Science.gov

Sample records for field south region

  1. Wide Field Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field-South Region III: Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palunas, Povilas; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hill, Robert S.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Rhodes, Jason; Teplitz, Harry I.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    We present 1/2 square degree uBVRI imaging around the Hubble Deep Field - South. These data have been used in earlier papers to examine the QSO population and the evolution of the correlation function in the region around the HDF-S. The images were obtained with the Big Throughput Camera at CTIO in September 1998. The images reach 5 sigma limits of u approx. 24.4, B approx. 25.6, V approx. 25.3, R approx. 24.9 and I approx. 23.9. We present a catalog of approx. 22,000 galaxies. We also present number-magnitude counts and a comparison with other observations of the same field. The data presented here are available over the world wide web.

  2. Regional cooperation in South Asia in the field of mental health.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Jitendra K; Goel, Dishanter; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Isaac, Mohan; Shrestha, Dhruba M; Gambheera, Harish C

    2007-02-01

    The South Asian region accounts for around one fourth of the world population and one fifth of psychiatrically ill patients in the world. The region lacks mental health policies and infrastructure. Issues like community care, trained manpower, patient satisfaction and better legislation have been a focus of attention in recent years. As this region is fast developing, cooperation is needed in the field of mental health to keep pace with the other areas. Cooperation is needed to develop culturally acceptable forms of psychotherapy and new technologies for delivery of mental health services. Another area of potential cooperation is the development of a classification of mental disorders that is more informative in our setting. The development of a mental health programme and its inclusion at various levels of health care delivery has also gained precedence. As most of countries in the area have limited financial resources, the funds are to be used in the most cost-effective manner, and for this a greater collaboration amongst the countries is needed. New research needs to be undertaken in the area especially to meet the local requirements and to understand diseases in a regional perspective, but research cannot be fruitful if regional cooperation is lacking. To enhance the cooperation in mental health, world bodies like the WPA will need to come forward and bring all the countries at a common platform. The WPA has done commendable work in this regard and has always extended support to the regional bodies to uplift the mental health in this region.

  3. Preface to the special issue on "Regional moment tensors and stress field in South and Central America"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, Franck; Zahradnik, Jiri; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    This special issue follows from the Symposium ;Regional Moment Tensor Solutions: advances and new applications; held in Bogotá, Colombia, at the I Regional Assembly of the IASPEI's Latin American and Caribbean Seismological Commission (LACSC) in 2014. Seven papers are presented dealing with determination of moment tensors, focal mechanisms and the stress field in Central and South America. The study areas of each paper are indicated in the index Map of Fig. 1.

  4. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  5. Seismogenic stress field estimation in the Calabrian Arc region (south Italy) from a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.; Scolaro, S.; Neri, G.

    2016-09-01

    A new high-quality waveform inversion focal mechanism database of the Calabrian Arc region has been compiled by integrating 292 mechanisms selected from literature and catalogs with 146 newly computed solutions. The new database has then been used for computation of posterior density distributions of stress tensor components by a Bayesian method never applied in south Italy before the present study. The application of this method to the enhanced database has allowed us to provide a detailed picture of seismotectonic stress regimes in this very complex area where lithospheric unit configuration and geodynamic engines are still strongly debated. Our results well constrain the extensional domain of Calabrian Arc and the compressional one of the southernmost Tyrrhenian Sea. In addition, previously undetected transcurrent regimes have been identified in the Ionian offshore. The new information released here will furnish useful tools and constraints for future geodynamic investigations.

  6. Neptune South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-07-25

    This image of Neptune south polar region was obtained by NASA Voyager on Aug. 23, 1989. The smallest cloud features are 45 kilometers 28 miles in diameter. The image shows the discovery of shadows in Neptune atmosphere, shadows cast onto a deep cl

  7. Regional stratigraphy of Smackover limestone (Jurassic) in south Arkansas and north Louisiana, and geology of Chalybeat Springs oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Troell, A.R.; Robinson, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    Prior to 1960, the Reynolds oolite of the Smackover Formation of south Arkansas, was correlated with the Smackover B oolite of north Louisiana. The absence of anticlines with structural closure and the paucity of untested fault closures along the Arkansas-Louisiana boundary provided little exploratory interest in the area. Discovery of oil at Lick Creek field in 1960 and at Walker Creek in 1968 revealed a trend of traps and led to the geologic investigation that resulted in the discovery, in 1972, of Chalybeat Springs field, in Columbia County, Arkansas. Chalybeat Springs field is a combination stratigraphic-structural trap in oolitic calcarenite at a depth of 10,250 ft in the Smackover B limestone. Production is limited by the combination of a tilted anticline with porosity pinch-out on its flank. The field originally had 28 producing wells and 10 dry holes, and covered approximately 4500 productive acres. Original oil in place is estimated to have been 37 million bbl and cumulative production through 1985 was approximately 12 million bbl. The geologic relationships and principles observed in the Smackover Limestone of south Arkansas and north Louisiana have been successfully applied to other regions and in carbonate strata of different age, in the search for oil and gas production. Practical geologic studies of carbonate rocks, aided by examination of drill cuttings, cores, and thin sections, combined with mechanical log evaluation, result in lower finding costs for oil and gas reserves.

  8. Mapping rainfall fields and their ENSO variation in data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basher, Reid E.; Zheng, Xiaogu

    1998-03-01

    Rainfall fields for the data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region have been mapped by partial thin-plate smoothing spline surface modelling applied to island rainfall measurements, enhanced by the use of satellite observations of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) as a regression covariate. The aim is to obtain spatially realistic rainfall maps, especially in the data-sparse areas between island groups, through a fully objective and statistically valid method that includes error estimates. The method has been applied to the region 4°N-24°S, 168°E-154°W. The rainfall data set initially comprised 57 stations, most with 40 year records. As a first step, a regression of annual OLR and rainfall for atolls only was formed and used to eliminate outlier rainfall stations, all of which are on mountainous islands and thus are probably influenced orographically.The maps clearly show the spatial patterns and seasonal behaviour of the regions key meteorological features, namely, the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the southern edge of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the wedge shaped region of divergent easterlies lying between them. To identify ENSO variations, maps of 3-month seasonal rainfall were constructed from composites of eight El Niño (negative SOI) episodes and nine La Niña (positive SOI) episodes. These maps are relatively rough in appearance, but nevertheless they show the evolution of the spatial patterns through each composite episode and the strong and symmetrically opposite differences between them. Marked variations in the strength and position of the SPCZ are evident and the isohyets in the equatorial dry zone exhibit east-west shifts of nearly 3000 km relative to the average field. The rainfall variation at a particular location may be understood in terms of competition of influence among the changing features of the pattern, rather than as a simple linear function of the SOI.

  9. Surficial geology of the Safsaf region, south-central Egypt, derived from remote-sensing and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    We used a decorrelation-stretched image of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 1, 4, and 7 and field data to map and describe the main surficial units in the hyperarid Safsaf region in south-central Egypt. We show that the near-infrared bands on Landsat TM, which are sensitive to very subtle changes in mineralogy common to arid regions, significantly improve the geologist's capability to discriminate geologic units in desert regions. These data also provide the spatial and spectral information necessary to determine the migration patterns and provenance of eolian materials. The Safsaf area was the focus of our post flight field studies using Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data following the discovery of buried paleochannels in North Africa. Most of the channels discernible on SIR images are not expressed in TM data, but traces of a few channels are present in both the SIR and the TM data within the Wadi Safsaf area. Here we present a detailed digital examination of the SIR and the TM-band reflectance and reflectance-ratio data at three locations of the more obvious surface expressions of the buried channels. Our results indicate that the TM expressions of the channels are not purely topographic but are more compositional in nature. Two possibilities may account for the TM expressions of the buried channels: 1) concentrations of windblown, iron-rich materials that accumulated along subtle curvilinear topograpohic traps, or 2) curvilinear exposures of an iron-rich underlying unit of the flat sand sheet. ?? 1993.

  10. VHF coherent scatter radar observations of mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Yang, T.; Lee, J.; Hwang, J.; Kil, H.; Park, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We examine the mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularity (FAI) activity during 2010-2011 by using the VHF coherent scatter radar data in Daejeon (36.2°N, 127.1°E; dip latitude 26.7°N), South Korea. The VHF radar has been operated since December 2009 and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the variability of the FAI activity with local time, season, solar flux, and magnetic activity. Our preliminary results during the solar minimum show that FAIs preferentially occur at post-sunset and pre-sunrise and during the June solstice. The seasonal variation of the FAI occurrence frequency is similar to that of the electron density irregularities observed by the C/NOFS satellite. For one event, we observed the association of the FAIs with a medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID). Our study extends to the investigation of the correlations between the irregularities in the equatorial region and middle latitudes and between the conjugate F regions, and the causal linkage of the FAIs with the E-region perturbations. For this purpose, we analyze the VHF radar and C/NOFS data during 2010-2011.

  11. Neptune's south polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This image of Neptune's south polar region was obtained by the NASA Voyager narrow-angle camera on Aug. 23, 1989, when it was at a distance of 25 million kilometers (1.6 million miles). The smallest cloud features are 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter. The image shows the discovery of shadows in Neptune's atmosphere, shadows cast onto a deep cloud bank by small elevated clouds. Located at about 68 degrees south latitude, they are the first cloud shadows ever seen by the Voyager on any planet. The dark regions adjacent to the small bright clouds are believed to be shadows, because they are on the side of the cloud that is opposite to the incoming sunlight and because they lengthen in places where the sun lies closer to the horizon. Estimates of the height of these discrete clouds above the underlying cloud bank can be obtained by careful analysis of this data. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  12. Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

  13. Monitoring of flood irrigation for the characterization of irrigation practices of grassland fields in the Crau region (South of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkassem Alosman, Mohamed; Ruy, Stéphane; Olioso, Albert; Flamain, Fabrice

    2015-04-01

    Surface irrigation (flooding and furrow) is the main irrigation technic in the world. This irrigation system is known as having poor water efficiency and that results in very large water losses through drainage and runoff out the field. Although these unused water amounts can generate positive externalities (wetlands and groundwater recharge), a decreased of water volume used in surface irrigation is sought in a context of limited water resource. In the Crau area (South of France), more than 12,500 ha of grassland are irrigated by flooding. There, at the regional scale, it is estimated that the water volumes brought into the field are very high; and ranges from 15,000; up to 20,000 m3.h-1.year-1; more than 78% of these amounts recharges the Crau aquifer (Saos, 2006). However, the actual volumes which are injected to the plot surface (the " irrigation dose ") are insufficiently known, because of the diversity of encountered agricultural practices and fields topography. For better characterizing these practices, a campaign of irrigation monitoring has been carried out during an irrigation season (March to September 2014) on a set of representative plots of soil variability, practices, and different stages of hay grow. Each grassland field has been also characterized from a topographical and pedological view point. A mobile device for measurements (soil moisture and water level probes, photographic monitoring, soil sampling, .. ) was deployed for each irrigation. A total of 35 irrigation events were followed. The data obtained allow describing accurately and quantitatively the variability in encountered irrigation practices. Combined with a flood irrigation model (Model CALHY, Bader et al., 2010, Hydrol. Sci. J., 55, 177-191), these data will be used to calculate the water balance at the field scale: amounts of injected, infiltrated and lost water by runoff or drainage. They will also offer different ways for optimizing the irrigation efficiency.

  14. Reservoir quality, sediment source, and regional aspects of Norphlet Formation, South State Line field, Greene County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, A.; Stancliffe, R.J.; Shew, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    South State Line field, discovered in 1970, is centrally located in the productive Jurassic Norphlet trend of the eastern Gulf Coast. The Norphlet Formation at South State Line has produced gas and condensate from normally pressured eolian sandstones at depths of more than 17,900 ft (5455 m). The 600-ft- (183-m) thick Norphlet Formation is composed of 100% sandstone and consists of two reservoir types: a poorer quality upper sandstone having low permeability (0.6 md) and a good-quality lower sandstone with better permeability (15.5 md). The upper sandstone exhibits tighter compaction of framework grains and more cement than the lower sandstone. Significantly, the upper sandstone contains authigenic illite (which promotes pressure solution), whereas the lower sandstone contains authigenic chlorite (which inhibits cementation and possibly pressure solution). On a regional scale, illite is the principal diagenetic clay mineral in the western area of the Norphlet trend (Mississippi to Texas), whereas chlorite is the principal diagenetic clay mineral in the east (Alabama to Florida). Not surprisingly, reservoir quality is poorer in the western portion of the trend. A comparison of framework grains in the upper and lower sandstones shows no significant compositional differences. Both are mature arkosic sandstones with a transitional-continental source (eastern Appalachians). No evidence was seen of a quartz-rich Ouachita or cratonic source. Volcanic and plutonic rock fragments are slightly more abundant in the lower sandstone, possibly reflecting a shifting of compositional terranes within a single source area along the eastern side of the Appalachians. The lower Norphlet sandstone may have been derived from Triassic volcanics, whereas the upper sandstone may have been derived from a more metamorphic source.

  15. Io, the South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    This archival image mosaic from NASA Voyager 1 shows Io south polar region. The South Pole is near the terminator line between daylight and night at right center. Haemus Mons, a 10-km high 32,000 foot mountain is at bottom. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00327

  16. Regional characteristics of stress field in the southern part of the north-south seismic belt in China and its relation with plate movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ji-Ren; Oike, Kazuo

    1995-02-01

    The regional characteristics of stress field in the southern part of the north-south seismic belt (NSB) have been analyzed in detail based on the mechanism solutions of 134 medium and large earthquakes from 1933 to 1991. The results show that the southern part of the NSB is a shallow earthquake zone where most earthquakes are caused by the strike-slip faulting. There is a systematic distribution of the directions of P- and T-axes in the western and the eastern regions of the southern part of the NSB. P- and T-axes in the western region are in the NE-SW direction and in the NW-SE direction. P- and T-axes in the eastern region are oriented in NW-SE and NE-SW, respectively. The directions of P-axes in the western and the eastern regions show a pattern of a reversal “V” as a whole. The boundary between the eastern and western regions coincides with that between the Tibetan Plateau and the Yangtze crustal block. Based on a lot of mechanism solutions, the result indicates that the direction of P-axes roughly shows the consistent distributions from the Himalayan collision zone to the eastern region and from the eastern coast collision zone in Taiwan to the eastern region of southern part of the NSB, respectively. It is suggested that the tectonic force due to relative movement between the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian plates is transmitted from the Himalayan collision zone to the western region of the southern part of NSB, simultaneously, the tectonic force due to the relative movement between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates is transmitted from the eastern region coast in Taiwan to the eastern region of the southern part of NSB, and control the stress field there, respectively.

  17. Development of a regional ocean color algorithm using field- and satellite-derived datasets: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Kimberly Susan

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide numerous ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. However, bio and geo-optical models are required that relate the remotely sensed spectral data with color producing agents (CPAs) that define the water quality. These CPAs include chlorophyll-a, suspended sediments, and colored-dissolved organic matter. Developing these models may be challenging for coastal environments such as Long Bay, South Carolina, due to the presence of multiple optically interfering CPAs. In this work, a regionally tiered ocean color model was developed using band ratio techniques to specifically predict the variability of chlorophyll-a concentrations in the turbid Long Bay waters. This model produced higher accuracy results (r-squared = 0.62; RMSE = 0.87 micrograms per liter) compared to the existing models, which gave a highest r-squared value of 0.58 and RMSE = 0.99 micrograms per liter. To further enhance the retrievals of chlorophyll-a in these optically complex waters, a novel multivariate-based approach was developed using current generation hyperspectral data. This approach uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated CPAs. This model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 micrograms per liter. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight

  18. Statistical characteristics of nighttime mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities observed by Daejeon VHF coherent scattering radar in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. Y.; Kwak, Y. S.; Kil, H.; Lee, Y.; Lee, W. K.; Park, Y. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report statistical characteristics of mid-latitude nighttime F-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) based on more than three-year observations by Daejeon VHF coherent backscatter radar. This radar has built at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, dip lat. 26.7°N) in 2009 with 40.8 MHz operating frequency for continuous monitoring of the behavior of electron density irregularities in the middle latitude. By using long-term observations from January 2010 to December 2013, we obtained the annual, diurnal and seasonal characteristics of a variety of a percentage occurrence, signal-to-noise ratio, and Doppler velocities from the nighttime F-region irregularities over Korea peninsular. From almost four-year observations, the F-region nighttime irregularities occurred most frequently during post-sunset period. These nighttime irregularities usually appeared with occupying different height levels according to local time. This height variation of F-region FAIs was correlated with hmf2 of ionosonde in Icheon, South Korea. The irregularities were least active near the winter solstice and most active near summer solstice. From the annual occurrence variations, F-region nighttime irregularities seem to have tendency with solar activity.

  19. A classification of the sea level pressure daily fields in southern South America: an application to daily rainfall in the Pampas region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penalba, Olga; Bettolli, Maria Laura

    2010-05-01

    The Pampas covers Argentina's most productive agricultural land, extending more than 1600 km in the heartland of the country. The impact of climate adversities on agricultural activities makes it necessary to determine to what extent climate spatial and temporal variability is responsible for crop yields and to generate elements to monitor, estimate impacts and design an alert system. Local atmospheric conditions depend, among other factors, on the major scale fields. Consequently, an objective classification of daily circulation fields in the South of South America is proposed using a long database. Daily rainfalls within the Argentine Humid Pampas are also investigated in connection to the weather type categories. Daily mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields corresponding to the NCEP_Reanalysis 2 data provided by the NCEP-NCAR were used as representative of atmospheric circulation at low levels which is of great importance in determining moisture advection in the region. The period of study was 1979-1999. The chosen domain extends from 15°S to 60°S and from 40°W to 90° W on a 2.5° latitude-longitude grid. This domain extends over the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans and the Andes Mountains, all of which have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation over South America. The analyzed seasons correspond to summer (December-January- February) and winter (June-July-August). Daily rainfall series located in the core region for growing different crops in the Argentine Humid Pampas were also used. These series were provided by the Argentine National Meteorological Service. Cluster analysis was performed coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the atmospheric circulation patterns. PCA was used as a synthesis method and the cluster analysis was carried out in the subspace given by the leading unrotated principal components. The ‘k-means' partitioning method with Euclidean distance was used. The choice of the optimal number of clusters

  20. The variability of the occurrence of the Field Aligned Irregularities in the middle-latitude F region using the VHF radar observation at Daejon, South Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, S. J.; Kil, H.; Tae-yong, Y.; Kwak, Y. S.; Lee, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    The VHF radar observations at Daejeon in South Korea reveal the highly variable nature of the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) in the middle-latitude F-region. Medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are suggested as the source of FAIs, however, the occurrence climatology of the FAIs cannot be fully explained by the existence of the MSTIDs. Moreover, the occurrence climatology of the FAIs with respect to local time (pre-midnight and post-midnight) likely to have separate onset mechanisms. We investigate the role of the ionospheric disturbances(MSTIDs, Equatorial Plasma Bubbles(EPBs)) in the creation of the FAIs using the radar data at Daejon , the total electron content maps over Japan acquired during 2010-2015. and the measurements of the ion density by Swarm (2014,2015). We assess the causal linkage of the occurrence of the FAIs by examining the correlative occurrence of MSTIDs in middle latitude F-region and EPB in low latitude F-region.

  1. Occurrence climatology of F region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes as observed by a 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar in Daejeon, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tae-Yong; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kil, Hyosub; Lee, Young-Sook; Lee, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Jae-jin

    2015-11-01

    A new 40.8 MHz coherent scatter radar was built in Daejeon, South Korea (36.18°N, 127.14°E, dip latitude: 26.7°N) on 29 December 2009 and has since been monitoring the occurrence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) in the northern middle latitudes. We report on the occurrence climatology of the F region FAIs as observed by the Daejeon radar between 2010 and 2014. The F region FAIs preferentially occur around 250-350 km at 18:00-21:00 local time (postsunset FAI), around 350-450 km near midnight (nighttime FAI), around 250-350 km before sunrise (presunrise FAI), and around 160-300 km after 05:00 local time (postsunrise FAI). The occurrence rates of nighttime and presunrise FAIs are maximal during summer, though the occurrence rates of postsunset and postsunrise FAIs are maximal during the equinoxes. FAIs rarely occur during local winter. The occurrence rate of F region FAIs increases in concert with increases in solar activity. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are known as an important source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes. The high occurrence rate of the nighttime FAIs in local summer is consistent with the high occurrence rate of MSTIDs in that season. However, the dependence of the FAI activity on the solar cycle is inconsistent with the MSTID activity. The source of the F region FAIs in middle latitudes is an open question. Our report of different types of FAIs and their occurrence climatology may provide a useful reference for the identification of the source of the middle latitude FAIs.

  2. Field guide to sedge species of the Rocky Mountain Region: The genus Carex in Colorado, Wyoming, western South Dakota, western Nebraska, and western Kansas

    Treesearch

    Barry C. Johnston

    2001-01-01

    This guide describes all the 131 species of Carex known to occur in Wyoming, Colorado, and western portions of Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota. A dichotomous key is provided for identification in the field. Each species is described, with diagrams of the plant, head, pistillate scale, and perigynium. A distribution map appears for each species, as well as a table of...

  3. Oblique View of Vesta South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-10

    This image of asteroid Vesta, from NASA Dawn spacecraft, calculated from a shape model, shows a tilted view of the topography of the south polar region. This perspective removes the overall curvature of Vesta, as if the giant asteroid were flat and not

  4. SUDARE-VOICE variability-selection of active galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South and the SERVS/SWIRE region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falocco, S.; Paolillo, M.; Covone, G.; De Cicco, D.; Longo, G.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Vaccari, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Pignata, G.; Cappellaro, E.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Salvato, M.; Radovich, M.; Hsu, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Baruffolo, A.; Cascone, E.; Schipani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Context. One of the most peculiar characteristics of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is their variability over all wavelengths. This property has been used in the past to select AGN samples and is foreseen to be one of the detection techniques applied in future multi-epoch surveys, complementing photometric and spectroscopic methods. Aims: In this paper, we aim to construct and characterise an AGN sample using a multi-epoch dataset in the r band from the SUDARE-VOICE survey. Methods: Our work makes use of the VST monitoring programme of an area surrounding the Chandra Deep Field South to select variable sources. We use data spanning a six-month period over an area of 2 square degrees, to identify AGN based on their photometric variability. Results: The selected sample includes 175 AGN candidates with magnitude r< 23 mag. We distinguish different classes of variable sources through their lightcurves, as well as X-ray, spectroscopic, SED, optical, and IR information overlapping with our survey. Conclusions: We find that 12% of the sample (21/175) is represented by supernovae (SN). Of the remaining sources, 4% (6/154) are stars, while 66% (102/154) are likely AGNs based on the available diagnostics. We estimate an upper limit to the contamination of the variability selected AGN sample ≃34%, but we point out that restricting the analysis to the sources with available multi-wavelength ancillary information, the purity of our sample is close to 80% (102 AGN out of 128 non-SN sources with multi-wavelength diagnostics). Our work thus confirms the efficiency of the variability selection method, in agreement with our previous work on the COSMOS field. In addition we show that the variability approach is roughly consistent with the infrared selection.

  5. Field Problems in the South Bronx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal, Stasia, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Articles in this issue of the bulletin of the Hispanic Research Center focus on the problems of collecting demographic and social data in the South Bronx. The introductory article summarizes the contents of this issue. The second (by Lloyd H. Rogler, Osvaldo Barreras, and Rosemary Santana Cooney) is based on the experiences of field workers…

  6. The use of MODIS data to derive acreage estimations for larger fields: A case study in the south-western Rostov region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Massart, M.; Savin, I.; Gallego, J.; Rembold, F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent developments in remote sensing technology, in particular improved spatial and temporal resolution, open new possibilities for estimating crop acreage over larger areas. Remotely sensed data allow in some cases the estimation of crop acreage statistics independently of sub-national survey statistics, which are sometimes biased and incomplete. This work focuses on the use of MODIS data acquired in 2001/2002 over the Rostov Oblast in Russia, by the Azov Sea. The region is characterised by large agricultural fields of around 75 ha on average. This paper presents a methodology to estimate crop acreage using the MODIS 16-day composite NDVI product. Particular emphasis is placed on a good quality crop mask and a good quality validation dataset. In order to have a second dataset which can be used for cross-checking the MODIS classification a Landsat ETM time series for four different dates in the season of 2002 was acquired and classified. We attempted to distinguish five different crop types and achieved satisfactory and good results for winter crops. Three hundred and sixty fields were identified to be suitable for the training and validation of the MODIS classification using a maximum likelihood classification. A novel method based on a pure pixel field sampling is introduced. This novel method is compared with the traditional hard classification of mixed pixels and was found to be superior.

  7. Multi-wavelength Observations of South Atlantic Anomaly Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C. Y.; Tam, S. W. Y.; Chang, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is a region where the Earth's magnetic field is at its weakest. The energetic particles captured by the geomagnetic field can come closest to the Earth's surface forming a high-radiation region. The ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning) is a scientific payload aboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The scientific payload consists of an intensifier CCD Imager, an array photometer, and a six-channel spectrophotometers. ISUAL had been monitoring airglow and aurora in the global ionosphere. In this study, we will use ISUAL images and photometer data to analyze the background emissions in the SAA region. From the emission production mechanisms for different measurement channels, we can estimate the properties of the plasma precipitating from the inner radiation belt into the ionosphere of the SAA region. Besides, the ratios of different emissions are also discussed.

  8. Waveform Tomography of the South Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, N. L.; Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Gaina, C.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid growth in broadband seismic data, along with developments in waveform tomography techniques, allow us to greatly improve the data sampling in the southern hemisphere and resolve the upper-mantle structure beneath the South Atlantic region at a new level of detail. We have gathered a very large waveform dataset, including all publicly available data from permanent and temporary networks. Our S-velocity tomographic model is constrained by vertical-component waveform fits, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S and multiple S waves. Each seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations within approximate sensitivity volumes, with respect to a 3D reference model. All the equations are then combined into a large linear system and inverted jointly for a model of shear- and compressional-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. The isotropic-average shear speeds are proxies for temperature and composition at depth, while azimuthal anisotropy provides evidence on the past and present deformation in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the region. We resolve the complex boundaries of the mantle roots of South America's and Africa's cratons and the deep low-velocity anomalies beneath volcanic areas in South America. Pronounced lithospheric high seismic velocity anomalies beneath the Argentine Basin suggest that its anomalously deep seafloor, previously attributed to dynamic topography, is mainly due to anomalously cold, thick lithosphere. Major hotspots show low-velocity anomalies extending substantially deeper than those beneath the mid-ocean ridge. The Vema Hotspot shows a major, hot asthenospheric anomaly beneath thick, cold oceanic lithosphere. The mantle lithosphere beneath the Walvis Ridge—a hotspot track—shows normal cooling. The volcanic Cameroon Line, in contrast, is characterized by thin lithosphere beneath the locations of recent

  9. Field guide to diseases & insects of the Rocky Mountain Region

    Treesearch

    Forest Health Protection. Rocky Mountain Region

    2010-01-01

    This field guide is a forest management tool for field identification of biotic and abiotic agents that damage native trees in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, which constitute the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Region. The guide focuses only on tree diseases and forest insects that have significant economic, ecological, and/ or...

  10. Mantle convection pattern and subcrustal stress field under South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1980-01-01

    The tectonic, igneous and metallogenic features of South America are discussed in terms of the crustal deformation associated with stresses due to mantle convection as inferred from the high degree harmonics in the geopotential field. The application of Runcorn's model for the laminar viscous flows in the upper mantle to satellite and gravity data results in a convection pattern which reveals the ascending flows between the descending Nazca plate and the overlying South American plate as well as segments of the descending Nazca plate beneath South America. The arc volcanism in South America is shown apparently to be related to the upwelling of high-temperature material induced by the subduction of the Nazca plate, with the South American basin systems associated with downwelling mantle flows. The resulting tensional stress fields are shown to be regions of structural kinship characterized by major concentrations of ore deposits and related to the cordillera, shield and igneous systems and the upward Andean movements. It is suggested that the upwelling convection flows in the upper mantle, coupled with crustal tension, have provided an uplift mechanism which has forced the hydrothermal systems in the basement rocks to the surface.

  11. INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN FOOTBALL CONFIGURATION. FIELD SEATING ROTATES TO ACCOMMODATE BASEBALL GAMES. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Piezomagnetic monitoring in the South Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, Michael T.

    1984-11-01

    Data from an array of piezomagnetic stations in the South Pacific Islands indicate that noise limitations on piezomagnetic stress monitoring reported for California ( Mueller and Johnston, 1981; Johnston et al., 1984) are probably pessimistic since they seem to include significant diurnal residual. Raw station differences could be significant at the 1.0 nT level out to distances of several hundred kilometres. Two large earthquakes have occurred within the network, and no coseismic anomalies were observed. However, changes in observed magnetic field for several stations within 200 km of the earthquakes indicate that stress propagation effects are observable prior to the events, and that these effects dominate the simple elastic effects previously investigated which accompany the stress drops for moderate to large earthquakes.

  13. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  14. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  15. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  16. Characteristics of the E - and F -region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes: Initial results obtained from the Daejeon 40.8 MHz VHF radar in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Young-Sil; Yang, Tae-Yong; Kil, Hoysub; Phanikumar, D.; Heo, Bok-Haeng; Lee, Jae-Jin; Hwang, Junga; Choi, Seong-Hwan; Park, Young-Deuk; Choi, Ho-Seong

    2014-03-01

    We present preliminary observations of the field-aligned-irregularities (FAIs) in the E and F regions during the solar minimum (2009 - 2010) using the 40.8 MHz coherent backscatter radar at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, 26.7°N dip latitude) in South Korea. The radar, which consists of 24 Yagi antennas, observes the FAIs using a single beam with a peak power of 24 kW. The radar has been continuously operated since December 2009. Depending on the manner of occurrence of the backscatter echoes, the E-region echoes are largely divided into two types: quasi-periodic (QP) and continuous echoes. Our observations show that the QP echoes occur frequently above an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunset period and continuous echoes occur preferentially around an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunrise period. QP echoes appear as striated discrete echoes for a period of about 10 - 20 min. The QP-type echoes occur more frequently than the continuoustype echoes do and the echo intensity of the QP type is stronger than that of the continuous type. In the F region, the FAIs occur at night at an altitude interval of 250 - 450 km. As time proceeds, the occurrence height of the FAIs gradually increases until early in the morning and then decreases. The duration of the F-region FAIs is typically a few hours at night, although, in rare cases, FAIs persist throughout the night or appear even after sunrise. We discuss the similarities and differences of the FAIs observed by the Daejeon radar in comparison with other radar observations.

  17. South Arch volcanic field9d\

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Clague, D.A.; Moore, J.G.; Holcomb, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Several young lava fields were imaged by GLORIA sidescan sonar along the Hawaiian Arch south of Hawaii. The largest, 35 by 50 km across, includes a central area characterized by high sonar backscatter and composed of several flow lobes radiating from a vent area. Reflection profiling and sea-floor photography indicate that the central lobes are flat sheet flows bounded by pillowed margins; thin surface sediment and thin palagonite rinds on lava surfaces suggest ages of 1-10 ka. Vents are localized along the arch crest near bases of Cretaceous seamounts. Two dredged flows are basanite and alkalic basalt, broadly similar to rejuvenated-stage and some pre-shield alkalic lavas on the Hawaiian Ridge. Arch volcanism represents peripheral leakage of melt from the Hawaiian hot spot over much larger areas than previously recognized. -Authors

  18. Harmonization of regional health data requirements in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Souarès, Y; Sauve, L

    1997-01-01

    The South Pacific has 22 diverse countries and territories that receive various levels of assistance, training, and financial support from International, regional, and national agencies. To support various aspects of these activities, the agencies currently request health data from the Pacific Island countries and territories on systematic bases in two major fields: health program monitoring and disease surveillance. There currently is little consultation or integration between the agencies. Communication exists mostly in terms of the exchange of various types of processed information such as reports, circulars, and other publications. The Interagency Meeting on Health Information Requirements in the South Pacific took place in December 1995 in Noumea, New Caledonia, to discuss the potential for more integration and cooperation in order to ease the pressure on the data providers (the countries) and to improve the relevance, quality, and timeliness of regional health information in the Pacific. As part of the effort to deal with the problems of both the pressure on data providers and the low quality and availability of good health information, we have developed methodological tools for evaluating both health indicators and diseases subject to surveillance in order to ascertain those most suitable for public health surveillance.

  19. A Proposed Regional Plan for the Expansion of Optometric Education in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Wesley N.; And Others

    Concern about the adequacy of existing optometry schools to meet the needs and demands for optometric education in the South prompted a study, to result in a proposal for expansion of education in the field. The results showed that there is a shortage of optometrists in each of the 14 states of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region,…

  20. An Ecological Regional Analysis of South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.; Robinson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study of the counties of South Carolina introduces a limited purpose, modifiable technology that is designed to reproduce the rapid discovery strategy of the natural sciences. It uses factor analysis to identify types of communities and the threats they face, and evaluates their success in dealing with these by comparisons based on…

  1. An Ecological Regional Analysis of South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.; Robinson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study of the counties of South Carolina introduces a limited purpose, modifiable technology that is designed to reproduce the rapid discovery strategy of the natural sciences. It uses factor analysis to identify types of communities and the threats they face, and evaluates their success in dealing with these by comparisons based on…

  2. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parchaso, Janet K.; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2010-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2009 to December 2009 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2009, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, the winter months (January-March) generally exhibit maximum concentrations, with a decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments and M. petalum were comparable to concentrations observed in 2008 and were generally consistent with data from previous years. Selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment varied among years and showed no sustained temporal trend. In 2009, sedimentary Se concentrations declined from the record high concentrations observed in 2008 to concentrations that were among the lowest on record. Selenium in M. petalum was unchanged from 2008

  3. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to

  4. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  5. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-03

    Lunar mosaic of ~1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00001

  6. Simulation of South Asian aerosols for regional climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Mariotti, Laura; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2012-02-01

    Extensive intercomparison of columnar and near-surface aerosols, simulated over the South Asian domain using the aerosol module included in the regional climate model (RegCM4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) have been carried out using ground-based network of Sun/sky Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) radiometers, satellite sensors such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and ground-based black carbon (BC) measurements made at Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI) network stations. In general, RegCM4 simulations reproduced the spatial and seasonal characteristics of aerosol optical depth over South Asia reasonably well, particularly over west Asia, where mineral dust is a major contributor to the total aerosol loading. In contrast, RegCM4 simulations drastically underestimated the BC mass concentrations over most of the stations, by a factor of 2 to 5, with a large spatial variability. Seasonally, the discrepancy between the measured and simulated BC tended to be higher during winter and periods when the atmospheric boundary layer is convectively stable (such as nighttime and early mornings), while during summer season and during periods when the boundary layer is convectively unstable (daytime) the discrepancies were much lower, with the noontime values agreeing very closely with the observations. A detailed analysis revealed that the model does not reproduce the nocturnal high in BC, observed at most of the Indian sites especially during winter, because of the excessive vertical transport of aerosols under stable boundary layer conditions. As far as the vertical distribution was concerned, the simulated vertical profiles of BC agreed well with airborne measurements during daytime. This comprehensive validation exercise reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the model in simulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the aerosol fields over

  7. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2007 to December 2007, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto?s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2007 remained consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue are elevated for the second consecutive year, but the values remain well within the range of past findings. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values that generally occur in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Last year?s elevated selenium levels appear to be transient, and selenium concentrations have returned to background levels. Overall, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating

  8. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto regional water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Lorenzi, Allison H.; Moon, Edward; Shouse, Michelle K.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements in sediment and the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995), clam reproductive activity and benthic, macroinvertebrate community structure are reported for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January to December 2005, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2005 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Copper and zinc concentrations in sediment and bivalve tissue displayed a continued decrease over the last decade. In 2005, Cu concentrations were at or below the effects range-low (ERL) concentration (34 ?g/g) for the entire year, the first time this has been observed. Also, zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL (150 ?g/g). Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma petalum for 2005 were some of the lowest recorded since monitoring for metals began in 1975. The concentrations of mercury and selenium in sediments, during April and January 2004, respectively, were the highest values observed for these elements during this study. Later in 2005, concentrations decreased to historic levels. The increase in mercury and selenium in 2004 was not a permanent trend and concentrations of these elements in sediments and clams at Palo Alto remain similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma petalum from the same area. Analysis of the

  9. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica; Cervantes, Raul; Shouse, Michelle K.

    2007-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2006 to December 2006, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2006 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue increased in the last year but the values remain well within range of past data. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values generally occurring in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Conversely, selenium concentrations reached a maximum level but soon returned to baseline levels. In all, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. There are no obvious directional trends (increasing or decreasing). Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam M. petalum from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals

  10. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  11. Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And Charlie Kelly Blvd. To the northeast towards the 400 series quarters. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Regional integration and south-south cooperation in health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Roa, Alejandra; Santana, José Paranaguá de

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes whether south-south cooperation is legitimately a recent practice or merely an improved version of previous regional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors reviewed and systematized the historic development of subregional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean and focused on health cooperation in the following contexts: the Central American Integration System, the Andean Community of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, the Southern Common Market, and the Union of South American Nations. The study concludes that the conceptual and methodologic foundations of south-south cooperation in health were born from and nurtured by the processes of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper posits that regional political and economic integration initiatives bring potential benefits to the health sector and act as an important mechanism to develop south-south cooperation in this domain. The study recommends furthering this type of research to provide information that will allow national and multilateral agencies, or other stakeholders, to formulate and implement better policies for international health cooperation that target reducing inequities and promoting health and well-being for all people.

  13. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL LIGHT RING GONDOLA SUSPENDED FROM ROOF CUPOLA. SKY LIGHTS PAINTED OVER TO REDUCE GLARE FOR BASEBALL OUTFIELDERS. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. The South Florida Environment: A Region Under Stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Halley, Robert B.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the environmental setting in South Florida and serves as review and framework for developing U.S. Geological Survey programs in the region. The report describes the predevelopment and the current (present-day) environmental conditions in South Florida with emphasis on the quantity and quality of water. The geographical area covered is the southern one-half of the State and includes the South Florida National Water-Quality Assessment study area and adjacent coastal waters. This study area covers about 19,500 square miles and is the watershed of the larger regional ecosystem. The regional ecosystem includes the coastal waters between Charlotte Harbor on the Gulf of Mexico and the St. Lucie River on the Atlantic Ocean and the lands that drain into these waters.

  15. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  16. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community

  17. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  18. Regional University Access: A Case Study from the South West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversole, Robyn

    A study examined university service delivery in an isolated, inland region of south Western Australia. Surveys, focus groups, and interviews with students and former students found that many pre-university youths leave the area because education is only offered through year 10. Therefore, college students in the area tend to be mature-aged. Key…

  19. Possibilities of Using Transport Terminals in South Bohemian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čejka, Jiří; Bartuška, Ladislav; Turinská, Libuše

    2017-03-01

    Currently, when there is a need for transport services adapted to the customer requirements and create a workable operational system, there is increasing talk about transport terminals. Since the South Bohemian region is one of those where this issue will be increasingly dealt with, this paper suggests ways to use transport terminals as important support systems for freight and passenger transport.

  20. Variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in South America during the last two millennia: New results from historical buildings of Buenos Aires and re-evaluation of regional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Schavelzon, Daniel; Vásquez, Carlos; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Loponte, Daniel; Rapalini, Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The causes of the systematic decay of the Earth's Magnetic Field strength since eighteen century have been a matter of debate during the last decade. It is also well known that such variations may have completely different expressions under an area characterized with strong magnetic anomalies, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. To fully understand these atypical phenomena, it is crucial to retrieve the past evolution of Earth's magnetic field beyond the observatory records. We report on detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity investigations from some well-studied historical buildings of Buenos Aires city, located at the heart of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Samples consist of bricks, tiles, fireplaces and pottery, which are considered as highly suitable materials for archaeointensity studies. The dating is ascertained by historical documents complemented by archeological constraints. Eighteen out of 26 analyzed samples yield reliable absolute intensity determinations. The site-mean archaeointensity values obtained in this study range from 28.5 to 43.5 μT, with corresponding virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) ranging from 5.3 to 8.04 × 1022 Am2. Most determinations obtained in the present study are in remarkable agreement with the values predicted by the time varying field model CALS10k.1b (Korte et al., 2011). For the older periods the recently available SHA.DIF.14 model (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2014) seems to have greater resolution. South American archaeointensity database now includes absolute intensities from 400 to 1930 AD based on 63 selected archaeointensity determinations. The data set reveals several distinct periods of quite large fluctuations of intensity. However, most data are concentrated into a relatively narrow interval from AD 1250 to AD 1450. At the beginning of the record, values between 400 AD and 830 AD match well with ARCH3k.1 model. Some general features may be detected: the time intervals from about AD 400 to 950 and

  1. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated

  2. The shape of Mercury's south-polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M. E.; Kahan, D. S.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Hauck, S. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Peale, S. J.; Margot, J.; Mazarico, E.; McNutt, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    We present measurements of the radius of Mercury over the planet's southern hemisphere within 30° of the south pole. These measurements, derived from occultations of MESSENGER's radio frequency (RF) transmissions, are the first such measurements southward of 30°S, a region beyond the reach of the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). The occultation start and end times, recovered with 0.3-s accuracy or better by fitting edge-diffraction patterns to the RF power history, are used to estimate Mercury's radius at the tangent point of the RF path. The occultation-analysis techniques were calibrated by comparing hundreds of occultation-derived radii to MLA measurements in Mercury's northern hemisphere, indicating a measurement accuracy of 0.4 km (one standard deviation). The southern-hemisphere data provide initial estimates of the flattening of the south-pole region and the north-south offset between Mercury's center of figure (COF) and center of mass (COM). A high degree of flattening would complement the north-polar depression and may indicate a rotationally driven equatorial bulge as the source for the degree-2 shape of Mercury. Alternatively, the lack of south-pole flattening would suggest that the north-pole depression may be a remnant of impacts or mantle convective flow. The presence or lack of a north-south COM-COF offset contributes to our understanding of the processes that shape Mercury's rotational and interior dynamics.

  3. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to…

  4. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines evaluation field building in South Asia and the role of international collaboration in this field building. The article explores aspects of the supply and demand of development evaluation and the political, historical, and systemic factors that bridge or block evaluation use. The article calls for and suggests elements to…

  5. Moving towards South-South International Health: debts and challenges in the regional health agenda.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Belén

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to investigate the increased interest in health as an important dimension of the foreign policy and diplomatic concerns together with the emergence of a new framework for regional health integration and regional health diplomacy. Second, it seeks to understand the role and practices of new regional blocs in the field of health and whether they are conducting to the emergence of new strategies for addressing health regional policies in South America. The regional policy process relates to health as a right. Thus, some practices and processes in social policy are setting new standards for political and social cohesion in the construction of new regionalism. Health crosses national, regional, and global agendas in a multi-directional fashion, rather than via one-way, top-down policy transfer. A special feature of Unasur is upholding regional health sovereignty despite the unique fact that member countries retain national autonomy. Unasur has projected foreign policy that promotes social values in ways that seem innovative. Experience as Unasur shows that regional organisms can become a game changer in global diplomacy and an influential actor in the international agenda. Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es doble. En primer lugar,investigar el creciente interés en la salud como una dimensión importante de la política exterior, en sintonía con el surgimiento de un nuevo marcopara la integración regional y la diplomacia en salud. En segundo lugar, comprender el papel y las prácticas de los nuevos bloques regionales en el campo de la salud y si estasconducena la emergencia de nuevas estrategias para abordar las políticas sanitarias regionales en América del Sur. Los nuevos procesos de integración regional se refieren a la salud como un derecho. Así, algunas prácticas y procesos de la política regional están estableciendo nuevos patrones de cohesión política y social en el avancede un nuevo regionalismo

  6. Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region`s energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990.

  7. Atmospheric water budget over the South Asian summer monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, C. K.; Rajeevan, M.

