were related to infection in

  2. Agarose gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for visualization of simple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James; Wright, Drew; Meksem, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    In the modern age of genetic research there is a constant search for ways to improve the efficiency of plant selection. The most recent technology that can result in a highly efficient means of selection and still be done at a low cost is through plant selection directed by simple sequence repeats (SSRs or microsatellites). The molecular markers are used to select for certain desirable plant traits without relying on ambiguous phenotypic data. The best way to detect these is the use of gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis is a common technique in laboratory settings which is used to separate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) by size. Loading DNA and RNA onto gels allows for visualization of the size of fragments through the separation of DNA and RNA fragments. This is achieved through the use of the charge in the particles. As the fragments separate, they form into distinct bands at set sizes. We describe the ability to visualize SSRs on slab gels of agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  3. 42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. THE MOLD, WHICH HAS A RAISED DESIGN, LEAVES AND OUTLINE IN THE SLAB, THE PIECES THUS DEFINED, ARE THEN CUT APART TO BE FIRED SEPARATELY AND REASSEMBLED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  4. How to produce flat slabs: insights from numeric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Manea, Marina

    2010-05-01

    Flat slab subduction occurs at ~10% of the active convergent margins and it is assumed that subduction of oceanic aseismic ridges or seamount chains is the main mechanism to produce very low angle subduction slabs. However, recent numeric and analog modeling showed that ridges alone of moderate dimensions subducted perpendicular to the trench are not sufficient to produce flat-slab geometries. Therefore an alternative mechanism able to produce flat-slabs is required. In this paper we present dynamic numeric modeling results of subduction in the vicinity of thick continental lithosphere, as a craton for example. We tailored our modeling setup for the Chilean margins at ~31° and our models are integrated back in time 30 Myr. Modeling results show that a craton thickness of 200 km or more when approaching the trench is capable of blocking the asthenospheric flow in the mantle wedge and increasing considerably the suction force. We were able to produce a flat slab that fits well the flat slab geometry in Chile (based on seismicity) and stress distribution. We conclude that thick cratons located in the vicinity of subduction zones, are capable to produce very low angle slabs, and probable a combination of buoyant ridge subduction with a neighbor thick craton represent a better mechanism to produce flat slabs.

  5. Space Plasma Slab Studies using a new 3D Embedded Reconfigurable MPSoC Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents recent ionospheric slab thickness measurements using a new mobile digital sounder system. The datasets obtained have been compared to the results of existing sounders in operation. The data validity has been verified. The slab thickness data allow constant monitoring of the lower ionosphere revealing the dynamic trends of the physical processes being involved. The prototype offers a tremendous amount of hardware processing power and a previously unseen response time in servicing the input and output data interfaces. This has been enabled by incorporating the latest three-dimensional Ultrascale+ technologies available commercially from the reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) computing industry. Furthermore, a previously developed Network-on-Chip (NoC) design methodology has been incorporated for connecting and controlling the application driven multiprocessor network. The system determines electron distributions, aggregate electromagnetic field gradients and plasma current density.

  6. Natural glide slab avalanches, Glacier National Park, USA: A unique hazard and forecasting challenge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reardon, Blase; Fagre, Daniel B.; Dundas, Mark; Lundy, Chris

    2006-01-01

    In a museum of avalanche phenomena, glide cracks and glide avalanches might be housed in the “strange but true” section. These oddities are uncommon in most snow climates and tend to be isolated to specific terrain features such as bedrock slabs. Many glide cracks never result in avalanches, and when they do, the wide range of time between crack formation and slab failure makes them highly unpredictable. Despite their relative rarity, glide cracks and glide avalanches pose a regular threat and complex forecasting challenge during the annual spring opening of the Going-to-the-Sun Road in Glacier National Park, U.S.A. During the 2006 season, a series of unusual glide cracks delayed snow removal operations by over a week and provided a unique opportunity to record detailed observations of glide avalanches and characterize their occurrence and associated weather conditions. Field observations were from snowpits, crown profiles and where possible, measurements of slab thickness, bed surface slope angle, substrate and other physical characteristics. Weather data were recorded at one SNOTEL site and two automated stations located from 0.6-10 km of observed glide slab avalanches. Nearly half (43%) of the 35 glide slab avalanches recorded were Class D2-2.5, with 15% Class D3-D3.5. The time between glide crack opening and failure ranged from 2 days to over six weeks, and the avalanches occurred in cycles associated with loss of snow water equivalent and spikes in temperature and radiation. We conclude with suggest ions for further study.

  7. The effect of a realistic thermal diffusivity on numerical model of a subducting slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maierova, P.; Steinle-Neumann, G.; Cadek, O.

    2010-12-01

    A number of numerical studies of subducting slab assume simplified (constant or only depth-dependent) models of thermal conductivity. The available mineral physics data indicate, however, that thermal diffusivity is strongly temperature- and pressure-dependent and may also vary among different mantle materials. In the present study, we examine the influence of realistic thermal properties of mantle materials on the thermal state of the upper mantle and the dynamics of subducting slabs. On the basis of the data published in mineral physics literature we compile analytical relationships that approximate the pressure and temperature dependence of thermal diffusivity for major mineral phases of the mantle (olivine, wadsleyite, ringwoodite, garnet, clinopyroxenes, stishovite and perovskite). We propose a simplified composition of mineral assemblages predominating in the subducting slab and the surrounding mantle (pyrolite, mid-ocean ridge basalt, harzburgite) and we estimate their thermal diffusivity using the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The resulting complex formula for the diffusivity of each aggregate is then approximated by a simpler analytical relationship that is used in our numerical model as an input parameter. For the numerical modeling we use the Elmer software (open source finite element software for multiphysical problems, see http://www.csc.fi/english/pages/elmer). We set up a 2D Cartesian thermo-mechanical steady-state model of a subducting slab. The model is partly kinematic as the flow is driven by a boundary condition on velocity that is prescribed on the top of the subducting lithospheric plate. Reology of the material is non-linear and is coupled with the thermal equation. Using the realistic relationship for thermal diffusivity of mantle materials, we compute the thermal and flow fields for different input velocity and age of the subducting plate and we compare the results against the models assuming a constant thermal diffusivity. The importance of the

  8. Heterogeneous source components of intraplate basalts from NE China induced by the ongoing Pacific slab subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huan; Xia, Qun-Ke; Ingrin, Jannick; Deloule, Etienne; Bi, Yao

    2017-02-01

    The subduction of oceanic slabs is widely accepted to be a main reason for chemical heterogeneities in the mantle. However, determining the contributions of slabs in areas that have experienced multiple subduction events is often difficult due to possible overlapping imprints. Understanding the temporal and spatial variations of source components for widespread intraplate small volume basalts in eastern China may be a basis for investigating the influence of the subducted Pacific slab, which has long been postulated but never confirmed. For this purpose, we investigated the Chaihe-aershan volcanic field (including more than 35 small-volume Quaternary basaltic volcanoes) in NE China and measured the oxygen isotopes and water content of clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The water content of magma was then estimated based on the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and the basaltic melt. The δ18O of cpx phenocrysts (4.28‰ to 8.57‰) and H2O content of magmas (0.19 wt.%-2.70 wt.%) show large variations, reflecting the compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source. The δ18O values and H2O content within individual samples also display considerable variation, suggesting the mixing of magmas and that the magma mixing occurred shortly before the eruption. The relation between the δ18O values of cpx phenocrysts and the H2O/Ce ratio, Ba/Th ratio and Eu anomaly of whole rocks demonstrates the contributions of three components to the mantle source (hydrothermally altered upper oceanic crust and marine sediments, altered lower gabbroic oceanic crust, and ambient mantle). The proportions of these three components have varied widely over time (∼1.37 Ma to ∼0.25 Ma). The Pacific slab is constantly subducted under eastern Asia and continuously transports recycled materials to the deep mantle. The temporal heterogeneity of the source components may be caused

  9. A Gel Probe Equilibrium Sampler for Measuring Arsenic Porewater Profiles And Sorption Gradients in Sediments: Ii. Field Application to Haiwee Reservoir Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P.A.; Hering, J.G.

    2009-05-12

    Arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior were measured in As- and iron (Fe)-rich sediments of Haiwee Reservoir by deploying undoped (clear) polyacrylamide gels and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-doped gels in a gel probe equilibrium sampler, which is a novel technique for directly measuring the effects of porewater composition on As adsorption to Fe oxides phases in situ. Arsenic is deposited at the sediment surface as As(V) and is reduced to As(III) in the upper layers of the sediment (0-8 cm), but the reduction of As(V) does not cause mobilization into the porewater. Dissolved As and Fe concentrations increased at depth in the sediment column driven by the reductive dissolution of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and conversion to a mixed Fe(II, III) green rust-type phase. Adsorption of As and phosphorous (P) onto HFO-doped gels was inhibited at intermediate depths (10-20 cm), possibly due to dissolved organic or inorganic carbon, indicating that dissolved As concentrations were at least partially controlled by porewater composition rather than surface site availability. In sediments that had been recently exposed to air, the region of sorption inhibition was not observed, suggesting that prior exposure to air affected the extent of reductive dissolution, porewater chemistry, and As adsorption behavior. Arsenic adsorption onto the HFO-doped gels increased at depths >20 cm, and the extent of adsorption was most likely controlled by the competitive effects of dissolved phosphate. Sediment As adsorption capacity appeared to be controlled by changes in porewater composition and competitive effects at shallower depths, and by reductive dissolution and availability of sorption sites at greater burial depths.

  10. A gel probe equilibrium sampler for measuring arsenic porewater profiles and sorption gradients in sediments: II. Field application to Haiwee reservoir sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P. A.; Hering, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior were measured in As- and iron (Fe)-rich sediments of Haiwee Reservoir by deploying undoped (clear) polyacrylamide gels and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-doped gels in a gel probe equilibrium sampler, which is a novel technique for directly measuring the effects of porewater composition on As adsorption to Fe oxides phases in situ. Arsenic is deposited at the sediment surface as As(V) and is reduced to As(III) in the upper layers of the sediment (0-8 cm), but the reduction of As(V) does not cause mobilization into the porewater. Dissolved As and Fe concentrations increased at depth in the sediment column driven by the reductive dissolution of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and conversion to a mixed Fe(II, III) green rust-type phase. Adsorption of As and phosphorous (P) onto HFO-doped gels was inhibited at intermediate depths (10-20 cm), possibly due to dissolved organic or inorganic carbon, indicating that dissolved As concentrations were at least partially controlled by porewater composition rather than surface site availability. In sediments that had been recently exposed to air, the region of sorption inhibition was not observed, suggesting that prior exposure to air affected the extent of reductive dissolution, porewater chemistry, and As adsorption behavior. Arsenic adsorption onto the HFO-doped gels increased at depths >20 cm, and the extent of adsorption was most likely controlled by the competitive effects of dissolved phosphate. Sediment As adsorption capacity appeared to be controlled by changes in porewater composition and competitive effects at shallower depths, and by reductive dissolution and availability of sorption sites at greater burial depths. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  11. The Role of Subducting Ridges in the Formation of Flat Slabs: Insights from the Peruvian Flat Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, Sanja; Wagner, Lara; Kumar, Abhash; Beck, Susan; Long, Maureen; Zandt, George; Eakin, Caroline M.

    2015-04-01

    Flattening of the subducting plate is often used to explain various geological features removed far from the subducting margins, including basement-cored uplifts, the cessation of arc volcanism, ignimbrite flare-ups, and the formation of high plateaus and ore deposits [Humphreys et al., 2003; Gutscher et al., 2000; Rosenbaum et al., 2005, Kay and Mpodozis, 2001]. Today, flat slab subduction is observed in central Chile and Peru, representing the modern analogues to the immense paleo-flat slab that subducted beneath the North American continent during the Laramide orogeny (80-55 Ma) [English et al., 2003]. However, how flat slabs form and what controls their inboard and along-strike extent is still poorly understood. To better understand modern and paleo-flat slabs, we focus on the Peruvian flat slab, where the Nazca plate starts to bend at ~90 km depth and travels horizontally for several hundred kilometers beneath the South American plate. Earlier studies propose a correlation between the flat slab and the subducting Nazca Ridge that has been migrating to the south over the past 11 ~Ma [Hampel et al., 2004, Gutscher et al., 2003]. Combining 3D shear wave velocity structure and Rayleigh wave phase anisotropy between ~10° and 18° S, we find that the flat slab has the greatest inboard extent along the track of the subducting Nazca Ridge. North of the ridge track, where the flat slab was initially formed, the flat slab starts to sag, tear and re-initiate steep slab subduction, allowing inflow of warm asthenosphere. Based on our new constraints on the geometry of the subducted plate, we find that the subduction of buoyant oceanic features with overthickened oceanic crust plays a vital role in the formation of flat slabs. We further develop a model of temporal evolution of the Peruvian flab slab that forms as a result of the combined effects of the subducting ridge, trench retreat, and suction forces. Once the buoyant ridge subducts to ~90 km depth, it will fail to

  12. Lithosphere-Mantle Interactions Associated with Flat-Slab Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerault, M.; Becker, T. W.; Husson, L.; Humphreys, E.

    2014-12-01

    Episodes of flat-slab subduction along the western margin of the Americas may have lead to the formation of intra-continental basins and seas, as well as mountain belts and continental plateaux. Here, we explore some of the consequences of a flat slab morphology, linking dynamic topography and stress patterns in continents to slab and mantle dynamics. Using a 2-D cylindrical code, we develop general models and apply them to the North and South America plates. The results are primarily controlled by the coupling along the slab-continent interface (due to geometry and viscosity), the viscosity of the mantle wedge, and the buoyancy of the subducted lithosphere. All models predict broad subsidence, large deviatoric stresses, and horizontal compression above the tip of the flat slab and the deep slab hinge. In models where the slab lays horizontally for hundreds of kilometers, overriding plate compression focuses on both ends of the flat segment, where normal-dip subduction exerts a direct downward pull. In between, a broad low-stress region gets uplifted proportionally to the amount of coupling between the slab and the continent. Anomalously buoyant seafloor enhances this effect but is not required. The downward bending of the flat slab extremities causes its upper part to undergo extension and the lower part to compress. These results have potential for explaining the existence of relatively undeformed, uplifted regions surrounded by mountain belts, such as in the western U.S. and parts of the Andes. Adequately modeling topography and stress in the unusual setting of southwestern Mexico requires a low-viscosity subduction interface and mantle wedge. Our results are only partially controlled by the buoyancy of the subducting plate, suggesting that the viscosity and the morphology of the slab are important, and that the often-used low resolution and "Stokeslet" models may be missing substantial effects.

  13. Slab anisotropy from subduction zone guided waves in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. H.; Tseng, Y. L.; Hu, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Frozen-in anisotropic structure in the oceanic lithosphere and faulting/hydration in the upper layer of the slab are expected to play an important role in anisotropic signature of the subducted slab. Over the past several decades, despite the advances in characterizing anisotropy using shear wave splitting method and its developments, the character of slab anisotropy remains poorly understood. In this study we investigate the slab anisotropy using subduction zone guided waves characterized by long path length in the slab. In the southernmost Ryukyu subduction zone, seismic waves from events deeper than 100 km offshore northern Taiwan reveal wave guide behavior: (1) a low-frequency (< 1 Hz) first arrival recognized on vertical and radial components but not transverse component (2) large, sustained high-frequency (3-10 Hz) signal in P and S wave trains. The depth dependent high-frequency content (3-10Hz) confirms the association with a waveguide effect in the subducting slab rather than localized site amplification effects. Using the selected subduction zone guided wave events, we further analyzed the shear wave splitting for intermediate-depth earthquakes in different frequency bands, to provide the statistically meaningful shear wave splitting parameters. We determine shear wave splitting parameters from the 34 PSP guided events that are deeper than 100 km with ray path traveling along the subducted slab. From shear wave splitting analysis, the slab and crust effects reveal consistent polarization pattern of fast directions of EN-WS and delay time of 0.13 - 0.27 sec. This implies that slab anisotropy is stronger than the crust effect (<0.1 s) but weaker than the mantle wedge and sub-slab mantle effect (0.3-1.3 s) in Taiwan.

