Science.gov

Sample records for field south identifications

  1. RADIO AND MID-INFRARED IDENTIFICATION OF BLAST SOURCE COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, Simon; Ade, Peter A. R.; Eales, Stephen A.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Dunlop, James S.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Magnelli, Benjamin; Olmi, Luca

    2009-09-20

    We have identified radio and/or mid-infrared counterparts to 198 out of 350 sources detected at >=5{sigma} over {approx}9 deg{sup 2} centered on the Chandra Deep Field South by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m. We have matched 114 of these counterparts to optical sources with previously derived photometric redshifts and fitted spectral energy distributions to the BLAST fluxes and fluxes at 70 and 160 {mu}m acquired with the Spitzer Space Telescope. In this way, we have constrained dust temperatures, total far-infrared/submillimeter luminosities, and star formation rates for each source. Our findings show that, on average, the BLAST sources lie at significantly lower redshifts and have significantly lower rest-frame dust temperatures compared to submillimeter sources detected in surveys conducted at 850 {mu}m. We demonstrate that an apparent increase in dust temperature with redshift in our sample arises as a result of selection effects. Finally, we provide the full multiwavelength catalog of >=5{sigma} BLAST sources contained within the complete {approx}9 deg{sup 2} survey area.

  2. Identification of Active Galactic Nuclei through HST optical variability in the GOODS South field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliasis, Ektoras; Georgantopoulos; Bonanos, A.; HCV Team

    2016-08-01

    This work aims to identify AGN in the GOODS South deep field through optical variability. This method can easily identify low-luminosity AGN. In particular, we use images in the z-band obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope with the ACS/WFC camera over 5 epochs separated by ~45 days. Aperture photometry has been performed using SExtractor to extract the lightcurves. Several variability indices, such as the median absolute deviation, excess variance, and sigma were applied to automatically identify the variable sources. After removing artifacts, stars and supernovae from the variable selected sample and keeping only those sources with known photometric or spectroscopic redshift, the optical variability was compared to variability in other wavelengths (X-rays, mid-IR, radio). This multi-wavelength study provides important constraints on the structure and the properties of the AGN and their relation to their hosts. This work is a part of the validation of the Hubble Catalog of Variables (HCV) project, which has been launched at the National Observatory of Athens by ESA, and aims to identify all sources (pointlike and extended) showing variability, based on the Hubble Source Catalog (HSC, Whitmore et al. 2015). The HSC version 1 was released in February 2015 and includes 80 million sources imaged with the WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR cameras.

  3. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  4. Field Problems in the South Bronx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal, Stasia, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Articles in this issue of the bulletin of the Hispanic Research Center focus on the problems of collecting demographic and social data in the South Bronx. The introductory article summarizes the contents of this issue. The second (by Lloyd H. Rogler, Osvaldo Barreras, and Rosemary Santana Cooney) is based on the experiences of field workers…

  5. Evaluation of a SNP-based qPCR identification system for the Ug99 race group using field collections of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual surveys aim to monitor the distribution and composition of the local stem rust population within South Africa. The number of isolates that are processed is limited due to physical and financial constraints and the problem of non-viable spores. An accurate DNA based identification method would...

  6. INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN FOOTBALL CONFIGURATION. FIELD SEATING ROTATES TO ACCOMMODATE BASEBALL GAMES. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Field study on moving force identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hung-tin Tommy; Yung, Tak H.; Law, S. S.

    2001-08-01

    A field measurement to validate a moving force identification method was carried out on an existing prestressed concrete highway bridge with a span length of 28 m. The test bridge is located at Ma Tau Wai, Kowloon, Hong Kong. A heavy 2-axle truck with known axle loads was used as a control vehicle. Besides the control vehicle, axle load data of in-service vehicles were also collected. The bridge responses acquired for the identification were indirectly measured using strain gauges. Results show that dynamic axle loads induced from both control and in-service vehicles can be identified indicating the method is valid for identification of moving forces.

  8. South Arch volcanic field9d\

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Clague, D.A.; Moore, J.G.; Holcomb, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Several young lava fields were imaged by GLORIA sidescan sonar along the Hawaiian Arch south of Hawaii. The largest, 35 by 50 km across, includes a central area characterized by high sonar backscatter and composed of several flow lobes radiating from a vent area. Reflection profiling and sea-floor photography indicate that the central lobes are flat sheet flows bounded by pillowed margins; thin surface sediment and thin palagonite rinds on lava surfaces suggest ages of 1-10 ka. Vents are localized along the arch crest near bases of Cretaceous seamounts. Two dredged flows are basanite and alkalic basalt, broadly similar to rejuvenated-stage and some pre-shield alkalic lavas on the Hawaiian Ridge. Arch volcanism represents peripheral leakage of melt from the Hawaiian hot spot over much larger areas than previously recognized. -Authors

  9. Talent Identification in Track and Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Phillip; And Others

    Talent identification in most sports occurs through mass participation and the process of natural selection; track and field does not enjoy such widespread participation. This paper reports on a project undertaken for the following purposes: improve the means by which youth with the potential for high level performance can be identified; develop…

  10. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated

  11. Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And Charlie Kelly Blvd. To the northeast towards the 400 series quarters. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL LIGHT RING GONDOLA SUSPENDED FROM ROOF CUPOLA. SKY LIGHTS PAINTED OVER TO REDUCE GLARE FOR BASEBALL OUTFIELDERS. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Early identification of cotton fields using mosaicked aerial multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early identification of cotton fields is important for advancing boll weevil eradication progress and reducing the risk of reinfestation. Remote sensing has long been used for crop identification, but limited work has been reported on early identification of cotton fields. The objective of this stud...

  14. Strategies for reservoir characterization and identification of incremental recovery opportunities in mature reservoirs in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic sandstones, south Texas: An example from Rincon Field, Starr County. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.; Holtz, M.; Hentz, T.

    1995-11-01

    Fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the United States are being abandoned at high rates, yet they still contain more than 34 billion barrels of unrecovered oil. The mature Oligocene-age fluvial-deltaic reservoirs of the Frio Formation along the Vicksburg Fault Zone in South Texas are typical of this class in that, after more than three decades of production, they still contain 61 percent of the original mobile oil in place, or 1.6 billion barrels. This resource represents a tremendous target for advanced reservoir characterization studies that integrate geological and engineering analysis to locate untapped and incompletely drained reservoir compartments isolated by stratigraphic heterogeneities. The D and E reservoir intervals of Rincon field, Starr County, South Texas, were selected for detailed study to demonstrate the ability of advanced characterization techniques to identify reservoir compartmentalization and locate specific infield reserve-growth opportunities. Reservoir architecture, determined through high-frequency genetic stratigraphy and facies analysis, was integrated with production history and facies-based petrophysical analysis of individual flow units to identify recompletion and geologically targeted infill drilling opportunities. Estimates of original oil in place versus cumulative production in D and E reservoirs suggest that potential reserve growth exceeds 4.5 million barrels. Comparison of reservoir architecture and the distribution of completions in each flow unit indicates a large number of reserve-growth opportunities. Potential reserves can be assigned to each opportunity by constructing an Sooh map of remaining mobile oil, which is the difference between original oil in place and the volumes drained by past completions.

  15. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to…

  16. Soil Identification using Field Electrical Resistivity Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Chitral, W. D.; Fauziah, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Ismail, B.

    2015-06-01

    Geotechnical site investigation with particular reference to soil identification was important in civil engineering works since it reports the soil condition in order to relate the design and construction of the proposed works. In the past, electrical resistivity method (ERM) has widely being used in soil characterization but experienced several black boxes which related to its results and interpretations. Hence, this study performed a field electrical resistivity method (ERM) using ABEM SAS (4000) at two different types of soils (Gravelly SAND and Silty SAND) in order to discover the behavior of electrical resistivity values (ERV) with type of soils studied. Soil basic physical properties was determine thru density (p), moisture content (w) and particle size distribution (d) in order to verify the ERV obtained from each type of soil investigated. It was found that the ERV of Gravelly SAND (278 Ωm & 285 Ωm) was slightly higher than SiltySAND (223 Ωm & 199 Ωm) due to the uncertainties nature of soils. This finding has showed that the results obtained from ERM need to be interpreted based on strong supported findings such as using direct test from soil laboratory data. Furthermore, this study was able to prove that the ERM can be established as an alternative tool in soil identification provided it was being verified thru other relevance information such as using geotechnical properties.

  17. The genus Anthia Weber in the Republic of South Africa, Identification, distribution, biogeography, and behavior (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, James L.; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A key is presented for the identification of the four species of Anthia Weber (Coleoptera: Carabidae) recorded from the Republic of South Africa: Anthia cinctipennis Lequien, Anthia circumscripta Klug, Anthia maxillosa (Fabricius), and Anthia thoracica (Thunberg). For each of these species, illustrations are provided of adult beetles of both sexes as well as illustrations of male reproductive structures, morphological redescriptions, discussions of morphological variation, annual activity histograms, and maps of occurrence localities in the Republic of South Africa. Maps of occurrence localities for these species are compared against ecoregional and vegetation maps of southern Africa; each species of Anthia shows a different pattern of occupancy across the suite of ecoregions and vegetation types in the Republic of South Africa. Information about predatory and foraging behaviors, Müllerian mimicry, and small-scale vegetation community associations is presented for Anthia thoracica based on field and laboratory studies in Kruger National Park, South Africa. PMID:22144866

  18. West Short Pine Hills field, Harding County, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Strothman, B.

    1988-07-01

    The West Short Pine Hills field is a shallow gas field that produces from the Shannon Sandstone Member, on the Camp Crook anticline in southwestern Harding County, South Dakota. The Alma McCutchin 1-17 Heikkila discovery was drilled in the NW1/4, Sec. 17, T16N, R2E, to a depth of 1600 ft and completed in October 1977 for 600 MCFGD from perforations at 1405-1411 ft. To date, 40 gas wells have been completed with total estimated reserves of more than 20 bcf. The field encompasses 12,000 ac, with a current drill-site spacing unit of 160 ac. The field boundaries are fairly well defined, except on the south edge of the field. The wells range in depth from 1250 to 2200 ft, and cost $60,000-$85,000 to drill and complete. Core and log analyses indicate that the field has 70 ft of net pay, with average porosity of 30% and average permeability of 114 md. Most wells have been completed with nitrogen-sand frac. Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company of Bismarck, North Dakota, operates a compressor station and 2.5 mi of 4-in. line that connects the field to their 160 in. north-south transmission line to the Rapid City area. Currently, producers are netting $1.10-$1.25/million Btu. The late Mathew T. Biggs of Casper, Wyoming, was the geologist responsible for mapping and finding this gas deposit.

  19. Mantle convection pattern and subcrustal stress field under South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1980-01-01

    The tectonic, igneous and metallogenic features of South America are discussed in terms of the crustal deformation associated with stresses due to mantle convection as inferred from the high degree harmonics in the geopotential field. The application of Runcorn's model for the laminar viscous flows in the upper mantle to satellite and gravity data results in a convection pattern which reveals the ascending flows between the descending Nazca plate and the overlying South American plate as well as segments of the descending Nazca plate beneath South America. The arc volcanism in South America is shown apparently to be related to the upwelling of high-temperature material induced by the subduction of the Nazca plate, with the South American basin systems associated with downwelling mantle flows. The resulting tensional stress fields are shown to be regions of structural kinship characterized by major concentrations of ore deposits and related to the cordillera, shield and igneous systems and the upward Andean movements. It is suggested that the upwelling convection flows in the upper mantle, coupled with crustal tension, have provided an uplift mechanism which has forced the hydrothermal systems in the basement rocks to the surface.

  20. Immigrant Students' Shifting Identifications in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2012-01-01

    The easing of legal and unauthorized entry to South Africa has made the country a new destination for Black immigrants. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. For these immigrant youth, forging a sense of identity may be their single greatest…

  1. Declining Dixie: Regional Identification in the Modern American South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Christopher A.; Knotts, H. Gibbs

    2010-01-01

    We replicate and extend John Shelton Reed's classic work on regional identification by examining and modeling the prevalence of the words "Dixie" and "Southern" in business names across 100 cities and four decades. We find that the instances of "Dixie" have dropped precipitously, although identification with the word…

  2. North south asymmetry in the coronal and photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I.; Mursula, K.

    2013-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is southward shifted during about three years in the solar declining phase (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon). We study the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since 1976 and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field shows that during the late declining phase of solar cycles since 1970s, bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g02 quadrupole term, signed oppositely to the dipole moment. Surges of new flux transport magnetic field from low latitudes to the poles, thus leading to a systematically varying contribution to the g02-term from different latitudes. In the case of a north-south asymmetric flux production this is seen as a quadrupole contribution traveling towards higher latitudes. When the quadrupole term is largest the main contribution comes from the polar latitudes. At least during the four recent solar cycles the g02-term arises because the magnitude of the southern polar field is larger than in the north in the declining phase of the cycle. Magnetic flux is transported polewards by the meridional flow and it is most likely that besides the north-south asymmetric production of the magnetic flux, also the asymmetric transportation may significantly contribute to the observed asymmetry of polar field intensities. The overall activity during solar cycle is not significantly different in the northern and southern hemispheres, but hemispheres tend to develop in a different phase.

  3. View of South TwentySixth Street. Stairs to sports field on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street. Stairs to sports field on right which are seen in photo no. HABS CA-2783-3. Buildings No. 25, 26, 27, seen left to right at rear, looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, J.P.; Neel, D.

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  5. Identification of naturally occurring hybrids between two overexploited sciaenid species along the South African coast.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Kerwath, S E; Macey, B M; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Lamberth, S J; Bloomer, P; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2014-07-01

    Hybridisation between fish species can play a significant role in evolutionary processes and can influence management and conservation planning, however, this phenomenon has been widely understudied, especially in marine organisms. The distribution limits of two sciaenid species (silver kob, Argyrosomus inodorus, and dusky kob, A. japonicus) partly overlap along the South African coast, where both species have undergone severe depletion due to overfishing. Following the identification of a number of possible cases of species misidentification or hybridisation (21 out of 422 individuals), nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (12microsatellite loci and 562bp of the COI gene) were analysed to investigate the genetic composition of these individuals. Results indicated a field-based species misidentification rate of approximately 2.8% and a rate of natural hybridisation of 0.7%. Interestingly, all hybrid fish resulted from first-generation (F1) hybridisation events, which occurred exclusively between silver kob females and dusky kob males. Whether hybridisation is the result of natural events (such as secondary contact following a shift in distribution range), or anthropogenic activities (size-selective pressure due to overfishing), these findings have important implications for critical recovery and future management of these species in the wild.

  6. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  7. Spiculitic chert reservoir in Glick Field, South-Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.P.; Longman, M.W.; Lloyd, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Glick Field, located in Kiowa and Comanche counties of southern Kansas, was discovered in 1957 and has produced more than 362 BCF from Mississippian Osage chert, commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Chat.{close_quotes} Other {open_quotes}CHAT{close_quotes} reservoirs in Kansas and Oklahoma produce mainly from mixed chert and dolomite beneath the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity, but Glick Field`s reservoir is dominated by chert containing abundant sponge spicules. Glick Field is a stratigraphic trap with production ending where the spiculitic facies pinches out into tight limestones to the south and west which provide a lateral seal. Additionally, updip, to the northeast, the productive facies is truncated by the unconformity. Reworked chert conglomerates overlying the spiculitic reservoir at the unconformity also produce some gas. The spiculitic chert forming the reservoir was desposited below storm wavebase and grades laterally in all directions into echinoderm and brachiopod-rich skeletal wackestones and lime mudstones. Even where completely silicified, these associated limestone are tight. Thus, the reservoir is an in situ oval-shaped complex of internally brecciated sponge mats and bioherms capped in part by the chert conglomerate. The spiculitic chert contains up to 50% porosity in molds after sponge spicules, matrix micropores and vugs are connected in part by fracture and breccia porosity. Distribution of the sponge bioherms which form the reservoir facies was partly controlled by a subtle change on the shallow Mississippian carbonate shelf from clean skeletal limestones southward into shaly (and probably more anoxic) carbonates known locally as the {open_quotes}Cowley Facies.{close_quotes} The sponge bioherms formed most commonly just updip from this boundary, which can be mapped across southern Kansas. Thus, lithologic mapping provides a potential exploration tool with which to find other stratigraphically trapped spiculitic reservoirs in the area.

  8. Mesospheric Winds and Magnetic Fields from the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C. L.; Burrows, S. M.; Brown, M. J.; Roberts, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    We show how carbon monoxide (CO) can be used as a tracer of mesospheric neutral wind speeds, by measuring small Doppler shifts in its rotational emission spectrum. Since the altitude range we are most sensitive to is generally inaccessible to many other measurement techniques, this fills a significant experimental gap. Using this method, high-resolution ground-based measurements of mesospheric CO taken from the AST/RO sub-millimeter telescope, located at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station have been used to calculate wind speeds and column densities over the Antarctic from 2002 to 2005. For more information see Burrows et al. JGR-Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2006JD007993. In addition, the 2→ 1 rotational transition of O18O has been measured and used as a tracer of the mesospheric magnetic field over the Antarctic. We demonstrate how the Zeeman splitting of this molecule was used to measure the Earth's magnetic field during the geomagnetic storm of January 2003.

  9. A Comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, A. K. Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions" by Katherine Hay. Hay raises a number of extremely relevant issues relating to evaluation field building in South Asia. In this paper, the author aims to underscore the importance of three priorities for initiating…

  10. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, David W.; Shannon, Gary W.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  11. Opium Field Detection in South Oxfordshire Using SAR Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nick; Marino, Armando

    2011-03-01

    To-date the use of satellite imagery to monitor the growth of illicit crops such as marijuana, opium and coca has mostly been conducted using optical frequencies. However, it is well known that while optical imagery can be hampered by localised aerosols such as thin clouds, cirrus, haze and smoke, these do not present a problem for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In recent years a new generation of satellite borne sensors have also been equipped with enhanced polarimetric capabilities, which can potentially help with detecting and classifying different terrain types. For these reasons we believe it is useful to consider whether high resolution polarimetric SAR data can be applied to illicit crop detection.In this paper we present the results of an experiment whereby opium poppy fields were successfully detected in the south Oxfordshire region in the UK using RadarSat-2 quad-polarisation imagery. It should be noted that these crops are not being grown illicitly but instead are being cultivated for medicinal reasons in parts of the UK. It is interesting to note that the poppies cultivated for opium in the UK have white flowers rather than the more familiar red as can be seen from the photograph in Figure 1, which was taken 11 days earlier in the season compared to Figure 4 and Figure 5.

  12. H-band observations of the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, E.; Barmby, P.; Rigopoulou, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.

    2003-05-01

    We report results of our H-band survey of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). The observations, made with SofI on the NTT, cover 0.027 square degrees to H< 20.5 and 0.17 square degrees to H< 19.8 (50% completeness limits). In total, 4819 objects were detected, of which 80% are galaxies based on the SExtractor parameter ``stellarity index'' having a value less than 0.5. Our astrometric solutions are in good agreement with those of the Las Campanas Infrared Survey (LCIRS), the COMBO-17, and the ESO-EIS surveys. Our photometry compares satisfactorily with the LCIRS results as well as with GOODS data. Galaxy number counts are ~ 50 000 galaxies per square degree at H< 20.75, in good agreement with those of LCIRS. The object catalog is published electronically at the CDS. The whole catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/493}. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile under programs 66.A-0451 and 68.A-0375.

  13. Michael Young and the Curriculum Field in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of what we should make of Michael Young's recent work with respect to curriculum theory by considering the particular case of South African curriculum reform. The paper thus traces two trajectories: the evolution of Michael Young's ideas over time and South African curriculum reform in the post-apartheid period.…

  14. Wide Field Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field-South Region III: Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palunas, Povilas; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hill, Robert S.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Rhodes, Jason; Teplitz, Harry I.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    We present 1/2 square degree uBVRI imaging around the Hubble Deep Field - South. These data have been used in earlier papers to examine the QSO population and the evolution of the correlation function in the region around the HDF-S. The images were obtained with the Big Throughput Camera at CTIO in September 1998. The images reach 5 sigma limits of u approx. 24.4, B approx. 25.6, V approx. 25.3, R approx. 24.9 and I approx. 23.9. We present a catalog of approx. 22,000 galaxies. We also present number-magnitude counts and a comparison with other observations of the same field. The data presented here are available over the world wide web.

  15. Identification of corn fields using multidate radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugan, K. S.; Ulaby, F. T.; Narayanan, V.; Dobson, C.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne C- and L-band radar data acquired over a test site in western kansas were analyzed to determine corn-field identification accuracies obtainable using single-channel, multichannel, and multidate radar data. An automated pattern-recognition procedure was used to classify 144 fields into three categories: corn, pasture land, and bare soil (including wheat stubble and fallow). Corn fields were identified with accuracies ranging from 85 percent for single channel, single-date data to 100 percent for single-channel, multidate data. The effects of radar parameters such as frequency, polarization, and look angle as well as the effects of soil moisture on the classification accuracy are also presented.

  16. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Insights from the Rear View Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    The author enjoyed reading Katharine Hay's ambitious and humbling visions for evaluation field building in South Asia. She has successfully positioned herself on a high mountain with a wonderful set of binoculars that enable her to see the entire evaluation landscape of South Asia. She magically sees and describes significant historical forces and…

  17. Identification, Synthesis, and Field Tests of the Sex Pheromone of Margarodes prieskaensis (Jakubski).

    PubMed

    Burger, Barend V; de Klerk, C André; Morr, Michael; Burger, Wilhelmina J G

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of female Margarodes prieskaensis (Jakubski), and the attractiveness of the synthetic pheromone to males in field trapping tests. Volatile organic compounds were collected from virgin females using a sample enrichment probe (SEP). Analyses by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed the presence of only two constituents. By scaling up the SEP, sufficient of the major constituent was collected for (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses and ancillary NMR techniques. The sex attractant was identified as (2R,4R,6R,8R)-2,4,6,8-tetramethylundecan-1-ol. The enantiomerically pure compound was synthesized from octadecyl (2R,4R,6R,8R)-2,4,6,8-tetramethylundecanoate, a minor component of the uropygial (preen) gland secretion of the domestic goose, Anser domesticus. Field trapping experiments, carried out in vineyards in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, showed that the synthetic compound was as attractive to winged males of M. prieskaensis as virgin females. The second compound detected was identified as the corresponding acetate, but addition of this did not affect the attractiveness of the major component. We believe this to be the first identification of a sex attractant of the Margarodidae.

  18. FIELD MARGINS AND FORMER MANAGER’S HOUSE, LINDLEY NURSERY COMPLEX SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIELD MARGINS AND FORMER MANAGER’S HOUSE, LINDLEY NURSERY COMPLEX SOUTH. FACING NORTHWEST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  19. Molecular Approach to the Identification of Fish in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junbin; Hanner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding is one means of establishing a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective system for the identification of species. It involves the use of short, standard gene targets to create sequence profiles of known species against sequences of unknowns that can be matched and subsequently identified. The Fish Barcode of Life (FISH-BOL) campaign has the primary goal of gathering DNA barcode records for all the world's fish species. As a contribution to FISH-BOL, we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding can discriminate marine fishes from the South China Sea. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA barcodes of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) were characterized using 1336 specimens that belong to 242 species fishes from the South China Sea. All specimen provenance data (including digital specimen images and geospatial coordinates of collection localities) and collateral sequence information were assembled using Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Small intraspecific and large interspecific differences create distinct genetic boundaries among most species. In addition, the efficiency of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA (16S) and cytochrome b (cytb), and one nuclear ribosomal gene, 18S rRNA (18S), was also evaluated for a few select groups of species. Conclusions/Significance The present study provides evidence for the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for monitoring marine biodiversity. Open access data of fishes from the South China Sea can benefit relative applications in ecology and taxonomy. PMID:22363454

  20. Identification and lineage genotyping of South American trypanosomes using fluorescent fragment length barcoding.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, P B; Lewis, M D; Cruickshank, C; Gaunt, M W; Yeo, M; Llewellyn, M S; Valente, S A; Maia da Silva, F; Stevens, J R; Miles, M A; Teixeira, M M G

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli are human-infective blood parasites, largely restricted to Central and South America. They also infect a wide range of wild and domestic mammals and are transmitted by a numerous species of triatomine bugs. There are significant overlaps in the host and geographical ranges of both species. The two species consist of a number of distinct phylogenetic lineages. A range of PCR-based techniques have been developed to differentiate between these species and to assign their isolates into lineages. However, the existence of at least six and five lineages within T. cruzi and T. rangeli, respectively, makes identification of the full range of isolates difficult and time consuming. Here we have applied fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB) to the problem of identifying and genotyping T. cruzi, T. rangeli and other South American trypanosomes. This technique discriminates species on the basis of length polymorphism of regions of the rDNA locus. FFLB was able to differentiate many trypanosome species known from South American mammals: T. cruzi cruzi, T. cruzi marinkellei, T. dionisii-like, T. evansi, T. lewisi, T. rangeli, T. theileri and T. vivax. Furthermore, all five T. rangeli lineages and many T. cruzi lineages could be identified, except the hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI that could not be distinguished from lineages III and II respectively. This method also allowed identification of mixed infections of T. cruzi and T. rangeli lineages in naturally infected triatomine bugs. The ability of FFLB to genotype multiple lineages of T. cruzi and T. rangeli together with other trypanosome species, using the same primer sets is an advantage over other currently available techniques. Overall, these results demonstrate that FFLB is a useful method for species diagnosis, genotyping and understanding the epidemiology of American trypanosomes.

  1. Non-aligned movement support for South-South collaboration in the field of population and family planning.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    There has been increasing interest over the past few years in strengthening direct collaboration among country programs of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) to promote development. As such, heads of states and governments of the non-aligned countries met September 1992 to discuss South-South collaboration in promoting development. The resulting "Jakarta Message: a Call for Collective Action and the Democratization of International Relations" stressed the need for a multilateral shift of focus in international relations toward a strengthening of multilateral cooperation for development. Population was one of the few areas specifically addressed at the conference requiring multilateral cooperation. Partially designed to prepare member countries for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the meeting of country ministers called for further talks in the interest of intensifying the exchange of information on NAM countries' population policies and programs, as well as the organization of South-South cooperation and assistance arrangements. The following modalities of cooperation among countries in the field of population were identified: training programs; observation-study tours; technical assistance; internships; long-term high-level training; meetings, seminars, and workshops; high-level visits; cross-national surveys and other joint research; purchase/exchange/donation/loan of contraceptives and other supplies and equipment; joint production of contraceptives and related medical commodities; marketing and trading cooperation; information exchange; and cooperation in collaborating with other NAM countries. The paper also discusses financial resources to support collaboration and offers a proposal of NAM arrangements to strengthen, support, and sustain South-South collaboration.

  2. Identification of wind fields for wave modeling near Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Sashikant; Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Due to the development of coastal and offshore infrastructure in and around the Arabian Gulf, a large semi-enclosed sea, knowledge of met-ocean factors like prevailing wind systems, wind generated waves, and currents etc. are of great importance. Primarily it is important to identify the wind fields that are used as forcing functions for wave and circulation models for hindcasting and forecasting purposes. The present study investigates the effects of using two sources of wind-fields on the modeling of wind-waves in the Arabian Gulf, in particular near the coastal regions of Qatar. Two wind sources are considered here, those obtained from ECMWF and those generated by us using the WRF model. The wave model SWAN was first forced with the 6 hourly ERA Interim daily winds (from ECMWF) having spatial resolution of 0.125°. For the second option, wind fields were generated by us using the mesoscale wind model (WRF) with a high spatial resolution (0.1°) at every 30 minute intervals. The simulations were carried out for a period of two months (7th October-7th December, 2015) during which measurements were available from two moored buoys (deployed and operated by the Qatar Meteorological Department), one in the north of Qatar ("Qatar North", in water depth of 58.7 m) and other in the south ("Shiraouh Island", in water depth of 16.64 m). This period included a high-sea event on 11-12th of October, recorded by the two buoys where the significant wave heights (Hs) reached as high as 2.9 m (i.e. max wave height H ~ 5.22 m) and 1.9 (max wave height H ~ 3.4 m) respectively. Model results were compared with the data for this period. The scatter index (SI) of the Hs simulated using the WRF wind fields and the observed Hs was found to be about 30% and 32% for the two buoys (total period). The observed Hs were generally reproduced but there was consistent underestimation. (Maximum 27% for the high-sea event). For the Hs obtained with ERA interim wind fields, the underestimation was

  3. RESULTS OF APPLYING TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES TO FIELD COLLECTED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of specific causes of sediment toxicity can allow for much more focused risk assessment and management decision making. We have been developing toxicity identification evaluation TIE) methods for contaminated sediments and are focusing on three toxicant groups (amm...

  4. APPLYING TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES TO FIELD COLLECTED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of specific causes of sediment toxicity can allow for much more focused risk assessment and management decision making. We have been developing toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods for contaminated sediments and focusing on three toxicant groups (ammoni...

  5. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun's polar regions in general and the polar meridonal flow in particular.

  6. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north ]south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north ]south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun fs polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular

  7. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. In the fall of 2010 (when the North Pole was most visible), there was a strong flow in the North while in the spring of 2011 (when the South Pole was most visible) the flow there was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to this polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun s polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular.

  8. Intraplate stress field in South America from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Dias, Fábio L.; Zevallos, Ivan; Naliboff, John B.

    2016-11-01

    We present an updated compilation of earthquake focal mechanisms in Brazil together with focal mechanisms from the sub-Andean region (mainly from global CMT catalogs). All earthquakes in the sub-Andean region show reverse (majority) or strike-slip faulting mechanisms. Focal mechanisms in Brazil show reverse, strike-slip and normal faulting. Focal mechanisms of nearby earthquakes in the same tectonic environment were grouped and inverted for the stress tensor. In the sub-Andean region, stresses are compressional, as expected, with the principal major compression (S1) roughly E-W, on average. A slight rotation of S1 can be observed and is controlled by the orientation of the Andean plateau. In the sub-Andean region, the intermediate principal stress (S2) is also compressional (i.e., larger than the lithostatic pressure, Sv), a feature that is not always reproduced in numerical models published in the literature. In mid-plate South America stresses seem to vary in nature and orientation. In SE Brazil and the Chaco-Pantanal basins, S1 tends to be oriented roughly E-W with S2 approximately equal to S3. This stress pattern changes to purely compressional (both SHmax and Shmin larger than Sv) in the São Francisco craton. A rotation of SHmax from E-W to SE-NW is suggested towards the Amazon region. Along the Atlantic margin, the regional stresses are very much affected by coastal effects (due to continent/ocean spreading stresses as well as flexural effects from sediment load at the continental margin). This coastal effect tends to make SHmax parallel to the coastline and Shmin (usually S3) perpendicular to the coastline. Few breakout data and in-situ measurements are available in Brazil and are generally consistent with the pattern derived from the earthquake focal mechanisms. Although numerical models of global lithospheric stresses tend to reproduce the main large-scale features in most mid-plate areas, the S1 rotation from ∼E-W in SE Brazil to SE-NW in the Amazon

  9. SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR RADIO VARIABLES AND TRANSIENTS IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Mooley, K. P.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Frail, D. A.; Ofek, E. O.; Miller, N. A.

    2013-05-10

    We report on an analysis of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) region using archival data from the Very Large Array, with the goal of studying radio variability and transients at the sub-milliJansky level. The 49 epochs of E-CDFS observations at 1.4 GHz sample timescales from 1 day to 3 months. We find that only a fraction (1%) of unresolved radio sources above 40 {mu}Jy are variable at the 4{sigma} level. There is no evidence that the fractional variability changes along with the known transition of radio-source populations below 1 mJy. Optical identifications of the sources show that the variable radio emission is associated with the central regions of an active galactic nucleus or a star-forming galaxy. After a detailed comparison of the efficacy of various source-finding algorithms, we use the best to carry out a transient search. No transients were found. This implies that the areal density of transients with peak flux density greater than 0.21 mJy is less than 0.37 deg{sup -2} (at a confidence level of 95%). This result is approximately an order of magnitude below the transient rate measured at 5 GHz by Bower et al. but it is consistent with more recent upper limits from Frail et al. Our findings suggest that the radio sky at 1.4 GHz is relatively quiet. For multi-wavelength transient searches, such as the electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, this frequency may be optimal for reducing the high background of false positives.

  10. Identification of anomalous motion of thunderstorms using daily rainfall fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral, Anna; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Rigo, Tomeu

    2016-04-01

    Adverse weather phenomena in Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is commonly associated to heavy rains, large hail, strong winds, and/or tornados, all of them caused by thunderstorms. In most of the cases with adverse weather, thunderstorms vary sharply their trajectories in a concrete moment, changing completely the motion directions that have previously followed. Furthermore, it is possible that a breaking into several cells may be produced, or, in the opposite, it can be observed a joining of different thunderstorms into a bigger system. In order to identify the main features of the developing process of thunderstorms and the anomalous motions that these may follow in some cases, this contribution presents a classification of the events using daily rainfall fields, with the purpose of distinguishing quickly anomalous motion of thunderstorms. The methodology implemented allows classifying the daily rainfall fields in three categories by applying some thresholds related with the daily precipitation accumulated values and their extension: days with "no rain", days with "potentially convective" rain and days with "non-potentially convective" rain. Finally, for those "potentially convective" daily rainfall charts, it also allows a geometrical identification and classification of all the convective structures into "ellipse" and "non-ellipse", obtaining then the structures with "normal" or "anomalous" motion pattern, respectively. The work is focused on the period 2008-2015, and presents some characteristics of the rainfall behaviour in terms of the seasonal distribution of convective rainfall or the geographic variability. It shows that convective structures are mainly found during late spring and summer, even though they can be recorded in any time of the year. Consequently, the maximum number of convective structures with anomalous motion is recorded between July and November. Furthermore, the contribution shows the role of the orography of Catalonia in the

  11. A brief overview of the history of veterinary field services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Gideon K

    2014-11-14

    The historical evolution of veterinary services in South Africa is closely linked to the colonial history of the past and the eventual political formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, as well as the establishment of a fully democratic South Africa in 1994. The majority of the early pioneering veterinarians had close links to military activities and were originally mostly of British origin. The appointment of the first colonial chief veterinary officers occurred in the late 1800s. These appointments were dictated by the need to combat devastating animal diseases, such as rinderpest and African horse sickness, mainly because they affected draught oxen (used for travel) and horses (used in combat). Veterinary field services was established in 1962 as a separate functional entity within government services when M.C. Lambrechts became Director of Veterinary Services of South Africa. In the context of this article, veterinary field services refers to that sphere of veterinary service delivery conducted by government-appointed or seconded veterinarians applying disease control and prevention, as required by animal health legislation. Paging through the history of veterinary field services in South Africa confirms that the problems faced by the veterinary services of today were just as real during the times of our pioneers. The pioneers of veterinary services transformed unknown animal diseases into textbook descriptions still used today and also demonstrated the important link to, and use of, the observations made by farmers, as well as the need for continued basic and applied research on animal diseases. This article provided a brief overview of the evolution of veterinary field services and the important role played by pioneers over the last two centuries to make South Africa relatively free and safe from the most important trade-sensitive and economically important animal diseases.

  12. Evaluation of an operational malaria outbreak identification and response system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael; Mabuza, Aaron M; Kok, Gerdalize; Coetzee, Maureen; Durrheim, David N

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective To evaluate the performance of a novel malaria outbreak identification system in the epidemic prone rural area of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, for timely identification of malaria outbreaks and guiding integrated public health responses. Methods Using five years of historical notification data, two binomial thresholds were determined for each primary health care facility in the highest malaria risk area of Mpumalanga province. Whenever the thresholds were exceeded at health facility level (tier 1), primary health care staff notified the malaria control programme, which then confirmed adequate stocks of malaria treatment to manage potential increased cases. The cases were followed up at household level to verify the likely source of infection. The binomial thresholds were reviewed at village/town level (tier 2) to determine whether additional response measures were required. In addition, an automated electronic outbreak identification system at town/village level (tier 2) was integrated into the case notification database (tier 3) to ensure that unexpected increases in case notification were not missed. The performance of these binomial outbreak thresholds was evaluated against other currently recommended thresholds using retrospective data. The acceptability of the system at primary health care level was evaluated through structured interviews with health facility staff. Results Eighty four percent of health facilities reported outbreaks within 24 hours (n = 95), 92% (n = 104) within 48 hours and 100% (n = 113) within 72 hours. Appropriate response to all malaria outbreaks (n = 113, tier 1, n = 46, tier 2) were achieved within 24 hours. The system was positively viewed by all health facility staff. When compared to other epidemiological systems for a specified 12 month outbreak season (June 2003 to July 2004) the binomial exact thresholds produced one false weekly outbreak, the C-sum 12 weekly outbreaks and the mean + 2 SD nine false

  13. High-Resolution Local Crustal Magnetic Field Modeling of the Martian South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, A.; Simons, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) satellite mission has brought us a wealth of information about the Martian magnetic field. Besides determining that Mars currently does not possess an active core field, MGS revealed that Mars contains an unexpectedly wide crustal magnetic field intensity range. In its orbit insertion, MGS performed a series of low altitude passes down to around 100 km above surface. During this mission phase the magnetic field measurements were active. In particular the nighttime low-altitude data are of high interest because they contain minimal noise from solar wind. Since these data only cover a small portion of the planet's surface, to date all Martian crustal magnetic field models blend the highest-quality data with lower quality measurements collected either at higher satellite altitudes or during daytime. In this contribution we present a locally inverted crustal magnetic field model for the Martian South Polar region calculated from only the highest-quality MGS data using locally constructed altitude vector Slepian functions. The South Polar region of Mars contains the southern part of the strongly magnetized Terra Sirenum and the area south of the Tharsis volcanic highland. Besides parts of planetary scale features our area of data coverage also contains local features such as the presumably volcanic Australe Montes and the Prometheus impact crater. These ingredients compose a highly heterogeneous crustal magnetic field. We show that even for our dense low-altitude low-noise data set the inversion for the crustal magnetic field of a weakly magnetized region adjacent to a region containing a strong magnetic field leads to artifacts in the weak region. With our local method we can avoid these artifacts by selecting subregions of roughly homogeneous field intensity and individually invert for crustal magnetic fields from data within only these subregions. This regional and subregional modeling allows us to reveal previously obscured crustal

  14. Geophysical identification of subsurface cavities and fractures near a Superfund site south of Rockford, Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Ryan Frye

    The ACME Superfund site is one of many Superfund sites in Northern Illinois. This 20 acre (8.1 ha) site was contaminated by various volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and heavy metals during the 1960-1980s. To more fully understand the potential extent of the karst system and its interaction with contaminants, both surface and borehole geophysics including seismic refraction tomography, frequency domain electromagnetics, electrical resistivity, ground penetrating radar, as well as natural gamma and electromagnetic well logs, were undertaken over an approximately 3,000 square meter grid in a field immediately south of the ACME site. Seismic refraction tomography provided information on lithology and fluctuations in the bedrock surface in the depth range 6 to 8 m. Refraction, combined with electromagnetic conductivity, also allowed mapping of potential soil pipes and/or filled sinkholes in the overlying soils. These could channel surface waters into the karst conduit system. Frequency domain electromagnetics proved to be the most successful tool for the identifying possible karst conduits below the bedrock surface. Zones of reduced conductivity suggest a series of interconnected solutionally enlarged fractures in an orthogonal pattern at a depth of approximately 8 m immediately south of the ACME site.

  15. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. Public release of 1599 redshifts to IAB≤24 across the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Vettolani, G.; Paltani, S.; Tresse, L.; Zamorani, G.; Le Brun, V.; Moreau, C.; Bottini, D.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Mancini, D.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Ciliegi, P.; Gregorini, L.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey around the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). We have measured 1599 new redshifts with VIMOS on the European Observatory Very Large Telescope - UT3, in an area 21 × 21.6 arcmin2, including 784 redshifts in the Hubble Space Telescope - Advanced Camera for Surveys GOODS area. 30% of all objects with IAB=24 have been observed independently of magnitude, indicating that the sample is purely magnitude limited. We have reached an unprecedented completeness level of 84% in terms of the ratio of secure measurements vs. observed objects, while 95% of all objects have a redshift measurement. A total of 1452 galaxies, 139 stars, 8 QSOs have a redshift identification, 141 of these being unsecure measurements. The redshift distribution down to IAB=24 is peaked at a median redshift z=0.73, with a significant high redshift tail extending up to ˜4. Several high density peaks in the distribution of galaxies are identified. In particular, the strong peak at z=0.735 contains more than 130 galaxies in a velocity range ±2000 km s-1 distributed all across the transverse ˜20 h-1 Mpc of the survey. We are releasing all redshifts to the community, along with the cross identification with HST-ACS GOODS sources on the CENCOS database environment http://cencosw.oamp.fr. The data presented in this paper has been obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile.

  16. Identification of hazelnut fields using spectral and Gabor textural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Selçuk; Taşdemir, Kadim

    2011-09-01

    Land cover identification and monitoring agricultural resources using remote sensing imagery are of great significance for agricultural management and subsidies. Particularly, permanent crops are important in terms of economy (mainly rural development) and environmental protection. Permanent crops (including nut orchards) are extracted with very high resolution remote sensing imagery using visual interpretation or automated systems based on mainly textural features which reflect the regular plantation pattern of their orchards, since the spectral values of the nut orchards are usually close to the spectral values of other woody vegetation due to various reasons such as spectral mixing, slope, and shade. However, when the nut orchards are planted irregularly and densely at fields with high slope, textural delineation of these orchards from other woody vegetation becomes less relevant, posing a challenge for accurate automatic detection of these orchards. This study aims to overcome this challenge using a classification system based on multi-scale textural features together with spectral values. For this purpose, Black Sea region of Turkey, the region with the biggest hazelnut production in the world and the region which suffers most from this issue, is selected and two Quickbird archive images (June 2005 and September 2008) of the region are acquired. To differentiate hazel orchards from other woodlands, in addition to the pansharpened multispectral (4-band) bands of 2005 and 2008 imagery, multi-scale Gabor features are calculated from the panchromatic band of 2008 imagery at four scales and six orientations. One supervised classification method (maximum likelihood classifier, MLC) and one unsupervised method (self-organizing map, SOM) are used for classification based on spectral values, Gabor features and their combination. Both MLC and SOM achieve the highest performance (overall classification accuracies of 95% and 92%, and Kappa values of 0.93 and 0

  17. Four p67 alleles identified in South African Theileria parva field samples.

    PubMed

    Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Geysen, Dirk; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matthee, Conrad A; Troskie, Milana; Potgieter, Frederick T; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Collins, Nicola E

    2010-02-10

    Previous studies characterizing the Theileria parva p67 gene in East Africa revealed two alleles. Cattle-derived isolates associated with East Coast fever (ECF) have a 129bp deletion in the central region of the p67 gene (allele 1), compared to buffalo-derived isolates with no deletion (allele 2). In South Africa, Corridor disease outbreaks occur if there is contact between infected buffalo and susceptible cattle in the presence of vector ticks. Although ECF was introduced into South Africa in the early 20th century, it has been eradicated and it is thought that there has been no cattle to cattle transmission of T. parva since. The variable region of the p67 gene was amplified and the gene sequences analyzed to characterize South African T. parva parasites that occur in buffalo, in cattle from farms where Corridor disease outbreaks were diagnosed and in experimentally infected cattle. Four p67 alleles were identified, including alleles 1 and 2 previously detected in East African cattle and buffalo, respectively, as well as two novel alleles, one with a different 174bp deletion (allele 3), the other with a similar sequence to allele 3 but with no deletion (allele 4). Sequence variants of allele 1 were obtained from field samples originating from both cattle and buffalo. Allele 1 was also obtained from a bovine that tested T. parva positive from a farm near Ladysmith in the KwaZulu-Natal Province. East Coast fever was not diagnosed on this farm, but the p67 sequence was identical to that of T. parva Muguga, an isolate that causes ECF in Kenya. Variants of allele 2 were obtained from all T. parva samples from both buffalo and cattle, except Lad 10 and Zam 5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that alleles 3 and 4 are monophyletic and diverged early from the other alleles. These novel alleles were not identified from South African field samples collected from cattle; however allele 3, with a p67 sequence identical to those obtained in South African field samples from

  18. Synthesis of Moored Observations Collected During the IWISE 2011 Field Program in the South China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    IWISE 2011 Field Program in the South China Sea Steven R. Ramp Soliton Ocean Services, Inc. 691 Country Club Drive Monterey, CA 93924 phone...internal waves in the mid -thermocline region have a profound effect on navigation and acoustic propagation. Improved understanding and predictive...Alford (SIO), and J. Nash (OSU). Travel funds to facilitate collabration with international colleagues was provided via Soliton Ocean Services, Inc

  19. New constraints on historical dipole field decay: Four centuries of archaeointensity from Cape Town, South Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, V. J.; Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current global geomagnetic field models suffer from strong bias towards Northern Hemisphere data. Absolute intensity measurements from the Southern Hemisphere are key to understanding the evolution of the field over the historical era, especially recent strengthening of non-dipole contributions, and the appearance of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). I present the first archaeointensity data for locally-fired historical bricks from several well-dated sites (1660-2009 AD) in Cape Town, South Africa. These data constitute the first archaeomagnetic intensity variation curve for southern Africa for the past few centuries. The ages of the sites are tightly constrained by historical and archaeological considerations. Archaeointensity data obtained by the Thellier and Thellier method (modified by Coe), are corrected for both TRM anisotropy and cooling rate dependence of TRM acquisition. Analysis of magnetic mineralogy was performed to aid selection of fragments. Reliable archaeointensity determinations were obtained for 48 of 80 specimens, and 45 were retained in the final analysis. Intensity results vary from 24.3 ± 0.6 μT (modern brick) to 40.7 ± 0.8 μT (1660 AD), corresponding to Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADMs) between 6.1 ± 0.2 and 10.2 ± 0.2 נ1022 Am2. Results are generally not in agreement with current field models, but are coherent with other archaeomagnetic datasets from the Southern Hemisphere. The possible reasons for this are discussed, as well as implications for the historical evolution of the field.

  20. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  1. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  2. Study on the time difference of solar polar field reversal between the north and south hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukuya, D.; Kusano, K.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamo is a mechanism whereby the kinetic energy of plasma is converted to the magnetic energy. This mechanism works to generate and maintain the solar and stellar magnetic field. Since the sun is only a star whose magnetic field can be directly observed, the understanding of solar dynamo can provide clues to clarify dynamo mechanisms. On the other hand, because solar activities, which are caused by solar dynamo, can influence the Earth's climate, solar variability is an important issue also to understand long-term evolution of the Earth's climate. It is widely known that the polarity of the solar magnetic fields on the north and south poles periodically reverses at every sunspot maxima. It is also known that the reversal at one pole is followed by that on the other pole. The time difference of magnetic field reversal between the poles was first noted by Babcock (1959) from the very first observation of polar field. Recently, it was confirmed by detailed observations with the HINODE satellite (Shiota et al. 2012). Svalgaard and Kamide (2013) indicated that there is a relationship between the time difference of the polarity reversal and the hemispheric asymmetry of the sunspot activity. However, the mechanisms for the hemispheric asymmetry are still open to be revealed. In this paper, we study the asymmetric feature of the solar dynamo based on the flux transport dynamo model (Chatterjee et al. 2004) to explain the time difference of magnetic polarity reversal between the north and south poles. In order to calculate long-term variations of solar activities, we use the mean field kinematic dynamo model, which is derived from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equation through the mean field and other approximations. We carried out the mean field dynamo simulations using the updated SURYA code which was developed originally by Choudhuri and his collaborators (2004). We decomposed the symmetric and asymmetric components of magnetic field, which correspond respectively to the

  3. Detection of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and identification of associated nematodes in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports a survey conducted to find the South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) and the red palm weevil R. ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), two invasive species of palm trees. The study was performed in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas and near the bor...

  4. Enzyme Mini-Test for Field Identification of Leishmania isolates from U.S. Military Personnel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-15

    TEST FOR FIELD IDENTIFICATION OF LEISHMANIA ISOLATES FROM U. S. MILITARY PERSONNEL Annual Report RICHARD D. KREUTZER 15 AUGUST 1983 Supported by U. S... LEISHMANIA ISOLATES FROM U. S. MILITARY PERSONNEL 1. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Richard D. Kreutzer DAMD1...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES N/A 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side If noceawaetnd Identify by block number) Leishmania ; electrophoresis; identification

  5. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified

  6. The Upper Mantle Flow Field around South-Africa as Reflected by Isotopic Provinciality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyzen, C.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Ludden, J.; Humler, E.; Mevel, C.; Albarede, F.

    2006-12-01

    Isotopic studies of MORB have established the existence of broad isotopic provinces within the underlying asthenosphere, such as in the Indian Ocean (DUPAL). How these features relate to mantle circulation is, however, still unknown. The steepness of the transition between such isotopic provinces will define the geometry of the velocity field in the upper mantle. In this respect, the transition between the Indian and South Atlantic provinces, two domains that are isotopically contrasted, should be readily identifiable over this long ridge segment. Here, we present Hf isotope data for 60 samples dredged along the SWIR between 35° and 69°E. The new Hf isotope data show that the Indian asthenosphere does not spill directly into the South Atlantic upper mantle: the general decreasing southward gradient observed for ^{176}Hf/^{177}Hf down the mid- Atlantic Ridge, and also for Sr isotopes and model Th/U ratios (derived from Pb isotopes), is overprinted by material with radiogenic Sr, unradiogenic Hf and high Th/U. The Indian domain grades into the South Atlantic around Bouvet, while the South Atlantic collides with the Atlantic province around Tristan. We interpret these features to represent fronts between three adjacent isotopic provinces similar to what has been suggested for the Australian-Antarctic Discordance. The common DUPAL signature of MORB and OIB from the Indian province and the geochemistry of Gulf of Aden MORB and the Afar plume suggest that the source of this distinctive mantle component is deep and lies to the north of the province. This is also what the three-dimensional flow field computed by Behn et al. (2004) from shear-wave splitting shows with a major lower mantle upwelling radiating at the base of the asthenosphere under the Afar plume. Lower mantle gushing out from this source flows southward unimpeded along the Indian ridges, whereas it only reaches the South Atlantic ridge after first having been deflected under the deep roots of the South

  7. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Gaia South Ecliptic Pole Field as Seen by OGLE-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Skowron, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the Gaia South Ecliptic Pole (GSEP) field, 5.3 square degrees area around the South Ecliptic Pole on the outskirts of the LMC, based on the data collected during the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, OGLE-IV. The GSEP field will be observed during the commissioning phase of the ESA Gaia space mission for testing and calibrating the Gaia instruments. We provide the photometric maps of the GSEP region containing the mean VI photometry of all detected stellar objects and their equatorial coordinates. We show the quality and completeness of the OGLE-IV photometry and color-magnitude diagrams of this region. We conducted an extensive search for variable stars in the GSEP field leading to the discovery of 6789 variable stars. In this sample we found 132 classical Cepheids, 686 RR Lyr type stars, 2819 long-period, and 1377 eclipsing variables. Several objects deserving special attention were also selected, including a new classical Cepheid in a binary eclipsing system. To provide empirical data for the Gaia Science Alert system we also conducted a search for optical transients. We discovered two firm type Ia supernovae and nine additional supernova candidates. To facilitate future Gaia supernovae detections we prepared a list of more than 1900 galaxies to redshift about 0.1 located in the GSEP field. Finally, we present the results of astrometric study of the GSEP field. With the 26 months time base of the presented here OGLE-IV data, proper motions of stars could be detected with the accuracy reaching 2 mas/yr. Astrometry allowed to distinguish galactic foreground variable stars detected in the GSEP field from LMC objects and to discover about 50 high proper motion stars (proper motion ≥ 100 mas/yr). Among them three new nearby white dwarfs were found. All data presented in this paper are available to the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive.

  8. THE VERY LARGE ARRAY 1.4 GHz SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: SECOND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Neal A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Padovani, Paolo; Rosati, Piero; Fomalont, Edward B.; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Tozzi, Paolo; Vattakunnel, Shaji

    2013-04-01

    Deep radio observations at 1.4 GHz for the Extended Chandra Deep Field South were performed in 2007 June through September and presented in a first data release. The survey was made using six separate pointings of the Very Large Array with over 40 hr of observation per pointing. In the current paper, we improve on the data reduction to produce a second data release (DR2) mosaic image. This DR2 image covers an area of about a third of a square degree, reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 {mu}Jy, and has a typical sensitivity of 7.4 {mu}Jy per 2.''8 by 1.''6 beam. We also present a more comprehensive catalog, including sources down to peak flux densities of five or more times the local rms noise along with information on source sizes and relevant pointing data. We discuss in some detail the consideration of whether sources are resolved under the complication of a radio image created as a mosaic of separate pointings each suffering some degree of bandwidth smearing, and the accurate evaluation of the flux densities of such sources. Finally, the radio morphologies and optical/near-IR counterpart identifications are used to identify 17 likely multiple-component sources and arrive at a catalog of 883 radio sources, which is roughly double the number of sources contained in the first data release.

  9. Temporal variability of soil water repellency in field conditions under humid Mediterranean climate (South of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.; Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose D.

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) has become an important field of scientific study because of its effects on soil hydrological behavior, including reduced matrix infiltration, development of fingered flow in structural or textural preferential flow paths, irregular wetting fronts, and increased runoff generation and soil erosion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the temporal variability of SWR in Mediterranean rangeland under humid Mediterranean climatic conditions (Tª=14.5 °C; P=1,010 mm y-1) in South of Spain. Every month from September 2008 to May 2009 (rainy season), soil moisture and SWR was measured in field conditions by means of gravimetric method and Water Drop Penetration Test, respectively. The entire tests were performed in differente eco-geomorphological conditions in the experimental site: North and South aspect hillslopes and beneath shrub and bare soil in every of them. The results indicate that: i) climatic conditions seem to be more transcendent than the vegetal cover for explaining the temporal variability of SWR in field conditions; ii) thus, SWR appears to be controlled by the antecedent rainfall and soil moisture; iii) more severity SWR were observed in patches characterized by sandier soils and/or greater organic matter contents; and iv) the factor 'hillslope aspect' was not found very influential in the degree of SWR.

  10. A systematic search for z ≥ 5 active galactic nuclei in the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Koss, Michael; Urry, C. Megan; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2015-01-01

    We investigate early black hole growth through the methodical search for z ≥ 5 AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South.We base our search on the Chandra 4-Ms data that should allow us to detect Compton-thin AGN with MBH >107 M⊙ accreting at Eddington ratios > 0.1.The Chandra Deep Field South contains over 600 z ≥ 5 Lyman Break Galaxies. These high-redshift galaxies are the progenitors of massive, local galaxies and based on lower redshift relations we would expect ~ 20 of them to host AGN.We combine the Chandra data with GOODS/ACS, CANDELS/WFC3 and Spitzer/IRAC data. After excluding clear low-redshift sources our sample consists of 58 high-redshift candidates. We use a range of redshift estimators including a photo-z code, stacking, colour criteria and the Lyman Break Technique. We also use the X-ray Hardness Ratio as additional information.The final z ≥ 5 candidates that remain after we combine our redshift tests, are likely to be low-redshift interlopers. We thus conclude that, contrary to our expectation of finding at least a few high-redshift AGN, the field does not contain any convincing z ≥ 5 AGN candidates.Our results place interesting constraints on early black hole growth and we discuss a range of possible explanations.

  11. Identification of remaining oil resource potential in the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone play, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E.; Tyler, N.

    1994-05-01

    The Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion stock tank barrels (BSTB) of oil, yet still contains about 1.2 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil and an even greater amount of residual oil resources (1.5 BSTB). More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced. Interwell-scale geological facies models of Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoirs will be combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to characterize Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Reservoir attribute data were statistically analyzed from oil and gas fields throughout the geographic area covered by the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone oil play. General reservoir attributes analyzed in detail included porosity, initial water saturation, residual oil saturation, net pay, reservoir area, and fluid characteristics. Statistical analysis of variance demonstrated no difference between oil reservoir attributes and gas reservoir attributes. Probability functions that describe attribute frequency distributions were determined for use in risk adjusting resource calculations. The oil play was found to contain significant volumes of remaining oil. The volumetric probability distribution between 5- and 95-percent probability for original oil in place ranges from 3.8 to 5.6 BSTB, original mobile oil in place ranges from 2.5 to 3.6 BSTB, and residual oil ranges from 1.5 to 2.3 BSTB. The untapped oil resource may be 10 percent of the original oil in place, or 380 million stock tank barrels.

  12. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  13. Restricted Freedom: Negotiating Same-Sex Identifications in the Residential Spaces of a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo; Jagessar, Valenshia

    2015-01-01

    International higher education research focused on students who claim same-sex identifications in university residential spaces has tended to prioritise the "gay as victim" discourse, often leading to the pathologising of same-sex identification. While there is emerging research seeking to challenge this dimension of scholarship by…

  14. The Field Operations and Early Results of the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Ding, Yihui; Wang, Jough-Tai; Johnson, Richard; Keenan, Tom; Cifelli, Robert; Gerlach, John; Thiele, Otto; Rickenbach, Tom; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1999-01-01

    The South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) is an international field experiment with the objective to better understand the key physical processes for the onset and evolution of the Asian summer monsoon in relation to fluctuation of the regional hydrologic cycle over Southeast Asian, southern East Asia, aiming at improving monsoon prediction. In this article, we present a description of the major meteorological observation platforms during the Intensive Observing Periods (IOP) of SCSMEX. We also provide highlights of early results and discussions of the role of SCSMEX in providing valuable in-situ data for calibration of satellite rainfall estimate from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Preliminary results indicate that there are distinctive stages in the onset of the South China Sea monsoon including possibly strong influences from extratropical systems as well as from convection over the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. There are some tantalizing evidence of complex interactions between the supercloud cluster development over the Indian Ocean, advancing southwest monsoon flow over the South China Sea, midlatitude disturbances and the western Pacific subtropical high, possibly contributing to the disastrous flood over Yangtze River Basin in China during June 1998.