    2017-02-01

    High resolution hybrid atmospheric water budget over the South Asian monsoon region is examined. The regional characteristics, variability, regional controlling factors and the interrelations of the atmospheric water budget components are investigated. The surface evapotranspiration was created using the High Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS) with the satellite-observed rainfall and vegetation fraction. HRLDAS evapotranspiration shows significant similarity with in situ observations and MODIS satellite-observed evapotranspiration. Result highlights the fundamental importance of evapotranspiration over northwest and southeast India on atmospheric water balance. The investigation shows that the surface net radiation controls the annual evapotranspiration over those regions, where the surface evapotranspiration is lower than 550 mm. The rainfall and evapotranspiration show a linear relation over the low-rainfall regions (<500 mm/year). Similar result is observed in in NASA GLDAS data (1980-2014). The atmospheric water budget shows annual, seasonal, and intra-seasonal variations. Evapotranspiration does not show a high intra-seasonal variability as compared to other water budget components. The coupling among the water budget anomalies is investigated. The results show that regional inter-annual evapotranspiration anomalies are not exactly in phase with rainfall anomalies; it is strongly influenced by the surface conditions and other atmospheric forcing (like surface net radiation). The lead and lag correlation of water budget components show that the water budget anomalies are interrelated in the monsoon season even up to 4 months lead. These results show the important regional interrelation of water budget anomalies on south Asian monsoon.

  8. High-Resolution Local Crustal Magnetic Field Modeling of the Martian South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, A.; Simons, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) satellite mission has brought us a wealth of information about the Martian magnetic field. Besides determining that Mars currently does not possess an active core field, MGS revealed that Mars contains an unexpectedly wide crustal magnetic field intensity range. In its orbit insertion, MGS performed a series of low altitude passes down to around 100 km above surface. During this mission phase the magnetic field measurements were active. In particular the nighttime low-altitude data are of high interest because they contain minimal noise from solar wind. Since these data only cover a small portion of the planet's surface, to date all Martian crustal magnetic field models blend the highest-quality data with lower quality measurements collected either at higher satellite altitudes or during daytime. In this contribution we present a locally inverted crustal magnetic field model for the Martian South Polar region calculated from only the highest-quality MGS data using locally constructed altitude vector Slepian functions. The South Polar region of Mars contains the southern part of the strongly magnetized Terra Sirenum and the area south of the Tharsis volcanic highland. Besides parts of planetary scale features our area of data coverage also contains local features such as the presumably volcanic Australe Montes and the Prometheus impact crater. These ingredients compose a highly heterogeneous crustal magnetic field. We show that even for our dense low-altitude low-noise data set the inversion for the crustal magnetic field of a weakly magnetized region adjacent to a region containing a strong magnetic field leads to artifacts in the weak region. With our local method we can avoid these artifacts by selecting subregions of roughly homogeneous field intensity and individually invert for crustal magnetic fields from data within only these subregions. This regional and subregional modeling allows us to reveal previously obscured crustal

  9. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  10. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  11. Geological framework of the south polar region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, B.C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Cutts, J.A.; Sharp, R.P.; Milton, D.J.; Leighton, R.B.

    1972-01-01

    The first 4 months of Mariner 9 photography of the south polar region are discussed. Three major geological units have been recognized, separated by erosional unconformities. From oldest to youngest they are: cratered terrain, pitted plains, and laminated terrain. The latter unit is unique in occurrence to the polar region, volatiles are probably involved in its origin, and may still be present within the laminated terrain as layered ice. The residual south polar cap has been observed to survive the disappearance of the thin annual CO2 frost deposit and to last virtually unchanged in outline through the southern summer. That exposed deposit is inferred to be composed of water-ice. The residual cap appears to lie at the apex of an unusual quasi-circular structure composed of laminated terrain; a similar structure also appears to exist near the north pole. ?? 1972.

  12. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed lagging-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with lagging-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Summer Research Assistantship (SRA) Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  13. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun's polar regions in general and the polar meridonal flow in particular.

  14. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north ]south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north ]south differences. There was a strong flow in the North while the flow in the South was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to the polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun fs polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular

  15. High Latitude Meridional Flow on the Sun May Explain North-South Polar Field Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosak, Katie; Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David

    2012-01-01

    We measured the flows of magnetic elements on the Sun at very high latitudes by analyzing magnetic images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. Magnetic maps constructed using a fixed, and north-south symmetric, meridional flow profile give weaker than observed polar fields in the North and stronger than observed polar fields in the South during the decline of Cycle 23 and rise of Cycle 24. Our measurements of the meridional flow at high latitudes indicate systematic north-south differences. In the fall of 2010 (when the North Pole was most visible), there was a strong flow in the North while in the spring of 2011 (when the South Pole was most visible) the flow there was weaker. With these results, we have a possible solution to this polar field asymmetry. The weaker flow in the South should keep the polar fields from becoming too strong while the stronger flow in the North should strengthen the field there. In order to gain a better understanding of the Solar Cycle and magnetic flux transport on the Sun, we need further observations and analyses of the Sun s polar regions in general and the polar meridional flow in particular.

  16. [Field resistance of Phytophthora melonis to metalaxyl in South China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongguan; Lu, Shaofeng; Huang, Siliang; Fu, Gang; Chen, Liang; Xie, Dasen; Li, Qiqin; Cen, Zhenlu

    2011-08-01

    Phytophthora melonis is the casual agent of wax gourd and cucumber Phytophthora blight which becomes a constraint for sustainable production of the related crops. Metalaxyl is one of the principal fungicides for controlling the disease now. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to investigate the baseline sensitivity and field resistance of P. melonis to metalaxyl in South China; (2) to test the occurrence of metalaxyl-resistant mutants from metalaxyl-sensitive wild type strains exposed to the fungicide; and (3) to monitor the development of metalaxyl resistance in P. melonis population. Over 400 samples of wax gourd and cucumber Phytophthora blight were collected from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Guangdong province during 2007-2010, and 193 strains of P. melonis were isolated and purified. The sensitivity of the isolated strains to metalaxyl was tested using mycelial growth rate method in vitro and floating-leaf-disk method in vivo, respectively. The metalaxyl-sensitive strains were induced on PDA plates containing 10 microg/mL metalaxyl. The sensitive, moderately resistant and resistant strains were recorded as 29.0% , 18.1% and 52.8%, respectively, among 193 tested strains. The frequency and level of resistance of P. melonis from Guangdong were higher than that from Guangxi. The strains from cucumber was generally more resistant to metalaxyl than those from wax gourd. The metalaxyl-resistant strains were frequently detected as predominant populations in most of the sampling sites and the highest resistance index (4226.9) was confirmed. Metalaxyl-resistant (M1r) mutants could be isolated from approximately 60% of the sensitive wild-type strains. The resistance level of the M mutants was 189-407 times higher than that of their sensitive parental strains. The EC50 values of 9 sensitive strains from a sampling site without a record of phenylamide fungicide application ranged from 0.0429 to 0.5461 microg/mL. Their mean EC50 value (0.3200 +/- 0

  17. West Short Pine Hills field, Harding County, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Strothman, B.

    1988-07-01

    The West Short Pine Hills field is a shallow gas field that produces from the Shannon Sandstone Member, on the Camp Crook anticline in southwestern Harding County, South Dakota. The Alma McCutchin 1-17 Heikkila discovery was drilled in the NW1/4, Sec. 17, T16N, R2E, to a depth of 1600 ft and completed in October 1977 for 600 MCFGD from perforations at 1405-1411 ft. To date, 40 gas wells have been completed with total estimated reserves of more than 20 bcf. The field encompasses 12,000 ac, with a current drill-site spacing unit of 160 ac. The field boundaries are fairly well defined, except on the south edge of the field. The wells range in depth from 1250 to 2200 ft, and cost $60,000-$85,000 to drill and complete. Core and log analyses indicate that the field has 70 ft of net pay, with average porosity of 30% and average permeability of 114 md. Most wells have been completed with nitrogen-sand frac. Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company of Bismarck, North Dakota, operates a compressor station and 2.5 mi of 4-in. line that connects the field to their 160 in. north-south transmission line to the Rapid City area. Currently, producers are netting $1.10-$1.25/million Btu. The late Mathew T. Biggs of Casper, Wyoming, was the geologist responsible for mapping and finding this gas deposit.

  18. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in South America: a regional preventive approach.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, C; Gimeno, E J; Schudel, A A

    2003-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by prions that was first described in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986. The BSE epizootic that commenced in the UK in the 1980s has since spread into other countries in Europe and Asia through exports of contaminated meat-and-bone meal or infected cattle. Over the past few years, other emerging or reemerging diseases have spread into previously free countries or regions through international trade. This negative effect of globalisation means that to implement successful preventive and strategic programmes to safeguard animal health, such programmes must, as a priority, take a regional approach. Global thinking, regional planning and local performance constitute the key factors for the successful control of animal diseases. In South America, initial preventive actions against BSE were adopted in 1989. Further measures adopted since then and based on new scientific and technical findings, have led to the demonstration that the region is free of BSE. These early preventive actions have reliably protected the region from importing BSE-infected material. An integral part of the project to determine the BSE status of South America was the training of personnel, the incorporation of technology and the provision of updated information through close relationships with international organisations and prominent international researcher workers. Regional activities aimed at harmonising BSE prevention programmes, producing objective and transparent data on the equivalence of regional BSE status and facilitating regional and international trade have recently been launched. Maintaining the BSE-free status of the region must be given high priority by the beef agro-industrial sectors.

  19. Opium Field Detection in South Oxfordshire Using SAR Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nick; Marino, Armando

    2011-03-01

    To-date the use of satellite imagery to monitor the growth of illicit crops such as marijuana, opium and coca has mostly been conducted using optical frequencies. However, it is well known that while optical imagery can be hampered by localised aerosols such as thin clouds, cirrus, haze and smoke, these do not present a problem for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In recent years a new generation of satellite borne sensors have also been equipped with enhanced polarimetric capabilities, which can potentially help with detecting and classifying different terrain types. For these reasons we believe it is useful to consider whether high resolution polarimetric SAR data can be applied to illicit crop detection.In this paper we present the results of an experiment whereby opium poppy fields were successfully detected in the south Oxfordshire region in the UK using RadarSat-2 quad-polarisation imagery. It should be noted that these crops are not being grown illicitly but instead are being cultivated for medicinal reasons in parts of the UK. It is interesting to note that the poppies cultivated for opium in the UK have white flowers rather than the more familiar red as can be seen from the photograph in Figure 1, which was taken 11 days earlier in the season compared to Figure 4 and Figure 5.

  20. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  2. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  3. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  4. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  5. 40 CFR 81.194 - South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.194 South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  6. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  7. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  8. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  9. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  10. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  11. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  12. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  13. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  14. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  16. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  17. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.194 - South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.194 South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  20. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  1. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  2. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  3. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  4. Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

    A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):

  5. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  6. Stratigraphy of the south polar region of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the stratigraphy and geology in the south polar region of the Jovian satellite, Ganymede. Geologic mapping is based on inspection of Voyager images and compilation on an airbrush base map at a scale of 1:5M. Illumination and resolution vary greatly in the region. Approximately half of the quadripole is beyond the terminator. Low angle illumination over a large part of the area precludes distinction of some units by albedo characteristics. Several types of grooved terrain and groove related terrain occur in the southern polar region. Grooves typically occur in straight to curvilinear sets or lanes. Bright lanes and grooved lanes intersect at high angles outlining polygons of dark cratered terrain. Groove sets exhibit a range of ages as shown by superposition or truncation and by crater superposition ages.

  7. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  8. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  9. Regional Framework for Self Paced Learning Modules. South Fraser Health Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blenkinsopp, John

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a guide for developing consistent, effective self-directed learning modules for the Surrey Memorial Hospital staff, physicians, and volunteers in the South Fraser Region. Eleven sections include: (1) "Philosophy for Self Paced Learning"; "What's Exciting?"; "What's the…

  10. Weather Movie, Mars South Polar Region, March-April 2009

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-16

    This image is from a movie from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showing the southern high-latitudes region of Mars from Mar. 19-Apr. 14, 2009, a period when regional dust storms occurred along the retreating edge of carbon-dioxide frost in the seasonal south polar cap. The movie combines hundreds of images from the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. In viewing the movie, it helps to understand some of the artifacts produced by the nature of MARCI images when seen in animation. MARCI acquires images in swaths from pole-to-pole during the dayside portion of each orbit. The camera can cover the entire planet in just over 12 orbits, and takes about 1 day to accumulate this coverage. The indiviual swaths are assembled into a mosaic, and that mosaic is shown here wrapped onto a sphere. The blurry portions of the mosaic, seen to be "pinwheeling" around the planet in the movie, are the portions of adjacent images viewing obliquely through the hazy atmosphsere. Portions with sharper-looking details are the central part of an image, viewing more directly downward through less atmosphere than the obliquely viewed portions. MARCI has a 180-degree field of view, and Mars fills about 78 percent of that field of view when the camera is pointed down at the planet. However, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter often is pointed to one side or the other off its orbital track in order to acquire targeted observations by the higher-resolution imaging systems on the spacecraft. When such rolls exceed about 20 degrees, gaps occur in the mosaic of MARCI swaths. Also, dark gaps appear when data are missing, either because of irrecoverable data drops, or because not all the data have yet been transmitted from the spacecraft. It isn't easy to see the actual dust motion in the atmosphere in these images, owing to the apparent motion of these artifacts. However, by concentrating on specific surface features (craters, prominent ice deposits, etc.) and looking

  11. Scrap tire management in the mid south region

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

  12. Focal region fields of distorted reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buris, N. E.; Kauffman, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the focal region fields scattered by an arbitrary surface reflector under uniform plane wave illumination is solved. The physical optics (PO) approximation is used to calculate the current induced on the reflector. The surface of the reflector is described by a number of triangular domain-wise 5th degree bivariate polynomials. A 2-dimensional Gaussian quadrature is employed to numerically evaluate the integral expressions of the scattered fields. No Freshnel or Fraunhofer zone approximations are made. The relation of the focal fields problem to surface compensation techniques and other applications are mentioned. Several examples of distorted parabolic reflectors are presented. The computer code developed is included, together with instructions on its usage.

  13. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina...

  14. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina...

  15. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  16. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  17. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  18. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  19. Simulating Regional Groundwater Flow Patterns in South Florida Using Density-Dependent Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, S. M.; Stevens, G. T.

    2008-05-01

    Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is the storage of fresh water in an aquifer via injection during times when water is available, and recovery of the water from the same aquifer via pumping during times when it is needed. ASR is one of the proposed alternatives recommended by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) to help with water supply, storage, and distribution of water in South Florida. To evaluate the numerous design considerations and the variation in aquifer response resulting from CERP ASR, regional density- dependent numerical modeling of the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) in the southern half of Florida is in progress. This modeling incorporates use of two density-dependent numerical codes, SEAWAT and WASH123D, and the synthesis of regional knowledge of the FAS in terms of geologic parameters, groundwater flow patterns, and salinity influences. Several challenges have been discovered in replicating the existing regional groundwater flow patterns, most notably, that in south-central Florida the simulated heads are considerably lower than observed values. Recent model studies of several factors that could affect south Florida regional flow patterns indicate that the inclusion of preferential flow as well as the effects of temperature on groundwater density yield results that are more consistent with observed values. Future work will focus on the investigation of field data to support the application of preferential flow and the addition of groundwater injection and withdrawal including existing and proposed ASR projects.

  20. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  1. EPA Regional Administrator Highlights the Benefits of Reducing Food Waste in South Bend

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (SOUTH BEND, IND. - November 5, 2015) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Susan Hedman joined South Bend Mayor Pete Buttigieg today at Ivy Tech Community College's culinary school to highlight the benefits of diverting food waste fr

  2. Transient surface liquid in Titan's south polar region from Cassini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, A.G.; Aharonson, O.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Zebker, H.A.; Wye, L.C.; Lorenz, R.D.; Turtle, E.P.; Paillou, P.; Mitri, G.; Wall, S.D.; Stofan, E.R.; Mitchell, K.L.; Elachi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR images of Titan's south polar region acquired during southern summer contain lake features which disappear between observations. These features show a tenfold increases in backscatter cross-section between images acquired one year apart, which is inconsistent with common scattering models without invoking temporal variability. The morphologic boundaries are transient, further supporting changes in lake level. These observations are consistent with the exposure of diffusely scattering lakebeds that were previously hidden by an attenuating liquid medium. We use a two-layer model to explain backscatter variations and estimate a drop in liquid depth of approximately 1-m-per-year. On larger scales, we observe shoreline recession between ISS and RADAR images of Ontario Lacus, the largest lake in Titan's south polar region. The recession, occurring between June 2005 and July 2009, is inversely proportional to slopes estimated from altimetric profiles and the exponential decay of near-shore backscatter, consistent with a uniform reduction of 4 ± 1.3 m in lake depth. Of the potential explanations for observed surface changes, we favor evaporation and infiltration. The disappearance of dark features and the recession of Ontario's shoreline represents volatile transport in an active methane-based hydrologic cycle. Observed loss rates are compared and shown to be consistent with available global circulation models. To date, no unambiguous changes in lake level have been observed between repeat images in the north polar region, although further investigation is warranted. These observations constrain volatile flux rates in Titan's hydrologic system and demonstrate that the surface plays an active role in its evolution. Constraining these seasonal changes represents the first step toward our understanding of longer climate cycles that may determine liquid distribution on Titan over orbital time periods.

  3. Ticks infesting cattle in Central Equatoria region of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Marcellino, Wani L; Julla, Ibrahim I; Salih, Diaeldin A; El Hussein, Abdel R M

    2011-11-15

    Ticks infesting cattle represent a serious problem for improvement of cattle productivity in South Sudan. There has been limited information on ticks and tick-borne diseases in southern Sudan. This study was initiated to update the current distribution of ticks infesting cattle in the Central Equatoria region of South Sudan. The surveys for the present study were conducted at various cattle camps in Juba, Mangalla and Terekeka between December 2004 and June 2005. A total of 2322 ticks were collected from the bodies of 88 randomly selected cattle. Ticks were preserved in 70% ethanol for later identification. Seven ixodid tick species were found to infest cattle in Juba whilst six species were recorded in Mangalla and only four species in Terekeka. Amblyomma variegatum was the most common and widely distributed species found on cattle across all the study locations. Amblyomma lepidum was not found during this study. Based on these findings, it would be advisable to preempt the situation and institute containment procedures before possible East Coast fever outbreaks occur.

  4. North south asymmetry in the coronal and photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I.; Mursula, K.

    2013-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is southward shifted during about three years in the solar declining phase (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon). We study the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since 1976 and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field shows that during the late declining phase of solar cycles since 1970s, bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g02 quadrupole term, signed oppositely to the dipole moment. Surges of new flux transport magnetic field from low latitudes to the poles, thus leading to a systematically varying contribution to the g02-term from different latitudes. In the case of a north-south asymmetric flux production this is seen as a quadrupole contribution traveling towards higher latitudes. When the quadrupole term is largest the main contribution comes from the polar latitudes. At least during the four recent solar cycles the g02-term arises because the magnitude of the southern polar field is larger than in the north in the declining phase of the cycle. Magnetic flux is transported polewards by the meridional flow and it is most likely that besides the north-south asymmetric production of the magnetic flux, also the asymmetric transportation may significantly contribute to the observed asymmetry of polar field intensities. The overall activity during solar cycle is not significantly different in the northern and southern hemispheres, but hemispheres tend to develop in a different phase.

  5. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  6. Atmospheric Pollution and Emission Sources in South Asian Urban Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, K. F.; Husain, Liaquat

    2009-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and lack of efficient monitoring and control of pollution, along with phenomena like Asian Brown Haze or prolonged episodes of winter fog, makes the South Asian atmospheric chemistry a very complex one. The anthropogenic aerosols released from this region are projected to become the dominant component of anthropogenic aerosols worldwide in the next 25 years (Nakicenovic and Swart, 2000). The region is one of the most densely populated in the world, with present population densities of 100-500 persons km-2. There are six big cities, namely, Delhi, Dhaka, Karachi, Kolkata, Lahore, and Mumbai, each housing a population around or above 10 million. There is now a real concern about the sustainability of the region's ability to support the population due to air pollution, loss of biodiversity and soil degradation. Therefore, we conducted several extensive campaigns over last 10 years in Lahore, Karachi, and Islamabad in Pakistan to (1) chemically characterize the aerosols (PM2.5 mass, concentrations of trace elements, ions, black and organic carbon), and gaseous pollutants (concentrations of NH3, SO2, HONO, HNO3, HCl and (COOH)2, and (2) identify the major emission sources in this region. Exceedingly high concentrations of all species, relative to major urban areas of US and Europe, were observed. Concentrations of PM2.5, BC, Pb, SO42-, NH4+, HONO, NH3 respectively, up to 476, 110, 12, 66, 60, 19.6 and 50 μgm-3 were observed in these cities, which were far in excess of WHO and US EPA air quality standard (Biswas et al., 2008). We use air parcel back trajectories, intercomponent relationships and meteorological observations to explain chemistry and emission sources of aerosol constituents. Carbonaceous aerosols contributed up to 69% of the PM2.5 mass (Husain et al., 2007). Source apportionment was conducted using positive matrix factorization. The analysis has classified six emission sources of aerosol components, namely, industrial activities, wood

  7. The flow field of the subtropical gyre of the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramma, L.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.

    1997-03-01

    The mean state of the transport field of the subtropical gyre of the South Indian Ocean has been derived for the upper 1000 m from selected historical hydrographic data. The subtropical gyre in the southwestern Indian Ocean is stronger than the flow in the other two oceans of the southern hemisphere. Most of the water in the South Indian gyre recirculates in the western and central parts of the basin. In the upper 1000 m the eastward transport of the South Indian Ocean Current starts with 60 Sv in the region southeast of South Africa. Between the longitudes of 40° and 50°E about 20 Sv of the 60 Sv recirculates in a southwest Indian subgyre. Another major diversion northward occurs between 60° and 70°E. At 90°E the remaining 20 Sv of the eastward flow splits up, 10 Sv going north to join the westward flow and only 10 Sv continuing in a northeastward direction to move northward near Australia. Near Australia, there is indication of the poleward flowing Leeuwin Current with a transport of 5 Sv. In the central tropical Indian Ocean between 10°S and 20°S, about 15 Sv flows to the west. The western boundary current of this subtropical gyre consists of the Agulhas Current along the east coast of southern Africa. Its mean flow is composed of 25 Sv from east of Madagascar and 35 Sv from recirculation in the southwest Indian subgyre south of Madagascar, with only 5 Sv being contributed from the Mozambique Channel. A net southward transport of 10 Sv results for the upper 1000 m of the South Indian Ocean. In contrast to the triangular shape of the subtropical gyre in the South Atlantic, probably caused by the cross-equatorial flow into the North Atlantic, the area influenced by the subtropical gyre in the South Indian Ocean is more rectangular.

  8. North-south asymmetry of eolian features in Martian polar regions - Analysis based on crater-related wind markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.

    1981-01-01

    Crater-related wind markers in the north and south polar regions of Mars are analyzed in a study of possible north-south asymmetries in wind activity. Features including crater splotches and associated streaks, and depositional, erosional, frost and frost-sediment streaks were identified and analyzed as wind direction indicators on Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 images of areas poleward of + or - 40 deg latitude. The wind streaks reveal eolian activity at present to be strongest in the north in winter and in the south in spring, due to the hemispherical asymmetry in climate. The alignment of the more massive intercrater dune fields with the presently strongest wind may reflect a longer-term asymmetry in spring flows, as the reorientation times of the dunes exceeded the period of climate asymmetry cycles. Finally, a wider distribution of dune latitudes in the southern polar region is noted to be suggestive of the greater effectiveness of windflow from the south pole.

  9. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, M; Bhattacharya, S K; Narain, J P

    2012-04-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia.

  10. Mars at Ls 269o: South Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    30 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  11. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, M.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Narain, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia. PMID:22664492

  12. Mars at Ls 269o: South Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    30 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the south polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  13. View of South TwentySixth Street. Stairs to sports field on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Sixth Street. Stairs to sports field on right which are seen in photo no. HABS CA-2783-3. Buildings No. 25, 26, 27, seen left to right at rear, looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  15. Higher Education Reform in South Korea: Perspectives on the New University for Regional Innovation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena; Yeom, Minho

    2010-01-01

    The New University for Regional Innovation (NURI) is one of the South Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development's key projects supporting regional universities. NURI aims to develop areas of specialization in regional universities and link universities to local industries. In 2004, the South Korean government pledged to invest…

  16. Geostatistical Estimations of Regional Hydraulic Conductivity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarche, D.; Castro, M. C.; Goovaerts, P.

    2004-12-01

    Direct and indirect measurements of hydraulic conductivity (K) are commonly performed, providing information on the magnitude of this parameter at the local scale (tens of centimeters to hundreds of meters) and at shallow depths. By contrast, field information on hydraulic conductivities at regional scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers and at greater depths is relatively scarce. Geostatistical methods allow for sparsely sampled observations of a variable (primary information) to be complemented by a more densely sampled secondary attribute. Geostatistical estimations of the hydraulic conductivity field in the Carrizo aquifer, a major groundwater flow system extending along Texas, are performed using available primary (e.g., transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity) and secondary (specific capacity) information, for depths up to 2.2 km, and over three regional domains of increasing extent: 1) the domain corresponding to a three-dimensional groundwater flow model previously built (model domain); 2) the area corresponding to the ten counties encompassing the model domain (County domain), and; 3) the full extension of the Carrizo aquifer within Texas (Texas domain). Two different approaches are used: 1) an indirect approach are transmissivity (T) is estimated first and (K) is retrieved through division of the T estimate by the screening length of the wells, and; 2) a direct approach where K data are kriged directly. Prediction performances of the tested geostatistical procedures (kriging combined with linear regression, kriging with known local means, kriging of residuals, and cokriging) are evaluated through cross validation for both log-transformed variables and back-transformed ones. For the indirect approach, kriging of log T residuals yields the best estimates for both log-transformed and back-transformed variables in the model domain. For larger regional scales (County and Texas domains), cokriging performs generally better than univariate kriging procedures

  17. Regional gravity field modelling from GOCE observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel; Tenzer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss a regional recovery of gravity disturbances at the mean geocentric sphere approximating the Earth over the area of Central Europe from satellite gravitational gradients. For this purpose, we derive integral formulas which allow converting the gravity disturbances onto the disturbing gravitational gradients in the local north-oriented frame (LNOF). The derived formulas are free of singularities in case of r ≠ R . We then investigate three numerical approaches for solving their inverses. In the initial approach, the integral formulas are firstly modified for solving individually the near- and distant-zone contributions. While the effect of the near-zone gravitational gradients is solved as an inverse problem, the effect of the distant-zone gravitational gradients is computed by numerical integration from the global gravitational model (GGM) TIM-r4. In the second approach, we further elaborate the first scenario by reducing measured gravitational gradients for gravitational effects of topographic masses. In the third approach, we apply additional modification by reducing gravitational gradients for the reference GGM. In all approaches we determine the gravity disturbances from each of the four accurately measured gravitational gradients separately as well as from their combination. Our regional gravitational field solutions are based on the GOCE EGG_TRF_2 gravitational gradients collected within the period from November 1 2009 until January 11 2010. Obtained results are compared with EGM2008, DIR-r1, TIM-r1 and SPW-r1. The best fit, in terms of RMS (2.9 mGal), is achieved for EGM2008 while using the third approach which combine all four well-measured gravitational gradients. This is explained by the fact that a-priori information about the Earth's gravitational field up to the degree and order 180 was used.

  18. Four p67 alleles identified in South African Theileria parva field samples.

    PubMed

    Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Geysen, Dirk; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matthee, Conrad A; Troskie, Milana; Potgieter, Frederick T; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Collins, Nicola E

    2010-02-10

    Previous studies characterizing the Theileria parva p67 gene in East Africa revealed two alleles. Cattle-derived isolates associated with East Coast fever (ECF) have a 129bp deletion in the central region of the p67 gene (allele 1), compared to buffalo-derived isolates with no deletion (allele 2). In South Africa, Corridor disease outbreaks occur if there is contact between infected buffalo and susceptible cattle in the presence of vector ticks. Although ECF was introduced into South Africa in the early 20th century, it has been eradicated and it is thought that there has been no cattle to cattle transmission of T. parva since. The variable region of the p67 gene was amplified and the gene sequences analyzed to characterize South African T. parva parasites that occur in buffalo, in cattle from farms where Corridor disease outbreaks were diagnosed and in experimentally infected cattle. Four p67 alleles were identified, including alleles 1 and 2 previously detected in East African cattle and buffalo, respectively, as well as two novel alleles, one with a different 174bp deletion (allele 3), the other with a similar sequence to allele 3 but with no deletion (allele 4). Sequence variants of allele 1 were obtained from field samples originating from both cattle and buffalo. Allele 1 was also obtained from a bovine that tested T. parva positive from a farm near Ladysmith in the KwaZulu-Natal Province. East Coast fever was not diagnosed on this farm, but the p67 sequence was identical to that of T. parva Muguga, an isolate that causes ECF in Kenya. Variants of allele 2 were obtained from all T. parva samples from both buffalo and cattle, except Lad 10 and Zam 5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that alleles 3 and 4 are monophyletic and diverged early from the other alleles. These novel alleles were not identified from South African field samples collected from cattle; however allele 3, with a p67 sequence identical to those obtained in South African field samples from

  19. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation because the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar south pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This report presents a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based, stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the stationary surface navigation system needs to be operated either as a two-way navigation system or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while the position solution is integrated over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  20. Palaeomagnetic evidence for the persistence or recurrence of geomagnetic main field anomalies in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jay; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Leitner, Marko; Leonhardt, Roman; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Heunemann, Christoph; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ashley, Jack A. D.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We present a dataset of a full-vector palaeomagnetic study of Late Pleistocene lavas from the island Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean. The current day geomagnetic field intensity in this region is approximately 25 μT, compared to an expected value of ∼43 μT; this phenomenon is known as the South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly (SAA). Geomagnetic field models extending back to the last 10 ka find no evidence for this being a persistent feature of the geomagnetic field, albeit, all models are constructed from data which is particularly sparse in the southern hemisphere. New 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating dating indicates the studied lavas from Tristan da Cunha extruded between 90 and 46 ka. Palaeointensity estimations of eight lava flows made using the Thellier method yield an average palaeointensity of 18 ± 6 μT and virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.1 ± 1.2 ×1022 Am2. The lava flows demonstrate four time intervals comparable to the present day SAA, where the average VADM of the Tristan da Cunha lavas is weaker than the global VADM average. This suggests a persistent or recurring low intensity anomaly to the main geomagnetic field similar to the SAA existed in the South Atlantic between 46 and 90 ka.

  1. Black Carbon Emissions and Impacts on the South American Glacial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Gallardo, L.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon is one of the key short-lived climate pollutants, which is a topic of growing interest for near-term mitigation of climate change and air quality improvement. In this presentation we will examine the emissions and impact of black carbon and co-pollutants on the South American glacial region and describe some recent measurements associated with the PISAC (Pollution and its Impacts on the South American Cryosphere) Initiative. The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world, extending about 7000 km along western South America through seven countries with complex topography and covering several climate zones, diversity of ecosystems and communities. Air pollution associated with biomass burning and urban emissions affects extensive areas in the region and is a serious public health concern. Scientific evidence indicates that the Andean cryosphere is changing rapidly as snow fields and glaciers generally recede, leading to changes in stream flow and water quality along the Andes. The challenge is to identify the principal causes of the observed changes so that action can be taken to mitigate this negative trend. Despite the paucity of systematic observations along the Andes, a few modeling and observational studies have indicated the presence of black carbon in the high Andes, with potentially significant impact on the Andean cryosphere.

  2. Intraplate stress field in South America from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Dias, Fábio L.; Zevallos, Ivan; Naliboff, John B.

    2016-11-01

    We present an updated compilation of earthquake focal mechanisms in Brazil together with focal mechanisms from the sub-Andean region (mainly from global CMT catalogs). All earthquakes in the sub-Andean region show reverse (majority) or strike-slip faulting mechanisms. Focal mechanisms in Brazil show reverse, strike-slip and normal faulting. Focal mechanisms of nearby earthquakes in the same tectonic environment were grouped and inverted for the stress tensor. In the sub-Andean region, stresses are compressional, as expected, with the principal major compression (S1) roughly E-W, on average. A slight rotation of S1 can be observed and is controlled by the orientation of the Andean plateau. In the sub-Andean region, the intermediate principal stress (S2) is also compressional (i.e., larger than the lithostatic pressure, Sv), a feature that is not always reproduced in numerical models published in the literature. In mid-plate South America stresses seem to vary in nature and orientation. In SE Brazil and the Chaco-Pantanal basins, S1 tends to be oriented roughly E-W with S2 approximately equal to S3. This stress pattern changes to purely compressional (both SHmax and Shmin larger than Sv) in the São Francisco craton. A rotation of SHmax from E-W to SE-NW is suggested towards the Amazon region. Along the Atlantic margin, the regional stresses are very much affected by coastal effects (due to continent/ocean spreading stresses as well as flexural effects from sediment load at the continental margin). This coastal effect tends to make SHmax parallel to the coastline and Shmin (usually S3) perpendicular to the coastline. Few breakout data and in-situ measurements are available in Brazil and are generally consistent with the pattern derived from the earthquake focal mechanisms. Although numerical models of global lithospheric stresses tend to reproduce the main large-scale features in most mid-plate areas, the S1 rotation from ∼E-W in SE Brazil to SE-NW in the Amazon

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  5. Ice damage effects on an old-field, thinned and fertilized loblolly pine stand in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Bryan C. McElvany; Beth W. Richardson; E. David Dickens

    2006-01-01

    On January 26, 2004, an ice storm impacted 15 South Carolina counties. An established fertilization study area in Clarendon County, SC, was in the affected region. This old-field, thinned, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand was fertilized in the spring of 1998. Treatments consisted of: (1) control; (2) poultry litter (7 tons acre-1); and (3)...

  6. Harold Hill and the South Polar region of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, R.

    2010-04-01

    For over half a century the British selenographer Harold Hill laboured to produce a detailed chart of the region around the south pole of the Moon. In the year before his death, having concluded the project would never be completed in his lifetime, he sent the writer a fragment of his archive, no doubt with the unspoken assumption that at least some part might be brought to general notice. Accordingly as the man is so much a piece of his work, and so much of his life is in his work, I have found it more suitable to adopt a biographical approach to outline the essence of his epic undertaking. Here the writer notes but does not discuss, a parallel with the lunar drawings of the eighteenth century portrait painter John Russell. His drawings of the Moon exceed in quality and accuracy those of his more illustrious contemporaries, and certainly pre-empted the classic work of Beer and Mädler, yet curiously they are little noticed in histories of selenography.

  7. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  8. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  9. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  10. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, J.P.; Neel, D.

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  11. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  12. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  13. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 37-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2010), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the

  14. Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Genotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Regions of South China.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Lu, Junwan; Zong, Li; Li, Ailing; Pan, Ruowang; Cheng, Cong; Li, Kunpeng; Chen, Liqiang; Ying, Jianchao; Tou, Huifen; Zhu, Chuanxin; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Jinsong; Ni, Liyan; Xu, Zuyuan; Bao, Qiyu; Li, Peizhen

    2016-05-20

    The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii. A total of 398 isolates were collected in 7 regions of South China from January to June of 2012. Drug sensitivity was tested toward 15 commonly used antibiotics; thus, 146 multi-drug-resistant strains (resistant to more than 7 drugs) were identified, representing 36.7% of all isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for molecular subtyping. According to the PFGE results (with a cutoff of 70% similarity for the DNA electrophoretic bands), 146 strains were subdivided into 15 clusters, with cluster A being the largest (33.6%, distributed in all districts except Jiaxing). Cluster B was also widespread and included 14.4% of all strains. In addition, MLST results revealed 11 sequence types (ST), with ST208 being the most prevalent, followed by ST191 and ST729. Furthermore, 4 novel alleles and 6 novel STs were identified. Our results showed that multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii in South China shares the origin with other widespread strains in other countries. The nosocomial infections caused by A. baumannii have been severe in South China. Continuous monitoring and judicious antibiotic use are required.

  15. Wadi dynamics in the Souss region, South Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Peter, Klaus Daniel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Souss region is strongly influenced by sheet wash, rill and gully erosion and intersected by ephemeral rivers, varying in size, called wadis or Oueds. Since this region is used intensely for agricultural purposes, land levelling is used to prevent the area from becoming badlands. The aim of this study was to identify the factors controlling the dynamics inside a wadi and especially to determine if wadis act as sinks for the sediment that is washed from the plains or if the sediment is transported further through the network of wadis. Scour chains were used to measure erosion or accumulation on the wadi bed. During the years 2011-2014 37 measurements were conducted in seven different wadis. These study areas were situated from northeast to southwest on an alluvial fan between the High Atlas in the North and the city of Taroudant in the South. To be able to identify factors contributing to wadi dynamics accumulated wadi length and catchment area as well as land use classes were mapped based on a Quickbird satellite image. The measurements showed variable data, with results ranging from +30 cm (accumulation) to -37 cm (erosion) per measurement interval ranging from two weeks to one year. While erosion was dominant in some wadis, others showed a tendency towards accumulation. From the measurement data, the phenomenon of 'Scour & Fill' becomes apparent. Sediment from the plains is eroded from the wadi with high water velocities and with decreasing flow speed fills scour rills downstream. Due to the high variability of measurement data from the scour chains, satisfying correlations between wadi erosion/accumulation and possibly contributing factors could not be detected. Daily maximum precipitation ranked as the factor that most likely controlled wadi dynamics, while land use showed virtually no correlation, possibly because of limited connectivity in the study area. Other contributing factors like accumulated wadi length and wadi width are linked more closely to the

  16. Spiculitic chert reservoir in Glick Field, South-Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.P.; Longman, M.W.; Lloyd, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Glick Field, located in Kiowa and Comanche counties of southern Kansas, was discovered in 1957 and has produced more than 362 BCF from Mississippian Osage chert, commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Chat.{close_quotes} Other {open_quotes}CHAT{close_quotes} reservoirs in Kansas and Oklahoma produce mainly from mixed chert and dolomite beneath the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity, but Glick Field`s reservoir is dominated by chert containing abundant sponge spicules. Glick Field is a stratigraphic trap with production ending where the spiculitic facies pinches out into tight limestones to the south and west which provide a lateral seal. Additionally, updip, to the northeast, the productive facies is truncated by the unconformity. Reworked chert conglomerates overlying the spiculitic reservoir at the unconformity also produce some gas. The spiculitic chert forming the reservoir was desposited below storm wavebase and grades laterally in all directions into echinoderm and brachiopod-rich skeletal wackestones and lime mudstones. Even where completely silicified, these associated limestone are tight. Thus, the reservoir is an in situ oval-shaped complex of internally brecciated sponge mats and bioherms capped in part by the chert conglomerate. The spiculitic chert contains up to 50% porosity in molds after sponge spicules, matrix micropores and vugs are connected in part by fracture and breccia porosity. Distribution of the sponge bioherms which form the reservoir facies was partly controlled by a subtle change on the shallow Mississippian carbonate shelf from clean skeletal limestones southward into shaly (and probably more anoxic) carbonates known locally as the {open_quotes}Cowley Facies.{close_quotes} The sponge bioherms formed most commonly just updip from this boundary, which can be mapped across southern Kansas. Thus, lithologic mapping provides a potential exploration tool with which to find other stratigraphically trapped spiculitic reservoirs in the area.

  17. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  18. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, and industrial wastes of South Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  19. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Gaia South Ecliptic Pole Field as Seen by OGLE-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Skowron, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the Gaia South Ecliptic Pole (GSEP) field, 5.3 square degrees area around the South Ecliptic Pole on the outskirts of the LMC, based on the data collected during the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, OGLE-IV. The GSEP field will be observed during the commissioning phase of the ESA Gaia space mission for testing and calibrating the Gaia instruments. We provide the photometric maps of the GSEP region containing the mean VI photometry of all detected stellar objects and their equatorial coordinates. We show the quality and completeness of the OGLE-IV photometry and color-magnitude diagrams of this region. We conducted an extensive search for variable stars in the GSEP field leading to the discovery of 6789 variable stars. In this sample we found 132 classical Cepheids, 686 RR Lyr type stars, 2819 long-period, and 1377 eclipsing variables. Several objects deserving special attention were also selected, including a new classical Cepheid in a binary eclipsing system. To provide empirical data for the Gaia Science Alert system we also conducted a search for optical transients. We discovered two firm type Ia supernovae and nine additional supernova candidates. To facilitate future Gaia supernovae detections we prepared a list of more than 1900 galaxies to redshift about 0.1 located in the GSEP field. Finally, we present the results of astrometric study of the GSEP field. With the 26 months time base of the presented here OGLE-IV data, proper motions of stars could be detected with the accuracy reaching 2 mas/yr. Astrometry allowed to distinguish galactic foreground variable stars detected in the GSEP field from LMC objects and to discover about 50 high proper motion stars (proper motion ≥ 100 mas/yr). Among them three new nearby white dwarfs were found. All data presented in this paper are available to the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive.

  20. Subsidence and well failure in the South Belridge Diatomite field

    SciTech Connect

    Rouffignac, E.P. de; Bondor, P.L.; Karanikas, J.M. Hara, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Withdrawal of fluids from shallow, thick and low strength rock can cause substantial reservoir compaction leading to surface subsidence and well failure. This is the case for the Diatomite reservoir, where over 10 ft of subsidence have occurred in some areas. Well failure rates have averaged over 3% per year, resulting in several million dollars per year in well replacement and repair costs in the South Belridge Diatomite alone. A program has been underway to address this issue, including experimental, modeling and field monitoring work. An updated elastoplastic rock law based on laboratory data has been generated which includes not only standard shear failure mechanisms but also irreversible pore collapse occurring at low effective stresses (<150 psi). This law was incorporated into a commercial finite element geomechanics simulator. Since the late 1980s, a network of level survey monuments has been used to monitor subsidence at Belridge. Model predictions of subsidence in Section 33 compare very well with field measured data, which show that water injection reduces subsidence from 7--8 inches per year to 1--2 inches per year, but does not abate well failure.

  1. Mesospheric Winds and Magnetic Fields from the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C. L.; Burrows, S. M.; Brown, M. J.; Roberts, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    We show how carbon monoxide (CO) can be used as a tracer of mesospheric neutral wind speeds, by measuring small Doppler shifts in its rotational emission spectrum. Since the altitude range we are most sensitive to is generally inaccessible to many other measurement techniques, this fills a significant experimental gap. Using this method, high-resolution ground-based measurements of mesospheric CO taken from the AST/RO sub-millimeter telescope, located at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station have been used to calculate wind speeds and column densities over the Antarctic from 2002 to 2005. For more information see Burrows et al. JGR-Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2006JD007993. In addition, the 2→ 1 rotational transition of O18O has been measured and used as a tracer of the mesospheric magnetic field over the Antarctic. We demonstrate how the Zeeman splitting of this molecule was used to measure the Earth's magnetic field during the geomagnetic storm of January 2003.

  2. Small Field: dosimetry in electron disequilibrium region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.

    2010-11-01

    Small fields are more commonly used for radiation therapy because of the development of IMRT, stereotactic radiosurgery, and other special equipments such as Cyberknife and Tomotherapy. The dosimetry in the sub-centimeter field can result in substantial uncertainties because of the presence of electron disequilibrium due to the large dose gradients in the field. It is further complicated by the introduction of various radiation detectors, which usually perturb the conditions of disequilibrium. Hence additional corrections are required to maintain the dosimetric accuracy previously achieved for standard radiation dosimetry. A review of small field dosimetry provides some insights into the methods to characterize the detector convolution kernel and other methods to characterize detector perturbation effect.