  14. Ionic liquid based multifunctional double network gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kumkum; Higashihara, Tomoya; Arafune, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Toshio; Morinaga, Takashi; Sato, Takaya; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels are a promising class of soft and wet materials with diverse application in tissue engineering and bio-medical purpose. In order to accelerate the development of gels, it is required to synthesize multi-functional gels of high mechanical strength, ultra low surface friction and suitable elastic modulus with a variety of methods and new materials. Among many types of gel ionic gel made from ionic liquids (ILs) could be used for diverse applications in electrochemical devices and in the field of tribology. IL, a promising materials for lubrication, is a salt with a melting point lower than 100 °C. As a lubricant, ILs are characterized by an extremely low vapor pressure, high thermal stability and high ion conductivity. In this work a novel approach of making double network DN ionic gel using IL has been made utilizing photo polymerization process. A hydrophobic monomer Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been used as a first network and a hydrophobic IL monomer, N,N-diethyl-N-(2-mthacryloylethyl)-N-methylammonium bistrifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEMM-TFSI) has been used as a second network using photo initiator benzophenon and crosslinker triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The resulting DN ionic gel shows transparency, flexibility, high thermal stability, good mechanical toughness and low friction coefficient value which can be a potential candidate as a gel slider in different mechanical devices and can open a new area in the field of gel tribology.

  15. Viscoelasticity of a homeotropic nematic slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The viscoelastic behavior of a homeotropic nematic slab is studied when it is subjected to a (dilation-compression) sinusoidal deformation of small amplitude (linear regime). I show that the nematic phase behaves as an isotropic liquid of viscosity ηc (ν3) at low (high) frequency, where ηc is the third Miesowicz viscosity and ν3 a smaller viscosity first introduced by Martin, Parodi, and Pershan. The crossover frequency f⊙ between these two asymptotic regimes scales as h2/D , where h is the sample thickness and D =K3/γ1 is the orientational diffusivity (with K3 the bend constant and γ1 the rotational viscosity). Between these two limits the sample behaves as a viscoelastic fluid whose elastic and loss moduli G' and G'' are calculated. These predictions are tested experimentally with a piezoelectric rheometer.

  16. Fundamentals of gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuley, K. B.; Nasr, A. T.

    2013-06-01

    Fundamental chemical and physical phenomena that occur in Fricke gel dosimeters, polymer gel dosimeters, micelle gel dosimeters and genipin gel dosimeters are discussed. Fricke gel dosimeters are effective even though their radiation sensitivity depends on oxygen concentration. Oxygen contamination can cause severe problems in polymer gel dosimeters, even when THPC is used. Oxygen leakage must be prevented between manufacturing and irradiation of polymer gels, and internal calibration methods should be used so that contamination problems can be detected. Micelle gel dosimeters are promising due to their favourable diffusion properties. The introduction of micelles to gel dosimetry may open up new areas of dosimetry research wherein a range of water-insoluble radiochromic materials can be explored as reporter molecules.

  17. Characteristics of the surface plasma wave in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-11-15

    The dispersion properties of surface dust ion-acoustic waves in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma slab are investigated. The dispersion relation is derived by using the low-frequency magnetized dusty dielectric function and the surface wave dispersion integral for the slab geometry. We find that the self-gravitating effect suppresses the frequency of surface dust ion-acoustic wave for the symmetric mode in the long wavelength regime, whereas it hardly changes the frequency for the anti-symmetric mode. As the slab thickness and the wave number increase, the surface wave frequency slowly decreases for the symmetric mode but increases significantly for the anti-symmetric mode. The influence of external magnetic field is also investigated in the case of symmetric mode. We find that the strength of the magnetic field enhances the frequency of the symmetric-mode of the surface plasma wave. The increase of magnetic field reduces the self-gravitational effect and thus the self-gravitating collapse may be suppressed and the stability of dusty objects in space is enhanced.

  18. Gel-based versus gel-free proteomics: a review.

    PubMed

    Baggerman, Geert; Vierstraete, Evy; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane

    2005-12-01

    With the sequencing of the genome of over 150 organisms, the field of biology has been revolutionised. Instead of studying one gene or protein at the time, it is now possible to study the effect of physiological or pathological changes on the expression of all genes or proteins in the organism. Proteomics aims at the simultaneous analysis of all proteins expressed by a cell, tissue or organism in a specific physiological condition. Because proteins are the effector molecules in all organisms, it is evident that changes in the physiological condition of an organism will be reflected by changes in protein expression and/or processing. Since the formulation of the concept of proteomics in the mid 90's proteomics has relied heavily on 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) for the separation and visualization of proteins. 2DGE, however, has a number of inherent drawbacks. 2DGE is costly, fairly insensitive to low copy proteins and cannot be used for the entire proteome. Therefore, over the years, several gel-free proteomics techniques have been developed to either fill the gaps left by 2DGE or to entirely abolish the gel based techniques. This review summarizes the most important gel-free and gel-based proteomics techniques and compares their advantages and drawbacks.

  19. Finite-size scaling of the magnetization probability density for the critical Ising model in slab geometry.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, David Lopes; Holdsworth, Peter C W

    2016-04-27

    The magnetization probability density in d  =  2 and 3 dimensional Ising models in slab geometry of volume [Formula: see text] is computed through Monte-Carlo simulation at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. The finite-size scaling of this distribution and its dependence on the system aspect-ratio [Formula: see text]and boundary conditions are discussed. In the limiting case [Formula: see text] of a macroscopically large slab ([Formula: see text]) the distribution is found to scale as a Gaussian function for all tested system sizes and boundary conditions.

  20. Modes competition in superradiant emission from an inverted sub-wavelength thick slab of two-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manassah, Jamal T.

    2016-08-01

    Using the expansion in the eigenmodes of 1-D Lienard-Wiechert kernel, the temporal and spectral profiles of the radiation emitted by a fully inverted collection of two-level atoms in a sub-wavelength slab geometry are computed. The initial number of amplifying modes determine the specific regime of radiation. In particular, the temporal profile of the field intensity is oscillatory and the spectral profile is non-Lorentzian with two unequal height peaks in a narrow band centered at the slab thickness value at which the real parts of the lowest order odd and even eigenvalues are equal.

  1. Finite-size scaling of the magnetization probability density for the critical Ising model in slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Cardozo, David; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetization probability density in d  =  2 and 3 dimensional Ising models in slab geometry of volume L\\paralleld-1× {{L}\\bot} is computed through Monte-Carlo simulation at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. The finite-size scaling of this distribution and its dependence on the system aspect-ratio ρ =\\frac{{{L}\\bot}}{{{L}\\parallel}} and boundary conditions are discussed. In the limiting case ρ \\to 0 of a macroscopically large slab ({{L}\\parallel}\\gg {{L}\\bot} ) the distribution is found to scale as a Gaussian function for all tested system sizes and boundary conditions.

  2. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  3. A dipping, thick Farallon slab below central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Gurnis, M.; Saleeby, J.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that much of the Laramide orogeny was caused by dynamic effects induced by an extensive flat slab during a period of plateau subduction. A particularly thick block containing the Shatsky Rise conjugate, now in the mid-mantle, left a distinctive deformation footprint from southern California to Denver, Colorado. Thus mid-mantle, relic slabs can provide fundamental information about past subduction and the history of plate tectonics if properly imaged. Here we find clear evidence for a northeastward dipping (35° dip), slab-like, but fat (up to 400-500 km thick) seismic anomaly within the top of the lower mantle below the central United States. Using a deep focus earthquake below Spain with direct seismic paths that propagate along the top and bottom of the anomaly, we find that the observed, stacked seismic waveforms recorded with the dense USArray show multi-pathing indicative of sharp top and bottom surfaces. Plate tectonic reconstructions in which the slab is migrated back in time suggest strong coupling of the slab to North America. In combination with the reconstructions, we interpret the structure as arising from eastward dipping Farallon subduction at the western margin of North America during the Cretaceous, in contrast with recent interpretations. The slab could have been fattened through a combination of pure shear thickening during flat-slab subduction and a folding instability during penetration into the lower mantle.

  4. In-situ measurement of bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchmair, Stefan; Gansch, Roman; Genevet, Patrice; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Capasso, Federico; Loncar, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Photonic crystal slabs have been subject to research for more than a decade, yet the existence of bound states in the radiation continuum (BICs) in photonic crystals has been reported only recently [1]. A BIC is formed when the radiation from all possible channels interferes destructively, causing the overall radiation to vanish. In photonic crystals, BICs are the result of accidental phase matching between incident, reflected and in-plane waves at seemingly random wave vectors [2]. While BICs in photonic crystals have been discussed previously using reflection measurements, we reports for the first time in-situ measurements of the bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs. By embedding a photodetector into a photonic crystal slab we were able to directly observe optical BICs. The photonic crystal slabs are processed from a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells heterostructure, providing intersubband absorption in the mid-infrared wavelength range. The generated photocurrent is collected via doped contact layers on top and bottom of the suspended photonic crystal slab. We were mapping out the photonic band structure by rotating the device and by acquiring photocurrent spectra every 5°. Our measured photonic bandstructure revealed several BICs, which was confirmed with a rigorously coupled-wave analysis simulation. Since coupling to external fields is suppressed, the photocurrent measured by the photodetector vanishes at the BIC wave vector. To confirm the relation between the measured photocurrent and the Q-factor we used temporal coupled mode theory, which yielded an inverse proportional relation between the photocurrent and the out-coupling loss from the photonic crystal. Implementing a plane wave expansion simulation allowed us to identify the corresponding photonic crystal modes. The ability to directly measure the field intensity inside the photonic crystal presents an important milestone towards integrated opto-electronic BIC devices. Potential

  5. Temporal evolution of surface ripples on a finite plasma slab subject to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    DOE PAGES

    Weis, Matthew Robert; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Yue Ying; ...

    2014-12-17

    Using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic model, we calculate the temporal evolution of initial ripples on the boundaries of a planar plasma slab that is subjected to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The plasma slab consists of three regions. We assume that in each region the plasma density is constant with an arbitrary value and the magnetic field is also constant with an arbitrary magnitude and an arbitrary direction parallel to the interfaces. Then, the instability may be driven by a combination of magnetic pressure and kinetic pressure. Thus the general dispersion relation is derived, together with the feedthrough factor between the two interfaces.more » The temporal evolution is constructed from the superposition of the eigenmodes. Those previously established results are recovered in the various limits. Numerical examples are given on the temporal evolution of ripples on the interfaces of the finite plasma slab.« less

  6. Temporal evolution of surface ripples on a finite plasma slab subject to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Matthew Robert; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Yue Ying; Rittersdorf, Ian; Zier, Jacob; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Mark Harry Hess; Peterson, Kyle J.

    2014-12-17

    Using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic model, we calculate the temporal evolution of initial ripples on the boundaries of a planar plasma slab that is subjected to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The plasma slab consists of three regions. We assume that in each region the plasma density is constant with an arbitrary value and the magnetic field is also constant with an arbitrary magnitude and an arbitrary direction parallel to the interfaces. Then, the instability may be driven by a combination of magnetic pressure and kinetic pressure. Thus the general dispersion relation is derived, together with the feedthrough factor between the two interfaces. The temporal evolution is constructed from the superposition of the eigenmodes. Those previously established results are recovered in the various limits. Numerical examples are given on the temporal evolution of ripples on the interfaces of the finite plasma slab.

  7. Constraining Slab Breakoff Induced Magmatism through Numerical Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeburn, R.; Van Hunen, J.; Maunder, B. L.; Magni, V.; Bouilhol, P.

    2015-12-01

    Post-collisional magmatism is markedly different in nature and composition than pre-collisional magmas. This is widely interpreted to mark a change in the thermal structure of the system due to the loss of the oceanic slab (slab breakoff), allowing a different source to melt. Early modelling studies suggest that when breakoff takes place at depths shallower than the overriding lithosphere, magmatism occurs through both the decompression of upwelling asthenopshere into the slab window and the thermal perturbation of the overriding lithosphere (Davies & von Blanckenburg, 1995; van de Zedde & Wortel, 2001). Interpretations of geochemical data which invoke slab breakoff as a means of generating magmatism mostly assume these shallow depths. However more recent modelling results suggest that slab breakoff is likely to occur deeper (e.g. Andrews & Billen, 2009; Duretz et al., 2011; van Hunen & Allen, 2011). Here we test the extent to which slab breakoff is a viable mechanism for generating melting in post-collisional settings. Using 2-D numerical models we conduct a parametric study, producing models displaying a range of dynamics with breakoff depths ranging from 150 - 300 km. Key models are further analysed to assess the extent of melting. We consider the mantle wedge above the slab to be hydrated, and compute the melt fraction by using a simple parameterised solidus. Our models show that breakoff at shallow depths can generate a short-lived (< 3 Myr) pulse of mantle melting, through the hydration of hotter, undepleted asthenosphere flowing in from behind the detached slab. However, our results do not display the widespread, prolonged style of magmatism, observed in many post-collisional areas, suggesting that this magmatism may be generated via alternative mechanisms. This further implies that using magmatic observations to constrain slab breakoff is not straightforward.

  8. A new staining and evaluating procedure for protein gel electropherograms based on the pyrogallol red-molybdate complex.

    PubMed

    Csiba, A; Szécsényi-Nagy, L

    1989-01-01

    A new method is reported for staining and evaluating gel electropherograms of proteins. With pyrogallol red-molybdate reagent the gel-embedded proteins are transformed into a derivative of blue colour. After destaining, the blue-coloured proteins are well visible against a colourless background and can be quantified by densitometry with high reliability. The quantity of the coloured protein is directly proportional to the height of peaks in the densitogram. Colour intensity is concentration dependent. The measurement range of serum albumin was 1 to 50 micrograms/tube and 10 to 100 micrograms/slab in polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis and agar gel electrophoresis, respectively.

  9. Internal structure analysis of particle-double network gels used in a gel organ replica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Mei; Arai, Masanori; Saito, Azusa; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the fabrication of patient organ replicas using 3D printers has been attracting a great deal of attention in medical fields. However, the cost of these organ replicas is very high as it is necessary to employ very expensive 3D printers and printing materials. Here we present a new gel organ replica, of human kidney, fabricated with a conventional molding technique, using a particle-double network hydrogel (P-DN gel). The replica is transparent and has the feel of a real kidney. It is expected that gel organ replicas produced this way will be a useful tool for the education of trainee surgeons and clinical ultrasonography technologists. In addition to developing a gel organ replica, the internal structure of the P-DN gel used is also discussed. Because the P-DN gel has a complex structure comprised of two different types of network, it has not been possible to investigate them internally in detail. Gels have an inhomogeneous network structure. If it is able to get a more uniform structure, it is considered that this would lead to higher strength in the gel. In the present study we investigate the structure of P-DN gel, using the gel organ replica. We investigated the internal structure of P-DN gel using Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering (SMILS), a non-contacting and non-destructive.

  10. Electrophoresis of DNA in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution.

    PubMed

    Stellwagen, Nancy C

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the electrophoresis of curved and normal DNA molecules in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution. These studies were undertaken to clarify why curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in polyacrylamide gels but not in agarose gels. Two milestone papers are cited, in which Ferguson plots were used to estimate the effective pore size of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Subsequent studies on the effect of the electric field on agarose and polyacrylamide gel matrices, DNA interactions with the two gel matrices, and the effect of curvature on the free solution mobility of DNA are also described. The combined results suggest that the anomalously slow mobilities observed for curved DNA molecules in polyacrylamide gels are primarily due to preferential interactions of curved DNAs with the polyacrylamide gel matrix; the restrictive pore size of the matrix is of lesser importance. In free solution, DNA mobilities increase with increasing molecular mass until leveling off at a plateau value of (3.17 +/- 0.01) x 10(-4) cm2/V s in 40 mM Tris-acetate-EDTA buffer at 20 degrees C. Curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in free solution as well as in polyacrylamide gels, explaining why the Ferguson plots of curved and normal DNAs containing the same number of base pairs extrapolate to different mobilities at zero gel concentration.