  15. Identification guide to some Diaptomid species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) of “de la Plata” River Basin (South America)

    PubMed Central

    Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; Previattelli, Daniel; Nogueira, Marcos Gomes; da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An identification guide is presented for species of calanoid copepod family Diaptomidae from “de la Plata” River Basin (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). It was based on material collected during the summer and winter of 2010 from 43 sites across the eastern part and the lower stretches of this basin, the second largest in South America and the fourth in the world. The guide contains identification keys and species diagnoses for males and females, richly supported by scanning electronic micrographs and/or line drawings of 19 species. It also includes some general remarks on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these species. The key was adjusted to be useful for these species only, with separate keys for each sex, and is the first for females of South America. One species classified herein as incertae sedis was not included in the analysis. At least ten other species have previously been recorded in the basin but were not present in our samples. This is the first attempt to compile comprehensive taxonomic information on this group of copepods in this region, and it is expected to become a useful tool for biologists and young taxonomists interested in the crustacean biota of the Neotropical region. PMID:25931959

  16. Balloon observations of ultra-low-frequency waves in the electric field above the South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, B.; Benbrrook, J.R.; Bering E.A. III; Byrne, G.J.; Theall, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    The physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, near the cusp and in the polar cap, is important because this region is one where ultra-low-frequency wave energy from the magnetopause can most easily enter the magnetosphere. During the 1985-1986 South Pole balloon campaign, eight stratospheric balloon payloads were launched from Amundsen-Scott Station, South Geographic Pole, Antarctica, to record data on ultra-low-frequency waves. The payloads were instrumented with three-axis double-probe electric field detectors and X-ray scintillation counters. This paper concentrates on the third flight of this series, which was launched at 2205 universal time on 21 December 1985. Good data were received from the payload until the transmitter failed at 0342 universal time on 22 December. During most of the four hours that the balloon was afloat, an intense ultra-low-frequency wave event was in progress. The electric-field data from this period have been examined in detail and compared with magnetic field data, obtained with ground-based fluxgate and induction magnetometers to determine the characteristics of the waves. After float was reached, the electric-field data in figure 1 show large-amplitude, quasi-periodic fluctuations suggesting the presence of intense ultra-low-frequency wave activity. In conclusion, the electric-field signature observed from flight 3 appears to have been essentially an electrostatic event or possibly a short-wavelength hydromagnetic wave with a varying and interesting polarization character. The authors are continuing the analysis of the data to determine the source of the observed ultra-low-frequency waves.

  17. North-South Asymmetries in Earth's Magnetic Field. Effects on High-Latitude Geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Cnossen, I.; Milan, S. E.; Haaland, S. E.; Coxon, J.; Pedatella, N. M.; Förster, M.; Reistad, J. P.

    2017-03-01

    The solar-wind magnetosphere interaction primarily occurs at altitudes where the dipole component of Earth's magnetic field is dominating. The disturbances that are created in this interaction propagate along magnetic field lines and interact with the ionosphere-thermosphere system. At ionospheric altitudes, the Earth's field deviates significantly from a dipole. North-South asymmetries in the magnetic field imply that the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (M-I-T) coupling is different in the two hemispheres. In this paper we review the primary differences in the magnetic field at polar latitudes, and the consequences that these have for the M-I-T coupling. We focus on two interhemispheric differences which are thought to have the strongest effects: 1) A difference in the offset between magnetic and geographic poles in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and 2) differences in the magnetic field strength at magnetically conjugate regions. These asymmetries lead to differences in plasma convection, neutral winds, total electron content, ion outflow, ionospheric currents and auroral precipitation.

  18. Gauging the threat: the first population estimate for white sharks in South Africa using photo identification and automated software.

    PubMed

    Towner, Alison V; Wcisel, Michelle A; Reisinger, Ryan R; Edwards, David; Jewell, Oliver J D

    2013-01-01

    South Africa is reputed to host the world's largest remaining population of white sharks, yet no studies have accurately determined a population estimate based on mark-recapture of live individuals. We used dorsal fin photographs (fin IDs) to identify white sharks in Gansbaai, South Africa, from January 2007-December 2011. We used the computer programme DARWIN to catalogue and match fin IDs of individuals; this is the first study to successfully use the software for white shark identification. The programme performed well despite a number of individual fins showing drastic changes in dorsal fin shape over time. Of 1682 fin IDs used, 532 unique individuals were identified. We estimated population size using the open-population POPAN parameterisation in Program MARK, which estimated the superpopulation size at 908 (95% confidence interval 808-1008). This estimated population size is considerably larger than those described at other aggregation areas of the species and is comparable to a previous South African population estimate conducted 16 years prior. Our assessment suggests the species has not made a marked recovery since being nationally protected in 1991. As such, additional international protection may prove vital for the long-term conservation of this threatened species.

  19. Gauging the Threat: The First Population Estimate for White Sharks in South Africa Using Photo Identification and Automated Software

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Alison V.; Wcisel, Michelle A.; Reisinger, Ryan R.; Edwards, David; Jewell, Oliver J. D.

    2013-01-01

    South Africa is reputed to host the world’s largest remaining population of white sharks, yet no studies have accurately determined a population estimate based on mark-recapture of live individuals. We used dorsal fin photographs (fin IDs) to identify white sharks in Gansbaai, South Africa, from January 2007 – December 2011. We used the computer programme DARWIN to catalogue and match fin IDs of individuals; this is the first study to successfully use the software for white shark identification. The programme performed well despite a number of individual fins showing drastic changes in dorsal fin shape over time. Of 1682 fin IDs used, 532 unique individuals were identified. We estimated population size using the open-population POPAN parameterisation in Program MARK, which estimated the superpopulation size at 908 (95% confidence interval 808–1008). This estimated population size is considerably larger than those described at other aggregation areas of the species and is comparable to a previous South African population estimate conducted 16 years prior. Our assessment suggests the species has not made a marked recovery since being nationally protected in 1991. As such, additional international protection may prove vital for the long-term conservation of this threatened species. PMID:23776600

  20. Hamiltonian identification in presence of large control field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ying; Rabitz, Herschel; Turinici, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Quantum system inversion concerns learning the characteristics of the underlying Hamiltonian by measuring suitable observables from the responses of the system’s interaction with members of a set of applied fields. Various aspects of inversion have been confirmed in theoretical, numerical and experimental works. Nevertheless, the presence of noise arising from the applied fields may contaminate the quality of the results. In this circumstance, the observables satisfy probability distributions, but often the noise statistics are unknown. Based on a proposed theoretical framework, we present a procedure to recover both the unknown parts of the Hamiltonian and the unknown noise distribution. The procedure is implemented numerically and seen to perform well for illustrative Gaussian, exponential and bi-modal noise distributions.

  1. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  2. Identification of anomalous motion of thunderstorms using daily rainfall fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Anna del; Llasat, María del Carmen; Rigo, Tomeu

    2017-03-01

    Most of the adverse weather phenomena in Catalonia (northeast Iberian Peninsula) are caused by convective events, which can produce heavy rains, large hailstones, strong winds, lightning and/or tornadoes. These thunderstorms usually have marked paths. However, their trajectories can vary sharply at any given time, completely changing direction from the path they have previously followed. Furthermore, some thunderstorms split or merge with each other, creating new formations with different behaviour. In order to identify the potentially anomalous movements that some thunderstorms make, this paper presents a two-step methodology using a database with 8 years of daily rainfall fields data for the Catalonia region (2008-2015). First, it classifies daily rainfall fields between days with "no rain", "non-potentially convective rain" and "potentially convective rain", based on daily accumulated precipitation and extension thresholds. Second, it categorises convective structures within rainfall fields and briefly identifies their main features, distinguishing whether there were any anomalous thunderstorm movements in each case. This methodology has been applied to the 2008-2015 period, and the main climatic features of convective and non-convective days were obtained. The methodology can be exported to other regions that do not have the necessary radar-based algorithms to detect convective cells, but where there is a good rain gauge network in place.

  3. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  4. Full-Field Strain Measurement On Titanium Welds And Local Elasto-Plastic Identification With The Virtual Fields Method

    SciTech Connect

    Tattoli, F.; Casavola, C.; Pierron, F.; Rotinat, R.; Pappalettere, C.

    2011-01-17

    One of the main problems in welding is the microstructural transformation within the area affected by the thermal history. The resulting heterogeneous microstructure within the weld nugget and the heat affected zones is often associated with changes in local material properties. The present work deals with the identification of material parameters governing the elasto--plastic behaviour of the fused and heat affected zones as well as the base material for titanium hybrid welded joints (Ti6Al4V alloy). The material parameters are identified from heterogeneous strain fields with the Virtual Fields Method. This method is based on a relevant use of the principle of virtual work and it has been shown to be useful and much less time consuming than classical finite element model updating approaches applied to similar problems. The paper will present results and discuss the problem of selection of the weld zones for the identification.

  5. Full-Field Strain Measurement On Titanium Welds And Local Elasto-Plastic Identification With The Virtual Fields Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattoli, F.; Pierron, F.; Rotinat, R.; Casavola, C.; Pappalettere, C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main problems in welding is the microstructural transformation within the area affected by the thermal history. The resulting heterogeneous microstructure within the weld nugget and the heat affected zones is often associated with changes in local material properties. The present work deals with the identification of material parameters governing the elasto—plastic behaviour of the fused and heat affected zones as well as the base material for titanium hybrid welded joints (Ti6Al4V alloy). The material parameters are identified from heterogeneous strain fields with the Virtual Fields Method. This method is based on a relevant use of the principle of virtual work and it has been shown to be useful and much less time consuming than classical finite element model updating approaches applied to similar problems. The paper will present results and discuss the problem of selection of the weld zones for the identification.

  6. The oral susceptibility of South African field populations of Culicoides to African horse sickness virus.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Wright, I M; Van Der Linde, T C; Paweska, J T

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-two isolates of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), representing its distinct serotypes, geographical and historical origins, were fed to three populations of South African livestock-associated Culicoides spp. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Infective blood meals included 12 recent isolates, nine historical reference strains and one live attenuated vaccine strain serotype 7 (AHSV-7) of the virus. Field-collected midges were fed through a chicken-skin membrane on sheep blood spiked with one of the viruses, which concentrations ranged from 5.4 to 8.8 log(10)TCID(50)/mL of blood. After 10 days incubation at 23.5 degrees C, AHSV was isolated from 11 Culicoides species. Standard in vitro passaging of AHSV-7, used for the preparation of live attenuated vaccine, did not reduce its ability to infect Culicoides species. Virus recovery rates in orally infected Culicoides midges differed significantly between species and populations, serotypes, isolates and seasons. Significant variations in oral susceptibility recorded in this study emphasize a complex inter-relationship between virus and vector, which is further influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. As it is not possible to standardize all these factors under laboratory conditions, conclusive assessment of the role of field-collected Culicoides midges in the transmission of orbiviruses remains problematic. Nevertheless, results of this study suggest the potential for multi-vector transmission of AHSV virus in South Africa.

  7. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. I. THE SOUTH FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Panagia, Nino; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Jansen, Rolf A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Gronwall, Caryl; Walsh, Jeremy; Pasquali, Anna; Xu, Chun

    2009-10-15

    We present results of a search for emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the southern fields of the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism survey. The PEARS South Fields consist of five Advanced Camera for Surveys pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. ELGs are one subset of objects that are prevalent among the grism spectra. Using a two-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines originating from 226 galaxy 'knots' within 192 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. We measure emission-line fluxes using standard Gaussian fitting techniques. At the resolution of the grism data, the H{beta} and [O III] doublet are blended. However, by fitting two Gaussian components to the H{beta} and [O III] features, we find that many of the PEARS ELGs have high [O III]/H{beta} ratios compared to other galaxy samples of comparable luminosities. The star formation rates of the ELGs are presented, as well as a sample of distinct giant star-forming regions at z {approx} 0.1-0.5 across individual galaxies. We find that the radial distances of these H II regions in general reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant H II regions in local galaxies.

  8. Prediction and identification of the magnetic field close to electric machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Peter J.; Ioannides, Maria G.

    1999-04-01

    The magnetic field around an electric machine operating at full load is predicted numerically and identified experimentally. A precise model of a three-phase induction machine is constructed considering the machine geometry, the windings and the stator and rotor materials. The field distribution close to the machine is determined using the discrete element technique, and actual measurements are carried out for identification purposes. An approximate human model is constructed and the magnetic field inside the human body is computed for a distance of 1 and 5 m from the machine. The magnetic field density is determined at specific points, and the induced current densities are computed.

  9. University of South Florida Field Test of the Michigan State University Protocol Materials on Learning. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    The Michigan State University protocol materials on learning were field-tested at the University of South Florida (U.S.F.). The field-testing at U.S.F. did not occur under controlled, experimental conditions. The information needs of the protocol developers were balanced with the instructional obligations of the instructors and the educational…

  10. Development of a multispecies identification field test by modified agar-gel immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Cutufelli, M E; Mageau, R P; Schwab, B; Johnston, R W

    1993-01-01

    A multispecies identification field test (MULTI-SIFT) was developed for detection of beef, poultry, pork, sheep, horse, and deer in a wide variety of raw meat products. The test is an adaptation of previously developed field screening immunodiffusion tests for detection of single species. MULTI-SIFT was demonstrated to be specific, relatively sensitive, and accurate in the complete speciation of 100 meat samples.

  11. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  12. Identification of large masses of citrus fruit and rice fields in eastern Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desagredo, F. L.; Salinas, F. G.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery has been successfully used for the identification of large areas of citrus groves and rice fields in the Valencia region of Eastern Spain. Results are encouraging and will facilitate the elaboration of a land use map with a fair degree of definition once methods prove to be fully operational.

  13. Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Effect of Sound Field Amplification on Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flexer, Carol; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Using sound field amplification which increased the intensity of the teacher's voice by 10 decibels, 9 primary-level children with developmental disabilities made fewer errors on a word identification task, were more relaxed, and responded more quickly than without amplification. (Author/JDD)

  14. Lacunarity Measures of Potential Fields in Covered Lithology Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Measure distributions, both multifractal and other kinds, are not unique, so spatial patterns with the same measure may have different appearances. Lacunarity analysis is a method of description of dispersion in spatial patterns across a range of scales, and is one way of descriminating clustering of similar values. Lacunarity of an image was calculated using a moving window across a range of scales as the ratio of the second moment divided by the square of the first moment for values within the window. This gives a curve of lacunarity versus resolution (scale); the curve is concave for highly clustered data, pseudolinear or convex for data with clusters at many scales such as multifractal simulations, and constant for uniformly spaced data. Breaks in slope of the curve indicate scales that are important in the structure of the spatial pattern. Gravity and magnetic field anomaly data are well known to be multifractal and thus calculated lacunarities of gridded datasets have been investigated to determine if the resulting curves are a useful measure of texture of the potential field data and helpful in identifying likely lithologies at depth beneath cover. Lacunarity is often calculated on binary data, but it can also be calculated using quantitative data. The quantitative data case lacunarity measure was computed for grids using a 25 by 25 km window moving over the grid, each window overlapping the previous one by 12.5 km. The data were the aeromagnetic and isostatic gravity anomaly grids for the state of Arizona at 0.5 km grid-interval, resulting in a lacunarity curves for gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly for each of approximately 2500 windows. The open-source software R was used for plotting a map of window center locations and lacunarity curves, and the map was loaded into Google Earth, together with maps of the gravity and magnetic field anomaly, porphyry copper deposit locations, and the geological map of Arizona. Windows were selected to compare lacunarity

  15. Integrated approach to gas accumulation identification in Field M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshevskaya, K.; Rukavishnikov, V.; Belozerov, B.; Podnebesnikh, A.

    2015-02-01

    The given paper describes how the integration of different methods, such as core data, well logs, production logging, seismic data and well test analysis, was used to solve the problem of determining gas accumulation boundaries in sediment complex PK1-3 of Field M. This paper is devoted to the block with wells 2, 36, 49, 85, 127, 148 of the field, since it is characterized by high uncertainty, sc. recently drilled wells 1V, 2V and 120 have produced oil, although according to the present-day geological concept they were considered to be gas saturated in the intervals investigated with production logging. Besides, well 127 that was presumably oil saturated has produced gas. By accounting mismatching production data and the geological concept, the authors have supposed that PK1-3 gas accumulation is characterized by a more complex structure than it was supposed by the predecessors and it is represented by reservoir compartmentalization and high heterogeneity. Therefore, the main goal of the work was to revise the distribution of gas saturated reservoir within the PK1-3 sediment complex. To achieve this goal, the authors have set the following tasks: to revise the geological correlation and gas oil contact; to carry out fault interpretation by means of seismic and well test data; to determine areal facies distribution on the basis of integrated core, perform a log motifs and seismic facies analysis. Thus, the estimation of the gas saturated reservoir portion was implemented in two stages: defining the boundary of gas accumulation in depth on the basis of well logs, production data and fault interpretation; reservoir distribution determination on the basis of the seismic facies analysis within the derived gas accumulation boundary.

  16. North south asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields observed by different instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2015-04-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the solar and heliospheric magnetic fields are north-south asymmetric. The southward shift of the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon) is a persistent pattern, which occurs typically for about three years during the late declining phase of solar cycle. We study here the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO), Mount Wilson, Kitt Peak, Solis, SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since the 1970s and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model.Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field has shown that the bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g20 quadrupole term, which is oppositely signed to the dipole moment. We find that, at least during the four recent solar cycles, the g20 reflects the larger magnitude of the southern polar field during a few years in the declining phase of the cycle. Although the overall magnetic activity during the full solar cycle is not very different in the two hemispheres, the temporal distribution of activity is different, contributing to the asymmetry. The used data sets are in general in a good agreement with each other, but there are some significant deviations, especially in WSO data. Also, the data from Kitt Peak 512 channel magnetograph is known to suffer from zero level errors.We also note that the lowest harmonic coefficients do not scale with the overall magnitude in photospheric synoptic magnetic maps. Scaling factors based on histogram techniques can be as large as 10 (from Wilcox to HMI), but the corresponding difference in dipole strength is typically less than two. This is because the polar field has a dominant contribution to the dipole and quadrupole components. This should be noted, e.g., when using synoptic maps as input for coronal models.

  17. Secondary natural gas recovery in mature fluvial sandstone reservoirs, Frio Formation, Agua Dulce Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Levey, R.A. ); Vidal, J.M. ); Sippel, M.A. ); Ballard, J.R. ); Coover, D.M. Jr. ); Bloxsom, W.E. )

    1993-09-01

    An approach that integrates detailed geologic, engineering, and petrophysical analyses combined with improved well-log analytical techniques can be used by independent oil and gas companies of successful infield exploration in mature Gulf Coast fields that larger companies may consider uneconomic. In a secondary gas recovery project conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology and funded by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, a potential incremental natural gas resource of 7.7 bcf, of which 4.0 bcf may be technically recoverable, was identified in a 490-ac lease in Agua Dulce field. Five wells in this lease had previously produced 13.7 bcf from Frio reservoirs at depths of 4600-6200 ft. The pay zones occur in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones offset by faults associated with the Vicksburg fault zone. The compartments may each contain up to 1.0 bcf of gas resources with estimates based on previous completions and the recent infield drilling experience of Pintas Creek Oil Company. Uncontacted gas resources occur in thin (typically less than 10 ft) bypassed zones that can be identified through a computed log evaluation that integrates open-hole logs, wireline pressure tests, fluid samples, and cores. At Agua Dulce field, such analysis identified at 4-ft bypassed zone uphole from previously produced reservoirs. This reservoir contained original reservoir pressure and flowed at rates exceeding 1 mmcf/d. The expected ultimate recovery is 0.4 bcf. Methodologies developed in the evaluation of Agua Dulce field can be successfully applied to other mature gas fields in the south Texas Gulf Coast. For example, Stratton and McFaddin are two fields in which the secondary gas recovery project has demonstrated the existence of thin, potentially bypassed zones that can yield significant incremental gas resources, extending the economic life of these fields.

  18. The Archeomagnetic field in South America: Present status and perspectives (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, G. A.; Trindade, R. I.; Gallet, Y.; Poletti, W.; Begnini, G. S.; Genevey, A.; Legoff, M.

    2013-12-01

    Geomagnetic field variations over decadal to millennial timescales can be determined from direct (i.e. observatory) and indirect (e.g. from archeological artifacts and volcanics) sources. Before the observatory era, the recovery of these variations is however still strongly penalized by the very uneven both geographical and temporal distributions of the available archeo/paleomagnetic dataset. In particular, the southern hemisphere contributes with only ~3% of the global archeomagnetic database. Moreover, most of these data present restrictions due to their poor experimental reliability and to the lack of good age control. Therefore, new intensity and directional data from the southern hemisphere are strongly requested for the next generation of archeomagnetic field models. In this presentation, we will report on intensity and inclination results obtained from different regions in Brazil. A collection of twenty-three site-mean archeointensity data were obtained by our team from architectural brick fragments dated to the past 500 years from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. This dataset was complemented by a series of new results from South Brazil. In addition, we also obtained inclination data, after reconstructing the firing position of the ancient bricks from modern analogs of historical brickyards. Thirteen site-mean inclination results dated to between 1790 AD and 1950 AD and five inclination results spanning the 1590-1920 AD time interval were so determined from Southeast and Northeast Brazil, respectively. Altogether, our data, which are geographically distributed over more than 20 degrees in latitude, allow us to discuss the large-scale influence in Brazil and South America of non-dipolar features of the geomagnetic field during the past few centuries.

  19. South American oil and gas fields: Reasons for their presence and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Pratsch, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    South American oil and gas fields occur in geographic clusters. Their concentration in relatively small producing areas depends on the present location of the hydrocarbon generating depocenter and results from the basinal oil and gas migration history. By defining both, existing field locations can be explained and new field occurrences can be predicted, including those in overthrust plays. One-and two-stage hydrocarbon migration processes exist: In one-stage migration oil and gas migrate directly from the generating source beds into reservoirs, like in Maturin Basin or Maranon Basin fields. In two-stage migration oil and gas first migrate into a primary reservoir level, from there during a second migration phase into a (commonly younger) secondary reservoir level. Here, the original source beds may be over-mature or even metamorphosed today; examples here are the Maturin, Llanos and Oriente Basins, possibly offshore Trinidad. Definition of generating depocenters is the task of regional exploration. Oil and gas migration analysis is one result of semi-detailed structural mapping using gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection and geochemical data. Oil and gas exploration in two-stage migration basins are especially challenging, like in the Austral Basin of southern Argentina and Chile or possibly in the Parana Basin.

  20. Raman microscopy: The identification of lapis lazuli on medieval pottery fragments from the south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Robin J. H.; Curri, M. Lucia; Laganara, Caterina

    1997-04-01

    The technique of Raman microscopy has been used to investigate the pigments used in the glazes of fragments of medieval items of pottery dating back to the second half of the 13th century, which were found buried beneath a church in the abandoned village of Castel Fiorentino, near Foggia, in Southern Italy. The research has led to the first identification of lapis lazuli in a blue pigment pottery glaze; the identification was confirmed for six other shards from the same site. The brown—black pigment in these shards could not be identified.

  1. GIS-based technology for marine geohazards in LW3-1 Gas Field of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Lejun; Li, Xishuang; Hu, Guanghai; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The exploration and exploitation of deep-water oil-gas are apt to be suffered from high-risk geo-hazards such as submarine landslide, soft clay creep, shallow gas, excess pore-water pressure, mud volcano or mud diaper, salt dome and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the seafloor topography, identify the unfavourable geological risks and investigate their environment and mechanism before exploiting the deep-water oil-gas. Because of complex environment, the submarine phenomenon and features, like marine geohazards, can not be recognized directly. Multi-disciplinary data are acquired and analysed comprehensively in order to get more clear understanding about the submarine processes. The data include multi-beam bathymetry data, sidescan sonar images, seismic data, shallow-bottom profiling images, boring data, etc.. Such data sets nowadays increase rapidly to large amounts, but may be heterogeneous and have different resolutions. It is difficult to make good management and utilization of such submarine data with traditional means. GIS technology can provide efficient and powerful tools or services in such aspects as spatial data management, processing, analysis and visualization. They further promote the submarine scientific research and engineering development. The Liwan 3-1 Gas Field, the first deep-water gas field in China, is located in the Zhu II Depression in the Zhujiang Basin along the continental slope of the northern South China Sea. The exploitation of this field is designed to establish subsea wellhead and to use submarine pipeline for the transportation of oil. The deep-water section of the pipeline route in the gas field is to be selected to pass through the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. To avoid huge economic loss and ecological environmental damage, it is necessary to evaluate the geo-hazards for the establishment and safe operation of the pipeline. Based on previous scientific research results, several survey cruises have

  2. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Kolob, Alton, and Kaiparowits Plateau coal fields, south-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plantz, Gerald G.

    1985-01-01

    The study area in south-central Utah (fig. 1) is noted for its large coal reserves in the Alton, Kolob, and Kaiparowits Plateau coal fields. The area also is noted for its scenic beauty and general scarcity of water. Although there has been very little development of the coal resources through 1983, there is a potential for large-scale development with both surface- and underground-mining methods. Mining of coal could have significant effects on the quantity and quality of the water resources. The purpose of this atlas is to define the surface- and ground-water resources of the area and to identify the potential effects on these resources by coal mining.

  3. Sandy beach molluscs as possible bio-indicators of metal pollution 1. field survey. [South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Watling, H.R.; Watling, R.J.

    1983-09-01

    A great variety of molluscs occur around the South African coast, extending as it does from the sub-tropical environment of Natal to the temperate environment of the Cape. The potential of many of these molluscs as bio-indicators has been discussed in general terms on the basis of the reported use of related species (DARRACOTT and WATLING 1975) and certain of these, among them the bivalve Donax serra and gastropod Bullia rhodostoma, have been included in the national marine pollution monitoring program. The aims of this preliminary investigation are: to determine the metal concentrations in D. serra and B. rhodostoma growing along a 500 km stretch of the southern African coast, supplementing data from sediment and water sampling surveys of the same region; and to determine in laboratory studies whether these molluscs accumulate metals, thus meeting some at least of the criteria for monitoring organisms. The field survey data are presented in this paper.

  4. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  5. Trends of Abutment-Scour Prediction Equations Applied to 144 Field Sites in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Deshpande, Nikhil; Aziz, Nadim M.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration in which predicted abutment-scour depths computed with selected predictive equations were compared with field measurements of abutment-scour depth made at 144 bridges in South Carolina. The assessment used five equations published in the Fourth Edition of 'Evaluating Scour at Bridges,' (Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18), including the original Froehlich, the modified Froehlich, the Sturm, the Maryland, and the HIRE equations. An additional unpublished equation also was assessed. Comparisons between predicted and observed scour depths are intended to illustrate general trends and order-of-magnitude differences for the prediction equations. Field measurements were taken during non-flood conditions when the hydraulic conditions that caused the scour generally are unknown. The predicted scour depths are based on hydraulic conditions associated with the 100-year flow at all sites and the flood of record for 35 sites. Comparisons showed that predicted scour depths frequently overpredict observed scour and at times were excessive. The comparison also showed that underprediction occurred, but with less frequency. The performance of these equations indicates that they are poor predictors of abutment-scour depth in South Carolina, and it is probable that poor performance will occur when the equations are applied in other geographic regions. Extensive data and graphs used to compare predicted and observed scour depths in this study were compiled into spreadsheets and are included in digital format with this report. In addition to the equation-comparison data, Water-Surface Profile Model tube-velocity data, soil-boring data, and selected abutment-scour data are included in digital format with this report. The digital database was developed as a resource for future researchers and is especially valuable for evaluating the reasonableness of future equations that may be developed.

  6. The Chandra Deep Field South as a test case for Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portaluri, E.; Viotto, V.; Ragazzoni, R.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bergomi, M.; Greggio, D.; Biondi, F.; Dima, M.; Magrin, D.; Farinato, J.

    2017-04-01

    The era of the next generation of giant telescopes requires not only the advent of new technologies but also the development of novel methods, in order to exploit fully the extraordinary potential they are built for. Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (GMCAO) pursues this approach, with the goal of achieving good performance over a field of view of a few arcmin and an increase in sky coverage. In this article, we show the gain offered by this technique to an astrophysical application, such as the photometric survey strategy applied to the Chandra Deep Field South as a case study. We simulated a close-to-real observation of a 500 × 500 arcsec2 extragalactic deep field with a 40-m class telescope that implements GMCAO. We analysed mock K-band images of 6000 high-redshift (up to z = 2.75) galaxies therein as if they were real to recover the initial input parameters. We attained 94.5 per cent completeness for source detection with SEXTRACTOR. We also measured the morphological parameters of all the sources with the two-dimensional fitting tools GALFIT. The agreement we found between recovered and intrinsic parameters demonstrates GMCAO as a reliable approach to assist extremely large telescope (ELT) observations of extragalactic interest.

  7. STAR FORMATION IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: OBSERVATIONS CONFRONT SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Damen, Maaike; Franx, Marijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Labbe, Ivo; Toft, Sune; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the star formation history of the universe using FIREWORKS, a multiwavelength survey of the Chandra Deep Field South. We study the evolution of the specific star formation rate (sSFR) with redshift in different mass bins from z = 0 to z approx 3. We find that the sSFR increases with redshift for all masses. The logarithmic increase of the sSFR with redshift is nearly independent of mass, but this cannot yet be verified at the lowest-mass bins at z>0.8, due to incompleteness. We convert the sSFRs to a dimensionless growth rate to facilitate a comparison with a semianalytic galaxy formation model that was implemented on the Millennium Simulation. The model predicts that the growth rates and sSFRs increase similarly with redshift for all masses, consistent with the observations. However, we find that for all masses, the inferred observed growth rates increase more rapidly with redshift than the model predictions. We discuss several possible causes for this discrepancy, ranging from field-to-field variance, conversions to SFR, and shape of the initial mass function. We find that none of these can solve the discrepancy completely. We conclude that the models need to be adapted to produce the steep increase in growth rate between redshift z = 0 and z = 1.

  8. Turtle Bayou 1936-1983: case history of a major gas field in south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Cronquist, C.

    1984-11-01

    Turtle Bayou field, located in the middle Miocene trend in south Louisiana, is nearing the end of a productive life spanning more than 30 years. Discovered by Shell Oil Co. in 1949 after unsuccessful attempts by two other companies, the field is a typical, low-relief, moderately faulted U.S. Gulf Coast structure, probably associated with deep salt movement. The productive interval includes 22 separate gas-bearing sands in a regressive sequence of sands and shales from approximately 6,500 to 12,000 ft (1980 to 3660 m). Now estimated to have contained about 1.2 trillion scf (34 X 10/sup 9/ std m/sup 3/) of gas in place, cumulative production through 1982 was 702 billion scf (20 X 10/sup 9/ std m/sup 3/). Cumulative condensate/gas ration (CGR) has been 20 bbl/MMcf (110 X 10/sup -6/ m/sup 3//m/sup 3/. Recovery mechanisms in individual reservoirs include strong bottomwater drive, partial edgewater drive, and pressure depletion. Recovery efficiencies in major reservoirs range form 40 to 83% of original gas in place (OGIP). On decline since 1973, it is anticipated the field will be essentially depleted in the next 5 years.

  9. The Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic Survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, I.; Scarlata, C.; Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Capak, P. L.; Mei, S.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Hibon, P.; Sedgwick, C.; Pearson, C.; Serjeant, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Salvato, M.; Malkan, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Hayes, M.; Colbert, J.; Papovich, C.; Devlin, M.; Kovacs, A.; Scott, K. S.; Surace, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Atek, H.; Urrutia, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2016-03-01

    We present the Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole field. The large area covered (7.7 deg2), together with one of the lowest Galactic cirrus emissions in the entire sky and a very extensive coverage by Spitzer, Herschel, Akari, and GALEX, make the SIMES field ideal for extragalactic studies. The elongated geometry of the SIMES area (≈4:1), allowing for significant cosmic variance reduction, further improves the quality of statistical studies in this field. Here we present the reduction and photometric measurements of the Spitzer/IRAC data. The survey reaches depths of 1.93 and 1.75 μJy (1σ) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We discuss the multiwavelength IRAC-based catalog, completed with optical, mid-, and far-IR observations. We detect 341,000 sources with {F}3.6μ {{m}}≥slant 3σ . Of these, 10% have an associated 24 μm counterpart, while 2.7% have an associated SPIRE source. We release the catalog through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive. Two scientific applications of these IRAC data are presented in this paper. First, we compute integral number counts at 3.6 μm. Second, we use the [3.6]-[4.5] color index to identify galaxy clusters at z > 1.3. We select 27 clusters in the full area, a result consistent with previous studies at similar depth.

  10. Solution to Shape Identification of Unsteady Natural Convection Fields to Control Temperature Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katamine, Eiji; Imai, Shinya; Mathmatical design Team; Computational mechanics Team

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a numerical solution to shape identification of unsteady natural convection fields to control temperature to a prescribed distribution. The square error integral between the actual temperature distributions and the prescribed temperature distributions on the prescribed sub-boundaries during the specified period of time is used as the objective functional. Shape gradient of the shape identification problem is derived theoretically using the Lagrange multiplier method, adjoint variable method, and the formulae of the material derivative. Reshaping is carried out by the traction method proposed as an approach to solving shape optimization problems. Numerical analyses program for the shape identification is developed based on FreeFem++, and the validity of proposed method is confirmed by results of 2D numerical analyses.

  11. Species identification by experts and non-experts: comparing images from field guides

    PubMed Central

    Austen, G. E.; Bindemann, M.; Griffiths, R. A.; Roberts, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate species identification is fundamental when recording ecological data. However, the ability to correctly identify organisms visually is rarely questioned. We investigated how experts and non-experts compared in the identification of bumblebees, a group of insects of considerable conservation concern. Experts and non-experts were asked whether two concurrent bumblebee images depicted the same or two different species. Overall accuracy was below 60% and comparable for experts and non-experts. However, experts were more consistent in their answers when the same images were repeated, and more cautious in committing to a definitive answer. Our findings demonstrate the difficulty of correctly identifying bumblebees using images from field guides. Such error rates need to be accounted for when interpreting species data, whether or not they have been collected by experts. We suggest that investigation of how experts and non-experts make observations should be incorporated into study design, and could be used to improve training in species identification. PMID:27644140

  12. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01

    /11 respectively. Production of oil and gas has been established with several months of production now available to make a reserve analysis. Production histories and reserves estimation are provided. An assessment of the flood potential for the South House project area has been completed with work concentrated on South House rock property and pay thickness characterization and analog studies. For the analogs, the North Robertson area, located twenty miles to the northeast, and the Teague Field, located 20 miles to the south, have been utilized due to their readily available database and previous waterflood studies. The South House area does appear to merit further examination as the rock quality compares favorably with both analog Fields; however, current well spacings of 40-acres will provide only marginal economics based upon $23.00/barrel oil prices. Permeability and porosity relationships are provided as a conditional demonstration that rock quality may be sufficient for successful waterflooding of the project area. Further rock property work and pay continuity studies are recommended.

  13. Present-day stress field on the South American slab underneath the Sandwich Plate (Southern Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giner-Robles, J. L.; Pérez-López, R.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    This work confirms the present-day principal stress orientation on the South Sandwich Plate (SSP) from the analysis of 331 earthquake focal mechanisms (Harvard catalog, HCMT). Principal stress orientation was deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms, examined by fault population analysis methods. The SSP plate is composed by oceanic crust limits an elliptical trench to the east (South Sandwich Trench), a ridge to the west and transforms faults towards the northern and southern boundaries. Within the trench region, the maximum horizontal shortening direction (SHMAX) rotates in trend in a clockwise direction, from NNE, in the northern boundary, to SSE in the southern boundary. Therefore, and keeping in mind the gradual rotation of SHMAX along the trench, three different areas were defined according to the prevailing focal mechanism type: (1) the North Zone, with SHMAX oriented N060°E and reverse and strike-slip focal mechanisms; (2) the Central Zone, with only reverse focal mechanism and SHMAX striking N080°E; (3) the South Zone, with SHMAX oriented N110°E and reverse and strike-slip focal geometry. Furthermore, the accommodation of the strain field in the Northern Zone of the South Sandwich Plate generates a subduction decoupling of the slab at, approximately, 70 km depth. In contrast, the South Zone slab exhibits a gradual stress and strain magnitude decreasing in depth. Finally, we define a sinistral strike-slip parallel to the southern boundary between the South Sandwich Plate and the Antarctic Plate, the South Sandwich Fault Zone.

  14. A DETERMINATION OF THE NORTH–SOUTH HELIOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD COMPONENT FROM INNER CORONA CLOSED-LOOP PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Yu, H.-S.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Zhao, X. E-mail: pphick@ucsd.edu E-mail: hsyu@ucsd.edu

    2015-04-10

    A component of the magnetic field measured in situ near the Earth in the solar wind is present from north–south fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-sheet Source Surface model, these fields can be extrapolated upward from near the solar surface to 1 AU. Global velocities inferred from a combination of interplanetary scintillation observations matched to in situ velocities and densities provide the extrapolation to 1 AU assuming mass and mass flux conservation. The north–south field component is compared with the same ACE in situ magnetic field component—the Normal (Radial Tangential Normal) Bn coordinate—for three years throughout the solar minimum of the current solar cycle. We find a significant positive correlation throughout this period between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in situ measurements. Given this result from a study during the latest solar minimum, this indicates that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux regularly escapes from closed field regions. The prospects for Space Weather, where the knowledge of a Bz field at Earth is important for its geomagnetic field effects, is also now enhanced. This is because the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric Bz field coordinate that couples most closely to the Earth’s geomagnetic field.

  15. The systematic search for z ≳ 5 active galactic nuclei in the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C. Megan; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2015-04-01

    We investigate early black hole (BH) growth through the methodical search for z ≳ 5 active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Chandra Deep Field South. We base our search on the Chandra 4-Ms data with flux limits of 9.1 × 10-18 (soft, 0.5-2 keV) and 5.5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 (hard, 2-8 keV). At z ˜ 5, this corresponds to luminosities as low as ˜1042 (˜1043) erg s-1 in the soft (hard) band and should allow us to detect Compton-thin AGN with MBH > 107 M⊙ and Eddington ratios >0.1. Our field (0.03 deg2) contains over 600z ˜ 5 Lyman Break Galaxies. Based on lower redshift relations, we would expect ˜20 of them to host AGN. After combining the Chandra data with Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), CANDELS/Wide Field Camera 3 and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data, the sample consists of 58 high-redshift candidates. We run a photometric redshift code, stack the GOODS/ACS data, apply colour criteria and the Lyman Break Technique and use the X-ray Hardness Ratio. We combine our tests and using additional data find that all sources are most likely at low redshift. We also find five X-ray sources without a counterpart in the optical or infrared which might be spurious detections. We conclude that our field does not contain any convincing z ≳ 5 AGN. Explanations for this result include a low BH occupation fraction, a low AGN fraction, short, super-Eddington growth modes, BH growth through BH-BH mergers or in optically faint galaxies. By searching for z ≳ 5 AGN, we are setting the foundation for constraining early BH growth and seed formation scenarios.

  16. Definition of reservoir configuration in ancient glacial environment: case history from Rima field, south Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Penneycard, A.J.

    1986-05-01

    The Al Khlata Formation (Permian-Carboniferous) is an important reservoir unit of the Eastern Flank province of South Oman. The formation consists of an unusual series of glacial sand, silt, shale, and diamictite exhibiting such gross heterogeneity that conventional correlation techniques are ineffective. A threefold palynologic subdivision has been developed, which has allowed the recognition of a number of genetically distinct units. Major periods of erosion separate the units, erosive processes dominating the 20-40 million year period during which the Al Khlata accumulated. Deposition occurred in a sequence of deep valleys cut into the early Al Khlata and underlying Haima (Cambrian-Ordovician) reservoirs. The extent of these deposits is controlled by the morphology of these incisive valleys. A case history of the large Rima field illustrates the use of palynology in unraveling the temporal and spatial relationships of the individual Al Khlata and Haima units. The resultant reservoir-geologic model of this internally complex fields has enabled more confident assessment of variations in well performance with reservoir type, and has guided plans for future offtake levels and overall development planning.

  17. BLAST OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOUTH ECLIPTIC POLE FIELD: NUMBER COUNTS AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Valiante, Elisabetta; Braglia, Filiberto G.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie

    2010-12-15

    We present results from a survey carried out by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) on a 9 deg{sup 2} field near the South Ecliptic Pole at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m. The median 1{sigma} depths of the maps are 36.0, 26.4, and 18.4 mJy, respectively. We apply a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts and find that they are in agreement with other measurements made with the same instrument and with the more recent results from Herschel/SPIRE. Thanks to the large field observed, the new measurements give additional constraints on the bright end of the counts. We identify 132, 89, and 61 sources with S/N {>=}4 at 250, 350, 500 {mu}m, respectively and provide a multi-wavelength combined catalog of 232 sources with a significance {>=}4{sigma} in at least one BLAST band. The new BLAST maps and catalogs are available publicly at http://blastexperiment.info.

  18. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at the South Well Field, Columbus, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Bair, E.S.; Yost, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    The City of Columbus, Ohio, operates four radial collector wells in southern Franklin County. The 'South Well Field' is completed in permeable outwash and ice-contact deposits, upon which flow the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The wells are designed to yield approximately 42 million gallons per day; part of that yield results from induced infiltration of surface water from the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The well field supplied up to 30 percent of the water supply of southern Columbus and its suburbs in 1991. This report describes the hydrogeology of southern Franklin County and a tran sient three-dimensional, numerical ground-water- flow model of the South Well Field. The primary source of ground water in the study area is the glacial drift aquifer. The glacial drift is composed of sand, gravel, and clay depos ited during the Illinoian and Wisconsinan glaciations. In general, thick deposits of till containing lenses of sand and gravel dominate the drift in the area west of the Scioto River. The thickest and most productive parts of the glacial drift aquifer are in the buried valleys in the central and eastern parts of the study area underlying the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the glacial drift aquifer differs spa tially and ranges from 30 to 375 feet per day. The specific yield ranges from 0.12 to 0.30. The secondary source of ground water within the study area is the underlying carbonate bedrock aquifer, which consists of Silurian and Devonian limestones, dolomites, and shales. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the carbonate bedrock aquifer ranges from 10 to 15 feet per day. The storage coefficient is about 0.0002. The ground-water-flow system in the South Well Field area is recharged by precipitation, regional ground-water flow, and induced stream infiltration. Yearly recharge rates varied spatially and ranged from 4.0 to 12.0 inches. The three-dimensional, ground-water-flow model was constructed by

  19. Genotypic diversity in Babesia bovis field isolates and vaccine strains from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Combrink, M P; Troskie, P C; Pienaar, R; Latif, A A; Mans, B J

    2014-01-31

    Genotypic diversity in Babesia bovis (cause of Asiatic redwater in cattle) vaccine strains and field isolates from South Africa were investigated using the Bv80 gene as well as microsatellites. The S11 vaccine strain possessed both A and B alleles of the Bv80 gene, as well as genotypic diversity within each allele type as defined by repeat variation resulting in different amplicon sizes. Rapid serial passage of vaccine strain from passage S10 to S24 resulted in loss of genotypic diversity that yielded a single allele A genotype with an amplicon size of 558 bp. This suggested that clonal selection occurred during rapid passaging. Extensive genotypic diversity exists in 44 field isolates characterized with both Bv80 A and B alleles, but can be readily distinguished from the S24 vaccine strain using either the Bv80 allele specific PCR assays or using multi-locus micro-satellite typing. This indicated that no recent documented clinical cases of Asiatic redwater were caused by the reversion to virulence of the current vaccine strain.

  20. Optical Survey with KMTNet for Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies in the Akari Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woong-Seob; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Kim, Minjin; Ko, Jongwan; Kim, Sam; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Taehyun; Seo, Hyun Jong; Park, Won-Kee; Park, Sung-Joon; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Dong Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Seung-Lee; Matsuura, Shuji; Pearson, Chris; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2016-10-01

    We present an optical imaging survey of AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) using the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), to find optical counterparts of dusty star-forming galaxies. The ADF-S is a deep far-infrared imaging survey region with AKARI covering around 12 deg^2, where the deep optical imaging data are not yet available. By utilizing the wide-field capability of the KMTNet telescopes (˜4 deg^2), we obtain optical images in B, R and I bands for three regions. The target depth of images in B, R and I bands is ˜24 mag (AB) at 5σ, which enables us to detect most dusty star-forming galaxies discovered by AKARI in the ADF-S. Those optical datasets will be helpful to constrain optical spectral energy distributions as well as to identify rare types of dusty star-forming galaxies such as dust-obscured galaxy, sub-millimeter galaxy at high redshift.}

  1. Deep Medium-Band Subaru Imaging of the MUSYC Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Cardamone, C.; van Dokkum, P.; Gawiser, E.; Brammer, G.; Taylor, N.; Treister, E.; Taniguchi, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Virani, S.; Kriek, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on deep medium-band imaging with the Subaru telescope, in 18 filters from 427 nm to 856 nm, of the MUSYC survey field in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. We detect 80,000 galaxies to equivalent magnitude R 27 mag, of which approximately 1,000 are X-ray-luminous AGN observed with Chandra and XMM. Combining the Subaru data with optical and IR data (in U,U38,B,V,R,I,z,J,K) we obtain photometric redshifts using EAZY, a fast public photometric redshift code, in the range 0

  2. The South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Pc4-5 Wave Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, Lt. Nathan; Zesta, Eftyhia; Boudouridis, Athanasios; Moldwin, Mark; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Chi, Peter

    The Antarctic continent, the only landmass in the southern polar region, offers the unique opportunity for observations that geomagnetically range from polar latitudes to well into the inner magnetosphere, thus enabling conjugate observations in a wide range of geomagnetic lat-itudes. The SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array) chain is a meridional chain of 12 magnetometers, 11 of them at L=1.1 to L=2.5 along the coast of Chile and in the Antarc-tica peninsula, and one auroral station along the same meridian. SAMBA is conjugate to the northern hemisphere MEASURE and McMAC chains, offering unique opportunities for inter-hemispheric studies. In particular, we study asymmetries in the power of ULF waves and the role of the ionosphere in such observed asymmetries. Utilizing conjugate magnetometer stations at L=1.7 and L=2.3, we previously demonstrated that the northern hemisphere consistently shows higher ULF wave power. One possible reason for the asymmetry is solar zenith angles differences with the northern hemisphere station being closer to the ecliptic plain and having a higher power ratio. These hemispheric differences were also observed with TEC measurements indicating that the north and south conjugate ionospheres are similarly asymmetric. The initial study was done with Pc3 waves, which include the resonance frequencies for the flux tubes of our conjugate stations. We now extend the study to Pc4 and Pc5 waves that reach the lower latitudes via different mechanisms and compare these waves to the resonant Pc3 waves.

  3. South Central Kansas Gender Equity Project. 1994-95 Annual Report, Field Trip Guide, and Library Resource Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson-Pennington, Laura S.; And Others

    Cowley County Community College established the South Central Kansas Gender Equity Educational Resource Center in 1991-92 to facilitate career awareness, exploration, and preparation by students of all ages, focusing on opportunities in non-traditional fields for both females and males. This document presents an annual report for the Center for…

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  5. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  6. Determination of the North-South Heliospheric Magnetic-Field Component from Inner-Corona Closed-Loop Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Kim, J.; Hong, S.; Lee, B.; Yi, J.; Yun, J.

    2015-12-01

    We find that a portion of the north-south interplanetary magnetic field measured in situ near Earth is present from a direct outward mapping of closed fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) model (Zhao & Hoeksema, 1995 JGR 100, 19), these lower coronal fields are extrapolated upward from near the solar surface. Global velocities inferred from a combination of observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) matched to in-situ velocities and densities measured by spacecraft instrumentation provide an accurate outward timing to 1 AU from a model assuming conservation of mass and mass flux. The north-south field component at 1 AU is compared with the appropriate ACE magnetometer in-situ Normal (RTN) or Bn field coordinate (Jackson et al., 2015, ApJL, 803:L1). From a significant positive correlation between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in-situ measurements over a three-year period during the last solar minimum, we find that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux (~1%) regularly escapes from closed-field regions. Since the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) Bz field component that couples most closely to the Earth's geomagnetic field, the prospects for its determination using this technique for space weather use are being actively developed by our many colleague groups.

  7. 3D airflow dynamics over transverse ridges Mpekweni, South Africa: implications for dune field migration behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew; Green, Andrew; Beyers, Meiring; Wiles, Errol; Benallack, Keegan

    2016-04-01

    Un-vegetated dune fields provide excellent opportunities to examine airflow dynamics over various types and scales of dune landforms. The three dimensional surface over which lower boundary layers travel, help adjust surface airflow and consequently the aeolian response of the dunes themselves. The use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling in recent studies now enables investigation of the 3D behaviour of airflow over complex terrain, providing new insights into heterogeneous surface flow and aeolian response of dune surfaces on a large (dunefield) scale. Using a largely un-vegetated coastal dune field site at Mpekweni, Eastern Cape, South Africa, a detailed (0.1m gridded) terrestrial laser scanning survey was conducted to create a high resolution topographical surface. Using local wind flow measurements and local met station records as input, CFD modelling was performed for a number of scenarios involving variable direction and magnitude to examine surface flow patterns across multiple dune forms. Near surface acceleration, expansion and separation of airflow inducing convergence and divergence (steering) of flow velocity streamlines are investigated. Flow acceleration over dune crests/brink lines is a key parameter in driving dune migration and slip face dynamics. Dune aspect ratio (height to length) is also important in determining the degree of crestal flow acceleration, with an increase in flow associated with increasing aspect ratios. Variations in dune height appear to be the most important parameter in driving general flow acceleration. The results from the study provide new insights into dune migration behaviour at this site as well as surface flow behaviour across multiple dune configurations and length scales within un-vegetated dune fields.

  8. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Lafri, Ismail; Almeras, Lionel; Bitam, Idir; Caputo, Aurelia; Yssouf, Amina; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine. Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M’sila where P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi was the only sand fly species detected. Conclusion The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field

  9. Identification of soil associations in western South Dakota on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Myers, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units having characteristic soil depths and textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, pH characteristics, plasticity indices, liquid limits, and the like, from which broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited as a source for top soil, and as a source for sand and gravel, and how corrosive the soil is for steel and concrete, and what crop and grass yields can be expected. Film color composites of bands 4, 5 and 7 viewed over a light table with magnification show the soil associations of western South Dakota that are now recognized, and, in addition, several new soil association areas have been brought to light.

  10. Identification of Surface Water Quality along the Coast of Sanya, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen-Zhen; Che, Zhi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Dong, Jun-De; Wu, Mei-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) are utilized to identify the effects caused by human activities on water quality along the coast of Sanya, South China Sea. PCA and CA identify the seasonality of water quality (dry and wet seasons) and polluted status (polluted area). The seasonality of water quality is related to climate change and Southeast monsoons. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities (especially land input of pollutions). PCA reveals the characteristics underlying the generation of coastal water quality. The temporal and spatial variation of the trophic status along the coast of Sanya is governed by hydrodynamics and human activities. The results provide a novel typological understanding of seasonal trophic status in a shallow, tropical, open marine bay.

  11. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Holstein cattle in south China.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Tong, Q; Hu, X Z; Yang, L G; Zhong, X Q; Yu, Y; Wu, J J; Liu, W J; Li, X; Hua, G H; Zhao, H Q; Zhang, S J

    2011-10-13

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a recently described monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle that causes premature birth, aborted fetuses and stillborn calves. Guanine is substituted by thymine (G>T) in the solute carrier family 35 member A3 gene (SLC35A3). A valine is changed to a phenylalanine at position 180 of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetyl-glucosamine transporter protein. CVM is expected to occur in many countries due to the widespread use of sire semen. We developed a created restriction site PCR (CRS-PCR) method to diagnose CVM in dairy cows. This was tested on 217 cows and 125 bulls selected randomly from a Holstein cattle population in south China. Five Holstein cows and five Holstein bulls were identified to be CVM carriers; the percentages of CVM carriers were estimated to be 2.3, 4.0 and 2.9% in the cows, bulls and entire Holstein cattle sample, respectively.

  12. Identification of airborne microbiota in selected areas in a health-care setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of bio-aerosols in the spread of disease and spoilage of food has been described in numerous studies; nevertheless this information at South African hospitals is limited. Attributable to their size, bio-aerosols may be suspended in the air for long periods placing patients at risk of infection and possibly settling on surfaces resulting in food contamination. The aim of the study is to assess the microbial composition of the air in the kitchen and selected wards at a typical district hospital in South Africa. Air samples were collected using the settle plates and an SAS Super 90 air sampler by impaction on agar. These microbial samples were quantified and identified using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Analytic Profile Index (API). Results Microbial counts were found to be higher in the fourth (≤6.0 × 101 cfu/m-3) sampling rounds when compared to the first (≥2 cfu/m-3), second (≤3.0 × 101 cfu/m-3) and third (≤1.5 × 101 cfu/m-3) sampling rounds. Genera identified included Bacillus, Kocuria, Staphylococcus, Arthrobacter, Candida, Aureobasidium, Penicillium and Phoma amongst others. The presence of these pathogens is of concern, attributable to their ability to cause diseases in humans especially in those with suppressed host immunity defenses. Furthermore, fungal genera identified (e.g. Candida) in this study are also known to cause food spoilage and fungal infections in patients. Conclusion Results from this study indicate the importance of air quality monitoring in health-care settings to prevent possible hospital-acquired infections and contamination of hospital surfaces including food contact surfaces by airborne contaminants. PMID:24750818

  13. Brittle structures in porous sandstones, south central Pyrenees, Spain: field characterization and impact for fluid flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saillet, Elodie; Vautier, Yannick; Proudhon, Bennoit; Guilbert, Nathanaël; Hannot, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    In order to better constrain fluids flow circulations in the continental crust, understanding evolution of fault geometry and hydromecanical properties is essential. The knowledge of faulting in analogous reservoirs is particularly important in silicoclastic context. Indeed the high value of natural porosity and the impact of faulting on porosity and permeability will generate potential reservoirs. Depending on the type of faults, deformation in sands and sandstones reservoirs can produces barriers or conduits for fluids. This study focused on an silicoclastic analogous reservoir localised in south central Pyrenees (Spain), named the Aren group, where deformation is recorded by different type of faults. The Aren group is located on the front of the Boixol thrust, on the southern side of the San Corneli anticline. The outcrops are localised in 3 different area, comprised between the towns of Aren, Tremp and Isona. Depending of the outcrop, we identify presence of veins, joints, deformation bands (DBs) and some few sites where both of them are recorded in the same unit. We present a complete field study, based on two different field mapping methods : (i) field photomosaiques and associated detail 2D mapping ; (ii) linear scanlines along deformed outcrops. These two different methods, applied around ten outcrops allow us to obtain : (1) 30 meters squares of 2D detailed maps of fractures and linkage information ; (2) 90 linear meters of fracture density vs. distance all along the outcrop for each type of fracture. Field measurements and quantification was completed by a systematic sampling, in order to give an access to (i) microtectonic elements and fine characterisation of the different fault types by SEM observations ; (ii) a porosity quantification of host rock and fault zones based on the SEM pictures. Field data shows a strong relationship between the different types of brittle structures. On the Aren outcrop, fine DBs (wich act as barriers) are located in

  14. Identification of soil associations in South Dakota on ERTS 1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. From these characteristics of the soil, broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited for various agronomic and engineering uses. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. This aids in selecting typical sampling sites and provides a check on the homogeneity of the associations.

  15. Ground-based instrumentation for measurements of atmospheric conduction current and electric field at the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, G. J.; Benbrook, J. R.; Bering, E. A.; Few, A. A.; Morris, G. A.; Trabucco, W. J.; Paschal, E. W.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to instruments constructed to measure the atmospheric conduction current and the atmospheric electric field - two fundamental parameters of the global-electric circuit. The instruments were deployed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in January 1991 and are designed to operate continuously for up to one year without operator intervention. The atmospheric current flows into one hemisphere, through the electronics where it is measured, and out the other hemisphere. The electric field is measured by a field mill of the rotating dipole type. Sample data from the first days of operation at the South Pole indicate variations in the global circuit over time scales from minutes to hours to days.

  16. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra deep field south

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Comastri, A.; Ranalli, P.; Akylas, A.; Salvato, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C.; Koutoulidis, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra deep field south. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. This type of galaxy is characterized by a very high infrared (IR) to optical flux ratio (f24 μm/fR > 1000), which in the case of CT AGN could be due to the suppression of AGN emission by absorption and its subsequent re-emission in the IR. The most reliable way of confirming the CT nature of an AGN is by X-ray spectroscopy. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields, the Chandra deep field north (CDF-N), and the Chandra deep field south (CDF-S). In that work, we only found a moderate percentage (<50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample. However, we pointed out that the limited photon statistics for most of the sources in the sample did not allow us to strongly constrain this number. In this paper, we further explore the properties of the sample of DOGs in the CDF-S presented in that work by using not only a deeper 6Ms Chandra survey of the CDF-S, but also by combining these data with the 3Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (NH > 1023 cm-2), whereas 2 look unabsorbed, and the other 3 are only moderately absorbed. Among the highly absorbed AGN, we find that only three could be considered CT AGN. In only one of these three cases, we detect a strong Fe Kα emission line; the source is already classified as a CT AGN with Chandra data in a previous work. Here we confirm its CT nature by combining Chandra and XMM-Newton data. For the other two CT

  17. Selected First Results from the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. Niel; Chandra Deep Field-South Team

    2017-01-01

    The exposure on the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) has recently been increased to 7 Ms, making it the most sensitive extragalactic X-ray survey by a wide margin. About 1050 X-ray sources have been detected, primarily distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and starburst/normal galaxies. The unmatched deep multiwavelength coverage for these sources allows superb follow-up investigations; e.g., 98.4% of the X-ray sources have multiwavelength counterparts, and 97.8% have spectroscopic/photometric redshifts. I will briefly describe the source catalog for the 7 Ms CDF-S and some exciting first science results. The latter will likely include (1) constraints on SMBH growth in the first galaxies as revealed by direct detection and stacking; (2) long-term variability studies of the AGNs producing most of cosmic accretion power; (3) AGN/galaxy interactions as investigated via the host properties of X-ray AGNs; and (4) measurements of the evolving X-ray binary populations of normal and starburst galaxies.

  18. Findings of the SHIVA field campaign in the South China Sea in Nov.-Dec. 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Marine emissions of so-called halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are known to considerably contribute to the ozone destroying halogen loading of the stratosphere. In this context, most crucial are VSLS emissions in regions of large vertical transport, i.e. the tropics and in particular in the warm pool of the Western Pacific during the rainy seasons (November to March). In order to study the biogenic emissions of halogenated VSLS, their atmospheric transport and transformation, the internationally coordinated field expedition SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was performed within the margins of the South China Sea in November and December 2011. Partners from 19 institutions from 9 countries participated in the campaign. Funding came from the EU's 7th framework programme and additionally from a larger number of national funding agencies. The activities included investigations in the laboratory and on the ground, during local ship cruises, the research vessel SONNE, deployments of the DLR (Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space) Falcon aircraft around Borneo, simultaneous satellite observations, the meteorological forecasting and analysis, and numerical modeling of atmospheric transport and photochemistry. The present talk provides an overview on the performed research activities, reports on joint studies, and some core research results obtained to date.

  19. Findings of the SHIVA field campaign in the South China Sea in Nov.-Dec. 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    Marine emissions of so-called halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are known to considerably contribute to the ozone destroying halogen loading of the stratosphere. In this context, most crucial are VSLS emissions in regions of large vertical transport, i.e. the tropics and in particular in the warm pool of the Western Pacific during the rainy seasons (November to March). In order to study the biogenic emissions of halogenated VSLS, their atmospheric transport and transformation, the internationally coordinated field expedition SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was performed within the margins of the South China Sea in November and December 2011. Partners from 19 institutions from 9 countries participated in the campaign and funding came from the EU's 7th framework programme and additionally from a larger number of national funding agencies. The activities included investigations in the laboratory and on the ground, during local ship cruises, the research vessel SONNE, deployments of the DLR (Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space) Falcon aircraft around Borneo, simultaneous satellite observations, the meteorological forecasting and analysis, and numerical modelling of atmospheric transport and photochemistry. The present talk provides an overview on the performed research activities, and reports on joint studies and the research results obtained to date.