  3. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 40-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2014), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The entire infaunal community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012 and returned to pre-2011 numbers in 2014. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. However, within two months of this event animals returned to the mudflat. The resilience of the community suggested that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2014 is

  4. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  5. Carbon Erosion in the Great Karoo Region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Foster, Ian; Boardman, John; Meadows, Mike; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    Work undertaken in the seasonally arid upland areas of the Great Karoo region of South Africa has established a link between land degradation and overgrazing which began in the second half of the 18th century when European farmers first settled the area. Ongoing land use change and shifting rainfall patterns resulted in the development of badlands on foot slopes of upland areas, and gully systems on valley bottoms. As a consequence of agricultural intensification and overgrazing, accompanied by a higher water demand, many small reservoirs were constructed, most of which are now in-filled with sediment. The deposited material serves as an environmental archive by which land use change over the last 100 years can be analysed, but with a particular focus on erosion and deposition of soil-associated carbon (C). It is assumed that erosion caused an initial flush of carbon rich soil which was subsequently buried and stored off-site. Despite this assumption, however the net-effect of erosion on carbon dioxide emissions is still unknown. In this project, preliminary results are presented from an investigation to determine whether land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in a shift from a net sink of C to a net source of C. Firstly, a high resolution digital elevation model was generated and erosion modelling was then employed to create an erosion risk map showing areas most prone to erosion. Information from the model output then served as the basis for ground-truthing and on-site erosion mapping. Secondly, sediment deposits from silted reservoirs were analysed for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to reconstruct spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. Analysis of total carbon (TC) content revealed a sharp decrease with decreasing depth. This provisionally suggests that land degradation during and after post-European settlement probably led to accelerated erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils. This presumably resulted in the rapid in-filling of

  6. The Scholarly Impact of Doctoral Research Conducted in the Field of Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the scholarly impact of knowledge generated as part of doctoral studies in the field of education in South Africa. The transition rate of the 97 doctoral theses completed in the various fields of education in South Africa in 2008 into peer-reviewed articles and chapters in scholarly books, as well as the…

  7. A Comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, A. K. Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions" by Katherine Hay. Hay raises a number of extremely relevant issues relating to evaluation field building in South Asia. In this paper, the author aims to underscore the importance of three priorities for initiating…

  8. A Comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, A. K. Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comment on "Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions" by Katherine Hay. Hay raises a number of extremely relevant issues relating to evaluation field building in South Asia. In this paper, the author aims to underscore the importance of three priorities for initiating…

  9. Jupiter - Region from the Great Red Spot to the South Pole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-13

    This picture from NASA Voyager 2 shows a region of the southern hemisphere extending from the Great Red Spot to the south pole. The white oval is seen beneath the Great Red Spot, and several small scale spots are visible farther to the south. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00372

  10. Pre-Kindergarten in the South: Preserving the Region's Comparative Advantage in Education. Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This Southern Education Foundation (SEF) report warns Southern states against endangering critical, hard-earned gains in early childhood education--the South's most effective innovation in public education--as state legislatures in the region consider substantial cuts to education programs. The SEF report reviews how the South continues to lead…

  11. South Polar Region of Mars: Topography and Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P. M.; Moore, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The polar layered deposits of Mars represent potentially important volatile reservoirs and tracers for the planet's geologically recent climate history. Unlike the north polar cap, the uppermost surface of the bright residual south polar deposit is probably composed of carbon dioxide ice. It is unknown whether this ice extends through the entire thickness of the deposit. The Mars Polar Lander (MPL), launched in January 1999, is due to arrive in December 1999 to search for water and carbon dioxide on layered deposits near the south pole (SP) of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. South Polar Region of Mars: Topography and Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P. M.; Moore, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The polar layered deposits of Mars represent potentially important volatile reservoirs and tracers for the planet's geologically recent climate history. Unlike the north polar cap, the uppermost surface of the bright residual south polar deposit is probably composed of carbon dioxide ice. It is unknown whether this ice extends through the entire thickness of the deposit. The Mars Polar Lander (MPL), launched in January 1999, is due to arrive in December 1999 to search for water and carbon dioxide on layered deposits near the south pole (SP) of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Forecasting auroras from regional and global magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Myllys, Minna; Partamies, Noora; Viljanen, Ari; Peitso, Pyry; Juusola, Liisa; Ahmadzai, Shabana; Singh, Vikramjit; Keil, Ralf; Martinez, Unai; Luginin, Alexej; Glover, Alexi; Navarro, Vicente; Raita, Tero

    2016-06-01

    We use the connection between auroral sightings and rapid geomagnetic field variations in a concept for a Regional Auroral Forecast (RAF) service. The service is based on statistical relationships between near-real-time alerts issued by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center and magnetic time derivative (dB/dt) values measured by five MIRACLE magnetometer stations located in Finland at auroral and sub-auroral latitudes. Our database contains NOAA alerts and dB/dt observations from the years 2002-2012. These data are used to create a set of conditional probabilities, which tell the service user when the probability of seeing auroras exceeds the average conditions in Fennoscandia during the coming 0-12 h. Favourable conditions for auroral displays are associated with ground magnetic field time derivative values (dB/dt) exceeding certain latitude-dependent threshold values. Our statistical analyses reveal that the probabilities of recording dB/dt exceeding the thresholds stay below 50 % after NOAA alerts on X-ray bursts or on energetic particle flux enhancements. Therefore, those alerts are not very useful for auroral forecasts if we want to keep the number of false alarms low. However, NOAA alerts on global geomagnetic storms (characterized with Kp values > 4) enable probability estimates of > 50 % with lead times of 3-12 h. RAF forecasts thus rely heavily on the well-known fact that bright auroras appear during geomagnetic storms. The additional new piece of information which RAF brings to the previous picture is the knowledge on typical storm durations at different latitudes. For example, the service users south of the Arctic Circle will learn that after a NOAA ALTK06 issuance in night, auroral spotting should be done within 12 h after the alert, while at higher latitudes conditions can remain favourable during the next night.

  14. Tectonic analysis of northwestern South America from integrated satellite, airborne and surface potential field anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Orlando

    differentially reduced-to-pole total field (DRTP) magnetic anomalies show crustal thickness variations and states of magneto-isostatic compensation. Continental crustal thickness estimates for the North Andes are in the range from roughly 34 km to 55 km, conforming well to and extending regional seismic constraints. The analysis highlights crustal deformation from plate collision and subduction in Northwestern South America. Inversely correlated FVDFAGA and DRTP magnetic anomalies suggest thickness variations in the lower crust and thermal effects in terms of the Curie isotherm. Directly correlated FVDFAGA and DRTP magnetic anomalies indicate thickness variations of the upper crust due to the formation of recent topography.

  15. E and F region electric fields over dip equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, S.; Muralikrishna, P.

    1981-04-01

    The horizontal east-west drift velocity of ionization irregularities in E region, and the vertical drift velocity of electrons in F region over Jicamarca (dip latitude approximately 1 deg N) are used to estimate the average diurnal variation of the east-west components of the electric fields in these two regions. The F region field is estimated from the vertical drift velocity by using the relationship derived earlier by Woodman (1970). The E region field is estimated from the horizontal east-west drift velocity by using a relationship derived by using realistic electrojet and conductivity models. The E region electric field thus obtained is found to be weaker at least by a factor of three than that estimated by Balsley and Woodman (1971). A comparative study shows that the east-west electric field in the F region is, most of the time, stronger than that in the E region, and also that the ratio of the E region field to the F region field systematically increases from forenoon to afternoon hours, and from pre-midnight to post-midnight hours.

  16. H-band observations of the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, E.; Barmby, P.; Rigopoulou, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.

    2003-05-01

    We report results of our H-band survey of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). The observations, made with SofI on the NTT, cover 0.027 square degrees to H< 20.5 and 0.17 square degrees to H< 19.8 (50% completeness limits). In total, 4819 objects were detected, of which 80% are galaxies based on the SExtractor parameter ``stellarity index'' having a value less than 0.5. Our astrometric solutions are in good agreement with those of the Las Campanas Infrared Survey (LCIRS), the COMBO-17, and the ESO-EIS surveys. Our photometry compares satisfactorily with the LCIRS results as well as with GOODS data. Galaxy number counts are ~ 50 000 galaxies per square degree at H< 20.75, in good agreement with those of LCIRS. The object catalog is published electronically at the CDS. The whole catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/493}. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile under programs 66.A-0451 and 68.A-0375.

  17. Present-day stress field on the South American slab underneath the Sandwich Plate (Southern Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giner-Robles, J. L.; Pérez-López, R.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    This work confirms the present-day principal stress orientation on the South Sandwich Plate (SSP) from the analysis of 331 earthquake focal mechanisms (Harvard catalog, HCMT). Principal stress orientation was deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms, examined by fault population analysis methods. The SSP plate is composed by oceanic crust limits an elliptical trench to the east (South Sandwich Trench), a ridge to the west and transforms faults towards the northern and southern boundaries. Within the trench region, the maximum horizontal shortening direction (SHMAX) rotates in trend in a clockwise direction, from NNE, in the northern boundary, to SSE in the southern boundary. Therefore, and keeping in mind the gradual rotation of SHMAX along the trench, three different areas were defined according to the prevailing focal mechanism type: (1) the North Zone, with SHMAX oriented N060°E and reverse and strike-slip focal mechanisms; (2) the Central Zone, with only reverse focal mechanism and SHMAX striking N080°E; (3) the South Zone, with SHMAX oriented N110°E and reverse and strike-slip focal geometry. Furthermore, the accommodation of the strain field in the Northern Zone of the South Sandwich Plate generates a subduction decoupling of the slab at, approximately, 70 km depth. In contrast, the South Zone slab exhibits a gradual stress and strain magnitude decreasing in depth. Finally, we define a sinistral strike-slip parallel to the southern boundary between the South Sandwich Plate and the Antarctic Plate, the South Sandwich Fault Zone.

  18. Human Constraints to Sustainable Agriculture in the Arid Regions of South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvel, G. H.; Botha, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 79 South African farmers in arid regions showed that their conservation practices were influenced by such human factors as needs, perceptions, and knowledge. Direct influence on adoption behaviors was recommended to encourage sustainable agriculture practices. (SK)

  19. Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association: Odlaa's Regional Predecessor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewley, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association (ASPESA)-- the predecessor of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Inc. (ODLAA)--was founded in 1973. From the outset, ASPESA adopted a broader-than-Australia focus for open and distance learning that included New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the member countries…

  20. Simulation of the Climate of South-West Asia with a Regional Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. P.; Smith, R.; Oglesby, R.; Arnold, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of the regional model RegCM2 to simulate the climate of South-West Asia is examined. The climate of the region displays high spatial, seasonal and interannual variability, providing a strong test of climate model capabilities. RegCM2 captures the spatial variability of temperature and precipitation despite cold biases being present in the model. RegCM2 does not capture the annual cycle of precipitation on the Black and Caspian Sea coasts where very steep topography exists, nor on the eastern Mediterranean coast where the coastal mountains are not resolvable. RegCM2 does capture the seasonal cycle in the Fertile Crescent and Zagros mountains, where it is strongly influenced by a plateau circulation above the Iranian plateau. It is shown that accurate simulation of precipitation in these regions, including the inter-annual variability, requires the correct simulation of both storm tracks and topographic interactions. Through the use of regional climate models the concentration and transport pathways of water vapor through the Middle East can be explored. The results demonstrate that short lived 'events' have little impact on monthly mean atmospheric fields yet provide a significant amount of the precipitated water which flows in the Tigris river.

  1. Impact of soil moisture on regional spectral model simulations for South America

    Treesearch

    Shyh-Chin Chen; John Roads

    2005-01-01

    A regional simulation using the regional spectral model (RSM) with 50-km grid space increment over South America is described. NCEP/NCAR 28 vertical levels T62 spectral resolution reanalyses were used to initialize and force the regional model for a two-year period from March 1997 through March 1999. Initially, the RSM had a severe drying trend in the soil moisture...

  2. A DETERMINATION OF THE NORTH–SOUTH HELIOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD COMPONENT FROM INNER CORONA CLOSED-LOOP PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Yu, H.-S.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Zhao, X. E-mail: pphick@ucsd.edu E-mail: hsyu@ucsd.edu

    2015-04-10

    A component of the magnetic field measured in situ near the Earth in the solar wind is present from north–south fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-sheet Source Surface model, these fields can be extrapolated upward from near the solar surface to 1 AU. Global velocities inferred from a combination of interplanetary scintillation observations matched to in situ velocities and densities provide the extrapolation to 1 AU assuming mass and mass flux conservation. The north–south field component is compared with the same ACE in situ magnetic field component—the Normal (Radial Tangential Normal) Bn coordinate—for three years throughout the solar minimum of the current solar cycle. We find a significant positive correlation throughout this period between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in situ measurements. Given this result from a study during the latest solar minimum, this indicates that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux regularly escapes from closed field regions. The prospects for Space Weather, where the knowledge of a Bz field at Earth is important for its geomagnetic field effects, is also now enhanced. This is because the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric Bz field coordinate that couples most closely to the Earth’s geomagnetic field.

  3. Feature-oriented regional modeling and simulations (FORMS) for the western South Atlantic: Southeastern Brazil region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, L.; Gangopadhyay, A.; da Silveira, I. C. A.

    The multi-scale synoptic circulation system in the southeastern Brazil (SEBRA) region is presented using a feature-oriented approach. Prevalent synoptic circulation structures, or "features," are identified from previous observational studies. These features include the southward-flowing Brazil Current (BC), the eddies off Cabo São Tomé (CST - 22°S) and off Cabo Frio (CF - 23°S), and the upwelling region off CF and CST. Their synoptic water-mass ( T- S) structures are characterized and parameterized to develop temperature-salinity ( T- S) feature models. Following [Gangopadhyay, A., Robinson, A.R., Haley, P.J., Leslie, W.J., Lozano, C.J., Bisagni, J., Yu, Z., 2003. Feature-oriented regional modeling and simulation (forms) in the gulf of maine and georges bank. Cont. Shelf Res. 23 (3-4), 317-353] methodology, a synoptic initialization scheme for feature-oriented regional modeling and simulation (FORMS) of the circulation in this region is then developed. First, the temperature and salinity feature-model profiles are placed on a regional circulation template and objectively analyzed with available background climatology in the deep region. These initialization fields are then used for dynamical simulations via the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). A few first applications of this methodology are presented in this paper. These include the BC meandering, the BC-eddy interaction and the meander-eddy-upwelling system (MEUS) simulations. Preliminary validation results include realistic wave-growth and eddy formation and sustained upwelling. Our future plan includes the application of these feature models with satellite, in-situ data and advanced data-assimilation schemes for nowcasting and forecasting the SEBRA region.

  4. The Field Operations and Early Results of the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Ding, Yihui; Wang, Jough-Tai; Johnson, Richard; Keenan, Tom; Cifelli, Robert; Gerlach, John; Thiele, Otto; Rickenbach, Tom; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1999-01-01

    The South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) is an international field experiment with the objective to better understand the key physical processes for the onset and evolution of the Asian summer monsoon in relation to fluctuation of the regional hydrologic cycle over Southeast Asian, southern East Asia, aiming at improving monsoon prediction. In this article, we present a description of the major meteorological observation platforms during the Intensive Observing Periods (IOP) of SCSMEX. We also provide highlights of early results and discussions of the role of SCSMEX in providing valuable in-situ data for calibration of satellite rainfall estimate from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Preliminary results indicate that there are distinctive stages in the onset of the South China Sea monsoon including possibly strong influences from extratropical systems as well as from convection over the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. There are some tantalizing evidence of complex interactions between the supercloud cluster development over the Indian Ocean, advancing southwest monsoon flow over the South China Sea, midlatitude disturbances and the western Pacific subtropical high, possibly contributing to the disastrous flood over Yangtze River Basin in China during June 1998.

  5. Michael Young and the Curriculum Field in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of what we should make of Michael Young's recent work with respect to curriculum theory by considering the particular case of South African curriculum reform. The paper thus traces two trajectories: the evolution of Michael Young's ideas over time and South African curriculum reform in the post-apartheid period.…

  6. Michael Young and the Curriculum Field in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of what we should make of Michael Young's recent work with respect to curriculum theory by considering the particular case of South African curriculum reform. The paper thus traces two trajectories: the evolution of Michael Young's ideas over time and South African curriculum reform in the post-apartheid period.…

  7. North-South Asymmetries in Earth's Magnetic Field. Effects on High-Latitude Geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Cnossen, I.; Milan, S. E.; Haaland, S. E.; Coxon, J.; Pedatella, N. M.; Förster, M.; Reistad, J. P.

    2017-03-01

    The solar-wind magnetosphere interaction primarily occurs at altitudes where the dipole component of Earth's magnetic field is dominating. The disturbances that are created in this interaction propagate along magnetic field lines and interact with the ionosphere-thermosphere system. At ionospheric altitudes, the Earth's field deviates significantly from a dipole. North-South asymmetries in the magnetic field imply that the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (M-I-T) coupling is different in the two hemispheres. In this paper we review the primary differences in the magnetic field at polar latitudes, and the consequences that these have for the M-I-T coupling. We focus on two interhemispheric differences which are thought to have the strongest effects: 1) A difference in the offset between magnetic and geographic poles in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and 2) differences in the magnetic field strength at magnetically conjugate regions. These asymmetries lead to differences in plasma convection, neutral winds, total electron content, ion outflow, ionospheric currents and auroral precipitation.

  8. The Life Cycle of Active Region Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Thompson, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a contemporary view of how solar active region magnetic fields are understood to be generated, transported and dispersed. Empirical trends of active region properties that guide model development are discussed. Physical principles considered important for active region evolution are introduced and advances in modeling are reviewed.

  9. Wave fields and domination regions for the interior Lamb problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. V.; Terent'eva, E. O.

    2015-09-01

    The domination regions of wave fields in the epicentral region are analyzed for the interior Lamb problem on the action of a lumped force applied inside an elastic half-plane. The solutions obtained by integral representations and finite-element approximations are compared. The domination regions are distinguished for the first time for all types of acoustic waves observed near the epicenter.

  10. Shifting Geo politics in the Greater South Asia Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    border with Iran . Finally, India and Bangladesh have connections with Southeast Asia as a result of their land borders with Myanmar (which the...United Kingdom, United States, plus Germany) to limit Iran’s nuclear activities. This offers strategic opportunities for India, in particular. Iran ...energy pipeline to Oman that possibly would extend to, and take energy from, Iran and Turkmenistan; and, the so-called “International North -South

  11. Observations of a 12 H wave in the mesopause region at the South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, R.L.; Senft, D.C.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1992-01-03

    In December 1989 a Na lidar was installed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and was used to measure aerosol, stratospheric temperature and mesospheric Na profiles through October 1990. The mesospheric Na data are used to characterize the gravity wave field in the mesopause region, These first lidar observations of Na layer dynamics at the South Pole show strong wave activity during the Antarctic winter. Data for 25 June and 19 August 1990 UT are presented here. The total wave induced variances in atmospheric density are respectively 29 and 35(%){sup 2}. The Na layer centroid height is very low during both observation periods. On 25 June a strong 12 h oscillation is observed in the bottomside of the Na layer which extends to altitudes as low as 74 km. The vertical displacement and temperature amplitudes associated with the 12 h oscillation are respectively 1.9 km and 19 K. The characteristics of the 12 h wave are similar to the pseudotide observed at Svalbard by Walterscheid et al.

  12. Balloon observations of ultra-low-frequency waves in the electric field above the South Pole

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, B.; Benbrrook, J.R.; Bering E.A. III; Byrne, G.J.; Theall, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    The physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, near the cusp and in the polar cap, is important because this region is one where ultra-low-frequency wave energy from the magnetopause can most easily enter the magnetosphere. During the 1985-1986 South Pole balloon campaign, eight stratospheric balloon payloads were launched from Amundsen-Scott Station, South Geographic Pole, Antarctica, to record data on ultra-low-frequency waves. The payloads were instrumented with three-axis double-probe electric field detectors and X-ray scintillation counters. This paper concentrates on the third flight of this series, which was launched at 2205 universal time on 21 December 1985. Good data were received from the payload until the transmitter failed at 0342 universal time on 22 December. During most of the four hours that the balloon was afloat, an intense ultra-low-frequency wave event was in progress. The electric-field data from this period have been examined in detail and compared with magnetic field data, obtained with ground-based fluxgate and induction magnetometers to determine the characteristics of the waves. After float was reached, the electric-field data in figure 1 show large-amplitude, quasi-periodic fluctuations suggesting the presence of intense ultra-low-frequency wave activity. In conclusion, the electric-field signature observed from flight 3 appears to have been essentially an electrostatic event or possibly a short-wavelength hydromagnetic wave with a varying and interesting polarization character. The authors are continuing the analysis of the data to determine the source of the observed ultra-low-frequency waves.

  13. Thermal and albedo mapping of the north and south polar regions of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Keegan, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    The first maps are presented of the north and south polar regions of Mars. The thermal properties of the midlatitude regions from -60 deg to +60 deg latitude were mapped in previous studies. The presented maps complete the mapping of entire planet. The maps for the north and south polar regions were derived from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) observations. Best fit thermal inertias were determined by comparing the available IRTM 20 micron channel brightness within a given region to surface temperatures computed by a diurnal and seasonal thermal model. The model assumes no atmospheric contributions to the surface heat balance. The resulting maps of apparent thermal inertia and average IRTM measured solar channel lambert albedo for the north and south polar regions from the poles to +/- 60 deg latitude.

  14. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine's Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Jennifer R; Casale, John F; Jordan, James; Morello, David R; Beyer, Paul M

    2016-03-23

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses ((2)H and (18)O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  15. Differential Magnetic Field Shear in an Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeider, B.; DeMoulin, P.; Aulanier, G.; Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional extrapolation of magnetic field lines from a magnetogram obtained at Kitt Peak allows us to understand the global structure of the NOAA active region 6718, as observed in X-rays with the Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) and in Ha with the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph (MSDP) in Meudon on 1991 July 11. This active region was in a quiet stage. Bright X-ray loops connect plages having field strengths of approx. 300 G, while H-alpha fibriles connect penumbrae having strong spot fields to the surrounding network. Small, intense X-ray features in the moat region around a large spot, which could be called X-ray-bright points, are due mainly to the emergence of magnetic flux and merging of these fields with surrounding ones. A set of large-scale, sheared X-ray loops is observed in the central part of the active region. Based on the fit between the observed coronal structure and the field configurations (and assuming a linear force-free field), we propose a differential magnetic field shear model for this active region. The decreasing shear in outer portions of the active region may indicate a continual relaxation of the magnetic field to a lower energy state in the progressively older portions of the AR.

  16. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor...

  17. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  18. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  19. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  20. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  1. Determination of the North-South Heliospheric Magnetic-Field Component from Inner-Corona Closed-Loop Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Kim, J.; Hong, S.; Lee, B.; Yi, J.; Yun, J.

    2015-12-01

    We find that a portion of the north-south interplanetary magnetic field measured in situ near Earth is present from a direct outward mapping of closed fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) model (Zhao & Hoeksema, 1995 JGR 100, 19), these lower coronal fields are extrapolated upward from near the solar surface. Global velocities inferred from a combination of observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) matched to in-situ velocities and densities measured by spacecraft instrumentation provide an accurate outward timing to 1 AU from a model assuming conservation of mass and mass flux. The north-south field component at 1 AU is compared with the appropriate ACE magnetometer in-situ Normal (RTN) or Bn field coordinate (Jackson et al., 2015, ApJL, 803:L1). From a significant positive correlation between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in-situ measurements over a three-year period during the last solar minimum, we find that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux (~1%) regularly escapes from closed-field regions. Since the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) Bz field component that couples most closely to the Earth's geomagnetic field, the prospects for its determination using this technique for space weather use are being actively developed by our many colleague groups.

  2. Simulation of the annual and diurnal cycles of rainfall over South Africa by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Rouault, Mathieu; Roy, Shouraseni Sen

    2014-10-01

    The capability of a current state-of-the-art regional climate model for simulating the diurnal and annual cycles of rainfall over a complex subtropical region is documented here. Hourly rainfall is simulated over Southern Africa for 1998-2006 by the non-hydrostatic model weather research and forecasting (WRF), and compared to a network of 103 stations covering South Africa. We used five simulations, four of which consist of different parameterizations for atmospheric convection at a 0.5 × 0.5° resolution, performed to test the physic-dependency of the results. The fifth experiment uses explicit convection over tropical South Africa at a 1/30° resolution. WRF simulates realistic mean rainfall fields, albeit wet biases over tropical Africa. The model mean biases are strongly modulated by the convective scheme used for the simulations. The annual cycle of rainfall is well simulated over South Africa, mostly influenced by tropical summer rainfall except in the Western Cape region experiencing winter rainfall. The diurnal cycle shows a timing bias, with atmospheric convection occurring too early in the afternoon, and causing too abundant rainfall. This result, particularly true in summer over the northeastern part of the country, is weakly physic-dependent. Cloud-resolving simulations do not clearly reduce the diurnal cycle biases. In the end, the rainfall overestimations appear to be mostly imputable to the afternoon hours of the austral summer rainy season, i.e., the periods during which convective activity is intense over the region.

  3. Southern Regional Education Board: Serving Community Colleges in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan regional compact focused on critical issues with strong potential to improve quality of life by advancing public education. Designed primarily for legislators and other policymakers and policyshapers, SREB's research is policy-oriented, descriptive, and centered on statewide…

  4. Southern Regional Education Board: Serving Community Colleges in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan regional compact focused on critical issues with strong potential to improve quality of life by advancing public education. Designed primarily for legislators and other policymakers and policyshapers, SREB's research is policy-oriented, descriptive, and centered on statewide…

  5. Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Insights from the Rear View Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    The author enjoyed reading Katharine Hay's ambitious and humbling visions for evaluation field building in South Asia. She has successfully positioned herself on a high mountain with a wonderful set of binoculars that enable her to see the entire evaluation landscape of South Asia. She magically sees and describes significant historical forces and…

  6. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  7. A case–control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region

    PubMed Central

    Desai, KT; Patel, F; Patel, PB; Nayak, S; Patel, NB; Bansal, RK

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. Methods: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. Results: There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14–2.89), working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6–17.9), swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8–4.8), and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2–8.5), with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83%) cases and 240 (80%) controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05). Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1–8) while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1–8) (P < 0.002). Conclusions: Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals. PMID:27763478

  8. A case-control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region.

    PubMed

    Desai, K T; Patel, F; Patel, P B; Nayak, S; Patel, N B; Bansal, R K

    2016-01-01

    The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14-2.89), working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6-17.9), swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8-4.8), and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2-8.5), with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83%) cases and 240 (80%) controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05). Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1-8) while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1-8) (P < 0.002). Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals.

  9. Formation of active region and quiescent prominence magnetic field configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.; Bao, J. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the formation of prominences, researchers studied chromospheric mass injection into an overlying coronal dipole magnetic field using a 2-D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. Researchers propose that active region prominences are formed by chromospheric plasmas injected directly into the overlying coronal magnetic field and that quiescent prominences are formed by plasmas evaporated at the interface between spicules and corona. Hence, for the simulation of an active region prominence magnetic field we inject the mass from one side, but use a symmetric mass injection to form a quiescent prominence field configuration. Researchers try to find optimum conditions for the formation of Kippenhahn-Schuluter(K-S)type field configuration for stable support of the injection plasmas. They find that the formation of K-S type field configuration by mass injection requires a delicate balance between injection velocity, density, and overlying magnetic fields. These results may explain why a prominence does not form on every neutral line.

  10. About the link of intraplate earthquakes allocations for South and North America with gravity field anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhii, B. P.; Nachapkin, N. I.; Milanovsky, S. Yu.

    2003-04-01

    According developed concept the areas heightened intraplate seismicity are connected with the increased silica contents in the rocks, i.e. with patterns of acidic composition and, accordingly, with negative Bouguer gravity anomalies. Done statistical analysis of intraplate allocation of earthquakes on territory of Russia, Africa and Australia has confirmed effect of correlation of their position with areas of negative Bouguer anomalies. In this paper we made pattern analysis of the link of areas heightened intraplate seismicity for South and North America with anomalies of a gravity field - Bouguer and isostatic. If Bouguer anomalies are mainly related to morphology and composition of structural complexes of Earth crust, the isostatic anomalies, as a rule, are connected with acting tectonic forces and characterize a modern stress of Earth crust. For South America we analyzed 139 seismic events, which have occurred in a crust of Brazilian Platform in the period from 1692 to 2002. In regions with negative values of Bouguer anomalies, smaller than its mean for the Platform (-30 mgal), there occur 70% of all earthquakes. The correlation of a magnitude and depth of a hypocenter of earthquake is supervised depending on the value of Bouguer anomalies in its epicenter. In regions with positive values of isostatic anomaly, larger its mean magnitude for the Platform (1 mgal), there occur 77 % of all earthquakes. For North America we analyzed 383 seismic events which have occurred in a crust of North-American Platform in a period with 1929 on 2002. From 383 events 288 (75 %) has taken place in areas with negative values of Bouguer anomalies and 95 (25 %) - with positive values. Thus, the amount of earthquakes recorded in a negative gravitational field, in 4 times exceeds an amount of earthquakes in a positive field. At values of isostatic anomalies close to normal (-10 - 10 mgal) there was 55 % of all earthquakes and 41 % - recorded in ecstatically disturbed regions at values

  11. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.105 Section 81.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  12. Topographic controls on the regional-scale biodiversity of the south-western USA

    Treesearch

    David D. Coblentz; Kurt H. Riitters

    2004-01-01

    Aim Topography is a fundamental geophysical observable that contains valuable information about the geodynamic, tectonic and climatic history of a region. Here, we extend the traditional uses of topographic analysis to evaluate the role played by topography in the distribution of regional-scale biodiversity in the south-western USA. An important aspect of our study is...

  13. An Assessment of Vocational and Technical Education in the South Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, David

    Technical and vocational education in the developing countries of the South Pacific region vary from the well-established to just commencing. Within the region as a whole, facilities exist to meet all the needs for semiskilled and skilled workers as well as for most middle and higher level needs; additional needs not catered to within the region…

  14. Thermal and albedo mapping of the polar regions of Mars using Viking thermal mapper observations: 2. South polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, David A.; Keegan, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first maps of the apparent thermal inertia and albedo of the south polar region of Mars. The observations used to create these maps were acquired by the infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instruments on the two Viking Orbiters over a 30-day period in 1977 during the Martian late southern summer season. The maps cover the region from 60 deg S to the south pole at a spatial resolution of 1 deg of latitude, thus completing the initial thermal mapping of the entire planet. The analysis and interpretation of these maps is aided by the results of a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which is used to calculate diurnal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures, and brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere for a range of assumptions concerning dust optical properties and dust optical depths. The maps show that apparent thermal inertias of bare ground regions decrease systematically from 60 deg S to the south pole. In unfrosted regions close to the south pole, apparent thermal inertias are among the lowest observed anywhere on the planet. On the south residual cap, apparent thermal inertias are very high due to the presence of CO2 frost. In most other regions of Mars, best fit apparent albedos based on thermal emission measurements are generally in good agreement with actual surface albedos based on broadband solar reflectance measurements. The one-dimensional atmospheric model calculations also predict anomalously cold brightness temperatures close to the pole during late summer, and after considering a number of alternatives, it is concluded that the net surface cooling due to atmospheric dust is the best explanation for this phenomenon. The region of lowest apparent thermal inertia close to the pole, which includes the south polar layered deposits, is interpreted to be mantled by a continuous layer of aeolian material that must be at least a few millimeters thick. The low thermal inertias mapped in the south polar region imply an

  15. Field distribution of magnetograms from simulations of active region formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacie, S.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Démoulin, P.; Linton, M. G.; Leake, J. E.; MacTaggart, D.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The evolution of the photospheric magnetic field distributions (probability densities) has previously been derived for a set of active regions. Photospheric field distributions are a consequence of physical processes that are difficult to determine from observations alone. Aims: We analyse simulated magnetograms from numerical simulations, which model the emergence and decay of active regions. These simulations have different experimental set-ups and include different physical processes, allowing us to investigate the relative importance of convection, magnetic buoyancy, magnetic twist, and braiding for flux emergence. Methods: We specifically studied the photospheric field distributions (probability densities found with a kernel density estimation analysis) and compared the results with those found from observations. Results: Simulations including convection most accurately reproduce the observed evolution of the photospheric field distributions during active region evolution. Conclusions: This indicates that convection may play an important role during the decay phase and also during the formation of active regions, particularly for low flux density values.

  16. FIELD MARGINS AND FORMER MANAGER’S HOUSE, LINDLEY NURSERY COMPLEX SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIELD MARGINS AND FORMER MANAGER’S HOUSE, LINDLEY NURSERY COMPLEX SOUTH. FACING NORTHWEST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  17. Sandy beach molluscs as possible bio-indicators of metal pollution 1. field survey. [South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Watling, H.R.; Watling, R.J.

    1983-09-01

    A great variety of molluscs occur around the South African coast, extending as it does from the sub-tropical environment of Natal to the temperate environment of the Cape. The potential of many of these molluscs as bio-indicators has been discussed in general terms on the basis of the reported use of related species (DARRACOTT and WATLING 1975) and certain of these, among them the bivalve Donax serra and gastropod Bullia rhodostoma, have been included in the national marine pollution monitoring program. The aims of this preliminary investigation are: to determine the metal concentrations in D. serra and B. rhodostoma growing along a 500 km stretch of the southern African coast, supplementing data from sediment and water sampling surveys of the same region; and to determine in laboratory studies whether these molluscs accumulate metals, thus meeting some at least of the criteria for monitoring organisms. The field survey data are presented in this paper.

  18. South American oil and gas fields: Reasons for their presence and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Pratsch, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    South American oil and gas fields occur in geographic clusters. Their concentration in relatively small producing areas depends on the present location of the hydrocarbon generating depocenter and results from the basinal oil and gas migration history. By defining both, existing field locations can be explained and new field occurrences can be predicted, including those in overthrust plays. One-and two-stage hydrocarbon migration processes exist: In one-stage migration oil and gas migrate directly from the generating source beds into reservoirs, like in Maturin Basin or Maranon Basin fields. In two-stage migration oil and gas first migrate into a primary reservoir level, from there during a second migration phase into a (commonly younger) secondary reservoir level. Here, the original source beds may be over-mature or even metamorphosed today; examples here are the Maturin, Llanos and Oriente Basins, possibly offshore Trinidad. Definition of generating depocenters is the task of regional exploration. Oil and gas migration analysis is one result of semi-detailed structural mapping using gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection and geochemical data. Oil and gas exploration in two-stage migration basins are especially challenging, like in the Austral Basin of southern Argentina and Chile or possibly in the Parana Basin.

  19. Earth's Magnetic Field Monitoring in the AMAS Region with the NANOSATC-BR1 Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilibio, Andreos Vestena; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Mendes, Odim; Marchezi, Jose Paulo; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The objectives of the Southern Regional Space Research Center's Solar Physics and Interplanetary Medium & Magnetosphere Laboratory is to study Geomagnetic field techniques in experimental measurements and monitoring changes in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) region by continuous measurements of the three orthogonal components of Geomagnetic field: H (North-South), D (East- West) and Z (vertical down). The observation measurements are made at the Southern Space Observatory - SSO/CRS/INPE - MCTI in São Martinho da Serra (29.43º S, 53.82º W, elevation 488m), southern Brazil. Nanosatellites, such as CubeSats, have been used in many scientific space applications. The NANOSATC-BR1 is the second nanosatellite of the NANOSATC-BR, Development of CubeSats Program, a Brazilian Partnership between INPE/MCTI & UFSM. The NANOSATC-BR1 Project has been planed, designed and executed in the facilities built on the partnership between CRS/INPE/MCTI and the Federal University of Santa Maria (LACESM/CT-UFSM), with its undergraduate students. The nanosatellite has three payloads: two integrated circuits (designed in Brazil for space use) to be tested for radiation resistance and a fluxgate magnetometer (model XEM - 12.10 FGM), that will be used for geomagnetic field measurements over the AMAS region. The magnetometer is a magnetic field sensor based on the Hall effect. The instrument will perform data collection in a frequency of three samples per seconds, with a resolution of 15 nT for magnetic field intensity. The intention for future studies is to do comparison between SSO data and monitoring the spatial and temporal variation of magnetic field intensity in AMAS region.

  20. Seismic hazard analysis of the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Bambang

    2017-07-01

    Seismic activity in Australia is categorised as low to moderate. However, the rate of the deformation of the Australian continent is faster than other stable intraplate regions, such as Eastern North America and Africa. Adelaide region is the most seismically active zone in the Australian continent. Therefore, seismic hazard analysis of the Adelaide region is needed to improve the accuracy of seismic hazard predictions. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) incorporating Monte Carlo simulation is selected in the present paper. This method has several advantages i.e. simple, fast, flexible, and robust. Results of the analysis suggest comparable results with previous studies. Furthermore, two main threats are identified in the de-aggregation for the Adelaide city. Due to the limitation of strong magnitude event and the scarcity of the seismic event, further work is suggested for improving the estimates by extending the seismic catalogue i.e. incorporating neo-tectonic and paleo-seismic studies.

  1. South Texas' Lyles Ranch field: Production from an astrobleme

    SciTech Connect

    Le Vie, D.S.

    1986-04-14

    In order to understand how impact cratering can contribute to hydrocarbon accumulations, a basic explanation of cratering mechanics is necessary. It has been estimated that more than 150,000 craters with a diameter greater than 0.5 mile have formed on the earth's surface over the last 3 billion years, and of these, more than 3,000 may have diameters greater than 6.2 miles. The important implications of the impact process to petroleum geology are that impact can instantaneously create porous and permeable rock from what would otherwise be nonreservoir material (such as crystalline basement) and that impact can alter the structural configuration of the target rock in the immediate vicinity independent of the regional geology. The term astrobleme is used to describe craters produced by impact of extraterrestrial objects. There are two types of astroblemes - simple and complex. The simple crater is characterized by a bowl-shaped depression with a raised and overturned rim. The larger complex crater typically is comparatively shallow with an uplifted central area or peak and slumped or depressed rim. The best known geographical area where hydrocarbons are associated with postulated astroblemes is the Williston basin. At least two subsurface structures have been identified as possible buried impact craters in the basin: Viewfield in Saskatchewan with 100 million bbl of oil in place and Red Creek field in North Dakota with 130 million bbl of oil in place.

  2. The Archeomagnetic field in South America: Present status and perspectives (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, G. A.; Trindade, R. I.; Gallet, Y.; Poletti, W.; Begnini, G. S.; Genevey, A.; Legoff, M.

    2013-12-01

    Geomagnetic field variations over decadal to millennial timescales can be determined from direct (i.e. observatory) and indirect (e.g. from archeological artifacts and volcanics) sources. Before the observatory era, the recovery of these variations is however still strongly penalized by the very uneven both geographical and temporal distributions of the available archeo/paleomagnetic dataset. In particular, the southern hemisphere contributes with only ~3% of the global archeomagnetic database. Moreover, most of these data present restrictions due to their poor experimental reliability and to the lack of good age control. Therefore, new intensity and directional data from the southern hemisphere are strongly requested for the next generation of archeomagnetic field models. In this presentation, we will report on intensity and inclination results obtained from different regions in Brazil. A collection of twenty-three site-mean archeointensity data were obtained by our team from architectural brick fragments dated to the past 500 years from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. This dataset was complemented by a series of new results from South Brazil. In addition, we also obtained inclination data, after reconstructing the firing position of the ancient bricks from modern analogs of historical brickyards. Thirteen site-mean inclination results dated to between 1790 AD and 1950 AD and five inclination results spanning the 1590-1920 AD time interval were so determined from Southeast and Northeast Brazil, respectively. Altogether, our data, which are geographically distributed over more than 20 degrees in latitude, allow us to discuss the large-scale influence in Brazil and South America of non-dipolar features of the geomagnetic field during the past few centuries.

  3. Geometric Properties of Possible Volcanoes in the South Polar Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polit, A. T.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mitchell, D. E.; Grosfils, E. B.

    2003-01-01

    In 1987 Tanaka and Scott mapped the south polar region of Mars using Viking Orbiter data and identified several features as volcanoes, probable volcanoes of uncertain origin, or mountains of uncertain origin. Several workers have since studied these features using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. In the north polar region of Mars volcanic edifices have been identified that have surrounding annular depressions, perhaps formed when magma chamber heat melted surrounding ground ice causing surface subsidence. Our objective is to use Martian south polar volcanoes as indicators of magma-ground ice interactions and as indicators of regional eruptive styles. In this study we use high resolution MOLA data to characterize the geometric parameters of mapped volcanoes and mountains and systematically search for any unidentified volcanic edifices from latitude 55 S to the South Pole.

  4. Declining Dixie: Regional Identification in the Modern American South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Christopher A.; Knotts, H. Gibbs

    2010-01-01

    We replicate and extend John Shelton Reed's classic work on regional identification by examining and modeling the prevalence of the words "Dixie" and "Southern" in business names across 100 cities and four decades. We find that the instances of "Dixie" have dropped precipitously, although identification with the word…

  5. Declining Dixie: Regional Identification in the Modern American South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Christopher A.; Knotts, H. Gibbs

    2010-01-01

    We replicate and extend John Shelton Reed's classic work on regional identification by examining and modeling the prevalence of the words "Dixie" and "Southern" in business names across 100 cities and four decades. We find that the instances of "Dixie" have dropped precipitously, although identification with the word…

  6. The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and Infrared Array Camera Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, M.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Bartlett, J. G.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Dey, A.; Dressler, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Galametz, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Marrone, D. P.; Mei, S.; Muzzin, A.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Stern, D.; Vieira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 deg2 of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at (α, δ) = (23:30, -55:00), in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs, one for each of the two warm IRAC selection bands. They contain roughly 5.5 and 3.7 million distinct sources, the vast majority of which are galaxies, down to the SSDF 5σ sensitivity limits of 19.0 and 18.2 Vega mag (7.0 and 9.4 μJy) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively.

  7. A Regional Public Health Field Placement Program: making an IMPACT.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Lisa C; Hites, Lisle; Jenkins, Crystal; Chauvin, Sheila W; Rucks, Andrew C; Ginter, Peter M

    2014-03-01

    Beginning in 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, made provisions in its Public Health Training Center cooperative agreements for field placements. This article describes best practices and lessons learned establishing and managing the South Central Public Health Partnership's Interns and Mentors Program for ACTion (IMPACT) Field Placement Program, which was initially funded through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Centers for Public Health Preparedness Cooperative agreement in 2002. The IMPACT program is based on a six-step process that has been developed and refined over its 10-year history: (a) identifying field placement opportunities, (b) marketing field experience opportunities to students, (c) selecting students seeking field experience opportunities, (d) placing students with practice partners, students with practice partners, (e) evaluating student progress toward field experience objectives, and (f) evaluating the program. This article describes the program's structure and processes, delineates the roles of its academic and practice partners, discusses evidence of its effectiveness, and describes lessons learned from its decade-long history. Hopefully, this information will facilitate the establishment, management and evaluation of internship and field placement programs in other Public Health Training Centers and academic public health programs.

  8. Archive of digital Boomer seismic reflection data collected during USGS Cruise 94CCT02, south-central South Carolina coastal region, August 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2005-01-01

    In August of 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Coastal Carolina University, conducted marine geophysical surveys in numerous water bodies adjacent to the south-central South Carolina coastal region. Data were collected aboard the MS Coastal in the Ashley, North Edisto, Wadmalaw, Dawho, South Edisto, and Ashepoo Rivers; the Wappoo, North, Steamboat, Bohicket, and Toogoodoo Creeks; Charleston Harbor; Wadmalaw Sound; Fenwick Cut; and the Atlantic Ocean from offshore Isle of Palms to Kiawah Island. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, observers' logbooks, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  9. Optical Survey with KMTNet for Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies in the Akari Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woong-Seob; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Kim, Minjin; Ko, Jongwan; Kim, Sam; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Taehyun; Seo, Hyun Jong; Park, Won-Kee; Park, Sung-Joon; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Dong Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Seung-Lee; Matsuura, Shuji; Pearson, Chris; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2016-10-01

    We present an optical imaging survey of AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) using the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), to find optical counterparts of dusty star-forming galaxies. The ADF-S is a deep far-infrared imaging survey region with AKARI covering around 12 deg^2, where the deep optical imaging data are not yet available. By utilizing the wide-field capability of the KMTNet telescopes (˜4 deg^2), we obtain optical images in B, R and I bands for three regions. The target depth of images in B, R and I bands is ˜24 mag (AB) at 5σ, which enables us to detect most dusty star-forming galaxies discovered by AKARI in the ADF-S. Those optical datasets will be helpful to constrain optical spectral energy distributions as well as to identify rare types of dusty star-forming galaxies such as dust-obscured galaxy, sub-millimeter galaxy at high redshift.}

  10. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  11. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  12. Discovery Of A Rossby Wave In Jupiter's South Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, D. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 deg S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of approx.140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 deg N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with an inertia-gravity wave (n = 75-100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a approx.7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of approx.20 deg and a speed of approx.100 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it, though they are not perfectly in phase. The transient anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) may be a similar wave feature, but moves at slower velocity. All data show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this Rossby wave is present during other epochs, without time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of multiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S may be due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  13. Regional and temporal patterns of litterfall in tropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, J.; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Álvarez, E.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Bonal, D.; Châtelet, P.; Silva Espejo, J.; Goret, J.-Y.; von Hildebrand, P.; Jiménez, E.; Patiño, S.; Peñuela, M. C.; Phillips, O. L.; Stevenson, P.; Malhi, Y.