  11. Amplification of acoustic evanescent waves using metamaterial slabs.

    PubMed

    Park, Choon Mahn; Park, Jong Jin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Seo, Yong Mun; Kim, Chul Koo; Lee, Sam H

    2011-11-04

    We amplified acoustic evanescent waves using metamaterial slabs with a negative effective density. For the amplifying effect of the slab to overcome the dissipation, it is necessary that the imaginary part of the effective density is much smaller than the real part, a condition not satisfied so far. We report the construction of membrane-based two-dimensional negative-density metamaterials which exhibited remarkably small dissipation. Using a slab of this metamaterial we realized a 17-fold net amplitude gain at a remote distance from the evanescent wave source. Potential applications include acoustic superlensing.

  12. Effective bichromatic potential for ultra-high Q-factor photonic crystal slab cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Alpeggiani, Filippo Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Gerace, Dario

    2015-12-28

    We introduce a confinement mechanism in photonic crystal slab cavities, which relies on the superposition of two incommensurate one-dimensional lattices in a line-defect waveguide. It is shown that the resulting photonic profile realizes an effective quasi-periodic bichromatic potential for the electromagnetic field confinement yielding extremely high quality (Q) factor nanocavities, while simultaneously keeping the mode volume close to the diffraction limit. We apply these concepts to pillar- and hole-based photonic crystal slab cavities, respectively, and a Q-factor improvement by over an order of magnitude is shown over existing designs, especially in pillar-based structures. Thanks to the generality and easy adaptation of such confinement mechanism to a broad class of cavity designs and photonic lattices, this work opens interesting routes for applications where enhanced light–matter interaction in photonic crystal structures is required.

  13. Adaptive slab laser beam quality improvement using a weighted least-squares reconstruction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanqiu; Dong, LiZhi; Chen, XiaoJun; Tan, Yi; Liu, Wenjin; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing; Ye, YuTang

    2016-04-10

    Adaptive optics is an important technology for improving beam quality in solid-state slab lasers. However, there are uncorrectable aberrations in partial areas of the beam. In the criterion of the conventional least-squares reconstruction method, it makes the zones with small aberrations nonsensitive and hinders this zone from being further corrected. In this paper, a weighted least-squares reconstruction method is proposed to improve the relative sensitivity of zones with small aberrations and to further improve beam quality. Relatively small weights are applied to the zones with large residual aberrations. Comparisons of results show that peak intensity in the far field improved from 1242 analog digital units (ADU) to 2248 ADU, and beam quality β improved from 2.5 to 2.0. This indicates the weighted least-squares method has better performance than the least-squares reconstruction method when there are large zonal uncorrectable aberrations in the slab laser system.

  14. Muscular Contraction Mimiced by Magnetic Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrínyi, Miklós; Szabó, Dénes

    The ability of magnetic-field-sensitive gels to undergo a quick controllable change of shape can be used to create an artificially designed system possessing sensor- and actuator functions internally in the gel itself. The peculiar magneto-elastic properties may be used to create a wide range of motion and to control the shape change and movement, that are smooth and gentle similar to that observed in muscle. Magnetic field sensitive gels provide attractive means of actuation as artificial muscle for biomechanics and biomimetic applications.

  15. May eclogite dehydration cause slab fracturation ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loury, Chloé; Lanari, Pierre; Rolland, Yann; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

    2015-04-01

    Petrological and geophysical evidences strongly indicate that fluids releases play a fundamental role in subduction zones as in subduction-related seismicity and arc magmatism. It is thus important to assess quantitatively their origin and to try to quantify the amount of such fluids. In HP metamorphism, it is well known that pressure-dependent dehydration reactions occur during the prograde path. Many geophysical models show that the variations in slab physical properties along depth could be linked to these fluid occurrences. However it remains tricky to test such models on natural sample, as it is difficult to assess or model the water content evolution in HP metamorphic rocks. This difficulty is bound to the fact that these rocks are generally heterogeneous, with zoned minerals and preservation of different paragenesis reflecting changing P-T conditions. To decipher the P-T-X(H2O) path of such heterogeneous rocks the concept of local effective bulk (LEB) composition is essential. Here we show how standardized X-ray maps can be used to constrain the scale of the equilibration volume of a garnet porphyroblast and to measure its composition. The composition of this equilibrium volume may be seen as the proportion of the rock likely to react at a given time to reach a thermodynamic equilibrium with the growing garnet. The studied sample is an eclogite coming from the carboniferous South-Tianshan suture (Central Asia) (Loury et al. in press). Compositional maps of a garnet and its surrounding matrix were obtained from standardized X-ray maps processed with the program XMapTools (Lanari et al, 2014). The initial equilibration volume was modeled using LEB compositions combined together with Gibbs free energy minimization. P-T sections were calculated for the next stages of garnet growth taking into account the fractionation of the composition at each stage of garnet growth. The modeled P-T-X(H2O) path indicates that the rock progressively dehydrates during the

  16. Statistical physics of polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyukov, Sergei; Rabin, Yitzhak

    1996-05-01

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of the statistical mechanics of randomly cross-linked polymer gels, starting from a microscopic model of a network made of instantaneously cross-linked Gaussian chains with excluded volume, and ending with the derivation of explicit expressions for the thermodynamic functions and for the density correlation functions which can be tested by experiments. Using replica field theory we calculate the mean field density in replica space and show that this solution contains statistical information about the behavior of individual chains in the network. The average monomer positions change affinely with macroscopic deformation and fluctuations about these positions are limited to length scales of the order of the mesh size. We prove that a given gel has a unique state of microscopic equilibrium which depends on the temperature, the solvent, the average monomer density and the imposed deformation. This state is characterized by the set of the average positions of all the monomers or, equivalently, by a unique inhomogeneous monomer density profile. Gels are thus the only known example of equilibrium solids with no long-range order. We calculate the RPA density correlation functions that describe the statistical properties of small deviations from the average density, due to both static spatial heterogeneities (which characterize the inhomogeneous equilibrium state) and thermal fluctuations (about this equilibrium). We explain how the deformation-induced anisotropy of the inhomogeneous equilibrium density profile is revealed by small angle neutron scattering and light scattering experiments, through the observation of the butterfly effect. We show that all the statistical information about the structure of polymer networks is contained in two parameters whose values are determined by the conditions of synthesis: the density of cross-links and the heterogeneity parameter. We find that the structure of instantaneously cross

  17. Automated optimization of photonic crystal slab cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkov, Momchil; Savona, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Thanks to their high quality factor, combined to the smallest modal volume, defect-cavities in photonic crystal slabs represent a promising, versatile tool for fundamental studies and applications in photonics. In paricular, the L3, H0, and H1 defects are the most popular and widespread cavity designs, due to their compactness, simplicity, and small mode volume. For these cavities, the current best optimal designs still result in Q-values of a few times 105 only, namely one order of magnitude below the bound set by fabrication imperfections and material absorption in silicon. Here, we use a genetic algorithm to find a global maximum of the quality factor of these designs, by varying the positions of few neighbouring holes. We consistently find Q-values above one million - one order of magnitude higher than previous designs. Furthermore, we study the effect of disorder on the optimal designs and conclude that a similar improvement is also expected experimentally in state-of-the-art systems.

  18. Development of common conversion point stacking of receiver functions for detecting subducted slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Ohkura, T.; Hirahara, K.; Shibutani, T.

    2010-12-01

    In subduction zones, the subducting slabs are thought to convey fluid into the mantle wedge to cause arc volcanism (Hasegawa et al., 2008. Iwamori, 2007). Kawakatsu & Watada (2007) examined the Pacific slab subducting beneath northeast Japan with receiver function (RF) analysis, and revealed where the hydrated oceanic crust and the serpentinized mantle wedge exist. In the other subduction zones, it is also essential to examine subducting slabs for better understanding of water transportation and volcanic activities. In this study, we develop a new method to migrate RFs in order to examine subducting slabs with high dip angle (Abe et al., submitted to GJI) and apply this method to examination of the Philippine Sea slab (PHS). The RF technique is one of the useful methods to obtain seismic velocity discontinuities. Ps phases converted at discontinuities in a teleseismic coda can be detected by RF analysis. RFs are usually converted to depth domain assuming a 1-d velocity structure, and the geometry of discontinuities is obtained (e.g. Yamauchi et al., 2003). In subduction zones, however, subducting slabs usually dip, and we should take into account the refraction of seismic waves at dipping interfaces. Therefore, we use the multi-stage fast marching method (FMM, de Kool et al., 2006) to convert RFs into depth domain. We stack transverse RFs, since polarity of them does not change depending on their dip angles and they are better at detecting phases converted at dipping interfaces than radial RFs. We have confirmed that this method works properly with synthetic test. We apply our method to waveform data observed in Kyushu, Japan, where PHS is subducting toward WNW and the Wadati-Benioff zone dips at 30° at depths up to 80 km, and dips at 70° at depths between 80 km and 170 km. We obtain a vertical section, on which RF amplitude is projected, across central part of Kyushu perpendicular to the depth contour of the Wadati-Benioff zone. On the section, positive peaks of

  19. 31. VIEW OF CONCRETE SLAB AT WEST ENTRANCE OF WALKWAY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF CONCRETE SLAB AT WEST ENTRANCE OF WALKWAY. '1944 JOE LANDETA' SCRATCHED INTO FRESH CONCRETE. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road type with gutter (asphalt construction typical on Union and Confederate Avenues), view to the sw. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  1. 9. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  2. 2. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM THE REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  3. OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE AND RUN OUT WITH TRAVELING TORCH. MACHINE IS CASTING IN TWIN MOLD. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Waveform effects of a metastable olivine tongue in subducting slabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidale, John E.; Williams, Quentin; Houston, Heidi

    1991-01-01

    Velocity models of subducting slabs with a kinetically-depressed olivine to beta- and gamma-spinel transition are constructed, and the effect that such structures would have on teleseismic P waveforms are examined using a full-wave finite-difference method. These 2D calculations yielded waveforms at a range of distances in the downdip direction. The slab models included a wedge-shaped, low-velocity metastable olivine tongue (MOTO) to a depth of 670 km, as well as a plausible thermal anomaly; one model further included a 10-km-thick fast layer on the surface of the slab. The principal effect of MOTO is to produce grazing reflections at wide angles off the phase boundary, generating a secondary arrival 0 to 4 seconds after the initial arrival depending on the take-off angle. The amplitude and timing of this feature vary with the lateral location of the seismic source within the slab cross-section.

  5. 9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE NEAR GIANT SLIDE TRAIL MARKER ON AROUND-THE-MOUNTAIN LOOP. - Rockefeller Carriage Roads, Mount Desert Island, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  6. 49. DETAIL VIEW OF SLOPE PREPARATION FOR VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER SLAB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. DETAIL VIEW OF SLOPE PREPARATION FOR VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER SLAB LOOKING NORTH, November 6, 1946. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. DETAIL OF NORTH GUARDRAIL AND EXPANSION JOINT IN CONCRETE SLAB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF NORTH GUARDRAIL AND EXPANSION JOINT IN CONCRETE SLAB, SHOWING DAMAGED SECTION OF GUARDRAIL AND ALUMINUM REPLACEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Hassayampa Bridge, Spanning Hassayampa River at old U.S. Highway 80, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING ARCHED GIRDER AND SLAB CONSTRUCTION. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING ARCHED GIRDER AND SLAB CONSTRUCTION. NOTE TWISTED BAR STOCK REINFORCING CAN BE SEEN. - Keggereis Ford Bridge, Spanning West Branch Conococheague Creek at State Route 4006, Willow Hill, Franklin County, PA

  9. 34. VAL, DETAIL OF STAIRS ON COUNTERWEIGHT SLAB WITH COUNTERWEIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VAL, DETAIL OF STAIRS ON COUNTERWEIGHT SLAB WITH COUNTERWEIGHT CAR RAILS ON RIGHT AND PERSONNEL CAR RAILS ON LEFT. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Radiative Transfer Model for Translucent Slab Ice on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieu, F.; Schmidt, F.; Douté, S.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.

    2016-09-01

    We developed a radiative transfer model that simulates in VIS/NIR the bidirectional reflectance of a contaminated slab layer of ice overlaying a granular medium, under geometrical optics conditions to study martian ices.

  11. Slab crustal dehydration, melting and dynamics through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hunen, Jeroen; Bouilhol, Pierre; Magni, Valentina; Maunder, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Melting subducted mafic crust is commonly assumed to be the main process leading to silicic melts with an adakitic signature, which may form Archaean granitoids and generate early continental crust. Alternatively, melting of the overriding lower mafic crust and near-Moho depth fractional crystallisation of mantle melts can form differentiated magmas with an adakitic signature. Previous work shows how only very young slabs melt through dehydration melting, or depict melting of dry eclogites via water addition from deeper slab dehydration. We quantify subduction dehydration and melting reactions in a warm subduction system using a thermo-mechanical subduction model with a thermodynamic database. We find that even young (hot) slabs dehydrate before reaching their solidus, which suppresses any slab dehydration melting and creates significant amounts of mantle wedge melting irrespective of slab age. Significant slab crust melting is only achieved in young slabs via water present melting if metamorphic fluids from the subducted mantle flux through the dry eclogites. These slab melts, however, are affected by massive mantle wedge melting and unlikely to participate in the overriding plate felsic magmatism, unlike the shallower, primitive mantle wedge melts. Understanding the overall flux of water carried by the descending slab mantle is therefore of prime importance. We thus inverstigated the deeper dehydration processes in subduction zones and implications for the water cycle throughout Earth's history. We estimate that presently ~26% of the global influx water is recycled into the mantle, and that deep water recycling was also significant (although less efficient, 2-13% at 2.8 Ga) in early Earth conditions, which has important implications for mantle dynamics and tectonic processes in the Early Earth. Alternatively, delamination and underplating of the mafic subducted crust would be a suitable mechanism to fit the geological record. We thus explore the conditions for

  12. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The pioneering work by Patrick H. O’Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry 1975, 250, 4007–4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O’Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:28248237

  13. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2016-09-09

    The pioneering work by Patrick H. O'Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry1975, 250, 4007-4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O'Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins.

  14. In search of a consensus terminology in the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use: platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), fibrin gel polymerization and leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Mishra, Allan; Borzini, Piero; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Rasmusson, Lars; Evert, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    In the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use, most products are termed Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP). Unfortunately, this term is very general and incomplete, leading to many confusions in the scientific database. In this article, a panel of experts discusses this issue and proposes an accurate and simple terminology system for platelet concentrates for surgical use. Four main categories of products can be easily defined, depending on their leukocyte content and fibrin architecture: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP), such as cell separator PRP, Vivostat PRF or Anitua's PRGF; Leukocyteand Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP), such as Curasan, Regen, Plateltex, SmartPReP, PCCS, Magellan, Angel or GPS PRP; Pure Plaletet-Rich Fibrin (P-PRF), such as Fibrinet; and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF), such as Choukroun's PRF. P-PRP and L-PRP refer to the unactivated liquid form of these products, their activated versions being respectively named P-PRP gels and L-PRP gels. The purpose of this search for a terminology consensus is to plead for a more serious characterization of these products. Researchers have to be aware of the complex nature of these living biomaterials, in order to avoid misunderstandings and erroneous conclusions. Understanding the biomaterials or believing in the magic of growth factors ? From this choice depends the future of the field.

  15. Scaling of Electron Thermal Conductivity during the Transition between Slab and Mixed Slab-Toroidal ETG Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Balbaky, Abed; Sen, Amiya K.