  20. The internal seiche field in the changing South Aral Sea (2006-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roget, Elena; Khimchenko, Elizaveta; Forcat, Francesc; Zavialov, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Internal standing waves (seiches) in the South Aral Sea are studied for the first time. The study, based on numerical simulations and field data, focuses on two different campaigns: the first in autumn 2006, when the stratification was weak and there was a mild prevailing northeasterly wind, and the second in autumn 2013, when the stratification was strong and there was a mild easterly wind. Between these two campaigns, the sea surface level decreased by 3.2 m. The periods of the fundamental modes were identified as 36 and 14 h, respectively. In both years, either second or third vertical modes were found. In general, the vertical modes in 2013 were higher because of the broad and strong pycnocline. For both years, it was found that the deep quasi-homogeneous mixed upper layer could sustain internal waves under mild wind conditions. The observed first and second vertical modes in 2006 are the first and second horizontal modes and the second and third vertical modes in 2013 are the second and third horizontal modes. The results suggest that, due to sea level variations, the neck connecting the Chernyshev Bay to the main body of the lake can become a critical location for the development of a nodal line for all principal oscillation modes. Rotation effects on waves were not analyzed in this study.

  1. Impacts of spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin on spider communities in cabbage fields in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T-X; Irungu, R W; Dean, D A; Harris, M K

    2013-04-01

    Spiders are a principal arthropod group that preys on numerous pests of vegetables and other crops. In this study, we determined the effects of the two most commonly used insecticides, spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin, on diversity of spiders on cabbage in south Texas. In two seasons (fall 2008 and spring 2009), we collected a total of 588 spiders belonging to 53 species in 11 families from spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin-treated cabbages and the untreated control plants. A great majority of spiders were collected from the pitfall traps (554) where only a few (34) were collected from the blower/vacuum sampling. In the insecticide-treated plots, there were significantly fewer spider individuals, species and families than in untreated fields. Spinosad had significantly less effect on spiders in total individuals, number of species and families than λ-cyhalothrin. The effects of the two insecticides were further demonstrated by the Shannon-Weiner index (H') and the hierarchical richness index (HRI). Spider diversity in the spinosad-treated plots were not significantly different from that in the untreated fields but were greater than those in λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots in both seasons when measured by H' values. In contrast, the H' values of spider's diversity in the λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots were significantly lower than spinosad-treated and untreated plots. High values of HRI for spider richness in the spinosad-treated plots suggested that spinosad had less effect on spiders than λ-cyhalothrin. We concluded that spinosad was more compatible with spiders on cabbage compared to λ-cyhalothrin and that this information should be used when developing insecticide resistance management strategies.

  2. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

  3. Isolation and Identification of Feline Herpesvirus Type 1 from a South China Tiger in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Heting; Li, Yuanguo; Jiao, Weiyi; Liu, Cunfa; Liu, Xiujuan; Wang, Haijun; Hua, Fuyou; Dong, Jianxiu; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an FHV-1-like virus was isolated from a tiger that presented with clinical signs of sialorrhea, sneezing and purulent rhinorrhea. Isolation was performed with the FK81 cell line, and the virus was identified by PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the phylogenetic analysis of the partial thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) genes. A total of 253 bp of the TK gene and 566 bp of the gB gene were amplified from the trachea of the tiger by PCR/RT-PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the same cluster with other FHV-1 strains obtained from GenBank. Herpes-like viruses with an envelope and diameters of approximately 200 nm were observed in the culture supernatants of FK81 cells inoculated with samples from the tiger. The FHV-1 infection was confirmed by an animal challenge experiment in a cat model. Our finding extends the host range of FHV-1 and has implications for FHV-1 infection and South China tiger conservation. PMID:24590411

  4. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England.

    PubMed

    Barnett, James; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Davison, Nick; Deaville, Rob; Everest, David; Peake, Julie; Finnegan, Christopher; Jepson, Paul; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-01-01

    Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM). Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1) and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2). In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall) between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species) detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera.

  5. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, James; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Davison, Nick; Deaville, Rob; Everest, David; Peake, Julie; Finnegan, Christopher; Jepson, Paul; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-01-01

    Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM). Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1) and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2). In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall) between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species) detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera. PMID:26046847

  6. Isolation and identification of feline herpesvirus type 1 from a South China tiger in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Heting; Li, Yuanguo; Jiao, Weiyi; Liu, Cunfa; Liu, Xiujuan; Wang, Haijun; Hua, Fuyou; Dong, Jianxiu; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2014-02-28

    In 2012, an FHV-1-like virus was isolated from a tiger that presented with clinical signs of sialorrhea, sneezing and purulent rhinorrhea. Isolation was performed with the FK81 cell line, and the virus was identified by PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the phylogenetic analysis of the partial thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) genes. A total of 253 bp of the TK gene and 566 bp of the gB gene were amplified from the trachea of the tiger by PCR/RT-PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the same cluster with other FHV-1 strains obtained from GenBank. Herpes-like viruses with an envelope and diameters of approximately 200 nm were observed in the culture supernatants of FK81 cells inoculated with samples from the tiger. The FHV-1 infection was confirmed by an animal challenge experiment in a cat model. Our finding extends the host range of FHV-1 and has implications for FHV-1 infection and South China tiger conservation.

  7. Impacts of Humic Injection Experiments on the South Oyster Field Research Site

    SciTech Connect

    John F. McCarthy

    2004-04-27

    A closure plan for the South Oyster Focus Area (SOFA) is being implemented to assess the impacts of a series of experimental injections of microorganisms, tracers and chemical amendments on the chemical and physical properties of the aquifer. The proposed research addresses environmental monitoring of humic substances injected into the aquifer, as described in the Site Closure Plan for the South Oyster Field Research Site. The goal of the research is to demonstrate that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the groundwater at and downgradient from the injection site has returned to a pre-injection �baseline� conditions with respect to either the concentration or chemical composition of the DOM. For clarity, the humic solution injected during the experiment will be referred to as �humic injectate.� The term �DOM� will refer to the organic material recovered in the groundwater, which includes the autochthonous groundwater DOM as well as any of the humic injectate remaining in the groundwater. Specific objectives include: � Estimate the amount of humic material remaining in the aquifer at the completion of the push-pull experiment and the potential for environmental impacts due to release of humics retained on the sediments. � Monitor the DOM concentrations in groundwater over time at the injection well and at sampling locations within the potential downgradient plume of the injected tracers. � Evaluate the chemical composition of the DOM to determine whether the injection experiment had an impact of the chemical properties of the aquifer. The product of this research will be a contribution to the Site Closure Report documenting the impact of the humic experiments on the aquifer. Return of the aquifer to a �baseline� conditions will be achieved if the DOM concentrations in the groundwater are determined over the course of the research to have decreased to the pre-injection level, or if the chemical properties of

  8. Crop Identification Using Time Series of Landsat-8 and Radarsat-2 Images: Application in a Groundwater Irrigated Region, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. K.; Hubert-Moy, L.; Betbederet, J.; Ruiz, L.; Sekhar, M.; Corgne, S.

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring land use and land cover and more particularly irrigated cropland dynamics is of great importance for water resources management and land use planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined use of multi-temporal optical and radar data with a high spatial resolution in order to improve the precision of irrigated crop identification by taking into account information on crop phenological stages. SAR and optical parameters were derived from time- series of seven quad-pol RADARSAT-2 and four Landsat-8 images which were acquired on the Berambadi catchment, South India, during the monsoon crop season at the growth stages of turmeric crop. To select the best parameter to discriminate turmeric crops, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied on all the time-series parameters and the most discriminant ones were classified using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique. Results show that in absence of optical images, polarimetric parameters derived from SAR time-series can be used for the turmeric area estimates and that the combined use of SAR and optical parameters can improve the classification accuracy to identify turmeric.

  9. First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic coastal waters, with notes on the use of macrociliary patterns for beroid identification.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Migotto, Alvaro E

    2014-03-18

    Beroe forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 is an oceanic ctenophore with a global distribution. The present study provides the first record of Beroe forskalii for the South American Atlantic coast, including a redescription of the species and a discussion on the utility of macrociliary patterns for the correct identification of at least some beroid species, exemplified by a comparison of the macrociliary patterns of Beroe forskalii and Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821).

  10. Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedure to toxic industrial effluent in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jin-Sung; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was applied to the effluent from a pharmaceutical industrial complex, following the US EPA TIE guidelines. The whole effluent toxicity (WET) test found toxicity greater than 16toxic units (TU) in the effluent. Dissolved non-polar organic compounds were identified as the major contributor to the observed toxicity in the TIE manipulations in phases I and II. Among the 48 organic compounds identified, three compounds (i.e., acetophenone, benzoimide, and benzothiazole) were related to the pharmaceutical production procedure; however, no contribution to toxicity was predicted in the compounds. The results of the ECOSAR model, which predicts toxicity, indicated that the alkane compounds caused significant toxicity in the effluent. The toxicity test and heavy metal analysis, which used IC and ICP/MS, identified that particulate and heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, contributed to the remaining toxicity, except dissolved organics. The results showed the applicability of the TIE method for predicting regional effluents produced by the industrial pharmaceutical complex in this study. Although the location was assumed to be affected by discharge of pharmaceutical related compounds in the river, no correlations were observed in the study. Based on the results, advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, are recommended for the wastewater treatment process in this location.

  11. An Approach to Near Field Data Selection in Radio Frequency Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkworth, Robert D.

    Personal identification is needed in many civil activities, and the common identification cards, such as a driver's license, have become the standard document de facto. Radio frequency identification has complicated this matter. Unlike their printed predecessors, contemporary RFID cards lack a practical way for users to control access to their individual fields of data. This leaves them more available to unauthorized parties, and more prone to abuse. Here, then was undertaken a means to test a novel RFID card technology that allows overlays to be used for reliable, reversible data access settings. Similar to other proposed switching mechanisms, it offers advantages that may greatly improve outcomes. RFID use is increasing in identity documents such as drivers' licenses and passports, and with it concern over the theft of personal information, which can enable unauthorized tracking or fraud. Effort put into designing a strong foundation technology now may allow for widespread development on them later. In this dissertation, such a technology was designed and constructed, to drive the central thesis that selective detuning could serve as a feasible, reliable mechanism. The concept had been illustrated effective in limiting access to all fields simultaneously before, and was here effective in limiting access to specific fields selectively. A novel card was produced in familiar dimensions, with an intuitive interface by which users may conceal the visible print of the card to conceal the wireless emissions it allows. A discussion was included of similar technologies, involving capacitive switching, that could further improve the outcomes if such a product were put to large-scale commercial fabrication. The card prototype was put to a battery of laboratory tests to measure the degree of independence between data fields and the reliability of the switching mechanism when used under realistically variable coverage, demonstrating statistically consistent performance in

  12. Identification of Surface Manifestation at Geothermal Field Using SAR Dual Orbit Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Dinul; Saepuloh, Asep

    2016-09-01

    The Wayang -Windu Geothermal Field located in West Java, Indonesia is a geothermal field under tropical zone which is identified by high precipitation, dense vegetation, and extensive weathering/alteration. The clouds due to high precipitation and vegetation conditions on the tropical zone inhibit the identification of surface manifestation using optical remote sensing techniques. In this paper, we reduced these inhibiting factors using microwave remote sensing techniques termed as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The SAR dual orbits were used to observe the targets on the surface by minimizing the effects from the clouds and dense vegetation cover. This study is aimed to identify surface manifestation based on Geo morphologic and Structural Features (GSF) of the SAR in Ascending and Descending orbits. The Linear Features Density of SAR (lifedSAR) method was applied to quantify the linear features of the ground surface and served as basis of surface manifestation identification. Based on the lifedSAR and field observations, the surface manifestations could be detected succesfully at Wayang and Cibolang craters with density about 45%. The soil measurements were used validate the result and to interpret the correlation between LFD and surface manifestations.

  13. Clusters, groups, and filaments in the Chandra deep field-south up to redshift 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.

    2014-03-01

    We present a comprehensive structure detection analysis of the 0.3 deg{sup 2} area of the MUSYC-ACES field, which covers the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Using a density-based clustering algorithm on the MUSYC and ACES photometric and spectroscopic catalogs, we find 62 overdense regions up to redshifts of 1, including clusters, groups, and filaments. We also present the detection of a relatively small void of ∼10 Mpc{sup 2} at z ∼ 0.53. All structures are confirmed using the DBSCAN method, including the detection of nine structures previously reported in the literature. We present a catalog of all structures present, including their central position, mean redshift, velocity dispersions, and classification based on their morphological and spectroscopic distributions. In particular, we find 13 galaxy clusters and 6 large groups/small clusters. Comparison of these massive structures with published XMM-Newton imaging (where available) shows that 80% of these structures are associated with diffuse, soft-band (0.4-1 keV) X-ray emission, including 90% of all objects classified as clusters. The presence of soft-band X-ray emission in these massive structures (M {sub 200} ≥ 4.9 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}) provides a strong independent confirmation of our methodology and classification scheme. In the closest two clusters identified (z < 0.13) high-quality optical imaging from the Deep2c field of the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey reveals the cD galaxies and demonstrates that they sit at the center of the detected X-ray emission. Nearly 60% of the clusters, groups, and filaments are detected in the known enhanced density regions of the CDFS at z ≅ 0.13, 0.52, 0.68, and 0.73. Additionally, all of the clusters, bar the most distant, are found in these overdense redshift regions. Many of the clusters and groups exhibit signs of ongoing formation seen in their velocity distributions, position within the detected cosmic web, and in one case through the presence of tidally

  14. Sediment source identification and load prediction in a mixed-use Piedmont watershed, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    McCarney-Castle, Kerry; Childress, Tristan M; Heaton, Christian R

    2016-10-28

    Many streams in the Piedmont region of the southeastern United States transport a disproportionately large amount of suspended sediment in response to moderately increased streamflows. Transport and deposition of excess sediment affect the stability of the channel and the health of the biological community; therefore, identifying the main source(s) of sediment and assessing the relationships between source, transport, and streamflow are critical to aquatic life and habitat management, dynamic equilibrium preservation, and development of feasible mitigation scenarios. The objectives of this study were to: (1) predict the annual suspended sediment yield and (2) identify significant contributing upland sources of sediment in the Lawsons Fork Creek basin, a 217 km(2) mixed-use watershed in the South Carolina Piedmont. A regularly monitored cross-section located in the downstream reach was equipped with a passive sediment sampler, gage-height recorder, and sediment tiles. Streamflow and sediment concentration were measured over a 24-month period under variable hydrologic regimes. Results indicated that the average annual sediment yield (168 t/km(2)/yr) is significantly higher than yields documented in Piedmont watersheds of comparable size. To identify and prioritize sources of sediment contribution, stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) were used as tracers. Source material was compared with suspended sediment near the watershed outlet (target material) and SIAR, a Bayesian Inference model, was used to estimate source apportionment. Results of this source study indicate that approximately 60% of the total sediment load in the water column during high flow events is derived from stream bank erosion. Findings are consistent with observed unstable stream bank conditions in the watershed. This study supports the use of a dual-isotopic fingerprinting approach in tandem with traditional sediment monitoring as a cost-effective method to identify and

  15. Practical considerations for the field application of miniaturized portable Raman instrumentation for the identification of minerals.

    PubMed

    Vítek, Petr; Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G M

    2013-07-01

    The nondestructive identification of both inorganic and organic compounds without the need for chemical or mechanical sample preparation is an advantage of the Raman spectroscopic analytical technique when applied in situ using miniaturized equipment for the geosciences. This is critically assessed here for several real life geoscientific scenarios in which several groups of minerals were analyzed with emphasis on evaporites, carbonates, and selected types of dark minerals and weak Raman scatterers. The role of individual analytical instrumental parameters such as focal plane precision, exposure time, and ambient light conditions that can affect the acquisition and interpretation of spectroscopic data from these specimens in field conditions was also evaluated.

  16. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated.

  17. The Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: 7 Ms Source Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Lehmer, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Vito, F.; Yang, G.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gu, Q.-S.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Koekemoer, A.; Liu, T.; Mainieri, V.; Paolillo, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rosati, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Smail, I.; Sun, M.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2017-01-01

    We present X-ray source catalogs for the ≈7 Ms exposure of the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which covers a total area of 484.2 arcmin2. Utilizing wavdetect for initial source detection and ACIS Extract for photometric extraction and significance assessment, we create a main source catalog containing 1008 sources that are detected in up to three X-ray bands: 0.5–7.0 keV, 0.5–2.0 keV, and 2–7 keV. A supplementary source catalog is also provided, including 47 lower-significance sources that have bright ({K}s≤slant 23) near-infrared counterparts. We identify multiwavelength counterparts for 992 (98.4%) of the main-catalog sources, and we collect redshifts for 986 of these sources, including 653 spectroscopic redshifts and 333 photometric redshifts. Based on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties, we identify 711 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the main-catalog sources. Compared to the previous ≈4 Ms CDF-S catalogs, 291 of the main-catalog sources are new detections. We have achieved unprecedented X-ray sensitivity with average flux limits over the central ≈1 arcmin2 region of ≈1.9 × 10‑17, 6.4 × 10‑18, and 2.7 × 10‑17 erg cm‑2 s‑1 in the three X-ray bands, respectively. We provide cumulative number-count measurements observing, for the first time, that normal galaxies start to dominate the X-ray source population at the faintest 0.5–2.0 keV flux levels. The highest X-ray source density reaches ≈50,500 deg‑2, and 47% ± 4% of these sources are AGNs (≈23,900 deg‑2).

  18. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface rupture of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface ruptures at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface rupture. Scanned features of the right-lateral rupture include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the rupture zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of current debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.

  19. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

    2001-05-03

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

  20. Preface to the special issue on "Regional moment tensors and stress field in South and Central America"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, Franck; Zahradnik, Jiri; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    This special issue follows from the Symposium "Regional Moment Tensor Solutions: advances and new applications" held in Bogotá, Colombia, at the I Regional Assembly of the IASPEI's Latin American and Caribbean Seismological Commission (LACSC) in 2014. Seven papers are presented dealing with determination of moment tensors, focal mechanisms and the stress field in Central and South America. The study areas of each paper are indicated in the index Map of Fig. 1.

  1. Public health systems strengthening in Africa: the role of South Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Kuonza, Lazarus; Tint, Khin San; Harris, Bernice; Nabukenya, Immaculate

    2011-01-01

    The South Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (SAFELTP) was created in 2006 after recognizing the need to build and sustain the country's human resource capacity in field (applied) epidemiology and public health practice. The programme was formed as a collaboration between the South Africa Department of Health (DoH), the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD), the National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the University of Pretoria. The primary goal of the programme was to produce field-trained epidemiologists equipped with knowledge and practical skills to effectively and efficiently address the public health priorities of South Africa. SAFELTP is a 2-year full-time training, consisting of a combination of classroom-based instruction (30%) and mentored field work (70%). The training places emphasis on public health surveillance, investigation of disease epidemics, public health laboratory practice and communication of epidemiologic information, among other aspects of epidemiology research. At completion, residents are awarded a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree from the University of Pretoria. Since its inception in 2006, 48 residents have enrolled onto the programme and 30 (62%) of them have completed the training. Over the past 5 years, the residents have conducted more than 92 outbreak investigations, 47 surveillance evaluations, 19 planned studies, analyzed 37 large databases and presented more than 56 papers at local and international conferences. In recognition of the high-quality work, at least five SAFELTP residents have received awards at various international scientific conferences during the 5 years. In conclusion, the South Africa FELTP is now fully established and making valuable contributions to the country's public health system, albeit with innumerable challenges.

  2. A WFC3 Grism Emission Line Redshift Catalog in the GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Aaron M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Barro, Guillermo; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Hsu, Li-Ting; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-06-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera3 (WFC3) imaging and G141 grism observations from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1≤slant λ ≤slant 1.7 μm with a resolving power of R∼ 130 for point sources, thus providing rest-frame optical spectra for galaxies out to z∼ 3.5. The catalog is selected in the H-band (F160W) and includes both galaxies with and without previously published spectroscopic redshifts. Grism spectra are extracted for all H-band detected galaxies with H ≤slant 24 and a CANDELS photometric redshift {{z}phot}≥slant 0.6. The resulting spectra are visually inspected to identify emission lines, and redshifts are determined using cross-correlation with empirical spectral templates. To establish the accuracy of our redshifts, we compare our results against high-quality spectroscopic redshifts from the literature. Using a sample of 411 control galaxies, this analysis yields a precision of {{σ }NMAD}=0.0028 for the grism-derived redshifts, which is consistent with the accuracy reported by the 3D-HST team. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 arcmin2 and contains 1019 redshifts for galaxies in GOODS-S. Roughly 60% (608/1019) of these redshifts are for galaxies with no previously published spectroscopic redshift. These new redshifts span a range of 0.677≤slant z≤slant 3.456 and have a median redshift of z = 1.282. The catalog contains a total of 234 new redshifts for galaxies at z\\gt 1.5. In addition, we present 20 galaxy pair candidates identified for the first time using the grism redshifts in our catalog, including four new galaxy pairs at z∼ 2, nearly doubling the number of such pairs previously identified.

  3. [Effects of different fertilization modes on paddy field topsoil organic carbon content and carbon sequestration duration in South China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Qun; Yang, Min-Fang; Xu, Min-Lun; Zhang, Wu-Yi; Bian, Xin-Min

    2012-01-01

    Based on the organic carbon data of 222 topsoil samples taken from 38 paddy field experiment sites in South China, calculations were made on the relative annual change of topsoil organic carbon content (RAC) and carbon sequestration duration in the paddy fields in South China under five fertilization modes (inorganic nitrogen fertilization, N; inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, NP; inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization, NPK; organic fertilization, O; and inorganic plus organic fertilization, OF). The RAC under the fertilizations was 0-0.4 g x kg(-1) x a(-1), with an increment of 0.20 and 0.26 g x kg(-1) x a(-1) in double and triple cropping systems, respectively. The RAC was higher in treatments O and OF than in treatments N, NP, and NPK, being the highest (0.32 g x kg(-1) x a(-1)) in treatment OF. The topsoil organic carbon accumulation rate decreased with increasing time, and the carbon sequestration duration in treatments N, NP, NPK, O, and OF was about 22, 28, 38, 57, and 54 years, respectively. Inorganic plus organic fertilization was the most effective practice for soil carbon sequestration in the paddy fields in South China.

  4. Identification and Analysis of Storm Tracks Associated with Extreme Flood Events in Southeast and South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Carlos; Lopes, Camila

    2015-04-01

    observed flows. The storm track data built on the integrated moisture flux in the atmosphere are then classified and clustered in order to categorize the flood events and identify the common patterns and preferential modes of the storms. A composite analysis of synoptic fields of sea surface temperature (SST), surface pressure and geopotential height in the days that preceded the events is also carried out in the analysis. Preliminary results show that, for some regions, like the Parana river basin, the clusters obtained for the storm tracks are associated with distinct signatures of flood events as well as with specific anomalies in the fields of the meteorological variables analyzed, which represents a fundamental step in the development and improvement of non-stationary forecast and simulation models of flood recurrence conditional on climate states.

  5. Analysis of gene mutations among South Indian patients with maple syrup urine disease: identification of four novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, M P; Menon, Krishnakumar N; Vasudevan, D M

    2013-10-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is predominantly caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes, which encode for the E1alpha, E1beta and E2 subunits of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, respectively. Because disease causing mutations play a major role in the development of the disease, prenatal diagnosis at gestational level may have significance in making decisions by parents. Thus, this study was aimed to screen South Indian MSUD patients for mutations and assess the genotype-phenotype correlation. Thirteen patients diagnosed with MSUD by conventional biochemical screening such as urine analysis by DNPH test, thin layer chromatography for amino acids and blood amino acid quantification by HPLC were selected for mutation analysis. The entire coding regions of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes were analyzed for mutations by PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. BCKDHA and BCKDHB mutations were seen in 43% of the total ten patients, while disease-causing DBT gene mutation was observed only in 14%. Three patients displayed no mutations. Novel mutations were c.130C>T in BCKDHA gene, c. 599C>T and c.121_122delAC in BCKDHB gene and c.190G>A in DBT gene. Notably, patients harbouring these mutations were non-responsive to thiamine supplementation and other treatment regimens and might have a worse prognosis as compared to the patients not having such mutations. Thus, identification of these mutations may have a crucial role in the treatment as well as understanding the molecular mechanisms in MSUD.

  6. A test field for Gaia. Radial velocity catalogue of stars in the South Ecliptic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frémat, Y.; Altmann, M.; Pancino, E.; Soubiran, C.; Jofré, P.; Damerdji, Y.; Heiter, U.; Royer, F.; Seabroke, G.; Sordo, R.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jasniewicz, G.; Martayan, C.; Thévenin, F.; Vallenari, A.; Blomme, R.; David, M.; Gosset, E.; Katz, D.; Viala, Y.; Boudreault, S.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Lobel, A.; Meisenheimer, K.; Nordlander, T.; Raskin, G.; Royer, P.; Zorec, J.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Gaia is a space mission that is currently measuring the five astrometric parameters, as well as spectrophotometry of at least 1 billion stars to G = 20.7 mag with unprecedented precision. The sixth parameter in phase space (i.e., radial velocity) is also measured thanks to medium-resolution spectroscopy that is being obtained for the 150 million brightest stars. During the commissioning phase, two fields, one around each ecliptic pole, have been repeatedly observed to assess and to improve the overall satellite performances, as well as the associated reduction and analysis software. A ground-based photometric and spectroscopic survey was therefore initiated in 2007, and is still running to gather as much information as possible about the stars in these fields. This work is of particular interest to the validation of the radial velocity spectrometer outputs. Aims: The paper presents the radial velocity measurements performed for the Southern targets in the 12-17 R magnitude range on high- to mid-resolution spectra obtained with the GIRAFFE and UVES spectrographs. Methods: Comparison of the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) GIRAFFE data to spectroscopic templates observed with the HERMES (Mercator in La Palma, Spain) spectrograph enabled a first coarse characterisation of the 747 SEP targets. Radial velocities were then obtained by comparing the results of three different methods. Results: In this paper, we present an initial overview of the targets to be found in the 1 sq. deg SEP region that was observed repeatedly by Gaia ever since its commissioning. In our representative sample, we identified one galaxy, six LMC S-stars, nine candidate chromospherically active stars, and confirmed the status of 18 LMC Carbon stars. A careful study of the 3471 epoch radial velocity measurements led us to identify 145 RV constant stars with radial velocities varying by less than 1 km s-1. Seventy-eight stars show significant RV scatter, while nine stars show a composite spectrum

  7. Evaluation of anthropometric, physiological, and skill-related tests for talent identification in female field hockey.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Weber, Clare L; Dalton, Carl T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop an effective testing battery for female field hockey by using anthropometric, physiological, and skill-related tests to distinguish between regional representative (Rep, n = 35) and local club level (Club, n = 39) female field hockey players. Rep players were significantly leaner and recorded faster times for the 10-m and 40-m sprints as well as the Illinois Agility Run (with and without dribbling a hockey ball). Rep players also had greater aerobic and lower body muscular power and were more accurate in the shooting accuracy test, p < 0.05. No significant differences between groups were evident for height, body mass, speed decrement in 6 x 40-m repeated sprints, handgrip strength, or pushing speed. These results indicate that %BF, sprinting speed, agility, dribbling control, aerobic and muscular power, and shooting accuracy can distinguish between female field hockey players of varying standards. Therefore talent identification programs for female field hockey should include assessments of these physical parameters.

  8. The sub-mJy radio population in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzini, M.

    2014-06-01

    Deep radio observations provide a dust unbiased view of both black hole (BH) and star formation (SF) activity and therefore represent a powerful tool to investigate their evolution and their possible mutual influence across cosmic time. Radio astronomy is therefore becoming increasingly important for galaxy evolution studies thanks also to the many new radio facilities under construction or being planned. To maximise the potentiality of these new instruments it is crucial to make predictions on what they will observe and to see how best to complement the radio data with multi-wavelength information. These are the motivations of my Thesis in which I studied a sample of 900 sources detected in one of the deepest radio surveys ever made. The observations have been performed at 1.4 GHz with the Very Large Array on the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. I developed a multi-wavelength method to identify the optical-infrared counterparts of the radio sources and to classify them as radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RL AGNs), radio-quiet (RQ) AGNs, and star forming galaxies (SFGs). I was able for the first time to quantify the relative contribution of these different classes of sources down to a radio flux density limit of ∼30 μJy. I characterized the host galaxy properties (stellar masses, optical colors, and morphology) of the radio sources; RQ AGN hosts and SFGs have similar properties with disk morphology and blue colors while radio-loud AGN hosts are more massive, redder and mostly ellipticals. This suggests that the RQ and RL activity occurs at two different evolutionary stages of the BH-host galaxy co-evolution. The RQ phase occurs at earlier times when the galaxy is still gas rich and actively forming stars while the radio activity of the BH appears when the galaxy has already formed the bulk of its stellar population, the gas supply is lower, and the SF is considerably reduced. I quantified the star formation rate (SFR) of the radio sources using two

  9. A COMPREHENSIVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS, AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical report provides a description of the field project design, quality control, the sampling protocols and analysis methodology used, and standard operating procedures for the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) project. This watersh...

  10. Regional stratigraphy of Smackover limestone (Jurassic) in south Arkansas and north Louisiana, and geology of Chalybeat Springs oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Troell, A.R.; Robinson, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    Prior to 1960, the Reynolds oolite of the Smackover Formation of south Arkansas, was correlated with the Smackover B oolite of north Louisiana. The absence of anticlines with structural closure and the paucity of untested fault closures along the Arkansas-Louisiana boundary provided little exploratory interest in the area. Discovery of oil at Lick Creek field in 1960 and at Walker Creek in 1968 revealed a trend of traps and led to the geologic investigation that resulted in the discovery, in 1972, of Chalybeat Springs field, in Columbia County, Arkansas. Chalybeat Springs field is a combination stratigraphic-structural trap in oolitic calcarenite at a depth of 10,250 ft in the Smackover B limestone. Production is limited by the combination of a tilted anticline with porosity pinch-out on its flank. The field originally had 28 producing wells and 10 dry holes, and covered approximately 4500 productive acres. Original oil in place is estimated to have been 37 million bbl and cumulative production through 1985 was approximately 12 million bbl. The geologic relationships and principles observed in the Smackover Limestone of south Arkansas and north Louisiana have been successfully applied to other regions and in carbonate strata of different age, in the search for oil and gas production. Practical geologic studies of carbonate rocks, aided by examination of drill cuttings, cores, and thin sections, combined with mechanical log evaluation, result in lower finding costs for oil and gas reserves.

  11. Applying a Bayesian Approach to Identification of Orthotropic Elastic Constants from Full Field Displacement Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogu, C.; Yin, W.; Haftka, R.; Ifju, P.; Molimard, J.; Le Riche, R.; Vautrin, A.

    2010-06-01

    A major challenge in the identification of material properties is handling different sources of uncertainty in the experiment and the modelling of the experiment for estimating the resulting uncertainty in the identified properties. Numerous improvements in identification methods have provided increasingly accurate estimates of various material properties. However, characterizing the uncertainty in the identified properties is still relatively crude. Different material properties obtained from a single test are not obtained with the same confidence. Typically the highest uncertainty is associated with respect to properties to which the experiment is the most insensitive. In addition, the uncertainty in different properties can be strongly correlated, so that obtaining only variance estimates may be misleading. A possible approach for handling the different sources of uncertainty and estimating the uncertainty in the identified properties is the Bayesian method. This method was introduced in the late 1970s in the context of identification [1] and has been applied since to different problems, notably identification of elastic constants from plate vibration experiments [2]-[4]. The applications of the method to these classical pointwise tests involved only a small number of measurements (typically ten natural frequencies in the previously cited vibration test) which facilitated the application of the Bayesian approach. For identifying elastic constants, full field strain or displacement measurements provide a high number of measured quantities (one measurement per image pixel) and hence a promise of smaller uncertainties in the properties. However, the high number of measurements represents also a major computational challenge in applying the Bayesian approach to full field measurements. To address this challenge we propose an approach based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the full fields in order to drastically reduce their dimensionality. POD is

  12. Reconnaissance of Field Sites for the Study of Chemical Weathering on the Guayana Shield, South America

    SciTech Connect

    Steefell, C I

    2003-02-01

    Despite the fact that chemical weathering of silicate rocks plays an important role in the draw-down of CO{sub 2} over geologic time scales (Berner and Berner, 1996), the overall controls on the rate of chemical weathering are still not completely understood. Lacking a mechanistic understanding of these controls, it remains difficult to evaluate a hypothesis such as that presented by Raymo and Ruddiman (1992), who suggested that enhanced weathering and CO{sub 2} draw-down resulting from the uplift of the Himalayas contributed to global cooling during the Cenozoic. At an even more fundamental level, the three to four order of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates is still unresolved (White et al., 1996). There is as yet no comprehensive, mechanistic model for silicate chemical weathering that considers the coupled effects of precipitation, vadose zone flow, and chemical reactions. The absence of robust process models for silicate weathering and the failure to resolve some of these important questions may in fact be related-the controls on the overall rates of weathering cannot be understood without considering the weathering environment as one in which multiple, time-dependent chemical and physical processes are coupled (Malmstrom, 2000). Once chemical weathering is understood at a mechanistic process level, the important controls on chemical weathering (physical erosion, temperature, precipitation) can be folded into larger scale models tracking the global carbon cycle. Our goal in this study was to carry out the preliminary work needed to establish a field research site for chemical weathering om the Cuayana Shield in South America. The Guayana Shield is a Precambrian province greater than 1.5 billion years old covering portions of Venezuela, Guyana (the country), Surinam, French Guiana, and Brazil (Figure 1). More important than the age of the rocks themselves, however, is the age of the erosion surface developed on the Shield, with

  13. Tracking Holland Interest Codes: The Case of South African Field Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark B.; Foxcroft, Cheryl D.; Allen, Lynda J.

    2007-01-01

    Holland believes that specific personality types seek out matching occupational environments and his theory codes personality and environment according to a six letter interest typology. Since 1985 there have been numerous American studies that have queried the validity of Holland's coding system. Research in South Africa is scarcer, despite…

  14. South Dakota Air National Guard Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, SD. Remedial Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    immediately opposite the Diversion Channel from the airport is devoted to the State prison farm. Schools located within 1 mile of the Base include Jane ... Addams elementary school (250 students), and Axtell Park Junior High School (675 students) which are both south of the Base. 3.9.2 Population and Age

  15. Field evaluation of potential pheromone lures for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Mid-South

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lyg...

  16. Characterization and identification of field ectomycorrhizae of Boletus edulis and Cistus ladanifer.

    PubMed

    Agueda, Beatriz; Parladé, Javier; de Miguel, Ana María; Martínez-Peña, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizae sampled under Boletus edulis and Cistus ladanifer have been characterized and described in detail based on standard morphological and anatomical characters. The described ectomycorrhiza has traits typical of Boletales: whitish with three differentiated plectenchymatous layers in the mantle in plan view forming ring-like structures and rhizomorphs with highly differentiated hyphae. The inflated, smooth cystidia-like clavate end cells on the surface of the rhizomorphs and their slightly twisted external hyphae are additional characterizing features. The Hartig net occupies 1 1/2 rows of cortical cells, partly reaching the endodermis. Not all hyphae have clamps. The identification of the fungal symbiont as B. edulis was confirmed by ITS rDNA sequence comparison between mycorrhizas and sporocarps. The singularity of this symbiotic association, as well as its ecological and practical implications, are discussed.

  17. Sex pheromone components ofEuxoa drewseni Chemical identification, electrophysiological evaluation, and field attractancy tests.

    PubMed

    Struble, D L

    1983-03-01

    Eleven compounds structurally similar to known lepidopterous pheromone components were identified in the extract from 18 calling female moths ofEuxoa drewseni (Staudinger). The identifications were done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization and electroantennographic detectors simultaneously. Detector antennae were from five species of moths. In the field, male moths were specifically attracted to a three-component blend of dodecyl, (Z)-5-dodecenyl, and (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetates in a ratio of 2∶6∶1. This blend at 1000 μg/rubber septum dispenser is recommended as a trap bait for monitoring purposes. Low concentrations of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate or (Z)-7-tetradecenol inhibited the attraction of moths to the three-component blend. (Z)-7-Pentadecenyl acetate functioned as a parapheromone in place of (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate in the pheromone blend, and they appear to react via the same antennal receptor.

  18. Interlaboratory Agreement of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Identification of Leptospira Serovars

    PubMed Central

    Mende, Katrin; Galloway, Renee L.; Becker, Sara J.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Murray, Clinton K.; Hospenthal, Duane R.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis may be caused by > 250 Leptospira serovars. Serovar classification is a complex task that most laboratories cannot perform. We assessed the interlaboratory reproducibility of a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identification technique developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Blinded exchange of 93 Leptospiraceae strains occurred between San Antonio Military Medical Center (SAMMC) and the CDC. PFGE was performed and gel images were analyzed and compared with patterns present in each laboratory's database (CDC database: > 800 strain patterns; SAMMC database: > 300 strain patterns). Overall, 93.7% (74 of 79) of strains present in each receiving laboratory's database were correctly identified. Five isolates were misidentified, and two isolates did not match serovar PFGE patterns in the receiving laboratory's database. Patterns for these seven isolates were identical between laboratories; four serovars represented misidentified reference strains. The PFGE methodology studied showed excellent interlaboratory reproducibility, enabling standardization and data sharing between laboratories. PMID:23817329

  19. Incorporating conditional random fields and active learning to improve sentiment identification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kunpeng; Xie, Yusheng; Yang, Yi; Sun, Aaron; Liu, Hengchang; Choudhary, Alok

    2014-10-01

    Many machine learning, statistical, and computational linguistic methods have been developed to identify sentiment of sentences in documents, yielding promising results. However, most of state-of-the-art methods focus on individual sentences and ignore the impact of context on the meaning of a sentence. In this paper, we propose a method based on conditional random fields to incorporate sentence structure and context information in addition to syntactic information for improving sentiment identification. We also investigate how human interaction affects the accuracy of sentiment labeling using limited training data. We propose and evaluate two different active learning strategies for labeling sentiment data. Our experiments with the proposed approach demonstrate a 5%-15% improvement in accuracy on Amazon customer reviews compared to existing supervised learning and rule-based methods.

  20. Orthogonal fracture formation in the South Wales coalfield: implications from a field study and fluid overpressure of quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunari, Tetsuzo; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2014-05-01

    and 18 MPa for those striking east-west. Although the thick Dinantian Carbonates immediately underlie the sandstones of the Coal Measure Group, carbonate minerals are absent in the veins, suggesting that the main driving stress for fracture formation may not have been buoyancy related to a deeper fluid source in the underlying carbonates but rather local stress concentrations, resulting in differential stresses, in the sandstones. These conditions imply that both north-south and east-west extensional stress fields were induced in the sandstones during the basin growth under the regional north-south compression. The process responsible for the north-south extension within the sandstones is, at this stage, not entirely clear. One possibility is that cyclic stress and strain concentration in thrust zones could induce tensile stresses during stress relaxation of syn- and post-slip period of major thrusts. Viscous behaviour of the shale in the study area may have generated the north-south tensile stress fields in the sandstones that resulted in fracture formation.

  1. DNA detection and genotypic identification of potentially human-pathogenic microsporidia from asymptomatic pet parrots in South Korea as a risk factor for zoonotic emergence.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, Sung-Seok; Lyoo, Young S; Park, Hee-Myung

    2011-12-01

    We detected and identified genotypes of human-pathogenic microsporidia in fecal samples from 51 asymptomatic captive-bred pet parrots in South Korea. Microsporidia were identified in 8 samples (15.7%); 7 parrots tested positive for Encephalitozoon hellem, and 1 parrot tested positive for both E. hellem and Encephalitozoon cuniculi. In genotypic identifications, E. hellem was present in genotypes 1A and 2B and E. cuniculi was present in genotype II. Pet parrots might be a source of human microsporidian infection.

  2. DNA Detection and Genotypic Identification of Potentially Human-Pathogenic Microsporidia from Asymptomatic Pet Parrots in South Korea as a Risk Factor for Zoonotic Emergence ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, Sung-Seok; Lyoo, Young S.; Park, Hee-Myung

    2011-01-01

    We detected and identified genotypes of human-pathogenic microsporidia in fecal samples from 51 asymptomatic captive-bred pet parrots in South Korea. Microsporidia were identified in 8 samples (15.7%); 7 parrots tested positive for Encephalitozoon hellem, and 1 parrot tested positive for both E. hellem and Encephalitozoon cuniculi. In genotypic identifications, E. hellem was present in genotypes 1A and 2B and E. cuniculi was present in genotype II. Pet parrots might be a source of human microsporidian infection. PMID:21965400

  3. Oil recovery in a low-permeability, wave-dominated, Cretaceous, deltaic reservoir, Big Wells (San Miguel) field, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Gholston, J.C.; Ambrose, W.A.

    1987-10-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Big Wells (San Miguel) reservoir in Dimmit and Zavala Counties, south Texas, produces from a broadly lenticular, wave-dominated deltaic sandstone encased in prodelta and shelf mudstones. An updip porosity pinch-out coincides with a gentle undulation on a uniformly gulfward-dipping monocline and forms a structurally modified stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is relatively tight and has an average porosity of 21% and average permeability of 6 md; wells require fracturing to stimulate production. Ultimate recovery, based on current production trends and technology, is projected to be 57 million bbl, or 29% of the 198 million bbl field. 24 figures, 1 table.

  4. Glacier modeling in support of field observations of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The long-term USGS measurement and reporting of mass balance at South Cascade Glacier was assisted in balance years 2006 and 2007 by a new mass balance model. The model incorporates a temperature-index melt computation and accumulation is modeled from glacier air temperature and gaged precipitation at a remote site. Mass balance modeling was used with glaciological measurements to estimate dates and magnitudes of critical mass balance phenomena. In support of the modeling, a detailed analysis was made of the "glacier cooling effect" that reduces summer air temperature near the ice surface as compared to that predicted on the basis of a spatially uniform temperature lapse rate. The analysis was based on several years of data from measurements of near-surface air temperature on the glacier. The 2006 and 2007 winter balances of South Cascade Glacier, computed with this new, model-augmented methodology, were 2.61 and 3.41 mWE, respectively. The 2006 and 2007 summer balances were -4.20 and -3.63 mWE, respectively, and the 2006 and 2007 net balances were -1.59 and -0.22 mWE. PDF version of a presentation on the mass balance of South Cascade Glacier in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  5. High-resolution local magnetic field models for the Martian South Pole from Mars Global Surveyor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, A.; Simons, F. J.

    2015-09-01

    We present two high-resolution local models for the crustal magnetic field of the Martian south polar region. Models SP130 and SP130M were derived from three-component measurements made by Mars Global Surveyor at nighttime and at low altitude (<200 km). The availability area for these data covers the annulus between latitudes -76° and -87° and contains a strongly magnetized region (southern parts of Terra Sirenum) adjacent to weakly magnetized terrains (such as Prometheus Planum). Our localized field inversions take into account the region of data availability, a finite spectral bandlimit (spherical harmonic degree L = 130), and the varying satellite altitude at each observation point. We downward continue the local field solutions to a sphere of Martian polar radius 3376 km. While weakly magnetized areas in model SP130 contain inversion artifacts caused by strongly magnetized crust nearby, these artifacts are largely avoided in model SP130M, a mosaic of inversion results obtained by independently solving for the fields over individual subregions. Robust features of both models are magnetic stripes of alternating polarity in southern Terra Sirenum that end abruptly at the rim of Prometheus Planum, an impact crater with a weak or undetectable magnetic field. From a prominent and isolated dipole-like magnetic feature close to Australe Montes, we estimate a paleopole with a best fit location at longitude 207° and latitude 48°. From the abruptly ending magnetic field stripes, we estimate average magnetization values of up to 15 A/m.

  6. Understanding spike-triggered covariance using Wiener theory for receptive field identification

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Roman A.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-01-01

    Receptive field identification is a vital problem in sensory neurophysiology and vision. Much research has been done in identifying the receptive fields of nonlinear neurons whose firing rate is determined by the nonlinear interactions of a small number of linear filters. Despite more advanced methods that have been proposed, spike-triggered covariance (STC) continues to be the most widely used method in such situations due to its simplicity and intuitiveness. Although the connection between STC and Wiener/Volterra kernels has often been mentioned in the literature, this relationship has never been explicitly derived. Here we derive this relationship and show that the STC matrix is actually a modified version of the second-order Wiener kernel, which incorporates the input autocorrelation and mixes first- and second-order dynamics. It is then shown how, with little modification of the STC method, the Wiener kernels may be obtained and, from them, the principal dynamic modes, a set of compact and efficient linear filters that essentially combine the spike-triggered average and STC matrix and generalize to systems with both continuous and point-process outputs. Finally, using Wiener theory, we show how these obtained filters may be corrected when they were estimated using correlated inputs. Our correction technique is shown to be superior to those commonly used in the literature for both correlated Gaussian images and natural images. PMID:26230978

  7. PCR-based identification of eight Lactobacillus species and 18 hr-HPV genotypes in fixed cervical samples of South African women at risk of HIV and BV.

    PubMed

    Dols, Joke A M; Reid, Gregor; Kort, Remco; Schuren, Frank H J; Tempelman, Hugo; Bontekoe, Tj Romke; Korporaal, Hans; Van der Veer, E M; Smit, Pieter W; Boon, Mathilde E

    2012-06-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli assessed by PCR-based microarray and PCR-based genotyping of HPV in South African women at risk for HIV and BV. Vaginal lactobacilli can be defined by microarray techniques in fixed cervical samples of South African women. Cervical brush samples suspended in the coagulant fixative BoonFix of one hundred women attending a health centre for HIV testing in South Africa were available for this study. In the Ndlovu Medical Centre in Elandsdoorn, South Africa, identification of 18 hr-HPV genotypes was done using the INNO-LiPA method. An inventory of lactobacilli organisms was performed using microarray technology. On the basis of the Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus biofilm scoring, the cases were identified as Leiden bacterial vaginosis (BV) negative (BV-; n = 41), Leiden BV intermediate (BV±; n = 25), and Leiden BV positive (BV+; n = 34). Fifty-one women were HIV positive and 49 HIV negative. Out of the 51 HIV positive women, 35 were HPV infected. These 51 HIV positive women were frequently infected with HPV16 and HPV18. In addition, HPV35, HPV52, HPV33, and HPV66 were often detected in these samples. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus iners were the most prevalent lactobacilli as established by the microarray technique. In women with HPV infection, the prevalence of Lactobacillus crispatus was significantly reduced. In both HIV and HPV infection, a similar (but not identical) shift in the composition of the lactobacillus flora was observed. We conclude that there is a shift in the composition of vaginal lactobacilli in HIV-infected women. Because of the prominence of HPV35, HPV52, HPV33, and HPV66, vaccination for exclusively HPV16 and HPV18 might be insufficient in South African HIV+ women.

  8. Comparison of SVM RBF-NN and DT for crop and weed identification based on spectral measurement over corn fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to find an appropriate pattern-recognition method for in-field plant identification based on spectral measurement in order to classify the crop and weeds accurately. In this study, the method of Support Vector Machine (SVM) was evaluated and compared with two other methods, Decision ...

  9. Floating production platforms and their applications in the development of oil and gas fields in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dagang; Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Tianyu

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

  10. Comparison of LANDSAT-2 and field spectrometer reflectance signatures of south Texas rangeland plant communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Escobar, D. E.; Gausman, H. W.; Everitt, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The accuracy was assessed for an atmospheric correction method that depends on clear water bodies to infer solar and atmospheric parameters for radiative transfer equations by measuring the reflectance signature of four prominent south Texas rangeland plants with the LANDSAT satellite multispectral scanner (MSS) and a ground based spectroradiometer. The rangeland plant reflectances produced by the two sensors were correlated with no significant deviation of the slope from unity or of the intercept from zero. These results indicated that the atmospheric correction produced LANDSAT MSS estimates of rangeland plant reflectances that are as accurate as the ground based spectroradiometer.

  11. Normal incidence measurement in a subaqueous sand dune field in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Linus Y S; Chang, Andrea Y Y

    2014-11-01

    Regions with subaqueous sand dunes have been discovered on the upper continental slope of the northern South China Sea. These large subaqueous sand dunes are expected to cause errors in the measurement of normal incidence reflection. This letter presents experiment results of two normal incidence survey tracks conducted in 2013, and the errors in reflection coefficient estimation and the resulting sediment properties induced by sand dune bedforms. The results demonstrate that the reflected energy is focused and scattered by different parts of sand dune bedforms and that they produce significant variation in the estimated reflection coefficients and the inverted geoacoustic properties.

  12. Effects of CRP field age and cover type on ring-necked pheasants in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggebo, S.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.; Quamen, F.R.

    2003-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands to tillage has increased the importance of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands to maintain ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) populations. Despite the importance of CRP to pheasants, little is known about the effects of CRP field age and cover type on pheasant abundance and productivity in the northern Great Plains. Therefore, we assessed effects of these characteristics on pheasant use of CRP fields. We stratified CRP grasslands (n=42) by CRP stand age (old [10-13 yrs] vs. new [1-3 yrs] grasslands) and cover type (CP1 [cool-season grasslands] vs. CP2 [warm-season grasslands]) in eastern South Dakota and used crowing counts and roadside brood counts to index ring-necked pheasant abundance and productivity. Field-age and cover-type effects on pheasant abundance and productivity were largely the result of differences in vegetation structure among fields. More crowing pheasants were recorded in old cool-season CRP fields than any other age or cover type, and more broods were recorded in cool- than warm-season CRP fields. Extending existing CRP contracts another 5-10 years would provide the time necessary for new fields to acquire the vegetative structure used most by pheasants without a gap in habitat availability. Cool-season grass-legume mixtures (CP1) that support higher pheasant productivity should be given equal or higher ratings than warm-season (CP2) grass stands. We also recommend that United States Department of Agriculture administrators and field staff provide broader and more flexible guidelines on what seed mixtures can be used in CRP grassland plantings in the northern Great Plains. This would allow landowners and natural resource professionals who manage pheasant habitat to plant a mosaic of cool- and warm-season CRP grassland habitats.

  13. z {approx} 7 GALAXY CANDIDATES FROM NICMOS OBSERVATIONS OVER THE HDF-SOUTH AND THE CDF-SOUTH AND HDF-NORTH GOODS FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwens, Rychard J.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Gonzalez, Valentino; Holden, Brad; Magee, Dan; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Conselice, Christopher J.; Blakeslee, John; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Marchesini, Danilo; Zheng Wei

    2010-12-20

    We use {approx}88 arcmin{sup 2} of deep ({approx}>26.5 mag at 5{sigma}) NICMOS data over the two GOODS fields and the HDF-South to conduct a search for bright z {approx}> 7 galaxy candidates. This search takes advantage of an efficient preselection over 58 arcmin{sup 2} of NICMOS H{sub 160}-band data where only plausible z {approx}> 7 candidates are followed up with NICMOS J{sub 110}-band observations. {approx}248 arcmin{sup 2} of deep ground-based near-infrared data ({approx}>25.5 mag, 5{sigma}) are also considered in the search. In total, we report 15 z{sub 850}-dropout candidates over this area-7 of which are new to these search fields. Two possible z {approx} 9 J{sub 110}-dropout candidates are also found, but seem unlikely to correspond to z {approx} 9 galaxies (given the estimated contamination levels). The present z {approx} 9 search is used to set upper limits on the prevalence of such sources. Rigorous testing is undertaken to establish the level of contamination of our selections by photometric scatter, low-mass stars, supernovae, and spurious sources. The estimated contamination rate of our z {approx} 7 selection is {approx}24%. Through careful simulations, the effective volume available to our z {approx}> 7 selections is estimated and used to establish constraints on the volume density of luminous (L*{sub z{sub ={sub 3}}}, or {approx}-21 mag) galaxies from these searches. We find that the volume density of luminous star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 7 is 13{sup +8}{sub -5} times lower than at z {approx} 4 and >25 times lower (1{sigma}) at z {approx} 9 than at z {approx} 4. This is the most stringent constraint yet available on the volume density of {approx}>L*{sub z{sub ={sub 3}}} galaxies at z {approx} 9. The present wide-area, multi-field search limits cosmic variance to {approx}<20%. The evolution we find at the bright end of the UV LF is similar to that found from recent Subaru Suprime-Cam, HAWK-I or ERS WFC3/IR searches. The present paper also

  14. Results of conventional field-test equipment application for identification of multimode optical fibers with high DMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdine, Anton V.; Dmitriev, Eugeniy V.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.; Prokopyev, Vladimir I.; Yablochkin, Konstantin A.

    2008-12-01

    We present results of attempts to apply a conventional fiber parameter field-test equipment for identification of multimode fibers with high differential mode delay (DMD). Backscattering traces, obtained by optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) with the single-mode optical unit, and refractive index profile form, reproduced by image processing of lighted fiber end-face, were compared with pulse forms, registered by introduced DMD measurement system. Silica graded-index multimode fibers 50/125 of different generations were considered. Comparing results of high DMD fiber identification by OTDR, video diagnostics system and DMD measurement system are represented.

  15. Discrepancies between Aedes aegypti identification in the field and in the laboratory after collection with a sticky trap

    PubMed Central

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Lima, Arthur Weiss da Silva; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Braga, Ima Aparecida; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Valle, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Currently, sticky traps are regularly employed to assist in the surveillance of Aedes aegypti infestation. We tested two alternative procedures for specimen identification performed by local health agents: directly in the field, as recommended by certain manufacturers, or after transportation to the laboratory. A total of 384 sticky traps (MosquiTRAP) were monitored monthly during one year in four geographically representative Brazilian municipalities. When the same samples were inspected in the field and in the laboratory, large differences were noted in the total number of mosquitoes recorded and in the number of specimens identified as Ae. aegypti by both procedures. Although field identification has the potential to speed vector surveillance, these results point to uncertainties in the evaluated protocol. PMID:25317711

  16. The Sex Attractant Pheromone of Male Brown Rats: Identification and Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-10

    Trapping brown rats is challenging because they avoid newly placed traps in their habitat. Herein, we report the identification of the sex pheromone produced by male brown rats and its effect on trap captures of wild female brown rats. Collecting urine- and feces-soiled bedding material of laboratory-kept rats and comparing the soiled-bedding odorants of juvenile and adult males, as well as of adult males and females, we found nine compounds that were specific to, or most prevalent in, the odor profiles of sexually mature adult males. When we added a synthetic blend of six of these compounds (2-heptanone, 4-heptanone, 3-ethyl-2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 4-nonanone) to one of two paired food-baited trap boxes, these boxes attracted significantly more laboratory-strain female rats in laboratory experiments, and captured ten times more wild female rats in a field experiment than the corresponding control boxes. Our data show that the pheromone facilitates captures of wild female brown rats.

  17. Rapid and field-deployable biological and chemical Raman-based identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botonjic-Sehic, Edita; Paxon, Tracy L.; Boudries, Hacene

    2011-06-01

    Pathogen detection using Raman spectroscopy is achieved through the use of a sandwich immunoassay. Antibody-modified magnetic beads are used to capture and concentrate target analytes in solution and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) tags are conjugated with antibodies and act as labels to enable specific detection of biological pathogens. The rapid detection of biological pathogens is critical to first responders, thus assays to detect E.Coli and Anthrax have been developed and will be reported. The problems associated with pathogen detection resulting from the spectral complexity and variability of microorganisms are overcome through the use of SERS tags, which provide an intense, easily recognizable, and spectrally consistent Raman signal. The developed E. coli assay has been tested with 5 strains of E. coli and shows a low limit of detection, on the order of 10 and 100 c.f.u. per assay. Additionally, the SERS assay utilizes magnetic beads to collect the labeled pathogens into the focal point of the detection laser beam, making the assay robust to commonly encountered white powder interferants such as flour, baking powder, and corn starch. The reagents were also found to be stable at room temperature over extended periods of time with testing conducted over a one year period. Finally, through a specialized software algorithm, the assays are interfaced to the Raman instrument, StreetLab Mobile, for rapid-field-deployable biological identification.

  18. Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and field activity.

    PubMed

    Eller, F J; Bartelt, R J; Shasha, B S; Schuster, D J; Riley, D G; Stansly, P A; Mueller, T F; Shuler, K D; Johnson, B; Davis, J H; Sutherland, C A

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the identification of an aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii and field trials of a synthetic pheromone blend. Volatile collections and gas chromatography revealed the presence of six male-specific compounds. These compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques as: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid (geranic acid), and (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). The emission rates of these compounds from feeding males were determined to be about: 7.2, 4.8, 0.45, 0.30, 2.0, and 0.30µg/male/day, respectively. Sticky traps baited with a synthetic blend of these compounds captured more pepper weevils (both sexes) than did unbaited control traps or pheromone-baited boll weevil traps. Commercial and laboratory formulations of the synthetic pheromone were both attractive. However, the commercial formulation did not release geranic acid properly, and geranic acid is necessary for full activity. The pheromones of the pepper weevil and the boll weevil are compared. Improvements for increasing trap efficiency and possible uses for the pepper weevil pheromone are discussed. A convenient method for purifying geranic acid is also described.

  19. System Identification of Local Field Potentials under Deep Brain Stimulation in a Healthy Primate

    PubMed Central

    Pedoto, Gilda; Santaniello, Sabato; Montgomery, Erwin B.; Gale, John T.; Fiengo, Giovanni; Glielmo, Luigi; Sarma, Sridevi V.

    2013-01-01

    High frequency (HF) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the Sub-Thalamic Nucleus (STN) is a clinically recognized therapy for the treatment of motor disorders in Parkinson Disease (PD). The underlying mechanisms of DBS and how it impacts neighboring nuclei, however, are not yet completely understood. Electrophysiological data has been collected in PD patients and primates to better understand the impact of DBS on STN and the entire Basal Ganglia (BG) motor circuit. We use single unit recordings from Globus Pallidus, both pars interna and externa segments (GPi and GPe) in the BG, in a normal primate before and after DBS to reconstruct Local Field Potentials (LFPs) in the region. We then use system identification techniques to understand how GPe LFP activity and the DBS signal applied to STN influence GPi LFP activity. Our models suggest that when no stimulation is applied, the GPe LFPs have an inhibitory effect on GPi LFPs with a 2-3 ms delay, as is the case for single unit neuronal activity. On the other hand, when DBS is ON the models suggest that stimulation has a dominant effect on GPi LFPs which mask the inhibitory effects of GPe. PMID:21096635

  20. Field Evaluation of a Fluorogenic Probe-Based PCR Assay for Identification of a Visceral Leishmaniasis Gene Target

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    14. Wortmann G, Sweeney C, Houng HS, et al. 2001. Rapid Diagnosis of Leishmania by Fluorogenic Polymerase Chain Reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 65(5...Email: james.mcavin@brooks.af.mil. ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal disease caused primarily by Leishmania donovani...DNA. Field evaluations were conducted in south central Iraq with sand fly pools screened by a previously established Leishmania universal PCR assay

  1. The killing field of Khao Lak: forensic odontology in Thailand tsunami victim identification.

    PubMed

    Tan, Peng-Hui

    2005-12-01

    Forensic odontology is the science of dental identification. This paper describes the contribution of forensic odontology to tsunami victim identification in Thailand, with particular reference to the Singaporean victims. Thirteen Singaporeans were reported missing in Phuket following the Indian ocean tsunami on 26 December 2004. To date, 10 victims have been found and identified, eight of whom were identified by dental records. The author travelled twice to southern Thailand and spent 5 weeks there. First, in December 2004 as part of a Singapore Police Force Disaster Victim Identification team deployed in Khao Lak, and later in July 2005 at the Thai Tsunami Victim Identification Information Management Centre in Phuket.