    2009-07-01

    The production of aboveground soft tissue represents an important share of total net primary production in tropical rain forests. Here we draw from a large number of published and unpublished datasets (n=81 sites) to assess the determinants of litterfall variation across South American tropical forests. We show that across old-growth tropical rainforests, litterfall averages 8.61±1.91Mg/ha/yr. Secondary forests have a lower annual litterfall than old-growth tropical forests with a mean of 8.01±3.41 Mg/ha/yr. Annual litterfall shows no significant variation with total annual rainfall, either globally or within forest types. It does not vary consistently with soil type, except in the poorest soils (white sand soils), where litterfall is significantly lower than in other soil types (5.42±1.91Mg/ha/yr). Litterfall declines significantly with increasing N:P. We also study the determinants of litterfall seasonality, and find that it does not depend on annual rainfall or on soil type. However, litterfall seasonality is significantly positively correlated with rainfall seasonality. Finally, we assess how much carbon is stored in reproductive organs relative to photosynthetic organs. Mean leaf fall is 5.74±1.83 Mg/ha/yr (71% of total litterfall). Mean allocation into reproductive organs is 0.69±0.40Mg/ha/yr (9% of total litterfall). The investment into reproductive organs divided by leaf litterfall is negatively related to the N:P ratio, suggesting that on poor soils, the allocation to photosynthetic organs is prioritized over that to reproduction. Finally, we discuss the ecological and biogeochemical implications of these results.

  14. Regional and seasonal patterns of litterfall in tropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, J.; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Álvarez, E.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Bonal, D.; Châtelet, P.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Goret, J.-Y.; von Hildebrand, P.; Jiménez, E.; Patiño, S.; Peñuela, M. C.; Phillips, O. L.; Stevenson, P.; Malhi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The production of aboveground soft tissue represents an important share of total net primary production in tropical rain forests. Here we draw from a large number of published and unpublished datasets (n=81 sites) to assess the determinants of litterfall variation across South American tropical forests. We show that across old-growth tropical rainforests, litterfall averages 8.61±1.91 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (mean ± standard deviation, in dry mass units). Secondary forests have a lower annual litterfall than old-growth tropical forests with a mean of 8.01±3.41 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Annual litterfall shows no significant variation with total annual rainfall, either globally or within forest types. It does not vary consistently with soil type, except in the poorest soils (white sand soils), where litterfall is significantly lower than in other soil types (5.42±1.91 Mg ha-1 yr-1). We also study the determinants of litterfall seasonality, and find that it does not depend on annual rainfall or on soil type. However, litterfall seasonality is significantly positively correlated with rainfall seasonality. Finally, we assess how much carbon is stored in reproductive organs relative to photosynthetic organs. Mean leaf fall is 5.74±1.83 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (71% of total litterfall). Mean allocation into reproductive organs is 0.69±0.40 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (9% of total litterfall). The investment into reproductive organs divided by leaf litterfall increases with soil fertility, suggesting that on poor soils, the allocation to photosynthetic organs is prioritized over that to reproduction. Finally, we discuss the ecological and biogeochemical implications of these results.

  15. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: South Central Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Center Richmond ESOC at Tel: (804) 279-4865, DSN: 695-4865. The ESOC is staffed seven days a week/24 hours a day. Product Manager (804) 279-3995, DSN...centuries. The economies of most countries in the region are based mainly on agricultural products , textiles, minerals, fishing, petroleum and tourism...river deltas, have been contaminated by heavy metals and toxic chemicals from industrial activity, such as textile production , chemical

  16. Seismicity of the Stanovoi Volcanic Field Region, Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, P. A.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.; Shibaev, S. V.; Gounbina, L. V.

    2007-12-01

    The Stanovoi region of southern Yakutia is one of the most poorly understood seismically active regions in eastern Russia. Although a considerable number of earthquakes have been located in the region, the epicenters are likely poor as only distant stations were used in the locations. In addition, the active faults, type of faulting, and levels of microseismicity in the region were unknown. Within the Stanovoi region is a province of Cenozoic basaltic volcanism (0.5-1.0 Ma) that is near a cluster of previously located earthquakes. Up to now, it was unknown if the seismicity in the region had any connection to the volcanic field or to large faults visible in the satellite images and topography of the region. The proposed extension of the Tanlu fault into Russia from China may also terminate near the study area. We conducted a temporary deployment of five broadband seismic stations encircling the Stanovoi volcanic field. We also observed clear young fault scarps interpreted as southward-plunging low angle thrusts. Our seismicity results indicate that the volcanic field proper is aseismic while surrounding areas are very active. Combined analysis of seismicity and observed scarps and geomorphic features indicate that the Stanovoi region may be underlain by large, active thrust faults, which are generally consistent with north-northeastward movement of the Amur block into the Eurasian plate.

  17. Distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Peng, Ping'an; Xu, Yi-Gang; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Deng, Hong-Mei; Deng, Yun-Yun

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed rainwater collected from multiple sites, Guangzhou, China, from March to August 2005, with the aim to characterize the distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South China. Eight species of organochlorine pesticide were detected, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfans. Volume-weighted mean monthly total concentrations varied from 3.65 ± 0.95 to 9.37 ± 2.63 ng L - 1 , and the estimated total wet deposition flux was about 11.43 ± 3.27 µg m - 2 during the monitoring period. Pesticides were mainly detected in the dissolved phase. Distribution coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases in March and April were generally higher than in other months. HCHs, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in precipitation were attributed to both the residues and present usage of insecticides in Pearl River Delta. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT were relatively high from April to August, which were related to the usage of antifouling paints containing DDT for fishing ships in seaports of the South China Sea in summer. In contrast, endosulfans were relatively high in March, which was related to their seasonal atmospheric transport from cotton fields in eastern China by the Asian winter monsoon. The consistency of the variation of endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT concentrations with the alternation of summer and winter monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon played an important role in the long-range transport of OCPs. In addition, the wet deposition of OCPs may influence not only Pearl River water but also the surface land distributions of pesticides in the Guangzhou area, especially for endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT.

  18. Correlation of Tectonic Provinces of South America and the Caribbean Region with MAGSAT Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidiak, E. G.; Hinze, W. J.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Yuan, D. W.; Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Intensities of MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data correlate with the main tectonic provinces of South America and the Caribbean region. Magnetic anomalies of the continents generally have higher amplitudes than oceanic anomalies. This is particularly evident in Central America and in the shield areas of South America. The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico are underlain by prominent magnetic minima. Within these oceanic areas, linear magnetic highs correlate with topographic ridges which separate the Gulf of Mexico, the Colombian Basin, and the Venezuelan Basin. The boundaries of the Caribbean plate occur along magnetic gradients which are particularly sharp along the northern and western margins of the plate, but gradational along the southern margin where they merge with the Andean Cordillera. The anomalies along the western margin of the South American plate are also distinct and appear to be separate from those of the adjacent ocean basin. Eastern South America is characterized by magnetic anomalies which commonly extend into the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Solar energy resources at South region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinicius Fiorin, Daniel; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Ramos Martins, Fernando; Bueno Pereira, Enio; Ceconi, Marcio; Brackmann, Rodrigo; Guarnieri, Ricardo André

    The Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, Ministry of Science and Technology - CPTEC/INP-MCT, have installed throughout Brazilian territory several sites to acquired solar irradiation data used to assess the renewable energy potential of Brazil as part of SONDA project (www.cptec.inpe.br/sonda/). One of ground sites is located at the Southern Space Observatory-SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE-MCT, (29o S; 53o W), in São Martinho da Serra, RS, South of Brazil, where diffuse and global solar a irradiation are measured by CM 22 and CM21 Pyrhanometers), direct solar radiation are measured by Pyrheliometer NIP and opaque and thin cloudiness fractions were esteemed by a Total Sky Imager TSI-440 (YES, Inc). Our concern is with the fact that the current world energy scenery, characterized by petroleum sources exhaustion and environmental concerns, point out to the use of clean and renewable energy sources such as the solar energy. This work aims to the evaluation of the solar energy resource by using stochastic models relating the cloud cover fraction and solar radiation parameters such as diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio (DDB), diffuse-toglobal solar irradiation ratio (K), diffuse-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KD ), and global-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KT ), measured with the SONDA Project, where TOA is the total irradiation that reach the atmosphere. Only data collected for zenithal solar angle (SZA) lesser than 75 deg for the period between September/2005 to September/2007 were used. The ground data were averaged for fifteen minutes intervals in order to reduce the influence of high frequency variability of cloud cover. It was observed low correlation (around 0.55) among the diffuse to TOA irradiation ratio and cloud cover. Better correlation (about 0.94) were obtained for K parameter. The statistic deviations RMSE (23-28%) and MBE (0.3-5%) were calculated to validate and compare the models performance. The results showed more

  20. Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies: Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, A.; Gomes, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Frequently found in southeastern South America during the warm season from October through May, strong and localized precipitation maxima are usually associated with the presence of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) travelling across the region. Flashfloods and landslides can be caused by these extremes in precipitation, with damages to the local communities. Heavily populated, southeastern South America hosts many agricultural activities and hydroelectric production. It encompasses one of the most important river basins in South America, the La Plata River Basin. Therefore, insufficient precipitation is equally prejudicial to the region socio-economic activities. MCCs are originated in the warm season of many regions of the world, however South American MCCs are related to the most severe thunderstorms, and have significantly contributed to the precipitation regime. We used the hourly outputs of Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in the analysis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of MCCs in South America. SRDAS is the 25-km resolution downscaling of a global reanalysis available from January 1998 through December 2010. The Regional Spectral Model is the SRDAS atmospheric component and assimilates satellite-based precipitation estimates from the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique global precipitation analyses. In this study, the SRDAS atmospheric and land-surface variables, global reanalysis products, infrared satellite imagery, and the physical retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), on board of the NASA's Aqua satellite, were used in the evaluation of the MCCs developed in southeastern South America from 2008 and 2010. Low-level circulations and vertical profiles were analyzed together to establish the relevance of the moisture transport in connection with the upper-troposphere dynamics to the development of those MCCs.

  1. Regional cooperation through space technology: Basis for a South America space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Paulo Roberto

    2002-07-01

    In South America only Brazil and Argentina have steadily growing space programs. The other countries are not creating truly in-doors capabilities that allow the development and launching of native orbital devices. This figure changes when the analysis runs through the use of Space Technology. As users, the South America countries play a very important role in the world scenery. Within the continent there are three operational receiving stations for Earth Observation satellites and many large regional cooperating projects are being developed mostly in the Panamazonia Region. These projects have raised the level of human resources through training and education in excellent centers such as those in Argentina, Brazil and Colombia. The stations, the projects and the training programs within the Earth Observation branch in South America open the possibility to integrate the countries in a regional space agency following the way that ESA was established in the early 70's. This document describes the technological facilities available in the region, the possible integration projects and the regional environmental themes that can mosaic South American countries in a space agency.

  2. Magnetic field in the NGC7023 photodissociation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Marta

    2015-10-01

    The far-UV radiation of massive stars illuminates molecular clouds creating photodissociation regions (PDRs), the transition layers between atomic and molecular media. Recent results based on Herschel observations reveal the presence of small regions at high gas pressure in the PDRs, whose origin is still not well understood, while polarization measurements towards a few PDRs indicate that magnetic fields can play a significant role in their structure. The limited number of existing polarization observations suggest that, when subject to a high gas and radiation pressure from the stars, the magnetic field tends to align and to be compressed in the PDR. As a consequence, bright PDRs should be magnetically dominated. However, this possibility has been the subject of very few studies due to the sparsity of relevant data. We propose to map the magnetic field in a nearby bright PDR, NGC 7023, using the unique capabilities of HAWC+ onboard SOFIA. For one, we wish to test the hypothesis that the magnetic field should be parallel to this PDR, which is illuminated by a radiation field of 2600 (in Habing units). Secondly, since NGC 7023 is a well studied region, its physical conditions (density, temperature) are known and can thus be related to the magnetic field across the PDR. We can investigate the relation between the field structure and the geometry of the PDR, and aided by Herschel observations we can also explore a possible connection between the magnetic field and the existence of high density regions in the PDR. SOFIA HAWC+ is the only instrument capable of imaging the polarized emission of extended objects, with structure at arcsecond scales. Moreover, it allows us trace the magnetic field within the PDR, owing to its 63micron band that traces the warm (40K) dust present at the illuminated surface. Our observations will be complementary to those led by the instrument team, who will observe NGC 7023 using the three highest wavelength filters.

  3. Non-aligned movement support for South-South collaboration in the field of population and family planning.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    There has been increasing interest over the past few years in strengthening direct collaboration among country programs of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) to promote development. As such, heads of states and governments of the non-aligned countries met September 1992 to discuss South-South collaboration in promoting development. The resulting "Jakarta Message: a Call for Collective Action and the Democratization of International Relations" stressed the need for a multilateral shift of focus in international relations toward a strengthening of multilateral cooperation for development. Population was one of the few areas specifically addressed at the conference requiring multilateral cooperation. Partially designed to prepare member countries for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the meeting of country ministers called for further talks in the interest of intensifying the exchange of information on NAM countries' population policies and programs, as well as the organization of South-South cooperation and assistance arrangements. The following modalities of cooperation among countries in the field of population were identified: training programs; observation-study tours; technical assistance; internships; long-term high-level training; meetings, seminars, and workshops; high-level visits; cross-national surveys and other joint research; purchase/exchange/donation/loan of contraceptives and other supplies and equipment; joint production of contraceptives and related medical commodities; marketing and trading cooperation; information exchange; and cooperation in collaborating with other NAM countries. The paper also discusses financial resources to support collaboration and offers a proposal of NAM arrangements to strengthen, support, and sustain South-South collaboration.

  4. Thermal and albedo mapping of the north and south polar regions of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Keegan, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    The first maps of the thermal properties of the north and south polar region of Mars are presented. The maps complete the mapping of the entire planet. The maps for the north polar region were derived from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) observations obtained from 10 Jun. to 30 Sep. 1978. This period corresponds to the early summer season in the north, when the north residual water ice cap was exposed, and the polar surface temperatures were near their maximum. The maps in the south were derived from observations obtained between 24 Aug. to 23 Sep. 1977. This period corresponds to the late summer season in the south, when the seasonal polar cap had retreated to close to its residual configuration, and the second global dust storm of 1977 had largely subsided. The major results concerning the following topics are summarized: (1) surface water ice; (2) polar dune material; and (3) dust deposits.

  5. Trends of Abutment-Scour Prediction Equations Applied to 144 Field Sites in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Deshpande, Nikhil; Aziz, Nadim M.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration in which predicted abutment-scour depths computed with selected predictive equations were compared with field measurements of abutment-scour depth made at 144 bridges in South Carolina. The assessment used five equations published in the Fourth Edition of 'Evaluating Scour at Bridges,' (Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18), including the original Froehlich, the modified Froehlich, the Sturm, the Maryland, and the HIRE equations. An additional unpublished equation also was assessed. Comparisons between predicted and observed scour depths are intended to illustrate general trends and order-of-magnitude differences for the prediction equations. Field measurements were taken during non-flood conditions when the hydraulic conditions that caused the scour generally are unknown. The predicted scour depths are based on hydraulic conditions associated with the 100-year flow at all sites and the flood of record for 35 sites. Comparisons showed that predicted scour depths frequently overpredict observed scour and at times were excessive. The comparison also showed that underprediction occurred, but with less frequency. The performance of these equations indicates that they are poor predictors of abutment-scour depth in South Carolina, and it is probable that poor performance will occur when the equations are applied in other geographic regions. Extensive data and graphs used to compare predicted and observed scour depths in this study were compiled into spreadsheets and are included in digital format with this report. In addition to the equation-comparison data, Water-Surface Profile Model tube-velocity data, soil-boring data, and selected abutment-scour data are included in digital format with this report. The digital database was developed as a resource for future researchers and is especially valuable for evaluating the reasonableness of future equations that may be developed.

  6. Regional magnetic fields as navigational markers for sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, K J; Cain, S D; Dodge, S A; Lohmann, C M

    2001-10-12

    Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the north Atlantic Ocean before returning to the North American coast. Here we report that hatchling loggerheads, when exposed to magnetic fields replicating those found in three widely separated oceanic regions, responded by swimming in directions that would, in each case, help keep turtles within the currents of the North Atlantic gyre and facilitate movement along the migratory pathway. These results imply that young loggerheads have a guidance system in which regional magnetic fields function as navigational markers and elicit changes in swimming direction at crucial geographic boundaries.

  7. Relationship between Birkeland current regions, particle precipitation, and electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Beaujardiere, O.; Watermann, J.; Newell, P.; Rich, F.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship of the large-scale dayside Birkeland currents to large-scale particle precipitation patterns, currents, and convection is examined using DMSP and Sondrestrom radar observations. It is found that the local time of the mantle currents is not limited to the longitude of the cusp proper, but covers a larger local time extent. The mantle currents flow entirely on open field lines. About half of region 1 currents flow on open field lines, consistent with the assumption that the region 1 currents are generated by the solar wind dynamo and flow within the surface that separates open and closed field lines. More than 80 percent of the Birkeland current boundaries do not correspond to particle precipitation boundaries. Region 2 currents extend beyond the plasma sheet poleward boundary; region 1 currents flow in part on open field lines; mantle currents and mantle particles are not coincident. On most passes when a triple current sheet is observed, the convection reversal is located on closed field lines.

  8. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Bao, Shudong; Kuzanyan, Kirill M.

    2002-05-01

    We study the twist properties of photospheric magnetic fields in solar active regions using magnetographic data on 422 active regions obtained at the Huairou Solar Observing Station in 1988 1997. We calculate the mean twist (force-free field αf) of the active regions and compare it with the mean current-helicity density of these same active regions, h c =B ∥·(∇×B)∥. The latitude and longitude distributions and time dependence of these quantities is analyzed. These parameters represent two different tracers of the α effect in dynamo theory, so we might expect them to possess similar properties. However, apart from differences in their definitions, they also display differences associated with the technique used to recalculate the magnetographic data and with their different physical meanings. The distributions of the mean αf and h c both show hemispherical asymmetry—negative (positive) values in the northern (southern) hemisphere—although this tendency is stronger for h c. One reason for these differences may be the averaging procedure, when twists of opposite sign in regions with weak fields make a small contribution to the mean current-helicity density. Such transequatorial regularity is in agreement with the expectations of dynamo theory. In some active regions, the average αf and h c do not obey this transequatorial rule. As a whole, the mean twist of the magnetic fields αf of active regions does not vary significantly with the solar cycle. Active regions that do not follow the general behavior for αf do not show any appreciable tendency to cluster at certain longitudes, in contrast to results for h c noted in previous studies. We analyze similarities and differences in the distributions of these two quantities. We conclude that using only one of these tracers, such as αf, to search for signatures of the α effect can have disadvantages, which should be taken into account in future studies.

  9. Seismotectonic Analysis for the KZN region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, devastating earthquakes and tsunamis have shocked the modern world (Japan [April 7 2011, Mw 9.0, loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, 15,457 deaths 5,389 injured, US300billion loss (Japanese National Police Agency 2011)], New Zealand [21 February 2011, Mw 6.3, 148 killed], Haiti [12 January 2010, Mw 7.0, estimated 316 000 killed and 300 000 injured]. These earthquakes have caused large scale damage to the built environment not to mention the high number of fatalities. The KZN coastal region is also fast developing especially towards the north of Durban CBD (Cornubia [New development near Umhlanga, 25 Billion Rands investment], Gateway/Umhlanga Business District, Moses Mabida Stadium (cost of R3.4 billion ), King Shaka International Airport at a cost of R6.8 billion, Dube Tradeport to be developed next to the airport at a cost of R5 billion, as well as the development of the Richards Bay Industrial Development Zone . The KZN is home to 10 million inhabitants with a relatively denser population distribution around the Durban and Pietermaritzburg CBDs. With the increasing amount of investment towards the north coast of Durban, the population distribution will migrate to these areas. These areas now become 'vulnerable' to rare, infrequent and potentially devastating natural disasters like earthquakes. One of the first steps to understand and plan for an earthquake occurrence is through a seismic hazard and risk assessment. The seismic hazard and risk method has well been established since 1968 (see Cornell (1968); Veneziano et al., (1984); Bender and Perkins (1993); McGuire (1993); McGuire and Toro (2008); Kijko and Graham (1998); Kijko and Sellevoll, (1989, 1992)). The components of a seismic risk assessment (SRA) include several building blocks namely: the development of the earthquake catalogue, seismotectonic model, attenuation models, seismic hazard assessment (SHA), vulnerability assessment and seismic risk computations. The seismotectonic

  10. Future change of climate classification over South Korea in multi regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeon-Jae; Kim, Gayoung; Park, Changyong; Cha, Dong-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Regional climate simulations for the CORDEX East Asia domain were conducted between 1981 and 2100 using five models to produce climate change projection based on RCP26, 45, 60, 85 scenarios. In this study using the ensemble of five model results, future changes in climate zones of South Korea were investigated according to Köppen-Trewartha's classification criteria. Four periods, historical (1981 2005), early future (2021 2040), middle future (2041 2070), and late future (2071 2100) were analyzed to examine future changes. In historical (1981 2005) period, the subtropical zones are only dominant in the south coastal regions and Jeju island, while those tend to expand in the future periods. Depending on the RCP scenarios, the more radiative forcing results in the larger subtropical zone over South Korea. The expansion of the subtropical zone in metropolitan areas is more evident than that in rural areas. In addition, the enlargement of subtropical zone in coastal regions is more prominent that in inland regions. Particularly, the subtropical climate zone for the late future period of RCP85 scenario is significantly dominant in most South Korea. Acknowledgement The research was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development program under grant KMIPA 2015-2083 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  11. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  12. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  13. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  14. African South of the Sahara: An Objective Test for Secondary Schools. A World Regions Perception Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Designed by Project Africa of Carnegie-Mellon University, these two test instruments have been used to discover what selected American secondary school students know or believe about Africa and other regions of the world. The first instrument, a 30-minute objective test, "Africa South of the Sahara," is comprised of 60 multiple-choice…

  15. A cost-benefit analysis of bariatric surgery on the South Plains region of Texas.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Bradley T; Thompson, Mark A; Wachtel, Mitchell S; Frezza, Eldo E

    2011-05-01

    The regional economic burdens of obesity have not been fully quantified. This study incorporated bariatric surgery demographics collected from a large university hospital with regional economic and employment data to evaluate the cost of obesity for the South Plains region of Texas. Data were collected from patients who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic banding between September 2003 and September 2005 at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. A regional economic model estimated the economic impact of lost productivity due to obesity. Comparisons of lost work days in the year before and after surgery were used to estimate the potential benefit of bariatric surgery to the South Plains economy. Total output impacts of obesity, over $364 million, were 3.3% of total personal income; total labor income impacts neared $60 million: the losses corresponded to $2,389 lost output and $390 lost labor income per household. Obesity cost the South Plains over 1,977 jobs and decreased indirect business tax revenues by over $13 million. The net benefit of bariatric surgery was estimated at $9.9 billion for a discount rate of 3%, $5.0 billion for a discount rate of 5%, and $1.3 billion for a discount rate of 10%. Potential benefits to the South Plains economy of performing bariatric surgery more than outweigh its costs.

  16. Soil physical and chemical properties of cacao farms in the south western region of cameroon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The low macro nutrient content (K, Ca and Mg) in soils under cacao is one of the major causes of the poor cacao (Theobroma cacao L) yields. Efforts were made to assess the major physical and chemical properties of soils from some important cacao zones of the South West Region of Cameroon in order t...

  17. Trends in Articulation Arrangements for Technical and Vocational Education in the South East Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adrian R.

    Trends in articulation arrangements for technical and vocational education (TVE) in the South East Asia region were studied. A key feature of articulation is the existence of pathways that allow graduates of one course of study to progress to other courses. Effective articulation opens up advancement for individuals and helps to create a flexible…

  18. Longitudinal difference in the Sq profiles in the South American region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    1986-07-01

    The average daily variation profiles of the H component at Huancayo on the west coast and Eusebio, Fortaleza, on the east coast in the dip equator region and La Quiaca near the west coast and Vassouras near the east coast in the southern low latitude region of the South American continent indicate that the profiles are broader for the east coast. Thus, distortions in the overhead current systems while passing from one coast to the other are indicated.

  19. The Structure of the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer in the Equatorial and South Polar Regions of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Fernando

    1996-12-01

    A one-dimensional code to study the microphysical processes affecting aerosol particles in the jovian stratosphere and upper troposphere has been developed. The algorithms are based on those developed by Turcoet al.(Turco, R. P., P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, R. C. Whitten, and C. S. Kiang 1979.J. Atmos. Sci.36, 699-717) and include the effects of particle sedimentation, coagulation, eddy diffusion, and growth by heteromolecular condensation. A set of Hubble Space Telescope images in the near-UV was used to retrieve the aerosol distribution in the equatorial and south polar regions of Jupiter. The results obtained are consistent with the picture in which in the polar regions the aerosols are formed from auroral-related phenomena, while in the equatorial region the largest component of the aerosols would be those particles formed after condensation of hydrazine onto condensation nuclei. Concerning the charge of the particles, the particles in the south polar region must be considerably more charged than at equatorial latitudes. The model solutions give particles smaller than about 0.05 μm in radius at the equator, and 0.07 μm at the polar regions, with total optical depths of 0.3 and 1.3 at the equator and the south polar region, respectively, at 410 nm wavelength. The differences in the derived imaginary refractive indices reflect a compositional change in the aerosols at low and high latitudes.

  20. A COMPREHENISVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  1. A COMPREHENISVE NONPOINT SOURCE FIELD STUDY FOR SEDIMENT, NUTRIENTS AND PATHOGENS IN THE SOUTH FORK BROAD RIVER WATERSHED IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an urgent need for EPA to develop protocols for establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in streams, lakes and estuaries. A cooperative TMDL field data collection project between ORD and Region 4 is ongoing in the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR), a 245.18 ...

  2. Tertiary paleomagnetism of regions around the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Haston, R.; Lin, Jin-Lu; Richter, B.; Schmidtke, E.; Almasco, J.

    Paleomagnetic data from the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) reveal a history of plate-wide clockwise (CW) rotation and northerly translation since the late Eocene about a nearby pole to the east. The motion has generated left lateral oblique convergence between the Philippine Sea Plate and S.E. Asia. Paleomagnetic data from Luzon in the northern Philippines show early Miocene CCW rotation followed by late Miocene CW rotation. In contrast, the Southern and Central Philippines display early Miocene CW rotation and unrotated late Miocene directions. These results define two different paleomagnetic domains with distinct post early Miocene histories. Pre-Miocene CCW rotation is suggested by data from Zambales, the Visayas and the Celebes Sea. In Borneo, a history of Tertiary CCW rotation has been found in Sarawak, and Sabah. Conflicting results have been reported from Kalimantan, some show no rotation with respect to Eurasia, while others give CCW rotations. In the Malaysian peninsula, the Segamat basalts and Kuantan dykes, of probable late Cretaceous early Tertiary age show CCW rotations similar to those seen in Sarawak. To the north peninsular Thailand, CW rotations have been found in two Miocene non-marine basins. Late Tertiary basalts from Northern and Central Thailand yield similar CW rotations while coeval flows on the Khorat plateau in Eastern Thailand are unrotated. The tectonic implications of the results remain problematical. In particular, the relative importance of true plate rotations and localized rotation of upper crustal blocks in distributed shear zones is unclear. The substantial region of CCW rotation in Borneo, the Celebes Sea and the Philippines is consistent with the broad features of the Holloway model, although the timing of the rotations precludes simple coherent rotation. The model must also be modified to include the effect of the left lateral oblique convergence between the PSP and Eurasia. The CW rotations seen in peninsular Thailand and Malaysia

  3. Regionalization: The Cure for an Ailing Intelligence Career Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Regionalization: The Cure for an Ailing Intelligence Career Field by Colonel Enrique Camacho United States Army... United States Army War College Class of 2013 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited... United States Army 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Colonel

  4. High-resolution local magnetic field models for the Martian South Pole from Mars Global Surveyor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, A.; Simons, F. J.

    2015-09-01

    We present two high-resolution local models for the crustal magnetic field of the Martian south polar region. Models SP130 and SP130M were derived from three-component measurements made by Mars Global Surveyor at nighttime and at low altitude (<200 km). The availability area for these data covers the annulus between latitudes -76° and -87° and contains a strongly magnetized region (southern parts of Terra Sirenum) adjacent to weakly magnetized terrains (such as Prometheus Planum). Our localized field inversions take into account the region of data availability, a finite spectral bandlimit (spherical harmonic degree L = 130), and the varying satellite altitude at each observation point. We downward continue the local field solutions to a sphere of Martian polar radius 3376 km. While weakly magnetized areas in model SP130 contain inversion artifacts caused by strongly magnetized crust nearby, these artifacts are largely avoided in model SP130M, a mosaic of inversion results obtained by independently solving for the fields over individual subregions. Robust features of both models are magnetic stripes of alternating polarity in southern Terra Sirenum that end abruptly at the rim of Prometheus Planum, an impact crater with a weak or undetectable magnetic field. From a prominent and isolated dipole-like magnetic feature close to Australe Montes, we estimate a paleopole with a best fit location at longitude 207° and latitude 48°. From the abruptly ending magnetic field stripes, we estimate average magnetization values of up to 15 A/m.

  5. Seasonal and Intraseasonal Variability of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the South Asian Monsoon Region

    SciTech Connect

    Virts, Katrina S.; Houze, Robert A.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal and intraseasonal differences in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over South Asia are examined using A-Train satellites, a ground-based lightning network, and reanalysis fields. Pre-monsoon (April-May) MCSs occur primarily over Bangladesh and the eastern Bay of Bengal. During the monsoon (June-September), small MCSs occur over the Meghalaya Plateau and northeast Himalayan notch, while large and connected MCSs are most widespread over the Bay of Bengal. Monsoon MCSs produce less lightning and exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil reflectivity structures in CloudSat observations than do pre-monsoon MCSs. During the monsoon season, Bay of Bengal and Meghalaya Plateau MCSs vary with the 30-60 day northward-propagating intraseasonal oscillation, while northeast Himalayan notch MCSs are associated with weak large-scale anomalies but locally enhanced CAPE. During intraseasonal active periods, a zone of enhanced large and connected MCSs, precipitation, and lightning extends from the northeastern Arabian Sea southeast over India and the Bay of Bengal, flanked by suppressed anomalies. Spatial variability is observed within this enhancement zone: lightning is most enhanced where MCSs are less enhanced, and vice versa. Reanalysis composites indicate that Bay of Bengal MCSs are associated with monsoon depressions, which are frequent during active monsoon periods, while Meghalaya Plateau MCSs are most frequent at the end of break periods, as anomalous southwesterly winds strengthen moist advection toward the terrain. Over both regions, MCSs exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil regions and less lightning when the large-scale environment is moister, and vice versa.

  6. Developing a marginal field using new techniques-South Monagas Unit, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Skirvin, T.M.; Sven Hagen, E.; McGee, R.A.; Hinrichs, P.D. ); Medina, P.A. )

    1996-01-01

    In 1992 the Venezuelan national oil company, PDVSA, awarded operating service agreements to foreign oil companies for reactivation of marginal oil fields. The South Monagas Unit contains three oil and gas fields, Uracoa, Bombal, and Tucupita, that were not producing prior to the award of the contract As of October 1995, production from Uraroa had exceeded 20 MBbls/day of heavy oil from 26 vertical and 11 horizontal wells. Initial uncertainties about heavy oil treatment capability, water and gas production, oil flow rates, and ultimate recoverable reserves led to a phased development plan that has incrementally reduced the risk of financial exposure over time. The first phase of development utilized conventional geologic techniques and vertical wells to test treatment facilities, mud and gravel-pack technologies, and flow rates. Positive results led to the next phase of development which focused on reservoir performance and well optimization. A horizontal well drilling program was implemented in December 1993. A milestone in this program was the first gravel-pack horizontal well in Venezuela, completed in February, 1995. A pilot 2-D seismic program in late 1994 confined that high-quality seismic could be acquired to significantly enhance the development of Uracoa. A 175 W 3-D survey was shot and processed in mid-1995. Concurrently, borehole imaging logs were acquired in vertical wells to determine internal reservoir heterogeneity and sand depositional models. The sequence stratigraphic model that evolved, based on outcrop field analogs, 3-D seismic stratigraphy, and regional well control, is being used to optimize field development. In addition, new exploration concepts are being tested without risk using strategically located water injection wells as test wells.

  7. Stess field in Brazil: First and Second-Order Stress Patterns: Examples of Regional Forces Controlling the Stress Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2012-12-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation as also it helps in the study of intraplate seismicity. In Brazil, we find reverse, strike-slip and normal mechanisms that indicates a variable stress field. The stress field has been mainly obtained using focal mechanism results and a few breakout data and in-situ measurements. However the stress field is still poorly known in Brazil. Recent earthquake focal mechanisms were determinate using P-wave modeling of seismogram stacks of several teleseismic stations ( > 30°) grouped according to distance and azimuth and first motion polarities. Every record was visually inspected and those with a good signal/noise ratio (SNR) were grouped in latitude-longitude windows of ten degrees and stacked. We usually consider groups with at least two stations, but, in sometimes a good record of single station with different azimuth was also used to constrain the focal depth. The P, pP, sP wavetrains of the stacked signals were modelled using the hudson96 program of Herrman seismology package (Herrman, 2002). We also determinate moment tensor of same events in the central region. The major difficulty is to determinate focal mechanism of low magnitudes events (< 4.0 mb) using distants seismograph stations. The central region shows a purely compressional pattern which are predicted by regional theoretical models (Richardson & Coblentz, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow& Bertelloni, 2004). Meanwhile in the Amazonic region we find a SHmax from E-W to SE-NW probably caused by Caribbean and South American plates interaction (Meijer, 1995). In NE region, the compression rotates following the coast line which indicates an important component regional present in stress field spreading effects due to the continental/oceanic crustal (Assumpção, 1998) and cases of stress caused by sedimentary load in Amazon Fan in agreement local theoretical models (Watts et al., 2009). We determinate the

  8. Climate Change in U.S. South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Fisheries Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roffer, M. A.; Hernandez, D. L.; Lamkin, J. T.; Pugliese, R.; Reichert, M.; Hall, C.

    2016-02-01

    A review of the recent evidence that climate change is affecting marine ecosystems in the U.S. fishery management zones of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean regions will be presented. This will include affects on the living marine resources (including fish, invertebrates, marine mammals and turtles), fisheries, habitat and people. Emphasis will be given on the effects that impact managed species and the likely new challenges that they present to fishery managers. The evidence is being derived from the results of the "Climate Variability and Fisheries Workshop: Setting Research Priorities for the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Regions," October 26-28, 2015 in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. Commonalities and regional differences will be presented in terms of how climate variability is likely to impact distribution, catch, catchability, socioeconomics, and management.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01

    The Blinebry (Permian) formation of eastern Lea County, NM has a long history of exploitation for petroleum and continues even today to be a strong target horizon for new drilling in the Permian Basin. Because of this long-standing interest it should be classified of strategic interest to domestic oil production; however, the formation has gained a reputation as a primary production target with limited to no flooding potential. In late May of 1999, a project to examine the feasibility of waterflooding the Blinebry formation was proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Petroleum Technology Office (Tulsa, OK). A new well was proposed in one region (the South House area) to examine the reputation by acquiring core and borehole logging data for the collection of formation property data in order to conduct the waterflood evaluation. Notice of the DOE award was received on August 19, 1999 and the preparations for drilling, coring and logging were immediately made for a drilling start on 9/9/99. The Blinebry formation at 6000 feet, foot depth was reached on 9/16/99 and the coring of two 60 foot intervals of the Blinebry was completed on 9/19/99 with more than 98% core recovery. The well was drilled to a total depth of 7800 feet and the Blinebry interval was logged with spectral gamma ray, photoelectric cross section, porosity, resistivity, and borehole image logs on 8/24/99. The well was determined to be likely productive from the Blinebry interval and five & 1/2 inch casing was cemented in the hole on 9/25/99. Detailed core descriptions including environment of deposition have been accomplished. Whole core (a 4-inch diameter) and plug (1.5 inch diameter) testing for formation properties has been completed and are reported. Acquisition and analysis of the borehole logging results have been completed and are reported. Perforation of the Blinebry intervals was accomplished on November 8, 1999. The intervals were acidized and hydrofraced on 11/9 and 11

  10. Health assessment for Rose Hill Regional Landfill, South Kingstown, Rhode Island, Region 1. CERCLIS No. RID980521025. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-18

    The Rose Hill Regional Landfill site, South Kingstown, Rhode Island, was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Part of this approximately 70-acre site is owned by the town of South Kingstown and part is owned by a private citizen. The site consists of three separate, inactive disposal areas--a solid waste landfill, a bulky waste disposal area, and a sewage sludge landfill. Disposal operations began in 1967 and ceased in 1983. Ground water has been affected; and municipal water has been extended to most residents in the vicinity of the site. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section, human exposure to heavy metals and VOCs may occur and may have occurred in the past via ingestion of contaminated ground water.

  11. Active tectonics of North Haji Abad (Hormozgan region) in south of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shafiei bafti, amir

    2014-05-01

    Zagros Active Fold -thrust Belt is situated in the northern margin of the Arabian Plat and formed due to shortening, thickening and uplift of tethys sedimentary basin between Arabian and Iranian plates. In this study, the rate of uplift in the northern margin of the Zagros Mountains in southern Iran are examined. The Zagros fault zone in this region is composed of a set faults, including Deragah, Haji Abad, Tezerj and several other faults and also we call these branches from F1 to F8. These segments puts from northwest to the East- Southeast. Based on field surveys and Geological maps, we prepared a structural map from major faults of Zagros fault system for identify faults pattern and estimating of uplift rate movements in Zagros fault. Three methods used to calculation of uplift rate: A: Asymmetry index Accordance with the procedure, in studied area, northeast drainage are longer than of southwest drainage and east minor drainages also longer than the west side drainages, Uplifting in this region is characterized by mentioned asymmetry factor. The amount of this index is AF=71.81. B. Interaction between the faults movements and erosion process We comparison contrast between uplifting movement rates and erosion rates in different parts of studied region by Smf and other indexes. Average amount of Smf=1.1. C. Evaluation of Uplift rate of alluvial terraces was performed by sediment ages and terraces height. We surveyed Quaternary facieses which have ages between 17,000 and 30,000 years old. the rate of uplifting for each fault is follows : Deragah fault and F8 fault between 1.0 to 1.85mm per year and F7, F6, F5, and F4 faults, have a rate Uplifting between 0.6 to 1.0 mm per year and the rate of Uplift for other faults is between 0.04 to 0.06 mm per year. According to our studies, uplift rates in north -east and south-west more than other regions The minimum rate at different stations are about 0.5mm/y to 0.93mm/y and its maximum is 0.88 mm/y to 1.47mm/y.

  12. Non-linear Internal Wave Evolution in the South China Sea: 2005 Field Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    code) 05/01/2009 Final 11/18/05 - 09/30/07 Non-linear Internal Wave Evolution in the South China Sea : 2005 Field Program N00014-05-1-0140 Pinkel...challenge was to see if the waves arriving at the western slopes of the South China Sea were in fact, propagating trans-basin from generating sites... Sea : 2005 Field Program Final Report: N00014-05-1-0140 Robert Pinkel Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography

  13. Constrained Regional Recovery of Continental Water Mass Time-variations from GRACE-based Geopotential Anomalies over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G. L.; Seoane, L.; Frappart, F.; Biancale, R.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.; Bourgogne, S.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a "constrained" least-squares approach to estimate regional maps of equivalent-water heights by inverting GRACE-based potential anomalies at satellite altitude. According to the energy integral method, the anomalies of difference of geopotential between the two GRACE vehicles are derived from along-track K-Band Range-Rate (KBRR) residuals that correspond mainly to the continental water storage changes, once a priori known accelerations (i.e. static field, polar movements, atmosphere and ocean masses including tides) are removed during the orbit adjustment process. Newton's first law merely enables the Difference of Potential Anomalies from accurate KBRR data and the equivalent-water heights to be recovered. Spatial constraints versus spherical distance between elementary surface tiles are introduced to stabilize the linear system to cancel the effects of the north-south striping. Unlike the "mascons" approach, no basis of orthogonal functions (e.g., spherical harmonics) is used, so that the proposed regional method does not suffer from drawbacks related to any spectrum truncation. Time series of 10-day regional maps over South America for 2006-2009 also prove to be consistent with independent data sets, namely the outputs of hydrological models, "mascons" and global GRACE solutions.

  14. The South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Pc4-5 Wave Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, Lt. Nathan; Zesta, Eftyhia; Boudouridis, Athanasios; Moldwin, Mark; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Chi, Peter

    The Antarctic continent, the only landmass in the southern polar region, offers the unique opportunity for observations that geomagnetically range from polar latitudes to well into the inner magnetosphere, thus enabling conjugate observations in a wide range of geomagnetic lat-itudes. The SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array) chain is a meridional chain of 12 magnetometers, 11 of them at L=1.1 to L=2.5 along the coast of Chile and in the Antarc-tica peninsula, and one auroral station along the same meridian. SAMBA is conjugate to the northern hemisphere MEASURE and McMAC chains, offering unique opportunities for inter-hemispheric studies. In particular, we study asymmetries in the power of ULF waves and the role of the ionosphere in such observed asymmetries. Utilizing conjugate magnetometer stations at L=1.7 and L=2.3, we previously demonstrated that the northern hemisphere consistently shows higher ULF wave power. One possible reason for the asymmetry is solar zenith angles differences with the northern hemisphere station being closer to the ecliptic plain and having a higher power ratio. These hemispheric differences were also observed with TEC measurements indicating that the north and south conjugate ionospheres are similarly asymmetric. The initial study was done with Pc3 waves, which include the resonance frequencies for the flux tubes of our conjugate stations. We now extend the study to Pc4 and Pc5 waves that reach the lower latitudes via different mechanisms and compare these waves to the resonant Pc3 waves.

  15. X-ray Point Sources in Galactic Center Region Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; van den Berg, M.; Laycock, S.; Koenig, X.; Zhao, P.; Schlegel, E.

    2005-12-01

    We report the recent progress of the Chandra Multiwavelength Plane (ChaMPlane) survey in the Galactic Center region fields. These fields include deep Chandra observations of three low extinction windows near the Galactic Center - Baade's window, Stanek window, and Limiting window (100 ksec each, see van den Berg et al. for a detailed description of these three fields) and the Chandra archival data of Sgr A* (750 ksec), Sgr B2 field (100 ksec) and the shallow survey (2x12 ksec) of the Galactic Center strip (Wang et al 2002, Nature, 415, 148). We classify the spectral types of X-ray sources by quantile analysis, and we explore the source population using logN-logS and spatial distributions based on their spectral type. This project is supported by Chandra grant GO5-6091X.

  16. Regional United States electric field and GIC hazard impacts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, J. L.; Balch, C. C.; Trichtchenko, L.