    2015-11-01

    Transition from the slab to the toroidal branch of the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode has been successfully achieved in a basic experiment in Columbia Linear Machine CLM. We found a modest increase in saturated ETG potential fluctuations (~ 2 ×) and a substantial increase in the power density of individual mode peaks (~ 4 - 5 ×) with increased levels of curvature. We have obtained a set of experimental scalings for electron thermal conductivity χ⊥e as a function of the inverse radius of curvature Rc-1 for different fluctuation levels of the initial slab ETG mode. We found that thermal conductivity for pure slab modes is larger than it is for mixed slab-toroidal ETG modes with the same level of mode fluctuation. This effective reduction in diffusive transport can be partly explained by the flute nature of the toroidal ETG mode. This research was supported by the Department of Electrical Engineering of Columbia University.

  16. Characterizing Seismic Anisotropy across the Peruvian Flat-Slab Subduction Zone: Implications for the Dynamics of Flat-Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Caroline; Long, Maureen; Beck, Susan; Wagner, Lara; Tavera, Hernando

    2014-05-01

    Although 10% of subduction zones worldwide today exhibit shallow or flat subduction, we are yet to fully understand how and why these slabs go flat. An excellent study location for such a problem is in Peru, where the largest region of flat-subduction currently exists, extending ~1500 km in length (from 3 °S to 15 °S) and ~300 km in width. Across this region we investigate the pattern of seismic anisotropy, an indicator for past and/or ongoing deformation in the upper mantle. To achieve this we conduct shear wave splitting analyzes at 40 broadband stations from the PULSE project (PerU Lithosphere and Slab Experiment). These stations were deployed for 2+ years across the southern half of the Peruvian flat-slab region. We present detailed shear wave splitting results for both teleseismic events (such as SKS, SKKS, PKS, sSKS) that sample the upper mantle column beneath the stations as well as direct S from local events that constrain anisotropy in the upper portion of the subduction zone. We analyze the variability of our results with respect to initial polarizations, ray paths, and frequency content as well as spatial variability between stations as the underlying slab morphology changes. Teleseismic results show predominately NW-SE fast polarizations (trench oblique to sub-parallel) over the flat-slab region east of Lima. These results are consistent with observations of more complex multi-layered anisotropy beneath a nearby permanent station (NNA) that suggests a trench-perpendicular fast direction in the lowest layer in the sub-slab mantle. Further south, towards the transition to steeper subduction, the splitting pattern becomes increasingly dominated by null measurements. Over to the east however, beyond Cuzco, where the mantle wedge might begin to play a role, we record fast polarizations quasi-parallel to the local slab contours. Local S results indicate the presence of weak (delay times typically less than 0.5 seconds) and heterogeneous supra-slab

  17. Three-dimensional electrical conductivity in the mantle beneath the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field in the Andean backarc of Argentina near 36.5°S: evidence for decapitation of a mantle plume by resurgent upper mantle shear during slab steepening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, A. I.; Booker, J. R.; Mackie, R.; Favetto, A.; Pomposiello, M. C.

    2014-08-01

    Southern Mendoza and northern Neuquén Provinces, south of the Pampean Shallow Subduction region in western Argentina, are host to the <2 Myr Payunia Basaltic Province, which covers ˜39 500 km2 with primarily basaltic intraplate volcanism. This backarc igneous province can be explained by extension due to trench roll-back following steepening of a flat slab that existed in the middle to late Miocene. Magnetotelluric data collected at 37 sites from 67°W to 70°W and 35°S to 38°S are used to probe the source of the Payún Matrú basalts. These data, which require significantly 3-D structure, are inverted with a 3-D non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm that minimizes structure for a given data misfit. We identify two significant electrically conductive structures. One, called the SWAP (shallow western asthenospheric plume) approaches the surface beneath the Payún Matrú Caldera and the Trómen Volcano and dips westward towards the subducted Nazca slab. The second, called the DEEP (deep eastern plume) approaches the surface ˜100 km to the southeast of Payún Matrú and dips steeply east to ˜400 km depth while remaining above the subducted Nazca slab. We use a variety of model assessment techniques including forward modelling and constrained inversion to test the veracity of these features. We interpret the SWAP as the source of the <2 Myr intraplate volcanism. Our model assessment permits but does not require the SWAP to connect to the Nazca slab. The SWAP and DEEP are electrically connected only in the shallow crust, which is likely due to the Neuquén sedimentary basin and not a magmatic process. We propose that the SWAP and DEEP may have been more robustly connected in the past, but that the DEEP was decapitated to form the SWAP when shallow northwestward mantle flow resumed during steepening of the slab. The ˜2 Myr basaltic volcanism is the result of this decapitated DEEP magma that had ponded below the crust until extension allowed eruption. The

  18. THE PERIOD RATIO FOR STANDING KINK AND SAUSAGE MODES IN SOLAR STRUCTURES WITH SIPHON FLOW. I. MAGNETIZED SLABS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Bo; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Chen Yanjun

    2013-04-20

    In the applications of solar magneto-seismology, the ratio of the period of the fundamental mode to twice the period of its first overtone, P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2}, plays an important role. We examine how field-aligned flows affect the dispersion properties, and hence the period ratios, of standing modes supported by magnetic slabs in the solar atmosphere. We numerically solve the dispersion relations and devise a graphic means to construct standing modes. For coronal slabs, we find that the flow effects are significant for the fast kink and sausage modes alike. For the kink ones, they may reduce P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} by up to 23% compared with the static case, and the minimum allowed P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} can fall below the lower limit analytically derived for static slabs. For the sausage modes, while introducing the flow reduces P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} by typically {approx}< 5% relative to the static case, it significantly increases the threshold aspect ratio only above which standing sausage modes can be supported, meaning that their detectability is restricted to even wider slabs. In the case of photospheric slabs, the flow effect is not as strong. However, standing modes are distinct from the coronal case in that standing kink modes show a P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} that deviates from unity even for a zero-width slab, while standing sausage modes no longer suffer from a threshold aspect ratio. We conclude that transverse structuring in plasma density and flow speed should be considered in seismological applications of multiple periodicities to solar atmospheric structures.

  19. AREA FACTOR DETERMINATIONS FOR AN INDUSTRIAL WORKER EXPOSED TO A CONCRETE SLAB END-STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T; Patricia Lee, P; Eduardo Farfan, E; Jesse Roach, J

    2007-02-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning many of its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs as described in Jannik [1]. These risk-based DCGLs were estimated for an exposure area of 100 m{sup 2}. During deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) operations at SRS, the need for area factors for larger and smaller contaminated areas arose. This paper compares the area factors determined for an industrial worker exposed to a concrete slab end-state for several radionuclides of concern at SRS with (1) the illustrative area factors provided in MARSSIM [2], (2) the area correction factors provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Soil Screening Guidance [3], and (3) the hot spot criterion for field application provided in the RESRAD User's Manual [4].

  20. Electrophoresis of /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycans of polyacrylamide-agarose composite gels and their visualization by fluorography

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, S.L.; Bayliss, M.T.; Collier, J.M.; Muir, H.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques for the electrophoresis of /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycans on polyacrylamide-agarose gel slabs and subsequent fixation, impregnation, and fluorography of such electrophoretograms have been developed. The procedure permits the examination of newly synthesized proteoglycan subspecies using a rapid technique, previously unavailable for these labeled molecules.

  1. Modification of gel architecture and TBE/TAE buffer composition to minimize heating during agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Brian A; Araki, Naoko; Lilley, Jennifer L; Guerrero, Gilberto; Lewis, L Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA is routinely performed using buffers containing either Tris, acetate, and EDTA (TAE) or Tris, borate, and EDTA (TBE). Gels are run at a low, constant voltage (∼10 V/cm) to minimize current and asymmetric heating effects, which can induce band artifacts and poor resolution. In this study, alterations of gel structure and conductive media composition were analyzed to identify factors causing higher electrical currents during horizontal slab gel electrophoresis. Current was reduced when thinner gels and smaller chamber buffer volumes were used, but was not influenced by agarose concentration or the presence of ethidium bromide. Current was strongly dependent on the amount and type of EDTA used and on the concentrations of the major acid-base components of each buffer. Interestingly, resolution and the mobilities of circular versus linear plasmid DNAs were also affected by the chemical form and amount of EDTA. With appropriate modifications to gel structure and buffer constituents, electrophoresis could be performed at high voltages (20-25 V/cm), reducing run times by up to 3-fold. The most striking improvements were observed with small DNAs and RNAs (10-100 bp): high voltages and short run times produced sharper bands and higher resolution.

  2. Sol-Gel Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  3. Photon energy dependence of the light pressure exerted onto a thin silicon slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, F. K.; Boero, G.

    2011-04-01

    We review the theory of ponderomotive forces of classical nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) radiation exerted on dispersive matter. Minkowski's EM energy and momentum density lack any dispersion term in contrast to Nelson's theory, where they are included naturally. By considering force experiments on a dielectric mirror immersed in weakly dispersive liquids [R. V. Jones and B. Leslie, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A1364-502110.1098/rspa.1978.0072 360, 347 (1978)], we found that the appearance of the dispersive term should depend on the phase of the mirror reflectivity. It thus matters if the electric or the magnetic field is dominant at the interface. Accordingly, the force measurements depend on the boundary condition and do not permit to uniquely determine the EM momentum in the liquids. Force measurements as a function of the reflectivity phase would permit to experimentally verify the expressions for the EM energy density in a dispersive medium. In our experiments, we chop light beams of different photon energies to excite the motion of a very thin and long Si slab near its mechanical resonance under UHV conditions. This permits to study the force response, where the power reflectivity of the sample varies from 0.7 to smaller than 10-3. The determination of the velocity of the slab with a Doppler interferometer yields the effective force exerted by the light beam. The measurements also confirm our theoretical considerations that the observed forces due to EM radiation cannot be traced to the EM momentum in matter, as the observed forces primarily depend on the boundary conditions. Minkowski's stress tensor remains applicable in our case thanks to the embedding of the Si slab in vacuum. Our quantitative analysis of the experimental data reveals an extra force of thermal origin most likely associated with the difference of the native oxide thickness on the surfaces of the slab. The estimated difference in oxide layer thickness amounts to ˜4 nm.

  4. Size effect law and fracture mechanics of the triggering of dry snow slab avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bažant, ZdeněK. P.; Zi, Goangseup; McClung, David

    2003-02-01

    A size effect law for fracture triggering in dry snow slabs of high enough length-to-thickness ratio is formulated, based on simplified one-dimensional analysis by equivalent linear elastic fracture mechanics. Viscoelastic effects during fracture are neglected. The derived law, which is analogous to Bažant's energetic size effect law developed for concrete and later for sea ice, fiber composites, rocks, and ceramics, is shown to agree with two-dimensional finite element analysis of mode II cohesive crack model with a finite residual shear stress. Fitting the proposed size effect law to fracture data for various slab thicknesses permits identifying the material fracture parameters. The value of preexisting shear stress in a thin weak zone of finite length is shown to have significant effect. There exists a certain critical snow depth, depending on the preexisting stress value, below which the size effect disappears. Practical applications require considering that the material properties (particularly the mode II fracture toughness or fracture energy) at the snow slab base are not constant but depend strongly on the slab thickness. This means that one must distinguish the material size effect from the structural size effect, and the combined size effect law must be obtained by introducing into the structural size effect law dependence of its parameters on snow thickness. The thickness dependence of these parameters can be obtained by matching the combined law to avalanche observations. Matching Perla's field data on 116 avalanches suggests that the mode II fracture toughness is approximately proportional to 1.8 power of snow thickness.

  5. Reducing slab boundary artifacts in three‐dimensional multislab diffusion MRI using nonlinear inversion for slab profile encoding (NPEN)

    PubMed Central

    Koopmans, Peter J.; Frost, Robert; Miller, Karla L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To propose a method to reduce the slab boundary artifacts in three‐dimensional multislab diffusion MRI. Methods Bloch simulation is used to investigate the effects of multiple factors on slab boundary artifacts, including characterization of residual errors on diffusion quantification. A nonlinear inversion method is proposed to simultaneously estimate the slab profile and the underlying (corrected) image. Results Correction results of numerical phantom and in vivo data demonstrate that the method can effectively remove slab boundary artifacts for diffusion data. Notably, the nonlinear inversion is also successful at short TR, a regimen where previously proposed methods (slab profile encoding and weighted average) retain residual artifacts in both diffusion‐weighted images and diffusion metrics (mean diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy). Conclusion The nonlinear inversion for removing slab boundary artifacts provides improvements over existing methods, particularly at the short TRs required to maximize SNR efficiency. Magn Reson Med 76:1183–1195, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26510172

  6. Slab pull and the seismotectonics of subducting lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, William

    1987-01-01

    This synthesis links many seismic and tectonic processes at subduction zones, including great subduction earthquakes, to the sinking of subducted plate. Earthquake data and tectonic modeling for subduction zones indicate that the slab pull force is much larger than the ridge push force. Interactions between the forces that drive and resist plate motions cause spatially and temporally localized stresses that lead to characteristic earthquake activity, providing details on how subduction occurs. Compression is localized across a locked interface thrust zone, because both the ridge push and the slab pull forces are resisted there. The slab pull force increases with increasing plate age; thus because the slab pull force tends to bend subducted plate downward and decrease the force acting normal to the interface thrust zone, the characteristic maximum earthquake at a given interface thrust zone is inversely related to the age of the subducted plate. The 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw 9.5), the largest earthquake to occur in historic times, began its rupture at an interface bounding oceanic plate <30 m.y. old. However, this rupture initiation was associated with the locally oldest subducting lithosphere (weakest coupling); the rupture propagated southward along an interface bounding progressively younger oceanic lithosphere, terminating near the subducting Chile Rise. Prior to a great subduction earthquake, the sinking subducted slab will cause increased tension at depths of 50–200 km, with greatest tension near the shallow zone resisting plate subduction. Plate sinking not only leads to compressional stresses at a locked interface thrust zone but may load compressional stresses at plate depths of 260–350 km, provided that the shallow sinking occurs faster than the relaxation time of the deeper mantle. This explains K. Mogi's observations of M ≥ 7 thrust earthquakes at depths of 260–350 km, immediately downdip and within 3 years prior to five great, shallow

  7. Acoustic images of gel dosimetry phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Silvio L.; Baggio, André; Kinnick, Randall R.; Fatemi, M.; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton O.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents Vibro-acoustography (VA) as a tool to visualize absorbed dose in a polymer gel dosimetry phantom. VA relies on the mechanical excitation introduced by the acoustic radiation force of focused modulated ultrasound in a small region of the object. A hydrophone or microphone is used to measure the sound emitted from the object in response to the excitation, and by using the amplitude or phase of this signal, an image of the object can be generated. To study the phenomena of dose distribution in a gel dosimetry phantom, continuous wave (CW), tone burst and multi-frequency VA were used to image this phantom. The phantom was designed using 'MAGIC' gel polymer with addition of glass microspheres at 2% w/w having an average diameter range between 40-75 μm. The gel was irradiated using conventional 10 MeV X-rays from a linear accelerator. The field size in the surface of the phantom was 1.0×1.0 cm2 and a source-surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm. The irradiated volume corresponds to an approximately 8.0 cm3, where a dose of 50 gray was delivered to the gel. Polymer gel dosimeters are sensitive to radiation-induced chemical changes that occur in the irradiated polymer. VA images of the gel dosimeter showed the irradiate area. It is concluded that VA imaging has potential to visualize dose distribution in a polymer gel dosimeter.

  8. Liquid-crystalline physical gels.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Hirai, Yuki; Nakaso, Suguru; Moriyama, Masaya

    2007-12-01

    Liquid-crystalline (LC) physical gels are a new class of dynamically functional materials consisting of liquid crystals and fibrous aggregates of molecules that are called "gelators". Liquid-crystalline physical gels, which are macroscopically soft solids, exhibit induced or enhanced electro-optical, photochemical, electronic properties due to the combination of two components that form phase-separated structures. In this tutorial review, we describe the materials design and structure-property relationships of the LC physical gels. The introduction of self-assembled fibers into nematic liquid crystals leads to faster responses in twisted nematic (TN) mode and high contrast switching in light scattering mode. Furthermore, the LC physical gels can be exploited as a new type of materials for electro-optical memory. This function is achieved by the control of reversible aggregation processes of gelators under electric fields in nematic liquid crystals. Electronic properties such as hole mobilities are improved by the introduction of fibrous aggregates into triphenylene-based columnar liquid crystals. The incorporation of photochromic azobenzenes or electroactive tetrathiafulvalenes into the chemical structures of gelators leads to the preparation of ordered functional materials.