  2. Seismogenic stress field estimation in the Calabrian Arc region (south Italy) from a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.; Scolaro, S.; Neri, G.

    2016-09-01

    A new high-quality waveform inversion focal mechanism database of the Calabrian Arc region has been compiled by integrating 292 mechanisms selected from literature and catalogs with 146 newly computed solutions. The new database has then been used for computation of posterior density distributions of stress tensor components by a Bayesian method never applied in south Italy before the present study. The application of this method to the enhanced database has allowed us to provide a detailed picture of seismotectonic stress regimes in this very complex area where lithospheric unit configuration and geodynamic engines are still strongly debated. Our results well constrain the extensional domain of Calabrian Arc and the compressional one of the southernmost Tyrrhenian Sea. In addition, previously undetected transcurrent regimes have been identified in the Ionian offshore. The new information released here will furnish useful tools and constraints for future geodynamic investigations.

  3. Phylogenetic identification of marine bacteria isolated from deep-sea sediments of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro; Cavalett, Angélica; Spinner, Ananda; Rosa, Daniele Cristina; Jasper, Regina Beltrame; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Bonatelli, Maria Letícia; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline; Corção, Gertrudes; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2013-12-01

    The deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic Ocean are less studied in comparison to the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With the aim of identifying the deep-sea bacteria in this less known ocean, 70 strains were isolated from eight sediment samples (depth range between 1905 to 5560 m) collected in the eastern part of the South Atlantic, from the equatorial region to the Cape Abyssal Plain, using three different culture media. The strains were classified into three phylogenetic groups, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, by the analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences. Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most frequently identified groups, with Halomonas the most frequent genus among the strains. Microorganisms belonging to Firmicutes were the only ones observed in all samples. Sixteen of the 41 identified operational taxonomic units probably represent new species. The presence of potentially new species reinforces the need for new studies in the deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic.

  4. Applications of exploration technologies to reservoir prediction and management -- Field examples of South-East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Allen, G.; Madaoui, K.; Gouadain, J.; Kremer, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes how modern geoscience techniques, developed for a large part in intensive exploration programs, can be used at the field level to improve reservoir prediction and production planning and also to optimize recovery. Detailed sedimentological studies has allowed the authors to determine the environment of the reservoir formations and help define the likely shape and size of individual sands and refine the reservoir model. An illustration is given by fields located in the Mahakam delta area of Kalimantan (Handil, Tunu) and in the Gulf of Thailand (Bongkot). Sequence stratigraphy assists in identifying efficient regional seals which, at field scale, lead to the recomposition of a great number of individual sands (several hundreds in some cases) into fewer flow units, making the system manageable from a reservoir standpoint. This technology was used extensively to delineate the giant Peciko gas field of Indonesia. The geophysical approach of reservoir parameters and the use of seismic attributes are rapidly expanding. The Yadana gas field in the Gulf of Martaban (Myanmar) is a case in point to show how porosities can be determined from impedances obtained by seismic inversion techniques. An example from the Bongkot field shows how 3D seismic and direct hydrocarbon indication technology (DHI) are used to deal with complex faulting to optimize deviated well profiles and improve recoveries.

  5. Organizational Identification and Social Motivation: A Field Descriptive Study in Two Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barge, J. Kevin

    A study examined the relationships between leadership conversation and its impact upon organizational members' levels of organizational identification and behavior. It was hypothesized (1) that effective leader conversation would be associated with higher levels of role, means, goal and overall organizational identification, and (2) that…

  6. Candidate Clusters of Galaxies at z > 1.3 Identified in the Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettura, A.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Stern, D.; Mei, S.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Stanford, S. A.; Bartlett, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg2 Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z <= 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density nc = (0.7+6.3-0.6) × 10-7 h3 {Mpc}-3 and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r 0 = (32 ± 7) h -1 Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M min, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than Mmin = 1.5+0.9-0.7 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ . We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to Mmean = 1.9+1.0-0.8 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ ; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of present-day massive galaxy clusters.

  7. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Mei, S.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Bartlett, J. G.

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  8. Trace organic contaminants, including toxaphene and trifluralin, in cotton field soils from Georgia and South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Battula, S; Loganathan, B G; Hong, C S; Lam, W H; Villeneuve, D L; Sajwan, K; Giesy, J P; Aldous, K M

    2003-07-01

    Residues of organic contaminants--including toxaphene, DDT, trifluralin, hexachlorocyclohexanes, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nonylphenol--were measured in 32 cotton field soils collected from South Carolina and Georgia in 1999. Toxaphene, trifluralin, DDT and PAHs were the major contaminants found in these soils. The maximum concentration of toxaphene measured was 2,500 ng/g dry weight. Trifluralin was detected in all the soils at concentrations ranging from 1 to 548 ng/g dry weight. Pesticide residues were not proportional to soil organic carbon content, indicating that their concentrations were a reflection of application history and dissipation rates rather than air-soil equilibrium. Soil extracts were also subjected to in vitro bioassays to assess dioxinlike, estrogenic, and androgenic/glucocorticoid potencies. Relatively more polar fractions of the soils elicited estrogenic and androgenic/glucocorticoid activities, but the magnitude of response was much less than those found in coastal marine sediments from industrialized locations.

  9. Deep X-ray spectroscopy of high-z obscured AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, Andrea; Vignali, Cristian; Gilli, Roberto; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Georgantopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-07-01

    According to the recent models for the joint evolution of Super Massive Black Holes and their Host Galaxies, heavy obscuration represents an important phase and is expected to play a key role in the feedback mechanisms self regulating the SMBH growth. The smoking gun signature of heavy absorption is the presence of a heavily absorbed or reflected X-ray spectrum plus a strong Iron line. X-ray spectroscopy thus represents the most efficient method to uncover the most obscured sources. I will present the results of a systematic search for strong iron lines in the ultra-deep (3 Ms) XMM survey in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). I will also highlight the power of deep spectroscopy to obtain redshift estimates more accurate and reliable than available photo-z. Some notable examples of synergies between ultra-deep Chandra (4 Ms) and XMM observations will be also reported.

  10. Water quality improvement by natural plant-mineral composites and field temperatures of a eutrophic lake in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung-Hwan, Byung; Kim, Ha-Kyung; Mun, Sun-Ki; Kim, Baik-Ho

    2014-09-01

    To improve the water quality of Shingal Reservoir, a eutrophic lake in South Korea, field tests were performed to assess the influence of water temperature on water quality improvement (WQI) ability of domestic plant-mineral composites (PMCs). Interestingly, Cyanobacterium was found to be dominant even in low-temperature seasons, especially winter leading to more effective for diatom growth. Factors such as phytoplankton, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorous showed high WQI over 70% at 20 degrees C, but declined to 40% at temperatures above 25 degrees C. WQI for Cyanobacteria decreased with increasing water temperature, whereas for diatoms WQI was 90% regardless of water temperature. Additionally, bacterial density and total nitrogen showed very low WQI without water temperature. Collectively, the results indicate that high water temperature decreased WQI ability of a PMC to control phytoplankton (Microcystis aeruginosa) and increased their ability to control diatoms.

  11. Comparison of species-level identification and antifungal susceptibility results from diagnostic and reference laboratories for bloodstream Candida surveillance isolates, South Africa, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Serisha D; Govender, Nevashan; Patel, Jaymati; Zietsman, Inge L; Wadula, Jeannette; Coovadia, Yacoob; Kularatne, Ranmini; Seetharam, Sharona; Govender, Nelesh P

    2016-11-01

    From February 2009 through August 2010, we compared species-level identification of bloodstream Candida isolates and susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin between diagnostic and reference South African laboratories during national surveillance for candidemia. Diagnostic laboratories identified isolates to genus/species level and performed antifungal susceptibility testing, as indicated. At a reference laboratory, viable Candida isolates were identified to species-level using automated systems, biochemical tests, or DNA sequencing; broth dilution susceptibility testing was performed. Categorical agreement (CA) was calculated for susceptibility results of isolates with concordant species identification. Overall, 2172 incident cases were detected, 773 (36%) by surveillance audit. The Vitek 2 YST system (bioMérieux Inc, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was used for identification (360/863, 42%) and susceptibility testing (198/473, 42%) of a large proportion of isolates. For the five most common species (n = 1181), species-level identification was identical in the majority of cases (Candida albicans: 98% (507/517); Candida parapsilosis: 92% (450/488); Candida glabrata: 89% (89/100); Candida tropicalis: 91% (49/54), and Candida krusei: 86% (19/22)). However, diagnostic laboratories were significantly less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans versus C. albicans (607/664, 91% vs. 507/517, 98%; P < .001). Susceptibility data were compared for isolates belonging to the five most common species and fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin in 860, 580, and 99 cases, respectively. Diagnostic laboratories significantly under-reported fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis (225/393, 57% vs. 239/393, 61%; P < .001) but over-reported fluconazole non-susceptibility in C. albicans (36/362, 10% vs. 3/362, 0.8%; P < .001). Diagnostic laboratories were less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans, under

  12. Mapping rainfall fields and their ENSO variation in data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basher, Reid E.; Zheng, Xiaogu

    1998-03-01

    Rainfall fields for the data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region have been mapped by partial thin-plate smoothing spline surface modelling applied to island rainfall measurements, enhanced by the use of satellite observations of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) as a regression covariate. The aim is to obtain spatially realistic rainfall maps, especially in the data-sparse areas between island groups, through a fully objective and statistically valid method that includes error estimates. The method has been applied to the region 4°N-24°S, 168°E-154°W. The rainfall data set initially comprised 57 stations, most with 40 year records. As a first step, a regression of annual OLR and rainfall for atolls only was formed and used to eliminate outlier rainfall stations, all of which are on mountainous islands and thus are probably influenced orographically.The maps clearly show the spatial patterns and seasonal behaviour of the regions key meteorological features, namely, the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the southern edge of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the wedge shaped region of divergent easterlies lying between them. To identify ENSO variations, maps of 3-month seasonal rainfall were constructed from composites of eight El Niño (negative SOI) episodes and nine La Niña (positive SOI) episodes. These maps are relatively rough in appearance, but nevertheless they show the evolution of the spatial patterns through each composite episode and the strong and symmetrically opposite differences between them. Marked variations in the strength and position of the SPCZ are evident and the isohyets in the equatorial dry zone exhibit east-west shifts of nearly 3000 km relative to the average field. The rainfall variation at a particular location may be understood in terms of competition of influence among the changing features of the pattern, rather than as a simple linear function of the SOI.

  13. A new South American network to study the atmospheric electric field and its variations related to geophysical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacza, J.; Raulin, J.-P.; Macotela, E.; Norabuena, E.; Fernandez, G.; Correia, E.; Rycroft, M. J.; Harrison, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present the capability of a new network of field mill sensors to monitor the atmospheric electric field at various locations in South America; we also show some early results. The main objective of the new network is to obtain the characteristic Universal Time diurnal curve of the atmospheric electric field in fair weather, known as the Carnegie curve. The Carnegie curve is closely related to the current sources flowing in the Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit so that another goal is the study of this relationship on various time scales (transient/monthly/seasonal/annual). Also, by operating this new network, we may also study departures of the Carnegie curve from its long term average value related to various solar, geophysical and atmospheric phenomena such as the solar cycle, solar flares and energetic charged particles, galactic cosmic rays, seismic activity and specific meteorological events. We then expect to have a better understanding of the influence of these phenomena on the Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit and its time-varying behavior.

  14. Local Lunar Gravity Field Analysis over the South Pole-aitken Basin from SELENE Farside Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koji; Sasaki, Sho

    2012-01-01

    We present a method with which we determined the local lunar gravity field model over the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin on the farside of the Moon by estimating adjustments to a global lunar gravity field model using SELENE tracking data. Our adjustments are expressed in localized functions concentrated over the SPA region in a spherical cap with a radius of 45deg centered at (191.1 deg E, 53.2 deg S), and the resolution is equivalent to a 150th degree and order spherical harmonics expansion. The new solution over SPA was used in several applications of geophysical analysis. It shows an increased correlation with high-resolution lunar topography in the frequency band l = 40-70, and admittance values are slightly different and more leveled when compared to other, global gravity field models using the same data. The adjustments expressed in free-air anomalies and differences in Bouguer anomalies between the local solution and the a priori global solution correlate with topographic surface features. The Moho structure beneath the SPA basin is slightly modified in our solution, most notably at the southern rim of the Apollo basin and around the Zeeman crater

  15. Models of Active Glacial Isostasy Roofing Warm Subduction: Case of the South Patagonian Ice Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemann, Volker; Ivins, Erik R.; Martinec, Zdenek; Wolf, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Modern geodetic techniques such as precise Global Positioning System (GPS) and high-resolution space gravity mapping (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, GRACE) make it possible to measure the present-day rate of viscoelastic gravitational Earth response to present and past glacier mass changes. The Andes of Patagonia contain glacial environments of dramatic mass change. These mass load changes occur near a tectonically active boundary between the Antarctic and South American plates. The mechanical strength of the continental side of this boundary is influenced by Neogene ridge subduction and by the subduction of a youthful oceanic slab. A ridge of young volcanos parallels the Pacific coastline. Release of volatiles (such as water) at depth along this ridge creates a unique rheological environment. To assess the influence of this rheological ridge structure on the observational land uplift rate, we apply a two dimensional viscoelastic Earth model. A numerical study is presented which examines the sensitivity of the glacial loading-unloading response to the complex structure at depth related to the subducting slab, the viscous wedge between slab and continental lithosphere, and the increase of elastic thickness from oceanic to continental lithosphere. A key feature revealed by our numerical experiments is a continuum flow wherein the slab subdues the material transport toward oceanic mantle and crust. The restricted flow is sensitive to the details of slab mechanical strength and penetration into the upper mantle. The reduced viscosity within the mantle wedge, however, enhances the load-induced material transport everywhere within the asthenosphere.

  16. Occurrence climatology of F region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes as observed by a 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar in Daejeon, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tae-Yong; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kil, Hyosub; Lee, Young-Sook; Lee, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Jae-jin

    2015-11-01

    A new 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar was built in Daejeon, South Korea (36.18°N, 127.14°E, dip latitude: 26.7°N) on 29 December 2009 and has since been monitoring the occurrence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) in the northern middle latitudes. We report on the occurrence climatology of the F region FAIs as observed by the Daejeon radar between 2010 and 2014. The F region FAIs preferentially occur around 250-350 km at 18:00-21:00 local time (postsunset FAI), around 350-450 km near midnight (nighttime FAI), around 250-350 km before sunrise (presunrise FAI), and around 160-300 km after 05:00 local time (postsunrise FAI). The occurrence rates of nighttime and presunrise FAIs are maximal during summer, though the occurrence rates of postsunset and postsunrise FAIs are maximal during the equinoxes. FAIs rarely occur during local winter. The occurrence rate of F region FAIs increases in concert with increases in solar activity. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are known as an important source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes. The high occurrence rate of the nighttime FAIs in local summer is consistent with the high occurrence rate of MSTIDs in that season. However, the dependence of the FAI activity on the solar cycle is inconsistent with the MSTID activity. The source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes is an open question. Our report of different types of FAIs and their occurrence climatology may provide a useful reference for the identification of the source of the middle latitude FAIs.

  17. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A.; De Breuck, C.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Poggianti, B. M.; and others

    2014-06-20

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z {sub phot} = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z {sub phot} = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M {sub *} = (8 ± 1) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M{sub H} distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  18. Field performance and identification capability of the Innsbruck PTR-TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2009-04-01

    Over the last one and a half decades Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) [1, 2] has gained recognition as fast on-line sensor for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. Sample collection is very straight forward and the fact that no pre-concentration is needed is of particular advantage for compounds that are notoriously difficult to pre-concentrate and/or analyze by gas chromatographic (GC) methods. Its ionization method is very versatile, i.e. all compounds that perform exothermic proton transfer with hydronium ions - and most VOCs do so - are readily ionized, producing quasi-molecular ions VOC.H+. In the quasi-molecular ion the elemental composition of the analyte compound is conserved and allows, in combination with some background knowledge of the sample, conclusions about the identity of that compound. De Gouw and Warneke (2007) [3] summarized the applicability of PTR-MS in atmospheric chemistry but they also pointed out shortcomings in the identification capabilities. Goldstein and Galbally (2007) [4] addressed the multitude of VOCs potentially present in the atmosphere and they emphasized the gasphase-to-aerosol partitioning of organic compounds (volatile and semi-volatile) in dependence of carbon-chain length and oxygen containing functional groups. In collaboration with Ionicon and assisted by TOFWERK we developed a PTR time-of-flight (PTR-TOF) instrument that allows for the identification of the atomic composition of oxygenated hydrocarbons by exact-mass determination. A detection limit in the low pptv range was achieved at a time resolution of one minute, one-second detection limit is in the sub-ppbv range. In 2008 the Innsbruck PTR-TOF was field deployed in the icebreaker- and helicopter based Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) to characterize the organic trace gas composition of the High Arctic atmosphere. During the six-week field campaign the PTR-TOF was run without problems even under harsh conditions in

  19. The ROSAT Deep Survey. 2; Optical Identification, Photometry and Spectra of X-Ray Sources in the Lockman Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, M.; Hasinger, G.; Gunn, J.; Schneider, D.; Burg, R.; Giacconi, R.; Lehmann, I.; MacKenty, J.; Truemper, J.; Zamorani, G.

    1998-01-01

    The ROSAT Deep Survey includes a complete sample of 50 X-ray sources with fluxes in the 0.5 - 2 keV band larger than 5.5 x 10(exp -15)erg/sq cm/s in the Lockman field (Hasinger et al., Paper 1). We have obtained deep broad-band CCD images of the field and spectra of many optical objects near the positions of the X-ray sources. We define systematically the process leading to the optical identifications of the X-ray sources. For this purpose, we introduce five identification (ID) classes that characterize the process in each case. Among the 50 X-ray sources, we identify 39 AGNs, 3 groups of galaxies, 1 galaxy and 3 galactic stars. Four X-ray sources remain unidentified so far; two of these objects may have an unusually large ratio of X-ray to optical flux.

  20. Simulating solute transport in a structured field soil: uncertainty in parameter identification and predictions.

    PubMed

    Larsbo, Mats; Jarvis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Dual-permeability models have been developed to account for the significant effects of macropore flow on contaminant transport, but their use is hampered by difficulties in estimating the additional parameters required. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate data requirements for parameter identification for predictive modeling with the dual-permeability model MACRO. Two different approaches were compared: sequential uncertainty fitting (SUFI) and generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE). We investigated six parameters controlling macropore flow and pesticide sorption and degradation, applying MACRO to a comprehensive field data set of bromide andbentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one-2,2dioxide] transport in a structured soil. The GLUE analyses of parameter conditioning for different combinations of observations showed that both resident and flux concentrations were needed to obtain highly conditioned and unbiased parameters and that observations of tracer transport generally improved the conditioning of macropore flow parameters. The GLUE "behavioral" parameter sets covered wider parameter ranges than the SUFI posterior uncertainty domains. Nevertheless, estimation uncertainty ranges defined by the 5th and 95th percentiles were similar and many simulations randomly sampled from the SUFI posterior uncertainty domains had negative model efficiencies (minimum of -3.2). This is because parameter correlations are neglected in SUFI and the posterior uncertainty domains were not always determined correctly. For the same reasons, uncertainty ranges for predictions of bentazone losses through drainflow for good agricultural practice in southern Sweden were 27% larger for SUFI compared with GLUE. Although SUFI proved to be an efficient parameter estimation tool, GLUE seems better suited as a method of uncertainty estimation for predictions.

  1. Validation of in situ networks via field sampling: case study in the South Fork Experimental Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated by the logistics of installing a soil moisture network for a long term period in an active landscape. Therefore, these stations are located along field boundaries or in non-representative sites with regards to so...

  2. Petrology and depositional environment of Sunniland producing fields of south Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J.

    1984-09-01

    Oil exploration began in Florida in 1901, but no oil was found until 1943. In November of that year, Humble Oil and Refining Co. made a discovery near Sunniland in southern Florida. This field and the producing zone were called Sunniland. No further discoveries were made in southern Florida until 1954 when the Forty-Mile field was discovered by Gulf Oil Co. Ten years later, in 1964, the Sunoco Felda field was discovered by Sun Oil Co., followed by West Sunoco Felda field in 1968. The examination of numerous cores and thin sections of this formation, both from producing fields and wildcat wells, reveals a sequence of deposition in the Sunniland formation. It has been reported that tintinnids or calpionellids have been observed in the lower mud section, but investigation of many thin sections from this section revealed only ostracod particles. Above the mudstone, the section becomes increasingly plentiful in fragmented microbored rudist particles and forams such as Orbitolina texana, Dictyoconus floridanus, and Coskinolina sunnilandensis. Above this section the sequence is considered regressive and consists of pellets and forams with a few mollusk fragments. This section is interpreted as the basal unit of a grainstone bar shoal. The grainstone bar shoal is made up of reworked particles of oysters (Texigryphea), coated caprinid fragments, forams, and echinoid fragments. For some years, the rocks of the Sunniland formation have been considered reefal, but based on the results of this study, these rocks are interpreted to be a barrier tidal-shoal bar deposited well behind the main reef crest, which lies farther offshore at the edge of the Florida escarpment.

  3. Statistical scaling, Shannon entropy, and Generalized space-time q-entropy of rainfall fields in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Germán; Salas, Hernán D

    2015-07-01

    We study diverse scaling and information theory characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) as seen by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over continental and oceanic regions of tropical South America, and 2-D radar rainfall fields from Amazonia. The bi-dimensional Fourier spectra of MCSs exhibit inverse power laws with respect to the spatial scale, whose scaling exponents, β, capture the type of spatial correlation of rainfall among the study regions, including those over the Andes of Colombia as well as over oceanic and Amazonian regions. The moment-scaling analysis evidences that the structure function deviates from simple scaling at order q > 1.0, thus signaling the multi-scaling nature of rainfall fields within MCSs in tropical South America, with departures from simple scaling associated with the physical characteristics of MCSs over the different study regions. Entropy is estimated for a large set of radar rainfall fields during the distinctive atmospheric regimes (Easterly and Westerly events) in this part of Amazonia. Results evidence that there are significant differences in the dynamics of rainfall among regimes. No clear-cut relationship is found between entropy and the first two statistical moments, but power fits in space and time, S(γ) ∼ γ(-η) for skewness and, S(κ) ∼ κ(-ϵ) for kurtosis. The exponents η and ϵ are statistically different between Easterly and Westerly events, although the significance of fits is less when L-moments are used to estimate skewness and kurtosis. Interesting differences are identified between the time and space generalized q-entropy functions of Amazonian rainfall fields. In both cases, the functions are a continuous set of power laws (analogous to the structure function in turbulence), S(T, q) ∼ T(β), and, S(λ, q) ∼ λ(β), covering a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Both time and space generalized q-entropy functions exhibit linear growth in the

  4. A new cave species of Coecobrya Yosii (Collembola, Entomobryidae, Entomobryinae) from South Africa, with an identification key to the genus.

    PubMed

    Cipola, Nikolas Gioia; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2016-11-29

    Coecobrya anaguilae sp. nov., a new species of springtail from Cango Caves, South Africa is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to other species of tenebricosa-group such as C. communis (Chen & Christiansen), C. edenticulata (Handschin), and C. tropicalis Qu, Chen & Greenslade in some elements of dorsal chaetotaxy, absence of eyes, unguis with one unpaired median tooth, and manubrium without smooth chaetae, but differs from them in dorsal head, mesothoracic and collophore chaetotaxy. This is the first species of Coecobrya described from Africa as well as the first indisputable record of the genus for the whole continent. In this study an updated key to the species of the genus is provided, adding 14 species to the most recently published identification key. We also discuss some aspects of distribution and evolution of Coecobrya.

  5. Prevalence and management status of urologic diseases in geriatric hospitals in South Korea: A field research

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Heon; Suh, Jungyo; Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Sang Rim; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the current management status of urologic diseases in geriatric hospitals in South Korea. Materials and Methods Questionnaire surveys and in-depth person-to-person interviews were conducted at 13 hospitals within the Seoul and Incheon areas. Results The study was carried out from July to December 2014; 75.6% of patients (1,858/2,458) and 77.5% (779/1,031) of medical personnel responded to our survey. All surveys and interviews were performed by urology specialists, fellows, residents, or nurses. The hospitals included in the study had an average of 215.2 beds (range, 110–367), 189.1 patients (range, 90–345), and 40.2 nurses (range, 10–83). The average number of physicians was 6.2 (range, 3–11), but none of these were certified urologists. Only 4 hospitals provided consultation services for urological disorders. In total, 64% of patients had urological disorders, although only 20.7% of patients were receiving medication. Most patients were being treated using urological interventions; diapers (49.7%), indwelling catheters (19.5%), clean intermittent catheters (12.2%), and external collection urinary drainage (7.9%). However, most interventions were inadequately implemented, and only 17% of the patients had been examined by a certified urologist. Urological complications were found in 20.2% of patients, and secondary complications occurred in 18.8%. Excluding redundant cases, the total prevalence of urological complications was 39.0%. Conclusions Urologic diseases are poorly managed, and no certified urologists work in geriatric hospitals. Therefore, more designated urologists are needed in geriatric hospitals. PMID:28097271

  6. Turtle Bayou - 1936 to 1983: case history of a major gas field in south Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Cronquist, C.

    1983-01-01

    Turtle Bayou field, located in the middle Miocene trend in S. Louisiana, is nearing the end of a productive life which spans over 30 yr. Discovered by Shell Oil Co. in 1949 after unsuccessful attempts by 2 other majors, the field is a typical, low relief, moderately faulted Gulf Coast structure, probably associated with deep salt movement. The productive interval includes 22 separate gas-bearing sands in a regressive sequence of sands and shales from approx. 6500 to 12,000 ft. Now estimated to have contained ca 1.2 trillion scf of gas in place, cumulative production through 1982 was 702 billion scf. Cumulative condensate-gas ratio has been 20 bbl/million. Recovery mechanisms in individual reservoirs include strong bottom water drive, partial edgewater drive, and pressure depletion. Recovery efficiencies in major reservoirs range from 40 to 75% of original gas in place.

  7. Validation of in Situ Networks Via Field Sampling: Case Study in the South Fork Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; McKee, L.; Bindlish, R.; Coopersmith, E. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Prueger, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated by the logistics of installing a soil moisture network for a long term period in an active landscape. Therefore, these stations are located along field boundaries or in non-representative sites with regards to soil type or soil moisture. The representative character of this network can only be established by large scale field sampling to provide a calibration dataset. A team of samplers were deployed twice a week for the summer of 2014 to collect surface soil moisture data across a variety of land covers at 44 sites. These samples were compared and scaled to the domain to get a better understanding of the large scale soil moisture distributions and dynamics. In addition, comparisons are made to the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) soil moisture product for the length of the network installation.

  8. Core facies, petrology, and permeability of Tirrawarra Sandstone, Moorari Field, Cooper Basin, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Bever, J.M.; Carroll, P.G.; Wild, E.W.; Williams, B.P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The oil and gas-bearing Tirrawarra Sandstone lies in the basal section of the Cooper basin sequence, which is largely Permian in age. The sandstone is characteristically thick, but both interfingers with and conformable overlies glacio-lacustrine diamictites and varvites of the late Carboniferous-Early Permian Merrimeleia Formation. The Tirrawarra Sandstone has previously been interpreted as being deposited in a glacio-fluvial braided river environment. The sandstone produces high gas:oil-ratio oil at the Moorari field, from depths of 9,400 ft below sea level. Appraisal and development of the field has been hampered by the patchy distribution of reservoir quality sandstone. This study investigated the cause of reservoir quality variations. For seven cored wells, core facies analysis, core plug porosity/permeability, petrology, and wireline logs were all matched and compared. The results are as follows. (1) Facies states (grain size and bed form) largely control permeability distribution in the Tirrawarra Sandstone at the Moorari field, such that horizontally bedded medium-coarse sandstones are consistently more permeable than cross-bedded equivalents. (2) Diagenesis levels are high and include extensive silica cement and patchy kaolinite and siderite cements. However, diagenesis rarely operates independently of original depositional fabric. (3) An association between depositional environment and permeability is recognizable, with medial bars in particular providing better reservoir quality.

  9. First DNA Barcode Reference Library for the Identification of South American Freshwater Fish from the Lower Paraná River.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Juan; Villanova, Gabriela Vanina; Brancolini, Florencia; Del Pazo, Felipe; Posner, Victoria Maria; Grimberg, Alexis; Arranz, Silvia Eda

    2016-01-01

    Valid fish species identification is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Here, we provide a sequence reference library based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for a valid identification of 79 freshwater fish species from the Lower Paraná River. Neighbour-joining analysis based on K2P genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for almost all species with a ≥99% bootstrap support each. Identification was successful for 97.8% of species as the minimum genetic distance to the nearest neighbour exceeded the maximum intraspecific distance in all these cases. A barcoding gap of 2.5% was apparent for the whole data set with the exception of four cases. Within-species distances ranged from 0.00% to 7.59%, while interspecific distances varied between 4.06% and 19.98%, without considering Odontesthes species with a minimum genetic distance of 0%. Sequence library validation was performed by applying BOLDs BIN analysis tool, Poisson Tree Processes model and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, along with a reliable taxonomic assignment by experts. Exhaustive revision of vouchers was performed when a conflicting assignment was detected after sequence analysis and BIN discordance evaluation. Thus, the sequence library presented here can be confidently used as a benchmark for identification of half of the fish species recorded for the Lower Paraná River.

  10. First DNA Barcode Reference Library for the Identification of South American Freshwater Fish from the Lower Paraná River

    PubMed Central

    Brancolini, Florencia; del Pazo, Felipe; Posner, Victoria Maria; Grimberg, Alexis; Arranz, Silvia Eda

    2016-01-01

    Valid fish species identification is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Here, we provide a sequence reference library based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for a valid identification of 79 freshwater fish species from the Lower Paraná River. Neighbour-joining analysis based on K2P genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for almost all species with a ≥99% bootstrap support each. Identification was successful for 97.8% of species as the minimum genetic distance to the nearest neighbour exceeded the maximum intraspecific distance in all these cases. A barcoding gap of 2.5% was apparent for the whole data set with the exception of four cases. Within-species distances ranged from 0.00% to 7.59%, while interspecific distances varied between 4.06% and 19.98%, without considering Odontesthes species with a minimum genetic distance of 0%. Sequence library validation was performed by applying BOLDs BIN analysis tool, Poisson Tree Processes model and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, along with a reliable taxonomic assignment by experts. Exhaustive revision of vouchers was performed when a conflicting assignment was detected after sequence analysis and BIN discordance evaluation. Thus, the sequence library presented here can be confidently used as a benchmark for identification of half of the fish species recorded for the Lower Paraná River. PMID:27442116

  11. Do Toxicity Identification and Evaluation Laboratory-Based Methods Reflect Causes of Field Impairment?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  12. Effects of Season and Management of Irrigated Cotton Fields on Collembola (Hexapoda) in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lytton-Hitchins, James A; Greenslade, Penelope; Wilson, Lewis J

    2015-06-01

    The effects of production practices on the relative abundance of springtails (Collembola) in irrigated cotton fields of northern New South Wales (NSW) were studied over 2 yr to examine effects of farm management on these decomposer organisms. Pitfall trapping and soil core extraction was undertaken in both pseudoreplicated plots within whole fields on cotton farms and on experimental replicate plots of Envirofeast cotton and Lucerne. The relative abundance of surface-active springtails in cotton rows and densities of soil species from the rhizosphere were calculated. Twenty-three species of Collembola were collected from 5 fields, 19 in pitfall traps, and 11 in soil cores. Five species, Setogaster sp., Proisotoma minuta, Entomobrya unostrigata, Entomobrya multifasciata grp, and Lepidobrya sp. were numerically dominant on the ground at 86-96% of individuals and Mesaphorura sp., Folsomides parvulus, and Hemisotoma thermophila grp dominant in the soil. Native grassland samples contained 15 species of which a probable 10 were native and 8 were not found in cotton. Nineteen species of the 24 species identified from cotton were predominantly fungal feeders. Highest catches of Collembola occurred after flowering and soil Collembola increased with depth and during cotton growth on unsprayed plots but decreased on sprayed plots. Surface soil moistures affected daily catch rates with decomposing residues, crop stage, predator abundance, and season as secondary factors. Insecticide (endosulfan, pyrethroid, carbamate, and organophosphate) and predator effects were either negligible or unclear depending on the factor involved. Springtails appear to be predominately food limited during times of adequate soil moisture in cotton fields.

  13. Identification of rice field using Multi-Temporal NDVI and PCA method on Landsat 8 (Case Study: Demak, Central Java)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukmono, Abdi; Ardiansyah

    2017-01-01

    Paddy is one of the most important agricultural crop in Indonesia. Indonesia’s consumption of rice per capita in 2013 amounted to 78,82 kg/capita/year. In 2017, the Indonesian government has the mission of realizing Indonesia became self-sufficient in food. Therefore, the Indonesian government should be able to seek the stability of the fulfillment of basic needs for food, such as rice field mapping. The accurate mapping for rice field can use a quick and easy method such as Remote Sensing. In this study, multi-temporal Landsat 8 are used for identification of rice field based on Rice Planting Time. It was combined with other method for extract information from the imagery. The methods which was used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and band combination. Image classification is processed by using nine classes, those are water, settlements, mangrove, gardens, fields, rice fields 1st, rice fields 2nd, rice fields 3rd and rice fields 4th. The results showed the rice fields area obtained from the PCA method was 50,009 ha, combination bands was 51,016 ha and NDVI method was 45,893 ha. The accuracy level was obtained PCA method (84.848%), band combination (81.818%), and NDVI method (75.758%).

  14. Tolerance of nonindigenous cichlid fishes (Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Hemichromis letourneuxi) to low temperature: laboratory and field experiments in south Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.; Kobza, Robert M.; Cook, Mark I.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    The cold tolerance of two non-native cichlids (Hemichromis letourneuxi and Cichlasoma urophthalmus) that are established in south Florida was tested in the field and laboratory. In the laboratory, fishes were acclimated to two temperatures (24 and 28°C), and three salinities (0, 10, and 35 ppt). Two endpoints were identified: loss of equilibrium (11.5–13.7°C for C. urophthalmus; 10.8–12.5°C for H. letourneuxi), and death (9.5–11.1°C for C. urophthalmus; 9.1–13.3°C for H. letourneuxi). In the field, fishes were caged in several aquatic habitats during two winter cold snaps. Temperatures were lowest (4.0°C) in the shallow marsh, where no fish survived, and warmest in canals and solution-holes. Canals and ditches as shallow as 50 cm provided thermal refuges for these tropical fishes. Because of the effect on survival of different habitat types, simple predictions of ultimate geographic expansion by non-native fishes using latitude and thermal isoclines are insufficient for freshwater fishes.

  15. Surficial geology of the Safsaf region, south-central Egypt, derived from remote-sensing and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    We used a decorrelation-stretched image of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 1, 4, and 7 and field data to map and describe the main surficial units in the hyperarid Safsaf region in south-central Egypt. We show that the near-infrared bands on Landsat TM, which are sensitive to very subtle changes in mineralogy common to arid regions, significantly improve the geologist's capability to discriminate geologic units in desert regions. These data also provide the spatial and spectral information necessary to determine the migration patterns and provenance of eolian materials. The Safsaf area was the focus of our post flight field studies using Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data following the discovery of buried paleochannels in North Africa. Most of the channels discernible on SIR images are not expressed in TM data, but traces of a few channels are present in both the SIR and the TM data within the Wadi Safsaf area. Here we present a detailed digital examination of the SIR and the TM-band reflectance and reflectance-ratio data at three locations of the more obvious surface expressions of the buried channels. Our results indicate that the TM expressions of the channels are not purely topographic but are more compositional in nature. Two possibilities may account for the TM expressions of the buried channels: 1) concentrations of windblown, iron-rich materials that accumulated along subtle curvilinear topograpohic traps, or 2) curvilinear exposures of an iron-rich underlying unit of the flat sand sheet. ?? 1993.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: z>~5 AGN in Chandra Deep Field-South (Weigel+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. K.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Koss, M.; Trakhtenbrot, B.

    2015-09-01

    The Chandra 4-Ms source catalogue by Xue et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/195/10) is the starting point of this work. It contains 740 sources and provides counts and observed frame fluxes in the soft (0.5-2keV), hard (2-8keV) and full (0.5-8keV) band. All object IDs used in this work refer to the source numbers listed in the Xue et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/195/10) Chandra 4-Ms catalogue. We make use of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South (GOODS-south) in the optical wavelength range. We use catalogues and images for filters F435W (B), F606W (V), F775W (i) and 850LP (z) from the second GOODS/ACS data release (v2.0; Giavalisco et al., 2004, Cat. II/261). We use Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/infrared data from the first data release (DR1, v1.0) for passbands F105W (Y), F125W (J) and F160W (H) (Grogin et al., 2011ApJS..197...35G; Koekemoer et al., 2011ApJS..197...36K). To determine which objects are red, dusty, low-redshift interlopers, we also include the 3.6 and 4.5 micron Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) channels. We use SIMPLE image data from the DR1 (van Dokkum et al., 2005, Spitzer Proposal, 2005.20708) and the first version of the extended SIMPLE catalogue by Damen et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJ/727/1). (6 data files).

  17. Reservoir quality, sediment source, and regional aspects of Norphlet Formation, South State Line field, Greene County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, A.; Stancliffe, R.J.; Shew, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    South State Line field, discovered in 1970, is centrally located in the productive Jurassic Norphlet trend of the eastern Gulf Coast. The Norphlet Formation at South State Line has produced gas and condensate from normally pressured eolian sandstones at depths of more than 17,900 ft (5455 m). The 600-ft- (183-m) thick Norphlet Formation is composed of 100% sandstone and consists of two reservoir types: a poorer quality upper sandstone having low permeability (0.6 md) and a good-quality lower sandstone with better permeability (15.5 md). The upper sandstone exhibits tighter compaction of framework grains and more cement than the lower sandstone. Significantly, the upper sandstone contains authigenic illite (which promotes pressure solution), whereas the lower sandstone contains authigenic chlorite (which inhibits cementation and possibly pressure solution). On a regional scale, illite is the principal diagenetic clay mineral in the western area of the Norphlet trend (Mississippi to Texas), whereas chlorite is the principal diagenetic clay mineral in the east (Alabama to Florida). Not surprisingly, reservoir quality is poorer in the western portion of the trend. A comparison of framework grains in the upper and lower sandstones shows no significant compositional differences. Both are mature arkosic sandstones with a transitional-continental source (eastern Appalachians). No evidence was seen of a quartz-rich Ouachita or cratonic source. Volcanic and plutonic rock fragments are slightly more abundant in the lower sandstone, possibly reflecting a shifting of compositional terranes within a single source area along the eastern side of the Appalachians. The lower Norphlet sandstone may have been derived from Triassic volcanics, whereas the upper sandstone may have been derived from a more metamorphic source.

  18. A joint geophysical analysis of the Coso geothermal field, south-eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamalwa, Antony M.; Mickus, Kevin L.; Serpa, Laura F.; Doser, Diane I.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional density models derived from gravity data and two-dimensional resistivity models derived from magnetotelluric data collected in the vicinity of the Coso geothermal field are analyzed in order to determine the source region of the geothermal field. The derived models show zones of both low resistivity and low density at and below 6 km depth in the Devils Kitchen and the Coso Hot Springs areas. These zones agree with seismic reflection and tomography results which found a high amplitude reflector at 5 km and low velocities zones below 5 km. We interpret the density and resistivity zones to indicate the presence of cooling magmatic material that provides the heat for the shallower geothermal system in these regions. A zone marked by high resistivity and low density was found to lie directly above the interpreted partially melted region extending to within 1 km depth below the surface in the reservoir region where it is capped by a low resistivity clay zone. In addition, the density models indicate that the high density bodies occurring under volcanic outcrops may be mafic intrusions.

  19. A COMPREHENISVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  20. Power Line Noise in Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Data: Identification and Removal in a Practical Field Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the appropriateness of TEM in mapping deep groundwater tables (in Mars analog environmnets), a field study was carried out in the desert ~30 miles SW of Tucson, Arizona. The study was also designed to observe effects of powerline noise on TEM data. The clay-rich soil in the area is quite conductive. The study consisted of 40 in-loop TEM stations, divided into 3 lines, for 4 line-km of data. The survey was carried out by a crew of one person, with square Tx wire loops 100 m on a side, and a ferrite-core magnetic coil Rx antenna in the center of each Tx loop. Maximum useful depth of investigation achieved was ~600 m. TEM DATA: The field area is surrounded by powerlines on all 4 sides: Line 1 has the outside of the first Tx loop under the powerline to the West; Line 2 starts with the powerline to the North passing above just inside its first Tx loop, and ends with the outside of the last station's transmitter loop ~20 m shy of the powerline to the South; finally, Line 3 starts ~50 m East of the powerline to the West, and runs parallel to the powerline to the South along its entire length, at a separation distance of ~70 m. Line 3 was placed largely in an effort to obeserve powerline noise. The decay curve for the first station on Line 1(Line 1/Station 50) is raised above the other curves from Line 1. This is due to the charge (noise) from the adjacent powerline, which is at a distance of ~50 m from the Rx coil. In effect, the transient decay is recorded as being slower than it would be without the presence of the powerline. This also artficially lowers the apparent resistivity, readily observed in Line 1/Station 50 data. These effects are present to a lesser extent (lower magnitude noise) in the data from Line1/Station 150, the second station on Line 1. On the smooth-model inversion cross-section of the data from Line 1, the effects of the powerline noise appears as a pulling up of the low-resistivity water table contact towards the surface

  1. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  2. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukom, R.; Luterbacher, J.; Villalba, R.; Küttel, M.; Frank, D.; Jones, P. D.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H.; Aravena, J.-C.; Black, D. E.; Christie, D. A.; D'Arrigo, R.; Lara, A.; Morales, M.; Soliz-Gamboa, C.; Srur, A.; Urrutia, R.; von Gunten, L.

    2011-07-01

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales.

  3. Fluvial architecture and reservoir heterogeneity of middle Frio sandstones, Seeligson field, Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A.; Kerr, D.R.; Zinke, S.G.; Finley, R.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Evaluation of fluvial Frio reservoirs in south Texas reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of incremental gas reserves through recognition of untapped compartments or bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a GRI/DOE/Texas-sponsored program, in cooperation with Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Production U.S., Inc., and is designed to develop technologies and methodologies for increasing gas reserves from conventional reservoirs in mature fields. Seeligson field, discovered in 1937, has produced 2.2 tcf of gas from more than 50 middle Frio reservoirs. Cross sections as well as net sand and log facies maps illustrate depositional style, sandstone geometry, and reservoir heterogeneities. Far-offset vertical seismic profiles show laterally discontinuous reflections corresponding to the reservoirs. Lenticular lateral-bar sandstones dominate channel-fill deposits that together are commonly less than 50 ft thick, forming belts of sandstone approximately 2,500 ft wide. Crevasse-splay deposits commonly extend a few thousand feet beyond the channel system. Sand-rich channel-fill deposits are flanked by levee and overbank mudstones, isolating the reservoirs in narrow, dip-elongate trends. Deposition on an aggrading coastal plain resulted in a pattern of laterally stacked sandstone bodies that are widespread across the study area. Alternating periods of more rapid aggradation resulted in deposition of vertically stacked sandstones with limited areal distribution. Facies architecture of both depositional styles has implications for reservoir compartmentalization. Reservoir compartments within a laterally stacked system may be leaky, resulting from sandstone contact from producing wells along depositional axes. This effect is a major factor controlling incremental recovery. Reservoirs in vertically stacked systems should be better isolated.

  4. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields from Planck data combined with the South Pole Telescope CMB B -mode polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, Alex; Li, Yun; Pogosian, Levon

    2017-03-01

    A primordial magnetic field (PMF) present before recombination can leave specific signatures on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations. Of particular importance is its contribution to the B-mode polarization power spectrum. Indeed, vortical modes sourced by the PMF can dominate the B-mode power spectrum on small scales, as they survive damping up to a small fraction of the Silk length. Therefore, measurements of the B-mode polarization at high ℓ , such as the one recently performed by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), have the potential to provide stringent constraints on the PMF. We use the publicly released SPT B-mode polarization spectrum, along with the temperature and polarization data from the Planck satellite, to derive constraints on the magnitude, the spectral index and the energy scale at which the PMF was generated. We find that, while Planck data constrains the magnetic amplitude to B1 Mpc<3.3 nG at the 95% confidence level (C.L.), the SPT measurement improves the constraint to B1 Mpc<1.5 nG . The magnetic spectral index, nB, and the time of the generation of the PMF are unconstrained. For a nearly scale-invariant PMF, predicted by the simplest inflationary magnetogenesis models, the bound from Planck +SPT is B1 Mpc<1.2 nG at 95% C.L. For PMF with nB=2 , which is expected for fields generated in post-inflationary phase transitions, the 95% C.L. bound is B1 Mpc<0.002 nG , corresponding to the magnetic fraction of the radiation density ΩB γ<10-3 or the effective field Beff<100 nG . The patches for the Boltzmann code camb and the Markov chain Monte Carlo engine CosmoMC, incorporating the PMF effects on CMB, are made publicly available.

  5. THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH SURVEY: OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT X-RAY SOURCES WITH THE VLT AND KECK

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, J. D.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Salvato, M.; Hasinger, G.; Bergeron, J.; Capak, P.; Szokoly, G.; Gilli, R.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Rafferty, D.; Xue, Y. Q.; Lehmer, B. D.; Bauer, F. E.

    2010-11-15

    We present the results of a program to acquire high-quality optical spectra of X-ray sources detected in the Extended-Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S) and its central 2 Ms area. New spectroscopic redshifts, up to z = 4, are measured for 283 counterparts to Chandra sources with deep exposures (t {approx} 2-9 hr per pointing) using multi-slit facilities on both VLT (VIMOS) and Keck (DEIMOS), thus bringing the total number of spectroscopically identified X-ray sources to over 500 in this survey field. Since our new spectroscopic identifications are mainly associated with X-ray sources in the shallower 250 ks coverage, we provide a comprehensive catalog of X-ray sources detected in the E-CDF-S including the optical and near-infrared counterparts, determined by a likelihood routine, and redshifts (both spectroscopic and photometric), that incorporate published spectroscopic catalogs, thus resulting in a final sample with a high fraction (80%) of X-ray sources having secure identifications. We demonstrate the remarkable coverage of the luminosity-redshift plane now accessible from our data while emphasizing the detection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that contribute to the faint end of the luminosity function (L {sub 0.5-8keV} {approx} 10{sup 43}-10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) at 1.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 including those with and without broad emission lines. Our redshift catalog includes 17 type-2 QSOs at 1 {approx}< z {approx}< 3.5 that significantly increases such samples (2x). Based on our deepest (9 hr) VLT/VIMOS observation, we identify 'elusive' optically faint galaxies (R {sub mag} {approx} 25) at z {approx} 2-3 based upon the detection of interstellar absorption lines (e.g., O II+Si IV, C II], C IV); we highlight one such case, an absorption-line galaxy at z = 3.208 having no obvious signs of an AGN in its optical spectrum. In addition, we determine accurate distances to eight galaxy groups with extended X-ray emission detected both by Chandra and XMM

  6. Mantle xenocrysts of Chompolo field of the alkaline volcanics, Aldan shield, South Yakutia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolenko, Evgeny; Tychkov, Nikolay; Afanasiev, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    New mineralogical and chemical constraints for 10 dikes, veins (360-800m) and pipes (60-110 m) of Chompolo field discovered in 1957-1958 are discussed. Feld is located within Central Aldan Archean and Paleoproterozoic granulite-orthogneiss superterrane of Aldan-Stanovoy Shield, with peak of metamorphism - 2.1-1.9 Ga (Smelov, Timofeev, 2007). Originally (Shilina and Zeitlin 1959) and later (Kostrovitsky and Garanin 1992, Ashchepkov, Vladykin et al. 2001) these rocks were classified as kimberlites by mineralogy including pyrope, Cr spinel, and Cr diopside. Panina and Vladykin (1994), Davies et al, (2006) identified them as lamprophyres and lamproites. The age of Chompolo rocks is pre-Jurassic (Vladimirov et. al., 1989) dated by 40Ar/39Ar as 164.7±1 Ma (233.7±2.2 next plato)(unpublished Ashchepkov). The Rb-Sr isochron for lamprophyre "intrusions 104" indicate later age of 131±4 Ma (Zaitsev, Smelov, 2010). Magmatic bodies (Aldanskaya, Sputnik, Gornaya, Ogonek, Perevalnaya, Kilier-E) were studied during 2012-2013 fieldworks. Most of igneous rocks occur as inequigranular volcanic breccias with micro- or crypto-crystalline groundmass of K feldspar (up to 16.3 wt.% K2O, up to 3.2 wt.% FeO), chlorite, opaque minerals, melanocratic xenocrysts and phenocrysts (garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, Cr spinel, apatite, zircon, mica), and abundant xenogenic fragments of wallrock and crystalline basement. Garnet chemistry records the presence of mantle and crustal material. Mantle garnets lack the common megacryst, wehrlite, and high-temperature lherzolite varieties. Mantle mineralization prevails in the Aldan dike and the Sputnik, Gornaya, and Ogonek pipes, while crustal and elcogitic material is in the Perevalnaya and Kilier-E pipes. The Cr spinel consists of (in wt%) 3.5 to 50.9 Al2O3, 18.6-63.5 wt% Cr2O3, 6.1 to 19.1 MgO, and 0 to 1.61 TiO2. Al and Cr in spinels are in inverse proportion. The Chompolo alkaline volcanic rocks are most similar to the Central Aldan lamproites in trace

  7. Holocene records of geomagnetic field behavior from a north-south transect along the western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, S. A.; Shah, D. P.; St-Onge, M.; St-Onge, G.

    2013-12-01

    Geochronology is inherently difficult when working with Antarctic margin sediments. Radiocarbon dating and oxygen isotope stratigraphy are challenging or impossible in sites with poor preservation of biogenic calcite. Radiocarbon dating of the acid insoluble organic matter (AIOM) is further complicated by organically lean sediment and the presence of reworked organic carbon or detrital carbon from sedimentary rocks. These complications limit the ability to interpret a paleoclimate record. Geomagnetic paleointensity dating is a proven 'tuning' technique that has been successfully applied in several studies around the Antarctic margin. However, the reference curves to which these sites were tuned were constructed primarily from Northern Hemisphere data. Here we present paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity (RPI) data from three Antarctic Peninsula sites that possess independent chronologies and which have moderate to ultra-high sedimentation rates (40 - 700 cm/ka). Maxwell Bay, located in the volcanic South Shetland Islands, is an ultra-high-resolution site with strongly magnetic sediments from which the Shallow Drilling (SHALDRIL) program recovered a 108-m record spanning the last 14 ka. Outer Barilari Bay and Hugo Island Trough, which lie to the South along the western Antarctic Peninsula, are moderate resolution sites with a high proportion of biogenic silica. Maxwell Bay and Bariliari Bay are unique in that they possess homogenous sediment and uniform magnetic mineral assemblages, while also preserving biogenic calcite, a rare combination on the Antarctic margin. All three sites preserve strong, stable remanent magnetizations with an easily isolated characteristic component and MAD values generally < 2°, with the exception of turbidites, intervals with abundant dropstones, and biosiliceous ooze intervals. Inclination values fluctuate between the present-day value at the cores sites (-58°) and the geomagnetic axial dipole inclination

  8. Estimation of the recharge areas contributing water to the south well field, Columbus, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, C.W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    The city of Columbus, Ohio, operates four radial collector wells, designed to yield 42 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), in southern Franklin County, Ohio, as part of their municipal supply of water. The collector wells are adjacent to, and designed to induce infiltration from, Big Walnut Creek and Scioto River. A previously constructed, three-dimensional, steady-state and transient ground-water-flow model of this river-aquifer system was used to estimate contributing recharge areas (CRA's) and calculate particle flowpaths in southern Franklin County. The simulations were of two steady-state periods (October 1979 and March 1986) and one 5-year transient period (March 1986---June 1991). The first simulation (1979) was of conditions before construction of the collector wells. The second simulation (1986) was of conditions when the collector wells were producing 8 Mgal/d. During the 5 years covered in the transient simulation, production at the well field averaged 18.5 Mgal/d. Under the 1979 conditions, the largest ground-water contributing areas were of the quarries and Scioto River (41 and 47 percent of the study area, respectively). During 1986, when 8 Mgal/d was withdrawn, the primary contributing areas were of the quarries (40 percent), collector wells (34 percent), and rivers (8 percent). Travel times associated with simulated particles of water tracked from cells along Big Walnut Creek to their discharge points in cells along Scioto River were about 5 to 60 years in the 1979 simulation and about 7 to 41 years in the 1986 simulation. The endpoints of these particles varied as simulated pumping rates were increased to 22 Mgal/d. The 1986, 10-year CRA's of the collector wells under 8 Mgal/d-conditions totalled about 4.5 mi2. As the pumping rate was increased to 22 Mgal/d in a predictive simulation, 10-year CRA's of the collector wells increased to 6.7mi2. Because the transient simulation encompassed only 5 years, the 10-year CRA's could not be estimated from the

  9. Selected hydrologic data, Kolob-Alton-Kaiparowits coal-fields area, south-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plantz, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    The Kolob-Alton-Kaiparowits coal field area includes about 4,500 sq mi in parts of the Colorado River Basin and the Great Basin. The area varies in altitude from < 4,000 to > 10,000 ft, and is comprised chiefly of plateaus, benches, and terraces that are dissected by deep, narrow canyons. Water quality was studied in principal streams draining the area, the Virgin, Sevier, Escalante, and Paria Rivers; and Coal, Kanab, and Wahweap Creeks. Most of the data included in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1980 to September 1982, as part of a hydrologic study in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management to evaluate potential impacts of coal mining on the area 's water resources. Data include: discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, and pH. Data collected from selected wells and springs include: specific conductance, pH, hardness, and dissolved quantities of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfates, chlorides, fluorides, silica, nitrogen, boron, iron, and manganese. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. A biorthogonal decomposition for the identification and simulation of non-stationary and non-Gaussian random fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, I.; Ferré, G.; Poirion, F.; Benoit, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new method for the identification and simulation of non-Gaussian and non-stationary stochastic fields given a database is proposed. It is based on two successive biorthogonal decompositions aiming at representing spatio–temporal stochastic fields. The proposed double expansion allows to build the model even in the case of large-size problems by separating the time, space and random parts of the field. A Gaussian kernel estimator is used to simulate the high dimensional set of random variables appearing in the decomposition. The capability of the method to reproduce the non-stationary and non-Gaussian features of random phenomena is illustrated by applications to earthquakes (seismic ground motion) and sea states (wave heights).

  11. Identification of rare HIV-1 Group N, HBV AE, and HTLV-3 strains in rural South Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, M A; Vallari, A S; Harris, B; Yamaguchi, J; Holzmayer, V; Forberg, K; Berg, M G; Kenmenge, J; Ngansop, C; Awazi, B; Mbanya, D; Kaptue, L; Brennan, C; Cloherty, G; Ndembi, N

    2017-04-01

    Surveillance of emerging viral variants is critical to ensuring that blood screening and diagnostic tests detect all infections regardless of strain or geographic location. In this study, we conducted serological and molecular surveillance to monitor the prevalence and diversity of HIV, HBV, and HTLV in South Cameroon. The prevalence of HIV was 8.53%, HBV was 10.45%, and HTLV was 1.04% amongst study participants. Molecular characterization of 555 HIV-1 specimens identified incredible diversity, including 7 subtypes, 12 CRFs, 6 unclassified, 24 Group O and 2 Group N infections. Amongst 401 HBV sequences were found a rare HBV AE recombinant and two emerging sub-genotype A strains. In addition to HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 strains, sequencing confirmed the fifth known HTLV-3 infection to date. Continued HIV/HBV/HTLV surveillance and vigilance for newly emerging strains in South Cameroon will be essential to ensure diagnostic tests and research stay a step ahead of these rapidly evolving viruses.

  12. STELLAR MASSES FROM THE CANDELS SURVEY: THE GOODS-SOUTH AND UDS FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Amorin, R.; Ferguson, H. C.; Mobasher, B.; Barro, G.; Hsu, L. T.; Salvato, M.; Wuyts, S.; Galametz, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, S.-K.; Pforr, J.; Wiklind, T.; Almaini, O.; Cooper, M. C.; Weiner, B.; and others

    2015-03-10

    We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey project. We combine the effort from 10 different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ∼80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age <100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for <20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.

  13. Properties of submillimeter galaxies in the CANDELS-S goods-south field

    SciTech Connect

    Wiklind, Tommy; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Dickinson, Mark E.; Guo, Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco; Davé, Romeel; Yan, Haojing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Caputi, Karina I.; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; and others

    2014-04-20

    We derive physical properties of 10 submillimeter galaxies located in the CANDELS coverage of the GOODS-S field. The galaxies were first identified as submillimeter sources with the LABOCA bolometer and subsequently targeted for 870 μm continuum observation with ALMA. The high angular resolution of the ALMA imaging allows secure counterparts to be identified in the CANDELS multiband data set. The CANDELS data provide deep photometric data from UV through near-infrared wavelengths. Using synthetic spectral energy distributions, we derive photometric redshifts, stellar masses, extinction, ages, and the star formation history. The redshift range is z = 1.65-4.76, with two of the galaxies located at z > 4. Two submillimeter galaxy (SMG) counterparts have stellar masses 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the rest. The remaining SMG counterparts have stellar masses around 1 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. The stellar population in the SMGs is typically older than the expected duration of the submillimeter phase, suggesting that the star formation history of SMGs is more complex than a single burst. Non-parametric morphology indices suggest that the SMG counterparts are among the most asymmetric systems compared with galaxies of the same stellar mass and redshift. The Hubble Space Telescope images show that three of the SMGs are associated with ongoing mergers. The remaining counterparts are isolated. Estimating the dust and molecular gas mass from the submillimeter fluxes, and comparing with our stellar masses shows that the gas mass fraction of SMGs is ∼28% and that the final stellar mass is likely to be ∼(1-2) × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}.

  14. A new species of Mesovelia (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha: Mesoveliidae) from South America, with identification key and notes on Colombian species.