    2013-12-01

    Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) are primarily driven by impulsive geomagnetic disturbances created by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and sharp velocity, density, and magnetic field enhancements in the solar wind. However, the magnitude of the induced electric field response at the ground level, and therefore the resulting hazard to the bulk power system, is determined not only by magnetic drivers, but also by the underlying geology. Convolution techniques are used to calculate surface electric fields beginning from the spectral characteristics of magnetic field drivers and the frequency response of the local geology. Using these techniques, we describe historical scenarios for regions across the United States, and the potential impact of large events on electric power infrastructure.

  17. REGIONAL-SCALE WIND FIELD CLASSIFICATION EMPLOYING CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L G; Glaser, R E; Chin, H S; Loosmore, G A

    2004-06-17

    The classification of time-varying multivariate regional-scale wind fields at a specific location can assist event planning as well as consequence and risk analysis. Further, wind field classification involves data transformation and inference techniques that effectively characterize stochastic wind field variation. Such a classification scheme is potentially useful for addressing overall atmospheric transport uncertainty and meteorological parameter sensitivity issues. Different methods to classify wind fields over a location include the principal component analysis of wind data (e.g., Hardy and Walton, 1978) and the use of cluster analysis for wind data (e.g., Green et al., 1992; Kaufmann and Weber, 1996). The goal of this study is to use a clustering method to classify the winds of a gridded data set, i.e, from meteorological simulations generated by a forecast model.

  18. Chromospheric magnetic fields of an active region filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Solanki, S.; Lagg, A.

    2012-06-01

    Vector magnetic fields of an active region filament are co-spatially and co-temporally mapped in photosphere and upper chromosphere, by using spectro-polarimetric observations made by Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). A Zeeman-based ME inversion is performed on the full Stokes vectors of both the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and the chromospheric He I 1083.0 nm lines. We found that the strong magnetic fields, with the field strength of 600 - 800 G in the He I line formation height, are not uncommon among AR filaments. But such strong magnetic field is not always found in AR filaments.

  19. Bacterial diversity of rice fields in the South of Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigated rice fields are aquatic agroecosystems directly influenced by agricultural practices, which include agrochemical application and the input of nutrients related to resource of irrigation. In addition, root exudation and the levels of soil mineral nutrients are important modifiers of the rhi...

  20. Acarbose improves glycemic control and reduces body weight: Subanalysis data of South Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kalra, S; Sahay, R K; Schnell, O; Sheu, W H H; Grzeszczak, W; Watada, H; Soegondo, S; Yamamoto, N; Weng, J; Rathod, R

    2013-10-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycaemia. However, data from South Asia region is very limited. In order to examine the effect of AGI in real-life setting, 10 PMS/NIS from all over the world from the launch of acarbose to date were pooled in one database and exploratory analysis was performed for glycemic parameters and weight. In total 62,905 patients were pooled from 21 countries and regions. Mean follow up (± SD) was 12.2 ± 4.8 weeks (range 0.1-108.9). From South Asia region (India and Pakistan), 8,738 Asian patients were enrolled. Mean PPG decreased from 240.0 and 261.1 mg/dl at baseline by 70.26 ± 65.10 and 82.96 ± 56.59 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 53,883; n = 7,991, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean FPG decreased from 171.6 and 176.5 mg/dl at baseline by 38.48 ± 47.83 and 49.59 ± 41.41 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 56,672; n = 7,837, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean HbA1c decreased from 8.4 and 8.4% at baseline by 1.11 ± 1.31% and 0.91 ± 0.93% at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 38,843; n = 2,343, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean relative reduction of body weight (BW) was 1.40 ± 3.28% and 1.10 ± 3.39% at the last visit for mean baseline BW 73.6 and 74.2 kg in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 54,760; n = 7,718, P < 0.0001 for both). Consistent with RCT meta-analyses, post-hoc analysis of real-life data showed acarbose treatment improved glycaemic control and reduced the BW. Acarbose treatment in real life setting showed significant reductions in all glycemic parameters and BW in Asian patients from South Asia region.

  1. Abundant cyanopolyynes as a probe of infall in the Serpens South cluster-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R. K.; Medeiros, L.; Schnee, S.; Bourke, T. L.; di Francesco, J.; Gutermuth, R.; Myers, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have detected bright HC7N J = 21 - 20 emission towards multiple locations in the Serpens South cluster-forming region using the K-Band Focal Plane Array at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. HC7N is seen primarily towards cold filamentary structures that have yet to form stars, largely avoiding the dense gas associated with small protostellar groups and the main central cluster of Serpens South. Where detected, the HC7N abundances are similar to those found in other nearby star-forming regions. Towards some HC7N `clumps', we find consistent variations in the line centroids relative to NH3 (1,1) emission, as well as systematic increases in the HC7N non-thermal line widths, which we argue reveal infall motions on to dense filaments within Serpens South with minimum mass accretion rates of M ˜ 2-5 M⊙ Myr-1. The relative abundance of NH3 to HC7N suggests that the HC7N is tracing gas that has been at densities n ˜ 104 cm-3 for time-scales t ≲ 1-2 × 105 yr. Since HC7N emission peaks are rarely co-located with those of either NH3 or continuum, it is likely that Serpens South is not particularly remarkable in its abundance of HC7N, but instead the serendipitous mapping of HC7N simultaneously with NH3 has allowed us to detect HC7N at low abundances in regions where it otherwise may not have been looked for. This result extends the known star-forming regions containing significant HC7N emission from typically quiescent regions, like the Taurus molecular cloud, to more complex, active environments.

  2. Chromospheric Magnetic Field of Exploding Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Debi P.

    2013-07-01

    How changes in the three-dimensional magnetic field of solar active region are related to Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) is an important question for contemporary solar physics. Complex active regions are the predominant source of powerful high-speed CMEs, which can result in strong geomagnetic storms. In this paper we present the properties of chromospheric magnetic field of active regions that produced solar flares and CMEs using observations of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility operated by the National Solar Observatory. Currently, the SOLIS Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) is the only instrument that is capable of obtaining full Stokes profiles in both the photospheric Fe I λ630.2 nm and chromospheric Ca II λ854.2 nm lines on a daily basis. VSM also has the capability of making rapid scans covering an area sufficiently large to contain an active region. We shall present the Stokes profile characteristics of photospheric and chromospheric lines of few CME source regions.

  3. Chromospheric Magnetic Field of Exploding Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    How changes in the three-dimensional magnetic field of solar active region are related to Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) is an important question for contemporary solar physics. Complex active regions are the predominant source of powerful high-speed CMEs, which can result in strong geomagnetic storms. In this paper we present the properties of chromospheric magnetic field of active regions that produced solar flares and CMEs using observations of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility operated by the National Solar Observatory. Currently, the SOLIS Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) is the only instrument that is capable of obtaining full Stokes profiles in both the photospheric Fe I 630.2 nm and chromospheric Ca II 854.2 nm lines on a daily basis. VSM also has the capability of making rapid scans covering an area sufficiently large to contain an active region. We shall present the Stokes profile characteristics of photospheric and chromospheric lines of few CME source regions.

  4. How heterogeneous coseismic slip affects regional probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment: A case study in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linlin; Switzer, Adam D.; Chan, Chung-Han; Wang, Yu; Weiss, Robert; Qiu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Rupture complexity, typically in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution pattern, significantly affects the local tsunami wave field. However, the effect of rupture complexity is not commonly considered in any form of tsunami hazard assessment. Taking rupture complexity into account significantly increases the computational load, particularly in regional-scaled probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments (PTHAs) that usually require a large number of simulations based on synthetic scenarios. In this study, we investigate how the heterogeneous slip distribution affects the regional-scaled PTHA by taking the South China Sea (SCS) as an example. By doing this, we update PTHA for the SCS by incorporating the best available information of seismic tsunamigenic sources along the Manila megathrust. We integrate a stochastic source model into a Monte Carlo-type simulation, in which a broad range of slip distribution patterns is generated for large numbers of synthetic earthquake events. Green's function technique is employed to efficiently calculate the nearshore tsunami wave amplitude along the SCS coastlines. Our result suggests that for a relatively small and confined region like the SCS, the commonly used approach based on the uniform slip model significantly underestimates tsunami hazard not only in the near-source region like west Luzon, as expected, but also in the relative far field, such as south China and central Vietnam. Additionally, our sensitivity test of the patch size effects suggests that large patch size is unable to adequately resolve the details of heterogeneous seafloor deformation, and such approaches considerably underestimate the potential tsunami hazard for the SCS coasts.

  5. Clusters, groups, and filaments in the Chandra deep field-south up to redshift 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.

    2014-03-01

    We present a comprehensive structure detection analysis of the 0.3 deg{sup 2} area of the MUSYC-ACES field, which covers the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Using a density-based clustering algorithm on the MUSYC and ACES photometric and spectroscopic catalogs, we find 62 overdense regions up to redshifts of 1, including clusters, groups, and filaments. We also present the detection of a relatively small void of ∼10 Mpc{sup 2} at z ∼ 0.53. All structures are confirmed using the DBSCAN method, including the detection of nine structures previously reported in the literature. We present a catalog of all structures present, including their central position, mean redshift, velocity dispersions, and classification based on their morphological and spectroscopic distributions. In particular, we find 13 galaxy clusters and 6 large groups/small clusters. Comparison of these massive structures with published XMM-Newton imaging (where available) shows that 80% of these structures are associated with diffuse, soft-band (0.4-1 keV) X-ray emission, including 90% of all objects classified as clusters. The presence of soft-band X-ray emission in these massive structures (M {sub 200} ≥ 4.9 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}) provides a strong independent confirmation of our methodology and classification scheme. In the closest two clusters identified (z < 0.13) high-quality optical imaging from the Deep2c field of the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey reveals the cD galaxies and demonstrates that they sit at the center of the detected X-ray emission. Nearly 60% of the clusters, groups, and filaments are detected in the known enhanced density regions of the CDFS at z ≅ 0.13, 0.52, 0.68, and 0.73. Additionally, all of the clusters, bar the most distant, are found in these overdense redshift regions. Many of the clusters and groups exhibit signs of ongoing formation seen in their velocity distributions, position within the detected cosmic web, and in one case through the presence of tidally

  6. Mortality due to cutaneous melanoma in south region of Brazil: a spatial approach*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer with low incidence but high mortality rates. The South region of Brazil has the highest death rates by melanoma per 100,000 inhabitants of the country. Little is known about the spatial distribution of this malignancy in southern Brazil. Objectives Identify the spatial patterns of deaths from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil, using geoprocessing tools. Methods This is an ecological and exploratory study of death information by cutaneous melanoma obtained from portal Datasus, for Brazil's southern region, from January 2008 to December 2012. Deaths were separated by gender and rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and used to compile thematic maps, Moran maps and Kernel maps, using TerraView software. It was adopted an alpha = 5%. Results There were data on 2378 deaths from cutaneous melanoma in the study period. High rates were identified in the northern and littoral regions of Rio Grande do Sul; the northeast of Santa Catarina; and west of Paraná - for the total population, with minor differences detected and indicated regarding gender. The global Moran index presented p-values of 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03, respectively, for male, female and overall deaths. All the micro-regions that showed high priority for intervention were detected in the Rio Grande do Sul. Conclusion Spatial clusters of micro-regions with high death rates from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil were identified, serving as an important tool for health managers. PMID:27579737

  7. Deadly heat waves projected in the densely populated agricultural regions of South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Soon; Pal, Jeremy S.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The risk associated with any climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that a wet-bulb temperature of 35°C can be considered an upper limit on human survivability. On the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution climate change simulations, we project that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in South Asia are likely to approach and, in a few locations, exceed this critical threshold by the late 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions. The most intense hazard from extreme future heat waves is concentrated around densely populated agricultural regions of the Ganges and Indus river basins. Climate change, without mitigation, presents a serious and unique risk in South Asia, a region inhabited by about one-fifth of the global human population, due to an unprecedented combination of severe natural hazard and acute vulnerability. PMID:28782036

  8. North-south regional variation in phospholipase A activity in the venom of Crotalus ruber.

    PubMed

    Straight, R C; Glenn, J L; Wolt, T B; Wolfe, M C

    1992-11-01

    1. Twenty-seven individual venoms from the rattlesnake species Crotalus ruber from different regions were comparatively analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC and analyzed for phospholipase A (PLA) content using a polarographic assay. 2. Two fractions containing PLA activity were detected by HPLC in the venoms of all the C. ruber specimens from southern Baja, Mexico, but specimens from southern California, U.S.A., were lacking corresponding fractions and were extremely low or lacking in PLA activity in their venoms. 3. The north-south regional variation in PLA content in C. ruber venom does not correlate with the north-south ranges (based on external morphology) of the subspecies C. ruber ruber and C. ruber lucasensis.

  9. Chiral Effective Field Theory in the Δ-RESONANCE Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2007-10-01

    I discuss the problem of constructing an effective low-energy theory in the vicinity of a resonance or a bound state. The focus is on the example of the Δ(1232), the lightest resonance in the nucleon sector. Recent developments of the chiral effective-field theory in the Δ-resonance region are briefly reviewed. I conclude with a comment on the merits of the manifestly covariant formulation of chiral EFT in the baryon sector.

  10. Chiral Effective Field Theory in the $\\Delta$-resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Pascalutsa

    2006-09-18

    I discuss the problem of constructing an effective low-energy theory in the vicinity of a resonance or a bound state. The focus is on the example of the $\\Delta(1232)$, the lightest resonance in the nucleon sector. Recent developments of the chiral effective-field theory in the $\\Delta$-resonance region are briefly reviewed. I conclude with a comment on the merits of the manifestly covariant formulation of chiral EFT in the baryon sector.

  11. The history, development, and regional significance of Ruston Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, J.A.; Herrmann, L.A.; Davenport, R.E. )

    1993-09-01

    The Ruston gas field lies just north of Ruston, Lincoln Parish, Louisiana, 70 mi east of Shreveport, Louisiana. The field covers a surface area of 64.5 sections or approximately 41,280 ac. The Ruston lies within a trend containing many Lower Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic gas reservoirs on the northern flank of the Gulf Coast geosyncline, along the northern flank of the North Louisiana Salt Dome basin. Within the belt of production, several prolific Cotton Valley strandline plays exist at Ruston along with many different Hosston pays. More than 40 zones produce natural gas and oil from seven formations in the field. Several of the sands are totally structurally controlled, but many have a minor to major stratigraphic trapping component. Ultimate recovery from the field is estimated to be 1,600,000 bbl of oil, 1,730,000 bbl of condensate and 614 bcf of gas. The most prolific reservoir is the strandline Cotton Valley [open quotes]D[close quotes] sand averaging over 12 bcf per well, a total of over 195 bcf of gas, and more than 600,000 bbl of condensate. The best well in the fields is the Arkansas Louisiana Gas No. 2 Dowling in Sec. 30, T19N, R2W, which has produced 22 bcf of gas and 110,000 bbl of condensate. The upper, middle, and lower Hosston produce at Ruston. The lower Hosston produces from approximately 14 fields in northern Louisiana and from 11 wells in the field. The middle Hosston produces from approximately 28 fields in the basin and has made over 46 bcf of gas from six sands. The upper Hosston is regionally the most extensive in northern Louisiana producing from approximately 41 fields. At Ruston, the Hosston has produced over 15 bcf of gas from seven sands.

  12. A brief overview of the history of veterinary field services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Gideon K

    2014-11-14

    The historical evolution of veterinary services in South Africa is closely linked to the colonial history of the past and the eventual political formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, as well as the establishment of a fully democratic South Africa in 1994. The majority of the early pioneering veterinarians had close links to military activities and were originally mostly of British origin. The appointment of the first colonial chief veterinary officers occurred in the late 1800s. These appointments were dictated by the need to combat devastating animal diseases, such as rinderpest and African horse sickness, mainly because they affected draught oxen (used for travel) and horses (used in combat). Veterinary field services was established in 1962 as a separate functional entity within government services when M.C. Lambrechts became Director of Veterinary Services of South Africa. In the context of this article, veterinary field services refers to that sphere of veterinary service delivery conducted by government-appointed or seconded veterinarians applying disease control and prevention, as required by animal health legislation. Paging through the history of veterinary field services in South Africa confirms that the problems faced by the veterinary services of today were just as real during the times of our pioneers. The pioneers of veterinary services transformed unknown animal diseases into textbook descriptions still used today and also demonstrated the important link to, and use of, the observations made by farmers, as well as the need for continued basic and applied research on animal diseases. This article provided a brief overview of the evolution of veterinary field services and the important role played by pioneers over the last two centuries to make South Africa relatively free and safe from the most important trade-sensitive and economically important animal diseases.

  13. Campylobacteriosis in the South Bohemian Region - a Recurrent Problem.

    PubMed

    Hamplová, L; Kotrbová, K; Príkazská, M

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most frequently reported foodborne diseases in both the Czech Republic (CR) and South Bohemian Region (SBR). Campylobacteriosis has been a notifiable disease in the CR since 1984. The objective of this study is the analysis of the data reported to the surveillance system between 2005 and 2014 to describe the seasonal variation, age specific incidence, and route of transmission of campylobacteriosis in the South Bohemian Region. The data reported to the surveillance system EPIDAT from 2005 to 2014 were analysed in order to determine the incidence trends and seasonality, age distribution, and route of transmission of campylobacteriosis in the South Bohemian Region. Campylobacteriosis incidence in the South Bohemian Region follows the same annual pattern as in the Czech Republic. There is a very slight declining trend in the incidence over the study period. A strong seasonal variation was observed, with a late summer peak and a winter low. An exception to the regularity of the incidence pattern was an outbreak notified in 2010. The most affected age groups are children 1 to 5 years and newborns (0 age group). In the other age groups, the incidence has a declining tendency. The most common vehicles for the transmission of campylobacteriosis are chicken and meat products while other vehicles and routes of transmission have been reported exceptionally. Only one third of cases have been notified along with the suspected route of transmission. The most common route of transmission is through the consumption of contaminated chicken and meat, including smoked meat products. Therefore, the measures targeting consumers and also producers of poultry, meat, and unpasteurized milk products may contribute to the reduction of campylobacteriosis incidence.

  14. An Examination of the Potential for Conflict in the South Pacific Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    might also turn to the South Pacific and Tasman Sea as an alternative route... 7 The conclusion is reached that US security interests are there- fore...occupation during the War. But Japanese naval plans did aim at eventually occupying Fiji, New Caledonia, and Samoa to block the sea routes between Australia...traditional freedoms of the high seas , and placed limita- tions on the ability of the US to continue to guarantee security within the Region. While the New

  15. E region electric field dependence of the solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, C. M.; Moro, J.; Resende, L. C. A.; Chen, S. S.; Schuch, N. J.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2015-10-01

    We have being studying the zonal and vertical E region electric field components inferred from the Doppler shifts of type 2 echoes (gradient drift irregularities) detected with the 50 MHz backscatter coherent radar set at São Luis, Brazil (SLZ, 2.3°S, 44.2°W) during the solar cycle 24. In this report we present the dependence of the vertical and zonal components of this electric field with the solar activity, based on the solar flux F10.7. For this study we consider the geomagnetically quiet days only (Kp ≤ 3+). A magnetic field-aligned-integrated conductivity model was developed for proving the conductivities, using the IRI-2007, the MISIS-2000, and the IGRF-11 models as input parameters for ionosphere, neutral atmosphere, and Earth magnetic field, respectively. The ion-neutron collision frequencies of all the species are combined through the momentum transfer collision frequency equation. The mean zonal component of the electric field, which normally ranged from 0.19 to 0.35 mV/m between the 8 and 18 h (LT) in the Brazilian sector, show a small dependency with the solar activity. Whereas the mean vertical component of the electric field, which normally ranges from 4.65 to 10.12 mV/m, highlights the more pronounced dependency of the solar flux.

  16. Field evaluation of potential pheromone lures for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Mid-South

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lyg...

  17. Growth and Survival of Baldcypress Planted in an Old Rice Field of Coastal South Carolina

    Treesearch

    William H. Conner; L. Wayne Inabinette; Mehmet Ozalp

    2004-01-01

    Vast acreages of baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] swampland in coastal South Carolina were cleared for rice production starting in the late 1600s. When rice cultivation ended in the late 1800s, many cultivated areas became marshlands. Other fields failed to return to forest unless they were planted. In one such area, nine acres were...

  18. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at site SFR-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report fro field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-3P and SFR-3T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  19. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at Site SFR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-4P and SFR-4T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  20. Soccer field at West 101st102nd streets, Riverside Park, looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Soccer field at West 101st-102nd streets, Riverside Park, looking south with railroad retaining wall in background. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  1. Measuring Magnetic Fields in Photoionized Interstellar Plasmas (HII Regions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven; Costa, Allison

    2015-11-01

    Hot luminous stars photoionize the interstellar gas around them, creating plasmas with a very high ionization fraction. In astronomical terminology, these are called HII regions. They are dynamic plasmas, expanding due to overpressure with respect to the interstellar medium. We are making diagnostic measurements to determine the strength and structure of magnetic fields in these objects. This paper presents our results on the Rosette Nebula. We diagnose the magnetic field in the Rosette by measurements of Faraday rotation on lines of sight passing through the nebula. These measurements are made with the Very Large Array radio telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. We have measurements of the rotation measure for 18 lines of sight. Values of the mean, line of sight component of the magnetic field range from about 3 to 5 microGauss. We will discuss comparison of these measurements with models for modification of the interstellar magnetic field by an HII region. This work was supported by grants AST09-07911 and ATM09-56901 from the National Science Foundation.

  2. Regional Geomagnetic Field Model for Croatia at 2009.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujić, Eugen; Brkić, Mario; Kovács, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Geomagnetic data of north, east, and vertical components at Croatian repeat stations and ground survey sites, as well as European geomagnetic observatories and repeat stations, were used to obtain a regional geomagnetic model over Croatia at 2009.5 epoch. Different models were derived, depending on input data, and three modelling techniques were used: Taylor Polynomial, Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis, and Spherical Harmonic Analysis. It was derived that the most accurate model over Croatia was the one when only Croatian data were used, and by using the Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis. Based on Croatian repeat stations' data in the interval 2007.5-2010.5, and a global Enhanced Magnetic Model, it was possible to estimate the crustal field at those sites. It was also done by taking into account the empirical adjustment for long-term external field variations. The higher crustal field values were found at those stations which are on or close to the Adriatic anomaly.

  3. A Regional health care network: eHealth.Braunschweig. Domain fields and architectural challenges.

    PubMed

    Gusew, N; Bartkiewicz, T; Bautsch, W; Gerlach, A; Goldapp, M; Haux, R; Heller, U; Kierdorf, H P; Kleinschmidt, T; Ludwig, W; Markurth, U; Pfingsten-Würzburg, S; Plischke, M; Reilmann, H; Schubert, R; Seidel, C; Warnke, R

    2012-01-01

    Health care network eHealth.Braunschweig has been started in the South-East region of Lower Saxony in Germany in 2009. It composes major health care players, participants from research institutions and important local industry partners. The objective of this paper is firstly to describe the relevant regional characteristics and distinctions of the eHealth.Braunschweig health care network and to inform about the goals and structure of eHealth.Braunschweig; secondly to picture and discuss the main concepts and domain fields which are addressed in the health care network; and finally to discuss the architectural challenges of eHealth.Braunschweig regarding the addressed domain fields and defined requirements. Based on respective literature and former conducted projects we discuss the project structure and goals of eHealth.Braunschweig, depict major domain fields and requirements gained in workshops with participants and discuss the architectural challenges as well as the architectural approach of eHealth.Braunschweig network. The regional healthcare network eHealth.Braunschweig has been established in April 2009. Since then the network has grown constantly and a sufficient progress in network activities has been achieved. The main domain fields have been specified in different workshops with network participants and an architectural realization approach for the transinstitutional information system architecture in the healthcare network has been developed. However, the effects on quality of information processing and quality of patient care have not been proved yet. Systematic evaluation studies have to be done in future in order to investigate the impact of information and communication technology on the quality of information processing and the quality of patient care. In general, the aspects described in this paper are expected to contribute to a systematic approach for the establishment of regional health care networks with lasting and sustainable effects on

  4. Findings of the SHIVA field campaign in the South China Sea in Nov.-Dec. 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Marine emissions of so-called halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are known to considerably contribute to the ozone destroying halogen loading of the stratosphere. In this context, most crucial are VSLS emissions in regions of large vertical transport, i.e. the tropics and in particular in the warm pool of the Western Pacific during the rainy seasons (November to March). In order to study the biogenic emissions of halogenated VSLS, their atmospheric transport and transformation, the internationally coordinated field expedition SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was performed within the margins of the South China Sea in November and December 2011. Partners from 19 institutions from 9 countries participated in the campaign. Funding came from the EU's 7th framework programme and additionally from a larger number of national funding agencies. The activities included investigations in the laboratory and on the ground, during local ship cruises, the research vessel SONNE, deployments of the DLR (Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space) Falcon aircraft around Borneo, simultaneous satellite observations, the meteorological forecasting and analysis, and numerical modeling of atmospheric transport and photochemistry. The present talk provides an overview on the performed research activities, reports on joint studies, and some core research results obtained to date.

  5. Findings of the SHIVA field campaign in the South China Sea in Nov.-Dec. 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    Marine emissions of so-called halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are known to considerably contribute to the ozone destroying halogen loading of the stratosphere. In this context, most crucial are VSLS emissions in regions of large vertical transport, i.e. the tropics and in particular in the warm pool of the Western Pacific during the rainy seasons (November to March). In order to study the biogenic emissions of halogenated VSLS, their atmospheric transport and transformation, the internationally coordinated field expedition SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was performed within the margins of the South China Sea in November and December 2011. Partners from 19 institutions from 9 countries participated in the campaign and funding came from the EU's 7th framework programme and additionally from a larger number of national funding agencies. The activities included investigations in the laboratory and on the ground, during local ship cruises, the research vessel SONNE, deployments of the DLR (Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space) Falcon aircraft around Borneo, simultaneous satellite observations, the meteorological forecasting and analysis, and numerical modelling of atmospheric transport and photochemistry. The present talk provides an overview on the performed research activities, and reports on joint studies and the research results obtained to date.

  6. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  7. Simulation of the low latitude ionosphere response to disturbed winds and electric fields: Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Inez S.; Souza, Jonas; Bailey, Graham; Bravo, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Modeling the ionosphere during disturbed periods is one of the most challenging tasks due to the complexity of the phenomena that affect the electric fields and the thermosphere environment as whole. It is well known that depending on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field disturbance electric fields (undershielding or overshielding) can penetrate from high to low latitudes causing significant disturbances in the electron density distribution and in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) development. Besides that, the large amount of energy deposited in the polar region during disturbed periods will be responsible for the generation of disturbed winds that will flow towards the equator where they produce a disturbance dynamo which also affects the EIA density distribution. The TIDs and TADs are also sources of disturbances that propagate at high velocity reaching the equator 2-3 hours after the beginning of the magnetic storm. In this work we use the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model at INPE (SUPIM-INPE), to simulate the drastic effects that were observed at the low latitude ionosphere in the Brazilian region during a very intense magnetic storm event. A few models are tested for the disturbed electric field and wind. The simulation results showed that the observations are better explained when considering a traveling waveform disturbance propagating from north to south at a velocity equal to 200 m/s.

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at the South Well Field, Columbus, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Bair, E.S.; Yost, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    The City of Columbus, Ohio, operates four radial collector wells in southern Franklin County. The 'South Well Field' is completed in permeable outwash and ice-contact deposits, upon which flow the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The wells are designed to yield approximately 42 million gallons per day; part of that yield results from induced infiltration of surface water from the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The well field supplied up to 30 percent of the water supply of southern Columbus and its suburbs in 1991. This report describes the hydrogeology of southern Franklin County and a tran sient three-dimensional, numerical ground-water- flow model of the South Well Field. The primary source of ground water in the study area is the glacial drift aquifer. The glacial drift is composed of sand, gravel, and clay depos ited during the Illinoian and Wisconsinan glaciations. In general, thick deposits of till containing lenses of sand and gravel dominate the drift in the area west of the Scioto River. The thickest and most productive parts of the glacial drift aquifer are in the buried valleys in the central and eastern parts of the study area underlying the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the glacial drift aquifer differs spa tially and ranges from 30 to 375 feet per day. The specific yield ranges from 0.12 to 0.30. The secondary source of ground water within the study area is the underlying carbonate bedrock aquifer, which consists of Silurian and Devonian limestones, dolomites, and shales. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the carbonate bedrock aquifer ranges from 10 to 15 feet per day. The storage coefficient is about 0.0002. The ground-water-flow system in the South Well Field area is recharged by precipitation, regional ground-water flow, and induced stream infiltration. Yearly recharge rates varied spatially and ranged from 4.0 to 12.0 inches. The three-dimensional, ground-water-flow model was constructed by

  9. Evaluation of South American LDAS atmospheric forcing datasets for use in regional land surface modeling over the LBA region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goncalves, L. G.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Rosolem, R.; Toll, D. L.; Herdies, D.; Baker, I.

    2007-12-01

    Significant advances have been made in the past few years by the LBA project on towards understanding how the water, energy and carbon cycles function in the Amazon. However, most of these studies have been limited to results from point measurements from strategically located sites in the tropical forest and other LBA-related areas. As the LBA project progresses into its synthesis phase, there is increased interest in using the acquired knowledge to better understand how Amazonia works as a regional entity. The South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS) initiative, which involves NASA/GSFC, CPTEC/INPE and University of Arizona, provides the capability to integrate results within the robust land surface modeling and data assimilation infrastructure that has already been developed at NASA/GSFC and used for regional studies over the LBA region. This study investigates the feasibility of using the SALDAS atmospheric forcing datasets (a 5 years combination of CPTEC reanalysis and surface observations) for land surface modeling over the Amazonia by comparing these forcing data with seven LBA flux towers observations. The discussion of the results focuses on whether the ranges shown in the evaluation (e.g. standard deviation, bias) are within acceptable ranges for land surface modeling over the region. The results of applying this forcing datasets to force the Noah and SiB3 land surface models over the LBA region are also discussed, with emphasis on the integrated water, energy and carbon budgets.

  10. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles.

  11. Annual Variations of the Geomagnetic Field in the Earth's Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin

    2017-04-01

    The annual variations of the geomagnetic field play an important role in the coupling processes between the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere. The annual variation is a well-established feature of the geomagnetic field, and usually is applied for modeling the conductivity of the lower mantle [Parkinson, 1983], and for long-term space weather forecasting [Bartels, 1932; Malin and Mete Isikara, 1976; Gonzalez et al., 1994]. Considerable effort has been devoted toward understanding the causes of the geomagnetic field variations, but the suggested physical mechanisms differ widely. The annual variation is relatively weak in many magnetic indices, but it has a distinct signature in the geomagnetic components. Thus, we use the components for this analysis. The components have a positive peak in northern summer and a negative dip in winter [Vestine, 1954]. Vestine [1954] suggested that the annual variation is caused by an ionospheric dynamo in which electric currents in the ionosphere are generated by meridional winds. The winds blow from north-to-south during northern summer, and south-to-north in northern winter. Malin and Mete Isikara [1976], using near-midnight geomagnetic data, concluded that the annual variation results from a latitudinal movement of the auroral electrojet or the ring current. Stauning [2011] derived of the seasonal variation of the quiet daily variations and examined the influence of the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field. Ziegger and Mursula [1998] have suggested a third mechanism: that the cause is related to an asymmetric solar wind speed distribution across the heliographic equator. In this paper, we study the annual variation problem using long-term magnetic observation and ionospheric conductivity. The sunlight incident on the ionosphere will be calculated. Although a global analysis is done, particular focus will be placed on the polar regions. This study covers the interval 1990-2010, and the cause of the well

  12. Evolution of the magnetic field distribution of active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacie, S.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Long, D. M.; Baker, D.; Janvier, M.; Yardley, S. L.; Pérez-Suárez, D.

    2016-12-01

    Aims: Although the temporal evolution of active regions (ARs) is relatively well understood, the processes involved continue to be the subject of investigation. We study how the magnetic field of a series of ARs evolves with time to better characterise how ARs emerge and disperse. Methods: We examined the temporal variation in the magnetic field distribution of 37 emerging ARs. A kernel density estimation plot of the field distribution was created on a log-log scale for each AR at each time step. We found that the central portion of the distribution is typically linear, and its slope was used to characterise the evolution of the magnetic field. Results: The slopes were seen to evolve with time, becoming less steep as the fragmented emerging flux coalesces. The slopes reached a maximum value of -1.5 just before the time of maximum flux before becoming steeper during the decay phase towards the quiet-Sun value of -3. This behaviour differs significantly from a classical diffusion model, which produces a slope of -1. These results suggest that simple classical diffusion is not responsible for the observed changes in field distribution, but that other processes play a significant role in flux dispersion. Conclusions: We propose that the steep negative slope seen during the late-decay phase is due to magnetic flux reprocessing by (super)granular convective cells.

  13. Identification of Whole Mitochondrial Genomes from Venezuela and Implications on Regional Phylogenies in South America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther J; Merriwether, D Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have expanded and refined the founding haplogroups of the Americas using whole mitochondrial (mtDNA) genome analysis. In addition to pan-American lineages, specific variants have been identified in a number of studies that show higher frequencies in restricted geographical areas. To further characterize Native American maternal lineages and specifically examine local patterns within South America, we analyzed 12 maternally unrelated Yekuana whole mtDNA genomes from one village (Sharamaña) that include the four major Native American haplogroups A2, B2, C1, and D1. Based on our results, we propose a reconfiguration of one subhaplogroup A2 (A2aa) that is specific to South America and identify other singleton branches across the four haplogroups. Furthermore, we show nucleotide diversity values that increase from north to south for haplogroups C1 and D1. The results from our work add to the growing mitogenomic data that highlight local phylogenies and support the rapid genetic differentiation of South American populations, which has been correlated with the linguistic diversity in the region by previous studies.

  14. SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR RADIO VARIABLES AND TRANSIENTS IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Mooley, K. P.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Frail, D. A.; Ofek, E. O.; Miller, N. A.

    2013-05-10

    We report on an analysis of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) region using archival data from the Very Large Array, with the goal of studying radio variability and transients at the sub-milliJansky level. The 49 epochs of E-CDFS observations at 1.4 GHz sample timescales from 1 day to 3 months. We find that only a fraction (1%) of unresolved radio sources above 40 {mu}Jy are variable at the 4{sigma} level. There is no evidence that the fractional variability changes along with the known transition of radio-source populations below 1 mJy. Optical identifications of the sources show that the variable radio emission is associated with the central regions of an active galactic nucleus or a star-forming galaxy. After a detailed comparison of the efficacy of various source-finding algorithms, we use the best to carry out a transient search. No transients were found. This implies that the areal density of transients with peak flux density greater than 0.21 mJy is less than 0.37 deg{sup -2} (at a confidence level of 95%). This result is approximately an order of magnitude below the transient rate measured at 5 GHz by Bower et al. but it is consistent with more recent upper limits from Frail et al. Our findings suggest that the radio sky at 1.4 GHz is relatively quiet. For multi-wavelength transient searches, such as the electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, this frequency may be optimal for reducing the high background of false positives.

  15. Integral field spectroscopy of H II regions in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Hernández, Jesús; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto; Rosa-González, Daniel; Díaz, Ángeles; García-Benito, Rubén; Vílchez, José; Hägele, Guillermo

    2013-03-01

    Integral field spectroscopy is presented for star-forming regions in M33. A central area of 300 × 500 pc2 and the external H II region IC 132, at a galactocentric distance ˜19 arcmin (4.69 kpc), were observed with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer instrument at the 3.5-m telescope of the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA, aka Calar Alto Observatory). The spectral coverage goes from 3600 Å to 1 μm to include from [O II] λ3727 Å to the near-infrared lines required for deriving sulphur electron temperature and abundance diagnostics. Local conditions within individual H II regions are presented in the form of emission-line fluxes and physical conditions for each spatial resolution element (spaxel) and for segments with similar Hα surface brightness. A clear dichotomy is observed when comparing the central to outer disc H II regions. While the external H II region has higher electron temperature plus larger Hβ equivalent width, size and excitation, the central region has higher extinction and metal content. The dichotomy extends to the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagnostic diagrams that show two orthogonal broad distributions of points. By comparing with pseudo-3D photoionization models, we conclude that the bulk of observed differences are probably related to a different ionization parameter and metallicity. Wolf-Rayet (WR) features are detected in IC 132, and resolved into two concentrations whose integrated spectra were used to estimate the characteristic number of WR stars. No WR features were detected in the central H II regions despite their higher metallicity.

  16. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    PubMed

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  17. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H.; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S.; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K.; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D.; Scott, Terence P.; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L.; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A.

    2017-01-01

    Background In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. Methods and findings The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a “hotspot” of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. Conclusions The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens. PMID:28628619

  18. Regional temporal persistence of dried soil layer along south-north transect of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Zhang, Chencheng; Zhao, Chunlei

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of dried soil layer (DSL) threatens the sustainable development of restored ecosystems in the Loess Plateau of China. Knowledge of the regional spatiotemporal characteristics of DSL in water-deficient regions is critical for optimal water management and vegetation restoration. This study assessed regional temporal persistence of DSL using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and relative difference (RD) analyses and determined the dominant driving factors. Two DSL evaluation indices [DSL thickness (DSLT) and DSL soil water content (DSL-SWC)] were calculated by measuring volumetric SWC of the 0-500 cm soil layer at 86 locations along a south-north regional transect of the Loess Plateau in 2013-2014. Based on the study, there was DSL formation at most of the sites (61 out of 86 sites) along the transect. The level of DSL was severe, with mean DSLT of 273 cm and mean DSL-SWC of only 10.8% (v/v) [field capacity (FC) = 22.5% (v/v)]. Mean DSL-SWC generally decreased from south to north, while no obvious trend was noted in DSLT along the transect. Derived rs values indicated a good temporal persistence of spatial patterns of DSL. Also RD analysis showed that DSL with thicker DSLT and/or lower DSL-SWC had much stronger temporal persistence, implying higher possibility for the formation of permanent DSL. The representative locations of each DSL index well represented the regional means of DSLT and DSL-SWC. This suggested that there was the feasibility of directly estimating regional patterns of DSL from theoretical temporal stability. The temporal persistence of DSL patterns was mainly controlled by soil texture, soil organic carbon, field capacity, mean annual precipitation, precipitation seasonal distribution (PSD) and mean annual temperature. We concluded that soil- and climate-related factors dominated regional temporal persistence of DSL. Lower soil water holding capacity, fewer rainfall and more concentrated PSD could intensify the formation and

  19. The Suruli shear zone and regional scale folding pattern in Madurai block of Southern Granulite Terrain, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Rajeshdurai, P.

    2010-04-01

    Through the application of remote sensing techniques followed by field checks, the exact extension and nature of Suruli shear zone in Madurai block of southern granulite terrain (SGT) in south India is brought out for the first time in this work. The dominant rock type exposed in this area is charnockite intruded by granites. The Suruli ductile shear zone extends from just west of Kadaiyanallur in the south to Ganguvarpatti in the north over a length of 150 km. Between Kadaiyanallur and Kambam, the shear zone extends roughly in N-S direction. From Kambam, it swerves towards NE and then towards ENE near Ganguvarpatti. The strongly developed transposed foliation and mylonite foliation within the shear zone dip towards east only and so the eastern block (Varushanad hills) is the hanging wall and the western block (Cardamom hills) is the footwall of the shear zone. In the eastern block, three distinct phases of regional scale folding (F1, F2 and F3) are recognized. In complete contrast, the western block recorded only the last phase (F3) regional scale folding. As the more deformed eastern block (older terrain) moved over the relatively less deformed western block (younger terrain) along the Suruli shear zone, it is proposed that this shear zone is a thrust or reverse fault, probably of Proterozoic age. As there are evidences for decreasing displacement from north to south (i.e., from Ganguvarpatti to Kadaiyanallur), the Suruli shear zone could be a rotational thrust or reverse fault with the pivot located close to Kadaiyanallur. As the pivot is located near Achankovil shear zone which trends WNW-ESE (dip towards SSW), the Suruli shear zone could be splaying (branching) out from Achankovil shear zone. In a nutshell, the Suruli shear zone could be a splay, rotational thrust or reverse fault.

  20. A very strong magnetic field region in NOAA 11035

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggli, Sarah Amelia

    2015-04-01

    NOAA 11035 was a fairly typical active region that emerged near the central meridian 13-14 December 2009, early in solar cycle 24. During the active region’s rapid emergence and evolution, a deeply-rooted magnetic bipole emerged into the pre-existing leading polarity with spectacular consequences. Multi-wavelength imaging and spectropolarimetry from FIRS, IBIS, Hinode, TRACE, and SOHO allow for a comprehensive investigation of the physical processes present in this region. Intrusion of the opposite polarity into the leading sunspot’s penumbra resulted in a region of highly concentrated horizontal magnetic field, with a peak field strength larger than 3600 G based on Milne-Eddington inversion of Fe I spectropolarimetry at 6302 and 15650 Å. Photospheric velocity measurements show blueshifts of 4 km/sec along the neutral line, which are coincident with a dark chromospheric structure in He I 10830 and H I 6563 Å. We conclude that these signatures are the result of continuous magnetic reconnection near photospheric heights.

  1. Magnetic field configuration in a flaring active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, J.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Vieira, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides continuous monitoring of the Sun's vector magnetic field through full-disk photospheric data with both high cadence and high spatial resolution. Here we investigate the evolution of AR 11249 from March 6 to March 7, 2012. We make use of HMI Stokes imaging, SDO/SHARPs, the HMI magnetic field line-of-sight (LOS) maps and the transverse components of the magnetic field as well as LOS velocity maps in order to detect regions with significant flux emergence and/or cancellation. In addition, we apply the Local Correlation Tracking (LCT) technique to the total and signed magnetic flux data and derive maps of horizontal velocity. From this analysis, we were able to pinpoint localized shear regions (and a shear channel) where penumbrae and pore formation areas, with strong linear polarization signals, are stretched and squeezed, showing also important downflows and upflows. We have also utilized Hinode/SP data and compared them to the HMI-SHARPs and the HMI-Stokes spectrograms. The aforementioned shear channel seems to correspond well with the X-class flare main channel of March 7 2012, as observed in AIA/SDO 171, 304 and 1600 Å.

  2. Magnetic fields in star-forming regions - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiles, Carl; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1993-01-01

    We review the observational aspects of magnetic fields in dense, star-forming regions. First we discuss ways to observe the field. These include direct methods, which consist of the measurement of both linear and circular polarization of spectral line and continuum radiation; and indirect methods, consisting of the angular distribution of H2O masers on the sky and the measurement of ambipolar diffusion. Next we discuss selected observational results, focusing on detailed discussions of a small number of points rather than a generalized discussion that covers the waterfront. We discuss the Orion/BN-KL region in detail, both on the small and large scales. Next we discuss the derivation of the complete magnetic vector, including both the systematic and fluctuating component, from a large sample of Zeeman and linear polarization measurements for the L204 dark cloud. We examine the virial theorem as it applies to dark clouds in general and one dark cloud, Barnard 1, in particular. We critically discuss the numerous claims for alignment of cloud structural features with the plane-of-the-sky component of the magnetic field, and find that many of these have not been definitively established.

  3. Magnetic fields in star-forming regions - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiles, Carl; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1993-01-01

    We review the observational aspects of magnetic fields in dense, star-forming regions. First we discuss ways to observe the field. These include direct methods, which consist of the measurement of both linear and circular polarization of spectral line and continuum radiation; and indirect methods, consisting of the angular distribution of H2O masers on the sky and the measurement of ambipolar diffusion. Next we discuss selected observational results, focusing on detailed discussions of a small number of points rather than a generalized discussion that covers the waterfront. We discuss the Orion/BN-KL region in detail, both on the small and large scales. Next we discuss the derivation of the complete magnetic vector, including both the systematic and fluctuating component, from a large sample of Zeeman and linear polarization measurements for the L204 dark cloud. We examine the virial theorem as it applies to dark clouds in general and one dark cloud, Barnard 1, in particular. We critically discuss the numerous claims for alignment of cloud structural features with the plane-of-the-sky component of the magnetic field, and find that many of these have not been definitively established.