  9. Actuation and ion transportation of polyelectrolyte gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xiao

    2010-04-01

    Consisting of charged network swollen with ionic solution, polyelectrolyte gels are known for their salient characters including ion exchange and stimuli responsiveness. The active properties of polyelectrolyte gels are mostly due to the migration of solvent molecules and solute ions, and their interactions with the fixed charges on the network. In this paper, we extend the recently developed nonlinear field theory of polyelectrolyte gels by assuming that the kinetic process is limited by the rate of the transportation of mobile species. To study the coupled mechanical deformation, ion migration, and electric field, we further specialize the model to the case of a laterally constrained gel sheet. By solving the field equations in two limiting cases: the equilibrium state and the steady state, we calculate the mechanical responses of the gel to the applied electric field, and study the dependency on various parameters. The results recover the behavior observed in experiments in which polyelectrolyte gels are used as actuators, such as the ionic polymer metal composite. In addition, the model reveals the mechanism of the selectivity in ion transportation. Although by assuming specific material laws, the reduced system resembles those in most existing models in the literature, the theory can be easily generalized by using more realistic free-energy functions and kinetic laws. The adaptability of the theory makes it suitable for studying many similar material systems and phenomena.

  10. A surfactant-based, regularly arrayed nanostructure gel matrix for migration of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masaru; Suwanai, Yusuke; Shimojima, Atsushi; Santa, Tomofumi

    2012-11-01

    The preparation of nanometer-scale pores, or nanopores, has become easy because of the progress in nanotechnology. Surfactants are promising materials for the preparation of nanostructures containing nanopores, because surfactants form many different phase structures, including cubic, micellar, and lamellar structures. We prepared a gel matrix with a cubic structure from a commercially available surfactant, polyoxyethylene(50) lauryl ether (C12EO50, Adekatol LA-50). This gel matrix had regularly arrayed nanopores between the packed spherical micelles. We used the gel to separate biomolecules by means of slab gel electrophoresis. The gel was applicable to migration of amino acids and peptides; however, larger molecules, such as proteins and single-walled carbon nanotubes, did not migrate through the gel. We concluded that the pore size was too small for the penetration of large molecules, and that only small molecules could penetrate the gel matrix. The migration mechanism of small molecules was similar to that observed in conventional gel electrophoresis. We concluded that the gel matrix prepared from surfactant is a promising matrix for migration and purification of small molecules. We also expect that the gel can be used as a nanoscale filter to trap large molecules, allowing only small molecules to pass.

  11. Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazhappilly, Tijo; Kilin, Dmitri S.; Micha, David A.

    2015-04-01

    The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

  12. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  13. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity of

  14. Tomographic imaging of the effects of Peruvian flat slab subduction on the Nazca slab and surrounding mantle under central and southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scire, A. C.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Bishop, B.; Biryol, C. B.; Wagner, L. S.; Long, M. D.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2014-12-01

    The modern central Peruvian Andes are dominated by a laterally extensive region of flat slab subduction. The Peruvian flat slab extends for ~1500 km along the strike of the Andes, correlating with the subduction of the Nazca Ridge in the south and the theorized Inca Plateau in the north. We have used data from the CAUGHT and PULSE experiments for finite frequency teleseismic P- and S-wave tomography to image the Nazca slab in the upper mantle below 95 km depth under central Peru between 10°S and 18°S as well as the surrounding mantle. Since the slab inboard of the subducting Nazca Ridge is mostly aseismic, our results provide important constraints on the geometry of the subducting Nazca slab in this region. Our images of the Nazca slab suggest that steepening of the slab inboard of the subducting Nazca Ridge locally occurs ~100 km further inland than was indicated in previous studies. The region where we have imaged the steepening of the Nazca slab inboard of the Nazca Ridge correlates with the location of the Fitzcarrald Arch, a long wavelength upper plate topographic feature which has been suggested to be a consequence of ridge subduction. When the slab steepens inboard of the flat slab region, it does so at a very steep (~70°) angle. The transition from the Peruvian flat slab to the more normally dipping slab south of 16°S below Bolivia is characterized by an abrupt bending of the slab anomaly in the mantle in response to the shift from flat to normal subduction. The slab anomaly appears to be intact south of the Nazca Ridge with no evidence for tearing of the slab in response to the abrupt change in slab dip. A potential tear in the slab is inferred from an observed offset in the slab anomaly north of the Nazca Ridge extending subparallel to the ridge axis between 130 and 300 km depth. A high amplitude (-5-6%) slow S-wave velocity anomaly is observed below the projection of the Nazca Ridge. This anomaly appears to be laterally confined to the mantle

  15. Indigenously developed multipurpose acrylic head phantom for verification of IMRT using film and gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Gopishankar, N; Vivekanandhan, S; Rath, G K; Laviraj, M A; Senthilkumaran, S; Kale, S S; Thulkar, S; Bisht, R K; Subramani, V

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this study was to validate the newly designed acrylic phantom for routine dosimetric purpose in radiotherapy. The phantom can be used to evaluate and compare the calculated dose and measured dose using film and gel dosimetric methods. In this study, a doughnut-shaped planning target volume (8.54 cm3) and inner organ at risk (0.353 cm3) were delineated for an IMRT test plan using the X-ray CT image of the phantom. The phantom consists of acrylic slabs which are integrated to form a human head with a hole in the middle where several dosimetric inserts can be positioned for measurement. An inverse planning with nine coplanar intensity-modulated fields was created using Pinnacle TPS. For the film analysis, EBT2 film, flatbed scanner, in-house developed MATLAB codes and ImageJ software were used. The 3D dose distribution recorded in the MAGAT gel dosimeter was read using a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Scanning parameters were CPMG pulse sequence with 8 equidistant echoes, TR = 5600, echo step = 22 ms, pixel size = 0.5 × 0.5, slice thickness = 2 mm. Using a calibration relationship between absorbed dose and spin-spin relaxation rate (R2), R2 images were converted to dose images. The dose comparison was accomplished using in-house MATLAB-based graphical user interface named "IMRT3DCMP". For gel measurement dose grid from the TPS was extracted and compared with the measured dose grid of the gel. Gamma index analysis of film measurement for the tolerance criteria of 2%/2mm, 1%/1 mm showed more than 90% voxels pass rate. Gamma index analysis of 3D gel measurement data showed more than 90% voxels pass rate for different tolerance criteria of 2%/2 mm and 1%/1 mm. Overall both 2D and 3D measurement were in close agreement with the Pinnacle TPS calculated dose. The phantom designed is cost-effective and the results are promising, but further investigation is required to validate the phantom with other 3D conformal techniques for dosimetric purpose.

  16. Multiscale modeling of polyelectrolyte gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmersperger, Thomas; Wittel, Falk K.; Kröplin, Bernd H.

    2006-03-01

    Electrolyte polymer gels are a very attractive class of actuation materials with remarkable electronic and mechanical properties having a great similarity to biological contractile tissues. They consist of a polymer network with ionizable groups and a liquid phase with mobile ions. Absorption and delivery of solvent lead to a considerably large change of volume. Due to this capability, they can be used as actuators for technical applications, where large swelling and shrinkage is desired. In the present work chemically and electrically stimulated polymer gels in a solution bath are investigated. To describe the different complicated phenomena occurring in these gels adequately, the modeling can be conducted on different scales. Therefore, models based on the statistical theory and porous media theory, as well as a multi-field model and a discrete element formulation are derived. A refinement of the different theories from global macroscopic to microscopic are presented in this paper: The statistical theory is a macroscopic theory capable to describe the global swelling or bending e.g. of a gel film, while the general theory of porous media (TPM) is a macroscopic continuum theory which is based on the theory of mixtures extended by the concept of volume fractions. The TPM is a homogenized model, i.e. all geometrical and physical quantities can be seen as statistical averages of the real quantities. The presented chemo-electro-mechanical multi-field formulation is a mesoscopic theory. It is capable of giving the concentrations and the electric potential in the whole domain. Finally the (micromechanical) discrete element (DE) theory is employed. In this case, the continuum is represented by distributed particles with local interaction relations combined with balance equations for the chemical field. This method is predestined for problems involving large displacements, strains and discontinuities. The presented formulations are compared and conclusions on their

  17. Cocos-Nazca slab window beneath Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Stephen T.; Thorkelson, Derek J.

    1997-02-01

    Integration of petrologic and tectonic data favours a model of slab window formation beneath Central America in the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Central America has been the site of voluminous Cenozoic arc volcanism. The Cocos and Nazca plates, which are subducting beneath Central America, are diverging along the east-trending Cocos-Nazca spreading ridge. Since 25 Ma the Americas have advanced about 1800 km west over the ridge-transform system. Since at least 8 Ma, plate integrity and the ridge-transform configuration have been preserved during convergence, resulting in subduction of the spreading ridge and development of a slab window. The Panama fracture zone, an active transform fault, is the part of the ridge-transform system currently being subducted. The ridge-transform system formerly adjoining the northern end of the Panama fracture zone is likely to have been left-stepping. We use present-day plate motions to design a slab window to fit known variations in igneous composition, hypocentre distribution, and mantle anisotropy. The modeling demonstrates that subduction of ridge segments and resultant slab window development began between 6 and 10 Ma. Cessation of ridge subduction occurred between 1 and 3 Ma, when subduction of the Panama fracture zone is considered to have begun. The slab window is continuing to expand and migrate northeastward below the Central American volcanic arc. The absence of a Wadati-Benioff zone from southeastern Costa Rica through Panama corresponds to the position of the slab window. Within this region, dacitic and rhyolitic volcanic rocks have "adakitic" compositions, and are thought to result from anatexis of the young, buoyant crust which forms the trailing edges of the slabs bounding the window. Basalts in this area were derived from an enriched ocean-island type mantle source, whereas basalts from the rest of the arc, in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, are mainly derived from slab-modified depleted mantle, characteristic of

  18. Analysis of Fusarium populations in a soybean field under different fertilization management by real-time quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abundance and population structure of Fusarium spp. in field soils were assessed to determine the effect of different fertilization treatments on soil microbial community and potential role in disease management. The field was under soybean-wheat-corn rotation located in the black soil (Udic Mo...

  19. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate, (3) using partially formed gels, (4

  20. Systematic variation in the depths of slabs beneath arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    England, P.; Engdahl, R.; Thatcher, W.

    2004-01-01

    The depths to the tops of the zones of intermediate-depth seismicity beneath arc volcanoes are determined using the hypocentral locations of Engdahl et al. These depths are constant, to within a few kilometres, within individual arc segments, but differ by tens of kilometres from one arc segment to another. The range in depths is from 65 km to 130 km, inconsistent with the common belief that the volcanoes directly overlie the places where the slabs reach a critical depth that is roughly constant for all arcs. The depth to the top of the intermediate-depth seismicity beneath volcanoes correlates neither with age of the descending ocean floor nor with the thermal parameter of the slab. This depth does, however, exhibit an inverse correlation with the descent speed of the subducting plate, which is the controlling factor both for the thermal structure of the wedge of mantle above the slab and for the temperature at the top of the slab. We interpret this result as indicating that the location of arc volcanoes is controlled by a process that depends critically upon the temperature at the top of the slab, or in the wedge of mantle, immediately below the volcanic arc.

  1. Fossil slabs attached to unsubducted fragments of the Farallon plate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Forsyth, Donald W.; Rau, Christina J.; Carriero, Nina; Schmandt, Brandon; Gaherty, James B.; Savage, Brian

    2013-01-01

    As the Pacific–Farallon spreading center approached North America, the Farallon plate fragmented into a number of small plates. Some of the microplate fragments ceased subducting before the spreading center reached the trench. Most tectonic models have assumed that the subducting oceanic slab detached from these microplates close to the trench, but recent seismic tomography studies have revealed a high-velocity anomaly beneath Baja California that appears to be a fossil slab still attached to the Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates. Here, using surface wave tomography, we establish the lateral extent of this fossil slab and show that it is correlated with the distribution of high-Mg andesites thought to derive from partial melting of the subducted oceanic crust. We also reinterpret the high seismic velocity anomaly beneath the southern central valley of California as another fossil slab extending to a depth of 200 km or more that is attached to the former Monterey microplate. The existence of these fossil slabs may force a reexamination of models of the tectonic evolution of western North America over the last 30 My. PMID:23509274

  2. Fossil slabs attached to unsubducted fragments of the Farallon plate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Forsyth, Donald W; Rau, Christina J; Carriero, Nina; Schmandt, Brandon; Gaherty, James B; Savage, Brian

    2013-04-02

    As the Pacific-Farallon spreading center approached North America, the Farallon plate fragmented into a number of small plates. Some of the microplate fragments ceased subducting before the spreading center reached the trench. Most tectonic models have assumed that the subducting oceanic slab detached from these microplates close to the trench, but recent seismic tomography studies have revealed a high-velocity anomaly beneath Baja California that appears to be a fossil slab still attached to the Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates. Here, using surface wave tomography, we establish the lateral extent of this fossil slab and show that it is correlated with the distribution of high-Mg andesites thought to derive from partial melting of the subducted oceanic crust. We also reinterpret the high seismic velocity anomaly beneath the southern central valley of California as another fossil slab extending to a depth of 200 km or more that is attached to the former Monterey microplate. The existence of these fossil slabs may force a reexamination of models of the tectonic evolution of western North America over the last 30 My.

  3. Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides.

    PubMed

    Bock, Przemek J; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Delâge, André; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Hall, Trevor J

    2009-10-12

    We report on several new types of sub-wavelength grating (SWG) gradient index structures for efficient mode coupling in high index contrast slab waveguides. Using a SWG, an adiabatic transition is achieved at the interface between silicon-on-insulator waveguides of different geometries. The SWG transition region minimizes both fundamental mode mismatch loss and coupling to higher order modes. By creating the gradient effective index region in the direction of propagation, we demonstrate that efficient vertical mode transformation can be achieved between slab waveguides of different core thickness. The structures which we propose can be fabricated by a single etch step. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations we study the loss, polarization dependence and the higher order mode excitation for two types (triangular and triangular-transverse) of SWG transition regions between silicon-on-insulator slab waveguides of different core thicknesses. We demonstrate two solutions to reduce the polarization dependent loss of these structures. Finally, we propose an implementation of SWG structures to reduce loss and higher order mode excitation between a slab waveguide and a phase array of an array waveguide grating (AWG). Compared to a conventional AWG, the loss is reduced from -1.4 dB to < -0.2 dB at the slab-array interface.

  4. Cenozoic Plume-Slab Interaction Beneath the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrebski, M. J.; Allen, R. M.; Hung, S.; Pollitz, F. F.

    2009-12-01

    Here we present new images of the structure beneath the Pacific Northwest obtained by inverting both compressional and shear teleseismic body waves and using finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. The models use all available seismic data from the Earthscope Transportable Array, regional seismic networks and two Flexible Array experiments (Mendocino and FACES experiments) deployed on the west coast. By picking P, S and SKS arrivals manually and estimating station-to-station relative arrival times through cross correlation of the waveforms, we select only the highest quality data. East from the Juan de Fuca slab and north from the Mendocino Triple Junction, the mantle structure is dominated by high velocity blocks that are likely to be fragments of the Farallon slab. In the middle of the slab fragments, both our compressional (DNA09-P) and shear (DNA09-S) velocity models show a continuous low velocity anomaly that extends from the Yellowstone Caldera down into the lower mantle. We interpret this feature as a deep-seated mantle plume. The striking contrast between the slab-dominated mantle north from the MTJ and the continuous deep-seated Yellowstone mantle plume suggests the plume disrupted the Farallon slab during its ascent to the surface.