    PubMed

    Floriano, Carla Fernanda Burguez; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição; Morales, Irina; Molano-Rendón, Fredy

    2016-10-17

    Mesovelia tuberculata sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on material from the Pacific Region of Colombia. It can be recognized by the following characters of the male: mesofemur without a row of spinules; posterior margin of abdominal tergum VIII with a weak notch; abdominal pleuron VIII with an anterodorsal tubercle; abdominal sternum VI with the posteromedian projection rounded and fringed with black spinules; and paramere with margins converging and apex single. In addition, we present data concerning M. zeteki Harris & Drake and M. mulsanti White, and an identification key to species of Mesoveliidae from Colombia.

  15. CANDELS Multi-wavelength Catalogs: Source Detection and Photometry in the GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicheng; Ferguson, Henry C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Barro, Guillermo; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Dahlen, Tomas; Donley, Jennifer L.; Faber, Sandra M.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grazian, Andrea; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wuyts, Stijn; Castellano, Marco; Cooray, Asantha R.; Dickinson, Mark E.; Dunlop, James S.; Fazio, G. G.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gawiser, Eric; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Hsu, Li-Ting; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Lucas, Ray A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffery A.; van der Wel, Arjen

    2013-08-01

    We present a UV to mid-infrared multi-wavelength catalog in the CANDELS/GOODS-S field, combining the newly obtained CANDELS HST/WFC3 F105W, F125W, and F160W data with existing public data. The catalog is based on source detection in the WFC3 F160W band. The F160W mosaic includes the data from CANDELS deep and wide observations as well as previous ERS and HUDF09 programs. The mosaic reaches a 5σ limiting depth (within an aperture of radius 0.''17) of 27.4, 28.2, and 29.7 AB for CANDELS wide, deep, and HUDF regions, respectively. The catalog contains 34,930 sources with the representative 50% completeness reaching 25.9, 26.6, and 28.1 AB in the F160W band for the three regions. In addition to WFC3 bands, the catalog also includes data from UV (U band from both CTIO/MOSAIC and VLT/VIMOS), optical (HST/ACS F435W, F606W, F775W, F814W, and F850LP), and infrared (HST/WFC3 F098M, VLT/ISAAC Ks, VLT/HAWK-I Ks, and Spitzer/IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 μm) observations. The catalog is validated via stellar colors, comparison with other published catalogs, zero-point offsets determined from the best-fit templates of the spectral energy distribution of spectroscopically observed objects, and the accuracy of photometric redshifts. The catalog is able to detect unreddened star-forming (passive) galaxies with stellar mass of 1010 M ⊙ at a 50% completeness level to z ~ 3.4 (2.8), 4.6 (3.2), and 7.0 (4.2) in the three regions. As an example of application, the catalog is used to select both star-forming and passive galaxies at z ~ 2-4 via the Balmer break. It is also used to study the color-magnitude diagram of galaxies at 0 < z < 4.

  16. CANDELS MULTI-WAVELENGTH CATALOGS: SOURCE DETECTION AND PHOTOMETRY IN THE GOODS-SOUTH FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Koo, David C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Donley, Jennifer L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grazian, Andrea; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wuyts, Stijn; and others

    2013-08-15

    We present a UV to mid-infrared multi-wavelength catalog in the CANDELS/GOODS-S field, combining the newly obtained CANDELS HST/WFC3 F105W, F125W, and F160W data with existing public data. The catalog is based on source detection in the WFC3 F160W band. The F160W mosaic includes the data from CANDELS deep and wide observations as well as previous ERS and HUDF09 programs. The mosaic reaches a 5{sigma} limiting depth (within an aperture of radius 0.''17) of 27.4, 28.2, and 29.7 AB for CANDELS wide, deep, and HUDF regions, respectively. The catalog contains 34,930 sources with the representative 50% completeness reaching 25.9, 26.6, and 28.1 AB in the F160W band for the three regions. In addition to WFC3 bands, the catalog also includes data from UV (U band from both CTIO/MOSAIC and VLT/VIMOS), optical (HST/ACS F435W, F606W, F775W, F814W, and F850LP), and infrared (HST/WFC3 F098M, VLT/ISAAC Ks, VLT/HAWK-I Ks, and Spitzer/IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 {mu}m) observations. The catalog is validated via stellar colors, comparison with other published catalogs, zero-point offsets determined from the best-fit templates of the spectral energy distribution of spectroscopically observed objects, and the accuracy of photometric redshifts. The catalog is able to detect unreddened star-forming (passive) galaxies with stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} at a 50% completeness level to z {approx} 3.4 (2.8), 4.6 (3.2), and 7.0 (4.2) in the three regions. As an example of application, the catalog is used to select both star-forming and passive galaxies at z {approx} 2-4 via the Balmer break. It is also used to study the color-magnitude diagram of galaxies at 0 < z < 4.

  17. Nondestructive identification of material properties of fibre concrete: A time-harmonic electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobst, L.; Bílek, P.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic approach to the identification of mechanical properties of fibre concrete, using permanent magnets, has its electromagnetic alternative, more suitable to the nondestructive detection of orientation of fibres, in addition to the evaluation of their volume fraction. This paper sketches related approaches to both experimental settings and computational simulations.

  18. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  19. Oily-waste-disposal survey, South Tank Farm, Lajes Field, Azores. Final report, 12-17 Jun 90

    SciTech Connect

    Binovi, R.D.

    1991-03-01

    A survey of the wet and dry sludge pits at the South Tank Farm, Lajes Field, Azores was performed by members of the AFOEHL. Samples of the waste water and sludge from the wet sludge pit (WSP) were taken as well as from the dry sludge pit. Bioremediation studies, incineration, and carbon adsorption studies were performed. The characterization of the waste water from the WSP revealed a one phase mixture of mostly soluble oils and grease with an average COD concentration of 1760 and a BOD of 407 mg/1. Oils and grease concentrations were in the 10 mg/1 range. The characterization of the sludge revealed 43% organics and concentrations of metals not high enough for consideration as hazardous waste. The sludge from the DSP also did not have levels of metals high enough for special disposal as hazardous waste. The WSP waste water was slow to degrade biologically through stimulation of indigenous organisms. Carbon was effective in removing COD. The WSP waste water has subsequently been released to the Praia Bay and the sludge recovered and drummed. Recommendations included the construction of a secondary sewage treatment plant to service the base, airport, and Praia, the construction of a sludge drying facility and testing of the dried sludge for ultimate disposal.

  20. VHF coherent scatter radar observations of mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Yang, T.; Lee, J.; Hwang, J.; Kil, H.; Park, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We examine the mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularity (FAI) activity during 2010-2011 by using the VHF coherent scatter radar data in Daejeon (36.2°N, 127.1°E; dip latitude 26.7°N), South Korea. The VHF radar has been operated since December 2009 and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the variability of the FAI activity with local time, season, solar flux, and magnetic activity. Our preliminary results during the solar minimum show that FAIs preferentially occur at post-sunset and pre-sunrise and during the June solstice. The seasonal variation of the FAI occurrence frequency is similar to that of the electron density irregularities observed by the C/NOFS satellite. For one event, we observed the association of the FAIs with a medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID). Our study extends to the investigation of the correlations between the irregularities in the equatorial region and middle latitudes and between the conjugate F regions, and the causal linkage of the FAIs with the E-region perturbations. For this purpose, we analyze the VHF radar and C/NOFS data during 2010-2011.

  1. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Weinbrandt, Richard; Trentham, Robert C; Robinson, William

    1997-10-23

    For a part of the Foster and South Cowden (Grayburg-San Andres) oil fields, improvement in oil production has been accomplished, in part, by using "pipeline fracturing" technology in the most recent completion to improve fluid flow rates, and filtration of waterflood injection water to preserve reservoir permeability. The 3D seismic survey acquired in conjunction with this DOE project has been used to calculate a 3D seismic inversion model, which has been analyzed to provide detailed maps of porosity within the productive upper 250 feet of the Grayburg Formation. Geologic data, particularly from logs and cores, have been combined with the geophysical interpretation and production history information to develop a model of the reservoir that defines estimations of remaining producible oil. The integrated result is greater than the sum of its parts, since no single data form adequately describes the reservoir. Each discipline relies upon computer software that runs on PC-type computers, allowing virtually any size company to affordably access the technology required to achieve similar results.

  2. Influence of deflection on a fold-to-fault progression: field evidence from near Marietta, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clendenin, C.W.; Garihan, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Four periods of deformation (D1-D4) are recognized in the Lion Park Road borrow pit near Marietta, South Carolina. Although each period is characterized by distinct structures, D3 produced two structural styles (D3a, D3b) resulting from layer-parallel shortening. D3a is characterized by detachment folding at the tip of an underlying thrust. D3b is a fold-to-fault progression that was localized by east-dipping, quartz-filled gash fractures. The fold-to-fault progression demonstrates the influence of a mechanical anisotropy on ramp development. The early stages of D3b were formed by deflection of northwest-directed, layer-parallel shortening and active, down-section propagation of folds and thrusts. Following connection with a splay of basal detachment, later D3b stages resulted from up-section movement that produced kink folding and a throughgoing thrust. This up-section movement deformed and modified the geometries of older, down-section structures. Detailed mesoscopic field observations, integrated with a combination of current thrust fault models, are used to interpret the D3b fold-to-fault progression. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and identification of chitinolytic bacteria of pohara river of South East Sulawesi and the optimization production of chitinase enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimahtussadiyah, R.; Natsir, Muh.; Kurniawati, Desy; Utamy, Sukma Puspita

    2017-03-01

    Isolation and identification of chitinolytic bacteria from pohara river and optimation of chitinase enzyme production has been conducted. The aims of the study were isolation, characterize and optimaze of chitinase enzyme production. This study was carried out in three stages; isolation and selection of chitinolytic bacteria, characterization and identification of selected bacteria; optimization of the production of the enzyme (substrate concentration, temperature, and pH), and the determination of growth curve of T3 isolate. The chitinase activity assay was carried out using Schales method. The results of the screening obtained 6 isolates of potential bacteria of chitinolytic. The T3 isolate then was selected for the enzyme production, because it had the highest chitinolytic index of 22.31 mm. The morphological and biochemical observation showed that T3 isolate as a group of bacteria Aerobacter with Gram-negative nature, and shaped bacillus. The optimum condition for chitinase enzyme production was in chitin substrat concentration 0.06%, temperature of 30°C, and pH of 6.

  4. Co-transmission of the non-transmissible South African Babesia bovis S24 vaccine strain during mixed infection with a field isolate.

    PubMed

    Combrink, M P; Troskie, P C; de Klerk, D G; Pienaar, R; Latif, A A; Mans, B J

    2015-03-01

    The South African Babesia bovis live blood vaccine, originating from a field isolate attenuated by 23 serial syringe passages in splenectomized calves, has lost the ability to infect the natural vector Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. In this study, infection with mixed parasites from the vaccine strain and a field isolate, resulted in transmission of both genotype populations. Comparing the field isolate and transmitted combination indicated no significant difference in their virulence, while challenge of vaccinated cattle with these isolates showed the ability of the vaccine to protect against both. Limiting dilution of the transmitted combination, followed by infection of splenectomized cattle (n=34) yielded no single infections for the vaccine strain genotype, seven clonal lines of the field isolate and one mixture of vaccine strain and field isolate. Only one of two field isolate clonal lines selected for vector transmission study was transmitted. Showing that B. bovis isolates can contain both tick transmissible and non-transmissible subpopulations. The findings of this study also indicate the probability of vaccine co-infection transmission occurring in the field, which may result in new genotype populations of B. bovis. However, the impact of this recombination with field isolates is considered negligible since a genotypically diverse population of B. bovis is already present in South Africa.

  5. Identification of biophysical regions in the south-western part of the Okhotsk Sea by satellite imagery classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Tangang, Fredolin; Saitoh, S.

    2015-03-01

    Water properties in the south-western part of the Okhotsk Sea show strong seasonal variability. This study applied a method based on Hierarchical Ascending Classification to classify biophysical regions using satellite data and to determine the seasonal variation of the characteristics of water masses in the area. Water masses in the same biophysical region have similar physical and biological characteristics and are able to explain the biological and physical processes in the ocean. This method provided classification of chlorophyll a, SST and SST gradient satellite data. Six classes explained the main patterns and important characteristics of the region. The method was also able to determine interannual variability in existence and area size of the classes which indicated occurrences of the major circulation patterns in the area and its influence on the variations of the classes.

  6. Automatic de-identification of electronic medical records using token-level and character-level conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengjian; Chen, Yangxin; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Li, Haodi; Wang, Jingfeng; Deng, Qiwen; Zhu, Suisong

    2015-12-01

    De-identification, identifying and removing all protected health information (PHI) present in clinical data including electronic medical records (EMRs), is a critical step in making clinical data publicly available. The 2014 i2b2 (Center of Informatics for Integrating Biology and Bedside) clinical natural language processing (NLP) challenge sets up a track for de-identification (track 1). In this study, we propose a hybrid system based on both machine learning and rule approaches for the de-identification track. In our system, PHI instances are first identified by two (token-level and character-level) conditional random fields (CRFs) and a rule-based classifier, and then are merged by some rules. Experiments conducted on the i2b2 corpus show that our system submitted for the challenge achieves the highest micro F-scores of 94.64%, 91.24% and 91.63% under the "token", "strict" and "relaxed" criteria respectively, which is among top-ranked systems of the 2014 i2b2 challenge. After integrating some refined localization dictionaries, our system is further improved with F-scores of 94.83%, 91.57% and 91.95% under the "token", "strict" and "relaxed" criteria respectively.

  7. Geology Structure Identification based on Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) Data and Field Based Observation at Ciwidey Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipta, R. A.; Saepuloh, A.; Suryantini

    2016-09-01

    Geological structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanic field due to the classical problem at tropical region such as intensive erosion, dense vegetation covers, and rough terrain. The problem hampers the field observation especially for geological structures mapping. In order to overcome the problems, an active remote sensing technology based on Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data was used in this study. The longer wavelength of microwave than optical region caused the SAR layer penetration higher than optics. The Ciwidey Geothermal Field, Indonesia was selected as study area because of the existence of surface manifestations with lack information about the control of geological structures to the geothermal system. Visual interpretation based on composite polarization modes was applied to identify geological structures at study area. The color composite Red-Green-Blue for HV-HH-VV polarizations provided highest texture and structural features among the other composite combination. The Linear Features Density (LFD) map was also used to interpret the fractures zones. The calculated LFD showed high anomaly about 3.6 km/km2 with two strike directions NW-SE and NE-SW. Interestingly, the surface geothermal manifestation agreed with the low anomaly of LFD. The geological structures consisted of ten faults were successfully detected and mapped. The faults type mainly are oblique-slip with strike directions NE-SW and NW-SE.

  8. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study.

  9. Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Jang Songhun; Zhou Fang; Xia Laixin; Zhao Wei; Cheng Hanhua . E-mail: hhcheng@whu.edu.cn; Zhou Rongjia . E-mail: rjzhou@whu.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes.

  10. Enhancement and identification of dust events in the south-west region of Iran using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi, F.; Owlad, E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2017-03-01

    South-west Asia including the Middle East is one of the most prone regions to dust storm events. In recent years, there was an increase in the occurrence of these environmental and meteorological phenomena. Remote sensing could serve as an applicable method to detect and also characterise these events. In this study, two dust enhancement algorithms were used to investigate the behaviour of dust events using satellite data, compare with numerical model output and other satellite products and finally validate with in-situ measurements. The results show that the use of thermal infrared algorithm enhances dust more accurately. The aerosol optical depth from MODIS and output of a Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM8b) are applied for comparing the results. Ground-based observations of synoptic stations and sun photometers are used for validating the satellite products. To find the transport direction and the locations of the dust sources and the synoptic situations during these events, model outputs (HYSPLIT and NCEP/NCAR) are presented. Comparing the results with synoptic maps and the model outputs showed that using enhancement algorithms is a more reliable way than any other MODIS products or model outputs to enhance the dust.

  11. Karyotypic and molecular identification of laboratory stocks of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Basso, Alicia; Sonvico, Ariane; Quesada-Allue, Luis A; Manso, Fanny

    2003-08-01

    The taxonomic status of the tephritid pest Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is a controversial subject, mainly because of misinterpretation of the observed genetic variation. In this work, the different karyotypes and DNA polymorphism of a geographically defined population from Northeastern Argentina were studied, using derived stocks maintained in the laboratory during 25 generations. The karyotypes were analyzed using C-banding and N-banding techniques, while DNA analysis was performed through the DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The variants isolated from both the wild Montecarlo population and the derived laboratory stocks were fully compatible and are present in other wild populations from South Brazil (lat 31 degrees 30' S) to Mid-Argentina (lat 34 degrees 30' S). Single-pair crosses among stocks carrying different chromosomal variants demonstrated the absence of isolation barriers. The polymorphic fragments isolated by RAPDs/PCR showed polymorphisms among stocks whereas the analysis of rDNA ITS1 exhibit a unique ITS1 length. Our results seem to indicate that all the examined variants belong to a single species with extended polymorphism and therefore do not support the hypothesis that the extended chromosomal polymorphism in A. fraterculus implies the existence of a complex of cryptic species.

  12. Characteristics and source identification of dissolved trace elements in the Jinshui River of the South Qinling Mts., China.

    PubMed

    Bu, Hongmei; Wang, Weibo; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-09-01

    Dissolved trace elements and physiochemical parameters were analyzed to investigate their physicochemical characteristics and identify their sources at 12 sampling sites of the Jinshui River in the South Qinling Mts., China from October 2006 to November 2008. The two-factor ANOVA indicated significant temporal variations of the dissolved Cu, Fe, Sr, Si, and V (p < 0.001 or p < 0.05). With the exception of Sr (p < 0.001), no significant spatial variations were found. Distributions and concentrations of the dissolved trace elements displayed that dissolved Cu, Fe, Sr, Si, V, and Cr were originated from chemical weathering and leaching from the soil and bedrock. Dissolved Cu, Fe, Sr, As, and Si were also from anthropogenic inputs (farming and domestic effluents). Correlation and regression analysis showed that the chemical and physical processes of dissolved Cu was influenced by water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) to some degree. Dissolved Fe and Sr were affected by colloid destabilization or sedimentary inputs. Concentrations of dissolved Si were slightly controlled by biological uptake. Principal component analysis confirmed that Fe, Sr, and V resulted from domestic effluents, agricultural runoff, and confluence, whereas As, Cu, and Si were from agricultural activities, and Cr and Zn through natural processes. The research results provide a reference for ecological restoration and protection of the river environment in the Qinling Mts., China.

  13. Isolation and identification of Legionella spp. from different aquatic sources in south-west of Iran by molecular &culture methods

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hemati, Zahra; Moezzi, Maryam-o-sadat; Azimzadeh, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ diseases (LD) is usually transmitted to humans via inhalation of aerosols from contaminated natural and manmade water sources. These organisms may become fatal especially in immunocompromised patients and LD is the one of the important disease from a public health perspective. This survey investigated the frequency of Legionella spp. including L. pneumophila, in some cold and warm water systems in South-West of Iran by culture and PCR methods. Thirty four water samples were collected from diverse water supply systems. After acid and heat treatments of samples, inoculated onto buffered charcoal yeast extract agar. Isolated colonies were confirmed by morphological and biochemical tests. Then the isolates were examined for icmO, sidA and lidA genes by PCR assay. This study showed that frequency of L. pneumophila was 4 by culture and 14 by PCR. PCR method to be efficient and sensitive test for rapid detection of these organisms in environmental water sources. This study emphasizes the need for effective infection control and prevention strategies to minimize the risk from exposure to potential pathogens such as Legionella spp. and to create a safe working environment. PMID:28261625

  14. Identification and Quantification of Pesticides in Environmental Waters With Solid Phase Microextraction and Analysis Using Field-Portable Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-10

    Microextraction and Analysis using Field-Portable Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Name of Candidate: CPT Michael J. Nack...in the thesis manuscript entitled: Identification and Quantification of Pesticides in Environmental Waters with Solid Phase Microextraction ...Pesticides in Environmental Waters with Solid Phase Microextraction and Analysis using Field-Portable Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

  15. Bent-tailed radio sources in the australia telescope large area survey of the Chandra deep field south

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 10{sup 22} ≤ P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≤ 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup –1}, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} = 9 × 10{sup 22} W Hz{sup –1}. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ∼10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  16. Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

  17. Variability Selected Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Paolillo, D. M.; Alexander, F. E.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Luo, B.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignail, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and other deep X-ray surveys have been highly effective at selecting active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, cosmologically distant low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) have remained a challenge to identify due to significant contribution from the host galaxy. We identify long-term X ray variability (approx. month years, observed frame) in 20 of 92 CDF-S galaxies spanning redshifts approx equals 00.8 - 1.02 that do not meet other AGN selection criteria. We show that the observed variability cannot be explained by X-ray binary populations or ultraluminous X-ray sources, so the variability is most likely caused by accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The variable galaxies are not heavily obscured in general, with a stacked effective power-law photon index of Gamma(sub Stack) approx equals 1.93 +/- 0.13, and arc therefore likely LLAGN. The LLAGN tend to lie it factor of approx equal 6-89 below the extrapolated linear variability-luminosity relation measured for luminous AGN. This may he explained by their lower accretion rates. Variability-independent black-hole mass and accretion-rate estimates for variable galaxies show that they sample a significantly different black hole mass-accretion-rate space, with masses a factor of 2.4 lower and accretion rates a factor of 22.5 lower than variable luminous AGNs at the same redshift. We find that an empirical model based on a universal broken power-law power spectral density function, where the break frequency depends on SMBH mass and accretion rate, roughly reproduces the shape, but not the normalization, of the variability-luminosity trends measured for variable galaxies and more luminous AGNs.

  18. Spatial distribution and source identification of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in soil collected from the coastal multi-industrial city of Ulsan, South Korea for three consecutive years.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet Nam Thi; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Lee, Yun-Se; Kim, Leesun; Lee, Sung-Eun; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2016-11-01

    The concentrations, profiles, and source-receptor relationships of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (#28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) found in soil at 25 rural, urban, and industrial sites in Ulsan, South Korea were investigated. For this study, 75 soil samples were collected, 25 each in January of 2011, 2012, and 2013. Principal component analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the emission sources on the soil samples. The concentrations of total seven PCBs (Σ7 PCBs) ranged between 0.034 ng/g and 143 ng/g (mean: 5.10 ng/g, median: 0.440 ng/g), which indicated slight or moderate contamination levels, respectively, compared to those in the other countries or other cities in Korea. The concentrations of Σ7 PCBs at the industrial and urban sites were significantly higher than those at the rural sites, due to the direct influence of emission sources related to industrial activities rather than urban emission sources. Generally, the profiles of PCBs were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls at all the study sites, suggesting common sources of PCBs in Ulsan. PCB source identification indicated that leakage from transformer oils in the major industrial complexes and PCB-containing paints used in the automobile and shipbuilding industrial complexes were possibly the main sources of indicator PCBs in the study areas.

  19. Identification of the first strain of swine hepatitis E virus in South America and prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Munné, María S; Vladimirsky, Sara; Otegui, Lucio; Castro, Raúl; Brajterman, Leonardo; Soto, Sonia; Guarnera, Eduardo; Molina, Viviana; Monfellano, Marcela; Schlauder, George G; González, Jorge E

    2006-12-01

    In Argentina, a country considered non-endemic for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, serologic evidence of HEV infection has been observed in different human population groups. In other countries, a high degree of genetic relatedness has been observed between human and swine HEV genotype 3 sequences, suggesting zoonosis as one probable route of infection. This is the first identification of swine HEV in South America. HEV RNA was detected and sequenced in the ORF 1 and ORF 2 regions from swine fecal samples from a herd located in Pergamino, in the province of Buenos Aires. These strains all group into genotype 3 and exhibit a close relationship to two novel HEV variants previously identified in Argentina from sporadic acute cases of non-A to -C hepatitis in humans. In addition, using a modified commercial ELISA, the presence of anti-HEV antibodies was surveyed in five provinces across the country and all five showed a prevalence of HEV antibodies, ranging from 4% to 58%. The results suggest that swine could be an important reservoir for virus transmission in Argentina as has been suggested for other non-endemic areas. The Argentine human strains and swine strain described in this article seem to be closely related to a human Austrian strain, suggesting a potential European origin of HEV infection in these cases.

  20. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006–2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006–2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including “natural products and polymers” with nine key technical points, “fermentation industry” with twelve ones, “electrical medical equipment” with four ones, and “diagnosis, surgery” with four ones. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study could provide guidance on the development

  1. Identification of Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Monitoring of its Populations in the Tea Plantations of South China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Qing; Zeng, Zhao-Hua; Huang, Huo-Shui; Zhou, Yong-Mei; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Tea green leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) are considered one of the major pests in tea plantations in Asia. They are, however, difficult to monitor due to their size and flying and jumping abilities. In this study, we clarified the identification of the leafhopper species encountered in our study plantations and examined the impacts of sampling methods in estimating population abundance and sex ratio. The natural sex ratio of eggs, nymphs, and adults of tea green leafhopper and the differences between male and female were tested. Despite previous reports that Empoasca vitis (Goethe) was the major leafhopper present in our study area, our results showed that only Empoasca onukii Matsuda was found. Variation in population size over time and bias in sex ratio depending on the sampling methods were found in our monitoring experiments. In general, adult males were more attracted to yellow sticky cards than females. We believe that because female leafhoppers should be the target in pest control, yellow sticky cards may not be the most suitable monitoring or effective control of tea green leafhopper. We demonstrate the importance of understanding the implications of sampling techniques for population estimation and sex ratio bias as well as how temporal variation may affect monitoring results. Precise monitoring should take into consideration the different life histories of male and female.

  2. Probabilistic Cross-identification in Crowded Fields as an Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budavári, Tamás; Basu, Amitabh

    2016-10-01

    One of the outstanding challenges of cross-identification is multiplicity: detections in crowded regions of the sky are often linked to more than one candidate associations of similar likelihoods. We map the resulting maximum likelihood partitioning to the fundamental assignment problem of discrete mathematics and efficiently solve the two-way catalog-level matching in the realm of combinatorial optimization using the so-called Hungarian algorithm. We introduce the method, demonstrate its performance in a mock universe where the true associations are known, and discuss the applicability of the new procedure to large surveys.

  3. Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014.

    PubMed

    Croker, Curtis; Soriano, Jan; Civen, Rachel; Larsen, Robert A; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-30

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection. When tapeworm eggs excreted by the carrier are ingested, tapeworm larvae can form cysts. When cysts form in the brain, the condition is called neurocysticercosis and can be especially severe. In Los Angeles County an average of 136 county residents are hospitalized with neurocysticercosis each year. The prevalence of Taenia solium carriage is largely unknown because carriage is asymptomatic, making detection difficult. The identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers is an important public health measure that can prevent additional neurocysticercosis cases.

  4. UV-DROPOUT GALAXIES IN THE GOODS-SOUTH FIELD FROM WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hathi, N. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Yan, H.; McCarthy, P. J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Kimble, R. A.; Paresce, F.; Saha, A.

    2010-09-10

    We combine new high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) imaging from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with existing deep HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys optical images from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) program to identify UV-dropouts, which are Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx_equal} 1-3. These new HST/WFC3 observations were taken over 50 arcmin{sup 2} in the GOODS-South field as a part of the Early Release Science program. The uniqueness of these new UV data is that they are observed in three UV/optical (WFC3 UVIS) channel filters (F225W, F275W, and F336W), which allows us to identify three different sets of UV-dropout samples. We apply Lyman break dropout selection criteria to identify F225W-, F275W-, and F336W-dropouts, which are z {approx_equal} 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 LBG candidates, respectively. We use multi-wavelength imaging combined with available spectroscopic and photometric redshifts to carefully access the validity of our UV-dropout candidates. Our results are as follows: (1) these WFC3 UVIS filters are very reliable in selecting LBGs with z {approx_equal} 2.0, which helps to reduce the gap between the well-studied z {approx}> 3 and z {approx} 0 regimes; (2) the combined number counts with average redshift z {approx_equal} 2.2 agree very well with the observed change in the surface densities as a function of redshift when compared with the higher redshift LBG samples; and (3) the best-fit Schechter function parameters from the rest-frame UV luminosity functions at three different redshifts fit very well with the evolutionary trend of the characteristic absolute magnitude, M*, and the faint-end slope, {alpha}, as a function of redshift. This is the first study to illustrate the usefulness of the WFC3 UVIS channel observations to select z {approx}< 3 LBGs. The addition of the new WFC3 on the HST has made it possible to uniformly select LBGs from z {approx_equal} 1 to z {approx_equal} 9 and

  5. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Karim, A.; Menten, Karl M.; Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  6. Climate-sensitive subsea permafrost and related gas expulsions on the South Kara Sea shelf. Field studies and modeling results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Serov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release bearing a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Significant expulsion of methane into shallow Russian shelf areas may continue to rise into the atmosphere on the Arctic shelves in response to intense degradation of relict subsea permafrost. The release of formerly trapped gas, essentially methane, is linked to the permafrost evolution. Modeling of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf allowed describing its evolution from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. During the previous work we detected extensive emissions of free gas into the water column at the boundary between today's shallow water permafrost and deeper water non-permafrost areas. These gas expulsions formed seismic and hydro-acoustic anomalies on the high-resolution seismic records. We supposed that in the water depths <20m continuous ice-bearing permafrost plays a role of a seal through which gas can not migrate. We integrate 1D modeling results of relict permafrost distributions with these field data from the South Kara Sea. Modeling results suggest a highly-dynamic permafrost system that directly responds to even minor variations of lower and upper boundary conditions, e.g. heat flux from below and/or bottom water temperature changes from above. We present several scenarios of permafrost evolution and show that potentially minimal modern extent of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf is limited by ~17 m isobaths, whereas maximal probable extent coincides with ~100 m isobaths. The model also predicts seaward tapering of relict permafrost with its maximal thickness 275-390 m near the shore line. We also present sensitivity analysis which define the wider range of modeling results depending on the changing input parameters (e.g. geothermal heat flux, bottom water temperature, porosity of the sediments). The model adapts well to corresponding field data, providing crucial information about the modern permafrost conditions

  7. Identification of novel mutations in CD2BP1 gene in clinically proven rheumatoid arthritis patients of south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhattaram Siddhartha; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Sowgandhi, Nannepaga; Prajwal, Bhattaram Manoj; Mohan, Alladi; Sarma, Kadainti Venkata Subbaraya; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2016-08-01

    Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant, auto-inflammatory disease that affects joints and skin. The disease results due to mutations in the cluster of differentiation 2 binding protein 1 (CD2BP1) gene on chromosome 15q24.3. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, genetically complex disease that affects the joints with occasional skin manifestations. Studies related to the pathophysiology of inflammation in these two disorders show a certain degree of overlap at genetic level. The present study was done to confirm the existence of such a genetic overlap between PAPA syndrome and RA in south Indian population. In the present study 100 patients who were clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis and 100 apparently healthy controls were chosen and the 15 exons of CD2BP1 gene were PCR-amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed that in exon 3 thirty eight patients revealed presence of novel heterozygous missense mutations p.Glu51Asp, p.Leu57Arg and p.Ala64Thr. In exons 6, 10 and 14 eight patients showed 44 novel missense mutations and two patients showed novel frame shift mutations p.(Met123_Leu416delinsThr) and p.(Thr337Profs*52) leading to truncated protein formation. Such mutations were not seen in controls. Further, the in silico analysis revealed the mutant CD2BP1 structure showed deletion of Cdc15 and SH3 domains when superimposed with the wild type CD2BP1 structure with variable RMSD values. Therefore, these structural variations in CD2BP1 gene due to the mutations could be one of the strongest reasons to demonstrate the involvement of these gene variations in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  9. Identification of robust statistical downscaling methods based on a comprehensive suite of performance metrics for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, H. I.; Cannon, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models are a key provider to investigate impacts of projected future climate conditions on regional hydrologic systems. However, there is a considerable mismatch of spatial resolution between GCMs and regional applications, in particular a region characterized by complex terrain such as Korean peninsula. Therefore, a downscaling procedure is an essential to assess regional impacts of climate change. Numerous statistical downscaling methods have been used mainly due to the computational efficiency and simplicity. In this study, four statistical downscaling methods [Bias-Correction/Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD), Bias-Correction/Constructed Analogue (BCCA), Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA), and Bias-Correction/Climate Imprint (BCCI)] are applied to downscale the latest Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data to stations for precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature over South Korea. By split sampling scheme, all methods are calibrated with observational station data for 19 years from 1973 to 1991 are and tested for the recent 19 years from 1992 to 2010. To assess skill of the downscaling methods, we construct a comprehensive suite of performance metrics that measure an ability of reproducing temporal correlation, distribution, spatial correlation, and extreme events. In addition, we employ Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to identify robust statistical downscaling methods based on the performance metrics for each season. The results show that downscaling skill is considerably affected by the skill of CFSR and all methods lead to large improvements in representing all performance metrics. According to seasonal performance metrics evaluated, when TOPSIS is applied, MACA is identified as the most reliable and robust method for all variables and seasons. Note that such result is derived from CFSR output which is recognized as near perfect climate data in climate studies. Therefore, the

  10. Identification of the VERNALIZATION 4 gene reveals the origin of spring growth habit in ancient wheats from South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kippes, Nestor; Debernardi, Juan M.; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Akpinar, Bala A.; Budak, Hikment; Kato, Kenji; Chao, Shiaoman; Akhunov, Eduard; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Wheat varieties with a winter growth habit require long exposures to low temperatures (vernalization) to accelerate flowering. Natural variation in four vernalization genes regulating this requirement has favored wheat adaptation to different environments. The first three genes (VRN1–VRN3) have been cloned and characterized before. Here we show that the fourth gene, VRN-D4, originated by the insertion of a ∼290-kb region from chromosome arm 5AL into the proximal region of chromosome arm 5DS. The inserted 5AL region includes a copy of VRN-A1 that carries distinctive mutations in its coding and regulatory regions. Three lines of evidence confirmed that this gene is VRN-D4: it cosegregated with VRN-D4 in a high-density mapping population; it was expressed earlier than other VRN1 genes in the absence of vernalization; and induced mutations in this gene resulted in delayed flowering. VRN-D4 was found in most accessions of the ancient subspecies Triticum aestivum ssp. sphaerococcum from South Asia. This subspecies showed a significant reduction of genetic diversity and increased genetic differentiation in the centromeric region of chromosome 5D, suggesting that VRN-D4 likely contributed to local adaptation and was favored by positive selection. Three adjacent SNPs in a regulatory region of the VRN-D4 first intron disrupt the binding of GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN 2 (TaGRP2), a known repressor of VRN1 expression. The same SNPs were identified in VRN-A1 alleles previously associated with reduced vernalization requirement. These alleles can be used to modulate vernalization requirements and to develop wheat varieties better adapted to different or changing environments. PMID:26324889

  11. Identification and distribution of sulfate reducing bacteria and sulphur-oxidising bacteria in northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, S.; Zhu, X.; Guan, H.; Wu, D.; Wu, N.

    2015-12-01

    Fatty acids are one of the major components in modern marine sediments. It is well known that the saturated short-chain FAs were typically to be from vascular plants, algae, bacteria, and other sources, while the saturated long-chain FAs are the major components found in leaf waxes, suberin, and cutin in terrestrial higher plants. So the lipid biomarkers of fatty acids in Site 4B from Shenhu Area, northern South China Sea were investigated in Recent research supported from the 973 Program (2009CB219506), and the resources of branched fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly discussed. The results reveal that i/a15:0, i/a17:0, 16:1ω5, 18:1ω9 and 10me16:0 are derived from sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), while 16:1ω7t/c and 18:1ω7 are originated from sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB). The biomakers of methanotrophs such as 16:1ω6/8 and 18:1ω6/8 were not detected in the sediments which coincide with more positive carbon isotope values of the fatty acids in the sediments. The stable relationship between SRB and SOB below 97cm in the sediments reflects the relative stable oxidative and reductive depositional environment which may be connected with the sulphur cycle in the sediments, that is carried out as sulfate is reduced to sulfide, and then sulfide is oxidized to sulfate and elemental sulfur, at last elemental sulfur is disproportionated to sulfide and sulfate. The frequently changed relationship of SRB and SOB above 97cm in the sediments indicates intensely changing oxidative and reductive sedimental environment, that may related with diapir structure around Site 4B, which also brings about hydrocarbon seepage leading to increasing biomass at 97cm.

  12. Paleosecular variations of geomagnetic field from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene in the north of South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Huang, W.; Liu, Q.

    2012-12-01

    The high-resolution geomagnetic field records from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene, which possessed of a notable climate change, were scarce in the global area. In this abstract, two gravity piston cores ZSQD2 (114.16oE, 19.58oN, ~190 cm in length, water depth 681m) and ZSQD34 (114.74oE, 19.05oN, ~184 cm in length, water depth 1820 m), situated in the north of South China Sea, were selected to study the secular variations of geomagnetic field in this area. Radiocarbon ages of G.sacculifer suggest that the deposition rate varied with 56.1 cm/kyr and 3.7 cm/kyr during the Last Glacial and the Holocene, respectively. Rock magnetic results indicate that the pseudo-single domain magnetite with low coercivity dominate the properties of sediments. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) values are evaluated using the 5-8 AF steps when MAD values are generally <5. Constrained by the radiocarbon chronology, the secular variation curves since ~18 cal. kyr can be constructed using the ChRM directions and NRM/ARM ratios (as a proxy of relative intensity). Comparing the Holocene SV with that from terrestrial lakes in Southern China, similar shape corroborates the reliability of records and uniform pattern of non-dipole magnetic field. Two significant features on SV curves present the geomagnetic field characteristics from ~17 cal. kyr to the early Holocene. One is that the direction variations lag behind the relative intensity on the millennium time scale. Such as a major direction shift occurred around 13 cal. kyr while the relative intensity low was about 14 cal. kyr. Another feature is the fast and frequent wiggles both in direction and intensity between ~17 to ~14.5 cal. kyr. During this period, two significant negative inclination anomalies occurred at ~16.4 and ~15.4 cal. kyr associated with low intensity, respectively. Nevertheless, the corresponding declinations did not show the reversed features although they had also some slight fluctuations. The

  13. Behaviour model identification based on inverse modeling and using Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM): application on rubber and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velay, V.; Robert, L.; Schmidt, F.; Hmida, S.; Vallet, T.

    2007-04-01

    Biaxial properties of materials (polymer or steel) used in many industrial processes are often difficult to measure. However, these properties are useful for the numerical simulations of plastic-processing operations like blow moulding or thermoforming for polymers and superplastic forming or single point incremental forming for steels. Today, Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM) are promising tools for experimental analysis of materials. Indeed, they are able to provide a very large amount of data (displacement or strain) spatially distributed. In this paper, a mixed numerical and experimental investigation is proposed in order to identify multi-axial constitutive behaviour models. The procedure is applied on two different materials commonly used in forming processes: polymer (rubber in this first approach) and steel. Experimental tests are performed on various rubber and steel structural specimens (notched and open-hole plate samples) in order to generate heterogeneous displacement field. Two different behaviour models are considered. On the one hand, a Money-Rivlin hyperelastic law is investigated to describe the high levels of strain induced in tensile test performed on a rubber open-hole specimen. On the other hand, Ramberg-Osgood law allows to reproduce elasto-plastic behaviour of steel on a specimen that induces heterogeneous strain fields. Each parameter identification is based on a same Finite Element Model Updated (FEMU) procedure which consists in comparing results provided by the numerical simulation (ABAQUS™) with full field measurements obtained by the DISC (Digital Image Stereo-Correlation) technique (Vic-3D®).

  14. Behaviour model identification based on inverse modeling and using Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM): application on rubber and steel

    SciTech Connect

    Velay, V.; Robert, L.; Schmidt, F.; Hmida, S.; Vallet, T.

    2007-04-07

    Biaxial properties of materials (polymer or steel) used in many industrial processes are often difficult to measure. However, these properties are useful for the numerical simulations of plastic-processing operations like blow moulding or thermoforming for polymers and superplastic forming or single point incremental forming for steels. Today, Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM) are promising tools for experimental analysis of materials. Indeed, they are able to provide a very large amount of data (displacement or strain) spatially distributed. In this paper, a mixed numerical and experimental investigation is proposed in order to identify multi-axial constitutive behaviour models. The procedure is applied on two different materials commonly used in forming processes: polymer (rubber in this first approach) and steel. Experimental tests are performed on various rubber and steel structural specimens (notched and open-hole plate samples) in order to generate heterogeneous displacement field. Two different behaviour models are considered. On the one hand, a Money-Rivlin hyperelastic law is investigated to describe the high levels of strain induced in tensile test performed on a rubber open-hole specimen. On the other hand, Ramberg-Osgood law allows to reproduce elasto-plastic behaviour of steel on a specimen that induces heterogeneous strain fields. Each parameter identification is based on a same Finite Element Model Updated (FEMU) procedure which consists in comparing results provided by the numerical simulation (ABAQUS) with full field measurements obtained by the DISC (Digital Image Stereo-Correlation) technique (Vic-3D)

  15. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  16. Identification and minimization of sources of temporal instabilities in high field (>23 T) resistive magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soghomonian, Victoria; Sabo, M.; Powell, A.; Murphy, P.; Rosanske, Richard; Cross, T. A.; Schneider-Muntau, H. J.

    2000-07-01

    Resistive magnets offer very high field strengths, unmatched by superconducting technology. However, the spatial and temporal characteristics of raw magnetic fields generated by resistive high powered and water cooled magnets, are unadapted to most nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has installed a 24 T (˜1 GHz 1H), 32 mm bore, 13 MW resistive magnet to study the feasibility of utilizing such fields for NMR applications. Herein we present our efforts in identifying, characterizing, and improving the temporal properties of the magnets. The temporal instabilities arise mainly from two sources: power supply ripple and inlet cooling water temperature variations. To compensate for power supply ripple, flux stabilization was employed, whereas for long term variations, arising from variations in the water temperature, a field frequency lock unit was utilized. Moreover, a novel flow based water temperature control scheme was implemented. The stabilization and improved control reduced the initial 16 ppm peak-to-peak variation to ˜2 ppm. Implementation of a field frequency lock unit further reduced the temporal variation to 0.8 ppm peak-to-peak. Sharp NMR linewidths — 1.7 ppm at full width at half height of 2H in liquid D2O — are observed in small volume samples, enabling moderate resolution NMR experiments to be performed at 24 T.

  17. Efficient formulations of the material identification problem using full-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Zerpa, Jorge M.; Canelas, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    The material identification problem addressed consists of determining the constitutive parameters distribution of a linear elastic solid using displacement measurements. This problem has been considered in important applications such as the design of methodologies for breast cancer diagnosis. Since the resolution of real life problems involves high computational costs, there is great interest in the development of efficient methods. In this paper two new efficient formulations of the problem are presented. The first formulation leads to a second-order cone optimization problem, and the second one leads to a quadratic optimization problem, both allowing the resolution of the problem with high efficiency and precision. Numerical examples are solved using synthetic input data with error. A regularization technique is applied using the Morozov criterion along with an automatic selection strategy of the regularization parameter. The proposed formulations present great advantages in terms of efficiency, when compared to other formulations that require the application of general nonlinear optimization algorithms.

  18. Comparison of sonochemiluminescence images using image analysis techniques and identification of acoustic pressure fields via simulation.

    PubMed

    Tiong, T Joyce; Chandesa, Tissa; Yap, Yeow Hong

    2017-05-01

    One common method to determine the existence of cavitational activity in power ultrasonics systems is by capturing images of sonoluminescence (SL) or sonochemiluminescence (SCL) in a dark environment. Conventionally, the light emitted from SL or SCL was detected based on the number of photons. Though this method is effective, it could not identify the sonochemical zones of an ultrasonic systems. SL/SCL images, on the other hand, enable identification of 'active' sonochemical zones. However, these images often provide just qualitative data as the harvesting of light intensity data from the images is tedious and require high resolution images. In this work, we propose a new image analysis technique using pseudo-colouring images to quantify the SCL zones based on the intensities of the SCL images and followed by comparison of the active SCL zones with COMSOL simulated acoustic pressure zones.

  19. Image use in field guides and identification keys: review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Roxanne; Kirchoff, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Although illustrations have played an important role in identification keys and guides since the 18th century, their use has varied widely. Some keys lack all illustrations, while others are heavily illustrated. Even within illustrated guides, the way in which images are used varies considerably. Here, we review image use in paper and electronic guides, and establish a set of best practices for image use in illustrated keys and guides. Scope Our review covers image use in both paper and electronic guides, though we only briefly cover apps for mobile devices. With this one exception, we cover the full range of guides, from those that consist only of species descriptions with no keys, to lavishly illustrated technical keys. Emphasis is placed on how images are used, not on the operation of the guides and key, which has been reviewed by others. We only deal with operation when it impacts image use. Main points Few illustrated keys or guides use images in optimal ways. Most include too few images to show taxonomic variation or variation in characters and character states. The use of multiple images allows easier taxon identification and facilitates the understanding of characters. Most images are usually not standardized, making comparison between images difficult. Although some electronic guides allow images to be enlarged, many do not. Conclusions The best keys and guides use standardized images, displayed at sizes that are easy to see and arranged in a standardized manner so that similar images can be compared across species. Illustrated keys and glossaries should contain multiple images for each character state so that the user can judge variation in the state. Photographic backgrounds should not distract from the subject and, where possible, should be of a standard colour. When used, drawings should be prepared by professional botanical illustrators, and clearly labelled. Electronic keys and guides should allow images to be enlarged so that

  20. Microanalysis of the aerosol collected over south-central New Mexico during the alive field experiment, May-December 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.; Schnell, Russel C.; Kahl, Jonathan D.; Boatman, Joe F.; Garvey, Dennis M.

    Thirty-eight size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in the lower troposphere over the high desert of south-central New Mexico, using cascade impactors mounted onboard two research aircraft. Four of these samples were collected in early May, sixteen in mid-July, and the remaining ones in December 1989, during three segments of the ALIVE field initiative. Analytical electron microscope analyses of aerosol deposits and individual particles from these samples were performed to physically and chemically characterize the major particulate species present in the aerosol. Air-mass trajectories arriving at the sampling area in the May program were quite different from those calculated for the July period. In general, the May trajectories showed strong westerly winds, while the July winds were weaker and southerly, consistently passing over or very near the border cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Aerosol samples collected during the May period were predominantly fine (0.1-0.5 μm dia.), liquid H 2SO 4 droplets. Samples from the July experiment were comprised mostly of fine, solid (NH 4) 2SO 4 or mostly neutralized sulfate particles. In both sampling periods, numerous other particle classes were observed, including many types with probable terrestrial or anthropogenic sources. The numbers of these particles, however, were small when compared with the sulfates. Composite particle types, including sulfate/crustal and sulfate/carbonaceous, were also found to be present. The major differences in aerosol composition between the May and July samples (i.e. the extensive neutralization of sulfates in the July samples) can be explained by considering the different aerosol transport pathways and the proximity of the July aerosol to the El Paso/Juarez urban plume. Winds during the December experiment were quite variable, and may have contributed to the widely varying aerosol compositions observed in these samples. When the aircraft sampled the El Paso

  1. The rogue wave of 27 August 1969 at Dwarskersbos, South Africa: Field survey and simulation as a meteo-tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile; de Beer, Coenie; Visser, Johan; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2013-04-01

    In the early hours of Wednesday, 27 August 1969, the village of Dwarskersbos, Western Cape, South Africa, was inundated by a wave which flooded houses and damaged small boats. This small tsunami took place in the absence of any seismic source or extreme weather, and its origin has remained mysterious. In September 2010, we conducted a field survey based on the interview of nine elderly witnesses still living in the village, using techniques developed earlier for the study of the 1946 Aleutian and 1956 Greek tsunamis. We measured 13 locations, with run-up reaching 2.9 m for a maximum inundation of 260 m from the sea shore. The most remarkable aspect of our dataset is the extreme concentration of the flooding along a stretch of coastline of less than 2 km. In particular, the tsunami did not reach the communities located on the opposite side of St. Helena's Bay, nor did it affect Elands Bay and Lamberts Bay, respectively 43 and 68 km to the North. In order to investigate the possible origin of the Dwarskersbos tsunami, we first simulated an underwater landslide taking place in a canyon 20 km Northwest of Shelley Point, using the MOST code. This model predicts comparable amplitudes along most of the regional coastlines, and thus fails to explain the documented concentration at Dwarskersbos. By contrast, we explore a meteorological origin for the event by simulating the coupling between a possible squall (modeled as a steep pressure front) propagating over St. Helena's Bay and the oceanic column, using Proudman's [1953] original model, as applied by Platzman [1958] to the case of the 1954 Chicago rogue wave. We find that a front moving at 15 m/s in the azimuth N100E can resonate exclusively with the shallow bathymetry off Dwarskersbos, and thus explain most of the features revealed by our survey. This interpretation would be in contrast to the case of the tsunami of 21 August 2008, for which a comprehensive seriesof maregraphs along a 900-km stretch of coastline

  2. Horizontal and vertical deformation field in New Caledonia, South West Pacific, derived from more than 20 years of GNSS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Calmant, S.; Valty, P.; Gravelle, M.; Sakic, P.; Aucan, J.; Pelletier, B.

    2015-12-01

    New Caledonia is located in the South West Pacific Ocean, on the Australian Plate just before its subduction under the North Fiji Basin. Because it is on the subducting side of the plate interface, New Caledonia is considered to be stable to first order and not to undergo rapid deformation. However, moderate seismicity is recorded close to the plate interface, in the southern part of the main land and along the Loyalty ridge. In addition, the main island and Loyalty ridge are subjected to long-term vertical deformation due to the flexure of the plate entering subduction. A geodetic network was installed since the early days of GPS (~1990) and has been further developed and occasionally measured since. Due to the low number of global GNSS recording stations in the early 1990s, the positioning accuracy that can be achieved with these data is poor compared to present-day standards, and expected movements are slow (possibly less than 1 mm/yr). However, the >20 year length of the time series may allow us to determine the current deformation field in New Caledonia and Loyalty Ridge. We pay special care in using older GNSS data for characterizing ground motions, reprocessing all available data using a range of different processing strategies and products. We calculated daily positions from double-differenced ionosphere-free carrier phase data in a global network using the GAMIT software and combined and aligned the results on the ITRF2008 using the CATREF software, according to the processing strategy developed as part of the current ULR6 (www.sonel.org) reprocessing campaign for IGS. We compare the double difference results with those obtained in PPP mode using JPL GIPSY software as well as CNES GINS software and different products (MIT, JPL and GRG orbits and clocks provided in the framework of the IGS2 reprocessing campaign). We present both the results for New Caledonia and an analysis of the applicability of these different processing strategies to older GNSS

  3. The ATLAS 5.5 GHz survey of the extended Chandra Deep Field South: the second data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, M. T.; Bell, M. E.; Hopkins, A. M.; Norris, R. P.; Seymour, N.

    2015-11-01

    We present a new image of the 5.5 GHz radio emission from the extended Chandra Deep Field South. Deep radio observations at 5.5 GHz were obtained in 2010 and presented in the first data release. A further 76 h of integration has since been obtained, nearly doubling the integration time. This paper presents a new analysis of all the data. The new image reaches 8.6 μJy rms, an improvement of about 40 per cent in sensitivity. We present a new catalogue of 5.5 GHz sources, identifying 212 source components, roughly 50 per cent more than were detected in the first data release. Source counts derived from this sample are consistent with those reported in the literature for S5.5 GHz > 0.1 mJy but significantly lower than published values in the lowest flux density bins (S5.5 GHz < 0.1 mJy), where we have more detected sources and improved statistical reliability. The 5.5 GHz radio sources were matched to 1.4 GHz sources in the literature and we find a mean spectral index of -0.35 ± 0.10 for S5.5 GHz > 0.5 mJy, consistent with the flattening of the spectral index observed in 5 GHz sub-mJy samples. The median spectral index of the whole sample is αmed = -0.58, indicating that these observations may be starting to probe the star-forming population. However, even at the faintest levels (0.05 < S5.5 GHz < 0.1 mJy), 39 per cent of the 5.5 GHz sources have flat or inverted radio spectra. Four flux density measurements from our data, across the full 4.5-6.5 GHz bandwidth, are combined with those from literature and we find 10 per cent of sources (S5.5 GHz ≳ 0.1 mJy) show significant curvature in their radio spectral energy distribution spanning 1.4-9 GHz.

  4. Computer Folding of RNA Tetraloops: Identification of Key Force Field Deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kührová, Petra; Best, Robert B; Bottaro, Sandro; Bussi, Giovanni; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal; Banáš, Pavel

    2016-09-13

    The computer-aided folding of biomolecules, particularly RNAs, is one of the most difficult challenges in computational structural biology. RNA tetraloops are fundamental RNA motifs playing key roles in RNA folding and RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions. Although state-of-the-art Molecular Dynamics (MD) force fields correctly describe the native state of these tetraloops as a stable free-energy basin on the microsecond time scale, enhanced sampling techniques reveal that the native state is not the global free energy minimum, suggesting yet unidentified significant imbalances in the force fields. Here, we tested our ability to fold the RNA tetraloops in various force fields and simulation settings. We employed three different enhanced sampling techniques, namely, temperature replica exchange MD (T-REMD), replica exchange with solute tempering (REST2), and well-tempered metadynamics (WT-MetaD). We aimed to separate problems caused by limited sampling from those due to force-field inaccuracies. We found that none of the contemporary force fields is able to correctly describe folding of the 5'-GAGA-3' tetraloop over a range of simulation conditions. We thus aimed to identify which terms of the force field are responsible for this poor description of TL folding. We showed that at least two different imbalances contribute to this behavior, namely, overstabilization of base-phosphate and/or sugar-phosphate interactions and underestimated stability of the hydrogen bonding interaction in base pairing. The first artifact stabilizes the unfolded ensemble, while the second one destabilizes the folded state. The former problem might be partially alleviated by reparametrization of the van der Waals parameters of the phosphate oxygens suggested by Case et al., while in order to overcome the latter effect we suggest local potentials to better capture hydrogen bonding interactions.

  5. Automated Identification of Initial Storm Electrification and End-of-Storm Electrification Using Electric Field Mill Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, Launa M.; Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operations are located in a region which experiences one of the highest lightning densities across the United States. As a result, on average, KSC loses almost 30 minutes of operational availability each day for lightning sensitive activities. KSC is investigating using existing instrumentation and automated algorithms to improve the timeliness and accuracy of lightning warnings. Additionally, the automation routines will be warning on a grid to minimize under-warnings associated with not being located in the center of the warning area and over-warnings associated with encompassing too large an area. This study discusses utilization of electric field mill data to provide improved warning times. Specifically, this paper will demonstrate improved performance of an enveloping algorithm of the electric field mill data as compared with the electric field zero crossing to identify initial storm electrification. End-of-Storm-Oscillation (EOSO) identification algorithms will also be analyzed to identify performance improvement, if any, when compared with 30 minutes after the last lightning flash.

  6. Multi-level slug tests in highly permeable formations: 2. Hydraulic conductivity identification, method verification, and field applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zlotnik, V.A.; McGuire, V.L.

    1998-01-01

    Using the developed theory and modified Springer-Gelhar (SG) model, an identification method is proposed for estimating hydraulic conductivity from multi-level slug tests. The computerized algorithm calculates hydraulic conductivity from both monotonic and oscillatory well responses obtained using a double-packer system. Field verification of the method was performed at a specially designed fully penetrating well of 0.1-m diameter with a 10-m screen in a sand and gravel alluvial aquifer (MSEA site, Shelton, Nebraska). During well installation, disturbed core samples were collected every 0.6 m using a split-spoon sampler. Vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity were produced on the basis of grain-size analysis of the disturbed core samples. These results closely correlate with the vertical profile of horizontal hydraulic conductivity obtained by interpreting multi-level slug test responses using the modified SG model. The identification method was applied to interpret the response from 474 slug tests in 156 locations at the MSEA site. More than 60% of responses were oscillatory. The method produced a good match to experimental data for both oscillatory and monotonic responses using an automated curve matching procedure. The proposed method allowed us to drastically increase the efficiency of each well used for aquifer characterization and to process massive arrays of field data. Recommendations generalizing this experience to massive application of the proposed method are developed.Using the developed theory and modified Springer-Gelhar (SG) model, an identification method is proposed for estimating hydraulic conductivity from multi-level slug tests. The computerized algorithm calculates hydraulic conductivity from both monotonic and oscillatory well responses obtained using a double-packer system. Field verification of the method was performed at a specially designed fully penetrating well of 0.1-m diameter with a 10-m screen in a sand and gravel alluvial

  7. Application of an Optimal Search Strategy for the DNAPL Source Identification to a Field Site in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longting, M.; Ye, S.; Wu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Identification and removing the DNAPL source in aquifer system is vital in rendering remediation successful and lowering the remediation time and cost. Our work is to apply an optimal search strategy introduced by Zoi and Pinder[1], with some modifications, to a field site in Nanjing City, China to define the strength, and location of DNAPL sources using the least samples. The overall strategy uses Monte Carlo stochastic groundwater flow and transport modeling, incorporates existing sampling data into the search strategy, and determines optimal sampling locations that are selected according to the reduction in overall uncertainty of the field and the proximity to the source locations. After a sample is taken, the plume is updated using a Kalman filter. The updated plume is then compared to the concentration fields that emanate from each individual potential source using fuzzy set technique. The comparison followed provides weights that reflect the degree of truth regarding the location of the source. The above steps are repeated until the optimal source characteristics are determined. Considering our site case, some specific modifications and work have been done as follows. K random fields are generated after fitting the measurement K data to the variogram model. The locations of potential sources that are given initial weights are targeted based on the field survey, with multiple potential source locations around the workshops and wastewater basin. Considering the short history (1999-2010) of manufacturing optical brightener PF at the site, and the existing sampling data, a preliminary source strength is then estimated, which will be optimized by simplex method or GA later. The whole algorithm then will guide us for optimal sampling and update as the investigation proceeds, until the weights finally stabilized. Reference [1] Dokou Zoi, and George F. Pinder. "Optimal search strategy for the definition of a DNAPL source." Journal of Hydrology 376.3 (2009): 542

  8. Identification, mapping, and analysis of possible evidences of active petroleum systems in the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; di Primio, Rolando; Vallejo, Eduardo; Kohler, Guillermina; Pangaro, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of a dense 2D seismic reflection dataset and 12 exploration wells data, allowed us to reconstruct the geological evolution of the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina. We identified and mapped the major syn- and post-rift seismic sequences, and their boundaries such as unconformities and regional seismic markers, present on the continental shelf and slope (water depths from 50 to 1800 m) of the Colorado Basin. Seismic-to-well log correlations, as well as integration with biostratigraphic data provided a chrono-stratigraphic framework for the interpreted horizons. The construction of isochronal (twt) maps provided a 3D spatial visualisation of the stratigraphic relationship among the sequences. The maps show a change in configuration from the break-up unconformity (130 Ma) to the present-day seafloor. The break-up unconformity displays a central EW-elongated graben which prevails on the overlying sequences up to the Miocene. The EW Colorado basin turns NW-SE towards the East, going perpendicular to the present-day continental margin (oriented NE-SW). The strong obliquity of the basin orientation related to the direction corresponding to the opening of the South Atlantic (NE-SW) suggests a structural control from the pre-rift basement on the rift and post-rift sequences. Starting from the break-up unconformity, the history of basin filling is illustrated up to the flat seafloor. The basin sag phase is represented by the sequences deposited between the break-up unconformity and the Colorado discontinuity (Aptian to Campanian). The Campanian to Eocene successions are more or less parallel- layered suggesting sequence aggradation. The distribution of liquid/gas hydrocarbon-leakage features (i.e. gas chimneys, mud volcanoes, and seabed pockmarks) should allow the definition of potential migration pathways. In this sense, a systematic mapping of these paleo- and present-day features observed in the seismic profiles has been performed and their distribution was

  9. Identification of paddy field using Landsat image in Karawang Regency, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riadi, Bambang; Budiman Suriadi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has a mission to achieve food self-sufficiency in 2017, therefore it is necessary efforts to the stability of food needs. Karawang Regency as a granary states have a vital role in maintaining the national rice self-sufficiency, so indispensable information paddy field area. Paddy field accurate mapping can be done with a fast and efficient method of using remote sensing technology. This study aims to identify the paddy field using remote sensing technology. The data used is Landsat TM 2002 and Landsat-8 2015. The classification method using an approach Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT). This method can be implemented to identify the fields that are still green or in the growing season. TCT produces three images of the six combinations, namely Brightness (BRT), greenness (GRN), and wetness (WET). BRT provides graytone gradation of non vegetation to water. GRN is indicated the gradation of vegetation cover, begin from densely vegetated until the most rare or non-vegetated areas. While wetness (WET) indicates the area associated with the presence of water. The main results of the classification is not a wetland and paddy. Based on existing data paddy land area of research area is ± 57% of the area of Karawang Regency.