  4. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (< 800 m depth) was formed

  5. A medicolegal study of domestic violence in south region of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hawari, Hasan; El-Banna, Asmaa

    2017-01-01

    Domestic violence is a forced pattern of behavior that happened in domestic settings to gain or maintain power and control over an individual. The aim of this work is to study the magnitude of domestic violence in south region of Jordan. The retrospective study was retrieved from the medico-legal reports of domestic violence cases referred to the Directorate of Forensic Medicine in south region of Jordan during six years period starting from 1st of January 2010 till the end of December 2015. The total number of cases was 128. The majority was females (77.3%), high prevalence (41.4%) was found in adult age group (18 years and above) in both genders. The prevalence was higher in rural areas (75%). Sexual abuse was the commonest method of domestic violence in both genders (41.4%). Nearly a quarter of cases (23.4%) leaving home as an outcome. Spring months represented the highest percentage of domestic violence occurrence (28.1%). Family and financial problems were reported in 71.1% of cases. Domestic violence rate in South Jordan is much lower than in other areas but still considered a problem and should be given high priority with regard to prevention, investigation and treatment.

  6. Farmers' perceptions of health in the Riverland region of South Australia: 'If it's broke, fix it'.

    PubMed

    Rawolle, Tessa A; Sadauskas, David; van Kessel, Gisela; Dollman, James

    2016-10-01

    To explore perceptions of health among South Australian farmers. Descriptive qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews. Two rural towns in the Riverland region of South Australia. Fifteen adults involved in farming within the Riverland region of South Australia, from a variety of farming industries; age range 23-70 years old; 53% male, 47% female. Perceptions and definitions of health. Participants described an ecological understanding of health across individual, farm, and community domains. Participants perceived health as being able to function and complete farm work. Participants reported that farm work helped to maintain fitness, but the multiple stress and hazards associated with farming had a significant influence on health. Participants described how health was influenced by community activities and social support from friends and families. Women were reported to take a lead role in health. Health providers can frame interventions to resonate with the perceptions of health held by people, shaped and formed by the context of farming. Further research is needed to explore farmers' perceptions of health in different locations, from different industries and from a range of age groups. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  8. First steps towards the development of regional magnetic indices designed for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Moro, Juliano; Araujo Resende, Laysa Cristina; Chen, Sony Su

    In the present paper we present the first steps towards the development of regional magnetic indices designed for South America, based on data collected by the EMBRACE Magnetometer Network, which so far is planned to cover most of the Easter Southern American longitudinal sector. Thereafter, we provide details of the development of the region K, named Ksa (K South America), and of the proxy for the Dst Index, obtained in near real-time (1 minute cadence with 5 minutes latency). We also compare the evolution of our indices with the evolution of the Kp and Dst index during geomagnetic storms occurred in 2012 and 2013. We will show some similarities representing the accuracy of our measurements and some dissimilarity that may be attributed the presence of the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). This, in turn, may reflect in the global models that use such indices for disturbance time estimates during different solar cycles. Contacting Author: C. M. Denardini (clezio.denardin@inpe.br)

  9. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

    PubMed

    Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

    2010-09-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  10. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  11. Biomass Burning Aerosol Vertical Distribution Over the South African-Atlantic Region: Perspectives from Multi-Models and CALIOP Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Bian, H.; Harshvardhan, D.; Chin, M.; Curci, G.; Mielonen, T.; Zhang, K.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.

    2016-12-01

    Open burning of agricultural residue in the southwestern African Savanna during the austral spring season (July-October) contributes to about one-third of the global biomass burning (BB) emissions. The optically thick smoke aerosol plumes originating from this BB are transported primarily westward for thousands of kilometers by the mid-tropospheric trade winds. Unlike the smoke from industrial activity and biofuels that intermingles with clouds in most regions, the smoke here mainly overlies the vast stretches of marine stratocumulus clouds over the South-East Atlantic. Accurate simulations of the existence, location and properties of these BB aerosols are necessary to determine their effects on the underlying clouds and eventually on the regional climate. Towards this end, we evaluate the simulation of long-range transport and vertical distribution of BB aerosol by GEOS-5 (coupled to GOCART) over the complete south African-Atlantic region using CALIOP observations and compare the simulation with other global aerosol models participating in the AeroCom Phase-III BB experiment to find any common model biases. Most of the models exhibited some common features after long-range transport of aerosol plumes that were distinct from that of CALIOP. Most importantly, just off the western coast of the continent, the model simulated BB aerosol plumes rapidly descend to lower levels while CALIOP data suggest that smoke plumes continue their horizontal transport at elevated levels above the marine boundary layer. However, the levels to which the aerosol plumes get subsided and the steepness of their descent vary amongst the models and also amongst the different sub-regions of the domain, even though the fields driving the large-scale horizontal and vertical transport amongst the models were found to be similar. To reveal other possible cause(s) of differences between model and CALIOP, aerosol transport over the ocean was further investigated in the context of GEOS-5.

  12. Crust and mantle lithospheric structure of the South China Sea and adjacent regions deduced from geophysical potential data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate the lithospheric structure of the South China Sea and adjacent regions and it's lateral crustal density variations, we using a two-step approach. First the crustal and lithospheric mantle structure is calculated from the geoid height and elevation data combined with thermal analysis further constrained by seismic data. We then compute the 3D gravity effect of the resulting lithospheric structure to separate the measured Bouguer anomaly into its regional and local components. Our results show that for the majority of the study area the crustal thickness does correlate with the regional topography pattern. Moho depth varies from ˜10 km at the Central basin to ˜35 km at the continental shelf and slope zones. The lithosphere is thinner beneath the Central basin (˜70 km) and thicker underneath the continental shelf and slope zones (˜100 km). The residual gravity anomaly, obtained by subtraction of the regional components to the measured field, is analyzed in terms of the dominating upper crustal structures. Central basins and areas with high velocity layer are characterized by positive values (20 100 mGal), whereas the negative values are related to the Trough and Trench, such as Nansha Trough and Manila Trench and shallow basement depths(-100 -20 mGal). The transform boundary of continental-oceanic is consistent with the residual gravity anomaly gradient zone and is proposed accordingly. The variation of Moho and the residual gravity anomaly exists between the conjugate margins which demonstrated the asymmetric crustal extension of the South China Sea margin.

  13. Orthogonal fracture formation in the South Wales coalfield: implications from a field study and fluid overpressure of quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunari, Tetsuzo; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2014-05-01

    and 18 MPa for those striking east-west. Although the thick Dinantian Carbonates immediately underlie the sandstones of the Coal Measure Group, carbonate minerals are absent in the veins, suggesting that the main driving stress for fracture formation may not have been buoyancy related to a deeper fluid source in the underlying carbonates but rather local stress concentrations, resulting in differential stresses, in the sandstones. These conditions imply that both north-south and east-west extensional stress fields were induced in the sandstones during the basin growth under the regional north-south compression. The process responsible for the north-south extension within the sandstones is, at this stage, not entirely clear. One possibility is that cyclic stress and strain concentration in thrust zones could induce tensile stresses during stress relaxation of syn- and post-slip period of major thrusts. Viscous behaviour of the shale in the study area may have generated the north-south tensile stress fields in the sandstones that resulted in fracture formation.

  14. Stratwarm Effects in the Ionospheric D Region Wind Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vergasova, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis is made of the wind field structure in the strato-thermosphere over Eastern Siberia during the winter stratwarms of 1975-1977. It is found that coupling between dynamical processes in the stratosphere and lower thermosphere is effected through changes of the temperature regime of the atmosphere. The circulation regime both in the stratosphere and lower thermosphere depends on location of the source of perturbations that cause stratospheric warmings. The effect of warming-induced perturbations on the dynamics of above- and underlying layers and the meridional extent of the processes are determined by the altitude and region where anti-cyclones originate. In conditions of a warmer stratosphere, there is a considerable loss of wind stability in the ionospheric D-region. A time delay of 1 to 2 days of lower-thermosphere processes is found to occur with respect to stratospheric processes of temperature variation at 30 mb level.

  15. The HII regions and the velocity field of NGC 7331

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelin, M.; Petrosian, A. R.; Amram, P.; Boulesteix, J.

    1994-02-01

    The galaxy NGC 7331 has been observed with an IPCS through an H alpha filter for direct imagery and through a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at H aplha wavelength with the 2.60 m Byurakan telescope to study the main physical parameters of 47 H II regions, diameter and luminosity, as well as their velocities. The cumulative diameter distribution of H II regions is well represented by an exponential function with the parameters N0 = 272 and D0 = 95 pc. The H alpha luminosity function is described by a power law with index - 1.6. The H alpha velocity field of the galaxy is in good agreement with radio observations. Much less extended but offering a higher spatial resolution, it reveals non-circular motions, like the classical wiggles of the isovelocity lines when crossing a spiral arm, or the Z shape distortions of the isovelocity lines in the center possibly revealing an unseen bar.

  16. Plasma Equilibrium in a Magnetic Field with Stochastic Regions

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Krommes and Allan H. Reiman

    2009-04-23

    The nature of plasma equilibrium in a magnetic field with stochastic regions is examined. It is shown that the magnetic differential equation that determines the equilibrium Pfirsch-Schluter currents can be cast in a form similar to various nonlinear equations for a turbulent plasma, allowing application of the mathematical methods of statistical turbulence theory. An analytically tractable model, previously studied in the context of resonance-broadening theory, is applied with particular attention paid to the periodicity constraints required in toroidal configurations. It is shown that even a very weak radial diffusion of the magnetic field lines can have a significant effect on the equilibrium in the neighborhood of the rational surfaces, strongly modifying the near-resonant Pfirsch-Schluter currents. Implications for the numerical calculation of 3D equilibria are discussed

  17. Measurements of the E region neutral wind field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogger, L. L.; Murphree, J. S.; Tepley, C. A.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The neutral E-region wind field was measured at Calgary, Canada (51 N, 114 N) during 75 nights in 1982. Observations of the Doppler shift of the 5577-A emission line of atomic oxygen using a Fabry-Perot interferometer were converted to horizontal wind vectors. From the analysis of the data, four categories of wind characteristics were identified. In order of increasing magnetic activity these categories are: (1) wind field mostly variable in space and time; (2) predominantly equatorward flow throughout the night, (3) predominantly poleward flow throughout the night and (4) north-westward flow before midnight and southward after midnight. The wind magnitude was also variable and on some disturbed days exceeded 200 m/s.

  18. Analysis of supersonic combustion flow fields with embedded subsonic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S.; Delguidice, P.

    1972-01-01

    The viscous characteristic analysis for supersonic chemically reacting flows was extended to include provisions for analyzing embedded subsonic regions. The numerical method developed to analyze this mixed subsonic-supersonic flow fields is described. The boundary conditions are discussed related to the supersonic-subsonic and subsonic-supersonic transition, as well as a heuristic description of several other numerical schemes for analyzing this problem. An analysis of shock waves generated either by pressure mismatch between the injected fluid and surrounding flow or by chemical heat release is also described.

  19. Neptune's polar cusp region - Observations and magnetic field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lazarus, A. J.; Vasyliunas, V. M.; Szabo, A.; Steinberg, J.; Ness, N. F.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper confirms and extends the results of Szabo et al. (1991) (which demonstrated some similarities of the Neptune's polar cusp region to the earth's cusp), but uses a different approach requiring plasma and vector magnetic field quantities. In addition, various MHD properties of the cusp-magnetopause boundary, which separates the cusp from the magnetosheath allowing thermal anisotropy, are obtained, including the magnetopause (MP) normal, mass, and normal momentum flux, the boundary speed (and thickness), and their relationships. Results demonstrate that the MP velocity is composed of two components: a propagation speed and the other component consistent with the rotational motion of the magnetosphere.

  20. Away from the mainstream: medical women in one region of rural New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Harding, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent research on the difficulties associated with attracting women to the rural medical workforce, and the perception that the image of the rural doctor is male, women have had a history in rural medicine in southwest New South Wales that spans a century. This paper explores the contribution to medicine of women medical practitioners working within one geographical area of rural New South Wales. It traces these women, documenting the diversity of women's medical work and some of the challenges faced. Based largely on data from contemporary reports in two local newspapers, the Daily Express and The Daily Advertiser, this paper shows that some of the silence associated with the role of women in rural medicine could be attributed to them holding positions at the margins of what is depicted as 'real' medicine, in fields that include public health and education.

  1. Regional assessment of atmospheric organic and black carbon in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gideon van Zyl, Pieter; Maritz, Petra; Beukes, Johan Paul; Liousse, Cathy; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Castéra, Pierre; Venter, Andrew; Pienaar, Kobus

    2014-05-01

    At present limited data exists for atmospheric black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) in South Africa. In this paper BC and OC concentrations were explored in terms of spatial and temporal patterns, mass fractions of BC and OC of the overall aerosol mass, as well as linked to possible sources. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected at five sampling sites in South Africa operated within the DEBITS IDAF network, i.e. Louis Trichardt, Skukuza, Vaal Triangle, Amersfoort and Botsalano, with MiniVol samplers. Samples were analysed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon analyser. OC were higher than BC concentrations at all sites in both size fractions. Most OC and BC were present in the PM2.5 fraction. OC/BC ratios reflected the location of the different DEBITS sites, with sites in or close to anthropogenic source regions having the lowest OC/BC ratios, while background sites had the highest OC/BC ratios. The OC mass fraction percentage varied between 1% and 24%, while the BC mass fraction ranged between 1 and 12 %. The highest OC mass fraction was found at Skukuza in the Kruger National Park, which was attributed to both natural sources and anthropogenic impacts from a dominant path of air mass movement from the anthropogenic industrial hub of South Africa. The highest mass fraction of BC was found at the Vaal Triangle situated within an region highly impacted by industry and household combustion for space heating and cooking. A relatively distinct seasonal pattern was observed, with higher OC and BC concentrations determined between May and October, which coincide with the dry season in the interior of South Africa. Positive correlations between OC and BC concentrations with the distance from back trajectories passing over veld fires were observed, indicating that veld fires contribute significantly to atmospheric OC and BC during the burning months.

  2. [Organization of prophylactic mass screening for tuberculosis of the population in the south of the Aral sea cost region].

    PubMed

    Ubaĭdullaev, A M; Ginzburg, V S; Khamrakulov, R Sh; Sadykov, Kh S; Khodzhniiazov, F B

    1992-01-01

    The results of mass prophylactic screening of the population for tuberculosis in the south of the Aral sea costal region have been generalized with consideration of its geographic and sanitary--epidemiologic conditions. A mixed model of comprehensive prophylactic screenings was used for the first time with integration, for the first time, of the traditional (team) and field-work methods. The obtained results proved the efficiency of this approach: during one year a total of 1,217,400 subjects or 80% of the relevant population were involved in the prophylactic screening for the first time in one region. As a result, the epidemiologic situation related to tuberculosis was revealed and a complex of the therapeutic and health-improvement measures accomplished. The proposed measures have been tested and made the basis of a section in a complex program "Health of the population of the Aral sea costal region up to the 2000th year" which is recently being introduced in other regions of the republic.

  3. Changes in the D region associated with three recent solar eclipses in the South Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kumar, Abhikesh; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Singh, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    We estimate D region changes due to 22 July 2009 total solar eclipse (SE), 13-14 November 2012 total SE, and 9-10 May 2013 annular SE, using VLF navigational transmitters signal observations at Suva, Fiji. The North West Cape (NWC) signal (19.8 kHz) showed an amplitude and phase decrease of 0.70 dB and 23° during November SE and 2.0 dB and 90° during May SE. The modeling using Long Wave Propagation Capability code for NWC-Suva path during November and May SEs showed an increase in average D region reflection height (H') and sharpness factor (β) by 0.6 and 0.5 km and 0.012 and 0.015 km-1, respectively. The July total SE for JJI-Suva path showed an increase in H' of 1.5 km and a decrease in β of 0.055 km-1. The decrease in the electron density calculated using SE time H' and β is maximum for July total SE and minimum for May annular SE. The effective recombination coefficient estimated from the decay and recovery of signal phase associated with May annular SE was higher (27%) than normal daytime value 5.0 × 10-7 cm-3 s-1 and varied between 1.47 × 10-6 and 1.15 × 10-7 cm-3 s-1 in the altitude 70 to 80 km. Morlet wavelet analysis of signals amplitude shows strong wave-like signatures (WLS) associated with three SEs with period ranging 24-66 min, but the intensity and duration of WLS show no clear dependence on SE magnitude and type. Apart from the cooling spot, the eclipse shadow can also generate WLS associated with atmospheric gravity waves.

  4. Installation Restoration Program. South Dakota Air National Guard, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Remedial Investigation. Volume 1. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Final Remedial Investigation Report .;2’Remedial Investigation Report 3. . South Dakota Air National Guard Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, SD olume I lume Il ...MSL - Mean Sea Level Datum NOT TO SCALE A- il U, 0) 03 0> 0 -i. -. 0 ~ -0 a) DI, *.1 00 0) 0 10 0. 0 m 0 0 o :3 . 0 3 0. C *. 41 41 0 3J4 0 . m...a.n 0 00 4) ’.U . -’ La- >t> in M 0 * 41n0.3. .2C c >.. 00 41 U a Lu m V0 > L 1. 0onj 0 - ~-~L -90 40’:. 0 0. . > ,. . z 40 AU%31 .CA C0 41.- 41. iL

  5. Simulation of 1986 South China Sea Monsoon with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W. -K.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Jia, Y.; Juang, H.; Wetzel, P.; Qian, J.; Chen, C.

    1999-01-01

    A Regional Land-Atmosphere Climate Simulation System (RELACS) project is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. One of the major goals of RELACS is to use a regional scale model with improved physical processes and in particular land-related processes, to understand the role of the land surface and its interaction with convection and radiation as well as the water/energy cycles in the IndoChina/South China Sea (SCS) region. The Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system, a state of the art atmospheric numerical model designed to simulate regional weather and climate, has been successfully coupled to the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. The original MM5 model (without PLACE) includes the option for either a simple slab soil model or a five-layer soil model (MRF) in which the soil moisture availability evolves over time. However, the MM5 soil models do not include the effects of vegetation, and thus important physical processes such as evapotranspiration and interception are precluded. The PLACE model incorporates vegetation type and has been shown in international comparisons to accurately predict evapotranspiration and runoff over a wide variety of land surfaces. The coupling of MM5 and PLACE creates a numerical modeling system with the potential to more realistically simulate atmosphere and land surface processes including land-sea interaction, regional circulations such as monsoons, and flash flood events. In addition, the Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system has been: (1) coupled to the Goddard Ice Microphysical scheme; (2) coupled to a turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) scheme; (3) modified to ensure cloud budget balance; and (4) incorporated initialization with the Goddard EOS data sets at NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. The improved MM5 with two nested domains (60 and 20 km horizontal resolution) was used to simulate convective activity over IndoChina and the South China Sea

  6. Simulation of 1986 South China Sea Monsoon with a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W. -K.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Jia, Y.; Juang, H.; Wetzel, P.; Qian, J.; Chen, C.

    1999-01-01

    A Regional Land-Atmosphere Climate Simulation System (RELACS) project is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. One of the major goals of RELACS is to use a regional scale model with improved physical processes and in particular land-related processes, to understand the role of the land surface and its interaction with convection and radiation as well as the water/energy cycles in the IndoChina/South China Sea (SCS) region. The Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system, a state of the art atmospheric numerical model designed to simulate regional weather and climate, has been successfully coupled to the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. The original MM5 model (without PLACE) includes the option for either a simple slab soil model or a five-layer soil model (MRF) in which the soil moisture availability evolves over time. However, the MM5 soil models do not include the effects of vegetation, and thus important physical processes such as evapotranspiration and interception are precluded. The PLACE model incorporates vegetation type and has been shown in international comparisons to accurately predict evapotranspiration and runoff over a wide variety of land surfaces. The coupling of MM5 and PLACE creates a numerical modeling system with the potential to more realistically simulate atmosphere and land surface processes including land-sea interaction, regional circulations such as monsoons, and flash flood events. In addition, the Penn State/NCAR MM5 atmospheric modeling system has been: (1) coupled to the Goddard Ice Microphysical scheme; (2) coupled to a turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) scheme; (3) modified to ensure cloud budget balance; and (4) incorporated initialization with the Goddard EOS data sets at NASA/Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. The improved MM5 with two nested domains (60 and 20 km horizontal resolution) was used to simulate convective activity over IndoChina and the South China Sea

  7. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra deep field south

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Comastri, A.; Ranalli, P.; Akylas, A.; Salvato, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C.; Koutoulidis, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra deep field south. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. This type of galaxy is characterized by a very high infrared (IR) to optical flux ratio (f24 μm/fR > 1000), which in the case of CT AGN could be due to the suppression of AGN emission by absorption and its subsequent re-emission in the IR. The most reliable way of confirming the CT nature of an AGN is by X-ray spectroscopy. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields, the Chandra deep field north (CDF-N), and the Chandra deep field south (CDF-S). In that work, we only found a moderate percentage (<50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample. However, we pointed out that the limited photon statistics for most of the sources in the sample did not allow us to strongly constrain this number. In this paper, we further explore the properties of the sample of DOGs in the CDF-S presented in that work by using not only a deeper 6Ms Chandra survey of the CDF-S, but also by combining these data with the 3Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (NH > 1023 cm-2), whereas 2 look unabsorbed, and the other 3 are only moderately absorbed. Among the highly absorbed AGN, we find that only three could be considered CT AGN. In only one of these three cases, we detect a strong Fe Kα emission line; the source is already classified as a CT AGN with Chandra data in a previous work. Here we confirm its CT nature by combining Chandra and XMM-Newton data. For the other two CT

  8. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosário, N. E.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Fonseca, R. M.

    2013-03-01

    Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracers Transport model with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Measurements of total and fine mode fraction (FMF) AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET) were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon basin the model systematically underestimated total AOD, as expected, since smoke contribution is not dominant as it is in the southern portion and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Better agreement was obtained comparing the model results with observed FMF AOD, which pointed out the relevance of coarse mode aerosol emission in that region. Likewise, major discrepancies over cerrado during high AOD events were found to be associated with coarse mode aerosol omission in our model. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon was related to difficulties in predicting the smoke AOD field, which was discussed in the context of emissions shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable for both total and FMF AOD. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the model and observed FMF AOD decreased from 0.34 to 0.19 when extreme AOD events (FMF AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0) and Cuiabá were excluded from the analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extreme AOD were excluded. This

  9. Towards malaria elimination in the MOSASWA (Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland) region.

    PubMed

    Moonasar, Devanand; Maharaj, Rajendra; Kunene, Simon; Candrinho, Baltazar; Saute, Francisco; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Morris, Natashia

    2016-08-18

    The substantial impact of cross-border collaborative control efforts on the burden of malaria in southern Africa has previously been demonstrated through the successes of the Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative. Increases in malaria cases recorded in the three partner countries (Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland) since termination of that programme in 2011 have provided impetus for the resuscitation of cooperation in the form of the MOSASWA malaria initiative. MOSASWA, launched in 2015, seeks to renew regional efforts to accelerate progress towards malaria elimination goals already established in the region. National malaria programmes, together with developmental partners, academic institutions and the private sector seek to harmonize policy, strengthen capacity, share expertise, expand access to elimination interventions particularly amongst migrant and border population groups, mobilize resources and advocate for long-term funding to ultimately achieve and sustain malaria elimination in the MOSASWA region.

  10. Upper mantle heterogeneity: Comparisons of regions south of Australia with Philippine Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The nature of mass anomalies that occur beneath the regions of negative residual depth anomalies were identified. Residual geoid anomalies with negative residual depth anomalies are identified in the Philippine Basin (negative) and in the region south of Australia (positive and negative). In the latter region the geoid anomalies are eastward and the depth anomaly is northeast. It is suggested that the negative depth anomaly and the compensating mass excess in the uppermost mantle developed in the Eocene as the lithosphere of the west Philippine basin formed. Heating of the deeper upper mantle which causes slow surface wave velocities and negative gravity and geoid anomalies may be a younger phenomenon which is still in progress.

  11. Regional differences in vitamin D levels and incidence of food-induced anaphylaxis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si-Heon; Ban, Ga-Young; Park, Hae-Sim; Kim, Su-chin; Ye, Young-Min

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested low vitamin D as a potential risk factor for food allergy/anaphylaxis. However, few studies have investigated the association between vitamin D and food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA) in South Korea. To examine regional differences in serum vitamin D levels and FIA incidence. We used nationwide data collected from 2011 to 2013. Data on vitamin D were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; data on FIA were obtained from the Health Insurance and Assessment Service. Districts were grouped into region 1 (lower solar radiation) and region 2 (higher solar radiation). We examined differences in FIA incidence and vitamin D levels between the regions, adjusting for age. The study included 2,814 patients with FIA and 15,367 people with available serum vitamin D measurements. Age-adjusted FIA incidence was 2.2 per 100,000 person-years in region 1 and 1.8 per 100,000 person-years in region 2 (relative risk, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.39). Age-adjusted serum vitamin D levels were 16.5 ng/mL in region 1 and 17.8 ng/mL in region 2 (mean difference, 1.3 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.9). After stratification by age, sex, and area of residence, region 1 still had higher FIA incidence and lower vitamin D levels than region 2. The present study found a higher incidence of FIA in regions with lower vitamin D levels in the population. Further investigation is necessary to identify any direct associations between vitamin D and food allergy/anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current practice in regional anaesthesia in South America: An online survey.

    PubMed

    Corvetto, M A; Carmona, J; Vásquez, M I; Salgueiro, C; Crostón, J; Sosa, R; Folle, V; Altermatt, F R

    2017-01-01

    A survey was conducted in order to obtain a profile of the practice of regional anesthesia in South America, and determine the limitations of its use. After institutional ethics committee approval, a link to an online questionnaire was sent by e-mail to anaesthesiologists in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, and Uruguay. The questionnaire was processed anonymously. A total of 1,260 completed questionnaires were received. The results showed that 97.6% of the anaesthesiologists that responded used regional anaesthesia in clinical practice, 66.9% performed peripheral nerve block (PNB) regularly, 21.6% used continuous PNB techniques, and 4.6% used stimulating catheters. The primary source of training was residency programs. As regards PNB, the most common performed were interscalene (52.3%), axillary (45.1%), femoral (43.2%), and ankle block (43%). As regards the localisation technique employed, 16% used paraesthesia, 44.2% used a peripheral nerve stimulator, and 18.1% ultrasound guidance. Regional anaesthesia and PNB are commonly used among South American anaesthesiologists. Considering that each country has its own profile for use, this profile should guide training in clinical practice, especially in residency programs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging Fluid-Rich Zones by Magnetotelluric Method at South Marmara Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Özlem; Bülent Tank, Sabri; Tolak Çiftçi, Elif; Kaya, Tülay; Ogawa, Yasuo; Honkura, Yoshimori; Kemal Tunçer, Mustafa; Matsushima, Masaki; Oshiman, Naoto; Çelik, Cengiz

    2013-04-01

    After the mainshock of 1999 İzmit (Turkey) earthquake, scientists have undertaken various kinds of observations in the Marmara region in order to increase understanding of crustal properties of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). Most of these studies focused on the east Marmara region since the destructive earthquakes were occurring there. Considering the westward migration of significant earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), the next destructive earthquake is likely to occur beyond the westernmost part of 1999 İzmit earthquake epicenter, in or around Marmara Sea. For this reason, south of Marmara Sea was chosen as the survey area. Wide-band (320-0.0005 Hz) magnetotelluric (MT) data at sixteen sounding locations along two parallel profiles at south Marmara region were collected to improve the understanding of the crustal electrical conductivity structure. Both profiles are crossing several branches of North Anatolian Fault. The results were achieved by performing two-dimensional (2D) inversions of MT data with the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. These results show a relatively complex structure down to 4 km depth. The electrical resistivity pattern below this depth indicates a simpler structure with conductors (10 Ωm) beneath the northern ends of both profiles. While these deep conductive zones are attributed to partially melting in the crust, the highly resistive zones are associated with low fluid condition and high rigidity. In addition, the features characterized in geo-electric models correlate well with known faults in the survey area. The South Marmara Fault (SMF) possibly corresponds to a lateral resistive-conductive interface between Manyas-Karacabey basin and Bandirma-Karada uplift on the west (PW) and Uluabat uplift and Mudanya uplift on the east (PE) profiles.

  14. Pn tomography of South China Sea, Taiwan Island, Philippine archipelago, and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibing; Song, Xiaodong; Li, Jiangtao

    2017-02-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and its surrounding areas are geologically highly heterogeneous from the interactions of multiple plates in Southeast Asia (Eurasian plate, Indian-Australian plate, Philippine Sea plate, and Pacific plate). To understand the tectonics at depth, here we combined bulletin and handpicked data to conduct Pn tomography of the region. The results show distinct features that are correlated with the complex geology at surface, suggesting a lithosphere-scale tectonics of the region. Low Pn velocities are found along a belt of the western Pacific transpressional system from the Okinawa Trough and eastern East China Sea, across central and eastern Taiwan orogeny, to the island arcs of the Luzon Strait and the entire Philippine Islands, as well as under the Palawan Island and part of the continental margin north of the Pearl River Basin. High velocities are found under Ryukyu subduction zone, part of the Philippine subduction zone, part of the Eurasian subduction beneath the southwestern Taiwan, and the continent-ocean boundary between the south China and the SCS basin. The Taiwan Strait, the Mainland SE coast, and the main SCS basin sea are relatively uniform with average Pn values. Crustal thicknesses show large variations in the study region but also coherency with tectonic elements. The Pn pattern in Taiwan shows linear trends of surface geology and suggests strongly lithosphere-scale deformation of the young Taiwan orogenic belt marked by the deformation boundary under the Western Foothill and the Western Coastal Plain at depth, and the crustal thickness shows a complex pattern from the transpressional collision. Our observations are consistent with rifting and extension in the northern margin of the SCS but are not consistent with mantle upwelling as a mechanism for the opening and the subsequent closing of the SCS. The Philippine island arc is affected by volcanisms from both the Asian and Philippine Sea subductions in the south but mainly from

  15. Vertical variations in the influence of the amount effect: South American Summer Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels-Crow, K. E.; Galewsky, J.; Worden, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that convective recycling of atmospheric water vapor gives rise to the isotope "amount effect" in which d values are lower than predicted by simple Rayleigh distillation processes (i.e. (DdD = dDvapor ­- dDRayleigh < 0‰). Several studies have linked isotopes in precipitation [e.g. Vimeux et al., 2009] and atmospheric water vapor [e.g. Samuels-Crow et al., 2014] in the tropical Andes to upwind convection associated with the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). The vertical structure of this convective influence, however, remains unknown. Understanding the vertical structure of the amount effect over South America is essential for improving theoretical constraints and developing better models of the influence of the SASM on southern hemisphere humidity. Additionally, evaluating the vertical and lateral extent of the SASM's convective influence can provide important constraints for interpreting paleoclimate proxies in the region. We use data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) to examine the vertical structure of the amount effect associated with the SASM and relate these results to regional convective precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential temperature. Preliminary results show that DdD is below 0‰ from the boundary layer through the mid-troposphere over tropical South America during austral summer, and meridional averages show that convective precipitation is highest over these areas where DdD < 0‰ extends higher in the atmosphere. We hypothesize that the depth of convection in the monsoon region controls the vertical structure of DdD, which should also be coherently linked to local equivalent potential temperature. References Vimeux et al. (2009), Palaeogeogr Palaeocl, 281(3-4), 229-241, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.03.054. Samuels-Crow et al. (2014), J Geophys Res-Atmos, doi:10.1002/(ISSN)2169-8996.

  16. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl(-1) metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  17. Plume source regions in the South Atlantic - spatial and temporal variability and implications for the LLSVP source region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Class, C.; le Roex, A. P.; O'Connor, J. M.; Jokat, W.

    2012-12-01

    To the extent that a lower mantle origin is accepted for individual mantle plumes, they are our only means of investigating the chemical variability of lower mantle regions in space and time. Ultimately such mapping of the lower mantle should provide important constraints on the geological processes that led to the formation of these plume source regions. It is generally accepted that mantle plume sources contain differentiated recycled material from the surface of the Earth, but uncertainties remain as to the nature, composition and age of these recycled components. In addition, in the southern hemisphere plumes preferentially rise from the edges of large low shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVP). It remains to be shown whether LLSVPs contribute material to rising mantle plumes and what their geochemical composition might be. The South Atlantic with four closely spaced mantle plumes in the vicinity to the African LLSVP could provide insights into these questions. Criteria in support of a lower mantle origin of these plumes are (1) presence of a flood basalt province (Tristan-Gough), (2) longevity of age-progressive volcanism (Tristan-Gough 130Ma, Shona 80 Ma, Discovery 40 Ma), as well as (3) enrichment of primordial 3He relative to MORB mantle (Discovery, Shona, Bouvet). The South Atlantic plumes are aligned and produce volcanism synchronously, consistent with their origin at the western edge of the African LLSVP. Geochemically the South Atlantic plumes are heterogeneous, spanning compositions in isotope space from EMI to Stracke's FOZO and the extreme DUPAL signature with high delta 74 and delta 84 as represented by Gough Island. The extreme DUPAL is found in 3 of the 4 plume systems, indicating a common mantle source. The extreme DUPAL contributed to the Tristan-Gough plume system since 70 Ma and represents the southern component of the laterally zoned plume conduit (Rhode, personal comm. 2012). The Discovery plume is laterally zoned since 40 Ma and the extreme

  18. Weather Movie, Mars South Polar Region, March-April 2009 Close-up View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-16

    This image shows the southern high-latitudes region of Mars from March 19 through April 14, 2009, a period when regional dust storms occurred along the retreating edge of carbon-dioxide frost in the seasonal south polar cap. Compared with a full-hemisphere view (see PIA11987), this view shows more details of where the dust clouds formed and how they moved around the planet. The movie combines hundreds of images from the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. In viewing the movie, it helps to understand some of the artifacts produced by the nature of MARCI images when seen in animation. MARCI acquires images in swaths from pole-to-pole during the dayside portion of each orbit. The camera can cover the entire planet in just over 12 orbits, and takes about 1 day to accumulate this coverage. The indiviual swaths are assembled into a mosaic, and that mosaic is shown here wrapped onto a sphere. The blurry portions of the mosaic, seen to be "pinwheeling" around the planet in the movie, are the portions of adjacent images viewing obliquely through the hazy atmosphsere. Portions with sharper-looking details are the central part of an image, viewing more directly downward through less atmosphere than the obliquely viewed portions. MARCI has a 180-degree field of view, and Mars fills about 78 percent of that field of view when the camera is pointed down at the planet. However, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter often is pointed to one side or the other off its orbital track in order to acquire targeted observations by the higher-resolution imaging systems on the spacecraft. When such rolls exceed about 20 degrees, gaps occur in the mosaic of MARCI swaths. Also, dark gaps appear when data are missing, either because of irrecoverable data drops, or because not all the data have yet been transmitted from the spacecraft. It isn't easy to see the actual dust motion in the atmosphere in these images, owing to the apparent motion of these artifacts

  19. The south pole region of the moon as seen by Clementine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Eliason, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine mission has provided the first comprehensive set of high-resolution images of the south pole region of the moon. Within 5?? of latitude of the pole, an area of an estimated 30,000 square kilometers remained in shadow during a full lunar rotation and is a promising target for future exploration for ice deposits. The Schrodinger Basin (320 kilometers in diameter), centered at 75??S, is one of the two youngest, least modified, great multiring impact basins on the moon. A large maar-type volcano localized along a graben within the Schrodinger Basin probably erupted between 1 and 2 billion years ago.

  20. Selection of Luna-25 landing sites in the South Polar Region of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djachkova, M. V.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A. B.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a brief description of the spatial analysis method developed at the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences for the landing site selection on the Moon's surface for the Luna-25 lander. Preconditions for the selection of the South Polar Region of the Moon as the main exploration area using automatic spacecraft are considered. The main characteristics of the Luna-25 lander and the main factors influencing the landing site selection on the Moon's surface are listed. The data used are described. Eleven landing site candidates obtained by the method are proposed and prioritized. Detailed characteristics are given for the three optimal sites.

  1. A seismicity boundary in the low-strain region of Alentejo, south Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Zahradník, Jirí; Arroucau, Pierre; Silveira, Graça; Custódio, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Mainland Portugal lays on a stable continental setting characterized by low strain rates (convergence velocities < 1 mm/yr). However, the region has been the source of documented moderate magnitude earthquakes. The Alentejo region (south Portugal) presents belts of high epicenter density, the two main ones being (1) the Viana do Alentejo cluster in the south and (2) the NW-SE oriented Arraiolos alignment in the north. The latter appears as a sharp transition between a nearly aseismic area to the north and a seismically active area to the south. Active fault studies based on geological observations have not identified tectonic features able to explain the observed seismicity patterns. Our objective is to contribute to the understanding of the deformation pattern in south Portugal. Several hypotheses need to be addressed: (1) Are those clusters the expression of a broad region of distributed deformation?; (2) Do they mark structures that might have the potential to generate moderate magnitude events? We use a high-quality dataset recorded by a temporary array deployed in the area to produce a robust image of earthquake locations and to compute focal mechanisms. Newly detected events match well the previously identified earthquake alignments. The local network provides good control of the focal depths. We observe a spatial variation in the depth distribution. The Arraiolos alignment seems to produce deeper earthquakes than the Viana do Alentejo cluster. Earthquake locations inferred using 1D and 3D velocity models show a persistent concentration of seismicity at middle to lower crust depths (15 - 30 km) in the SE section of that alignment. We also present relocation of instrumental seismicity for the period (1970-2016). Previous studies show that a strike-slip faulting regime dominates mainland Portugal. IPMA (Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera) routinely computes focal mechanisms for earthquakes with reported local magnitudes of 3.5 or greater using the

  2. Regional climate change scenarios over South Asia in the CMIP5 coupled climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, Venkatraman

    2015-10-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of a suite of state-of-art coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) in their representation of regional characteristics of hydrological cycle and temperature over South Asia. Based on AOGCM experiments conducted for two types of future greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) extending up to the end of 21st century, scenarios of temperature and hydrological cycle are presented. The AOGCMs, despite their relatively coarse resolution, have shown a reasonable skill in depicting the hydrological cycle over the South Asian region. However, considerable biases do exist with reference to the observed hydrological cycle and also inter-model differences. The regional climate change scenarios of temperature ( T), atmospheric water balance components, precipitation, moisture convergence and evaporation ( P, C and E) up to the end of the 21st century based on CMIP5 modeling experiments conducted for (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) indicate marked increase in both rainfall and temperature into the 21st century, particularly becoming conspicuous after the 2050s. The monsoon rainfall and atmospheric water balance changes under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios are discussed in detail in this paper. Spatial patterns of rainfall change projections indicate maximum increase over South Asia in most of the models. Model simulations under scenarios of increased greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that the intensification of the hydrological cycle is driven mainly by the increased moisture convergence due to increase in the water holding capacity of the atmosphere in a warmer environment, the intensification of the hydrological cycle is greater for RCP8.5 compared to RCP4.5, also fewer models indicate increased variance of temperature and rainfall in a warmer environment. While the scenarios presented in this study are indicative of the expected range of rainfall and water balance changes, it must be noted that the quantitative

  3. [Determining the optimal fluorine dose in the drinking water of the South Center hydrological region of Haiti].

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Evens; Fanfan, Pierre N; Louis, Régine; Michel, Gérard-Alain

    2002-01-01

    This study aims at determining the optimal dose of fluorine in the drinking water in the South Center region of Haiti. This region has an average daily temperature ranging from 17 to 33 C. Water samples were collected from November 15th to December 20th 2000 on the water resource of some of the counties of the hydrological South Center region of Haiti. The results show that the concentration of fluorine in this region varies between 0 and 0.83 mg/litre. However, the calculated optimal dose based on the temperature measured show that fluorine concentration of water should be between 0.7 and 1 mg/litre.

  4. Regional correlations in the South Caspian Sea -implications for stratigraphic nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J. Rukhsara, K.

    1995-08-01

    Regional Correlations in the South Caspian Sea - Implications for Stratigraphic Nomenclature Detailed sequence boundary correlations in the South Caspian sea have led to a better understanding of the relationships between stratigraphic units identified in wells throughout the basin. With the aid of synthetic seismograms, used to tie the logs to the seismic data, lithologic units have been identified seismically and have been mapped across the basin. The synthetic seismograms were created from pseudo-sonic logs which were transformed from resistivity logs with the Faust equation. Checkshots and VSP surveys supplied the velocity control. The sequence boundary correlations revealed substantial facies changes across the basin and led to the creation of a new stratigraphic correlation chart which relates local formation names to their time correlative boundaries. A recognition of these facies changes has led to a better understanding of the lithologic relationships within the basin, the depositional history of the basin, and the source and distribution of potential reservoir sands. Previous well log correlations, made primarily by matching tops of sand and shale sequences, frequently crossed sequence boundaries mapped from seismic data. Lithologic units, deposited under similar geologic conditions, often looked the same but were not time equivalent. Seismic sequence analyses have shown that tectonic movements, as evidenced by rising domes, created barriers to sediment distribution and led to pronounced thickness changes on opposite sides of a high. New log correlations, incorporating these concepts, are helping to unravel the complex structural and stratigraphic history of the South Caspian Sea.

  5. SEVEN YEARS OF REGIONAL MALARIA CONTROL COLLABORATION—MOZAMBIQUE, SOUTH AFRICA, AND SWAZILAND

    PubMed Central

    SHARP, BRIAN L.; KLEINSCHMIDT, IMMO; STREAT, ELISABETH; MAHARAJ, RAJENDRA; BARNES, KAREN I.; DURRHEIM, DAVID N.; RIDL, FRANCES C.; MORRIS, NATASHA; SEOCHARAN, ISHEN; KUNENE, SIMON; LA GRANGE, JACOBUS J. P.; MTHEMBU, JOTHAM D.; MAARTENS, FRANCOIS; MARTIN, CARRIN L.; BARRETO, AVERTINO

    2013-01-01

    The Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative is a joint development program between the governments of Mozambique, Swaziland, and South Africa, which includes malaria control as a core component of the initiative. Vector control through indoor residual spraying (IRS) was incrementally introduced in southern Mozambique between November 2000 and February 2004. Surveillance to monitor its impact was conducted by annual cross-sectional surveys to assess the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection, entomologic monitoring, and malaria case notification in neighboring South Africa and Swaziland. In southern Mozambique, there was a significant reduction in P. falciparum prevalence after the implementation of IRS, with an overall relative risk of 0.74 for each intervention year (P < 0.001), ranging from 0.66 after the first year to 0.93 after the fifth intervention year. Substantial reductions in notified malaria cases were reported in South Africa and Swaziland over the same period. The success of the program in reducing malaria transmission throughout the target area provides a strong argument for investment in regional malaria control. PMID:17255227

  6. The Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: 7 Ms Source Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Lehmer, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Vito, F.; Yang, G.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gu, Q.-S.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Koekemoer, A.; Liu, T.; Mainieri, V.; Paolillo, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rosati, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Smail, I.; Sun, M.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2017-01-01

    We present X-ray source catalogs for the ≈7 Ms exposure of the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which covers a total area of 484.2 arcmin2. Utilizing wavdetect for initial source detection and ACIS Extract for photometric extraction and significance assessment, we create a main source catalog containing 1008 sources that are detected in up to three X-ray bands: 0.5–7.0 keV, 0.5–2.0 keV, and 2–7 keV. A supplementary source catalog is also provided, including 47 lower-significance sources that have bright ({K}s≤slant 23) near-infrared counterparts. We identify multiwavelength counterparts for 992 (98.4%) of the main-catalog sources, and we collect redshifts for 986 of these sources, including 653 spectroscopic redshifts and 333 photometric redshifts. Based on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties, we identify 711 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the main-catalog sources. Compared to the previous ≈4 Ms CDF-S catalogs, 291 of the main-catalog sources are new detections. We have achieved unprecedented X-ray sensitivity with average flux limits over the central ≈1 arcmin2 region of ≈1.9 × 10‑17, 6.4 × 10‑18, and 2.7 × 10‑17 erg cm‑2 s‑1 in the three X-ray bands, respectively. We provide cumulative number-count measurements observing, for the first time, that normal galaxies start to dominate the X-ray source population at the faintest 0.5–2.0 keV flux levels. The highest X-ray source density reaches ≈50,500 deg‑2, and 47% ± 4% of these sources are AGNs (≈23,900 deg‑2).