  5. Seismic tomography of the Pacific slab edge under Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhao, Dapeng; Zhang, Guibin

    2009-02-01

    We determine a 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the mantle down to 700 km depth under the Kamchatka peninsula using 678 P-wave arrival times collected from digital seismograms of 75 teleseismic events recorded by 15 portable seismic stations and 1 permanent station in Kamchatka. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly that is visible in the upper mantle and extends below the 660-km discontinuity under southern Kamchatka, while it shortens toward the north and terminates near the Aleutian-Kamchatka junction. Low-velocity anomalies are visible beneath northern Kamchatka and under the junction, which are interpreted as asthenospheric flow. A gap model without remnant slab fragment is proposed to interpret the main feature of high-V anomalies. Combining our tomographic results with other geological and geophysical evidences, we consider that the slab loss may be induced by the friction with surrounding asthenosphere as the Pacific plate rotated clockwise at about 30 Ma ago, and then it was enlarged by the slab-edge pinch-off by the asthenospheric flow and the presence of Meiji seamounts. As a result, the slab loss and the subducted Meiji seamounts have jointly caused the Pacific plate to subduct under Kamchatka with a lower dip angle near the junction, which made the Sheveluch and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes shift westward.

  6. Electronic nose screening of ethanol release during sol-gel encapsulation. A novel non-invasive method to test silica polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Lovino, Magalí; Cardinal, M Fernanda; Zubiri, Diana B V; Bernik, Delia L

    2005-12-15

    Porous silica matrices prepared by sol-gel process yield biocompatible materials adequate for encapsulation of biomolecules or drugs. The procedure is simple and fast, but when alkoxyde precursors like tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) are used the polymerisation reaction leads to the formation of alcohol as a by-product, which can produce undesirable effects on the activity of entrapped enzymes or modify a drug release kinetic. Therefore, it is critical to determine that no remnant ethanol is left prior using or storing the obtained biomaterial. In this regard, the technique used in the alcohol determination should be non-invasive and non-destructive to preserve the encapsulation device intact and ready to use. In this work we have successfully used a portable electronic nose (e-nose) for the screening of silica polymerisation process during theophylline encapsulation. TEOS reaction was "smelt" since precursor pre-hydrolysis until the end of ethanol release, sensed directly at the headspace of matrices slabs. Measurements showed that ethanol was negligible since 10th day in polymeric slabs of 10 mm width and 2 cm diameter. This first use of e-nose following a polymerisation reaction opens a wide number of putative applications in pharmaceutical and biochemical fields.

  7. Fluorographic detection of tritiated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides separated on polyacrylamide gels: analysis of glycans from Dictyostelium discoideum glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Prem Das, O.; Henderson, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Previous workers have shown that oligosaccharides and glycopeptides can be separated by electrophoresis in buffers containing borate ions. However, normal fluorography of tritium-labeled structures cannot be performed because the glycans are soluble and can diffuse during equilibration with scintillants. This problem has been circumvented by equilibration of the gel with 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) prior to electrophoresis. The presence of PPO in the gel during electrophoresis does not alter mobility of the glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. After electrophoresis, the gel is simply dried and fluorography performed. This allows sensitive and precise comparisons of labeled samples in parallel lanes of a slab gel and, since mobilities are highly reproducible, between different gels. The procedure is preparative in that after fluorography the gel bands can be quantitatively eluted for further study, without any apparent modification by the procedure. In this report, the procedure is illustrated by fractionation of both neutral and anionic glycopeptides produced by the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

  8. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  9. Influence of overriding plate velocity changes on slab dip and deformation: insights from laboratory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Benjamin; Hertgen, Solenn; Martinod, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Over geological times, plate reorganization associated with mantle convection led to changes in absolute plate velocities, which may in turn have impacted the geometry of the subducting plate as well as the overriding plate regime of deformation. Indeed, previous studies have shown a very good correlation between the absolute motion of the overriding plate on one hand and slab dip and overriding plate deformation on the other hand: extension and steep slab are associated with an overriding plate moving away from the trench while shortening and shallow slab occur if the upper plate goes the other way. However, these correlations are established when subduction has reached a steady-state regime and for a constant motion of the overriding plate over the subducting plate, which may not always be the case on Earth. The response of the subduction system to changes in absolute overriding plate velocity still remain an open question. In this study, we conducted a set of 3-D mantle-scale laboratory models of subduction in which we incrementally changed the velocity of the overriding plate to reproduce changes of velocities that may arise from variations of far-field boundary conditions in Nature. We first show that strain rates in the overriding plate are correlated with overriding plate absolute velocity but also that the regime of deformation adjusts rapidly to changes of velocity. This may explain for instance why despite the subduction has been continuous beneath South America since at least the middle Jurassic, shortening along its active margin is only recorded episodically, the main phases of Andean orogeny roughly corresponding to periods of South American plate westward acceleration. We also show that slab dip adjusts to changes of overriding plate velocity but it requires several Myr before it stabilizes. It may explain why the correlation between absolute overriding plate motion and slab dip from the analysis of present-day subduction zones is only moderate, part

  10. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-03-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from September 1, 2003, through February 29, 2004, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' We examined the properties of several ''partially formed'' gels that were formulated with a combination of high and low molecular weight HPAM polymers. After placement in 4-mm-wide fractures, these gels required about 25 psi/ft for brine to breach the gel (the best performance to date in fractures this wide). After this breach, stabilized residual resistance factors decreased significantly with increased flow rate. Also, residual resistance factors were up to 9 times greater for water than for oil. Nevertheless, permeability reduction factors were substantial for both water and oil flow. Gel with 2.5% chopped fiberglass effectively plugged 4-mm-wide fractures if a 0.5-mm-wide constriction was present. The ability to screen-out at a constriction appears crucial for particulate incorporation to be useful in plugging fractures. In addition to fiberglass, we examined incorporation of polypropylene fibers into gels. Once dispersed in brine or gelant, the polypropylene fibers exhibited the least gravity segregation of any particulate that we have tested to date. In fractures with widths of at least 2 mm, 24-hr-old gels (0.5% high molecular weight HPAM) with 0.5% fiber did not exhibit progressive plugging during placement and showed extrusion pressure gradients similar to those of gels without the fiber. The presence of the fiber roughly doubled the gel's resistance to first breach by brine flow. The breaching pressure gradients were not as large as for gels made with high and low molecular weight polymers (mentioned above). However, their material requirements and costs (i.e., polymer and/or particulate concentrations) were substantially lower than for those gels. A partially formed gel made with 0.5% HPAM did not enter a 0.052-mm-wide fracture when applying a pressure gradient of 65 psi/ft. This result

  11. Fluid flow during slab unbending and dehydration: Implications for intermediate-depth seismicity, slab weakening and deep water recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenda, Manuele; Gerya, Taras V.; Mancktelow, Neil S.; Moresi, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Subducting oceanic plates carry a considerable amount of water from the surface down to mantle depths and contribute significantly to the global water cycle. A part of these volatiles stored in the slab is expelled at intermediate depths (70-300 km) where dehydration reactions occur. However, despite the fact that water considerably affects many physical properties of rocks, not much is known about the fluid flow path and the interaction with the rocks through which volatiles flow in the slab interior during its dehydration. We performed thermomechanical models (coupled with a petrological database and with incompressible aqueous fluid flow) of a dynamically subducting and dehydrating oceanic plate. Results show that, during slab dehydration, unbending stresses drive part of the released fluids into the cold core of the plate toward a level of strong tectonic under-pressure and neutral (slab-normal) pressure gradients. Fluids progressively accumulate and percolate updip along such a layer forming, together with the upper hydrated layer near the top of the slab, a Double Hydrated Zone (DHZ) where intermediate-depth seismicity could be triggered. The location and predicted mechanics of the DHZ would be consistent with seismological observations regarding Double Seismic Zones (DSZs) found in most subduction zones and suggests that hydrofracturing could be the trigger mechanism for observed intermediate-depth seismicity. In the light of our results, the lower plane of the DSZ is more likely to reflect a layer of upward percolating fluid than a level of mantle dehydration. In our models, a 20-30 km thick DSZ forms in relatively old oceanic plates without requiring an extremely deep slab hydration prior to subduction. The redistribution of fluids into the slab interior during slab unbending also has important implications for slab weakening and the deep water cycle. We estimate that, over the whole of Earth's history, a volume of water equivalent to around one to two

  12. Effects of edge restraint on slab behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guice, L.K.

    1986-02-01

    This study was performed in conjunction with a Federal Emergency Management Agency program to plan, design, and construct keyworker blast shelters which would be used in high-risk areas of the country during and after a nuclear attack. The shelters considered in this study were box-type structures in which damage is much more likely to occur in the roof slab than in the walls or floor. In this part of the program, the effect of edge restraint on slab behavior was investigated. The primary objective was to determine the effects of partial rotational restraint on slab strength, ductility, and mechanism of failure. Sixteen one-way, reinforced concrete plate elements were tested in a reaction structure under uniform static water pressure.

  13. Search for deep slabs in the Northwest Pacific mantle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H W; Anderson, D L

    1989-11-01

    A residual sphere is formed by projecting seismic ray travel-time anomalies, relative to a reference Earth model, onto an imaginary sphere around an earthquake. Any dominant slab-like fast band can be determined with spherical harmonic expansion. The technique is useful in detecting trends associated with high-velocity slabs beneath deep earthquakes after deep-mantle and near-receiver effects are removed. Two types of corrections are used. The first uses a tomographic global mantle model; the second uses teleseismic station averages of residuals from many events over a large area centered on the events of interest. Under the Mariana, Izu-Bonin, and Japan trenches, the dominant fast bands are generally consistent with seismicity trends. The results are unstable and differ from the seismicity trend for Kurile events. The predominant fast band for most deep earthquakes under Japan is subhorizontal rather than near vertical. We find little support for the deep slab penetration hypothesis.

  14. Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage.

    PubMed

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Ricard, Yanick

    2015-02-03

    A simple model for necking and detachment of subducting slabs is developed to include the coupling between grain-sensitive rheology and grain-size evolution with damage. Necking is triggered by thickened buoyant crust entrained into a subduction zone, in which case grain damage accelerates necking and allows for relatively rapid slab detachment, i.e., within 1 My, depending on the size of the crustal plug. Thick continental crustal plugs can cause rapid necking while smaller plugs characteristic of ocean plateaux cause slower necking; oceanic lithosphere with normal or slightly thickened crust subducts without necking. The model potentially explains how large plateaux or continental crust drawn into subduction zones can cause slab loss and rapid changes in plate motion and/or induce abrupt continental rebound.

  15. Requalification analysis of a circular composite slab for seismic load

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A.

    1992-11-01

    The circular roof slab of an existing facility was analyzed to requalify the structure for supporting a significant seismic load that it was not originally designed for. The slab has a clear span of 66 ft and consists of a 48 in thick reinforced concrete member and a steel liner plate. Besides a number of smaller penetrations, the slab contains two significant cutouts: a 9 ft square opening and a 3 ft dia hole. The issues that complicated the analysis of this non-typical structure, i.e., composite action and nonlinear stiffness of reinforced concrete (R. C.) sections, are discussed. It was possible to circumvent the difficulties by making conservative and simplifying assumptions. If codes incorporate guidelines on practical methods for dynamic analysis of R. C. structures, some of the unneeded conservatism could be eliminated in future designs.

  16. Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage

    PubMed Central

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Ricard, Yanick

    2015-01-01

    A simple model for necking and detachment of subducting slabs is developed to include the coupling between grain-sensitive rheology and grain-size evolution with damage. Necking is triggered by thickened buoyant crust entrained into a subduction zone, in which case grain damage accelerates necking and allows for relatively rapid slab detachment, i.e., within 1 My, depending on the size of the crustal plug. Thick continental crustal plugs can cause rapid necking while smaller plugs characteristic of ocean plateaux cause slower necking; oceanic lithosphere with normal or slightly thickened crust subducts without necking. The model potentially explains how large plateaux or continental crust drawn into subduction zones can cause slab loss and rapid changes in plate motion and/or induce abrupt continental rebound. PMID:25605890

  17. Distribution of porosity and macrosegregation in slab steel ingot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkadleckova, M.; Jonsta, P.; Carbol, Z.; Susovsky, M.; Michalek, K.; Socha, L.; Sviželová, J.; Zwyrtek, J.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents a new knowledge and experiences with verification and optimization of production technology of heavy slab ingot weighing 40 t from tool steel using the results of numerical modelling and of operational experiments at a steel plant in the company VÍTKOVICE HEAVY MACHINERY a.s. The final porosity, macrosegregation and the risk of cracks were predicted. Based on the results, the slab ingot can be used instead of the conventional heavy steel ingot. Also, the ratio, the chamfer, and the external shape of the wall of the new design of the slab ingot was improved, which enabled to reduce production costs while the internal quality of steel ingots was still maintained at very high level.

  18. Stress Distribution in the Subducted Slab in the Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Běhounková, M.; Běhounková, M.; Čížková, H.; Matyska, C.; Špičák, A.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of numerical modelling of subduction process in a 2-D cartesian box. Our numerical code is based on the method of Gerya and Yuen 2003. We concentrate on the deformation and stress distribution within the slab in the transition zone. Our composite rheological model includes diffusion creep, dislocation creep and power-law stress limiter. The effects of phase transitions at the depths 410 km and 660 km are taken into account. The model is applied to the Tonga subduction region, where the currently subducting plate might face the remnants of the high viscosity subducted material in the transition zone. This material might possibly originate either from a previous episode of the subduction (Chen and Brudzinski, 2001) or from the buoyant detached slab broken off from the active subducting slab (Green, 2001). We prescribe the cold and relatively high viscosity piece of old slab lying above the 660 km interface. The stress distribution in the new subducting place is then investigated as the plate approaches these remnants of old slab. Stress directions and amplitudes are compared to the data available from the analyses of the earthquake mechanisms in Tonga region. Chen W.-P., Brudzinski R, 2001. Evidence for a Large-Scale Remnant of Subducted Lithosphere Beneath Fiji, Science 292, 2475--2479. Gerya T.V., Yuen D.A., 2003. Characteristics-based marker-in-cell method with conservative finite-differences schemes for modelling geological flows with strongly variable transport properties, Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 140, 293--318. Green, H.W., 2001. A graveyard for buoyant slabs?, Science 292, 2445-2446.

  19. Links between fluid circulation, temperature, and metamorphism in subducting slabs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spinelli, G.A.; Wang, K.

    2009-01-01

    The location and timing of metamorphic reactions in subducting lithosph??re are influenced by thermal effects of fluid circulation in the ocean crust aquifer. Fluid circulation in subducting crust extracts heat from the Nankai subduction zone, causing the crust to pass through cooler metamorphic faci??s than if no fluid circulation occurs. This fluid circulation shifts the basalt-to-eclogite transition and the associated slab dehydration 14 km deeper (35 km farther landward) than would be predicted with no fluid flow. For most subduction zones, hydrothermal cooling of the subducting slab will delay eclogitization relative to estimates made without considering fluid circulation. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Expansion of a cold non-neutral plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Karimov, A. R.; Yu, M. Y.; Stenflo, L.

    2014-12-15

    Expansion of the ion and electron fronts of a cold non-neutral plasma slab with a quasi-neutral core bounded by layers containing only ions is investigated analytically and exact solutions are obtained. It is found that on average, the plasma expansion time scales linearly with the initial inverse ion plasma frequency as well as the degree of charge imbalance, and no expansion occurs if the cold plasma slab is stationary and overall neutral. However, in both cases, there can exist prominent oscillations on the electron front.