  10. Identification of Electric-Field-Dependent Steps in the Na+,K+-Pump Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Mares, Laura J.; Garcia, Alvaro; Rasmussen, Helge H.; Cornelius, Flemming; Mahmmoud, Yasser A.; Berlin, Joshua R.; Lev, Bogdan; Allen, Toby W.; Clarke, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    The charge-transporting activity of the Na+,K+-ATPase depends on its surrounding electric field. To isolate which steps of the enzyme’s reaction cycle involve charge movement, we have investigated the response of the voltage-sensitive fluorescent probe RH421 to interaction of the protein with BTEA (benzyltriethylammonium), which binds from the extracellular medium to the Na+,K+-ATPase’s transport sites in competition with Na+ and K+, but is not occluded within the protein. We find that only the occludable ions Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+ cause a drop in RH421 fluorescence. We conclude that RH421 detects intramembrane electric field strength changes arising from charge transport associated with conformational changes occluding the transported ions within the protein, not the electric fields of the bound ions themselves. This appears at first to conflict with electrophysiological studies suggesting extracellular Na+ or K+ binding in a high field access channel is a major electrogenic reaction of the Na+,K+-ATPase. All results can be explained consistently if ion occlusion involves local deformations in the lipid membrane surrounding the protein occurring simultaneously with conformational changes necessary for ion occlusion. The most likely origin of the RH421 fluorescence response is a change in membrane dipole potential caused by membrane deformation. PMID:25229143

  11. Experimental Identification of Electric Field Excitation Mechanisms in a Structural Transition of Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Kamiya, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Miura, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Inagaki, S.; Ida, K.; Hoshino, K.

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulation between structure and turbulence, which is a fundamental process in the complex system, has been widely regarded as one of the central issues in modern physics. A typical example of that in magnetically confined plasmas is the Low confinement mode to High confinement mode (L-H) transition, which is intensely studied for more than thirty years since it provides a confinement improvement necessary for the realization of the fusion reactor. An essential issue in the L-H transition physics is the mechanism of the abrupt “radial” electric field generation in toroidal plasmas. To date, several models for the L-H transition have been proposed but the systematic experimental validation is still challenging. Here we report the systematic and quantitative model validations of the radial electric field excitation mechanism for the first time, using a data set of the turbulence and the radial electric field having a high spatiotemporal resolution. Examining time derivative of Poisson’s equation, the sum of the loss-cone loss current and the neoclassical bulk viscosity current is found to behave as the experimentally observed radial current that excites the radial electric field within a few factors of magnitude.

  12. Experimental Identification of Electric Field Excitation Mechanisms in a Structural Transition of Tokamak Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Itoh, K; Ido, T; Kamiya, K; Itoh, S-I; Miura, Y; Nagashima, Y; Fujisawa, A; Inagaki, S; Ida, K; Hoshino, K

    2016-08-04

    Self-regulation between structure and turbulence, which is a fundamental process in the complex system, has been widely regarded as one of the central issues in modern physics. A typical example of that in magnetically confined plasmas is the Low confinement mode to High confinement mode (L-H) transition, which is intensely studied for more than thirty years since it provides a confinement improvement necessary for the realization of the fusion reactor. An essential issue in the L-H transition physics is the mechanism of the abrupt "radial" electric field generation in toroidal plasmas. To date, several models for the L-H transition have been proposed but the systematic experimental validation is still challenging. Here we report the systematic and quantitative model validations of the radial electric field excitation mechanism for the first time, using a data set of the turbulence and the radial electric field having a high spatiotemporal resolution. Examining time derivative of Poisson's equation, the sum of the loss-cone loss current and the neoclassical bulk viscosity current is found to behave as the experimentally observed radial current that excites the radial electric field within a few factors of magnitude.

  13. Experimental Identification of Electric Field Excitation Mechanisms in a Structural Transition of Tokamak Plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Kamiya, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Miura, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Inagaki, S.; Ida, K.; Hoshino, K.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation between structure and turbulence, which is a fundamental process in the complex system, has been widely regarded as one of the central issues in modern physics. A typical example of that in magnetically confined plasmas is the Low confinement mode to High confinement mode (L-H) transition, which is intensely studied for more than thirty years since it provides a confinement improvement necessary for the realization of the fusion reactor. An essential issue in the L-H transition physics is the mechanism of the abrupt “radial” electric field generation in toroidal plasmas. To date, several models for the L-H transition have been proposed but the systematic experimental validation is still challenging. Here we report the systematic and quantitative model validations of the radial electric field excitation mechanism for the first time, using a data set of the turbulence and the radial electric field having a high spatiotemporal resolution. Examining time derivative of Poisson’s equation, the sum of the loss-cone loss current and the neoclassical bulk viscosity current is found to behave as the experimentally observed radial current that excites the radial electric field within a few factors of magnitude. PMID:27489128

  14. Source identification and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with electronic dismantling in Guiyu town, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Delin; An, Taicheng; Qiao, Meng; Loganathan, Bommanna G; Zeng, Xiangying; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-08-15

    In this study the concentrations and distribution of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in gas and total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected during daytime and night time. The sampling locations included an electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW), a plastic recycling workshop (PW) and a waste incineration field (WF) in Guiyu, China. A large residential area (RA) in this region was used as a control site. In the daytime, the highest concentration was found at WF (1041 ng m(-3)); while in the night time the highest concentration was found outside of EW (744 ng m(-3)). Comparison between work hours (daytime) and rest hours (night time) displayed that the total PAHs (gas+particulate phase) concentrations and the percentages of PAHs associated with TSP were higher at night than those in the daytime in all sampling workshops except WF. Source diagnostic-ratio analysis revealed that unwanted materials and smoldering honeycomb coals were the main sources of PAHs in EW, WF and PW. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent [BaPeq] concentrations calculated by using the toxic equivalent factors [TEFs] suggested that the occupational exposure levels were not significantly high when compared with other occupational exposure. Additionally, our study suggested that the smoldering of unwanted materials could produce much more toxic PAHs compounds.

  15. Identification of Strain-Specific Sequences That Distinguish a Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Strain from Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, Camir; Pickler, Larissa; Maurer, John; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; García, Maricarmen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite attempts to control avian mycoplasmosis through management, vaccination, and surveillance, Mycoplasma gallisepticum continues to cause significant morbidity, mortality, and economic losses in poultry production. Live attenuated vaccines are commonly used in the poultry industry to control avian mycoplasmosis; unfortunately, some vaccines may revert to virulence and vaccine strains are generally difficult to distinguish from natural field isolates. In order to identify genome differences among vaccine revertants, vaccine strains, and field isolates, whole-genome sequencing of the M. gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 and several “ts-11-like” strains isolated from commercial flocks was performed using Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing and the sequenced genomes compared to the M. gallisepticum Rlow reference genome. The collective contigs for each strain were annotated using the fully annotated Mycoplasma reference genome. The analysis revealed genetic differences among vlhA alleles, as well as among genes annotated as coding for a cell wall surface anchor protein (mg0377) and a hypothetical protein gene, mg0359, unique to M. gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine strain. PCR protocols were designed to target 5 sequences unique to the M. gallisepticum ts-11 strain: vlhA3.04a, vlhA3.04b, vlhA3.05, mg0377, and mg0359. All ts-11 isolates were positive for the five gene alleles tested by PCR; however, 5 to 36% of field isolates were also positive for at least one of the alleles tested. A combination of PCR tests for vlhA3.04a, vlhA3.05, and mg0359 was able to distinguish the M. gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine strain from field isolates. This method will further supplement current approaches to quickly distinguish M. gallisepticum vaccine strains from field isolates. PMID:27847370

  16. A coordinated study of a storm system over the South American continent. 1. Weather information and quasi-DC stratospheric electric field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, O.; Pinto, I. R. C. A.; Gin, R. B. B.; Mendes, O.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on a coordinated campaign conducted in Brazil, December 13, 1989, to study the electrical signatures associated with a large storm system over the South American continent. Inside the storm, large convective cells developed extending up to the tropopause, as revealed from meteorological balloon soundings. Quasi-DC vertical electric field and temperature were measured by zero-pressure balloon-borne payload launched from Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil. The data were supported by radar and GOES satellite observations, as well as by a lightning position and tracking system (LPATS). The analysis of infrared imagery supports the general tendency for lightning strikes to be near to but not exactly under the coldest cloud tops. In turn, the radar maps located the strikes near to but outside of the most intense areas of precipitation (reflectivity levels above 40 dBz). The balloon altitude and stratospheric temperature show significant variations in association with the storm. The quasi-DC vertical electric field remained almost during the whole flight in a reversed direction relative to the usual fair weather downward orientation with values as large as 4 V/m. A simple calculation based on a static dipole model of electrical cloud structure gives charges of some tens of coulombs. In contrast with most electric field measurements in other regions, no indication of an intensification of the vertical field in the downward fair weather orientation was observed. This fact is in agreement with past observations in the South American region and seems to be related to a particular type of storm that would occur with more frequency in this region. If so, such a difference may have an important role in the global atmospheric electrical circuit, considering that South America is believed to give a significant current contribution to the global circuit.

  17. Assessing the suitability of antibiotic resistance markers and the indirect ELISA technique for studying the competitive ability of selected Cyclopia Vent. rhizobia under glasshouse and field conditions in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Symbiotic N2 fixation in legumes is constrained by many factors, including the paucity of suitable soil rhizobia To maximise growth of legume species therefore often requires the application of effective rhizobia as inoculants. But where native strains out-compete introduced rhizobia for nodule formation, it is important that the competitiveness of selected strains is tested in the field and glasshouse prior to their recommendation as commercial inoculants. However the methodology for strain identification inside nodules has often proved difficult and thus limited this field of research. In this study, the suitability of the antibiotic resistance technique (both intrinsic low-resistance fingerprinting and high-resistance marking) and the serological indirect ELISA method were assessed for their ability to detect selected Cyclopia rhizobia under glasshouse and field conditions. The four rhizobial strains that were used, namely PPRICI3, UCT40a, UCT44b and UCT61a, were isolated from wild Cyclopia species growing in the Western Cape fynbos of South Africa. Results The test strains formed two distinct groups with regard to their intrinsic resistance to the antibiotics streptomycin sulphate and spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate, making it impossible to use intrinsic antibiotic resistance to distinguish strains from within the same intrinsic resistance group. The use of strains marked with double antibiotic resistance was also investigated. A number of these strains lost their antibiotic marker tags after one plant passage; and some also lost their competitive ability. The indirect ELISA technique provided a more satisfactory method of identifying selected Cyclopia strains under both field and glasshouse conditions. The primary antibodies raised against strains UCT40a, UCT61a and UCT44b gave absorbance readings that were unambiguously negative (0.30 OD405), while those of strain PPRICI3 were ambiguous (0.50 OD405) with many false positive readings (1

  18. Theileriosis (Cytauxzoonosis) in Roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus): field exposure to infection and identification of potential vectors.

    PubMed

    Steyl, Johan C A; Prozesky, Leon; Stoltsz, Wilhelm H; Lawrence, John A

    2012-04-20

    Four hand-reared, naïve roan antelope, 4 months of age, were exposed to naturally infected pasture on a game farm in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, where roan are known to die from theileriosis. Various clinical parameters were recorded during this period. The predominant ticks parasitising these animals at the time (January to February), were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi adults. After a period of 5 weeks the animals developed signs of clinical theileriosis and were treated with buparvaquone to prevent mortality. Primary hyperplasia of the local draining lymph nodes (Lnn. anorectales) near the feeding site of adult R. evertsi evertsi indicated possible transmission of Theileria sp. (sable) by this tick species. After recovery from theileriosis, these animals were confirmed carriers of Theileria sp. (sable) by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and DNA probe analysis. Laboratory-bred larvae and nymphs of R. evertsi evertsi and R. appendiculatus respectively, were fed on the ears of these roan antelope. Salivary glands from moulted and prefed adult ticks of each species were dissected and stained for Theileria spp., and the PCR and DNA probe applied to a representative batch of dissected glands. R. appendiculatus adults collected from grass in infected camps were also dissected after prefeeding them on rabbits. Salivary glands of both tick species showed infected acini on staining and were also positive for Theileria sp. (sable) only, on multiprotozoal PCR-screening analysis. There was no statistical significant difference between the infection rate and the intensity of infection between the two tick species. R. appendiculatus ticks collected from grass were also PCR-positive for Theileria sp. (sable).

  19. A compilation of field surveys on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from contrasting environmental settings in Europe, South America, South Africa and China: separating fads from facts.

    PubMed

    Higueras, Pablo; Oyarzun, Roberto; Kotnik, Joze; Esbrí, José María; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Horvat, Milena; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Llanos, Willians; Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Ryzov, Vladimir; Spiric, Zdravko; Panichev, Nikolay; McCrindle, Rob; Feng, Xinbin; Fu, Xuewu; Lillo, Javier; Loredo, Jorge; García, María Eugenia; Alfonso, Pura; Villegas, Karla; Palacios, Silvia; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Contreras, Felicia; Adams, Melitón; Ribeiro-Guevara, Sergio; Niecenski, Luise Felipe; Giammanco, Salvatore; Huremović, Jasna

    2014-08-01

    Mercury is transported globally in the atmosphere mostly in gaseous elemental form (GEM, [Formula: see text]), but still few worldwide studies taking into account different and contrasted environmental settings are available in a single publication. This work presents and discusses data from Argentina, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Finland, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Slovenia and Venezuela. We classified the information in four groups: (1) mining districts where this contaminant poses or has posed a risk for human populations and/or ecosystems; (2) cities, where the concentration of atmospheric mercury could be higher than normal due to the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activities; (3) areas with natural emissions from volcanoes; and (4) pristine areas where no anthropogenic influence was apparent. All the surveys were performed using portable LUMEX RA-915 series atomic absorption spectrometers. The results for cities fall within a low GEM concentration range that rarely exceeds 30 ng m(-3), that is, 6.6 times lower than the restrictive ATSDR threshold (200 ng m(-3)) for chronic exposure to this pollutant. We also observed this behavior in the former mercury mining districts, where few data were above 200 ng m(-3). We noted that high concentrations of GEM are localized phenomena that fade away in short distances. However, this does not imply that they do not pose a risk for those working in close proximity to the source. This is the case of the artisanal gold miners that heat the Au-Hg amalgam to vaporize mercury. In this respect, while GEM can be truly regarded as a hazard, because of possible physical-chemical transformations into other species, it is only under these localized conditions, implying exposure to high GEM concentrations, which it becomes a direct risk for humans.

  20. Distribution and identification of proteolytic Bacillus spp. in paddy field soil under rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Hayano, K

    1993-07-01

    Proteolytic bacteria in paddy field soils under rice cultivation were characterized and enumerated using azocoll agar plates. Bacillus spp. were the proteolytic bacteria that were most frequently present, comprising 59% of the isolates. They were always the numerically dominant proteolytic bacteria isolated from three kinds of fertilizer treatments (yearly application of rice-straw compost and chemical fertilizer, yearly application of chemical fertilizer, and no fertilizer application) and at three different stages of rice development (vegetative growth stage, maximal tillering stage, and harvest stage). Of the 411 proteolytic bacteria isolated, 124 isolates had stronger proteolytic activity than others on the basis of gelatin liquefaction tests and most of them were Bacillus spp. (100% in 1989 and 92.4% in 1991). Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus were the main bacteria of this group and Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus megaterium were also present. We conclude that these Bacillus spp. are the primary source of soil protease in these paddy fields.

  1. Tillage and slope position impact on field-scale hydrologic processes in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is widespread interest in increasing conservation-tillage use during row crop production. Hydrologic monitoring was conducted for 11 years on a 1.2 ha hillslope located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of south central Georgia. The site was equally divided between two tillage treatments,...

  2. Higher Education Research as a Field of Study in South Korea: Inward but Starting to Look Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the development of higher education research in South Korea based on historical and scientometric perspectives. After the evolution of the country's higher education research community is presented, articles focusing on higher education from 1995 to 2012 are analysed. In total, 145 articles in international journals and…

  3. Sound Source Identification Through Flow Density Measurement and Correlation With Far Field Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Sound sources in the plumes of unheated round jets, in the Mach number range 0.6 to 1.8, were investigated experimentally using "casuality" approach, where air density fluctuations in the plumes were correlated with the far field noise. The air density was measured using a newly developed Molecular Rayleigh scattering based technique, which did not require any seeding. The reference at the end provides a detailed description of the measurement technique.

  4. THE GLOBAL SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD-IDENTIFICATION OF TRAVELING, LONG-LIVED RIPPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, R. K.; Tran, Tham

    2013-05-10

    We have examined the global structure of the solar magnetic field using data from the Fe I spectral line at 5250.2 A obtained at the 150 foot tower telescope at the Mt. Wilson Observatory. For each point on the solar surface, we find the value of the magnetic field in the meridional plane, B{sub m} , by averaging over all available observations using a cosine weighting method. We have revised our cosine weighting method by now taking into account more fully the highest latitude geometry. We use the annual variation in the latitude of the disk center, b{sub 0}, to deduce the tilt angle of the field relative to the local vertical so that we can find the radial component of the field, B{sub r} , from B{sub m} . We find this tilt angle to be small except for a near-polar zone where a tilt-angle model can reduce the annual variation. The reduced annual variation in the deduced B{sub r} allows us to study dB{sub r} /dt and associated deviations in B{sub r} from a smoothed B{sub r} with a smoothing width of 2.5 yr. These functions make evident the presence of small amplitude (3-5 G) but spatially coherent ripples with a semi-regular periodicity of one to three years. At any given time, the half-wavelength (peak to trough) is between 15 Degree-Sign and 30 Degree-Sign of latitude. These patterns are ubiquitous and in many cases drift from near the equator to the poles over a time period of roughly two years. The drift rate pattern is not compatible with simple advection.

  5. Identification and prioritization of rail squat defects in the field using rail magnetisation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2015-04-01

    Inevitably, rail squats and studs are continuing to be a serious problem for railway organisations around the world in the 21st century. They are typically classified as the growth of any cracks that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface and some of the cracks propagating to the bottom of rails transversely, and have branched from initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The horizontal crack, which results in a depression of rail surface, induces increased maintenance level, more frequent monitoring, compromised rail testing (as the crack shields the signal echoes), and possible broken rails. This paper presents field investigations using a magnetised-rail testing device developed by MRX Technologies to identify and prioritise the rail squats. Most of the in situ squats were found on the high rail of the transition (variable-radius curved track), which is associated with rolling contact fatigue (RCF). This investigation highlights the field performance of the MRX's surface crack detection technology in comparison with the traditional ultrasonic method and detailed walking inspection. Visually, it was found in the field that the size of the RCF squats varies from very small to moderate. The predicted crack data were obtained by scanning the magnitised rails. The comparison of the actual crack depths (ultrasonic) and the predicted crack depths (MRX device) shows: • A possible correlation for small RCF/ squat cracks. • Poor interpretation of larger defects and welds. The field assessment also suggests some practical issues required for further development, including the detection of rail spalling, deep transverse crack, welding, and so on.

  6. CANDELS Multi-wavelength Catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS COSMOS Survey Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyeri, H.; Hemmati, S.; Mobasher, B.; Ferguson, H. C.; Cooray, A.; Barro, G.; Faber, S. M.; Dickinson, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Peth, M.; Salvato, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Darvish, B.; Donley, J.; Durbin, M.; Finkelstein, S.; Fontana, A.; Grogin, N. A.; Gruetzbauch, R.; Huang, K.; Khostovan, A. A.; Kocevski, D.; Kodra, D.; Lee, B.; Newman, J.; Pacifici, C.; Pforr, J.; Stefanon, M.; Wiklind, T.; Willner, S. P.; Wuyts, S.; Castellano, M.; Conselice, C.; Dolch, T.; Dunlop, J. S.; Galametz, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Lucas, R. A.; Yan, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric catalog in the COSMOS field as part of the observations by the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The catalog is based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of the COSMOS field (centered at R.A.: {10}{{h}}{00}{{m}}{28}{{s}}, Decl.: +02^\\circ 12\\prime {21}\\prime\\prime ). The final catalog has 38671 sources with photometric data in 42 bands from UV to the infrared (∼ 0.3{--}8 μ {{m}}). This includes broadband photometry from HST, CFHT, Subaru, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, and Spitzer Space Telescope in the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands along with intermediate- and narrowband photometry from Subaru and medium-band data from Mayall NEWFIRM. Source detection was conducted in the WFC3 F160W band (at 1.6 μm) and photometry is generated using the Template FITting algorithm. We further present a catalog of the physical properties of sources as identified in the HST F160W band and measured from the multi-band photometry by fitting the observed spectral energy distributions of sources against templates.

  7. Identification of the Permeability Field of Porous Medium from the Injection of Passive Tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lang; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1999-10-18

    In this paper, a method was proposed which focused on the question, namely on how to invert data on arrival times at various (and numerous) points in the porous medium to map the permeability field. The method, elements of which were briefly described in (9), is based on a direct inversion of the data, as will be described below , rather than on the optimization of initial random (or partly constrained) guesses of the permeability field, to match the available data, as typically done in the analogous problem of pressure transients. The direct inversion is based on two conditions, that Darcy's law for single-phase flow in porous media is valid, and that dispersion of the concentration of the injected tracer is negligible. While the former is a well-accepted premise, the latter depends on injection and field conditions, and may not necessarily apply in all cases. Based on these conditions, we formulate a nonlinear boundary value problem, the coefficients of which depend on the experimental arrival time data.

  8. Isolation, identification and field tests of the sex pheromone of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes.

    PubMed

    Hung, C C; Hwang, J S; Hung, M D; Yen, Y P; Hou, R F

    2001-09-01

    Two components, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z8-12:Ac) and (Z)-8-dodecenol (Z8-12:OH), were isolated from sex pheromone glands of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes, and were identified by GC, and GC-MS, chemical derivatization, and comparison of retention times. The ratio of the alcohol to acetate in the sex pheromone extracts was 2.7. However, synthetic mixtures (1 mg) in ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 were more effective than other blends in trapping male moths in field tests.

  9. Identification of antimony resistance markers in Leishmania tropica field isolates through a cDNA-AFLP approach.

    PubMed

    Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Abedkhojasteh, Hoda; Heidari, Mansour

    2013-10-01

    Pentavalent antimonial compounds have been the first line therapy for leishmaniasis; unfortunately the rate of treatment failure of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is increasing due to emerging of drug resistance. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operating in antimony resistance is critical for development of new strategies for treatment. Here, we used a cDNA-AFLP approach to identify gene(s) which are differentially expressed in resistant and sensitive Leishmania tropica field isolates. We identified five genes, aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) acts in drug uptake, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (MRPA) involved in sequestration of drug, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) implicated in glycolysis metabolism, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) responsible for phosphorylation pathway. The results were confirmed using real time RT-PCR which revealed an upregulation of MRPA, PTP and PGK genes and downregulation of AQP1 and MAPK genes in resistant isolate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of PTP and PGK genes potentially implicated in resistance to antimonials. Our findings support the idea that distinct biomolecules might be involved in antimony resistance in L. tropica field isolates.

  10. SNP marker discovery, linkage map construction and identification of QTLs for enhanced salinity tolerance in field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, cool-season food legume. Crop production is constrained by multiple biotic and abiotic stress factors, including salinity, that cause reduced growth and yield. Recent advances in genomics have permitted the development of low-cost high-throughput genotyping systems, allowing the construction of saturated genetic linkage maps for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of interest. Genetic markers in close linkage with the relevant genomic regions may then be implemented in varietal improvement programs. Results In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were developed and used to generate comprehensive linkage maps for field pea. From a set of 36,188 variant nucleotide positions detected through in silico analysis, 768 were selected for genotyping of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 705 SNPs (91.7%) successfully detected segregating polymorphisms. In addition to SNPs, genomic and EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were assigned to the genetic map in order to obtain an evenly distributed genome-wide coverage. Sequences associated with the mapped molecular markers were used for comparative genomic analysis with other legume species. Higher levels of conserved synteny were observed with the genomes of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) than with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), Lotus japonicus L. and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.). Parents and RIL progeny were screened at the seedling growth stage for responses to salinity stress, imposed by addition of NaCl in the watering solution at a concentration of 18 dS m-1. Salinity-induced symptoms showed normal distribution, and the severity of the symptoms increased over time. QTLs for salinity tolerance were identified on linkage groups Ps III and VII, with flanking SNP markers suitable for

  11. Examining the effectiveness of discriminant function analysis and cluster analysis in species identification of male field crickets based on their calling songs.

    PubMed

    Jaiswara, Ranjana; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2013-01-01

    Traditional taxonomy based on morphology has often failed in accurate species identification owing to the occurrence of cryptic species, which are reproductively isolated but morphologically identical. Molecular data have thus been used to complement morphology in species identification. The sexual advertisement calls in several groups of acoustically communicating animals are species-specific and can thus complement molecular data as non-invasive tools for identification. Several statistical tools and automated identifier algorithms have been used to investigate the efficiency of acoustic signals in species identification. Despite a plethora of such methods, there is a general lack of knowledge regarding the appropriate usage of these methods in specific taxa. In this study, we investigated the performance of two commonly used statistical methods, discriminant function analysis (DFA) and cluster analysis, in identification and classification based on acoustic signals of field cricket species belonging to the subfamily Gryllinae. Using a comparative approach we evaluated the optimal number of species and calling song characteristics for both the methods that lead to most accurate classification and identification. The accuracy of classification using DFA was high and was not affected by the number of taxa used. However, a constraint in using discriminant function analysis is the need for a priori classification of songs. Accuracy of classification using cluster analysis, which does not require a priori knowledge, was maximum for 6-7 taxa and decreased significantly when more than ten taxa were analysed together. We also investigated the efficacy of two novel derived acoustic features in improving the accuracy of identification. Our results show that DFA is a reliable statistical tool for species identification using acoustic signals. Our results also show that cluster analysis of acoustic signals in crickets works effectively for species classification and

  12. Predicting plant water content in Eucalyptus grandis forest stands in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa using field spectra resampled to the Sumbandila Satellite Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumar, Z.; Mutanga, O.

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of plant water content is essential to assess stress and disturbance in forest plantations. Traditional techniques to assess plant water content are costly, time consuming and spatially restrictive. Remote sensing techniques offer the alternative of a non-destructive and instantaneous method of assessing plant water content over large spatial scales where ground measurements would be impossible on a regular basis. In the context of South Africa, due to the cost and availability of imagery, studies focusing on the estimation of plant water content using remote sensing data have been limited. With the scheduled launch of the South African satellite SumbandilaSat evident in 2009, it is imperative to test the utility of this satellite in estimating plant water content. This study resamples field spectral data measured from a field spectrometer to the band settings of the SumbandilaSat in order to test its potential in estimating plant water content in a Eucalyptus plantation. The resampled SumbandilaSat wavebands were input into a neural network due to its ability to model non-linearity in a dataset and its inherent ability to perform better than conventional linear models. The integrated approach involving neural networks and the resampled field spectral data successfully predicted plant water content with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.41% on an independent test dataset outperforming the traditional multiple regression method of estimation. The best-trained neural network algorithm that was chosen for assessing the relationship between plant water content and the SumbandilaSat bands was based on a few points only and more research is required to test the robustness and effectiveness of this sensor in estimating plant water content across different species and seasons. This is critical for monitoring plantation health in South Africa using a cheaply available local sensor containing key vegetation wavelengths.

  13. Comparing the performance of coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere models at two contrasting field sites in South-West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayler, S.; Wöhling, T.; Priesack, E.; Wizemann, H.-D.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2012-04-01

    of their structural complexity on two winter wheat research fields under different climate in South-West Germany. We investigate the ability of the models to simultaneously fit measured soil water contents, leaf area development and actual evapotranspiration rates from eddy-covariance measurements. The calibration of the models is performed in a multi-criteria context using three objective functions, which describe the discrepancy between measurements and simulations of the three data types. We use the AMALGAM evolutionary search algorithm to simultaneously estimate the most important plant and soil hydraulic parameters. The results show that the trade-off in fitting soil moisture, leaf area development and evapotranspiration can be quite large for those models that represent plant processes by simple concepts. However, these trade-offs are smaller for the more mechanistic plant growth models, so that it can be expected that these optimized mechanistic models will provide the basis for improved simulations of land-surface-atmosphere feedback processes.

  14. Female sex pheromone of Cystidia couaggaria couaggaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): identification and field attraction.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Rei; Takubo, Yoshiko; Ohbayashi, Kanako; Naka, Hideshi; Ando, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    The plum cankerworm moth, Cystidia couaggaria couaggaria (Geometridae: Ennominae), is a defoliator of Chinese plum trees (Prunus mume). The pheromone components of the female were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with an electro-antennographic (EAG) detector and GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The crude pheromone extract included several EAG-active components, i.e., trienyl, dienyl, and saturated hydrocarbons, with a C21-C25 straight chain. The characteristic mass spectra indicated the unsaturated hydrocarbons to be (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-trienes and (6Z,9Z)-6,9-dienes. In the fields, mixtures of the synthetic C<21 and C<23 trienes in a ratio of 2:3 and 1:4 successfully attracted males of this diurnal species during daytime. While the male antennae responded to the C25 triene and saturated hydrocarbons, their synergistic effects were not observed on the male attraction in the fields. Addition of the C21 diene interestingly inhibited the activity of the triene mixture. Males of Cystidia truncangulata, a sympatric diurnal congener of C. c. couaggaria, showed similar EAG responses to the unsaturated hydrocarbons, but no C. truncangulata males were attracted by the lures tested for C. c. couaggaria males, indicating that the identified hydrocarbons comprised the species-specific pheromone of C. c. couaggaria females.

  15. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building.

    PubMed

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-07-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement.

  16. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-01-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement. PMID:27376303

  17. A combined field survey and molecular identification protocol for comparing forest arthropod biodiversity across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Brent C; Casquet, Juliane; López, Heriberto; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A V; Mollaret, Noémy; Oromí, Pedro; Strasberg, Dominique; Thébaud, Christophe

    2016-10-21

    Obtaining fundamental biodiversity metrics such as alpha, beta and gamma diversity for arthropods is often complicated by a lack of prior taxonomic information and/or taxonomic expertise, which can result in unreliable morphologically based estimates. We provide a set of standardized ecological and molecular sampling protocols that can be employed by researchers whose taxonomic skills may be limited, and where there may be a lack of robust a priori information regarding the regional pool of species. These protocols combine mass sampling of arthropods, classification of samples into parataxonomic units (PUs) and selective sampling of individuals for mtDNA sequencing to infer biological species. We sampled ten lowland rainforest plots located on the volcanic oceanic island of Réunion (Mascarene archipelago) for spiders, a group with limited taxonomic and distributional data for this region. We classified adults and juveniles into PUs and then demonstrated the reconciliation of these units with presumed biological species using mtDNA sequence data, ecological data and distributional data. Because our species assignment protocol is not reliant upon prior taxonomic information, or taxonomic expertise, it minimizes the problem of the Linnean shortfall to yield diversity estimates that can be directly compared across independent studies. Field sampling can be extended to other arthropod groups and habitats by adapting our field sampling protocol accordingly.

  18. High-rate axial-field ionization chamber for particle identification of Radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza, Romualdo; Vadas, Justin; Singh, Varinderjit; Visser, G.; Alexander, A.; Hudan, S.; Huston, J.; Wiggins, B.; Chbihi, A.; Famiano, M.; Bischak, M.

    2017-01-01

    The design, construction and performance characteristics of a simple axial-field ionization chamber suitable for identifying ions in a radioactive beam are presented. The detector is optimized for use with low-energy radioactive beams (<) 5 MeV/A. A fast charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) integrated into the detector design is also described. Coupling this fast CSA to the axial field ionization chamber produces an output pulse with a rise-time of 60 to 70 ns and a fall time of 100 ns, making the detector capable of sustaining a relatively high rate while providing a time resolution of 6 to 8 ns. Tests with an α source establish the detector energy resolution as 8 % for an energy deposit of 3.5 MeV. Beam tests indicate that the detector is an effective tool for the characterization of low-energy radioactive beams at beam intensities up to 3 x 105 ions/s. Supported by the U.S. DOE under Award # DE-FG02-88ER-40404 and the NSF under Grant No. 1342962.

  19. Identification of Brucella ovis exclusive genes in field isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lucía Paula; García-Effrón, Guillermo; Robles, Carlos Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is one of the most important infectious diseases of sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of genes both inside and outside the specific B. ovis pathogenicity island 1 (BOPI-1) in a large collection of field isolates of B. ovis and other Brucella spp. from Argentina. The BOV_A0500 gene from B. ovis BOPI-1 was identified in all 104 B. ovis isolates studied. The BOPI-1 complete sequence was found to be conserved in 10 B. ovis strains from the collection, for which whole genome sequencing was performed. The BOV_0198 gene, which is outside BOPI-1 and considered exclusive to B. ovis, showed 90-100% identity with genomic regions of B. ovis, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. canis, B. suis, B. microti, B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis. The results demonstrate that BOPI-1 is the only exclusive genetic region of B. ovis and marine Brucella spp. and that it is highly conserved in B. ovis field isolates from Argentina.

  20. High-rate axial-field ionization chamber for particle identification of radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, J.; Singh, Varinderjit; Visser, G.; Alexander, A.; Hudan, S.; Huston, J.; Wiggins, B. B.; Chbihi, A.; Famiano, M.; Bischak, M. M.; deSouza, R. T.

    2016-11-01

    The design, construction and performance characteristics of a simple axial-field ionization chamber suitable for identifying ions in a radioactive beam are presented. Optimized for use with low-energy radioactive beams (< 5 MeV / A) the detector presents only three 0.5 μm/cm2 foils to the beam in addition to the detector gas. A fast charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) integrated into the detector design is also described. Coupling this fast CSA to the axial field ionization chamber produces an output pulse with a risetime of 60-70 ns and a fall time of 100 ns, making the detector capable of sustaining a relatively high rate and providing a time resolution of 6-8 ns. Tests with an α source establish the detector energy resolution as ∼ 8 % for an energy deposit of ∼3.5 MeV. The energy resolution with beams of 2.5 and 4.0 MeV/A 39K ions and the dependence of the energy resolution on beam intensity is measured. At an instantaneous rate of 3×105 ions/s the energy resolution has degraded to 14% with a pileup of 12%. The good energy resolution of this detector at rates up to 3×105 ions/s makes it an effective tool in the characterization of low-energy radioactive beams.

  1. Identification of island-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in a reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.; Anderson, J. K.; McCollam, K. J.; Boguski, J.; Feng, R.; Koliner, J. J.; Spong, D. A.; Hirshman, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    The modification of the shear Alfvén spectrum due to a core resonant magnetic island is used to explain the Alfvénic activity observed on the Madison symmetric torus (MST) reversed-field pinch during neutral beam injection. Theoretical studies show that the Alfvén continua in the core of the island provide a gap in which the observed Alfvénic bursts reside. Numerical simulations using a new code called SIESTAlfvén have identified the bursts as the first observation of an island-induced Alfvén eigenmode (IAE) in an RFP. The IAE arises from a helical coupling of harmonics due to the magnetic island.

  2. Uncertainty law in ambient modal identification---Part II: Implication and field verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Siu-Kui

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the uncertainty laws for the modal parameters identified in a Bayesian approach using ambient vibration data, based on the theory developed in the companion paper. The uncertainty laws are also appraised using field test data. The paper intends to provide insights for planning ambient vibration tests and managing the uncertainties of the identified modal parameters. Some typical questions that shall be addressed are: to estimate the damping ratio to within 30% of posterior coefficient of variation (c.o.v), what is the minimum data duration? Will deploying an additional accelerometer significantly improve the accuracy in damping (or frequency)? Answers to these questions based on this work can be found in the Conclusions. As the Bayesian approach allows full use of information in the data for given modeling assumptions, the uncertainty laws obtained in this work represent the lower limit of uncertainty (estimation error) that can be achieved by any method (Bayesian or non-Bayesian).

  3. Identification of the elastic stiffness of composites using the virtual fields method and digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lebin; Guo, Baoqiao; Xie, Huimin

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an effective methodology for characterizing the mechanical parameters of composites using digital image correlation combined with the virtual fields method. By using a three-point bending test configuration, this method can identify all mechanical parameters of the material with merely a single test. Successful results verified that this method is especially effective for characterizing composite materials. In this study, the method is applied to measure the orthotropic elastic parameters of fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites before and after the hygrothermal aging process. The results indicate that the hygrothermal aging environment significantly influences the mechanical property of a composite. The components of the parameters in the direction of the fiber bundle decreased significantly. From the accuracy analysis, we found that the actual measurement accuracy is sensitive to a shift of the horizontal edges and rotation of the vertical edges.

  4. Isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms at wastewater-irrigated fields: ratios in air and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Teltsch, B.; Kedmi, S.; Bonnet, L.; Borenzstajn-Rotem, Y.; Katzenelson, E.

    1980-06-01

    Samples of air and corresponding wastewater samples were taken at wastewater spray-irrigated fields. The concentrations of salmonellae and enteroviruses present in these samples were determined and compared with those of coliforms, and the ratios between them were calculated. The most common Salmonella serotype in the air was Salmonella ohio, whereas in the wastewater, Salmonella anatum was the most common. Enteroviruses isolated and identified were poliovirus, echovirus, and coxsackievirus type B. From the ratios of salmonellas to coliforms and enteroviruses to coliforms in the air, as compared to these ratios in the wastewater, it was concluded that the suitability of coliforms as an indication of airborne contamination caused by spray irrigation is questionable.

  5. Identification and field evaluation of grape shoot volatiles attractive to female grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana).

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong H; Nojima, Satoshi; Hesler, Stephen P; Zhang, Aijun; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L; Loeb, Gregory M

    2008-09-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from shoots of riverbank grape (Vitis riparia) that attract the female grape berry moth (GBM, Paralobesia viteana). Consistent EAD activity was obtained for 11 chemicals: (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (E)-linalool oxide, (Z)-linalool oxide, nonanal, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, beta-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, and alpha-farnesene. In flight-tunnel tests that involved female GBM and rubber septa loaded with subsets of these 11 compounds, we found that both the 11-component blend and a seven-component blend, composed of (E)-linalool oxide, (Z)-linalool oxide, nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, decanal, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene-D, elicited equivalent levels of upwind flight as freshly cut grape shoots. The removal of any of the seven compounds from the seven-component blend resulted in a significant decrease in female upwind flight responses. In a field trial with these two synthetic blends, traps equipped with either blend captured more female GBM compared to traps baited with hexane only (control), although the number of females caught was generally low. There were no differences in the number of males captured among treatments. Although in flight-tunnel trials, moths readily flew upwind to both grape shoots and rubber septa loaded with the best lures, they landed on shoots but not on rubber septa. Coupled with relatively low field catches, this suggests that additional host finding cues need to be identified to improve trap efficacy.

  6. Notes from the field: malnutrition and elevated mortality among refugees from South Sudan - Ethiopia, June-July 2014.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Ellen; Bilukha, Oleg O; Menkir, Zeray; Gayford, Megan; Kavosa, Millicent; Wtsadik, Mulugeta; Maina, Gidraf; Gose, Mesfin; Nyagucha, Irene; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2014-08-15

    As a result of armed civil conflict in South Sudan that started in mid-December of 2013, an estimated 1.1 million persons were internally displaced, and approximately 400,000 refugees fled South Sudan to neighboring countries (primarily to Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, and Kenya). Refugees from South Sudan arriving in Ethiopia are sheltered in three refugee camps located in Gambella region: Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi. The camps were established during January-May 2014 and have estimated refugee populations of 47,000, 51,000, and 50,000, respectively. Reports from health clinics and humanitarian agencies providing assistance to refugees suggested poor nutritional status of arriving refugees and elevated mortality rates. To assess the nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and mortality rates (crude [all ages] and aged <5 years), the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (an Ethiopian government aid agency), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Programme, and United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with CDC, conducted cross-sectional population-representative surveys in Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi camps during June-July 2014. Anthropometric measurements in children were taken using standard procedures, and nutritional status was classified based on 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards. Hemoglobin was measured using HemoCue Hb 301. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO thresholds. Retrospective mortality rates in Leitchuor and Kule were measured using a household census method.

  7. Structural characterization and molecular identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza morphotypes of Alzatea verticillata (Alzateaceae), a prominent tree in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Beck, Adela; Haug, Ingeborg; Oberwinkler, Franz; Kottke, Ingrid

    2007-10-01

    The vast majority of the highly diverse trees in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador form arbuscular mycorrhizas, and previous molecular investigations revealed a high diversity of fungi. In this study, we present a first trial to link fungal DNA-sequences with defined morphotypes characterized on the basis of partly new mycelial features obtained from field material of one tree species, Alzatea verticillata. Fine roots were halved lengthwise to study the mycelium anatomy on one half and to obtain fungal nuclear rDNA coding for the small subunit rRNA of Glomeromycota from the other half. Light microscopy revealed conspicuously large amounts of mycelium attaching to the surface of the rootlets. The mycelium formed fine- or large-branched appressoria-like plates, vesicles of regular or irregular shape, and very fine, multibranched structures ensheathed by septate hyphae. These previously undescribed features of the supraradical mycelia combined with intraradical mycelium structures were used for distinguishing of four main morphogroups and subordinate 14 morphotypes. DNA sequences of Glomus group A, Acaulospora and Gigaspora, were obtained and linked to three morphogroups. Two sequence types within Glomus group A could be tentatively associated to subordinate morphotypes.

  8. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado field, South Texas; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. Within the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity. The purpose of this report is (1) to describe and analyze the sand-body architecture, depositional facies variations, and structure of Prado field, (2) to determine controls on distribution of hydrocarbons pertinent to reexploration for bypassed hydrocarbons, (3) to describe reservoir models at Prado field, and (4) to develop new data affecting the suitability of Jackson oil fields as possible candidates for thermally enhanced recovery of medium to heavy oil.

  9. Emerging field of metabolomics: big promise for cancer biomarker identification and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema; Ahmed, Shadab

    2015-03-25

    Most cancers are lethal and metabolic alterations are considered a hallmark of this deadly disease. Genomics and proteomics have contributed vastly to understand cancer biology. Still there are missing links as downstream to them molecular divergence occurs. Metabolomics, the omic science that furnishes a dynamic portrait of metabolic profile is expected to bridge these gaps and boost cancer research. Metabolites being the end products are more stable than mRNAs or proteins. Previous studies have shown the efficacy of metabolomics in identifying biomarkers associated with diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. Metabolites are highly informative about the functional status of the biological system, owing to their proximity to organismal phenotypes. Scores of publications have reported about high-throughput data generation by cutting-edge analytic platforms (mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance). Further sophisticated statistical softwares (chemometrics) have enabled meaningful information extraction from the metabolomic data. Metabolomics studies have demonstrated the perturbation in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, choline and fatty acid metabolism as traits of cancer cells. This review discusses the latest progress in this field, the future trends and the deficiencies to be surmounted for optimally implementation in oncology. The authors scoured through the most recent, high-impact papers archived in Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Wiley and Springer databases to compile this review to pique the interest of researchers towards cancer metabolomics.

  10. [Identification of volatiles from field cotton plant under different induction treatments].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Lin; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Pan, Wen-Liang; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2007-04-01

    The volatiles of field cotton plant at its squaring stage were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively under treatments of mechanical injury (treatment A), cotton bollworm (CBW) injury (treatment B), CBW plus CBW larva injury (treatment C), and salicylic acid (SA) inducement (treatment D). The volatiles were gathered in an automatic circle system, absorbed by Tenax-TA column, and analyzed with GC-MS system. About 30 kinds of volatiles were qualitatively identified, including terpenoids, aliphatic compounds, aromatic compounds, 3-hexanone, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanol, a-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, propenoic acid, butyl ester, acetic acid, pentyl ester, acetic acid, butyl ester, butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, ethyl ester, benzaldehyde, acetophenone and 1, 3, 6-octatriene,3 ,7-dimethyl, etc., and a total of 10 primary volatiles were detected quantitatively. The results showed that both the kinds and the contents of the volatiles were notably higher in treatments B and C than in the control. It was noteworthy that 1, 3, 6-octatriene 3, 7-dimethyl was only found in treatments B and C, i. e., it only occurred in the cotton plants injured by CBW. There were no significant differences in the kinds and contents of the volatiles between treatment A and the control. Similar to CBW injury, SA inducement also enhanced the release of cotton plant volatiles.

  11. CANDELS Multiwavelength Catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS UKIDSS Ultra-deep Survey Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galametz, Audrey; Grazian, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Barro, Guillermo; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Donley, Jennifer L.; Faber, Sandy M.; Grogin, Norman; Guo, Yicheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Peth, Michael; Willner, S. P.; Almaini, Omar; Cooper, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dickinson, Mark; Dunlop, James S.; Fazio, G. G.; Foucaud, Sebastien; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hathi, N. P.; Hartley, Will G.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; de Mello, Duilia F.; McLure, Ross J.; Lucas, Ray A.; Paris, Diego; Pentericci, Laura; Santini, Paola; Simpson, Chris; Sommariva, Veronica; Targett, Thomas; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wuyts, Stijn; the CANDELS Team

    2013-06-01

    We present the multiwavelength—ultraviolet to mid-infrared—catalog of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra-Deep Survey field observed as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). Based on publicly available data, the catalog includes the CANDELS data from the Hubble Space Telescope (near-infrared WFC3 F125W and F160W data and visible ACS F606W and F814W data); u-band data from CFHT/Megacam; B, V, Rc , i', and z' band data from Subaru/Suprime-Cam; Y and Ks band data from VLT/HAWK-I; J, H, and K band data from UKIDSS (Data Release 8); and Spitzer/IRAC data (3.6, 4.5 μm from SEDS; 5.8 and 8.0 μm from SpUDS). The present catalog is F160W-selected and contains 35, 932 sources over an area of 201.7 arcmin2 and includes radio- and X-ray-detected sources and spectroscopic redshifts available for 210 sources.

  12. Identification of downstream genetic pathways of Tbx1 in the second heart field

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jun; Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Nowotschin, Sonja; Bondarev, Alexei; Lipner, Shari; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2008-01-01

    Tbx1, a T-box transcription factor, and an important gene for velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS) in humans, causes outflow tract (OFT) heart defects when inactivated in the mouse. Tbx1 is expressed in the second heart field (SHF) and is required in this tissue for OFT development. To identify Tbx1 regulated genetic pathways in the SHF, we performed gene expression profiling of the caudal pharyngeal region in Tbx1-/- and wild type embryos. Isl1, a key marker for the SHF, as well as Hod and Nkx2-6, were downregulated in Tbx1-/- mutants, while genes required for cardiac morphogenesis, such as Raldh2, Gata4, and Tbx5, as well as a subset of muscle contractile genes, signifying myocardial differentiation, were ectopically expressed. Pan-mesodermal ablation of Tbx1 resulted in similar gene expression changes, suggesting cell-autonomous roles of Tbx1 in regulating these genes. Opposite expression changes concomitant with SHF-derived cardiac defects occurred in TBX1 gain-of-function mutants, indicating that appropriate levels of Tbx1 are required for heart development. When taken together, our studies show that Tbx1 acts upstream in a genetic network that positively regulates SHF cell proliferation and negatively regulates differentiation, cell-autonomously in the caudal pharyngeal region. PMID:18328475

  13. Identification of downstream genetic pathways of Tbx1 in the second heart field.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jun; Aggarwal, Vimla S; Nowotschin, Sonja; Bondarev, Alexei; Lipner, Shari; Morrow, Bernice E

    2008-04-15

    Tbx1, a T-box transcription factor, and an important gene for velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS) in humans, causes outflow tract (OFT) heart defects when inactivated in the mouse. Tbx1 is expressed in the second heart field (SHF) and is required in this tissue for OFT development. To identify Tbx1 regulated genetic pathways in the SHF, we performed gene expression profiling of the caudal pharyngeal region in Tbx1(-/-) and wild type embryos. Isl1, a key marker for the SHF, as well as Hod and Nkx2-6, were downregulated in Tbx1(-/-) mutants, while genes required for cardiac morphogenesis, such as Raldh2, Gata4, and Tbx5, as well as a subset of muscle contractile genes, signifying myocardial differentiation, were ectopically expressed. Pan-mesodermal ablation of Tbx1 resulted in similar gene expression changes, suggesting cell-autonomous roles of Tbx1 in regulating these genes. Opposite expression changes concomitant with SHF-derived cardiac defects occurred in TBX1 gain-of-function mutants, indicating that appropriate levels of Tbx1 are required for heart development. When taken together, our studies show that Tbx1 acts upstream in a genetic network that positively regulates SHF cell proliferation and negatively regulates differentiation, cell-autonomously in the caudal pharyngeal region.

  14. CANDELS MULTIWAVELENGTH CATALOGS: SOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND PHOTOMETRY IN THE CANDELS UKIDSS ULTRA-DEEP SURVEY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Galametz, Audrey; Grazian, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco; Ferguson, Henry C.; Dahlen, Tomas; Grogin, Norman; Huang, Kuang-Han; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandy M.; Guo, Yicheng; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Peth, Michael; Almaini, Omar; Collaboration: CANDELS team; and others

    2013-06-01

    We present the multiwavelength-ultraviolet to mid-infrared-catalog of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra-Deep Survey field observed as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). Based on publicly available data, the catalog includes the CANDELS data from the Hubble Space Telescope (near-infrared WFC3 F125W and F160W data and visible ACS F606W and F814W data); u-band data from CFHT/Megacam; B, V, R{sub c} , i', and z' band data from Subaru/Suprime-Cam; Y and K{sub s} band data from VLT/HAWK-I; J, H, and K band data from UKIDSS (Data Release 8); and Spitzer/IRAC data (3.6, 4.5 {mu}m from SEDS; 5.8 and 8.0 {mu}m from SpUDS). The present catalog is F160W-selected and contains 35, 932 sources over an area of 201.7 arcmin{sup 2} and includes radio- and X-ray-detected sources and spectroscopic redshifts available for 210 sources.

  15. Source Identification Of Airborne Antimony On The Basis Of The Field Monitoring And The Source Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, A.; Sato, K.; Fujitani, Y.; Fujimori, E.; Tanabe, K.; Ohara, T.; Shimoda, M.; Kozawa, K.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    The results of the long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (APM) in Tokyo indicated that APM have been extremely enriched with antimony (Sb) compared to crustal composition. This observation suggests that the airborne Sb is distinctly derived from human activities. According to the material flow analysis, automotive brake abrasion dust and fly ash from waste incinerator were suspected as the significant Sb sources. To clarify the emission sources of the airborne Sb, elemental composition, particle size distribution, and morphological profiles of dust particles collected from two possible emission sources were characterized and compared to the field observation data. Brake abrasion dust samples were generated by using a brake dynamometer. During the abrasion test, particle size distribution was measured by an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer. Concurrently, size- classified dust particles were collected by an Andersen type air sampler. Fly ash samples were collected from several municipal waste incinerators, and the bulk ash samples were re-dispersed into an enclosed chamber. The measurement of particle size distribution and the collection of size-classified ash particles were conducted by the same methodologies as described previously. Field observations of APM were performed at a roadside site and a residential site by using an Andersen type air sampler. Chemical analyses of metallic elements were performed by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometr. Morphological profiling of the individual particle was conducted by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. High concentration of Sb was detected from both of two possible sources. Particularly, Sb concentrations in a brake abrasion dust were extremely high compared to that in an ambient APM, suggesting that airborne Sb observed at the roadside might have been largely derived from

  16. Faint Radio Sources in the NOAO Bootes Field. VLBA Imaging And Optical Identifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobel, J.M.; Taylor, Greg B.; Rector, T.A.; Myers, S.T.; Fassnacht, C.D.; /UC, Davis

    2005-06-13

    As a step toward investigating the parsec-scale properties of faint extragalactic radio sources, the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) was used at 5.0 GHz to obtain phase-referenced images of 76 sources in the NOAO Booetes field. These 76 sources were selected from the FIRST catalog to have peak flux densities above 10 mJy at 5'' resolution and deconvolved major diameters of less than 3'' at 1.4 GHz. Fifty-five of these faint radio sources were identified with accretion-powered radio galaxies and quasars brighter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band. On VLA scales at 1.4 GHz, a measure of the compactness of the faint sources (the ratio of the peak flux density from FIRST to the integrated flux density from the NVSS catalog) spans the full range of possibilities arising from source-resolution effects. Thirty of the faint radio sources, or 39{sub -7}{sup +9}%, were detected with the VLBA at 5.0 GHz with peak flux densities above 6 {sigma} {approx} 2 mJy at 2 mas resolution. The VLBA detections occur through the full range of compactness ratios. The stronger VLBA detections can themselves serve as phase-reference calibrators, boding well for opening up much of the radio sky to VLBA imaging. For the adopted cosmology, the VLBA resolution corresponds to 17 pc or finer. Most VLBA detections are unresolved or slightly resolved but one is diffuse and five show either double or core-jet structures; the properties of these latter six are discussed in detail. Eight VLBA detections are unidentified and fainter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band; their properties are highlighted because they likely mark optically-obscured active nuclei at high redshift.

  17. The Identification of Seismo and Volcanomagnetic Events Using Non-stationary Analysis of Geomagnetic Field Variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Johnston, M.; La Manna, M.

    Many studies have shown a clear correlation between volcanic and/or seismic activ- ity and time variations of local geomagnetic fields, called seismomagnetic (SM) and /or volcanomagnetic (VM) effects. SM and VM can be generated from various phys- ical process, such as piezomagnetism, tectonomagnetism and electrokinetism. Rele- vant parameters are the event duration, the event magnitude and the magnetometer sample rate. Here, we present some results obtained from a non-stationary analysis of geomagnetic time series that focuses on automatic detection of possible SM and VM events. Several approaches are considered. The first one, based on the continuous wavelet transform, provides us with a multiresolution lecture of the signal, expanded in time-scale space. The second uses a time-variant adaptive algorithm (RLS) that al- lows the detection of some time intervals where important statistical variations of the signal occur. Finally, we investigate a third technique relying on multifractal analy- sis. This latter allows estimation of local regularity of a time series path, in order to detect unusual singularities. Different multifractal models were used for testing the methodology, such as multifractional Brownian Motions (mbmSs), before applying it to synthetic simulations of geomagnetic signals. In our simulations, we took into account theoretical SM and/or VM effects deriving from fault rupture and overpres- sured magma chambers. We applied these methodologies to two different real world data sets, recorded on Mt Etna (volcanic area) during the volcanic activity occurred in 1981, and in North Palm Springs (seismic area) during the seism of July 8th 1986, respectively. In both cases, all techniques were effective in automatically identifying the geomagnetic time-variations likely inferred by volcanic and/or seismic activity and the results are in good agreement with the indices provided by real volcanic and seismic measurements.

  18. The Identification of Seismo and Volcanomagnetic Events Using Non-stationary Analysis of Geomagnetic Field Variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Johnston, M.; La Manna, M.

    Many studies have shown a clear correlation between volcanic and/or seismic activ- ity and time variations of local geomagnetic fields, called seismomagnetic (SM) and /or volcanomagnetic (VM) effects. SM and VM can be generated from various phys- ical process, such as piezomagnetism, tectonomagnetism and electrokinetism. Rele- vant parameters are the event duration, the event magnitude and the magnetometer sample rate. Here, we present some results obtained from a non-stationary analysis of geomagnetic time series that focuses on automatic detection of possible SM and VM events. Several approaches are considered. The first one, based on the continuous wavelet transform, provides us with a multiresolution lecture of the signal, expanded in time-scale space. The second uses a time-variant adaptive algorithm (RLS) that al- lows the detection of some time intervals where important statistical variations of the signal occur. Finally, we investigate a third technique relying on multifractal analy- sis. This latter allows estimation of local regularity of a time series path, in order to detect unusual singularities. Different multifractal models were used for testing the methodology, such as multifractional Brownian Motions (mbm 's), before applying it to synthetic simulations of geomagnetic signals. In our simulations, we took into account theoretical SM and/or VM effects deriving from fault rupture and overpres- sured magma chambers. We applied these methodologies to two different real world data sets, recorded on Mt Etna (volcanic area) during the volcanic activity occurred in 1981, and in North Palm Springs (seismic area) during the seism of July 8th 1986, respectively. In both cases, all techniques were effective in automatically identifying the geomagnetic time-variations likely inferred by volcanic and/or seismic activity in fact we obtained results in good agreement with the indices provided by real volcanic and seismic measurements.

  19. South-to-North, cross-disciplinary training in global health practice: ten years of lessons learned from an infectious disease field course in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Henroy P; Nisbett, Richard A; Stoler, Justin; Bain, Brendan C; Bhatta, Madhav P; Castle, Trevor; Harbertson, Judith; Brodine, Stephanie K; Vermund, Sten H

    2011-09-01

    Global commerce, travel, and emerging and resurging infectious diseases have increased awareness of global health threats and opportunities for collaborative and service learning. We review course materials, knowledge archives, data management archives, and student evaluations for the first 10 years of an intensive summer field course in infectious disease epidemiology and surveillance offered in Jamaica. We have trained 300 students from 28 countries through collaboration between the University of the West Indies and U.S. partner universities. Participants were primarily graduate students in public health, but also included health professionals with terminal degrees, and public health nurses and inspectors. Strong institutional synergies, committed faculty, an emphasis on scientific and cultural competencies, and use of team-based field research projects culminate in a unique training environment that provides participants with career-developing experiences. We share lessons learned over the past decade, and conclude that South-to-North leadership is critical in shaping transdisciplinary, cross-cultural, global health practice.