  7. Study of Least Squares Collocation and Multi-Resolution Representation for Regional Gravity Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willberg, Martin; Lieb, Verena; Pail, Roland; Schmidt, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of the Earth's gravity field plays an important role in various disciplines of geosciences. While modern satellite gravity missions make it possible to define a globally consistent geoid with centimeter accuracy and a spatial resolution of 80-100km, it stays a major challenge to consistently combine global low-resolution data with regional high-resolution gravity information. Therefore, a variety of different regional gravity field modelling methods have been established during the last decades. In our analysis, we investigate the spectral combination of heterogeneous gravity data within two different calculation methods: First, the statistical approach of Least Squares Collocation (LSC) which uses the covariance information of input and output data to result in a full variance-covariance matrix. Second, the Multi-Resolution Representation (MRR) based on spherical radial basis functions. The MRR combines a low-pass filtered global geopotential model with satellite gradiometer and/or terrestrial gravity data by means of band-pass filtering. We examine the theoretical concepts and the computational differences and similarities between both approaches. Through fast changing topography, mountains as well as oceanic regions, our study area in the South American Andes is challenging and perfectly suitable for this examination. The use of synthetic data in closed-loop tests enables us to a very detailed investigation of predicted and actual accuracies of geoid determination. Furthermore, we point out respective advantages and disadvantages and link them to the calculation concepts of the two methods. The results contribute to the project "Optimally combined regional geoid models for the realization of height systems in developing countries (ORG4heights)" and, thus, aim to finally integrate the regional solutions into a global vertical reference frame.

  8. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  9. Numerical and functional representations of regional heat flow in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Dias, Fernando J. S. Silva; Gomes, Antonio J. L.; Terceros, Zenón G. Delgadilho

    2005-10-01

    A summary of heat flow data acquired over recent years in several areas in the eastern (Brazil and Paraguay) and western (Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador) parts of South American continent are presented. The improvements in the database have allowed numerical representations of heat flow for southeastern and central segments of the Precambrian fold belts in Brazil, Central Andean cordilleras in Chile and Bolivia, Southern Volcanic arc in Peru, Neuquén Province in southwestern Argentina, Chaco basin in Paraguay, Oriente basin in Ecuador and the system of pericratonic basins in north central Colombia. The maps reveal considerable variability in heat flow, not only between the main tectonic units but also within them. The intra-regional variations seem to originate mainly from complexities in local geologic structures while the inter-regional ones seem to point to action of deep-seated tectonic processes. The cordilleran regions are, in general, characterized by relatively high heat flow (>70 mW/m 2), compared with the coastal regions to the west and the Pre-cordilleran basins to the east. In the eastern part of the continent, heat flow is low to normal (<60 mW/m 2), the exceptions being the Mesozoic rift basins, areas of Cenozoic alkaline intrusions and some isolated belts of overthrust tectonics in the central parts of Brazil. There are indications that heat flow is high in the Patagonian Platform relative to that found in the Brazilian Platform. In addition, polynomial methods were employed for examining large-scale variations of heat flow over the continent. Specifically, a general-purpose least square solution was used to determine the coefficients of up to fourth order in latitude and longitude. Some of the large-scale trends seen in low order polynomial representations seem to be indicative of the nature of deep-seated heat transfer processes. The systematic increase in regional heat flow in the north-south direction is an example. It is considered as the

  10. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  11. An Intercomparison of RADARSAT-2, SMOS and Field Measured Soil Moisture in the Berambadi Watershed, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomer, S. K.; Al Bitar, A.; Sekhar, M.; Merlin, O.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents an intercomparison of the RADARSAT-2 derived soil moisture, SMOS derived soil moisture and field measured soil moisture in the Berambadi watershed, South India. Seventeen images of RADARSAT-2, SMOS products, and field data collected in the 50 field plots during 2010-2011 were used. The data were collected from field campaigns in the framework of AMBHAS project. A non parametric algorithm was developed based on the CDF transformation to retrieve the soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 backscatter coefficient at a spatial resolution of 100 m based on the measured soil moisture. The developed algorithm to retrieve surface soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 provided a good estimate of the field plot soil moisture with a RMSE of 0.05 cm3 cm-3. The average soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 and field measured soil moisture were compared to SMOS derived soil moisture at the watershed scale. Several averaging strategies were considered to take into account the surface heterogeneity and SMOS antenna patterns. Results were analysed by taking into consideration the soil texture heterogeneity, radio frequency interference effect and climatic effect. SMOS underestimated the soil moisture in compare to both RADARSAT-2 and field averaged soil moisture. A bias correction for the SMOS data is suggested using Clayton copula. SMOS showed a better correlation with the RADARSAT-2 watershed averaged soil moisture than directly averaged field soil moisture, as field campaign covered a smaller region of the watershed than RADARSAT-2 data. This shows the potential synergy between the use of active/passive microwave soil moisture for upscalling/downscalling soil moisture.

  12. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  13. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  14. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin – Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    PubMed Central

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions. PMID:27006288

  15. An analysis of the flow field in the region of the ASRM field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

    1992-01-01

    The flow field in the region of a solid rocket motor field joint is very important since fluid dynamic and mechanical propellant stresses can couple to cause a motor failure at a joint. Presented here is an examination of the flow field in the region of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) field joints. The analyses were performed as a first step in assessing the design of the ASRM forward and aft field joints in order to assure the proper operation of the motor prior to further development of test firing. The analyses presented here were performed by employing a two-dimensional axisymmetric assumption. Fluent/BFC, a three dimensional full Navier-Stokes flow field code, was used to make the numerical calculations. This code utilizes a staggered grid formulation along with the SIMPLER numerical algorithm. Wall functions are used to determine the character of the laminar sublayer, and a standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model is used to close the fluid dynamic equations. The analyses performed to this date verify that the ASRM field joint design operates properly. The fluid dynamic stresses at the field joints are small due to the inherent design of the field joints. A problem observed in some other solid rocket motors is that large fluid dynamic stresses are generated at the motor joint on the downstream propellant grain due to forward facing step geometries. The design of the ASRM field joints are such that this is not a problem as shown by the analyses. Also, the analyses of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the port flow from normal propellant burn back show that more information is necessary to complete these analyses. These analyses were performed as parametric analyses in relation to the height of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the motor port. A better estimate of the amount of the inhibitor stub remaining at later burn times must be determined since the height which the inhibitor stub protrudes into the port flow drastically affects the fluid

  16. Geographic Variations in Chilled Margin Chemistry of Jurassic Dolerite Intrusions in the Dry Valley Region of South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, T. H.; Elliot, D. H.; Calhoun, A.

    2005-12-01

    Jurassic tholeiites of the Ferrar Large Igneous Province (FLIP) crop out in a linear belt that extends for over 3000 km along the Transantarctic Mtns. The FLIP was emplaced over a short period of time (<1 m.y.) and is temporally associated with the initiation of Gondwana break-up in the Weddell Sea sector of Antarctica. The intrusive phase of the FLIP consists primarily of a high level complex of dolerite sills and subordinate connecting and cross-cutting dikes that have intruded near the base of and within flat-lying Devonian to Triassic supracrustal strata of the Beacon Supergroup. In the Dry Valley region of south Victoria Land (SVL), the two most prominent sills are intruded along (peneplain sill) and just below (basement sill) the regional unconformity. Geologic mapping has commonly assumed that each of these intrusions is regionally extensive in SVL at roughly the same stratigraphic level. No extensive dike swarm has been identified within the province to act as a feeder for these sills and a number of possible magma transport models have been proposed. During the 2004-05 Magmatic Field Laboratory Workshop, chilled margin samples of dolerite intrusions were systematically collected from localities in the Wright and Victoria Valleys adjacent to Bull Pass. The major and trace element composition of samples from the basement sill in this region tightly cluster around a single composition (SiO2=55.0%, MgO=6.8%, TiO2=0.63%, Zr=100 ppm) despite a geographic spread of ~16 km. Two chilled margin samples collected from the Peneplain sill in the same region have identical chemical compositions to the basement sill. In contrast, prior work on chilled margins of intrusions from the upper Taylor Glacier region fall into three distinctly different compositional groups. The basement sill in the Taylor Glacier region has slightly more evolved compositions (SiO2=55.7%, MgO=5.6%, TiO2=0.71%, Zr=117 ppm) than in the region surrounding Bull Pass. The peneplain sill and several

  17. Serological Survey of Porcine circovirus-2 in Captive Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Registered Farms of South and South-east Regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C N; Martins, N R S; Freitas, T R P; Lobato, Z I P

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n = 1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P < 0.05) and ranged from 54.1 to 94.95%. Regarding the geographic regions studied, the prevalence was of 100%, with PCV2 antibodies detected in wild boars of all regions. This study provides the first evidence of PCV2 antibodies in captive wild boars in Brazil.

  18. LSPECS: A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared/submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared/submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. The presence of ice has been inferred independently from Clementine and Lunar Prospector, providing another incentive for a south polar mission. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Operation without the use of expendable cryogenics for cooling might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive

  19. LSPECS: A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared/submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared/submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. The presence of ice has been inferred independently from Clementine and Lunar Prospector, providing another incentive for a south polar mission. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Operation without the use of expendable cryogenics for cooling might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive

  20. The effects of magnetic field in plume region on the performance of multi-cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Peng Liu, Hui Yu, Daren; Gao, Yuanyuan; Mao, Wei

    2015-10-15

    The performance characteristics of a Multi-cusped Field Thruster depending on the magnetic field in the plume region were investigated. Five magnetic field shielding rings were separately mounted near the exit of discharge channel to decrease the strength of magnetic field in the plume region in different levels, while the magnetic field in the upstream was well maintained. The test results show that the electron current increases with the decrease of magnetic field strength in the plume region, which gives rise to higher propellant utilization and lower current utilization. On the other hand, the stronger magnetic field in the plume region improves the performance at low voltages (high current mode) while lower magnetic field improves the performance at high voltages (low current mode). This work can provide some optimal design ideas of the magnetic strength in the plume region to improve the performance of thruster.

  1. Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities.

  2. Radon radioactivity in groundwater from the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study the radon radioactivity in selected groundwater (boreholes and wells) from the Calabria region, south of Italy, was investigated. Water samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and by RAD7 + RAD H2O setup to determine the 222Rn activity concentration. Obtained values were used with the ingested dose conversion factor for 222Rn to estimate the annual effective dose for adult members of public due to consumption of the groundwater. The estimated average value was (88±5) μ Sv/y. It was compared with the estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of groundwater by the WHO (100 μ Sv/y) and that due to ingestion of food and water (290 μ Sv/y) by the UNSCEAR (2000). Results show that the presence of radon may not pose any radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of groundwater in the investigated region.

  3. Education and the New Technologies. Report of the WCOTP Asian and South Pacific Regional Conference (10th, Seoul, South Korea, August 7-13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    This report on the 1985 Asian and South Pacific Regional Conference of the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP) presents the full text of three addresses presented during the opening ceremony, as well as four major presentations by invited speakers and three addresses from the closing ceremony. A day of…

  4. Magnetic field measurements in and above a limb active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Judge

    2013-07-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of a limb active region (NOAA 11302) obtained on September 22nd 2011 using the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Stokes profiles including lines of Si I 1028.7 nm and He I 1083 nm were obtained in three scans over a 45"x75" area. Simultaneous narrow band Ca II K and G-band intensity data were acquired with a cadence of 5s at the DST. The He I data show not only typical active region polarization signatures, but also signatures in plumes -- cool post flare loops -- which extend many Mm into the corona across the visible limb. The plumes have remarkably uniform brightness, and the plume plasma is significantly Doppler shifted as it drains from the corona. Using carefully constructed observing and calibration sequences and applying Principal Component Analysis to remove instrumental artifacts, we achieved a polarization sensitivity approaching 0.02%. With this sensitivity we attempt to diagnose the vector magnetic fields and plasma properties of chromospheric and cool coronal material in and above NOAA 11302. Inversions using various radiative transfer models in the HAZEL code are remarkably consistent with the idea that plume spectra are formed in a simple, slab-like geometry, but that the ``disk'' spectra are formed under more traditional models (Milne-Eddington). The inverted magnetic data of He I lines are compared with photospheric inversions of DST Si I and Fe I data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  5. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  6. Building a regional health agenda: A rights-based approach to health in South America.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Belén; Loza, Jorgelina

    2017-04-03

    Attention to health policies in Southern regional organisations reveals a new 'social turn' in the regional political economy of international cooperation. The aims of this paper are twofold. First, it aims to establish the extent to which the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) has adopted and sustained policy interventions committed to addressing social inequities and asymmetries in relation to health, as indicated by regional policy agendas, policy development processes and resourcing. Second, it seeks to understand how UNASUR is mobilising national and regional actors in support of such policies. Our analysis of documentary sources and interviews leads us to draw the following conclusions. First, we argue that the UNASUR regional framework has a committed social equity/rights focus in relation to access to health care and medicines, with a clear focus on reducing asymmetries between countries. Second, although UNASUR does not enforce national commitments on health and medicines, it nonetheless plays a role in expanding domestic policy horizons and policy capacities. In this respect, we find that UNASUR interventions lead to initiatives and actions aimed at implementing reforms, setting targets and defining goals nationally. Third, in global arena, UNASUR enhances the visibility and 'voices' of the member states.

  7. Statistical scaling, Shannon entropy, and Generalized space-time q-entropy of rainfall fields in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Germán; Salas, Hernán D

    2015-07-01

    We study diverse scaling and information theory characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) as seen by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over continental and oceanic regions of tropical South America, and 2-D radar rainfall fields from Amazonia. The bi-dimensional Fourier spectra of MCSs exhibit inverse power laws with respect to the spatial scale, whose scaling exponents, β, capture the type of spatial correlation of rainfall among the study regions, including those over the Andes of Colombia as well as over oceanic and Amazonian regions. The moment-scaling analysis evidences that the structure function deviates from simple scaling at order q > 1.0, thus signaling the multi-scaling nature of rainfall fields within MCSs in tropical South America, with departures from simple scaling associated with the physical characteristics of MCSs over the different study regions. Entropy is estimated for a large set of radar rainfall fields during the distinctive atmospheric regimes (Easterly and Westerly events) in this part of Amazonia. Results evidence that there are significant differences in the dynamics of rainfall among regimes. No clear-cut relationship is found between entropy and the first two statistical moments, but power fits in space and time, S(γ) ∼ γ(-η) for skewness and, S(κ) ∼ κ(-ϵ) for kurtosis. The exponents η and ϵ are statistically different between Easterly and Westerly events, although the significance of fits is less when L-moments are used to estimate skewness and kurtosis. Interesting differences are identified between the time and space generalized q-entropy functions of Amazonian rainfall fields. In both cases, the functions are a continuous set of power laws (analogous to the structure function in turbulence), S(T, q) ∼ T(β), and, S(λ, q) ∼ λ(β), covering a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Both time and space generalized q-entropy functions exhibit linear growth in the

  8. Statistical scaling, Shannon entropy, and Generalized space-time q-entropy of rainfall fields in tropical South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Germán; Salas, Hernán D.

    2015-07-01

    We study diverse scaling and information theory characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) as seen by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over continental and oceanic regions of tropical South America, and 2-D radar rainfall fields from Amazonia. The bi-dimensional Fourier spectra of MCSs exhibit inverse power laws with respect to the spatial scale, whose scaling exponents, β, capture the type of spatial correlation of rainfall among the study regions, including those over the Andes of Colombia as well as over oceanic and Amazonian regions. The moment-scaling analysis evidences that the structure function deviates from simple scaling at order q > 1.0, thus signaling the multi-scaling nature of rainfall fields within MCSs in tropical South America, with departures from simple scaling associated with the physical characteristics of MCSs over the different study regions. Entropy is estimated for a large set of radar rainfall fields during the distinctive atmospheric regimes (Easterly and Westerly events) in this part of Amazonia. Results evidence that there are significant differences in the dynamics of rainfall among regimes. No clear-cut relationship is found between entropy and the first two statistical moments, but power fits in space and time, S(γ) ˜ γ-η for skewness and, S(κ) ˜ κ-ɛ for kurtosis. The exponents η and ɛ are statistically different between Easterly and Westerly events, although the significance of fits is less when L-moments are used to estimate skewness and kurtosis. Interesting differences are identified between the time and space generalized q-entropy functions of Amazonian rainfall fields. In both cases, the functions are a continuous set of power laws (analogous to the structure function in turbulence), S(T, q) ˜ Tβ, and, S(λ, q) ˜ λβ, covering a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Both time and space generalized q-entropy functions exhibit linear growth in the range -1.0 < q < -0.5, and

  9. Generation and Suppression of E Region Artificial Field Aligned Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, R. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Munk, J.; Han, S.

    2012-12-01

    Artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities (FAIs) were generated in the E region of the ionosphere above the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility during campaigns in May and August of 2012 and were quantified using a 30 MHz coherent scatter radar in Homer, Alaska. The purpose of the experiment was to analyze the X-mode suppression of FAIs generated from O-mode heating and to measure the threshold required to excite thermal parametric instabilities. The irregularities were excited by gradually increasing the power of a zenith pointing O-mode emission transmitted at a frequency of 2.75 MHz. To suppress the irregularities, a second X-mode emission at a higher frequency was added on alternating power cycles. The Homer radar measured the signal-to-noise ratio, Doppler shift, and spectral width of echoes reflected from the irregularities. We will calculate the threshold electric field required to excite the irregularities and compare with similar experiments in order to better understand the thermal parametric instability.

  10. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C &cong

  11. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C ≅ 0

  12. HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Russians, Bashkirs and Tatars, living in the Chelyabinsk Region (Russian South Urals).

    PubMed

    Suslova, T A; Burmistrova, A L; Chernova, M S; Khromova, E B; Lupar, E I; Timofeeva, S V; Devald, I V; Vavilov, M N; Darke, C

    2012-10-01

    We have characterized the HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 profiles of three major ethnic groups living in Chelyabinsk Region of Russian South Urals, viz., Russians (n = 207), Bashkirs (n = 146) and Tatars (n = 135). First field level typing was performed by PCR using sequence-specific primers. Estimates included carriage and gene frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and its significance and related values. Population comparisons were made between the allele family frequencies of the three populations and between these populations and 20 others using a dendrogram. Chelyabinsk Region Russians demonstrate all the features typical of a Caucasoid population, but also have some peculiarities. Together with Tatars, Russians have high frequencies of allele families and haplotypes characteristic of Finno-Ugric populations. This presupposes a Finno-Ugric impact on Russian and Tatar ethnogenesis. However, this was not apparent in Bashkirs, the first of the three populations to live in this territory, and implies admixture with populations of a Finno-Ugric origin with precursors of Russians and Tatars before they came to the South Urals. The Bashkirs appear close to Mongoloids in allele and haplotype distribution. However, Bashkirs cannot be labelled either as typical Mongoloids or as Caucasoids. Thus, Bashkirs possess some alleles and haplotypes frequent in Mongoloids, which supports the Turkic impact on Bashkir ethnogenesis, but also possess the AH 8.1 haplotype, which could evidence an ancient Caucasoid population that took part in their ethnic formation or of recent admixture with adjacent populations (Russians and Tatars). Bashkirs showed no features of populations with a substantial Finno-Ugric component, for example Chuvashes or Russian Saami. This disputes the commonly held belief of a Finno-Ugric origin for Bashkirs. Tatars appeared close to many European populations. However, they possessed some characteristics of Asiatic populations possibly reflecting a Mongoloid

  13. Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipe, T.; Naumann, M.; Tauber, F.; Radtke, H.; Friedland, R.; Hiller, A.; Arz, H. W.

    2017-06-01

    This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (<63 μm, mud) from more than 600 surficial samples, combined with recalculations for the bulk sediment. For the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) and selected elements (P, Hg), the regional distribution maps show strong differences between the analysed fine fraction and the recalculated total sediment. Seeing that mud contents vary strongly between 0 and 100%, this can be explained by the well-known grain-size effect. To avoid (or at least minimise) this effect, further interpretations were based on the data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical "anomalies" in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

  14. Nutrient dynamics in the winter thermohaline frontal zone of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Su Mei; Guo, Xinyu; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Bi, Yan Feng; Luo, Xin; Li, Jian Bing

    2010-11-01

    As the first attempt to estimate the nutrient transport across the winter thermohaline frontal zone on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the nutrient dynamics around the front and the effects of cross-frontal water exchange on nutrient transport were investigated using wintertime field observations. Both water temperature and salinity increased from coastal to oceanic waters, showing the presence of a thermohaline front. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients decreased oceanward, especially across the thermohaline front, while those of dissolved organic nutrients (i.e., dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus) showed patchy distributions. Ammonium was the major constituent of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and DON was the main component of total dissolved nitrogen. Molar ratios of PO43-/total dissolved phosphorus decreased from coastal to oceanic waters, indicating that PO43- was rapidly removed and/or consumed from the water column and that organic matter degradation increased offshore, replenishing PO43-. Molar ratios of NO3-/(NH4+ + DON) were 0.01-0.6, indicating dominance of regenerated nitrogen. Surface water convergence and bottom water divergence were identified in the across-shore velocity field, and the calculated across-shore nutrient fluxes suggest that the presence of the winter thermohaline front promotes the offshore transport of nutrients from coastal waters. The transport path begins with convergence of surface coastal waters toward the front, followed by the sinking in the frontal region and the oceanward movement through the bottom layer of the front offshore side. With an assumption of 500 km as the length of thermohaline front on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the calculated offshore fluxes of nutrients across the entire front are larger than those from the Zhujiang (Pearl River) and the Changjiang (Yangtze River).

  15. Incidence of gonorrhoea diagnosed in GUM clinics in South Thames (west) region

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, M.; Judd, A.; Maguire, H.; Hay, P.; Charlett, A.; Catchpole, M.; Nayagam, A.; Renton, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of gonorrhoea diagnosed in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in South Thames (West) between 1995 and 1996, and how it changed among population subgroups. SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS: Cases of uncomplicated and complicated gonorrhoea diagnosed at 13 GUM clinics in the former South Thames West (STW) Regional Health Authority that reported disaggregate data to the South Thames GUM Clinic Collaborative STD Surveillance Scheme. METHODS: Annual incidence rates (per 100,000) of gonorrhoea diagnoses by sex, age group, ethnic group, area of residence, and year were calculated. Poisson regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RR) to describe the key differences in the variation of gonorrhoea cases by these variables. Relative differences in the incidence of diagnosed gonorrhoea between 1995 and 1996 were investigated by including an interaction between year and the other variables (age group, sex, ethnic group, region) and testing whether any were significant using a likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Area of residence, sex, age group, and ethnic group were key predictors of the rates of diagnosed gonorrhoea. The risk ratio for gonorrhoea (after adjustment for the other variables) was: 13 times higher among blacks than the white population; twice as high in inner London compared with outer London; and three times lower in the "shire" region compared with outer London. The rate of diagnosed gonorrhoea was significantly higher in the black population in the shire region than the inner London white population. The rate of gonorrhoea diagnosed by GUM clinics from 1995 to 1996 almost doubled in the white population aged 15-44 years, from 16 cases per 100,000 to 30 cases per 100,000 (adjusted RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.4), whereas increased rates in the black and Asian/other ethnic groups were not statistically significant (adjusted RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.4; and 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.7 respectively). CONCLUSION: The observed increase in

  16. Improved precipitation extremes and climatology in a regional coupled model simulation over CORDEX south Asia domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sein, D.; Cabos, W.; Jacob, D.

    2014-12-01

    The South Asian continents are densely populated and their economy is largely dependent on agriculture which primarily depends on the summer monsoon (June-September). The region is highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. It has been well established that the SST anomalies in the Indian and the Pacific Ocean attributes to the monsoon interannual as well as intraseasonal variability. Most of the CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate models have difficulty in simulating the mean climate over South Asia. Regional Climate Models (RCMs) however simulate orographic induced precipitation better, but show limited ability to simulate mean precipitation over land and an overestimation over ocean more generally. These systematic differences between climate models and observation's may be related to poorly represented ocean dynamics and SST.For the first time a regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model is developed to study the monsoon climatology over the CORDEX South Asia domain. The REgional atmosphere MOdel REMO with 50km horizontal resolution is coupled via Oasis coupler to the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology global ocean - sea ice model MPIOM with increased resolution over the Indian Ocean (up to 20 km). Hereafter this coupled system will be called as ROM. For this study, four simulations for the period 1958-2001 are performed (i) REMO forced with ECMWF ERA40 reanalysis (ii) ROM forced with ECMWF ERA40 reanalysis (iii) REMO forced with MPI-ESM-LR CMIP5 historical simulation (iv) ROM forced with MPI-ESM-LR CMIP5 historical simulation. Differences in coupled and un-coupled RCM simulations are analyzed to investigate the effect of coupling on simulated climate, especially precipitation daily annual cycles and monthly spatial patterns. It has been observed that simulated feedback of ocean SST has positive influence on precipitation simulation of ROM both over land and ocean. The intensity of tropical cyclone is well simulated by the model ROM which improves the monsoon

  17. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.73 Section 81.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  18. Assessment of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over Himalayan region for future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2017-07-01

    Precipitation is one of the important climatic indicators in the global climate system. Probable changes in monsoonal (June, July, August and September; hereafter JJAS) mean precipitation in the Himalayan region for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways or RCPs) and two future time slices (near and far) are estimated from a set of regional climate simulations performed under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment-South Asia (CORDEX-SA) project. For each of the CORDEX-SA simulations and their ensemble, projections of near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) precipitation climatology with respect to corresponding present climate (1970-2005) over Himalayan region are presented. The variability existing over each of the future time slices is compared with the present climate variability to determine the future changes in inter annual fluctuations of monsoonal mean precipitation. The long-term (1970-2099) trend (mm/day/year) of monsoonal mean precipitation spatially distributed as well as averaged over Himalayan region is analyzed to detect any change across twenty-first century as well as to assess model uncertainty in simulating the precipitation changes over this period. The altitudinal distribution of difference in trend of future precipitation from present climate existing over each of the time slices is also studied to understand any elevation dependency of change in precipitation pattern. Except for a part of the Hindu-Kush area in western Himalayan region which shows drier condition, the CORDEX-SA experiments project in general wetter/drier conditions in near future for western/eastern Himalayan region, a scenario which gets further intensified in far future. Although, a gradually increasing precipitation trend is seen throughout the twenty-first century in carbon intensive scenarios, the distribution of trend with elevation presents a very complex picture with lower elevations

  19. New constraints on historical dipole field decay: Four centuries of archaeointensity from Cape Town, South Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, V. J.; Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current global geomagnetic field models suffer from strong bias towards Northern Hemisphere data. Absolute intensity measurements from the Southern Hemisphere are key to understanding the evolution of the field over the historical era, especially recent strengthening of non-dipole contributions, and the appearance of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). I present the first archaeointensity data for locally-fired historical bricks from several well-dated sites (1660-2009 AD) in Cape Town, South Africa. These data constitute the first archaeomagnetic intensity variation curve for southern Africa for the past few centuries. The ages of the sites are tightly constrained by historical and archaeological considerations. Archaeointensity data obtained by the Thellier and Thellier method (modified by Coe), are corrected for both TRM anisotropy and cooling rate dependence of TRM acquisition. Analysis of magnetic mineralogy was performed to aid selection of fragments. Reliable archaeointensity determinations were obtained for 48 of 80 specimens, and 45 were retained in the final analysis. Intensity results vary from 24.3 ± 0.6 μT (modern brick) to 40.7 ± 0.8 μT (1660 AD), corresponding to Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADMs) between 6.1 ± 0.2 and 10.2 ± 0.2 נ1022 Am2. Results are generally not in agreement with current field models, but are coherent with other archaeomagnetic datasets from the Southern Hemisphere. The possible reasons for this are discussed, as well as implications for the historical evolution of the field.

  20. Study on the time difference of solar polar field reversal between the north and south hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukuya, D.; Kusano, K.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamo is a mechanism whereby the kinetic energy of plasma is converted to the magnetic energy. This mechanism works to generate and maintain the solar and stellar magnetic field. Since the sun is only a star whose magnetic field can be directly observed, the understanding of solar dynamo can provide clues to clarify dynamo mechanisms. On the other hand, because solar activities, which are caused by solar dynamo, can influence the Earth's climate, solar variability is an important issue also to understand long-term evolution of the Earth's climate. It is widely known that the polarity of the solar magnetic fields on the north and south poles periodically reverses at every sunspot maxima. It is also known that the reversal at one pole is followed by that on the other pole. The time difference of magnetic field reversal between the poles was first noted by Babcock (1959) from the very first observation of polar field. Recently, it was confirmed by detailed observations with the HINODE satellite (Shiota et al. 2012). Svalgaard and Kamide (2013) indicated that there is a relationship between the time difference of the polarity reversal and the hemispheric asymmetry of the sunspot activity. However, the mechanisms for the hemispheric asymmetry are still open to be revealed. In this paper, we study the asymmetric feature of the solar dynamo based on the flux transport dynamo model (Chatterjee et al. 2004) to explain the time difference of magnetic polarity reversal between the north and south poles. In order to calculate long-term variations of solar activities, we use the mean field kinematic dynamo model, which is derived from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equation through the mean field and other approximations. We carried out the mean field dynamo simulations using the updated SURYA code which was developed originally by Choudhuri and his collaborators (2004). We decomposed the symmetric and asymmetric components of magnetic field, which correspond respectively to the

  1. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa. PMID:27427912

  2. Structural and tectonic setting of the Charleston, South Carolina, region: Evidence from the Tertiary stratigraphic record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; Lewis, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Eleven upper Eocene through Pliocene stratigraphic units occur in the subsurface of the region surrounding Charleston, South Carolina. These units contain a wealth of information concerning the long-term tectonic and structural setting of that area. These stratigraphic units have a mosaic pattern of distribution, rather than a simple layered pattern, because deposition, erosion, and tectonic warping have interacted in a complex manner through time. By generating separate structure-contour maps for the base of each stratigraphic unit, an estimate of the original basal surface of each unit can be reconstructed over wide areas. Changes in sea level over geologic time generate patterns of deposition and erosion that are geographically unique for the time of each transgression. Such patterns fail to persist when compared sequentially over time. In some areas, however, there has been persistent, repetitive net downward of upward movement over the past 34 m.y. These repetitive patterns of persistent motion are most readily attributable to tectonism. The spatial pattern of these high and low areas is complex, but it appears to correlate well with known tectonic features of the region. This correlation suggests that the tectonic setting of the Charleston region is controlled by scissors-like compression on a crustal block located between the north-trending Adams Run fault and the northwest-trending Charleston fault. Tectonism is localized in the Charleston region because it lies within a discrete hinge zone that accommodates structural movement between the Cape Fear arch and the Southeast Georgia embayment.

  3. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n = 49 studies), mortality (n = 28), nutrition (n = 24), and infectious diseases (n = 33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n = 56 studies), socioeconomic (n = 50) and biological sampling (n = 25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103

  4. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    PubMed

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  5. The Early Proterozoic structural and tectonic history of the south central Lake Superior Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueng, Wen-Long C.; Larue, Dave K.

    1988-06-01

    The early Proterozoic tectonic evolution of the south central Lake Superior region is complex, owing to the presence of four tectonostratigraphic terranes, which were affected by six phases of deformation. The four terranes are the passive margin of the Superior craton, two paraautochthonous passive margin terranes (Crystal Falls and Florence-Niagara terranes), and a southern magmatic arc complex which is probably allochthonous with respect to the other terranes. Four of the six deformational episodes accompanied subhorizontal shortening, while two were caused by subvertical shortening. The first and the most penetrative phase of deformation is marked by subhorizontal shortening in a NNE-SSW direction. The second and fourth deformations were characterized by subvertical shortening and did not significantly modify the structural orientations from previous events in the study area. The third, fifth, and sixth deformations mostly caused open folding, and shortening directions were NW, NE, and W, respectively. Because all the terranes in the south central Lake Superior region share parallel deformational histories, it is suggested that the accretion of these terranes occurred during the first deformational episode. After removal of younger deformational effects, including open folding of the suture zone, the tectonostratigraphic assemblages in this region show the following sequence from NNE to SSW: a platformal assemblage overlying sialic basement, a basinal assemblage of tholeiitic volcanic rocks overlain by deep-water turbidites, an assemblage of basin floor deposits (Crystal Falls terrane) with apparently no demonstratably underlying crystalline basement, a fault-bounded terrane with highly strained passive margin strata (Florence-Niagara terrane), and a calc-alkaline magmatic arc assemblage. Such an arrangement of tectonostratigraphic assemblages is comparable with cross sections through Phanerozoic accretionary continental margins and therefore supports an arc

  6. The Deep South Clouds & Aerosols project: Improving the modelling of clouds in the Southern Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; McDonald, Adrian; Harvey, Mike; Davies, Roger; Katurji, Marwan; Varma, Vidya; Williams, Jonny

    2016-04-01

    Southern-Hemisphere climate projections are subject to persistent climate model biases affecting the large majority of contemporary climate models, which degrade the reliability of these projections, particularly at the regional scale. Southern-Hemisphere specific problems include the fact that satellite-based observations comparisons with model output indicate that cloud occurrence above the Southern Ocean is substantially underestimated, with consequences for the radiation balance, sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and the position of storm tracks. The Southern-Ocean and Antarctic region is generally characterized by an acute paucity of surface-based and airborne observations, further complicating the situation. In recognition of this and other Southern-Hemisphere specific problems with climate modelling, the New Zealand Government has launched the Deep South National Science Challenge, whose purpose is to develop a new Earth System Model which reduces these very large radiative forcing problems associated with erroneous clouds. The plan is to conduct a campaign of targeted observations in the Southern Ocean region, leveraging off international measurement campaigns in this area, and using these and existing measurements of cloud and aerosol properties to improve the representation of clouds in the nascent New Zealand Earth System Model. Observations and model development will target aerosol physics and chemistry, particularly sulphate, sea salt, and non-sulphate organic aerosol, its interactions with clouds, and cloud microphysics. The hypothesis is that the cloud schemes in most GCMs are trained on Northern-Hemisphere data characterized by substantial anthropogenic or terrestrial aerosol-related influences which are almost completely absent in the Deep South.

  7. F-region Ionospheric Irregularities Observed by ROCSAT-1 in the South Atlantic Anomaly Longitude Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, H.; Ho, M.; Su, S.; Heelis, R. A.; Huang, C.; Ho, H.; Hun, W.; Fu, C.; Huang, C.

    2003-12-01

    Data from the Ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument (IPEI) onboard ROCSAT-1 during the solar maximum years of 2000 and 2001 are used to investigate the plasma depletion (bubble) structures observed in the South Atlantic magnetic Anomaly (SAA) longitude sector. In this longitude sector, the geomagnetic field exhibits great variations in its magnitude, declination, and geographic latitude of the magnetic equator. With the 35-degree inclination orbit, ROCSAT-1 had the opportunity to travel either nearly along the magnetic equator or approximately along the magnetic meridian. We examine how the occurrence probability of the observed bubbles depends on local time, season, magnetic field configuration, and geomagnetic activity. Furthermore, we perform spectral analyses on the high-resolution ion density and cross-track ion velocities data for some representative passes to investigate how the spectral relationships among the density and velocity components are changing as the bubble structures evolve. Significant results from our analyses of the SAA bubbles are: (1) to confirm the magnetic-field-aligned characteristics of plasma bubbles, (2) to evaluate how important role that the magnetic-field-aligned neutral wind plays in producing the growth and the season of bubble structures, and (3) to verify the existence (absence) of the transitional-scale drift waves in the growing/developed (decaying) bubbles near the magnetic equator.

  8. The Impact of a Model Partnership in a Medical Postgraduate Program in North-South and South-South Collaboration on Trainee Retention, Program Sustainability and Regional Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amare, Beede Lemma; Lutale, Janet; Derbew, Miliard; Mathai, Dilip; Langeland, Nina

    2017-01-01

    North-South educational partnerships can potentially alleviate the scarcity of health work force in the South. A model program with the objectives of sustainability, high trainee retention, quality education, and capacity building is the goal of many similar programs. To achieve these goals a program of postgraduate clinical specialty training was…

  9. Tsunami Simulations for Regional Sources in the South China and Adjoining Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2011-06-01

    We present 14 scenarios of potential tsunamis in the South China Sea and its adjoining basins, the Sulu and Sulawezi Seas. The sources consist of earthquake dislocations inspired by the the study of historical events, either recorded (since 1900) or described in historical documents going back to 1604. We consider worst-case scenarios, where the size of the earthquake is not limited by the largest known event, but merely by the dimension of the basin over which a coherent fault may propagate. While such scenarios are arguably improbable, they may not be impossible, and as such must be examined. For each scenario, we present a simulation of the tsunami's propagation in the marine basin, exclusive of its interaction with the coastline. Our results show that the South China, Sulu and Sulawezi Seas make up three largely independent basins where tsunamis generated in one basin do not leak into another. Similarly, the Sunda arc provides an efficient barrier to tsunamis originating in the Indian Ocean. Furthermore, the shallow continental shelves in the Java Sea, the Gulf of Thailand and the western part of the South China Sea significantly dampen the amplitude of the waves. The eastern shores of the Malay Peninsula are threatened only by the greatest—and most improbable—of our sources, a mega-earthquake rupturing all of the Luzon Trench. We also consider two models of underwater landslides (which can be triggered by smaller events, even in an intraplate setting). These sources, for which there is both historical and geological evidence, could pose a significant threat to all shorelines in the region, including the Malay Peninsula.

  10. Regional salt distribution from 3D data across the South Additions, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, G.A. )

    1996-01-01

    A contiguous 3D dataset comprising 20 surveys covering over 800 OCS blocks in the offshore Louisiana South Additions region formed the primary database for a regional interpretation of top and base salt surfaces. The interpretation was performed on a 800m by 800m grid of 3D time migrated lines extracted from each survey and loaded into a single project on a workstation. After completing the interpretation the top and base salt horizons were depth converted, incorporating representative well velocity information across the study area. The use of 3D data has significantly improved interpretation confidence, particularly of the base salt, compared to 2D data, which, to date, has been the most commonly utilized regional tool. However, 2D data suffers from out-of-plane effects which can lead to erroneous interpretations of the base of salt and deep welds. A number of significant regional salt-related features and trends have been identified from the top and base salt time and depth maps. Significant identified features on the base of salt and below include keels, welds, fault zones and possible ramps which, in places, display significantly differing trends to those of the suprasalt section. The 3D data allows the mapping of feeders associated with large counter-regional fault systems down to extreme depths, in places to over 7 kms, as well as the location of feeder stock and wall locations beneath salt canopies. This has shown that many large sheets comprise several salt masses which have coalesced along suture zones, for example in the Vermilion and Ship Shoal regions.

  11. Regional salt distribution from 3D data across the South Additions, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    A contiguous 3D dataset comprising 20 surveys covering over 800 OCS blocks in the offshore Louisiana South Additions region formed the primary database for a regional interpretation of top and base salt surfaces. The interpretation was performed on a 800m by 800m grid of 3D time migrated lines extracted from each survey and loaded into a single project on a workstation. After completing the interpretation the top and base salt horizons were depth converted, incorporating representative well velocity information across the study area. The use of 3D data has significantly improved interpretation confidence, particularly of the base salt, compared to 2D data, which, to date, has been the most commonly utilized regional tool. However, 2D data suffers from out-of-plane effects which can lead to erroneous interpretations of the base of salt and deep welds. A number of significant regional salt-related features and trends have been identified from the top and base salt time and depth maps. Significant identified features on the base of salt and below include keels, welds, fault zones and possible ramps which, in places, display significantly differing trends to those of the suprasalt section. The 3D data allows the mapping of feeders associated with large counter-regional fault systems down to extreme depths, in places to over 7 kms, as well as the location of feeder stock and wall locations beneath salt canopies. This has shown that many large sheets comprise several salt masses which have coalesced along suture zones, for example in the Vermilion and Ship Shoal regions.

  12. Vaccination coverage in the South-East Anatolian Project (SEAP) region and factors influencing low coverage.

    PubMed

    Ozcirpici, B; Sahinoz, S; Ozgur, S; Bozkurt, A I; Sahinoz, T; Ceylan, A; Ilcin, E; Saka, G; Acemoglu, H; Palanci, Y; Ak, M; Akkafa, F

    2006-02-01

    To determine the vaccination coverage of children living in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) region; whether the vaccination coverage was similar to formal reports, other studies and other countries; and which factors influence vaccination, in order to indicate how vaccination coverage can be improved. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in nine provinces of the SEAP region in order to determine public health problems and their causes. A population-based sample of 1150 houses was selected from rural and urban areas of the SEAP region and visited by the researchers. Questionnaires were applied in 2001 and 2002. In the SEAP region, only 30% of children had received a complete set of vaccines. The vaccination coverage was 76.7% for Bacille Calmette-Guérin; 62.0% for the third doses of diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, pertussis and polio vaccine; 62.7% for measles; 44% for the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine in children aged 12-23 months; and 13.3% for the second dose of tetanus toxoid in women who gave birth in the last 5 years. In logistic regression analysis, residence type, number of siblings, birth interval, follow-up visits of midwives, and maternal level of education were found to influence whether children were completely vaccinated. The findings of this study indicate that vaccination coverage is not acceptable in the SEAP region. Efforts must focus on family planning services, education of women, follow-up visits and strengthening health facilities, especially in rural regions, to improve vaccination.

  13. The Artificial Neural Network Estimation for Daily and Hourly Rice Evapotranspiration in the Region of Red Soil, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuanshu; Ruthaikarn, Buaphean; Jin, Xinyi; Pang, Bo

    The evapotranspiration estimation is a key item for irrigation program. It has the important practical significance for high stable yield and water-saving in the region of red soil, South China. Penman-Monteith equation, recommended by FAO, is verified to be the most effective calculation to actual evaporation in many regions of the world. The only default is it has to use complete meteorological factors. To solve this problem, we are trying to find out a artificial neural network model (ANN) which can easily get its information and easy to calculate as well as guaranteed accuracy. A Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) system and automatic weather station were employed for simultaneous measurement of actual evapotranspiration above the rice field. The frequency of 20-min recording provided the possibility for the estimation of daily and hourly evapotranspiration. The determined coefficient from the artificial neural network model on daily scale R2 is 0.9642, while hourly scale R2 is 0.9880. The reason was that the hourly scale training samples was greater than the daily scale measures. In general, the model gives an effective and feasible way for the evaluation of paddy rice evapotranspiration by the conventional parameters.

  14. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’), one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy). Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L.) as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. PMID:22546322

  15. The Upper Mantle Flow Field around South-Africa as Reflected by Isotopic Provinciality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyzen, C.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Ludden, J.; Humler, E.; Mevel, C.; Albarede, F.

    2006-12-01

    Isotopic studies of MORB have established the existence of broad isotopic provinces within the underlying asthenosphere, such as in the Indian Ocean (DUPAL). How these features relate to mantle circulation is, however, still unknown. The steepness of the transition between such isotopic provinces will define the geometry of the velocity field in the upper mantle. In this respect, the transition between the Indian and South Atlantic provinces, two domains that are isotopically contrasted, should be readily identifiable over this long ridge segment. Here, we present Hf isotope data for 60 samples dredged along the SWIR between 35° and 69°E. The new Hf isotope data show that the Indian asthenosphere does not spill directly into the South Atlantic upper mantle: the general decreasing southward gradient observed for ^{176}Hf/^{177}Hf down the mid- Atlantic Ridge, and also for Sr isotopes and model Th/U ratios (derived from Pb isotopes), is overprinted by material with radiogenic Sr, unradiogenic Hf and high Th/U. The Indian domain grades into the South Atlantic around Bouvet, while the South Atlantic collides with the Atlantic province around Tristan. We interpret these features to represent fronts between three adjacent isotopic provinces similar to what has been suggested for the Australian-Antarctic Discordance. The common DUPAL signature of MORB and OIB from the Indian province and the geochemistry of Gulf of Aden MORB and the Afar plume suggest that the source of this distinctive mantle component is deep and lies to the north of the province. This is also what the three-dimensional flow field computed by Behn et al. (2004) from shear-wave splitting shows with a major lower mantle upwelling radiating at the base of the asthenosphere under the Afar plume. Lower mantle gushing out from this source flows southward unimpeded along the Indian ridges, whereas it only reaches the South Atlantic ridge after first having been deflected under the deep roots of the South

  16. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations.