  1. Investigating the Farallon Slab with Probabilistic Traveltime Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, S.; Lekic, V.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction of the Farallon Plate beneath North America played a key role in its tectonic development. Seismic constraints on the subducted remnants of the Farallon slab provide evidence needed to better understand the polarity and timing of subduction, the structure of the plate, and its relation to tectonic events like the uplift of the Rocky Mountains. Over the course of its deployment, the USArray Transportable Array (TA) has offered ideal data coverage for investigating the Farallon and related slabs in the upper mantle using seismic tomography and converted wave imaging. With its arrival in the east, data from the TA provides the crossing paths necessary to image the upper reaches of the oldest parts of the plate at mid-mantle depths. We perform a global tomographic inversion using the latest P-wave traveltime picks from TA combined with global catalogue data. While the new velocity model resolves upper mantle slab structure at unprecedented detail in the east, a quantitative grasp of model uncertainty is needed to reliably relate velocity variations to the thermal and mechanical properties of the slabs. In order to quantify the uncertainty of our tomographic model, we employ Transdimensional Hierarchical Bayesian (THB) inversion. THB tomography uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to create an ensemble of velocity models that can be analyzed to statistically infer the best-fit velocities, their uncertainties, and tradeoffs. We present and discuss various representations of uncertainty quantified by THB tomography—error bars, model covariance, multimodal distributions of velocity values—and demonstrate its importance for furthering our understanding of the slab fragments beneath North America. We illustrate how we are able to distinguish between spurious slab fragments from those required by the data. By examining bimodal velocity distributions, we put error bars on the spatial extent of the slabs that can then be analyzed using thermal diffusion modeling. By

  2. Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Vault-Slab Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chesi, Claudio; Butti, Ferdinando; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-07-08

    Spandrel walls typically play a structural role in masonry buildings, transferring load from a slab to the supporting vault. Some indications are given in the literature on the behaviour of spandrels under the effect of vertical loads, but little attention is given to the effect coming from lateral forces acting on the building. An opportunity to investigate this problem has come from the need of analyzing a monumental building which was damaged by the Nov. 24, 2004 Val Sabbia earthquake in the north of Italy. The finite element model set up for the analysis of the vault-spandrel-slab system is presented and the structural role resulting for the spandrels is discussed.

  3. Drying SDS-Polyacrylamide Gels.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, Joseph; Russell, David W

    2006-09-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes a method for drying SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Gels containing proteins radiolabeled with (35)S-labeled amino acids must be dried before autoradiographic images can be obtained. Nonradioactive gels can also be preserved by drying.

  4. Agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R

    1993-01-01

    After digestion of DNA with a restriction enzyme (Chapter 50), it is usually necessary, for both preparative and analytical purposes, to separate and visualize the products. In most cases, where the products are between 200 and 20,000 bp long, this is achieved by agarose gel electrophoresis. Agarose is a linear polymer that is extracted from seaweed and sold as a white powder. The powder is melted in buffer and allowed to cool, whereby the agarose forms a gel by hydrogen bonding. The hardened matrix contains pores, the size of which depends on the concentration of agarose. The concentration of agarose is referred to as a percentage of agarose to volume of buffer (w/v), and agarose gels are normally in the range of 0.3 to 3%. Many different apparatus arrangements have been devised to run agarose gels; for example, they can be run horizontally or vertically, and the current can be conducted by wicks or the buffer solution. However, today, the "submarine" gel system is almost universally used. In this method, the agarose gel is formed on a supporting plate, and then the plate is submerged into a tank containing a suitable electrophoresis buffer. Wells are preformed in the agarose gel with the aid of a "comb" that is inserted into the cooling agarose before the agarose has gelled. Into these wells are loaded the sample to be analyzed, which has been mixed with a dense solution (a loading buffer) to ensure that the sample sinks into the wells.

  5. Effects of shape and size of agar gels on heating uniformity during pulsed microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Soto-Reyes, Nohemí; Temis-Pérez, Ana L; López-Malo, Aurelio; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2015-05-01

    Model gel systems with different shape (sphere, cylinder, and slab) and size (180 and 290 g) were prepared with agar (5%) and sucrose (5%). Dielectric constant (ε'), loss factor (ε"), thermophysical properties, and temperature distribution of the model system were measured. Each agar model system was immersed and suspended in water, and then, heated in a microwave oven with intermittent heating until the core temperature reached 50 °C. The ε' and ε" of agar gels decreased when frequency increased. The density and thermal conductivity values of the agar gels were 1033 kg/m(3) and 0.55 W/m °C, respectively. The temperature distribution of sphere, cylinder, and slab was different when similar power doses were applied. The slab reached 50 °C in less time (10 min) and showed a more uniform heating than spheres and cylinders in both sizes. Agar model systems of 180 g heated faster than those of 290 g. The coldest point was the center of the model systems in all studied cases. Shape and size are critical food factors that affect the heating uniformity during microwave heating processes.

  6. Importance of bulk states for the electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces: implications for finite slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagisaka, Keisuke; Nara, Jun; Bowler, David

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the influence of slab thickness on the electronic structure of the Si(1 0 0)- p(2× 2 ) surface in density functional theory (DFT) calculations, considering both density of states and band structure. Our calculations, with slab thicknesses of up to 78 atomic layers, reveal that the slab thickness profoundly affects the surface band structure, particularly the dangling bond states of the silicon dimers near the Fermi level. We find that, to precisely reproduce the surface bands, the slab thickness needs to be large enough to completely converge the bulk bands in the slab. In the case of the Si(1 0 0) surface, the dispersion features of the surface bands, such as the band shape and width, converge when the slab thickness is larger than 30 layers. Complete convergence of both the surface and bulk bands in the slab is only achieved when the slab thickness is greater than 60 layers.

  7. Large electrorheological phenomena in graphene nano-gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Purbarun; Katiyar, Ajay; Pattamatta, Arvind; Das, Sarit K.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale electrorheology (ER) response has been reported for dilute graphene nanoflake-based ER fluids that have been engineered as novel, readily synthesizable polymeric gels. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) based graphene gels have been synthesized and a very high ER response (∼125 000% enhancement in viscosity under influence of an electric field) has been observed for low concentration systems (∼2 wt.%). The gels overcome several drawbacks innate to ER fluids. The gels exhibit long term stability, a high graphene packing ratio which ensures very high ER response, and the microstructure of the gels ensures that fibrillation of the graphene nanoflakes under an electric field is undisturbed by thermal fluctuations, further leading to mega ER. The gels exhibit a large yield stress handling caliber with a yield stress observed as high as ∼13 kPa at 2 wt.% for graphene. Detailed investigations on the effects of graphene concentration, electric field strength, imposed shear resistance, transients of electric field actuation on the ER response and ER hysteresis of the gels have been performed. In-depth analyses with explanations have been provided for the observations and effects, such as inter flake lubrication/slip induced augmented ER response. The present gels show great promise as potential ER gels for various smart applications.

  8. Hydrous manganese oxide doped gel probe sampler for measuring in situ reductive dissolution rates. 1. Laboratory development.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, Claire E; Hering, Janet G

    2010-01-01

    Reductive dissolution of redox-sensitive minerals such as manganese (Mn) oxides in natural sediments is an important mechanism for trace element mobilization into groundwater. A gel probe sampler has been constructed to study in situ reductive dissolution of Mn oxides. The gel consists of a polyacrylamide polymer matrix doped with hydrous Mn oxide (HMO). Gel slabs are mounted into a probe, which is designed to be inserted into the sediments. The amount of Mn released from the gel by reductive dissolution is determined by comparing the amount of Mn initially embedded into the gel with the amount remaining in the gel after exposure to conditions in the sediments or, in laboratory studies, to reducing agents. In this laboratory study, the performance of the gel probes was examined using the model reductant ascorbate and the Mn-reducing bacteria Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. In addition, a 1-D model was used to relate the reaction rates observed for HMO embedded in gels to those for HMO in suspension. One limitation of the HMO-doped gels for assessing microbial reduction rates is that the gels prevent direct contact between the microbes and the HMO and hence preclude enzymatic reduction at the cell surface. Nonetheless, the HMO-doped gel probes offer the possibility to establish a lower bound for Mn-reduction capacity in sediments.

  9. 8. WEST FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, FORMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST FLAME DEFLECTOR FROM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF, FORMER DRAINAGE AREA IN THE DISTANCE, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Photonic-crystal slab for terahertz-wave technology platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-03-01

    Photonic crystals manipulate photons in a manner analogous to solid-state crystals, and are composed of a dielectric material with a periodic refractive index distribution. In particular, two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs with high index contrasts (semiconductor/air) are promising for practical applications, owing to the strong optical confinement in simple, thin planar structures. This paper presents the recent progress on a silicon photonic-crystal slab as a technology platform in the terahertz-wave region, which is located between the radio and light wave regions (0.1-10 THz). Extremely low-loss (<0.1 dB/cm) terahertz waveguides based on the photonic-bandgap effect as well as dynamic control and modulation of a terahertz-wave transmission in a photonic-crystal slab by the effective interaction between photoexcited carriers and the terahertz-wave trapping due to the photonic band-edge effect are demonstrated. Terahertz photonic-crystal slabs hold the potential for developing ultralow-loss, compact terahertz components and integrated devices used in applications including wireless communication, spectroscopic sensing, and imaging.

  11. 18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH BLOCKS AND PULLEYS OVERHEAD LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  12. 49. VIEW OF WOOD FRAME STUCCO STRUCTURES ON CONCRETE SLABS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW OF WOOD FRAME STUCCO STRUCTURES ON CONCRETE SLABS, REPUTED HOUSES FOR PROSTITUTES, LOOKING NORTH. NOTICE SIMILAR RUIN IN BACKGROUND RIGHT. THREE OR FOUR SIMILAR RUINS ALONG RIVER ROAD NORTH OF MINE WORKINGS. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  13. Applications of acoustics in the measurement of coal slab thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, W. J., Jr.; Mills, J. M.; Pierce, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the possibility of employing acoustic waves at ultrasonic frequencies for measurements of thicknesses of slabs of coal backed by shale is investigated. Fundamental information concerning the acoustical properties of coal, and the relationship between these properties and the structural and compositional parameters used to characterize coal samples was also sought. The testing device, which utilizes two matched transducers, is described.

  14. 6. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' PLATE MILL. FURNACE SHOWING DURING DEMOLITION. C HOOK USED TO CHANGE ROLLS IS VISIBLE IN FRONT OF FURNACE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  15. Tensor-guided fitting of subduction slab depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bazargani, Farhad; Hayes, Gavin P.

    2013-01-01

    Geophysical measurements are often acquired at scattered locations in space. Therefore, interpolating or fitting the sparsely sampled data as a uniform function of space (a procedure commonly known as gridding) is a ubiquitous problem in geophysics. Most gridding methods require a model of spatial correlation for data. This spatial correlation model can often be inferred from some sort of secondary information, which may also be sparsely sampled in space. In this paper, we present a new method to model the geometry of a subducting slab in which we use a data‐fitting approach to address the problem. Earthquakes and active‐source seismic surveys provide estimates of depths of subducting slabs but only at scattered locations. In addition to estimates of depths from earthquake locations, focal mechanisms of subduction zone earthquakes also provide estimates of the strikes of the subducting slab on which they occur. We use these spatially sparse strike samples and the Earth’s curved surface geometry to infer a model for spatial correlation that guides a blended neighbor interpolation of slab depths. We then modify the interpolation method to account for the uncertainties associated with the depth estimates.

  16. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. DETAIL OF THE IMPRESSION IN THE CONCRETE SLAB OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE IMPRESSION IN THE CONCRETE SLAB OF THE SOUTH END OF THE ABOVE-GROUND PORTION. NOTE STEP DOWN TO THE STEEL PLATE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. DETAIL OF STEEL PLATE SET INTO THE CONCRETE SLAB OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF STEEL PLATE SET INTO THE CONCRETE SLAB OF THE NORTH END OF THE ABOVE-GROUND PORTION. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2009-11-01

    A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

  20. 30. VAL LOOKING DOWN THE LAUNCHER SLAB STAIRS AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VAL LOOKING DOWN THE LAUNCHER SLAB STAIRS AT THE PROJECTILE LOADING CAR AND LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO THE PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND LAUNCHER BRIDGE. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Emplacement of the Kodiak batholith and slab-window migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farris, David W.; Haeussler, P.; Friedman, R.; Paterson, Scott R.; Saltus, R.W.; Ayuso, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Kodiak batholith is one of the largest, most elongate intrusive bodies in the forearc Sanak-Baranof plutonic belt located in southern Alaska. This belt is interpreted to have formed during the subduction of an oceanic spreading center and the associated migration of a slab window. Individual plutons of the Kodiak batholith track the location and evolution of the underlying slab window. Six U/Pb zircon ages from the axis of the batholith exhibit a northeastward-decreasing age progression of 59.2 ± 0.2 Ma at the southwest end to 58.4 ± 0.2 Ma at the northeast tip. The trench-parallel rate of age progression is within error of the average slab-window migration rate for the entire Sanak-Baranof belt (~19 cm/yr). Structural relationships, U/Pb ages, and a model of new gravity data indicate that magma from the Kodiak batholith ascended 5-10 km as a northeastward-younging series of 1-8-km-diameter viscoelastic diapirs. Individual plutons ascended by multiple emplacement mechanisms including downward flow, collapse of wall rock, stoping, and diking. Stokes flow xenolith calculations suggest ascent rates of 5-100 m/yr and an effective magmatic viscosity of 107-108 Pa s. Pre-existing structural or lithologic heterogeneities did not dominantly control the location of the main batholith. Instead, its location was determined by migration of the slab window at depth. 

  2. Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walowski, K. J.; Wallace, P. J.; Clynne, M. A.; Rasmussen, D. J.; Weis, D.

    2016-07-01

    The processes that drive magma formation beneath the Cascade arc and other warm-slab subduction zones have been debated because young oceanic crust is predicted to largely dehydrate beneath the forearc during subduction. In addition, geochemical variability along strike in the Cascades has led to contrasting interpretations about the role of volatiles in magma generation. Here, we focus on the Lassen segment of the Cascade arc, where previous work has demonstrated across-arc geochemical variations related to subduction enrichment, and H-isotope data suggest that H2O in basaltic magmas is derived from the final breakdown of chlorite in the mantle portion of the slab. We use naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) from the tephra deposits of eight primitive (MgO > 7 wt%) basaltic cinder cones to quantify the pre-eruptive volatile contents of mantle-derived melts in this region. The melt inclusions have B concentrations and isotope ratios that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting extensive dehydration of the downgoing plate prior to reaching sub-arc depths and little input of slab-derived B into the mantle wedge. However, correlations of volatile and trace element ratios (H2O/Ce, Cl/Nb, Sr/Nd) in the melt inclusions demonstrate that geochemical variability is the result of variable addition of a hydrous subduction component to the mantle wedge. Furthermore, correlations between subduction component tracers and radiogenic isotope ratios show that the subduction component has less radiogenic Sr and Pb than the Lassen sub-arc mantle, which can be explained by melting of subducted Gorda MORB beneath the arc. Agreement between pMELTS melting models and melt inclusion volatile, major, and trace element data suggests that hydrous slab melt addition to the mantle wedge can produce the range in primitive compositions erupted in the Lassen region. Our results provide further evidence that chlorite-derived fluids from the mantle portion of the

  3. Slab Stagnation in the Lower Mantle: A Multidisciplinary Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waszek, L.; Arredondo, K.; Finkelstein, G. J.; Kellogg, L. H.; Lekic, V.; Li, M.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Schmerr, N. C.; Rudolph, M. L.; Townsend, J. P.; Xing, Z.; Yang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent tomographic models show that while many slabs seem to deflect or stagnate at the 660 km discontinuity, some slabs continue to subduct deeper and pond at 1000 km below the earth's surface (Fukao and Obayashi, 2013). Only one slab is observed to penetrate significantly deeper into the mantle. Furthermore, some mantle upwellings also appear to be deflected at 1000 km in depth. The radial correlation functions for the low-order spherical harmonics of most tomographic inversions show that while seismic wave velocities are correlated for all depths below ~1000 km, velocities at depths between 400-1000 km are uncorrelated with velocities at any other depth. This implies that there are large scale velocity features coherent from 1000 km to the core-mantle boundary, but no large scale features coherent from the top of the transition zone down to 1000 km. Seismic studies using precursors and receiver functions find evidence for numerous reflectors in the mid-mantle, ranging from 900 km in depth beneath the southern Pacific and southeast Asia to 1200 km beneath Europe and Japan. This range of depths could indicate topography along a single laterally continuous discontinuity or result from multiple unconnected features. Some reflectors are geographically near, and therefore may be associated with, subducted slabs, however the origin of the others is unclear. The 1000 km 'discontinuity' could potentially be explained by an increase in viscosity or density, such as a compositional difference in the mantle below this depth. We use an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the diversity in apparent slab stagnation behavior and which geophysical mechanisms prevent subduction into the lower mantle. The controlling factor may be a function of the slab itself, including subduction rate, trench rollback, composition, or temperature. Alternatively, bulk mantle properties may control slab penetration. We perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations to determine the influence of

  4. Conformance Improvement Using Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, Randall S.; Schrader, Richard; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Gary, Raven; Marin; Amaury; Lindquist, Brent

    2002-09-26

    This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.