  20. Field-trip guide to volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits of the lower Jurassic Talkeetna formation, Sheep Mountain, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Blodgett, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    This guide provides information for a one-day field trip in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain, just north of the Glenn Highway in south-central Alaska. The Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation, consisting of extrusive volcanic and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks of the Talkeetna arc complex, is exposed on and near Sheep Mountain. Field-trip stops within short walking distance of the Glenn Highway (approximately two hours’ drive from Anchorage) are described, which will be visited during the Geological Society of America Penrose meeting entitled Crustal Genesis and Evolution: Focus on Arc Lower Crust and Shallow Mantle, held in Valdez, Alaska, in July 2006. Several additional exposures of the Talkeetna Formation on other parts of Sheep Mountain that would need to be accessed with longer and more strenuous walking or by helicopter are also mentioned.

  1. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for a differential identification of Taenia tapeworms from human: application to a field survey.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Xiao, Ning; Qiu, Jiamin; Qiu, Dongchuan; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we applied a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for identification of human Taenia tapeworms in Tibetan communities in Sichuan, China. Out of 51 proglottids recovered from 35 carriers, 9, 1, and 41 samples were identified as Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, respectively. Same results were obtained afterwards in the laboratory, except one sample. These results demonstrated that the LAMP method enabled rapid identification of parasites in the field surveys, which suggested that this method would contribute to the control of Taenia infections in endemic areas.

  2. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp during IMF BZ North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S.; Acuna, M.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.; Holtet, J.; Maseide, K.; Sandholt, P. E.; Soraas, F.

    1999-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79degN reaching altitudes of approximately 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind (interplanetary magnetic field) IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) DMSP F13 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  3. Method for the unique identification of hyperelastic material properties using full field measures. Application to the passive myocardium material response.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Luigi E; Ponnaluri, Aditya V; Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee; Balzani, Daniel; Ennis, Daniel B; Klug, William S

    2017-01-18

    Quantitative measurement of the material properties (e.g., stiffness) of biological tissues is poised to become a powerful diagnostic tool. There are currently several methods in the literature to estimating material stiffness and we extend this work by formulating a framework that leads to uniquely identified material properties. We design an approach to work with full field displacement data - i.e., we assume the displacement field due to the applied forces is known both on the boundaries and also within the interior of the body of interest - and seek stiffness parameters that lead to balanced internal and external forces in a model. For in vivo applications, the displacement data can be acquired clinically using magnetic resonance imaging while the forces may be computed from pressure measurements, e.g., through catheterization. We outline a set of conditions under which the least-square force error objective function is convex, yielding uniquely identified material properties. An important component of our framework is a new numerical strategy to formulate polyconvex material energy laws that are linear in the material properties and provide one optimal description of the available experimental data. An outcome of our approach is the analysis of the reliability of the identified material properties, even for material laws that do not admit unique property identification. Lastly, we evaluate our approach using passive myocardium experimental data at the material point and show its application to identifying myocardial stiffness with an in silico experiment modeling the passive filling of the left ventricle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Extension and field application of an integrated DNAPL source identification algorithm that utilizes stochastic modeling and a Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokou, Zoi; Pinder, George F.

    2011-02-01

    SummaryThe design of an effective groundwater remediation system involves the determination of the source zone characteristics and subsequent source zone removal. The work presented in this paper focuses on the three-dimensional extension and field application of a previously described source zone identification and delineation algorithm. The three-dimensional search algorithm defines how to achieve an acceptable level of accuracy regarding the strength, geographic location and depth of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source while using the least possible number of water quality samples. Target locations and depths of potential sources are identified and given initial importance measures or weights using a technique that exploits expert knowledge. The weights reflect the expert's confidence that the particular source location is the correct one and they are updated as the investigation proceeds. The overall strategy uses stochastic groundwater flow and transport modeling assuming that hydraulic conductivity is known with uncertainty (Monte Carlo approach). Optimal water quality samples are selected according to the degree to which they contribute to the total concentration uncertainty reduction across all model layers and the proximity of the samples to the potential source locations. After a sample is taken, the contaminant concentration plume is updated using a Kalman filter. The set of optimal source strengths is determined using linear programming by minimizing the sum of the absolute differences between modeled and measured concentration values at sampling locations. The Monte Carlo generated suite of plumes emanating from each individual source is calculated and compared with the updated plume. The scores obtained from this comparison serve to update the weights initially assigned by the expert, and the above steps are repeated until the optimal source characteristics are determined. The algorithm's effectiveness is demonstrated by performing a

  5. Usefulness of the Paralens™ Fluorescent Microscope Adaptor for the Identification of Mycobacteria in Both Field and Laboratory Settings

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Walter; Armstrong, Derek; Atteberry, Suzanne; Dewbrey, Euline; Smith, Diane; Hooper, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in laboratories has traditionally been demonstrated using the fluorochrome method, which requires a fluorescent microscope or the Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) method employing light microscopy. Low sensitivity of the ZN method and high costs of fluoroscopy make the need for a more effective means of diagnosis a top priority, especially in developing countries where the burden of tuberculosis is high. The QBC ParaLens™ attachment (QBC Diagnostic Inc., Port Matilda, PA) is a substitute for conventional fluoroscopy in the identification of AFB. To evaluate the efficacy of the ParaLens LED (light-emitting diode) system, the authors performed a two-part study, looking at usefulness, functionality and durability in urban/rural health clinics around the world, as well as in a controlled state public health laboratory setting. In the field, the ParaLens was durable and functioned well with various power sources and lighting conditions. Results from the state laboratory indicated agreement between standard fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent microscopy using the ParaLens. This adaptor is a welcome addition to laboratories in resource-limited settings as a useful alternative to conventional fluoroscopy for detection of mycobacterial species. PMID:20556200

  6. PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainabl...

  7. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  8. A classification of the sea level pressure daily fields in southern South America: an application to daily rainfall in the Pampas region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penalba, Olga; Bettolli, Maria Laura

    2010-05-01

    The Pampas covers Argentina's most productive agricultural land, extending more than 1600 km in the heartland of the country. The impact of climate adversities on agricultural activities makes it necessary to determine to what extent climate spatial and temporal variability is responsible for crop yields and to generate elements to monitor, estimate impacts and design an alert system. Local atmospheric conditions depend, among other factors, on the major scale fields. Consequently, an objective classification of daily circulation fields in the South of South America is proposed using a long database. Daily rainfalls within the Argentine Humid Pampas are also investigated in connection to the weather type categories. Daily mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields corresponding to the NCEP_Reanalysis 2 data provided by the NCEP-NCAR were used as representative of atmospheric circulation at low levels which is of great importance in determining moisture advection in the region. The period of study was 1979-1999. The chosen domain extends from 15°S to 60°S and from 40°W to 90° W on a 2.5° latitude-longitude grid. This domain extends over the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans and the Andes Mountains, all of which have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation over South America. The analyzed seasons correspond to summer (December-January- February) and winter (June-July-August). Daily rainfall series located in the core region for growing different crops in the Argentine Humid Pampas were also used. These series were provided by the Argentine National Meteorological Service. Cluster analysis was performed coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the atmospheric circulation patterns. PCA was used as a synthesis method and the cluster analysis was carried out in the subspace given by the leading unrotated principal components. The ‘k-means' partitioning method with Euclidean distance was used. The choice of the optimal number of clusters

  9. Fracture development in Paleozoic shale of Chongqing area (South China). Part two: Numerical simulation of tectonic stress field and prediction of fractures distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Weite; Ding, Wenlong; Zhang, Jinchuan; Zhang, Yeqian; Guo, Ling; Jiu, Kai; Li, Yifan

    2013-10-01

    A tectonics sedimentation evolution has been researched in Southeast Chongqing, and the reasonable Longmaxi shale highstand system tract (HST) and transgressive system tract (TST) geological model were built respectively based on the rock mechanical test and acoustic emission experiment which the samples are from field outcrop and the Yuye-1 well. The Longmaxi shale two-dimension tectonic stress field during the Cenozoic was simulated by the finite element method, and the distribution of fractures was predicted. The research results show that the tectonic stress field and the distribution of fractures were controlled by lithology and structure. As a result of Cretaceous movement, there are trough-like folds (wide spaced synclines), battlement-like folds (similar spaces between synclines and anticlines) and ejective folds (wide spaced anticlines), which are regularly distributed from southeast to northwest in the study area. Since the strain rate and other physical factors such as the viscosity are not taken into account, and the stress intensity is the main factor that determines the tectonic strength. Therefore, the stronger tectonic strength leads the higher stress intensity in the eastern and southeastern study area than in the northwest. The fracture zones are mainly concentrated in the fold axis, transition locations of faults and folds, the regions where are adjacent to faults. The fragile mineral contents (such as siliceous rock, carbonate rock and feldspar) in the shelf facies shale from south of the study area are higher than in the bathyal facies and abyssal facies shale from center of the study area. The shales characterized by low Poisson's ratio and high elastic modulus from south of the study area are easily broken during Cenozoic orogenic movement.

  10. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp During IMF Bz North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Acuna, M.; Bounds, S.; Farrell, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Lepping, R.; Vondrak, R.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.

    1997-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79 N reaching altitudes of approximately 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the DMSP F13 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  11. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp during IMF Bz North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Acuna, M.; Bounds, S.; Farrell, W.; Freudenreich, W.; Lepping, R.; Vondrak, R.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79 deg N reaching altitudes of about 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the DMSP Fl 3 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  12. Arsenic accumulation and phosphorus status in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars surveyed from fields in South China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Dong, Fei; Deacon, Claire; Chen, Huo-Jun; Raab, Andrea; Meharg, Andrew A

    2010-05-01

    The consumption of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major inorganic arsenic exposure pathway in S.E. Asia. A multi-location survey was undertaken in Guangdong Province, South China to assess arsenic accumulation and speciation in 2 rice cultivars, one an Indica and the other a hybrid Indica. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in rice tissue increased in the order grain < husk < straw < root. Rice grain arsenic content of 2 rice cultivars was significant different and correlated with phosphorus concentration and molar ratio of P/As in shoot, being higher for the Indica cultivar than for the hybrid Indica, which suggests altering shoot phosphorus status as a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic. Speciation of grain arsenic, performed using HPLC-ICP-MS, identified inorganic arsenic as the dominant arsenic species present in the rice grain.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) field isolates from outbreaks in South and Central America.

    PubMed

    Pereda, A J; Greiser-Wilke, I; Schmitt, B; Rincon, M A; Mogollon, J D; Sabogal, Z Y; Lora, A M; Sanguinetti, H; Piccone, M E

    2005-06-01

    To date, there is little information concerning the epidemiological situation of classical swine fever (CSF) in the Americas. Besides summarizing the available data, genotyping of isolates from outbreaks in domestic pigs in several countries of South and Central America was performed. For this, a 190 base fragment of the E2 envelope glycoprotein gene was used. European strains and isolates, and historical isolates from the United States (US) were included for comparison. In contrast to the situation in most parts of Europe, where group 2 isolates predominate, it was found that all the isolates from the American continent analyzed belonged to group 1 and were further resolved into three subgroups. The Cuban isolates clustered in subgroup 1.2, whereas the isolates from Honduras and Guatemala clustered in subgroup 1.3. The remaining isolates from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico generated four poorly resolved clusters in subgroup 1.1, together with the vaccine strains, with historical European and US isolates, and with a recent Russian isolate. While the vaccine strains and the historical European isolates formed a relatively distinct cluster, one of the US isolates clustered together with the Mexican, and another one with Colombian isolates. Historically, CSF (hog cholera) was observed almost simultaneously in the US and in Europe in the first half of the 19th century, and its origin remains a matter of discussion. Our results showed that the US isolates are closely related to isolates from South America, while appearance of isolates in Cuba on one hand and in Honduras and Guatemala on the other hand, seems to have been due to unrelated events. This allows to speculate that at least in the American continent, CSF virus may have appeared independently in several regions, and spreading may have been a secondary effect.

  14. Development of a Spatially Targeted Field Sampling Technique for the Southern Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by Mapping Whitetailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Habitat in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela L.; Welch, John B.; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. PMID:25368044

  15. Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field.

  16. Identification and onion pathogenicity of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates from the onion rhizosphere and onion field soil.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Janette L; Fasi, Anthony C; Ramette, Alban; Smith, James J; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Sundin, George W

    2008-05-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex strains are genetically related but phenotypically diverse organisms that are important opportunistic pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF,) as well as pathogens of onion and banana, colonizers of the rhizospheres of many plant species, and common inhabitants of bulk soil. Genotypic identification and pathogenicity characterization were performed on B. cepacia complex isolates from the rhizosphere of onion and organic soils in Michigan. A total of 3,798 putative B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered on Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine and trypan blue tetracycline semiselective media during the 2004 growing season from six commercial onion fields located in two counties in Michigan. Putative B. cepacia complex isolates were identified by hybridization to a 16S rRNA gene probe, followed by duplex PCR using primers targeted to the 16S rRNA gene and recA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the recA sequence. A total of 1,290 isolates, 980 rhizosphere and 310 soil isolates, were assigned to the species B. cepacia (160), B. cenocepacia (480), B. ambifaria (623), and B. pyrrocinia (27). The majority of isolates identified as B. cepacia (85%), B. cenocepacia (90%), and B. ambifaria (76%) were pathogenic in a detached onion bulb scale assay and caused symptoms of water soaking, maceration, and/or necrosis. A phylogenetic analysis of recA sequences from representative B. cepacia complex type and panel strains, along with isolates collected in this study, revealed that the B. cenocepacia isolates associated with onion grouped within the III-B lineage and that some strains were closely related to strain AU1054, which was isolated from a CF patient. This study revealed that multiple B. cepacia complex species colonize the onion rhizosphere and have the potential to cause sour skin rot disease of onion. In addition, the onion rhizosphere is a natural habitat and a potential environmental source

  17. First Results from the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: A Good Hard Look at Growing Supermassive Black Holes in the Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, William; Chandra Deep Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    Sensitive cosmic X-ray surveys with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and now NuSTAR observatories have revolutionized our ability to find and study distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the main sites of supermassive black hole growth in the Universe. I will describe some recent discoveries about the demographics, physics, and ecology of distant AGNs coming from the deepest Chandra survey to date, the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South. Some specific topics covered will include (1) robust X-ray spectral and variability characterization of the AGNs producing most of cosmic accretion power; (2) the demographics of AGNs in the first galaxies as revealed by direct detection and stacking; and (3) AGN/galaxy interactions as investigated via the host properties of X-ray AGNs. I will also briefly describe other remarkable discoveries coming from this survey; e.g., measurements of the evolving X-ray binary populations of normal and starburst galaxies.

  18. Monitoring PAH contamination in the field (South west Iberian Peninsula): biomonitoring using fluorescence spectrophotometry and physiological assessments in the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Bamber, Shaw D

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants of the marine environment, arising predominantly from petrochemical contamination and pyrogenic sources. A biomarker of PAH exposure was employed in a field study (South West, Spain) in both captured (indigenous) and deployed (caged) shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) in the chronic PAH-exposed Bays of Algeciras and Gibraltar (from associated harbour and boating activity) compared to a relatively 'clean' site (Cadiz). Metabolite fluorescence was attributed to the following key priority PAH groups; naphthalenes (NAPs), pyrenes (PYRs) and benzo[a]pyrenes (BAPs). Temporal variability was assessed using deployed populations over an eight week period. Petrogenic and pyrogenic PAH contamination (as an indicator of the PAH type) was demonstrated using a ratio between FF(BAP + PYR)/FF(NAP). Physiological assessments from deployed crabs demonstrated both physiological and cellular alterations as shown by reduced heart rates (at rest) and increased cellular stress in crabs from the PAH contaminated sites.

  19. Exploring the Usefulness of MISR-HR Products to Estimate Maize Crop Extent and Using Field Evidence to Evaluate the Results in South Africa's Free State Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Knox, N. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Kleyn, L.

    2014-12-01

    The MISR instrument on NASA's Terra platform has been operating for almost 15 years. Standard products are generated at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km or coarser, but a recently developed method to re-analyze the Level-1B2 data allows the retrieval of biogeophysical products at the native spatial resolution of the instrument (275 m). This development opens new opportunities to better address issues such as the management of agricultural production and food security. South African maize production is of great economic and social importance, not only nationally, but on the global market too, being one of the top ten maize producing countries. Seasonal maize production statistics are currently based on a combination of field measurements and estimates derived from manually digitizing high resolution imagery from the SPOT satellite. The field measurements are collected using the Producer Independent Crop Estimate System (PICES) developed by Crop Estimates Committee of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. There is a strong desire to improve the quality of these statistics, to generate those earlier, and to automate the process to encompass larger areas. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the MISR-HR spectral and directional products, combined with the finer spatial resolution and the relatively frequent coverage afforded by that instrument, to address these needs. The study area is based in the Free State, South Africa, one of the primary maize growing areas in the country, and took place during the 2012-2013 summer growing season. The significance of the outcomes will be evaluated in the context of the 14+ years of available MISR data.

  20. Progressive and self-limiting neurodegenerative disorders in Africa: a new prominent field of research led by South Africa but without strong health policy

    PubMed Central

    Poreau, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neurodegenerative disorders are involved in mortality and morbidity of every country. A high prevalence is estimated in Africa. Neurodegenerative disorders are defined by a progressive or self-limiting alteration of neurons implied in specific functional and anatomical functions. It encompasses a various range of clinical disorders from self-limiting to progressive. Focus on public health policies and scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms to reduce this high prevalence. We use bibliometrics and mapping tools to explore the area studies and countries involved in scientific research on neurodegenerative disorders in Africa. Methods We used two databases: Web of Science and Pubmed. We analyzed the journals, most cited articles, authors, publication years, organizations, funding agencies, countries and keywords in Web of Science Core collection database and publication years and Medical Subject Headings in Pubmed database. We mapped the data using VOSviewer. Results We accessed 44 articles published between 1975 and 2014 in Web of Science Core collection Database and 669 from Pubmed database. The majority of which were after 2006. The main countries involved in research on neurodegenerative disorders in Africa the USA, the United Kingdom, France and South Africa representing the main network collaboration. Clinical neurology and Genetics hereditary are the main Web of Science categories whereas Neurosciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology are the main Web of Science categories for the general search “neurodegenerative disorders” not restrained to Africa. This is confirmed by Medical Subject Headings analysis from Pubmed with one more area study: Treatment. Conclusion Neurodegenerative disorders research is leaded by South Africa with a network involving the USA, the UK, as well as African countries such Zambia. The chief field that emerged was on patient and hereditary as well as treatment. Public health policies were

  1. A field test for competitive effects of Aedes albopictus on A. aegypti in South Florida: differences between sites of coexistence and exclusion?

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.; Lounibos, L. Philip; O’Meara, George F.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether interspecific competition from Aedes albopictus had measurable effects on A. aegypti at the typical numbers of larval mosquitoes found in cemetery vases in south Florida. We also tested whether the effect of interspecific competition from A. albopictus on A. aegypti differed between sites where A. aegypti either persists or went extinct following invasion by A. albopictus. Similar experiments manipulating numbers of A. albopictus in cemetery vases were conducted at three sites of A. aegypti persistence and three sites where A. aegypti was apparently extinct. The experiments were done using numbers of larvae that were determined by observed numbers of larvae for each site, and with resources (leaf detritus) that accumulated in experimental vases placed into each field site. In both the early rainy season (when number of mosquito larvae was low) and the late rainy season (when number of mosquito larvae was high), there was a significant effect of treatment on developmental progress of experimental A. aegypti. In the late rainy season, when numbers of larvae were high, there was also a significant effect of treatment on survivorship of A. aegypti. However, the competition treatment × site type (A. aegypti persists vs extinct) interaction was never significant, indicating that the competitive effect of A. albopictus on A. aegypti did not differ systematically between persistence versus extinction sites. Thus, although competition from A. albopictus is strong under field conditions at all sites, we find no evidence that variation in the impact of interspecific competition is associated with coexistence or exclusion. Interspecific competition among larvae is thus a viable explanation for exclusion or reduction of A. aegypti in south Florida, but variation in the persistence of A. aegypti following invasion does not seem to be primarily a product of variation in the conditions in the aquatic environments of cemetery vases. PMID:15024640

  2. Distribution of Pleuroncodes monodon larvae over the continental shelf of south-central Chile: Field and modeling evidence for partial local retention and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannicelli, Beatriz; Castro, Leonardo; Parada, Carolina; Schneider, Wolfgang; Colas, Francois; Donoso, David

    2012-01-01

    In situ and modeled spatial distribution of squat lobster ( Pleuroncodes monodon) larvae over the continental shelf off south central Chile (35-37°S) was analyzed along with currents and hydrography. We aimed to identify the main larval transport/retention characteristics in the study area, which constitutes the southernmost P. monodon fishing grounds embedded in the Humboldt Current System. We hypothesized that the main contribution to population renewal originates in the two persistent adult aggregations close to the nursery ground that occurs over a continental shelf terrace limited by two submarine canyons. Two extensive bio-physical field campaigns were carried out during the main 2001-2002 upwelling season field data indicated that larvae were released from late austral winter to spring from spots to the north and south of the nursery. Zoea I were found mainly below 50 m depth in southward-flowing waters, whereas older zoea dominated in northward flowing layers above 50 m. Larvae were circumscribed between the coast and the shelf break front and pelagic retention areas were identified over the widest shelf area. Megalopa and juveniles during March, were only found over the nursery area. Individual based simulations coupled to the output of a hydrodynamic model (climatological configuration) for the studied area, showed that the release sites close to the nursery made the largest contribution to recruitment. Sites further north could also contribute to recruitment if hatching occurred later in the upwelling season. The contribution of vertical behavior to larval success was also important, as was the former’s interaction with the site and time of larval release. Our results support the relevance of coastal circulation (affected by topography) on the persistence of P. monodon populations off southern Chile, and the modulation of temporal variability. These results might apply to other abundant species in the area.

  3. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1993-09-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. With the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity.

  4. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric PAHs and OCPs in a suburban paddy field, South China: Impacts of meteorological parameters and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Qilu; Wang, Shaorui; Wang, Yujie; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-07-01

    The atmospheric contaminations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and DDTs have been extensively monitored for decades, but contaminations in agricultural paddy fields have rarely been reported. We measured the atmospheric PAH, HCH, and DDT constituents during different rice growth stages in a suburban paddy field in South China. Diurnal variations were found in the atmospheric concentrations of PAHs and HCHs, but not for DDTs. Additional nocturnal emissions and meteorological conditions, such as low nocturnal stable atmospheric boundary layers, may be mainly responsible for the higher PAH and HCH levels at night, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of PAH, HCH, and DDT constituents varied with rice growth stage, but no regular seasonal variation was found, suggesting that rice growth has no significant influence on the atmospheric concentrations of these chemicals. A correlation analysis suggested that meteorological parameters, such as temperature, precipitation, mixing layer height, or wind speed, may directly or indirectly affect the air concentrations of PAHs, HCHs, and DDTs. Source apportionment showed that atmospheric PAHs, HCHs, and DDTs in the paddy field originated from mixed sources, and the contribution of each source varied with time. The isomer ratio of fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene) may result in an invalid diagnosis of PAHs.

  5. Development of a Multiplexed, Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, M.; Halden, R.

    2002-10-09

    This was the final report for DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-01ER63264 (PI Mary Lowe). The grant was entitled ''Development of a Multiplexed Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples.'' The grant duration was one year. The purpose was to develop a bead-based assay for measuring analyte DNAs in environmental PCR products and to apply the method to a field experiment. The primary experiment was located at the UMTRA Old Rifle site.

  6. Geological record of tsunami inundations in Pantano Morghella (south-eastern Sicily) both from near and far-field sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardi, F.; Smedile, A.; Pirrotta, C.; Barbano, M. S.; De Martini, P. M.; Pinzi, S.; Gueli, A. M.; Ristuccia, G. M.; Stella, G.; Troja, S. O.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of tsunami deposits from the Pantano Morghella area provided geological evidence for two inundations occurred along the south-eastern Ionian coast of Sicily. Pantano Morghella is a large pond characterised by a fine-grained sedimentation indicating a low-energy depositional environment. Two anomalous yellow sandy layers found at different depths indicate the occurrence of high-energy marine inundations. We studied sedimentological and paleontological features of the anomalous deposits as well as their spatial distribution observing the following properties: different facies with respect to the local stratigraphic sequence; erosive bases, rip-up clasts and broken elements testifying violent deposition mechanisms; macro and micro fauna of marine environment; relatively constant thickness throughout most of the depositional zone with thinning at the distal end; large sand sheets that extend inland. These observations, jointly with their infrequency in the sedimentary record and the age indicating a fast deposition, provided strong evidence for tsunami inundations. Correlations between anomalous layers and historical tsunamis are supported by radiocarbon and OSL dating results. The younger deposit is likely due to the 1908 near-source tsunami, whereas the flooding of the oldest event is most likely associated with a far and large source, the Crete 365 AD earthquake.

  7. Notes from the field: chikungunya virus spreads in the Americas - Caribbean and South America, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin

    2014-06-06

    In December 2013, the World Health Organization reported the first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Western Hemisphere, with autochthonous cases identified in Saint Martin. Since then, local transmission has been identified in 17 countries or territories in the Caribbean or South America (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Sint Maarten). As of May 30, 2014, a total of 103,018 suspected and 4,406 laboratory-confirmed chikungunya cases had been reported from these areas. The number of reported cases nearly doubled during the previous 2 weeks. More than 95% of the cases have been reported from five jurisdictions: Dominican Republic (38,656 cases), Martinique (30,715), Guadeloupe (24,428), Haiti (6,318), and Saint Martin (4,113). The highest incidences have been reported from Saint Martin (115 cases per 1,000 population), Martinique (76 per 1,000), Saint Barthelemy (74 per 1,000), and Guadeloupe (52 per 1,000). Further expansion of these outbreaks and spread to other countries in the region is likely.

  8. Use of Potential Fields Data to Identify Petrological Controls on Seismicity within South-Central and Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Veilleux, A. M.; Rodriguez, H.; de La Pena, A.; Mankhemthong, N.

    2010-12-01

    We have used data from regional gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to determine how variations in petrological properties of the upper plate(s) and subducting lower plate(s) influence the concentration of background seismicity in south-central and southeastern Alaska, as well as possible controls on asperities that ruptured during great earthquakes along the plate margin. In the Prince William Sound region it appears that seismicity concentrates at the edges of mafic and ultramafic bodies within the upper (North American) plate, while within Cook Inlet upper plate seismicity concentrates at the edges of a large serpentinite body. Rupture segmentation during the 1958 Fairweather earthquake in southeastern Alaska is associated with gravity highs along the Fairweather fault, while segmentation of the Queen Charlotte fault system appears related to changes in the structure of the Pacific plate. Although gravity coverage within the St. Elias region is sparse, background seismicity at depths of 10 to 20 km, including aftershocks of the 1979 Mw=7.4 St. Elias event, wraps around the edge of a gravity high located at the intersection of the Pamplona and Chugach-St. Elias fault systems. These results emphasize how additional gravity and magnetic data collection should be included as part of the upcoming Earthscope initiative in Alaska.

  9. Insights on the 2009 South Pacific tsunami in Samoa and Tonga from field surveys and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Okal, Emile A.; Weiss, Robert; Titov, Vasily V.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Foteinis, Spyros; Lynett, Patrick J.; Chan, I.-Chi; Liu, Philip L.-F.

    2011-07-01

    An M w ≈ 8.1 earthquake south of the Samoan Islands on 29 September 2009 generated a tsunami that killed 189 people. From 4 to 11 October, an International Tsunami Survey Team surveyed the seven major islands of the Samoan archipelago. The team measured locally focused runup heights of 17 m at Poloa and inundation of more than 500 m at Pago Pago. A follow-up expedition from 23 to 28 November surveying the three main islands of Tonga's northernmost Niua group revealed surprising 22 m runup and 1 km inundation. We analyze the extreme tsunami runup and complex impact distribution based on physical and societal observations combined with numerical modeling. That an outer rise/outer trench slope (OR/OTS) event is responsible for a tsunami disaster in the Pacific calls for care in identifying and defining tsunami hazards. Evacuation exercises conducted in Samoa in the preceding year may have limited the human toll; however, cars were identified as potential death traps during tsunami evacuations. This event highlights the extreme hazards from near source tsunamis when the earthquake's shaking constitutes the de facto warning, and further underscores the importance of community based education and awareness programs as essential in saving lives.

  10. Multiple episodes of dolomitization in the Arbuckle Group, Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma: Field, petrographic, and geochemical evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G.; Land, L.S.; Elmore, R.D.

    1995-04-03

    The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group in the Arbuckle Mountains, south-central Oklahoma, had a complex history of dolomitization that resulted in two different geometries of dolomite bodies: stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically consistent, widespread distribution, and non-stratal dolomite, of stratigraphically inconsistent, local occurrence. Stratal dolomite includes the Royer and Butterly units in the lower Arbuckle Group. Most stratal dolomite samples are coarsely crystalline and have {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios similar to Late Cambrian limestone and coeval seawater. All stratal dolomite and Arbuckle limestone samples have low {Delta}{sup 18}O values. Nonstratal dolomite is present in two areas: the Tishomingo Anticline and the Arbuckle Anticline. In the Tishomingo Anticline area, massive bodies (> 10 km{sup 2}) of nonstratal dolomite are present in a paleokarst system of pre-Middle Ordovician age. The petrographic and isotopic characteristics suggest that the nonstratal dolomite probably resulted from dolomitization of recrystallized limestone by post-Early Ordovician seawater. In the Arbuckle Anticline area, nonstratal dolomite is present as small irregular bodies that are related to Pennsylvanian faults and are associated with the margins of stratal Butterly dolomite. The nonstratal dolomite, medium to coarsely crystalline and brightly luminescent, is characterized by high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios values, and Fe and Mn concentrations, relative to all Arbuckle carbonates. Such compositions suggest that this type of dolomite probably originated from fluids that were derived from the adjacent basin(s) during late Paleozoic time.

  11. Establishing the role of detoxifying enzymes in field-evolved resistance to various insecticides in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in South India.

    PubMed

    Malathi, Vijayakumar Maheshwari; Jalali, Sushil K; Gowda, Dandinashivara K Sidde; Mohan, Muthugounder; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam

    2017-02-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the major pests of rice throughout Asia. Extensive use of insecticides for suppressing N. lugens has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance leading to frequent control failures in the field. The aim of the present study was to evaluate resistance in the field populations of N. lugens from major rice growing states of South India to various insecticides. We also determined the activity of detoxifying enzymes (esterases [ESTs], glutathione S-transferases [GSTs], and mixed-function oxidases [MFOs]). Moderate levels of resistance were detected in the field populations to acephate, thiamethoxam and buprofezin (resistance factors 1.05-20.92 fold, 4.52-14.99 fold, and 1.00-18.09 fold, respectively) as compared with susceptible strain while there were low levels of resistance to imidacloprid (resistance factor 1.23-6.70 fold) and complete sensitivity to etofenoprox (resistance factor 1.05-1.66 fold). EST activities in the field populations were 1.06 to 3.09 times higher than the susceptible strain while for GST and MFO the ratios varied from 1.29 to 3.41 and 1.03 to 1.76, respectively. The EST activity was found to be correlated to acephate resistance (r = 0.999, P ≥ 0.001). The high selection pressure of organophosphate, neonicotinoid, and insect growth regulator (IGR) in the field is likely to be contributing for resistance in BPH to multiple insecticides, leading to control failures. The results obtained will be beneficial to IPM recommendations for the use of effective insecticides against BPH.

  12. Within and Between Field Movement of Diabrotica barberi and D. virgifera virgifera in the South Dakota Areawide Management Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is a way insects search for food, shelter, mates, oviposition sites, etc., and can ultimately result in gene flow among populations. We investigated the within and between field movement of Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence and D. virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)...

  13. High-field FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach for structural identification of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harir, Mourad; Yassine, Mahmoud M.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) makes up a large and often dominant fraction, (20 to 90%) of the submicron atmospheric particulate mass, and its effects are becoming increasingly important in determining climatic and health effects of atmospheric aerosols. Despite the abundance of OA, our understanding of the sources, formation processes and atmospheric properties of OA is limited. Atmospheric OA has both primary (directly emitted) and secondary (formed in the atmosphere from precursor gases) sources, which can be natural (e.g. vegetation) and/or anthropogenic (e.g. fossil-based vehicle exhaust or biomass burning). A significant fraction of OA contains as much as 20-70% of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC). The WSOC fraction is a very complex mixture of low volatility, polyfunctional aliphatic and aromatic compounds containing carboxyl, alcohol, carbonyl, sulfo, nitro, and other functionalities. This high degree of chemical complexity of atmospheric organics has inspired a number of sophisticated approaches that are capable of identifying and detecting a variety of different analytes in OA. Accordingly, one of the most challenging areas of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) analysis is to comprehend the molecular complexity of the OA, especially WSOC fraction, a significant component of atmospheric fine PM (PM2.5). The sources of WSOC are not well understood, especially the relative contributions of primary vs. secondary organic aerosol. Therefore, the molecular characterization of WSOC is important because it allows gaining insight into aerosol sources and underlying mechanisms of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation and transformation. In this abstract, molecular characterization of WSOC was achieved using high-field mass spectrometry FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach. Aromaticity equivalent (Xc), defined recently as a new parameter calculated from the assigned molecular formulas (complementary to the aromaticity index [1]), is introduced to improve

  14. Blind identification of full-field vibration modes from video measurements with phase-based video motion magnification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongchao; Dorn, Charles; Mancini, Tyler; Talken, Zachary; Kenyon, Garrett; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2017-02-01

    user supervision and calibration. First a multi-scale image processing method is applied on the frames of the video of a vibrating structure to extract the local pixel phases that encode local structural vibration, establishing a full-field spatiotemporal motion matrix. Then a high-spatial dimensional, yet low-modal-dimensional, over-complete model is used to represent the extracted full-field motion matrix using modal superposition, which is physically connected and manipulated by a family of unsupervised learning models and techniques, respectively. Thus, the proposed method is able to blindly extract modal frequencies, damping ratios, and full-field (as many points as the pixel number of the video frame) mode shapes from line of sight video measurements of the structure. The method is validated by laboratory experiments on a bench-scale building structure and a cantilever beam. Its ability for output (video measurements)-only identification and visualization of the weakly-excited mode is demonstrated and several issues with its implementation are discussed.

  15. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims at revealing the spectral characteristics of the olivine basalts exposed at Wadi Natash area, Egypt, using FieldSpec spectroradiometer. It also evaluates band ratios and fusion techniques for mapping purposes using ASTER data. Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two groups of olivine basalt namely `A' and `B' are recognized. Fresh olivine basalt (group A) is characterized by low flat spectral profile with overall low reflectance values (˜20%). Spectral profile of altered olivine basalt (group B) shows moderate reflectance values (˜37%) with four little absorption features around the 1.10, 1.40, 2.00 and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features are attributed mainly to the presence of chlorite and carbonate alteration products as indicated by petrographic examination. ASTER false colour composite band ratio image (3/2:R, 8/1:G and 8/5:B) discriminates easily the fresh and altered basalts by deep blue and reddish blue colours respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratios image and high spatial resolution ASTER panchromatic image are carried out using brovey and HSV transformation methods. Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of FieldSpec spectral profiles and the processed ASTER data for discriminating different olivine basalt groups exposed at the study area.

  16. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, DGS, Robert C.; Robinson, M.S., William C.; Wider, Kevin; Weinbrandt, Ph.D.,PE, Richard

    2000-04-14

    A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1998-1999.

  17. Data Analysis and Synthesis for the ONR Undersea Sand Dunes in the South China Sea Field Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    in the nonlinear internal waves and tides as they shoal • Work with the acoustics team to determine how the large bedforms and wave-induced sound ...speed fluctuations impact sound propagation and loss in the vicinity of the dune field • Attempt to ascertain the mechanism of dune formation and...internal wave experiments. More specifically: • A ten-element moored array was deployed supporting both acoustic ( sound sources and hydrophones) and

  18. Giant fields of the late 80s associated with type [open quotes]A[close quotes] subduction in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.; Cramez, C. ); Figuera, J. ); Lander, R. ); Hernandez, G. )

    1993-02-01

    About 10 billion bbl of recoverable oil have been found in these three fields for which the petroleum generating subsystem is very similar. The potential source rocks are the organic sediments associated with the major downlap surface of the post-Pangea continental encroachment sedimentary cycle, i.e., MFS 91, 5 Ma (La Luna formation). However, the concentrating physico-chemical petroleum subsystem is quite different. The El Furrial/Musipan field is associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin overlying a generating Atlantic type passive margin. On the other hand, Cusiana and Ceuta fields are associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin developed over a generating back-arc basin. The different stacking of sedimentary basins controls the migration/entrapment petroleum subsystem. In El Furrial/Musipan, decollement surfaces and their associated thrusts are predominant whereas, in Ceuta and Cusiana the majority of compressional structures are created by tectonic inversions. These tectonic settings create different petroleum systems: (a) supercharged with low impedance and lateral drainage in El Furrial/Musipan, (b) normally charged with high impedance and vertically drained in Ceuta and Cusiana area. Each case requires appropriated exploration approaches.

  19. Field collection and genetic classification of tick-borne Rickettsiae and Rickettsiae-like pathogens from South Texas: Coxiella burnetii isolated from field-collected Amblyomma cajennense.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David M; Parker, Jill E; Walker, Wes W; Buchholz, Matt W; Blount, Keith; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2008-12-01

    We are reporting the first known isolation of the Q-fever agent Coxiella burnetii from field-collected cayenne ticks Amblyomma cajennense in North America. Q-fever affects a number of domestic ungulates where it can lead to abortion in sheep and goats. There is far less known about the disease's effects on wild species, primarily because of the tendency of the disease to self resolve and to provide long-term immunity to subsequent infections. The first recovery of C. burnetii in North America was from the tick species Dermacentor andersoni. Since the original isolation C. burnetii has been recovered from five other North American tick species. The currently accepted mode for the majority of human infections is inhalation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch asserts the Q-fever agent as requiring as few as one organism to cause disease via inhalation in susceptible humans. However, with more and more isolations from ticks, evidence linking C. burnetii and ticks is mounting. The true role of tick species as competent vectors is still unconfirmed. Preemptive field collections of possible vector arthropods, hosts, and reservoirs can provide invaluable baseline environmental data that will prove supportive in follow-up studies and abatement efforts.

  20. Identification of significant transport processes for organic micropollutant classes during soil aquifer treatment (SAT) - a controlled field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Supplementing existing water resources with alternative sources of water is a challenge in semi-arid areas, as deterioration of water quality must be avoided. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can greatly improve the quality of the injected water by attenuation of organic pollutants via sorption and degradation processes. However, only little is known about the specific transport processes of organic micropollutants under artificial recharge conditions. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and their metabolites exhibit a wide range of chemical properties and may undergo very different environmental processes resulting in specific reactions within specified environments. In the presented study fate and transport processes of 25 organic micropollutants (iodinated contrast media, antihypertensive agents, antibiotics, anticonvulsants, lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories, antihistamines and analgesics) were investigated under SAT conditions in a controlled field experiment. Secondary treated effluent (STE) containing the compounds of interest was introduced into the aquifer by an infiltration pond and shallow wells in the vicinity were used for water quality monitoring. By means of strategic sampling procedure and a specialized multi-residue analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) 3 main transport processes were identified: 1. Transport of non-polar compounds according to their respective octanol-water distribution coefficient (Kow) 2. Cation exchange 3. Colloidal transport Identification of transport processes 2 & 3 was not expected to act as a transport controlling process. Results of the positively charged beta-blockers sotalol, atenolol and metoprolol gave clear evidence for cation exchange processes of the compounds with the aquifer material. Correlation of turbidity and concentrations of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin) demonstrated the colloidal transport

  1. CO2 geological storage into a lateral aquifer of an offshore gas field in the South China Sea: storage safety and project design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Dexiang; Ezekiel, Justin; Zhang, Weidong; Mi, Honggang; Ren, Shaoran

    2015-06-01

    The DF1-1 gas field, located in the western South China Sea, contains a high concentration of CO2, thus there is great concern about the need to reduce the CO2 emissions. Many options have been considered in recent years to dispose of the CO2 separated from the natural gas stream on the Hainan Island. In this study, the feasibility of CO2 storage in the lateral saline aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field is assessed, including aquifer selection and geological assessment, CO2 migration and storage safety, project design, and economic analysis. Six offshore aquifers have been investigated for CO2 geological storage. The lateral aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field has been selected as the best target for CO2 injection and storage because of its proven sealing ability, and the large storage capacity of the combined aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir geological structure. The separated CO2 will be dehydrated on the Hainan Island and transported by a long-distance subsea pipeline in supercritical or liquid state to the central platform of the DF1-1 gas field for pressure adjustment. The CO2 will then be injected into the lateral aquifer via a subsea well-head through a horizontal well. Reservoir simulations suggest that the injected CO2 will migrate slowly upwards in the aquifer without disturbing the natural gas production. The scoping economic analysis shows that the unit storage cost of the project is approximately US26-31/ton CO2 with the subsea pipeline as the main contributor to capital expenditure (CAPEX), and the dehydration system as the main factor of operating expenditure (OPEX).

  2. The Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Roi; Dyment, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The separation of South America from Africa during the Cretaceous is poorly understood due to the long period of stable polarity of the geomagnetic field, the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS, lasted between ∼121 and 83.6 Myr ago). We present a new identification of magnetic anomalies located within the southern South Atlantic magnetic quiet zones that have arisen due to past variations in the strength of the dipolar geomagnetic field. Using these anomalies, together with fracture zone locations, we calculate the first set of magnetic anomalies-based finite rotation parameters for South America and Africa during that period. The kinematic solutions are generally consistent with fracture zone traces and magnetic anomalies outside the area used to construct them. The rotations indicate that seafloor spreading rates increased steadily throughout most of the Cretaceous and decreased sharply at around 80 Myr ago. A change in plate motion took place in the middle of the superchron, roughly 100 Myr ago, around the time of the final breakup (i.e., separation of continental-oceanic boundary in the Equatorial Atlantic). Prominent misfit between the calculated synthetic flowlines (older than Anomaly Q1) and the fracture zones straddling the African Plate in the central South Atlantic could only be explained by a combination of seafloor asymmetry and internal dextral motion (<100 km) within South America, west of the Rio Grande fracture zone. This process has lasted until ∼92 Myr ago after which both Africa and South America (south of the equator) behaved rigidly. The clearing of the continental-oceanic boundaries within the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway was probably completed by ∼95 Myr ago. The clearing was followed by a progressive widening and deepening of the passageway, leading to the emergence of north-south flow of intermediate and deep-water which might have triggered the global cooling of bottom water and the end for the Cretaceous greenhouse period.

  3. NO EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION IN THE FAR-INFRARED-RADIO CORRELATION OUT TO z {approx} 2 IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Minnie Y.; Huynh, Minh T.; Helou, George; Norris, Ray P.; Dickinson, Mark; Frayer, Dave; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.

    2011-04-20

    We investigate the 70 {mu}m far-infrared-radio correlation (FRC) of star-forming galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) out to z > 2. We use 70 {mu}m data from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (FIDEL), which comprises the most sensitive ({approx}0.8 mJy rms) and extensive far-infrared deep field observations using MIPS on the Spitzer Space Telescope, and 1.4 GHz radio data ({approx}8 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms) from the Very Large Array. In order to quantify the evolution of the FRC, we use both survival analysis and stacking techniques, which we find give similar results. We also calculate the FRC using total infrared luminosity and rest-frame radio luminosity, q{sub TIR}, and find that q{sub TIR} is constant (within 0.22) over the redshift range 0-2. We see no evidence for evolution in the FRC at 70 {mu}m, which is surprising given the many factors that are expected to change this ratio at high redshifts.

  4. The influence of tillage on field scale water fluxes and maize yields in semi-arid environments: A case study of Potshini catchment, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosgei, J. R.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Kongo, V. M.; Lorentz, S. A.

    Water is a limiting resource to crop production in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and is responsible for substantial yield losses annually. These lands are often occupied by resource poor smallholder rainfed farmers who have little capacity to establish conventional irrigation infrastructure to mitigate recurrent droughts and dry spells. In situ water harvesting techniques in the form of conservation agriculture practices have been identified and promoted as measures that can improve soil water availability and thus enhance crop yields. Land use practices e.g. tillage influences mechanisms of lateral flow, infiltration, storage, redistribution and residence times of water at field scale. Such alterations in flow paths have not been adequately studied in ASALs where small perturbations at field scale upstream of a catchment may have significant effects downstream. Quantifying these fluxes enables better understanding of productive and non-productive water transition processes and thus to evaluate cropping and management systems. On this study the effects of tillage on water fluxes, soil physical properties and maize ( Zea mays L.) yields were examined at three sites in the Potshini catchment, South Africa. Measurements were made on plots under no-till ( NT) and conventional till ( CT) practices. Seasonal analysis indicated that nearly twice as much runoff was generated from CT treatments when compared to NT plots. However, this was not the case at the beginning of the season. The moisture content in the root zone was significantly higher in NT treatments. Maize yield was also higher in NT compared to CT plots.

  5. South-to-North, Cross-Disciplinary Training in Global Health Practice: Ten Years of Lessons Learned from an Infectious Disease Field Course in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Scarlett, Henroy P.; Nisbett, Richard A.; Stoler, Justin; Bain, Brendan C.; Bhatta, Madhav P.; Castle, Trevor; Harbertson, Judith; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Vermund, Sten H.

    2011-01-01

    Global commerce, travel, and emerging and resurging infectious diseases have increased awareness of global health threats and opportunities for collaborative and service learning. We review course materials, knowledge archives, data management archives, and student evaluations for the first 10 years of an intensive summer field course in infectious disease epidemiology and surveillance offered in Jamaica. We have trained 300 students from 28 countries through collaboration between the University of the West Indies and U.S. partner universities. Participants were primarily graduate students in public health, but also included health professionals with terminal degrees, and public health nurses and inspectors. Strong institutional synergies, committed faculty, an emphasis on scientific and cultural competencies, and use of team-based field research projects culminate in a unique training environment that provides participants with career-developing experiences. We share lessons learned over the past decade, and conclude that South-to-North leadership is critical in shaping transdisciplinary, cross-cultural, global health practice. PMID:21896794

  6. THE FIRST PUBLIC RELEASE OF SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DATA: MAPS OF A 95 deg{sup 2} FIELD FROM 2008 OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, K. K.; Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Hoover, S.; Keisler, R.; Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D.; Cho, H. M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Holder, G. P.; George, E. M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Halverson, N. W.; Joy, M.; Knox, L.; and others

    2011-12-10

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has nearly completed a 2500 deg{sup 2} survey of the southern sky in three frequency bands. Here, we present the first public release of SPT maps and associated data products. We present arcminute-resolution maps at 150 GHz and 220 GHz of an approximately 95 deg{sup 2} field centered at R.A. 82.{sup 0}7, decl. -55 Degree-Sign . The field was observed to a depth of approximately 17 {mu}K arcmin at 150 GHz and 41 {mu}K arcmin at 220 GHz during the 2008 austral winter season. Two variations on map filtering and map projection are presented, one tailored for producing catalogs of galaxy clusters detected through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect signature and one tailored for producing catalogs of emissive sources. We describe the data processing pipeline, and we present instrument response functions, filter transfer functions, and map noise properties. All data products described in this paper are available for download at http://pole.uchicago.edu/public/data/maps/ra5h30dec-55 and from the NASA Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis server. This is the first step in the eventual release of data from the full 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT survey.

  7. Monitoring the geothermal fluid using time lapse electrical resistivity tomography: The Pisciarelli fumarolic field test site (Campi Flegrei, South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Alessandro; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Reanto; Caputo, Teresa; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Pisciarelli area is a fumarolic field subject to very short time morphological changes. A number of critical problems affect this area, i.e. increase of temperature of the fumaroles above the average background temperature, local seismicity and occurrence of fumaroles mixed with jets of boiling water. The presence of a very shallow aquifer seem to have the control on the behavior and composition of the fumaroles. This fumarolic field is still largely unknown regarding geophysical surveys mainly because of its limited space, surrounded on the eastern side by intense urbanization inside the large Agnano crater (Troiano et al. 2014). Currently is mainly affected by geochemical, thermal and seismic monitoring which may not fully explain the behaviour of fluids surface. Many monitoring or time lapse (TL) applications are discussed in literature (e.g., White, 1994; Daily et al., 1995; Barker and Moore, 1998; Ramirez and Daily, 2001; Carter, 2002; Slater et al., 2002; Singha and Gorelick, 2005; Cassiani et al., 2006; Swarzenski et al., 2006; de Franco et al., 2009). However all these experiments are devoted to the use of the ERT for tracer tests or in contaminant hydrology and are characterized by a short monitoring period due to the complexity and problems of long-time instrument maintenance. We propose and present a first approach of a geophysical monitoring by time lapse electrical resistivity in a fumarolic field. The profiles were acquired in January 2013, in January, March, May, July, September and November 2014 respectively. They cross the Pisciarelli area following approximately the NS direction and were characterized by a 2.5 m electrode spacing and maximum penetration depth of about 20 m. and will supply fundamental evidences on the possible seasonal resistivity fluctuations or if the resistivity changes are indicative of an increase in volcanic gases present in the hydrothermal system.

  8. Reverse Sample Genome Probing, a New Technique for Identification of Bacteria in Environmental Samples by DNA Hybridization, and Its Application to the Identification of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, Gerrit; Voordouw, Johanna K.; Karkhoff-Schweizer, Roxann R.; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Westlake, Donald W. S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for the identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization is presented. It is based on the fact that, even within a genus, the genomes of different bacteria may have little overall sequence homology. This allows the use of the labeled genomic DNA of a given bacterium (referred to as a “standard”) to probe for its presence and that of bacteria with highly homologous genomes in total DNA obtained from an environmental sample. Alternatively, total DNA extracted from the sample can be labeled and used to probe filters on which denatured chromosomal DNA from relevant bacterial standards has been spotted. The latter technique is referred to as reverse sample genome probing, since it is the reverse of the usual practice of deriving probes from reference bacteria for analyzing a DNA sample. Reverse sample genome probing allows identification of bacteria in a sample in a single step once a master filter with suitable standards has been developed. Application of reverse sample genome probing to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in 31 samples obtained primarily from oil fields in the province of Alberta has indicated that there are at least 20 genotypically different sulfate-reducing bacteria in these samples. Images PMID:16348574

  9. Reconstructing 2000 years of hydrological variation derived from laminated proglacial sediments of Lago del Desierto at the eastern margin of the South Patagonian Ice Field, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Stephanie; Enters, Dirk; Ohlendorf, Christian; Haberzettl, Torsten; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lücke, Andreas; Mayr, Christoph; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Wastegård, Stefan; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    Lago del Desierto (49°02'S, 72°51'W) is situated in the climatically sensitive area of Southern Patagonia close to the Hielo Patagonico Sur (HPS or South Patagonian Ice Field, Argentina). Next to marine records and Antarctic ice cores, this continental area is important to reveal hemispheric and global climate trends. As instrumental climate records from this region are generally short and scarce, environmental archives are the only source of long-term records of climate variations. In this study, the potential of laminated proglacial sediments from Lago del Desierto as a palaeoclimate archive is evaluated. Two parallel gravity cores (max. length 283 cm) were analysed using a multi-proxy approach. Radiometric dating ( 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs) and tephrochronology document that the sediment cover the last 2000 years. Especially in the middle part of the record, numerous turbidites make climate variations difficult to decipher. However, after exclusion of event layers changes in sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical parameters reveal a long-term trend of runoff variations and sediment accessibility controlled by changes in temperature and precipitation. An abrupt transition in sediment composition occurred around AD 850 and is interpreted as a change in sediment availability related to the initial exposure of formerly glaciated areas in the catchment. This striking change mirrors the onset of warmer climate conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Moreover, the Little Ice Age cooling and the subsequent 20th century warming can be traced in the sediment record corresponding to an overall trend observed for southern South America. The proglacial lacustrine sediment record of Lago del Desierto thus constitutes a link between glacier studies of the HPS and other terrestrial climate archives in a region were long, and continuous climate records are still rare.

  10. Field-testing of guidance on the appropriate labelling of processed complementary foods for infants and young children in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lara; Jerling, Johann; Van Graan, Averalda

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of formal guidance from international normative bodies on the appropriate marketing of processed complementary foods. Such guidance is necessary to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding practices. The aim of this study was to field-test, in South Africa, the interim guidance provided by the Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition Working Group's Draft Guide for Marketing Complementary Foods as a potential tool for use by manufacturers and national governments for guiding the appropriate labelling (as a subset of appropriate marketing practices) of complementary foods. This guidance was used to develop a checklist of questions and criteria for each possible answer, which was tested using a comprehensive database of labels from products purchased in South Africa from June to August 2011. One hundred and sixty product labels of 35 manufacturers were analysed, none of which complied with all checklist criteria. Fifty-six (35%) labels did not provide an appropriate age of introduction while 37 (23%) used images of infants appearing younger than 6 months. Nineteen (12%) labels suggested a daily ration too large for a breastfed child, and 32 (20%) potentially promote the manufacturer's infant formula. Only 58 (36%) labels were easy to read. The majority (69% and 92%) of labels provided instructions for safe and appropriate preparation/use and storage, respectively. The Draft Guide for Marketing Complementary Foods was found to be a useful tool for guiding the appropriate labelling of complementary foods, although some changes and additions are recommended to improve understanding, ease of use and to minimise the subjective interpretation of the guidance.

  11. Blood meal identification and parasite detection in laboratory-fed and field-captured Lutzomyia longipalpis by PCR using FTA databasing paper

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Jones, Nathaniel G.; Hindley, Jonathan A.; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F.; Dillon, Rod J.; Cavalcante, Reginaldo R.; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis takes blood from a variety of wild and domestic animals and transmits Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis. Blood meal identification in sand flies has depended largely on serological methods but a new protocol described here uses filter-based technology to stabilise and store blood meal DNA, allowing subsequent PCR identification of blood meal sources, as well as parasite detection, in blood-fed sand flies. This technique revealed that 53.6% of field-collected sand flies captured in the back yards of houses in Teresina (Brazil) had fed on chickens. The potential applications of this technique in epidemiological studies and strategic planning for leishmaniasis control programmes are discussed. PMID:18606150

  12. Maps showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; Mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey Maps are presented showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana.

  13. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  14. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- GOODS-South Field, Non-SNe-Searched Visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.When combined with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young vs. old

  15. San Juan sag: A newly discovered basin beneath San Juan volcanic field of south-central Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    The San Juan sag is a Laramide foreland basin formerly adjacent to and west of the Laramide northern Sangre de Cristo/San Luis highland. Wrench faulting (Eocene ) and rifting (Oligocene and Miocene) split this bounding uplift and formed the San Luis basin adjacent to and east of the sag. Volcanism concealed the San Juan sag with over 10,000 ft of intermediate volcanic deposits, and its presence remained in doubt until oil in the volcanic rocks encouraged exploration for the underlying sedimentary rocks. Drilling through the volcanic field since 1984 has revealed the presence of Paleocene and Eocene( ) clastic sediments, the Cretaceous Lewis, Mancos, and Dakota formations, and the Jurassic Morrison and Junction Creek formations. Additionally, oil and gas shows abound, and minor production has been established. Exploratory drilling and geophysical acquisitions have helped to define basin geometry, reservoir rocks, source rocks, and maturation and burial history.

  16. Spatial analysis of an intra-plate basaltic volcanic field in a compressional tectonic setting: South-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hove, Jackson; Grose, Lachlan; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent; Van Otterloo, Jozua; Cas, Ray A. F.

    2017-04-01

    The Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) is a Pliocene to Recent intra-plate basaltic volcanic field (BVF) that has formed in a compressive tectonic setting (σv < σhmin < σHmax) and is not readily attributed to a single geodynamic process. A comprehensive spatial analysis of both monogenetic eruption centres and coeval vents of the NVP constrain factors that control the distribution and emplacement of volcanoes. A point-set of 434 eruption centres totalling 726 vents are divided into three geographical sub-provinces for analysis. Kernel density estimation and Poisson nearest neighbour analysis are used to scrutinize the distribution of eruption centres. A simple and novel fitted regression line method is used to determine the orientation of coeval vents, and Hough transform and two-point azimuth methods are used to identify alignments and alignment trends between eruption centres. The distribution of eruption centres and their relative spatial density corresponds with the extent of thinner lithosphere. Eruption centres of the NVP have a clustered distribution whilst smaller sub-sets of eruption centres are distributed more uniformly. The main alignment trends between coeval vents related to individual dikes and between eruption centres related to successive temporally discrete dikes are primarily oriented nearly parallel with pre-existing crustal fault trends. The frequency of volcanic alignments shows faults oriented nearly parallel to the orientation of the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress (σ1) are favourably utilised by intrusions over other fault trends. The depth from which pre-existing faults facilitate dike propagation is not constrained. We interpret they are likely important in preventing dikes from stalling and forming sills under a compressive stress field in the case of the NVP. It is also observed that coeval vent alignments are more strongly aligned in areas overlying consolidated basement relative to areas of poorly consolidated basin

  17. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

  18. A diagnosis of sub-surface water table dynamics in low hydraulic conductivity soils in the sugar cane fields of Pongola, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malota, Mphatso; Senzanje, Aidan

    2016-04-01

    Water and land are the two natural resources restraining crop production in South Africa. With the increasing demand for food, emphasis has shifted from the sole reliance on rain fed crop production, to irrigation. The deterioration in irrigation water quality from surface water sources is, however, posing a big challenge to the sustainability of irrigated crop production. This is because more water is required for leaching, resulting in shallow water tables in agricultural lands. The installation of well designed subsurface drainage systems alone is not enough; the provision of timely maintenance is also necessary. In this study, the extent and severity of problems as a consequence of shallow water tables and their possible causes were investigated at three sugarcane fields in Pongola, South Africa, having low hydraulic conductivity soils. Also investigated were soil salinity levels and the temporal variation in the salinity of the irrigation water. A water table map of a 32 ha sugarcane field was generated, using observed water table depth (WTD) data from 36 piezometers monitored from September 2011 to February 2012. Out of the total 32 ha under cultivation, 12% was found to be affected by shallow WTDs of less than the 1.0 m design WTD. The inability of natural drainage to cope with subsurface drainage needs and the poor maintenance of subsurface drainage systems contributed to the shallow water tables in the area. Furthermore, the currently adopted drainage design criteria also proved unsatisfactory with mean observed water table depth and drainage discharge (DD) of 20% and 50%, respectively, less than their respective design levels. The salinity of the irrigation water was, on average, 32% higher than threshold tolerance level of sugarcane. The root zone soil salinity levels at the three study sites were greater than the 1.7 dS m-1 threshold for sugar cane. The subsurface drainage design criteria adopted at the site needs to be revisited by ensuring that the

  19. Modeling Hurricane Katrina's merchantable timber and wood damage in south Mississippi using remotely sensed and field-measured data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Curtis Andrew

    Ordinary and weighted least squares multiple linear regression techniques were used to derive 720 models predicting Katrina-induced storm damage in cubic foot volume (outside bark) and green weight tons (outside bark). The large number of models was dictated by the use of three damage classes, three product types, and four forest type model strata. These 36 models were then fit and reported across 10 variable sets and variable set combinations for volume and ton units. Along with large model counts, potential independent variables were created using power transforms and interactions. The basis of these variables was field measured plot data, satellite (Landsat TM and ETM+) imagery, and NOAA HWIND wind data variable types. As part of the modeling process, lone variable types as well as two-type and three-type combinations were examined. By deriving models with these varying inputs, model utility is flexible as all independent variable data are not needed in future applications. The large number of potential variables led to the use of forward, sequential, and exhaustive independent variable selection techniques. After variable selection, weighted least squares techniques were often employed using weights of one over the square root of the pre-storm volume or weight of interest. This was generally successful in improving residual variance homogeneity. Finished model fits, as represented by coefficient of determination (R2), surpassed 0.5 in numerous models with values over 0.6 noted in a few cases. Given these models, an analyst is provided with a toolset to aid in risk assessment and disaster recovery should Katrina-like weather events reoccur.