  5. Simulation on the electronic wave packet cyclotron motion in a Weyl semimetal slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Zhu, Mingfeng; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2017-04-01

    We perform a numerical simulation on the time evolution of an electronic wave packet in a Weyl semimetal (WSM) slab driven by a magnetic field. We find that the evolution trajectory of the wave packet depends sensitively on its initial spin state. Only with initial spin state identical to that of the Fermi arc state at the surface it localized, does the wave packet evolution demonstrate the characteristic cyclotron orbit of WSM previously predicted from a semiclassical viewpoint. By analyzing the eigen-expansion of the electronic wave packet, we find the chiral Landau levels (LLs) of the WSM slab, as ingredients of the wave packet, to be responsible for establishing the characteristic WSM cyclotron orbit. In contrast, the nonchiral LLs contribute irregular oscillations to the wave packet evolution, going against the formation of a well-defined cyclotron orbit. In addition, the tilted magnetic field does not affect the motion of the electronic wave packet along the Fermi arcs in the momentum space. It does, however, alter the evolution trajectory of the electronic wave packet in real space and spin space. Finally, the energy disalignment of the Weyl nodes results in a 3D cyclotron orbit in real space.

  6. Assimilating lithosphere and slab history in 4-D Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Dan J.; Gurnis, Michael; Flament, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We develop methods to incorporate paleogeographical constraints into numerical models of mantle convection. Through the solution of the convection equations, the models honor geophysical and geological data near the surface while predicting mantle flow and structure at depth and associated surface deformation. The methods consist of four constraints determined a priori from a plate history model: (1) plate velocities, (2) thermal structure of the lithosphere, (3) thermal structure of slabs in the upper mantle, and (4) velocity of slabs in the upper mantle. These constraints are implemented as temporally- and spatially-dependent conditions that are blended with the solution of the convection equations at each time step. We construct Earth-like regional models with oceanic and continental lithosphere, trench migration, oblique subduction, and asymmetric subduction to test the robustness of the methods by computing the temperature, velocity, and buoyancy flux of the lithosphere and slab. Full sphere convection models demonstrate how the methods can determine the flow associated with specific tectonic environments (e.g., back-arc basins, intraoceanic subduction zones) to address geological questions and compare with independent data, both at present-day and in the geological past (e.g., seismology, residual topography, stratigraphy). Using global models with paleogeographical constraints we demonstrate (1) subduction initiation at the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin and flat slab subduction beneath North America, (2) enhanced correlation of model slabs and fast anomalies in seismic tomography beneath North and South America, and (3) comparable amplitude of dynamic and residual topography in addition to improved spatial correlation of dynamic and residual topography lows.

  7. A thermodynamic model of physical gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yonghao; Solis, Francisco J.; Jiang, Hanqing

    2010-12-01

    Physical gels are characterized by dynamic cross-links that are constantly created and broken, changing its state between solid and liquid under influence of environmental factors. This restructuring ability of physical gels makes them an important class of materials with many applications, such as in drug delivery. In this article, we present a thermodynamic model for physical gels that considers both the elastic properties of the network and the transient nature of the cross-links. The cross-links' reformation is captured through a connectivity tensor M at the microscopic level. The macroscopic quantities, such as the volume fraction of the monomer ϕ, number of monomers per cross-link s, and the number of cross-links per volume q, are defined by statistic averaging. A mean-field energy functional for the gel is constructed based on these variables. The equilibrium equations and the stress are obtained at the current state. We study the static thermodynamic properties of physical gels predicted by the model. We discuss the problems of un-constrained swelling and stress driven phase transitions of physical gels and describe the conditions under which these phenomena arise as functions of the bond activation energy Ea, polymer/solvent interaction parameter χ, and external stress p.

  8. Cavitation of a Physically Associating Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Satish; Kundu, Santanu

    Self-assembly of block copolymers in selective solvents form ordered structures such as micelles, vesicles, and physically crosslinked gels due to difference in their interaction with solvents. These gels have wide range of applications in tissue engineering, food science and biomedical field due to their tunable properties and responsiveness with changing environmental conditions. Pressurization of a defect inside a physically associating gel can lead to elastic instability (cavitation) leading to failure of the gel. The failure behavior involves dissociation of physical networks. A thermoreversible, physically associating gel with different volume fractions of a triblock copolymer, poly (methyl methacrylate)-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate) [PMMA-PnBA-PMMA] in 2-ethyl 1-hexanol, a midblock selective solvent, is considered here. Mechanical properties were investigated using shear rheology and cavitation experiments. The experimental data is fitted with a constitutive model that captures the stiffening behavior followed by softening behavior of a physical gel. Finite element analysis has been performed on cavitation rheology geometry to capture the failure behavior and to calculate energy release rate during cavitation experiments.

  9. Dynamics of surfactants spreading on gel layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandagos, Constantine; Luckham, Paul; Matar, Omar

    2009-11-01

    Gel-like materials are of central importance to a large number of engineering, biological, biomedical and day-life applications. This work attempts to investigate the spreading of droplets of surfactant solutions on agar gels, which is accompanied by cracking of the gel layers. The cracking progresses via the formation of patterns that resemble ``starbursts,'' which have been reported recently in the literature by Daniels et al. Marangoni stresses generated by surface tension gradients between the surfactant droplet and the uncontaminated gel layer are identified to be the driving force behind these phenomena. The morphology and dynamics of the starburst patterns are investigated for droplets of different surfactant solutions, including sodiumdodecylsulphate, spreading on gel layers of different strengths. The instability is characterised in terms of the number of arms that form, and their mean width and length as a function of time. In addition, photoelasticity is used to provide information about the stress field of the material, which, combined with the results from our direct visualisation, can elucidate further the mechanisms underlying the pattern formation and the nature of the interactions between the liquid and the gel.

  10. Shear wave velocities in the Pampean flat-slab region from Rayleigh wave tomography: Implications for slab and upper mantle hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Ryan; Gilbert, Hersh; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan; Warren, Linda; Calkins, Josh; Alvarado, Patricia; Anderson, Megan

    2012-11-01

    The Pampean flat-slab region, located in central Argentina and Chile between 29° and 34°S, is considered a modern analog for Laramide flat-slab subduction within western North America. Regionally, flat-slab subduction is characterized by the Nazca slab descending to ˜100 km depth, flattening out for ˜300 km laterally before resuming a more "normal" angle of subduction. Flat-slab subduction correlates spatially with the track of the Juan Fernandez Ridge, and is associated with the inboard migration of deformation and the cessation of volcanism within the region. To better understand flat-slab subduction we combine ambient-noise tomography and earthquake-generated surface wave measurements to calculate a regional 3D shear velocity model for the region. Shear wave velocity variations largely relate to changes in lithology within the crust, with basins and bedrock exposures clearly defined as low- and high-velocity regions, respectively. We argue that subduction-related hydration plays a significant role in controlling shear wave velocities within the upper mantle. In the southern part of the study area, where normal-angle subduction is occurring, the slab is visible as a high-velocity body with a low-velocity mantle wedge above it, extending eastward from the active arc. Where flat-slab subduction is occurring, slab velocities increase to the east while velocities in the overlying lithosphere decrease, consistent with the slab dewatering and gradually hydrating the overlying mantle. The hydration of the slab may be contributing to the excess buoyancy of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, helping to drive flat-slab subduction.

  11. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2002-02-28

    This technical progress report describes work performed from June 20 through December 19, 2001, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels''. Interest has increased in some new polymeric products that purport to substantially reduce permeability to water while causing minimum permeability reduction to oil. In view of this interest, we are currently studying BJ's Aqua Con. Results from six corefloods revealed that the Aqua Con gelant consistently reduced permeability to water more than that to oil. However, the magnitude of the disproportionate permeability reduction varied significantly for the various experiments. Thus, as with most materials tested to date, the issue of reproducibility and control of the disproportionate permeability remains to be resolved. Concern exists about the ability of gels to resist washout after placement in fractures. We examined whether a width constriction in the middle of a fracture would cause different gel washout behavior upstream versus downstream of the constriction. Tests were performed using a formed Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel in a 48-in.-long fracture with three sections of equal length, but with widths of 0.08-, 0.02-, and 0.08-in., respectively. The pressure gradients during gel extrusion (i.e., placement) were similar in the two 0.08-in.-wide fracture sections, even though they were separated by a 0.02-in.-wide fracture section. The constriction associated with the middle fracture section may have inhibited gel washout during the first pulse of brine injection after gel placement. However, during subsequent phases of brine injection, the constriction did not inhibit washout in the upstream fracture section any more than in the downstream section.

  12. An investigation on the behaviour and stiffness of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M. C. T.; Pham, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on RC slab under torsion, by both experiment and finite element analysis. The torsion tests were done on three similar square RC slabs with dimensions of 1900×1900×150 mm. The behaviour of slabs at pre-cracking and post-cracking of concrete phases were investigated, via Load-displacement, twisting moment-curvature relationships, and torsional stiffness of slabs. The experimental results are compared with the FEA and the results in literatures. The torsional stiffness of slab at the phase of concrete cracked and steel yield is about 1/25 of the stiffness at the pre-cracking phase.

  13. Resistance genes, phage types and pulsed field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes in Salmonella enterica strains from laying hen farms in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Camarda, Antonio; Pugliese, Nicola; Pupillo, Antonia; Oliva, Marta; Circella, Elena; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Ricci, Antonia; Legretto, Marilisa; Caroli, Anna; Pazzani, Carlo

    2013-08-06

    Twenty-four Salmonella enterica isolates (13 serovar Enteritidis and 11 Typhimurium) isolated from 5,600 samples from intensive laying hen farms in Italy in 1998-2007 were characterized for antimicrobial resistance genes, pulsotype and phage type. Most of S. Typhimurium strains were pulsotype STYMXB.0147 (81.8%), phage type DT143 and resistant to sulfamethoxazole encoded by sul2. Two multidrug resistant (MDR) strains were identified. One strain, STYMXB.0061, was resistant to ampicillin (A), chloramphenicol (C), streptomycin (S), sulfamethoxazole (Su) and tetracycline (T) encoded by the Salmonella Genomic Island SGI1. The second MDR strain, STYMXB.0110, was resistant to SSuT encoded by sul1 and sul2, aadA1 and tet(C)-flanked by an IS26 element, respectively. The tet(C) gene has been reported to confer low levels of resistance and it has very rarely been detected in S. Typhimurium from poultry. In the current study, the MIC value (32 µg/mL) was consistent with the breakpoint (≥16 µg/mL) reported for Enterobacteriaceae. Most of the S. Enteritidis strains were resistant to Su (encoded by sul2). One MDR strain (ANxSSuT) was identified. With the exception of nalidixic acid (Nx), the resistances were respectively encoded by bla(TEM), strAB, sul2 and tet(A) harbored by an IncN conjugative plasmid. All isolates were pulsotype SENTXB.0001 with PT14b being the most prevalent identified phage type (57.1%). In Europe, SENTXB.0001 is the predominant PFGE profile from clinical cases and the identification of PT14b has steadily been on the increase since 2001. The findings presented in this study highlight the potential spread of S. Enteritidis phage types PT14b and S. Typhimurium DT143 in a field of particular relevance for zoonoses. Additional, the presence of resistance genes and genetic elements (conjugative plasmid and IS element) underlines the need to assess routinely studies in field, such as poultry farms, relevant fot the public health and suitable for the storage

  14. Detailed slab and mantle structure beneath westernmost Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Miller, M. S.; Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    The geological evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean holds an important piece of the puzzle of how whole western Mediterranean evolved due to the convergence of Africa with Eurasia. Detailed upper mantle seismological images are crucial to test two controversial ideas about the dynamic process of the westernmost Mediterranean during the Cenozoic: slab rollback and lithosphere delamination. Recent tomographic images based on the dense seismic network in Spain and northern Morocco reveal a high-resolution continuous high-velocity anomaly to the transition zone depth under the Alboran domain [Bezada and Humphreys, 2013], which was used to support the slab roll back hypothesis for the westernmost Mediterranean tectonic evolution. However, the slab shape, width, and sharpness of its edges are not well resolved. Furthermore, the deep 2010 earthquake beneath Granada, Spain suggests possible oceanic crust material existing at ~ 600 km depth, which cannot be resolved by current tomography models. The study of multipathing and waveform broadening around sharp features has proven an efficient way to study those features. Here, we use both P and S waveform data from the PICASSO array to produce a detailed image. For the deep Granada earthquake, high frequency second arrivals and long coda after the P and S arrivals are shown on stations in the Rif Mountains of Morocco. By fitting both SH and P waveform data, we suggest that a low-velocity layer (LVL, 2 km thickness, δVs = -10%), possibly old oceanic crust, sits on top of the slab. The seismic waves travel through the LVL as guided waves preserving their high frequency energy. The strength of the second arrivals are very sensitive to the relative location between the deep earthquake and the LVL, which indicates the 2010 deep earthquake was most-likely within the subducted oceanic crust. Using both teleseismic and regional data, we conclude that the width of the sub-vertical slab is ~150 km, which is sharper than the

  15. Tunable and nonreciprocal Goos-Hänchen shifts on reflection from a graphene-coated gyroelectric slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guoding; Xu, Yaoxian; Sun, Jian; Pan, Tao

    2016-07-01

    We study the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts of a reflected Gaussian beam from a graphene-coated gyroelectric slab. The reflection coefficient is derived by using the transfer-matrix method and the spatial Goos-Hänchen (SGH) shift and angular Goos-Hänchen (AGH) shift are determined in terms of stationary-phase approach. The effects of graphene's chemical potential, external magnetic field, the thickness of the slab and the frequency of incident beam on the SGH and AGH shifts are analyzed and discussed numerically. At grazing incidence, the large, tunable and nonreciprocal SGH shifts with higher light intensity are achieved in the terahertz region, which might be useful for the development of various tunable terahertz-wave devices.

  16. Continuum Models of Stimuli-responsive Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei

    Immersed in a solution of small molecules and ions, a network of long-chain polymers may imbibe the solution and swell, resulting in a polymeric gel. Depending on the molecular structure of the polymers, the amount of swelling can be regulated by moisture, mechanical forces, ionic strength, electric field, pH value, and many other types of stimuli. Starting from the basic principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, this chapter formulates a field theory of the coupled large deformation and mass transportation in a neutral polymeric gel. The theory is then extended to study polyelectrolyte gels with charge-carrying networks by accounting for the electromechanical coupling and migration of solute ions. While the theoretical framework is adaptable to various types of material models, some representative ones are described through specific free-energy functions and kinetic laws. A specific material law for pH-sensitive gels—a special type of polyelectrolyte gels—is introduced as an example of incorporating chemical reactions in modeling stimuli-responsive gels. Finally, a simplified theory for the equilibrium but inhomogeneous swelling of a polymeric gel is deduced. The theory and the specific material models are illustrated through several examples.

  17. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.