  20. A multi-wavelength study of z = 3.15 Lyman-α emitters in the GOODS South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, K. K.; Møller, P.; Möller, O.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Michałowski, M. J.; Watson, D.; Ledoux, C.; Rosati, P.; Pedersen, K.; Grove, L. F.

    2007-08-01

    Context: Lyα-emitters have proven to be excellent probes of faint, star-forming galaxies in the high redshift universe. However, although the sample of known emitters is increasingly growing, their nature (e.g. stellar masses, ages, metallicities, star-formation rates) is still poorly constrained. Aims: We aim to study the nature of Lyα-emitters, to find the properties of a typical Lyα-emitting galaxy and to compare these properties with the properties of other galaxies at similar redshift, in particular Lyman-break galaxies. Methods: We have performed narrow-band imaging at the VLT, focused on Lyα at redshift z ≈ 3.15, in the GOODS-S field. We have identified a sample of Lyα-emitting candidates, and we have studied their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). Results: We find that the emitters are best fit by an SED with low metallicity (Z/Z⊙ = 0.005), low dust extinction (AV ≈ 0.26) and medium stellar masses of approximately 109 M⊙. The age is not very well constrained. One object out of 24 appears to be a high redshift Lyα-emitting dusty starburst galaxy. We find filamentary structure as traced by the Lyα-emitters at the 4σ level. The rest-frame UV SED of these galaxies is very similar to that of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) and comply with the selection criteria for U-band drop-outs, except they are intrinsically fainter than the current limit for LBGs. Conclusions: Lyα-emitters are excellent probes of galaxies in the distant universe, and represent a class of star-forming, dust and AGN free, medium mass objects. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) under prog. ID No. 70.A-0447, 274.A-5029 and LP168.A-0485.

  1. Field guide to the Mesozoic accretionary complex along Turnagain Arm and Kachemak Bay, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Kusky, Timothy M.; Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    Turnagain Arm, just east of Anchorage, provides a readily accessible, world-class cross section through a Mesozoic accretionary wedge. Nearly continuous exposures along the Seward Highway, the Alaska Railroad, and the shoreline of Turnagain Arm display the two main constituent units of the Chugach terrane: the McHugh Complex and Valdez Group. In this paper we describe seven bedrock geology stops along Turnagain Arm, and two others in the Chugach Mountains just to the north (Stops 1-7 and 9), which will be visited as part of the May, 1997 field trip of the Alaska Geological Society. Outcrops along Turnagain Arm have already been described in two excellent guidebook articles (Clark, 1981; Winkler and others 1984), both of which remain as useful and valid today as when first published. Since the early 1980's, studies along Turnagain Arm have addressed radiolarian ages of chert and conodont ages of limestone in the McHugh Complex (Nelson and others, 1986, 1987); geochemistry of basalt in the McHugh Complex (Nelson and Blome, 1991); post-accretion brittle faulting (Bradley and Kusky, 1990; Kusky and others, 1997); and the age and tectonic setting of gold mineralization (Haeussler and others, 1995). Highlights of these newer findings will described both in the text below, and in the stop descriptions.Superb exposures along the southeastern shore of Kachemak Bay show several other features of the McHugh Complex that are either absent or less convincing along Turnagain Arm. While none of these outcrops can be reached via the main road network, they are still reasonably accessible - all are within an hour by motorboat from Homer, seas permitting. Here, we describe seven outcrops along the shore of Kachemak Bay that we studied between 1989 and 1993 during geologic mapping of the Seldovia 1:250,000- scale quadrangle. These outcrops (Stops 61-67) will not be part of the 1997 itinerary, but are included here tor the benefit of those who may wish to visit them later.

  2. Hoarding decisions by Edward's long-tailed rats (Leopoldamys edwardsi) and South China field mice (Apodemus draco): the responses to seed size and germination schedule in acorns.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gang; Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Zhibin

    2009-09-01

    Co-varying traits in acorns such as seed size and germination schedule are important to influence the behavioural decisions of hoarding rodents. Using acorn pairs from cork oak (Quercus variabilis) (large size and short germination schedules) serrate oak (Q. serrata) (small size and short germination schedule) and qinggang (Cyclobalanopsis glauca) (small size and long germination schedule) with contrasting seed size and germination schedule, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate hoarding preferences in response to seed size and germination schedule by Edward's long-tailed rats (Leopoldamys edwardsi) and South China field mice (Apodemus draco) in semi-natural enclosures. We found that the seed size hypothesis was consistently supported: both rodent species ate more small acorns but hoarded more large ones regardless of germination schedules. However, the germination schedule hypothesis was also supported when similar sized acorns were simultaneously provided, e.g. Q. serrata versus C. glauca or germinating versus non-germinating Q. variabilis. Our results, contrary to the studies from North America, indicate that seed size is more important than germination schedules in determining whether the tested animals eat or hoard a given seed.

  3. Statistical characteristics of nighttime mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities observed by Daejeon VHF coherent scattering radar in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. Y.; Kwak, Y. S.; Kil, H.; Lee, Y.; Lee, W. K.; Park, Y. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report statistical characteristics of mid-latitude nighttime F-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) based on more than three-year observations by Daejeon VHF coherent backscatter radar. This radar has built at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, dip lat. 26.7°N) in 2009 with 40.8 MHz operating frequency for continuous monitoring of the behavior of electron density irregularities in the middle latitude. By using long-term observations from January 2010 to December 2013, we obtained the annual, diurnal and seasonal characteristics of a variety of a percentage occurrence, signal-to-noise ratio, and Doppler velocities from the nighttime F-region irregularities over Korea peninsular. From almost four-year observations, the F-region nighttime irregularities occurred most frequently during post-sunset period. These nighttime irregularities usually appeared with occupying different height levels according to local time. This height variation of F-region FAIs was correlated with hmf2 of ionosonde in Icheon, South Korea. The irregularities were least active near the winter solstice and most active near summer solstice. From the annual occurrence variations, F-region nighttime irregularities seem to have tendency with solar activity.

  4. Simple Techniques For Assessing Impacts Of Oil And Gas Operations On Federal Lands - A Field Evaluation At Big South Fork National River And Recreation Area, Scott County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Simple, cost-effective techniques are needed for land managers to assess the environmental impacts of oil and gas production activities on public lands so that sites may be prioritized for further, more formal assessment or remediation. These techniques should allow the field investigator to extend the assessment beyond the surface disturbances documented by simple observation and mapping using field-portable instruments and expendable materials that provide real-time data. The principal contaminants of current concern are hydrocarbons, produced water, and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Field investigators can examine sites for the impacts of hydrocarbon releases using a photoionization detector (PID) and a soil auger. Volatile organic carbon (VOC) in soil gases in an open auger hole or in the head space of a bagged and gently warmed auger soil sample can be measured by the PID. This allows detection of hydrocarbon movement in the shallow subsurface away from areas of obvious oil-stained soils or oil in pits at a production site. Similarly, a field conductivity meter and chloride titration strips can be used to measure salts in water and soil samples at distances well beyond areas of surface salt scarring. Use of a soil auger allows detection of saline subsoils in areas where salts may be flushed from the surface soil layers. Finally, a microRmeter detects the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in equipment and soils. NORM often goes undetected at many sites although regulations limiting NORM in equipment and soils are being promulgated in several States and are being considered by the USEPA. With each technique, background sampling should be done for comparison with impacted areas. The authors examined sites in the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area in November of 1999. A pit at one site at the edge of the flood plain of a small stream had received crude oil releases from a nearby tank. Auger holes down

  5. SUDARE-VOICE variability-selection of active galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South and the SERVS/SWIRE region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falocco, S.; Paolillo, M.; Covone, G.; De Cicco, D.; Longo, G.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Vaccari, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Pignata, G.; Cappellaro, E.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Salvato, M.; Radovich, M.; Hsu, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Baruffolo, A.; Cascone, E.; Schipani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Context. One of the most peculiar characteristics of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is their variability over all wavelengths. This property has been used in the past to select AGN samples and is foreseen to be one of the detection techniques applied in future multi-epoch surveys, complementing photometric and spectroscopic methods. Aims: In this paper, we aim to construct and characterise an AGN sample using a multi-epoch dataset in the r band from the SUDARE-VOICE survey. Methods: Our work makes use of the VST monitoring programme of an area surrounding the Chandra Deep Field South to select variable sources. We use data spanning a six-month period over an area of 2 square degrees, to identify AGN based on their photometric variability. Results: The selected sample includes 175 AGN candidates with magnitude r< 23 mag. We distinguish different classes of variable sources through their lightcurves, as well as X-ray, spectroscopic, SED, optical, and IR information overlapping with our survey. Conclusions: We find that 12% of the sample (21/175) is represented by supernovae (SN). Of the remaining sources, 4% (6/154) are stars, while 66% (102/154) are likely AGNs based on the available diagnostics. We estimate an upper limit to the contamination of the variability selected AGN sample ≃34%, but we point out that restricting the analysis to the sources with available multi-wavelength ancillary information, the purity of our sample is close to 80% (102 AGN out of 128 non-SN sources with multi-wavelength diagnostics). Our work thus confirms the efficiency of the variability selection method, in agreement with our previous work on the COSMOS field. In addition we show that the variability approach is roughly consistent with the infrared selection.

  6. Identification of debris-flow hazards in warm deserts through analyzing past occurrences: Case study in South Mountain, Sonoran Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2016-11-01

    After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability. Prior research published in this journal in 2010 used varnish microlamination (VML) dating to determine a minimum occurrence of 5 flows per century over the last 8100 years in a small mountain range of South Mountain adjacent to neighborhoods of Phoenix, Arizona. This analysis led to the conclusion that debris flows originating in small mountain ranges in arid regions like the Sonoran Desert could pose a hazard. Two major precipitation events in the summer of 2014 generated 35 debris flows in the same study area of South Mountain-providing support for the importance of probability analysis as a key step in a hazards analysis in warm desert settings. Two distinct mechanisms generated the 2014 debris flows: intense precipitation on steep slopes in the first storm; and a firehose effect whereby runoff from the second storm was funneled rapidly by cleaned-out debris-flow chutes to remobilize Pleistocene debris-flow deposits. When compared to a global database on debris flows, the 2014 storms were among the most intense to generate desert debris flows - indicating that storms of lesser intensity are capable of generating debris flows in warm desert settings. The 87Sr/86Sr analyses of fines and clasts in South Mountain debris flows of different ages reveal that desert dust supplies the fines. Thus, wetter climatic periods of intense rock decay are not needed to resupply desert slopes with fines; instead, a combination of dust deposition supplying fines and dirt cracking generating coarse clasts can re-arm chutes in a warm desert setting with abundant dust.

  7. 50 CFR 622.177 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.177 Gear identification. (a) Sea bass pots and associated buoys—(1) Sea bass pots. A sea bass pot used or possessed in the South Atlantic EEZ between...

  8. 50 CFR 622.177 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.177 Gear identification. (a) Sea bass pots and associated buoys—(1) Sea bass pots. A sea bass pot used or possessed in the South Atlantic EEZ between...

  9. Shipboard magnetic field data trace magnetic sources in marine sediments: Geophysical studies of the Stono and North Edisto Inlets near Charleston, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. K.; Harris, S.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic field data are traditionally used to analyze igneous and metamorphic rocks, but recent efforts have shown that magnetic sources within sediments may be detectable. Candidates for such sources include heavy mineral sands transported from upland sources, biogenic magnetite, and certain forms of glauconite. Magnetic field surveys can then be used to map distributions of these sediments with much denser and widespread coverage than possible by sampling, providing constraints on the deposition and transport of local sediments. However, as sedimentary sources are likely to be much weaker than their crystalline counterparts, mapping requires the sensor to be relatively close to the source, and filtering approaches are needed to distinguish signals from both system noise and deeper basement features. In July 2010, we conducted marine geophysical surveys over the Stono and North Edisto inlets and their riverine inputs south of Charleston, SC using a total field cesium magnetometer and 900 kHz sidescan sonar. In these tidally influenced estuarine environments, unconsolidated Quaternary sediments of thickness typically vary within 0-10 meters overly an indurated Tertiary substrate. Calm survey conditions allowed the towing of sensors 2-20 m above the seabed with background magnetometer variations less than 0.5 nT for a measurement spacing of less than 0.4 m. Anomalies associated with metallic objects such as crab pots or other anthropogenic debris were filtered in part by comparisons to the high-resolution sonar. Using spectral processing to highlight short-wavelength magnetic anomalies, we find that shallow areas where sidescan data indicate a sand-covered seabed are associated with 10-40 m wide, 1-6 nT magnetic anomalies. These anomalies are distinct from system noise, but are too narrow to represent basement features. The anomalies are observed mostly in shallow areas where rivers that originate from upland areas enter the inlets. In contrast, the anomalies are

  10. Identification of massive sulphide targets using the galvanic source EM signal from a sub-audio magnetic survey at the Far South project, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Card, Daniel; Wallace, Yvonne; Peters, Bill

    2016-07-01

    The Far South project is located 5 km south along strike from the Deep South mine, where gold mineralisation is commonly associated with semi-massive pyrrhotite and pyrite. Data from a sub-audio magnetic (SAM) survey, set up in galvanic configuration, were acquired over the project principally to map stratigraphy and structure using the on-time magnetometric conductivity (MMC) and total magnetic intensity (TMI) responses. The off-time galvanic source electromagnetic (GSEM) data were subsequently extracted from the raw data and four late-time anomalous responses were identified. Two of these responses are strong late-time anomalies up to 350 m in strike length, clearly visible in the 60 ms time gate, and the remaining two are weaker mid-time, subtler and less diagnostic responses. Modelling of the GSEM responses was attempted using conventional electromagnetic (EM) modelling techniques, where certain assumptions had to be made for the survey geometry and current path. The assumed current path has an effect on the coupling of the inducing current with the target, so in order to validate the assumptions and GSEM modelling results, follow-up moving-loop and fixed-loop electromagnetic (MLEM and FLEM) surveys were required. These surveys confirmed well-defined conductive responses over all four follow-up areas. Modelling of the GSEM data over the two strongest anomalies is in good agreement with modelling of the MLEM/FLEM data. Modelling at a third target showed some similarity to results obtained by modelling the follow-up EM survey data, and one target was not defined clearly enough in the GSEM data to allow modelling and had to be modelled solely on the follow-up FLEM data. The results of these efforts confirm the ability to identify and produce a reasonably useful model of strong conductive targets from SAM GSEM data, indicating that the rapid acquisition SAM system is an effective tool for quick reconnaissance in sulphide exploration. Subsequent drilling identified

  11. Integrating field methodology and web-based data collection to assess the reliability of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT).

    PubMed

    Celio, Mark A; Vetter-O'Hagen, Courtney S; Lisman, Stephen A; Johansen, Gerard E; Spear, Linda P

    2011-12-01

    Field methodologies offer a unique opportunity to collect ecologically valid data on alcohol use and its associated problems within natural drinking environments. However, limitations in follow-up data collection methods have left unanswered questions regarding the psychometric properties of field-based measures. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the reliability of self-report data collected in a naturally occurring environment - as indexed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) - compared to self-report data obtained through an innovative web-based follow-up procedure. Individuals recruited outside of bars (N=170; mean age=21; range 18-32) provided a BAC sample and completed a self-administered survey packet that included the AUDIT. BAC feedback was provided anonymously through a dedicated web page. Upon sign in, follow-up participants (n=89; 52%) were again asked to complete the AUDIT before receiving their BAC feedback. Reliability analyses demonstrated that AUDIT scores - both continuous and dichotomized at the standard cut-point - were stable across field- and web-based administrations. These results suggest that self-report data obtained from acutely intoxicated individuals in naturally occurring environments are reliable when compared to web-based data obtained after a brief follow-up interval. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the feasibility, utility, and potential of integrating field methods and web-based data collection procedures.

  12. Trophic relationships on a fucoid shore in south-western Iceland as revealed by stable isotope analyses, laboratory experiments, field observations and gut analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinarsdóttir, M. B.; Ingólfsson, A.; Ólafsson, E.

    2009-04-01

    Rocky shores in the North Atlantic are known for their zonation patterns of both algae and animals, which can be expected to greatly affect food availability to consumers at different height levels on the shore. We tested the hypothesis that consumers would feed on the most abundant suitable food source in their surroundings. In total 36 species/taxa of common primary producers and consumers were sampled for stable isotope analyses from a sheltered fucoid shore at Hvassahraun in south-western Iceland. A selection of these species was also collected seasonally and from different height levels. Feeding experiments, field observations and gut analyses were also conducted. Our results were in good overall agreement with pre-existing knowledge of trophic relationships in the rocky intertidal. Consumers often appeared to be assimilating carbon and nitrogen from the most common diet in their immediate surroundings. The predator Nucella lapillus was thus feeding on different prey at different height levels in accordance with different densities of prey species. When tested in the laboratory, individuals taken from low on the shore would ignore the gastropod Littorina obtusata, uncommon at that height level, even when starved, while individuals from mid-shore readily ate the gastropod. This indicated that some kind of learned behaviour was involved. There were, however, important exceptions, most noteworthy the relatively small contribution to herbivores, both slow moving (the gastropod L. obtusata) and fast moving (the isopod Idotea granulosa and the amphipod Gammarus obtusatus) of the dominant alga at this site, Ascophyllum nodosum. The recent colonizer Fucus serratus seemed to be favoured. Selective feeding was indicated both by isotope signatures as well as by results of feeding experiments. Seasonal migrations of both slow and fast moving species could partly explain patterns observed.

  13. MIPS 24 {mu}m OBSERVATIONS OF THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD SOUTH: PROBING THE IR-RADIO CORRELATION OF GALAXIES AT z>1

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, Minh T.; Gawiser, Eric; Marchesini, Danilo; Brammer, Gabriel; Guaita, Lucia

    2010-11-10

    We present MIPS 24 {mu}m observations of the Hubble Deep Field South taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The resulting image is 254 arcmin{sup 2} in size and has a sensitivity ranging between {approx}12 and {approx}30 {mu}Jy rms, with a median sensitivity of {approx}20 {mu}Jy rms. A total of 495 sources have been cataloged with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 5{sigma}. The source catalog is presented as well as source counts which have been corrected for completeness and flux boosting. The IR sources are then combined with MUSYC optical/NIR and ATHDFS radio observations to obtain redshifts and radio flux densities of the sample. We use the IR/radio flux density ratio (q{sub 24}) to explore the IR-radio correlation for this IR sample and find q{sub 24} = 0.71 {+-} 0.31 for sources detected in both IR and radio. The results are extended by stacking IR sources not detected in the radio observations and we derive an average q{sub 24} for redshift bins between 0 < z < 2.5. We find that the high-redshift (z>1) sources have an average q{sub 24} ratio which is better fit by local LIRG SEDs rather than local ULIRG SEDs, indicating that high-redshift ULIRGs differ in their IR/radio properties. So, ULIRGs at high-redshift have SEDs different from those found locally. Infrared-faint radio sources are examined, and while nine radio sources do not have an MIPS detection and are therefore radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), only one radio source has an extreme IRAC 3.6 {mu}m to radio flux density ratio indicating it is a radio-loud AGN at z>1.

  14. Differential Incorporation of Carbon Substrates among Microbial Populations Identified by Field-Based, DNA Stable-Isotope Probing in South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiabing; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the adapted microbial populations to variant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sources in the marine environment and improve the understanding of the interaction between microorganisms and marine DOC pool, field-based incubation experiments were carried out using supplemental 13C-labeled typical substrates D-glucose and D-glucosamine (D-Glc and D-GlcN, respectively), which are two important components in marine DOC pool in the South China Sea. 13C- and 12C-DNA were then fractionated by ultracentrifugation and the microbial community was analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. 12C-DNA-based communities showed relatively high similarities with their corresponding in situ communities, and their bacterial diversities were generally higher than 13C-DNA-based counterparts. Distinct differences in community composition were found between 13C- and 12C-DNA-based communities and between two substrate-supplemented 13C-DNA-based communities; these differences distinctly varied with depth and site. In most cases, there were more genera with relative abundances of >0.1% in D-Glc-incorporating communities than in D-GlcN-incorporating communities. The Roseobacter clade was one of the prominent actively substrate-incorporating bacterial populations in all 13C-DNA-based communities. Vibrio was another prominent actively D-GlcN-incorporating bacterial population in most incubations. However notably, different OTUs dominated this clade or genus in different treatments at different depths. Altogether, these results suggested that there were taxa-specific differences in DOC assimilations and, moreover, their differences varied among the typical water masses, which could have been caused by the variant compositions of original bacterial communities from different hydrological environments. This implies that ecologically, the levels of labile or recalcitrance of DOC can be maintained only in a specific environmental

  15. Evaluation of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method to determine sediment thickness in the vicinity of the south well field, Franklin county, OH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, R.J.; Sheets, R.A.; Andrews, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method involves analyzing measurements of ambient seismic noise in three dimensions to determine the fundamental site resonance frequency. Resonance is excited by the interaction of surface waves (Rayleigh and Love) and body waves (vertically incident shear) with the high-contrast acoustic impedance boundary at the bedrock-sediment interface. Measurements were made to determine the method's utility for estimating thickness of unconsolidated glacial sediments at 18 locations at the South Well Field, Franklin County, OH, and at six locations in Pickaway County where sediment thickness was already known. Measurements also were made near a high-capacity production well (with pumping on and off ) and near a highway and a limestone quarry to examine changes in resonance frequencies over a 20-hour period. Although the regression relation for resonance frequency and sediment thickness had a relatively low r 2(0.322), estimates of sediment thickness were, on average, within 14 percent of known thicknesses. Resonance frequencies for pumping on and pumping off were identical, although the amplitude of the peak was nearly double under pumping conditions. Resonance frequency for the 20-hour period did not change, but the amplitude of the peak changed considerably, with a maximum amplitude in the early afternoon and minimum in the very early morning hours. Clay layers within unconsolidated sediments may influence resonance frequency and the resulting regression equation, resulting in underestimation of sediment thickness; however, despite this and other complicating factors, hydrogeologists should consider this method when thickness data are needed for unconsolidated sediments. ?? 2011 by The Ohio Academy of Science. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method to determine sediment thickness in the vicinity of the South Well Field, Franklin County, OH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, Ralph J.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Andrews, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic method involves analyzing measurements of ambient seismic noise in three dimensions to determine the fundamental site resonance frequency. Resonance is excited by the interaction of surface waves (Rayleigh and Love) and body waves (vertically incident shear) with the high-contrast aconstic impedance boundary at the bedrock-sediment interface. Measurements were made to determine the method's utility for estimating thickness of unconsolidated glacial sediments at 18 locations at the South Well Field, Franklin County, OH, and at six locations in Pickaway County where sediment thickness was already known. Measurements also were made near a high-capacity production well (with pumping on and off) and near a highway and a limestone quarry to examine changes in resonance frequencies over a 20-hour period. Although the regression relation for resonance frequency and sediment thickness had a relatively low [r.sup.2] (0.322), estimates of sediment thickness were, on average, within 14 percent of known thicknesses. Resonance frequencies for pumping on and pumping off were identical, although the amplitude of the peak was nearly double under pumping conditions. Resonance frequency for the 20-hour period did not change, but the amplitude of the peak changed considerably, with a maximum amplitude in the early afternoon and minimum in the very early morning hours. Clay layers within unconsolidated sediments may influence resonance frequency and the resulting regression equation, resulting in underestimation of sediment thickness; however, despite this and other complicating factors, hydrogeologists should consider this method when thickness data are needed for unconsolidated sediments.

  17. THE TAIWAN ECDFS NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY: ULTRA-DEEP J AND K{sub S} IMAGING IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Lihwai; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P.; Yan Haojing

    2012-12-15

    We present ultra-deep J and K{sub S} imaging observations covering a 30' Multiplication-Sign 30' area of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS) carried out by our Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS). The median 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes for all detected objects in the ECDFS reach 24.5 and 23.9 mag (AB) for J and K{sub S} , respectively. In the inner 400 arcmin{sup 2} region where the sensitivity is more uniform, objects as faint as 25.6 and 25.0 mag are detected at 5{sigma}. Thus, this is by far the deepest J and K{sub S} data sets available for the ECDFS. To combine TENIS with the Spitzer IRAC data for obtaining better spectral energy distributions of high-redshift objects, we developed a novel deconvolution technique (IRACLEAN) to accurately estimate the IRAC fluxes. IRACLEAN can minimize the effect of blending in the IRAC images caused by the large point-spread functions and reduce the confusion noise. We applied IRACLEAN to the images from the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy in the ECDFS survey (SIMPLE) and generated a J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog including the photometry of both the TENIS near-infrared and the SIMPLE IRAC data. We publicly release the data products derived from this work, including the J and K{sub S} images and the J+K{sub S} -selected multi-wavelength catalog.

  18. The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ. T.Litvinova -All-Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) A. Petrova - St. Petersburg, SPbF IZMIRAN, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg For allocation of specific features known gold ore objects (Olimpiadninskoje, Suchoi Log, etc.) is executed the morphological analysis of the magnetic field received on materials of aeromagnetic data and satellite measurements at heights of 100 and 400 km. On the ground data on a map of magnetic anomalies of Russia of scale 1:2 500000 of 50 km on the extended structures crossing known gold ore deposits and promising ore units have been constructed geomagnetic and densitys sections up to depth. On geomagnetic and densitys sections to known large gold ore to deposits are dated deep synvertical the permeable zones described by a synlenticular -layered structure. Extended horizons of not magnetic formations are located on depths about 10, 12, 15-18, 30 and 40 km. On deep densitys sections reference sites ¬ the Suchoi Log, Olimpiadninskoje and Vodorazdelnoje ¬ is characterized by zones of inversion of density. Areas of the loosened breeds are dated to synvertical to deep zones of hydrothermal and fluid study of breeds inside which the loosened lenses in intervals of depths from 2 up to 5 km are formed, 8-13 km, 18-20 and 25-30 km of 35-40 km within the limits of the bottom bark. The analysis of a magnetic field has shown, that gold mineralization in researched region is dated for zones of long-living regional explosive infringements, to permeable terrigenous to thicknesses of depressions, to adjournment depression structures in units of crossing of tectonofluid zones of diagonal orientation. Terrigenous adjournment depression structures are shown on a geomagnetic section as the powerful deflections filled with low-magnetic thicknesses. These deflections are dated to

  19. Application of Downhole Magnetic Field Measurements in the Identification of Petrological Variations in Basalts, Gabbros and Volcaniclastic Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartetzko, A.; Heike, D.

    2002-12-01

    Downhole magnetic field measurements are routinely carried out during many downhole-logging operations for spatial orientation of borehole wall images. The tools used for this purpose, like the Schlumberger General Purpose Inclinometer Tool (GPIT), were not specifically developed for geological interpretations but comparisons with measurements from precise magnetometers show very good correlations. However, systematic value shifts sometimes occur in some holes and this means that data from the GPIT should be used only qualitatively. We show examples from several holes drilled by the ODP demonstrating the potential of magnetic field logs for geologic and petrologic purposes. Variations in the magnetic field data are caused by different geologic processes in these examples. Injections of Fe-Ti-oxide rich gabbros into olivine gabbro of the lower oceanic crust drilled in ODP Holes 735B and 1105A (SW Indian Ridge) cause distinct signals in the magnetic field logs. The vertical resolution of the tool allows detection of thin layers (10 cm minimum thickness) with small anomalies in the magnetic field logs. Cyclicity in eruption processes at mid-ocean ridges can be revealed using the magnetic field logs. Slight petrologic differences between magmas from different eruptions and changes in the Earth?s magnetic field due to reversals, or secular variations in pauses between the eruptions cause characteristic patterns in the logs (e.g. ODP Holes 395A and 418A). Cooling and subsequent alteration processes cause the formation of different types of Fe- and/or Ti-oxide minerals. Typical examples of the formation of secondary magnetic minerals in subaerial lava flows are seen in ODP Hole 1137A (Kerguelen Plateau). Characteristic anomalies in the magnetic field log correlate well with total gamma ray measurement, which is an indicator for alteration in this type of rocks. Grain Size linked with crystallinity variations in basaltic volcaniclastic deposits and debris flows influence

  20. Unravelling regolith material types using Mg/Al and K/Al plot to support field regolith identification in the savannah regions of NW Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Zango, Saeed M.

    2015-12-01

    The XRF analytical method was used to measure the weight % of the major oxides in regolith samples. The metal weight % of Mg, K and Al were calculated from their oxides and were normalised relative to immobile Al calculated from its oxide. The plot of Mg/Al and K/Al identified the regolith of the study area to consist of 137 transported clays, 4 ferruginous sediments or ferricrete, 2 lateritic duricrust and 4 saprolites. Surface regolith that had undergone secondary transformation and shows compositional overlaps were 4 transported clays with Fe-oxide impregnation may be referred to as nodular laterite and 5 ferruginous saprolites. The variable regolith materials features identified from the 154 samples enabled the characterisation and identification of the different sample materials because an overprint of bedrock geochemistry is reflected in the regolith. Plot of Mg/Al and K/Al highlighted the compositional variability of the regolith samples and refute the notion of the homogeneity of all the sampled materials in the area. The study thus recognized Mg/Al versus K/Al plots to be used in supporting field identification of regolith mapping units particularly in complex regolith terrains of savannah regions of Ghana and in similar areas where geochemical exploration surveys are being carried out under cover.

  1. Adaptive autoregressive identification with spectral power decomposition for studying movement-related activity in scalp EEG signals and basal ganglia local field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foffani, Guglielmo; Bianchi, Anna M.; Priori, Alberto; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2004-09-01

    We propose a method that combines adaptive autoregressive (AAR) identification and spectral power decomposition for the study of movement-related spectral changes in scalp EEG signals and basal ganglia local field potentials (LFPs). This approach introduces the concept of movement-related poles, allowing one to study not only the classical event-related desynchronizations (ERD) and synchronizations (ERS), which correspond to modulations of power, but also event-related modulations of frequency. We applied the method to analyze movement-related EEG signals and LFPs contemporarily recorded from the sensorimotor cortex, the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in a patient with Parkinson's disease who underwent stereotactic neurosurgery for the implant of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. In the AAR identification we compared the whale and the exponential forgetting factors, showing that the whale forgetting provides a better disturbance rejection and it is therefore more suitable to investigate movement-related brain activity. Movement-related power modulations were consistent with previous studies. In addition, movement-related frequency modulations were observed from both scalp EEG signals and basal ganglia LFPs. The method therefore represents an effective approach to the study of movement-related brain activity.

  2. First field identification of the Cuonadong dome in southern Tibet: implications for EW extension of the North Himalayan gneiss dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiangang; Li, Guangming; Wang, Genhou; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Linkui; Dong, Suiliang; Liang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    -NHGD). The NS-NHGD developed by a dominantly N-S contraction and locally extensional regime and keep a close relationship to the South Tibetan Detachment System, whereas the EW-NHGD formed by an E-W extensional deformation along the north-south-trending rifts.

  3. Molecular and histological identification of Marteilioides infection in Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum and Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the south coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Limpanont, Yanin; Yanin, Limpanont; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Jeung, Hee-Do; Kim, Bong-Kyu; Le, Thanh Cuong; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    The oyster ovarian parasite Marteilioides chungmuensis has been reported from Korea and Japan, damaging the oyster industries. Recently, Marteilioides-like organisms have been identified in other commercially important marine bivalves. In this study, we surveyed Marteilioides infection in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, Suminoe oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, using histology and Marteilioides-specific small subunit (SSU) rDNA PCR. The SSU rDNA sequence of M. chungmuensis (1716 bp) isolated from C. gigas in Tongyoung bay was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis reported in Japan. Inclusions of multi-nucleated bodies in the oocytes, typical of Marteilioides infection, were identified for the first time in Suminoe oysters. The SSU rDNA sequence of a Marteilioides-like organism isolated from Suminoe oysters was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis. Marteilioides sp. was also observed from 7 Manila clams of 1840 individuals examined, and the DNA sequences of which were 98.2% similar to the known sequence of M. chungmuensis. Unlike Marteilioides infection of Pacific oysters, no remarkable pathological symptoms, such as large multiple lumps on the mantle, were observed in infected Suminoe oysters or Manila clams. Distribution of the infected Manila clams, Suminoe oysters and Pacific oysters was limited to small bays on the south coast, suggesting that the southern coast is the enzootic area of Marteilioides infection.

  4. Identification of novel Babesia and Theileria species in South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis, Linnaeus, 1758) and roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus, Desmarest 1804).

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Allsopp, Basil A; Troskie, Milana; Collins, Nicola E; Penzhorn, Barend L

    2009-07-07

    Blood specimens were received from five cases in which young adult giraffe, from different geographic origins in South Africa, showed sudden onset of disease and subsequently died. Additional specimens from two translocated giraffe, as well as one specimen from a roan antelope, were also included in the study. Blood slides from some of these animals showed the presence of piroplasms. DNA was extracted; the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene amplified and analyzed using the Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay. PCR products failed to hybridize with any of the Babesia or Theileria species-specific probes, and only hybridized with the Babesia/Theileria genus-specific probe suggesting the presence of a novel species or variant of a species. Full-length 18S rDNA was amplified, cloned and the recombinants were sequenced. 18S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis revealed the presence of novel piroplasm species in both healthy giraffe and a roan antelope and clinically sick or dead giraffe. Phylogenetic analysis grouped five of these organisms in the Babesia sensu stricto clade and three in the Theileria sensu stricto clade. Although parasites were observed in blood smears, there is no direct evidence that piroplasmosis caused the death of five giraffe, although it certainly seems to be likely.

  5. The unusual field of the quasar 3C 336 - Identification of three foreground Mg II absorbing galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Dickinson, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Imaging and spectroscopic observations of the field of the QSO 3C 336 (z = 0.927), whose absorption spectrum exhibits at least three Mg II 2796, 2803-A absorption systems with z sub abs less than z sub em, making it the richest low-redshift absorption spectrum observed in a recently completed absorption line survey. The most intrinsically faint Mg II absorbing galaxy yet discovered is tentatively identified. With z equal to 0.472 and B greater than 24, its properties strongly resemble those of the so-called faint blue galaxies found in deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys for field galaxies. The implications of this very complex field for the general properties of galaxies producing heavy element absorption systems in the spectra of QSOs are discussed.

  6. {sup 14}C-atrazine metaboite identification in field-grown sugarcane and sorghum by using radioactive detection and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.D.; Ash, S.G.; Talaat, R.E

    1996-10-01

    The metabolism of [2,4,6-{sup 14}C]-atrazine in field-grown sugarcane and sorghum produced several dechlorinated, dealkylated, and/or glutathione metabolites. These metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. The subsequent metabolism of glutathione adducts of atrazine and N-dealkylated atrazine to novel metabolites were studied. Lanthionine, lanthionine sulfoxide, glucose-thiolactate and glutamine adducts of atrazine are examples of metabolites that we postulate arise from a common intermediate metabolite of atrazine, i.e., atrazine-glutathione adduct at position 2. The mass spectra as well as the postulated metabolic pathways will be discussed. The identification of such metabolites at trace levels in plant tissues were made possible by the coupling of the radioactive detector and electrospray interface on-line to the tandem mass spectrometer.

  7. Predictor-based multivariable closed-loop system identification of the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch external plasma response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J.; Brunsell, Per R.; Rojas, Cristian R.; Drake, James R.; Hjalmarsson, Håkan

    2011-08-01

    The usage of computationally feasible overparametrized and nonregularized system identification signal processing methods is assessed for automated determination of the full reversed-field pinch external plasma response spectrum for the experiment EXTRAP T2R. No assumptions on the geometry of eigenmodes are imposed. The attempted approach consists of high-order autoregressive exogenous estimation followed by Markov block coefficient construction and Hankel matrix singular value decomposition. It is seen that the obtained 'black-box' state-space models indeed can be compared with the commonplace ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) resistive thin-shell model in cylindrical geometry. It is possible to directly map the most unstable autodetected empirical system pole to the corresponding theoretical resistive shell MHD eigenmode.

  8. Synthesis and operation of an FFT-decoupled fixed-order reversed-field pinch plasma control system based on identification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J.; Brunsell, Per R.; Witrant, Emmanuel; Drake, James R.

    2010-10-01

    Recent developments and applications of system identification methods for the reversed-field pinch (RFP) machine EXTRAP T2R have yielded plasma response parameters for decoupled dynamics. These data sets are fundamental for a real-time implementable fast Fourier transform (FFT) decoupled discrete-time fixed-order strongly stabilizing synthesis as described in this work. Robustness is assessed over the data set by bootstrap calculation of the sensitivity transfer function worst-case H_{\\infty} -gain distribution. Output tracking and magnetohydrodynamic mode m = 1 tracking are considered in the same framework simply as two distinct weighted traces of a performance channel output-covariance matrix as derived from the closed-loop discrete-time Lyapunov equation. The behaviour of the resulting multivariable controller is investigated with dedicated T2R experiments.

  9. Identification of electrofacies on the basis of well logging to determine sedimentation environment of horizon JK2 in Em-Egovskoe field (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, L.; Belozerov, V.; Pushtakov, E.

    2015-11-01

    Well logging results are one of the ways to study the buried terrigenous rocks genesis. To ensure the most objective characterization of the rock and identification of electrofacies it is necessary to use a complex geological and geophysical survey. The comprehensive investigations of environmental conditions based on well logging have been performed for the horizon JK2 of Tumenskoe formation in Em-Egovskoe area, Krasnoleninskoe field (Western Siberia). The defined electrofacies were compared with the results of earlier conducted granulometric and mineralogical analyses. The totality of research provided for a conclusion that the investigated sediments of horizon JK2 had been formed within the destructive tidal delta. Thus, objective facies prediction can only be ensured by analyzing core and well logging data comprehensively.

  10. Metaproteomic identification of diazotrophic methanotrophs and their localization in root tissues of field-grown rice plants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Kubota, Kengo; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Anda, Mizue; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study by our group, CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation were simultaneously activated in the roots of wild-type rice plants in a paddy field with no N input; both processes are likely controlled by a rice gene for microbial symbiosis. The present study examined which microorganisms in rice roots were responsible for CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation under the field conditions. Metaproteomic analysis of root-associated bacteria from field-grown rice (Oryza sativa Nipponbare) revealed that nitrogenase complex-containing nitrogenase reductase (NifH) and the alpha subunit (NifD) and beta subunit (NifK) of dinitrogenase were mainly derived from type II methanotrophic bacteria of the family Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp. Minor nitrogenase proteins such as Methylocella, Bradyrhizobium, Rhodopseudomonas, and Anaeromyxobacter were also detected. Methane monooxygenase proteins (PmoCBA and MmoXYZCBG) were detected in the same bacterial group of the Methylocystaceae. Because these results indicated that Methylocystaceae members mediate both CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation, we examined their localization in rice tissues by using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The methanotrophs were localized around the epidermal cells and vascular cylinder in the root tissues of the field-grown rice plants. Our metaproteomics and CARD-FISH results suggest that CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation are performed mainly by type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp., inhabiting the vascular bundles and epidermal cells of rice roots.

  11. View from south/southeast at Chapel of grave area C, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from south/southeast at Chapel of grave area C, south rond point, and grave area D. Note flagstone path and steps leading to rond point from Chapel. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  12. Fusarium keratitis in South India: causative agents, their antifungal susceptibilities and a rapid identification method for the Fusarium solani species complex.

    PubMed

    Homa, Mónika; Shobana, Coimbatore S; Singh, Yendrembam R B; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Selvam, Kanesan P; Kredics, László; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2013-09-01

    Seventy Fusarium isolates derived from human keratomycosis were identified based on partial sequences of the β-tubulin (β-TUB) and translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) genes. Most of the isolates were confirmed as members of the F. solani species complex (75.71%), followed by the F. dimerum species complex (8.57%), the F. fujikuroi species complex (8.57%), the F. oxysporum species complex (4.29%) and the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (2.86%). A combined phylogenetic tree was estimated including all the 70 isolates. Isolates belonging to different species complexes formed separate clades. In this study, we also report the first isolation of F. napiforme from human keratomycosis. A new method based on a specific EcoRI restriction site in the EF-1α gene was developed for the rapid identification of F. solani. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates to seven antifungals were determined by broth microdilution method. Terbinafine, natamycin and amphotericin B proved to be the most effective drugs, followed by voriconazole. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of clotrimazole, econazole and itraconazole were generally high (≥64 μg ml(-1) ). The interactions between the two most effective antifungals (natamycin and terbinafine) were determined by checkerboard microdilution method. Synergism (71.8%) or no interaction (28.2%) was revealed between the two compounds.

  13. LIVING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD FIREPLACE AND PORCH ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIVING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD FIREPLACE AND PORCH ENTRANCE - Hamilton Field, Field Officers' Quarters Type A, Sunset Drive, Las Lomas Drive, South Circle, & Casa Grande Real, Novato, Marin County, CA

  14. Identification of sinkhole development mechanism based on a combined geophysical study in Nahal Hever South area (Dead Sea coast of Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezersky, Michael; Legchenko, Anatoly; Camerlynck, Christian; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah

    2009-09-01

    Seismic refraction, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS), and the transient electromagnetic (TEM) method were applied to investigate the geological and hydrogeological conditions in the Nahal Hever South sinkhole development area at the Dead Sea (DS) coast of Israel. Microgravity and MRS results reliably reveal large karst cavity in the central part of investigated area. The map of the seismic velocity shows that sinkholes in Nahal Hever can be divided into two major groups: sinkholes close to the salt edge and sinkholes over compact salt formations between a few tens to a hundred meters from the major cavern. The present study shows that the formation of sinkholes of the first group is caused by soil collapsing into the cavern. In the area occupied by sinkholes of the second group, karst was not detected either by MRS or by seismic diffraction methods. TEM results reveal shallow clay layer saturated with DS brine underlain sinkholes of this group. It allows suggestion that the water drainage and intensive water circulation during rain events wash out fine rock particles from the unsaturated zone into the pre-existing cavern, initiating the formation of sinkholes of the second group. Karst development takes place at a very low bulk resistivity (<1 Ω m) of the DS aquifer, attesting to the fact that pores are filled with a highly saline solution. Refilling of the karstic cavities with collapsing and flushed soil slows down sinkhole development in the area. The sinkhole formation cycle at the site is estimated at 10 years. Sinkhole development throughout the studied area is triggered by a drop in the level of the DS, which reduces the head of the confined aquifer and the strength of the overlain sediments.

  15. Isolation, identification, Pb(II) biosorption isotherms and kinetics of a lead adsorbing penicillium sp. MRF-1 from South Korean mine soil.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Natarajan; Hwang, Grim; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Choi, Tae Kie; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Yang-Soo

    2010-01-01

    A heavy metal contaminated soil sample collected from a mine in Chonnam Province of South Korea was found to be a source of heavy metal adsorbing biosorbents. Chemical analyses showed high contents of lead (Pb) at 357 mg/kg and cyanide (CN) at 14.6 mg/kg in the soil. The experimental results showed that Penicillium sp. MRF-1 was the best lead resistant fungus among the four individual metal tolerant fungal species isolated from the soil. Molecular characterization of Penicillium sp. MRF-1 was determined using ITS regions sequences. Effects of pH, temperature and contact time on adsorption of Pb(II) by Penicillium sp. MRF-1 were studied. Favorable conditions for maximum biosportion were found at pH 4 with 3 hr contact time. Biosorption of Pb(II) gradually increased with increasing temperature. Efficient performance of the biosorbent was described using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption kinetics was studied using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order models. Biosorbent Penicillium sp. MRF-1 showed the maximum desorption in alkali conditions. Consistent adsorption/desorption potential of the biosorbent in repetitive cycles validated the efficacy of it in large scale. SEM studies given notes on surface modification of fungal biomass under metal stress and FT-IR results showed the presence of amino groups in the surface structure of the biosorbent. In conclusion, the new biosorbent Penicillium sp. MRF-1 may potentially be used as an inexpensive, easily cultivatable material for the removal of lead from aqueous solution.

  16. Identification of vortical structures inside the human pharynx/larynx region from POD-reconstructed velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinneeb, A.-M.; Pollard, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of the vortical structures in the pharynx/larynx region of an idealised human extra-thoracic airway obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The inlet velocity was 0.13 m/s yielding a Reynolds number, based on the inlet condition, of 670. Two thousand images were acquired at each location at a framing rate of 2 Hz. The proper orthogonal decomposition method was applied to the PIV data. Only a few modes were used for POD reconstruction which recovered about 60 % of the turbulent kinetic energy. A vortex identification algorithm was employed to identify and measure properties of the structures. This step was followed by a statistical analysis of the distribution of number, size, and strength of these vortices. The results reveal the formation of a large number of structures identified along two planes in the pharynx/larynx region. This study also revealed an increased strength in the counter-clockwise structures as compared to clockwise structures in the pharynx region. As well, there is some evidence to suggest that the vortical structures, whose axes are perpendicular to the sagittal plane, change their orientation as they proceed further into the laryngeal region.

  17. Technical specifications of low-frequency radio identification bedload tracking from field experiments: Differences in antennas, tags and operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, F.; Piégay, H.; Vaudor, L.; Bultingaire, L.; Fantino, G.

    2015-06-01

    Low-frequency passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) have been increasingly used for tracking bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers. Prior studies have reported high recovery rates in small streams, while recovery rates remained much lower in large systems, in large part because of the limited reading distance of the tags (< 1 m). Some laboratory tests have identified controlling factors for detection ranges (tag and antenna size, tag orientation, burial, submergence, etc.). Beyond these tests, improving our understanding of PIT tag functioning, using different equipment within different environments, is still needed in order to select the most suitable device for each geomorphic context. We address this knowledge gap with technical specifications for a low-frequency radio identification (RFID) device by working for the first time with real fluvial constraints, i.e., the gravel deposits and the aquatic channel. The three-dimensional detection envelopes of two types of tags and three types of antennas are quantified as well as the effect of practices (interoperator bias, battery power) on the detection. The interoperator variability and the intertag variability can be considered as negligible. The influence of burial in dry and water-saturated sediment and the influence of water immersion are shown to be minor. Finally, we summarize practical implications for RFID bedload tracking through these experiments.

  18. Ship Shoal as a prospective borrow site for barrier island restoration, coastal south-central Louisiana, Usa: Numerical wave modeling and field measurements of hydrodynamics and sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, G.W.; Pepper, D.A.; Xu, Jie; Zhang, X.

    2004-01-01

    Ship Shoal, a transgressive sand body located at the 10 m isobath off south-central Louisiana, is deemed a potential sand source for restoration along the rapidly eroding Isles Dernieres barrier chain and possibly other sites in Louisiana. Through numerical wave modeling we evaluate the potential response of mining Ship Shoal on the wave field. During severe and strong storms, waves break seaward of the western flank of Ship Shoal. Therefore, removal of Ship Shoal (approximately 1.1 billion m3) causes a maximum increase of the significant wave height by 90%-100% and 40%-50% over the shoal and directly adjacent to the lee of the complex for two strong storm scenarios. During weak storms and fair weather conditions, waves do not break over Ship Shoal. The degree of increase in significant wave height due to shoal removal is considerably smaller, only 10%-20% on the west part of the shoal. Within the context of increasing nearshore wave energy levels, removal of the shoal is not significant enough to cause increased erosion along the Isles Dernieres. Wave approach direction exerts significant control on the wave climate leeward of Ship Shoal for stronger storms, but not weak storms or fairweather. Instrumentation deployed at the shoal allowed comparison of measured wave heights with numerically derived wave heights using STWAVE. Correlation coefficients are high in virtually all comparisons indicating the capability of the model to simulate wave behavior satisfactorily at the shoal. Directional waves, currents and sediment transport were measured during winter storms associated with frontal passages using three bottom-mounted arrays deployed on the seaward and landward sides of Ship Shoal (November, 1998-January, 1999). Episodic increases in wave height, mean and oscillatory current speed, shear velocity, and sediment transport rates, associated with recurrent cold front passages, were measured. Dissipation mechanisms included both breaking and bottom friction due to

  19. Extreme erosion response after wildfire in the Upper Ovens, south-east Australia: Assessment of catchment scale connectivity by an intensive field survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, Walter; Keestra, Saskia; Nyman, Petter; Langhans, Christoph; Sheridan, Gary

    2015-04-01

    South-eastern Australia is generally regarded as one of the world's most fire-prone environments because of its high temperatures, low rainfall and flammable native Eucalyptus forests. Modifications to the landscape by fire can lead to significant changes to erosion rates and hydrological processes. Debris flows in particular have been recognised as a process which increases in frequency as a result of fire. This study used a debris flow event in the east Upper Ovens occurred on the 28th of February 2013 as a case study for analysing sediment transport processes and connectivity of sediment sources and sinks. Source areas were identified using a 15 cm resolution areal imagery and a logistic regression model was made based on fire severity, aridity index and slope to predict locations of source areas. Deposits were measured by making cross-sections using a combination of a differential GPS and a total station. In total 77 cross-sections were made in a 14.1 km2 sub-catchment and distributed based on channel gradient and width. A more detailed estimation was obtained by making more cross-sections where the volume per area is higher. Particle size distribution between sources and sink areas were obtained by combination of field assessment, photography imagery analyses and sieve and laser diffraction. Sediment was locally eroded, transported and deposited depending on factors such as longitude gradient, stream power and the composition of bed and bank material. The role of headwaters as sediment sinks changed dramatically as a result of the extreme erosion event in the wildfire affected areas. Disconnected headwaters became connected to low order streams due to debris flow processes in the contributing catchment. However this redistribution of sediment from headwaters to the drainage network was confined to upper reaches of the Ovens. Below this upper part of the catchment the event resulted in redistribution of sediment already existing in the channel through a

  20. The effect of the Gulf Stream current field on wave propagation onto South East Florida reefs, studied with SWAN model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gravois, U.; Rogers, W. E.; Sheremet, A.; Jensen, T. G.

    2012-12-01

    This study focuses on the prediction of waves and surf on the nearshore reefs of South East Florida. The edge of this reefs tract, outside of Biscayne Bay, Miami, has a steep transition (1:30) from deep to shallow water and also marks the western wall of the Gulf Stream. Geographically the area is bordered by Florida, Cuba and the Bahamas Islands which block the propagation of swell energy and limit the fetch length in all directions except from the North. Related work by the authors on model hindcast validation for this area using HF radar and in situ data exposed the tendency for the wave model SWAN to over predict wave heights on these nearshore reefs for some NE swell events. Based on the findings of the hindcast validation, a series of theoretical SWAN simulations are set up to investigate the sensitivity of nearshore modeled wave heights to the deep water wave direction and also the effect of coupling with the Gulf Stream surface currents. SWAN is run on an outer wave grid centered about the nearshore reefs of interest and forced with a JONSWAP spectrum that is uniform across all of the boundaries for a suite of wave directions and frequencies. The output of the outer grid is used to force a higher resolution inner grid, run with and without Gulf Stream surface current coupling. Bulk wave parameters are output at a nearshore point location on the reef tract for analysis. There are several interesting findings as a result this study. First, there is only a narrow swell window that allows waves to propagate into the nearshore study location. This implies that a relatively small error in deep water swell angle could result in significant differences in the nearshore wave heights and is likely the source of error for the hindcast validation. Secondly, the swell window significantly shifts with the inclusion of the Gulf Stream current field. Gulf Stream refraction has more effect on shorter period wave forcing, so much so, that the optimal swell window is from the

  1. The 4 Ms CHANDRA Deep Field-South Number Counts Apportioned by Source Class: Pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the Ascent of Normal Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, Bret D.; Xue, Y. Q.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Luo, B.; Paolillo, M.; Ptak, A.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present 0.5-2 keV, 2-8 keV, 4-8 keV, and 0.5-8 keV (hereafter soft, hard, ultra-hard, and full bands, respectively) cumulative and differential number-count (log N-log S ) measurements for the recently completed approx. equal to 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, the deepest X-ray survey to date. We implement a new Bayesian approach, which allows reliable calculation of number counts down to flux limits that are factors of approx. equal to 1.9-4.3 times fainter than the previously deepest number-count investigations. In the soft band (SB), the most sensitive bandpass in our analysis, the approx. equal to 4 Ms CDF-S reaches a maximum source density of approx. equal to 27,800 deg(sup -2). By virtue of the exquisite X-ray and multiwavelength data available in the CDF-S, we are able to measure the number counts from a variety of source populations (active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and Galactic stars) and subpopulations (as a function of redshift, AGN absorption, luminosity, and galaxy morphology) and test models that describe their evolution. We find that AGNs still dominate the X-ray number counts down to the faintest flux levels for all bands and reach a limiting SB source density of approx. equal to 14,900 deg(sup -2), the highest reliable AGN source density measured at any wavelength. We find that the normal-galaxy counts rise rapidly near the flux limits and, at the limiting SB flux, reach source densities of approx. equal to 12,700 deg(sup -2) and make up 46% plus or minus 5% of the total number counts. The rapid rise of the galaxy counts toward faint fluxes, as well as significant normal-galaxy contributions to the overall number counts, indicates that normal galaxies will overtake AGNs just below the approx. equal to 4 Ms SB flux limit and will provide a numerically significant new X-ray source population in future surveys that reach below the approx. equal to 4 Ms sensitivity limit. We show that a future approx. equal to 10 Ms CDF

  2. Phylogeography of the South China Field Mouse (Apodemus draco) on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau Reveals High Genetic Diversity and Glacial Refugia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Liao, Lihuan; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2012-01-01

    The southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (SEMTP) is a particularly interesting region due to its topographic complexity and unique geologic history, but phylogeographic studies that focus on this region are rare. In this study, we investigated the phylogeography of the South China field mouse, Apodemus draco, in order to assess the role of geologic and climatic events on the Tibetan Plateau in shaping its genetic structure. We sequenced mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences in 103 individuals from 47 sampling sites. In addition, 23 cyt b sequences were collected from GenBank for analyses. Phylogenetic, demographic and landscape genetic methods were conducted. Seventy-six cyt b haplotypes were found and the genetic diversity was extremely high (π = 0.0368; h = 0.989). Five major evolutionary clades, based on geographic locations, were identified. Demographic analyses implied subclade 1A and subclade 1B experienced population expansions at about 0.052-0.013 Mya and 0.014-0.004 Mya, respectively. The divergence time analysis showed that the split between clade 1 and clade 2 occurred 0.26 Mya, which fell into the extensive glacial period (EGP, 0.5-0.17 Mya). The divergence times of other main clades (2.20-0.55 Mya) were congruent with the periods of the Qingzang Movement (3.6-1.7 Mya) and the Kun-Huang Movement (1.2-0.6 Mya), which were known as the most intense uplift events in the Tibetan Plateau. Our study supported the hypothesis that the SEMTP was a large late Pleistocene refugium, and further inferred that the Gongga Mountain Region and Hongya County were glacial refugia for A. draco in clade 1. We hypothesize that the evolutionary history of A. draco in the SEMTP primarily occurred in two stages. First, an initial divergence would have been shaped by uplift events of the Tibetan Plateau. Then, major glaciations in the Pleistocene added complexity to its demographic history and genetic structure. PMID:22666478

  3. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels.

  4. Metaproteomic Identification of Diazotrophic Methanotrophs and Their Localization in Root Tissues of Field-Grown Rice Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Kubota, Kengo; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Anda, Mizue; Ikeda, Seishi

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study by our group, CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation were simultaneously activated in the roots of wild-type rice plants in a paddy field with no N input; both processes are likely controlled by a rice gene for microbial symbiosis. The present study examined which microorganisms in rice roots were responsible for CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation under the field conditions. Metaproteomic analysis of root-associated bacteria from field-grown rice (Oryza sativa Nipponbare) revealed that nitrogenase complex-containing nitrogenase reductase (NifH) and the alpha subunit (NifD) and beta subunit (NifK) of dinitrogenase were mainly derived from type II methanotrophic bacteria of the family Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp. Minor nitrogenase proteins such as Methylocella, Bradyrhizobium, Rhodopseudomonas, and Anaeromyxobacter were also detected. Methane monooxygenase proteins (PmoCBA and MmoXYZCBG) were detected in the same bacterial group of the Methylocystaceae. Because these results indicated that Methylocystaceae members mediate both CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation, we examined their localization in rice tissues by using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The methanotrophs were localized around the epidermal cells and vascular cylinder in the root tissues of the field-grown rice plants. Our metaproteomics and CARD-FISH results suggest that CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation are performed mainly by type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp., inhabiting the vascular bundles and epidermal cells of rice roots. PMID:24928870

  5. Identification and field evaluation of fermentation volatiles from wine and vinegar that mediate attraction of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong H; Adams, Todd; Rogg, Helmuth; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that olfactory cues from damaged and fermented fruits play important roles in resource recognition of polyphagous spotted wing Drosophila flies (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). They are attracted to fermented sweet materials, such as decomposing fruits but also wines and vinegars, and to ubiquitous fermentation volatiles, such as acetic acid and ethanol. Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), two-choice laboratory bioassays, and field trapping experiments were used to identify volatile compounds from wine and vinegar that are involved in SWD attraction. In addition to acetic acid and ethanol, consistent EAD responses were obtained for 13 volatile wine compounds and seven volatile vinegar compounds, with all of the vinegar EAD-active compounds also present in wine. In a field trapping experiment, the 9-component vinegar blend and 15-component wine blend were similarly attractive when compared to an acetic acid plus ethanol mixture, but were not as attractive as the wine plus vinegar mixture. In two-choice laboratory bioassays, 7 EAD-active compounds (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl lactate, 1-hexanol, isoamyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, and ethyl sorbate), when added singly to the mixture at the same concentrations tested in the field, decreased the attraction of SWD to the mixture of acetic acid and ethanol. The blends composed of the remaining EAD-active chemicals, an 8-component wine blend [acetic acid + ethanol + acetoin + grape butyrate + methionol + isoamyl lactate + 2-phenylethanol + diethyl succinate] and a 5-component vinegar blend [acetic acid + ethanol + acetoin + grape butyrate + 2-phenylethanol] were more attractive than the acetic acid plus ethanol mixture, and as attractive as the wine plus vinegar mixture in both laboratory assays and the field trapping experiment. These results indicate that these

  6. Genetic control and identification of QTLs associated with visual quality traits of field pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ubayasena, Lasantha; Bett, Kirstin; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Warkentin, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Visual quality of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the most important determinants of the market value of the harvested crop. Seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling are the major components of visu