  17. The ICTP Regional System Model (RESM) to simulate the monsoon in the South Asia CORDEX domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sante, Fabio; Coppola, Erika; Farneti, Riccardo; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    South Asian climate is characterized mainly by the wet and dry dipole that divides the annual cycle in two seasons: the monsoon season and the dry season. The life and the economy of those regions is very much influenced by the climate variability and the monsoon variability therefore is crucial to understand the physical mechanism associated with them. The spatial and temporal representation of the monsoons over the South Asian region is one of the main challenge of global and regional climate models principally because they fail to represent the SST (sea surface temperature) induced rainfall when forced with observed SST resulting in a poor representation of the monsoon cycle (Fu et al. 2002). The coupling with the ocean is essential to be able to simulate the correct air-sea interaction; the results are in general much improved and the monsoon patterns and the time representation (like the onset for example) are closer to the observations (Fu et al. 2002; Fu et al. 2007; Ratnam et Al. 2008; Seo et Al. 2009). Here we present a Regional Earth System Model (RESM) composed by a regional climate model RegCM4 (Giorgi et al, 2012) coupled with the regional oceanic model MITgcm (Marshall et al, 1997) and two hydrological model: ChyM (Cetemps Hydrological Model, Coppola et al, 2007) and HD model (Max-Planck's HD model; Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998). We simulate the Southern Asian Climate taking into account the whole hydrological cycle. Wind stress, water fluxes and heat fluxes are exchanged from the atmosphere to the ocean, SST are exchanged from ocean to the atmosphere and in order to conserve mass, the river discharge is calculated from the Hydrological model and sent to the ocean. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the impacts of local air-sea interaction in the simulation of the interannual variability, over the Indian CORDEX (Giorgi et al, 2009) domain through regionally ocean-atmosphere-river coupled and uncoupled simulations, with a focus on monsoon season

  18. Key pluvial parameters in assessing rainfall erosivity in the south-west development region, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitraşcu, Monica; Dragotă, Carmen-Sofia; Grigorescu, Ines; Dumitraşcu, Costin; Vlăduţ, Alina

    2017-06-01

    Located in the south-western part of Romania, the south-west development region overlaps the main relief forms: the Carpathians mountains, the Getic Subcarpathians, the Getic piedmont, the Romanian plain and the Danube valley. The study aims at providing an overview on the main pluvial parameters and their role in assessing rainfall erosivity in the study area. The authors assessed the occurrence, frequency and magnitude of some of the most significant pluvial parameters and their impact on the climatic aggressiveness in the study area. Thus, the monthly and annual mean and extreme climatic values for different rainfall related parameters (e.g., maximum amounts of precipitation/24 hr, heavy rainfall), as well as relevant indices and indicators for pluvial aggressiveness (Fournier, Fournier Modified, Angot) were calculated. The rainfall erosivity was assessed in order to provide both the spatial distribution of the triggering extreme weather phenomena and the resulted intensity classes for the analysed indices and indicators. The authors used long-term precipitation records (1961-2010) for the selected relevant meteorological stations distributed throughout all analysed relief units.

  19. Drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Mengistu; Kebebe Borga, Dereje; Mulisa Bobasa, Eshetu

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21–28, 2012 by using structured questionnaires. Results Of 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers, 58% and 83.3% were males, respectively. The result showed that majority of prescribers agreed on availability of essential drugs (72%) and had access to up-to-date drug information (76%). However, 43.3% of dispensers didn’t get access to up-to-date drug information. 86% and 88% of prescribers note cost of drugs and stick to standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia during prescription, respectively. All drug dispensers check the name of the drug (100%), age of the patient (90%), the dosage form of drug (96.7%), the route of administration (90%), the duration of therapy (86.7%), and frequency of administration (86.7%) for prescription papers. Conclusion In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use. PMID:26229506

  20. Early Tertiary plate reconstructions for the South China Sea region: constraints from northwest Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, Robert J. W.

    Previous plate reconstructions and tectonic syntheses for the southeast Asia region (Leichti et al. 1960, Ben Avraham and Uyeda 1973, Hamilton 1979, Holloway 1982, Taylor and Hayes 1982) have all highlighted the problems of correlating events in northwest Borneo with contemporaneous extension of the South China Sea. Theoretical modelling of crustal scale deformation in Asia during the Tertiary (Tapponnier et al. 1982) following India's collision with Asia suggested that the opening of the South China Sea basin accommodated major sinistral displacement. Haile (1973) and Hamilton (1979) have proposed that active subduction of oceanic crust beneath northwestern Borneo during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary was associated with the development of a major arcuate accretionary complex, the "Crocker-Rajang" complex (Haile 1973), which is exposed over a large area of West Malaysia. Contemporaneous outer arc basin sedimentation in west Sarawak and eastern Kalimantan is consistent with a southeasterly dipping orientation of subduction at the margin. The duration of subduction is poorly constrained, but the initiation of major clastic depocenter in the Baram-Belait area during the early Miocene (Brondjik 1963), indicates a major change in sedimentation and deformational style at the northwestern Bornea continental margin. Pre-Miocene geological and paleomagnetic evidence from Borneo is inconsistent with the simple model of estrusion tectonics and suggests that Borneo and Malaya were separate microplates during the early Tertiary.

  1. Current regional stress field and the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea and their tectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. C.; Cho, H.; Son, M.

    2014-12-01

    To determine current regional stress field and to characterize the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea, Quaternary fault, focal mechanism, and geotechnical in-situ stress data were synthetically analyzed. The Quaternary faults are extensively observed along major inherited fault zones and show compatible orientations with general trends of the inherited faults. Most of the Quaternary faults have a top-to-the-west thrust geometry and kinematics and show a tendency of upward-decreasing dip angle and upward-narrowing gouge zone. Slip-sense indicators and paleo-stress field reconstructions indicate that the faults resulted from reverse or transpressional faulting under an E-W compression. All the magnetic fabrics (AMS) of the fault gouges also indicate the prevailing reverse-slip faulting under an ENE-WNW compression. The dominant oblate magnetic fabrics parallel to fault plane and the degrees of anisotropy increasing in proportion to their oblatenesses indicate that the fabrics have formed by a progressive deformation due to continuous simple shear during the last reactivation stage as reverse faulting. The focal mechanism study in and around the Korean Peninsula show the horizontally clustered P-axes in ENE-WSW direction and the girdle-distributed T-axes in NNW trend. The geotechnical in-situ stress data in south Korea also show NE- or ENE-trending maximum horizontal stress. The current crustal deformation in Korea thus can be characterized by contractional structures produced under a regional E-W or ENE-WSW compression stress field, and most of the Quaternary faults resulted from the local re-activation of appropriately oriented inherited major faults. Considering the tectonic setting and structural features in Asia during the Neogene, the current stress regime is interpreted to have been caused by the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of Pacific Plate and collision of Indian and Eurasian continents since about 5-3.5 Ma.

  2. Impacts of climate change in the sugarcane production in the center-south macro-region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R Pereira, V.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Koga-Vicente, A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the most important results of a Project developed over four years by a research network having 19 researchers and 45 students. The main objective of this Project was to generate alcohol production scenarios as support for the formulation of public policy applied to the adaptation of the Brazilian sugar and alcohol industry to the possible climate changes. The study area was the center-south macro-region of Brazil, with the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás, that is the main producer area of sugarcane in the world. The scenarios were developed using the HadGEM2-ES and Miroc5 models of CMIP5/IPCC and did not show significant differences between them and were very close to those obtained with the HadCM3 and Miroc3 models of the AR4/IPCC. The results considering the sugarcane varieties grown nowadays indicate that in a scenario with changes in precipitation and temperatures, the main producing region will not have a decrease in municipalities with low climatic risk. Also the expansion region (South of Goiás and North-West of São Paulo) may become of high climatic risk, becoming an area where the artificial irrigation will be demanded. The challenge related to the water use and availability that already exists nowadays will be yet more important in the future. The expansion of Brazilian sugarcane production is being much more based on the territorial extension, i.e. by increasing the production area, than by increasing the productivity. The increased mechanization of cane harvesting improves the air quality and reduces the incidence of respiratory diseases. It is extremely important that incentives to mechanization be extended to other regions of the country since the end of burning benefits the health of people living close to the sugarcane fields. This confirms the need for planning this sector, with the development of new varieties and new production technologies considering the possible future climate

  3. A systematic search for z ≥ 5 active galactic nuclei in the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Koss, Michael; Urry, C. Megan; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2015-01-01

    We investigate early black hole growth through the methodical search for z ≥ 5 AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South.We base our search on the Chandra 4-Ms data that should allow us to detect Compton-thin AGN with MBH >107 M⊙ accreting at Eddington ratios > 0.1.The Chandra Deep Field South contains over 600 z ≥ 5 Lyman Break Galaxies. These high-redshift galaxies are the progenitors of massive, local galaxies and based on lower redshift relations we would expect ~ 20 of them to host AGN.We combine the Chandra data with GOODS/ACS, CANDELS/WFC3 and Spitzer/IRAC data. After excluding clear low-redshift sources our sample consists of 58 high-redshift candidates. We use a range of redshift estimators including a photo-z code, stacking, colour criteria and the Lyman Break Technique. We also use the X-ray Hardness Ratio as additional information.The final z ≥ 5 candidates that remain after we combine our redshift tests, are likely to be low-redshift interlopers. We thus conclude that, contrary to our expectation of finding at least a few high-redshift AGN, the field does not contain any convincing z ≥ 5 AGN candidates.Our results place interesting constraints on early black hole growth and we discuss a range of possible explanations.

  4. Temporal variability of soil water repellency in field conditions under humid Mediterranean climate (South of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.; Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose D.

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) has become an important field of scientific study because of its effects on soil hydrological behavior, including reduced matrix infiltration, development of fingered flow in structural or textural preferential flow paths, irregular wetting fronts, and increased runoff generation and soil erosion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the temporal variability of SWR in Mediterranean rangeland under humid Mediterranean climatic conditions (Tª=14.5 °C; P=1,010 mm y-1) in South of Spain. Every month from September 2008 to May 2009 (rainy season), soil moisture and SWR was measured in field conditions by means of gravimetric method and Water Drop Penetration Test, respectively. The entire tests were performed in differente eco-geomorphological conditions in the experimental site: North and South aspect hillslopes and beneath shrub and bare soil in every of them. The results indicate that: i) climatic conditions seem to be more transcendent than the vegetal cover for explaining the temporal variability of SWR in field conditions; ii) thus, SWR appears to be controlled by the antecedent rainfall and soil moisture; iii) more severity SWR were observed in patches characterized by sandier soils and/or greater organic matter contents; and iv) the factor 'hillslope aspect' was not found very influential in the degree of SWR.

  5. 137Cs activity concentration in mosses in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Marguccio, S.

    2017-05-01

    Many studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that mosses are suitable bioindicators of the radioactive fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentration was measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different mosses (Hypnum Cupressiforme, Hypnum Andoi, Homalothecium Sericeum, Philonotis Fontana), collected, in 2008 and 2015, from four sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Experimental specific activities allowed us to determine the effective and the biological half-time of 137Cs for the investigated plants. The effective half-time was found in the range from (4.2 ± 1.1) to (7.4 ± 1.8) years; the biological half-time varied from (4.9 ± 1.3) to (9.9 ± 2.4) years. Data reported in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological mapping.

  6. South Primorye, Far East Russia—A key region for global Permian correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyar, Galina V.; Belyansky, Gennady C.; Burago, Valentina I.; Nikitina, Antonina P.; Zakharov, Yuri D.; Zhuravlev, Andrey V.

    2006-03-01

    Significant differences between faunal and floral associations existing in different paleogeographic realms in the Kungurian-Late Permian interval make it difficult to correlate the Permian deposits of the world. Resolving this problem is one of the main tasks of Permian stratigraphy. The global significance of Permian strata of the Primorye region of Far East Russia is enhanced by the specific Middle Permian mixed Tethyan, Boreal and Gondwanan-type brachiopod fauna, mixed Angara-Euromerican-Cathaysian flora, and their close spatial and stratigraphical association with fusulinids, bryozoans, ammonoids, conodonts. These facts permit tracing of global correlational levels of some Permian sequences within the different paleobiogeographical realms: for example, the Monodiexodina sutschanica- Metadoliolina dutkevichi fusulinid zone of the Wordian age and Parafusulina stricta fusulinid zone of the Capitanian age. The Late Permian fauna of the Primorye is mainly Tethyan in origin and provides correlation with similar aged sequences from South China.

  7. Coronary events in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia: 1984-1986.

    PubMed

    Dobson, A J; Alexander, H M; Al-Roomi, K; Gibberd, R W; Heller, R F; Leeder, S R; Lloyd, D M; Malcolm, J A; Steele, P L

    1988-01-01

    The results of coronary event registration using the protocol of the World Health Organization MONICA Project are reported for two years for the Hunter Region, the area in and around Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia. The Newcastle MONICA Project monitors all suspected cases of heart attack by identifying patients from hospital admissions and obtaining information while they are still in hospital. For people who die out of hospital, the initial source of information is usually the death certificate. Rates for the most robust MONICA diagnostic categories, non-fatal definite myocardial infarction and all coronary deaths, differed for the two years reported here. Monthly rates suggested possible seasonal effects, and the possible influence of lower respiratory infections including an epidemic of influenza A. The results demonstrate that consistent monitoring over several years will be necessary to establish clear trends in coronary heart disease.

  8. Regional behavior and evolution of the Edwards aquifer (South-Central Texas).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabeza Diaz de Cerio, Yoar; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Green, Ronald T.; Fratesi, Beth; Bertetti, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are highly heterogeneous systems where flow regime is dominated by dissolution conduits. It is important to know the behavior of these conduit networks in order to being able to manage them correctly. In this work we focus on the Edwards aquifer, one of the most prolific artesian aquifers in the world, that is located in south-central Texas, USA, and included in the Trinity-Edwards system. A regional flow model for the Edwards aquifer has been developed using the code TRANSIN IV. For this purpose, It was necessary a reconceptualization of previous conceptual models of Edwards aquifer in order to include the contributing zone and evaluate the role that this area plays in the Edwards aquifer recharge. Chemical data for major and trace elements in the study area have been used for evaluating the relations between Trinity and Edwards aquifers and the evolution of dissolution within the Edwards aquifer.

  9. [The historical aspects of public health system development in the south Ural region].

    PubMed

    Tiukov, Iu A; Tarasova, I S

    2010-01-01

    The first physician in the south Ural, the healer Knobloch, appeared in 1775. The next physician in this region was Vasili Grigorievich Jukovsky who worked during more than 50 years in Chelyabinsk. Aleksander Franzevich Beiwel, the physician and city mayor, left good memories too. The first hospital appeared in 1823 and in the beginning of XX century the city health care was represented by three hospitals with 175 beds in total and 5 pharmacies. The first dental surgery room appeared in 1905. In 1924 in Chelyabinsk worked 24 physicians, 9 feldshers, 36 nurses, 4 midwives. There were 355 hospital beds, 7 outpatient clinics, children counseling room, 2 day nurseries. The Chelyabinsk first polyclinic functions from 1925 and in 1927 the first stomatologic polyclinic was opened. Ivan Stepanovich Belostotsky was one of active participants of development of Soviet public health on the territory of Ural. In 1941 the foundation for development of base hospitals in Ural during the Great Patriotic war was made ready.

  10. Normal incidence measurement in a subaqueous sand dune field in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Linus Y S; Chang, Andrea Y Y

    2014-11-01

    Regions with subaqueous sand dunes have been discovered on the upper continental slope of the northern South China Sea. These large subaqueous sand dunes are expected to cause errors in the measurement of normal incidence reflection. This letter presents experiment results of two normal incidence survey tracks conducted in 2013, and the errors in reflection coefficient estimation and the resulting sediment properties induced by sand dune bedforms. The results demonstrate that the reflected energy is focused and scattered by different parts of sand dune bedforms and that they produce significant variation in the estimated reflection coefficients and the inverted geoacoustic properties.

  11. South Asian Aerosols: Observations and regional scale modeling perspectives from the Nepal Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, B.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F.; Landi, T.; Putero, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Decesari, S.; Vuillermoz, E.; Stocchi, P.; Verza, G.; Kulkarni, S.

    2012-12-01

    SHARE (Stations at High Altitude Research on the Environment) project is promoted by Ev-K2-CNR and funded by the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the Italian National Research Council (CNR). Today SHARE monitoring stations span four continents around the globe. This paper will present the results from the SHARE-Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) monitoring station located in the foothills of Mount Everest at an altitude of 5079 m.a.s.l. NCO-P is also one of the Global AtmosphericWatch stations of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO-GAW) and is the only currently operating GAW station in South Asia and the highest station of the UNEP ABC (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) project. Results obtained from the monitoring of aerosols and trace gases for multi years starting from 2006 will be presented. Seasonal distribution, composition, case studies and events related to high aerosol loadings will be discussed. A regional scale meteorological / chemical transport modeling projecthas been initiated to help put the measurements in perspective and provide decision support for policy makers. The paper will also describe themodeling framework,modeled case studiesillustrating sectoral and regional contribution to the aerosol loading over the Himalayan region will be presented.

  12. Heavy metal deposition in moss samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Mahmut; Cayir, Akin; Coskun, Munevver; Kilic, Onder

    2011-03-01

    A survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the east and south Marmara region, Turkey was carried out in September 2004. For this purpose, moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) were collected in a systematic network of 125 sites. Concentrations of the elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Fe, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Mg, Ti, and Zn) in the moss were used as an indication of the level of air pollution in the region. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn, were recorded in the moss samples collected around industrialized and heavily populated cities (Istanbul, Bursa, Bandırma, Kocaeli, Biga-Çan) and in an abandoned lead-mining area (Balıkesir-Balya). A map of the spatial distribution of each element in the region was plotted, and enrichment factors were calculated. VARIMAX principal component analysis was applied to the data obtained, and five different components were obtained. The results showed that Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn derived from anthropogenic and industrial sources while other elements came mostly from natural sources.

  13. Infrared Faint Radio Sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Minh T.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) which have no observable counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE). The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6 to 70 micron) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the SED of these objects shows that they are consistent with high redshift AGN (z > 2).

  14. Bias-corrected regional climate projections of extreme rainfall in south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason P.; Argueso, D.; Olson, R.; Di Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents future changes in extreme precipitation as projected within the New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Regional Climate Modelling (NARCliM) project's regional climate ensemble for south-east Australia. Model performance, independence and projected future changes were considered when designing the ensemble. We applied a quantile mapping bias correction to the climate model outputs based on theoretical distribution functions, and the implications of this for the projected precipitation extremes is investigated. Precipitation extremes are quantified using several indices from the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices set of indices. The bias correction was successful in removing most of the magnitude bias in extreme precipitation but does not correct biases in the length of maximum wet and dry spells. The bias correction also had a relatively small effect on the projected future changes. Across a range of metrics, robust increases in the magnitude of precipitation extreme indices are found. While these increases are often in-line with a continuation of the trends present over the last century, they are not found to be statistically significant within the ensemble as a whole. The length of the maximum consecutive wet spell is projected to remain at present-day levels, while the length of the maximum dry spell is projected to increase into the future. The combination of longer dry spells and increases in extreme precipitation magnitude indicate an important change in the character of the precipitation time series. This could have considerable hydrological implications since changes in the sequencing of events can be just as important as changes in event magnitude for hydrological impacts.

  15. A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared / submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared / submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Passive cooling without the use of expendable cryogenics. might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive ice deposits, which may represent cometary infall with pre-biotic compounds.

  16. A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared / submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared / submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Passive cooling without the use of expendable cryogenics. might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive ice deposits, which may represent cometary infall with pre-biotic compounds.

  17. Regional Comparison of Mosquito Bloodmeals in South Australia: Implications for Ross River Virus Ecology.

    PubMed

    Flies, Emily J; Flies, Andrew S; Fricker, Stephen R; Weinstein, Philip; Williams, Craig R

    2016-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) is responsible for the most notifications of human arboviral infection in Australia. Seroprevalence and experimental infection studies have implicated macropods (e.g., kangaroos) as the major reservoir hosts. However, transmission ecology varies spatially, and infections in urban areas have prompted the question of what animals serve as reservoirs in regions where macropods are scarce. In South Australia (SA), human infection rates for RRV vary greatly by region as do vector and reservoir abundance. We hypothesized that mosquito abundance and feeding patterns would vary among ecoregions of SA and could help explain divergent human case rates. To test our hypothesis, we amplified and sequenced a 457 base pair region of the cytochrome B segment of mitochondrial DNA from blood fed mosquitoes collected in three main ecoregions of SA and identified sequences using a BLAST search in NCBI. Domestic livestock made up the vast majority of bloodmeals from the region with the highest human infection rate. Livestock are generally not considered to be important reservoir hosts for RRV, but our results suggest they may have a role in transmission ecology in some places. Surprisingly, none of the 199 bloodmeal samples were identified as macropod in origin. In the context of these findings, we consider the possible RRV vectors and reservoir hosts in these regions and propose that diverse spatial and temporal transmission ecologies occur in SA, depending on vector and reservoir availability. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data, South Rewa Gondwana Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, Swarnapriya; Singh, Bijendra; Rao, B. Nageswara; Kumar, Niraj; Singh, A. P.; Chandrasekhar, D. V.

    2017-08-01

    Intracratonic South Rewa Gondwana Basin occupies the northern part of NW-SE trending Son-Mahanadi rift basin of India. The new gravity data acquired over the northern part of the basin depicts WNW-ESE and ENE-WSW anomaly trends in the southern and northern part of the study area respectively. 3D inversion of residual gravity anomalies has brought out undulations in the basement delineating two major depressions (i) near Tihki in the north and (ii) near Shahdol in the south, which divided into two sub-basins by an ENE-WSW trending basement ridge near Sidi. Maximum depth to the basement is about 5.5 km within the northern depression. The new magnetic data acquired over the basin has brought out ENE-WSW to E-W trending short wavelength magnetic anomalies which are attributed to volcanic dykes and intrusive having remanent magnetization corresponding to upper normal and reverse polarity (29N and 29R) of the Deccan basalt magnetostratigrahy. Analysis of remote sensing and geological data also reveals the predominance of ENE-WSW structural faults. Integration of remote sensing, geological and potential field data suggest reactivation of ENE-WSW trending basement faults during Deccan volcanism through emplacement of mafic dykes and sills. Therefore, it is suggested that South Rewa Gondwana basin has witnessed post rift tectonic event due to Deccan volcanism.

  19. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. I. THE SOUTH FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Panagia, Nino; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Jansen, Rolf A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Gronwall, Caryl; Walsh, Jeremy; Pasquali, Anna; Xu, Chun

    2009-10-15

    We present results of a search for emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the southern fields of the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism survey. The PEARS South Fields consist of five Advanced Camera for Surveys pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. ELGs are one subset of objects that are prevalent among the grism spectra. Using a two-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines originating from 226 galaxy 'knots' within 192 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. We measure emission-line fluxes using standard Gaussian fitting techniques. At the resolution of the grism data, the H{beta} and [O III] doublet are blended. However, by fitting two Gaussian components to the H{beta} and [O III] features, we find that many of the PEARS ELGs have high [O III]/H{beta} ratios compared to other galaxy samples of comparable luminosities. The star formation rates of the ELGs are presented, as well as a sample of distinct giant star-forming regions at z {approx} 0.1-0.5 across individual galaxies. We find that the radial distances of these H II regions in general reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant H II regions in local galaxies.

  20. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international project investigating the earth atmosphere -human system in southern Africa. The programme was conducted over a two year period from March 1999 to March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-September 2000) was the most intensive activity involved over 200 scientist from eighteen countries. The main objectives were to characterize and quantify biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate NASA's Earth Observing System's Satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft-- two South African Weather Service Aeorcommanders, the University of Washington's CV-880, the U.K. Meteorological Office's C-130, and NASA's ER-2 --with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses, that had moved downwind of the subcontinent, was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple Observations were made in various geographical sections under different synoptic conditions. Airborne missions were designed to optimize the value of synchronous over-flights of the Terra Satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller scale ground validation activities took place throughout the subcontinent during the campaign period.

  1. A test field for Gaia. Radial velocity catalogue of stars in the South Ecliptic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frémat, Y.; Altmann, M.; Pancino, E.; Soubiran, C.; Jofré, P.; Damerdji, Y.; Heiter, U.; Royer, F.; Seabroke, G.; Sordo, R.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jasniewicz, G.; Martayan, C.; Thévenin, F.; Vallenari, A.; Blomme, R.; David, M.; Gosset, E.; Katz, D.; Viala, Y.; Boudreault, S.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Lobel, A.; Meisenheimer, K.; Nordlander, T.; Raskin, G.; Royer, P.; Zorec, J.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Gaia is a space mission that is currently measuring the five astrometric parameters, as well as spectrophotometry of at least 1 billion stars to G = 20.7 mag with unprecedented precision. The sixth parameter in phase space (i.e., radial velocity) is also measured thanks to medium-resolution spectroscopy that is being obtained for the 150 million brightest stars. During the commissioning phase, two fields, one around each ecliptic pole, have been repeatedly observed to assess and to improve the overall satellite performances, as well as the associated reduction and analysis software. A ground-based photometric and spectroscopic survey was therefore initiated in 2007, and is still running to gather as much information as possible about the stars in these fields. This work is of particular interest to the validation of the radial velocity spectrometer outputs. Aims: The paper presents the radial velocity measurements performed for the Southern targets in the 12-17 R magnitude range on high- to mid-resolution spectra obtained with the GIRAFFE and UVES spectrographs. Methods: Comparison of the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) GIRAFFE data to spectroscopic templates observed with the HERMES (Mercator in La Palma, Spain) spectrograph enabled a first coarse characterisation of the 747 SEP targets. Radial velocities were then obtained by comparing the results of three different methods. Results: In this paper, we present an initial overview of the targets to be found in the 1 sq. deg SEP region that was observed repeatedly by Gaia ever since its commissioning. In our representative sample, we identified one galaxy, six LMC S-stars, nine candidate chromospherically active stars, and confirmed the status of 18 LMC Carbon stars. A careful study of the 3471 epoch radial velocity measurements led us to identify 145 RV constant stars with radial velocities varying by less than 1 km s-1. Seventy-eight stars show significant RV scatter, while nine stars show a composite spectrum

  2. Local Lunar Gravity Field Analysis over the South Pole-aitken Basin from SELENE Farside Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koji; Sasaki, Sho

    2012-01-01

    We present a method with which we determined the local lunar gravity field model over the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin on the farside of the Moon by estimating adjustments to a global lunar gravity field model using SELENE tracking data. Our adjustments are expressed in localized functions concentrated over the SPA region in a spherical cap with a radius of 45deg centered at (191.1 deg E, 53.2 deg S), and the resolution is equivalent to a 150th degree and order spherical harmonics expansion. The new solution over SPA was used in several applications of geophysical analysis. It shows an increased correlation with high-resolution lunar topography in the frequency band l = 40-70, and admittance values are slightly different and more leveled when compared to other, global gravity field models using the same data. The adjustments expressed in free-air anomalies and differences in Bouguer anomalies between the local solution and the a priori global solution correlate with topographic surface features. The Moho structure beneath the SPA basin is slightly modified in our solution, most notably at the southern rim of the Apollo basin and around the Zeeman crater

  3. Regional and reservoir-scale analysis of fault systems and structural development of Pagerungan Gas Field, East Java Sea, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, R.K.; Medwedeff, D.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Pagerungan gas field lies on a complexly faulted and folded anticline just north of the major Sakala-Paliat Fault System (SPFS) offshore Bali. The Eocene clastic reservoir is affected by two generations of faults: Eocene normal and Neogene compressional faults. Fault geometry, timing and connectivity is determined by combining regional and field-scale methods. Restored regional structure maps and sections indicate the field is located on the L. Eocene, footwall-paleo-high of the south-dipping SPFS. Within the field, smaller normal faults nucleated sub-parallel to the SPFS with both synthetic and antithetic dips. Neogene to Present compression folded the strata creating closure in the field, reversed slip on selected preexisting normal faults, and nucleated new reverse fault sets. Some normal faults are completely inverted, others have net normal offset after some reverse slip, and still others are not reactivated. Reverse faults strike sub-parallel to earlier formed normal faults. The eastern and western parts of the field are distinguished by the style and magnitude of early compressional deformation. 3D seismic analysis indicates the geometry of reservoir faults is similar to the regional fault systems: sub-parallel segments share displacement at their terminations either by distributed deformation in the rock between adjacent terminations or through short cross-faults oriented at a high angle to the principal fault sets. Anomalous trends in the contours of throw projected onto fault surfaces predict the connectivity of complex fault patterns. Integration of regional and field-scale analysis provides the most accurate prediction of fault geometry and lays the foundation for field development.

  4. Regional and reservoir-scale analysis of fault systems and structural development of Pagerungan Gas Field, East Java Sea, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, R.K.; Medwedeff, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Pagerungan gas field lies on a complexly faulted and folded anticline just north of the major Sakala-Paliat Fault System (SPFS) offshore Bali. The Eocene clastic reservoir is affected by two generations of faults: Eocene normal and Neogene compressional faults. Fault geometry, timing and connectivity is determined by combining regional and field-scale methods. Restored regional structure maps and sections indicate the field is located on the L. Eocene, footwall-paleo-high of the south-dipping SPFS. Within the field, smaller normal faults nucleated sub-parallel to the SPFS with both synthetic and antithetic dips. Neogene to Present compression folded the strata creating closure in the field, reversed slip on selected preexisting normal faults, and nucleated new reverse fault sets. Some normal faults are completely inverted, others have net normal offset after some reverse slip, and still others are not reactivated. Reverse faults strike sub-parallel to earlier formed normal faults. The eastern and western parts of the field are distinguished by the style and magnitude of early compressional deformation. 3D seismic analysis indicates the geometry of reservoir faults is similar to the regional fault systems: sub-parallel segments share displacement at their terminations either by distributed deformation in the rock between adjacent terminations or through short cross-faults oriented at a high angle to the principal fault sets. Anomalous trends in the contours of throw projected onto fault surfaces predict the connectivity of complex fault patterns. Integration of regional and field-scale analysis provides the most accurate prediction of fault geometry and lays the foundation for field development.

  5. Spectral analysis of pipe-to-soil potentials with variations of the Earth's magnetic field in the Australian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, R. A.; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.

    2010-05-01

    Long, steel pipelines used to transport essential resources such as gas and oil are potentially vulnerable to space weather. In order to inhibit corrosion, the pipelines are usually coated in an insulating material and maintained at a negative electric potential with respect to Earth using cathodic protection units. During periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity, potential differences between the pipeline and surrounding soil (referred to as pipe-to-soil potentials (PSPs)) may exhibit large voltage swings which place the pipeline outside the recommended "safe range" and at an increased risk of corrosion. The PSP variations result from the "geoelectric" field at the Earth's surface and associated geomagnetic field variations. Previous research investigating the relationship between the surface geoelectric field and geomagnetic source fields has focused on the high-latitude regions where line currents in the ionosphere E region are often the assumed source of the geomagnetic field variations. For the Australian region Sq currents also contribute to the geomagnetic field variations and provide the major contribution during geomagnetic quiet times. This paper presents the results of a spectral analysis of PSP measurements from four pipeline networks from the Australian region with geomagnetic field variations from nearby magnetometers. The pipeline networks extend from Queensland in the north of Australia to Tasmania in the south and provide PSP variations during both active and quiet geomagnetic conditions. The spectral analyses show both consistent phase and amplitude relationships across all pipelines, even for large separations between magnetometer and PSP sites and for small-amplitude signals. Comparison between the observational relationships and model predictions suggests a method for deriving a geoelectric field proxy suitable for indicating PSP-related space weather conditions.

  6. Regional Ecorisk Field investigation, upper Clark Fork River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.; LaTier, A.; Ginn, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Regional Ecorisk Field Investigation was conducted at the Clark Fork River Superfund Site (Montana) to evaluate the relationships between plant communities and tailings deposits in riparian habitats and to evaluate food-chain transfer of trace elements to selected wildlife species. Stations were selected to represent a range of vegetation biomass (or cover) values and apparent impact of trace elements, with some areas of lush vegetation, some areas of mostly unvegetated soil (e.g., < 30 percent plant cover), and a gradient in between. For the evaluation of risk to wildlife, bioaccumulation of metals was evaluated in native or naturalized plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Potential reproductive effects in the deer mouse were evaluated by direct measurements. For other wildlife species, bioaccumulation data were interpreted in the context of food web exposure models. Total biomass and species richness of riparian plant communities are related to tailings content of soil as indicated by pH and metals concentrations. Risk to populations of omnivorous small mammals such as the deer mouse was not significant. Relative abundance and reproductive condition of the deer mouse were normal, even in areas of high metals enrichment. Based on exposure models and site-specific tissue residue data for dietary species, risk to local populations of predators such as red fox and American kestrel that feed on deer mice and terrestrial invertebrates is not significant. Risk to herbivores related to metals bioaccumulation in plant tissues is not significant. Population level effects in deer and other large wildlife are not expected because of the large home ranges of such species and compensatory demographic factors.

  7. The effect of the low-level jet on the poleward water vapour transport in the central region of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berri, Guillermo J.; Inzunza, Juan B.

    The low-level jet (LLJ) in the central region of South America is studied. This LLJ is generated by the daily cycle of convergence and divergence east of the Andes Mountains. We use the 1973-1974 radiosonde and pilot balloon data set from the upper air weather stations, Salta and Resistencia, in northern Argentina to select 10 LLJ cases and another 10 NoLLJ cases (when the LLJ is not present). We use the University of Utah Mesoscale Model to simulate these situations in order to obtain a high-resolution low-level wind field. These model predictions are then used to calculate the meridional water vapour transport across a vertical cross-section, along 26°S in central South America. The results reveal that the LLJs are a very effective mechanism for the poleward water vapour transport.

  8. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Methods Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Results The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. Conclusions In comparison to previous data in 1985–87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is

  9. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment.

    PubMed

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Ngassam, Pierre; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Dankoni, Esther; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi

    2013-12-23

    The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. In comparison to previous data in 1985-87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of

  10. Mechanisms of aquatic species invasions across the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.; Stith, Bradley M.; Engel, Victor C.

    2016-12-15

    Invasive species are a global issue, and the southeastern United States is not immune to the problems they present. Therefore, various analyses using modeling and exploratory statistics were performed on the U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Database with the primary objective of determining the most appropriate use of presence-only data as related to invasive species in the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (SALCC) region. A hierarchical model approach showed that a relatively small amount of high-quality data from planned surveys can be used to leverage the information in presence-only observations, having a broad spatial coverage and high biases of observer detection and in site selection. Because a variety of sampling protocols can be used in planned surveys, this approach to the analysis of presence-only data is widely applicable. An important part of the management of natural landscapes is the preservation of designated protected areas. When the hydrologic connection was considered in this analysis, the number of potential invaders that could spread to each protected area within the SALCC region was greatly increased, with a mean exceeding 30 species and the maximum reaching 57 species. Nearly all protected areas are hydrologically connected to at least 20 nonindigenous aquatic species. To examine possible factors which may contribute to nonindigenous aquatic species richness in the SALCC region, a set of exploratory statistics was employed. The best statistical model that included a combination of three anthropogenic variables (densities of housing, roads, and reservoirs) and two environmental variables (elevation range and longitude) explained approximately 62 percent of the variation in introduced species richness. Highest nonindigenous aquatic species richness occurred in the more upland, mountainous regions, where elevation range favored reservoirs and attracted urban centers. Lastly, patterns seen in a diffusion

  11. Study of the regional air quality south of Mexico City (Morelos state).

    PubMed

    Salcedo, D; Castro, T; Ruiz-Suárez, L G; García-Reynoso, A; Torres-Jardón, R; Torres-Jaramillo, A; Mar-Morales, B E; Salcido, A; Celada, A T; Carreón-Sierra, S; Martínez, A P; Fentanes-Arriaga, O A; Deustúa, E; Ramos-Villegas, R; Retama-Hernández, A; Saavedra, M I; Suárez-Lastra, M

    2012-01-01

    Results from the first study of the regional air quality in Morelos state (located south of Mexico City) are presented. Criteria pollutants concentrations were measured at several sites within Morelos in February and March of 2007 and 2009; meteorological data was also collected along the state for the same time periods; additionally, a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (Mesoscale Climate Chemistry Model, MCCM) was used to gain understanding on the atmospheric processes occurring in the region. In general, concentrations of almost all the monitored pollutants (O(3), NO(x), CO, SO(2), PM) remained below the Mexican air quality standards during the campaign; however, relatively high concentrations of ozone (8-hour average concentrations above the 60 ppb level several times during the campaigns, i.e. exceeding the World Health Organization and the European Union maximum levels) were observed even at sites with very low reported local emissions. In fact, there is evidence that a large percentage of Morelos vegetation was probably exposed to unhealthy ozone levels (estimated AOT40 levels above the 3 ppm h critical limit). The MCCM qualitatively reproduced ozone daily variations in the sites with an urban component; though it consistently overestimated the ozone concentration in all the sites in Morelos. This is probably because the lack of an updated and detailed emission inventory for the state. The main wind patterns in the region corresponded to the mountain-valley system (downslope flows at night and during the first hours of the day, and upslope flows in the afternoon). At times, Morelos was affected by emissions from surrounding states (Distrito Federal or Puebla). The results are indicative of an efficient transport of ozone and its precursors at a regional level. They also suggest that the state is divided in two atmospheric basins by the Sierras de Tepoztlán, Texcal and Monte Negro.

  12. Virtual Vents: A Microbathymetrical Survey of the Niua South Hydrothermal Field, NE Lau Basin, Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Köser, K.; Duda, A.; Jamieson, J. W.; Boschen, R.; Gartman, A.; Hannington, M. D.; Funganitao, C.

    2016-12-01

    At a diameter of 200 m, the 1100 m deep Niua South hydrothermal field (NE Lau Basin) was studied in an interdisciplinary approach during the SOI funded Virtual Vents cruise in March of 2016. On the grounds of a previously generated 50 cm resolution AUV multi beam map, the projects backbone is formed by a fully color textured, 5 cm resolution photogrammetrical 3D model. Several hundred smaller and about 15 chimneys larger than 3 m were surveyed including their basal mounds and surrounding environment interconnecting to each other. This model was populated through exhaustive geological, biological and fluid sampling as well as continuous Eh measurements, forming the basis for highly detailed geological structural and biological studies resulting in 3D maps of the entire field. At a reasonable effort, such surveys form the basis for repetitive time series analysis and have the potential of a new standard in seafloor monitoring.

  13. The oral susceptibility of South African field populations of Culicoides to African horse sickness virus.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Wright, I M; Van Der Linde, T C; Paweska, J T

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-two isolates of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), representing its distinct serotypes, geographical and historical origins, were fed to three populations of South African livestock-associated Culicoides spp. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Infective blood meals included 12 recent isolates, nine historical reference strains and one live attenuated vaccine strain serotype 7 (AHSV-7) of the virus. Field-collected midges were fed through a chicken-skin membrane on sheep blood spiked with one of the viruses, which concentrations ranged from 5.4 to 8.8 log(10)TCID(50)/mL of blood. After 10 days incubation at 23.5 degrees C, AHSV was isolated from 11 Culicoides species. Standard in vitro passaging of AHSV-7, used for the preparation of live attenuated vaccine, did not reduce its ability to infect Culicoides species. Virus recovery rates in orally infected Culicoides midges differed significantly between species and populations, serotypes, isolates and seasons. Significant variations in oral susceptibility recorded in this study emphasize a complex inter-relationship between virus and vector, which is further influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. As it is not possible to standardize all these factors under laboratory conditions, conclusive assessment of the role of field-collected Culicoides midges in the transmission of orbiviruses remains problematic. Nevertheless, results of this study suggest the potential for multi-vector transmission of AHSV virus in South Africa.

  14. Possible recent and ancient glacial ice flow in the south polar region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    Martian polar science began almost as soon as small telescopes were trained on the planet. The seasonal expansion and contraction of the polar caps and their high albedoes led most astronomers to think that water ice is the dominant constituent. In 1911 Lowell perceived a bluish band around the retreating edge of the polar caps, and interpreted it as water from melting polar ice and seasonal snow. An alternative idea in his time was that the polar caps consist of frozen carbonic acid. Lowell rejected the carbonic acid hypothesis on account of his blue band. He also pointed out that carbonic acid would sublimate rather than melt at confining pressures near and below one bar, hence, carbonic acid could not account for the blue band. In comparing Lowell's theories with today's knowledge, it is recognized that (1) sublimation is mainly responsible for the growth and contraction of Mars' polar caps, (2) carbon dioxide is a major component of the southern polar cap, and (3) Lowell's blue band was probably seasonal dust and/or clouds. Geomorphic evidence that glacial ice and glacial melt waters once flowed over broad areas of the southern polar region. Two aspects of the south polar region suggest possible glacial processes during two distinct eras in Mars' history.

  15. Modeling and mapping regional land use/land cover change in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranatunga, T.; Messen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Houston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) conducted a land use/land cover (LULC) change detection study to generate information about the LULC changes in a 15-county area of South Central Texas. Such information is essential in regional planning, natural resource management, monitoring and modeling of environmental characteristics. The objectives of this study are (1) Identification of regional spatial patterns of each LULC conversion, (2) Estimation of the area coverage of each LULC conversion, and (3) Estimation of the net gain and losses of each LULC classes. To achieve these objectives, ArcGIS Spatial analysis functions and data management tools were employed in python environment. Change detection was estimated from 1992 to 2011 using datasets from NLCD (National Land Cover Database) 1992, NLCD 2001 and NOAA C-CAP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Change Analysis Program) 2011. Through visual analysis and comparisons with aerial imagery, we established that NLCD 1992 and 2001 datasets contained more classification inaccuracies than the NOAA 2011 dataset. The misclassified cells in the 1992 and 2001 NLCD datasets were corrected to be consistent with the 2011 C-CAP dataset. The NLCD 2001 dataset was first corrected using a logical evaluation with 2011 classes in each pixel. Then the NLCD 1992 dataset was corrected using the correct 2001 dataset. After correcting 1992 dataset, a cell by cell comparison was conducted with the NOAA 2011 dataset, and individual changes were recorded.

  16. Estimation of underground river water availability based on rainfall in the Maros karst region, South Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Ihsan, Nasrul; Tiwow, Vistarani Arini

    2016-02-01

    Maros karst region, covering an area of 43.750 hectares, has water resources that determine the life around it. Water resources in Maros karst are in the rock layers or river underground in the cave. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data. Primary data includes characteristics of the medium. Secondary data is rainfall data from BMKG, water discharge data from the PSDA, South Sulawesi province in 1990-2010, and the other characteristics data Maros karst, namely cave, flora and fauna of the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. Data analysis was conducted using laboratory test for medium characteristics Maros karst, rainfall and water discharge were analyzed using Minitab Program 1.5 to determine their profile. The average rainfall above 200 mm per year occurs in the range of 1999 to 2005. The availability of the water discharge at over 50 m3/s was happened in 1993 and 1995. Prediction was done by modeling Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), with the rainfall data shows that the average precipitation for four years (2011-2014) will sharply fluctuate. The prediction of water discharge in Maros karst region was done for the period from January to August in 2011, including the type of 0. In 2012, the addition of the water discharge started up in early 2014.

  17. Widespread Ice across the South Weddell Sea Region prior to the Late Eocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, A.; Riley, T. R.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Rittner, M.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of ice sheets across East Antarctica, and Antarctica in general during the high CO2 world of the late Eocene is not well understood due to a paucity of direct evidence. Examination of late Eocene-Oligocene marine sands from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 113 Site 696 located on the southeastern margin of the South Orkney Microcontinent (SOM) has revealed abundant sand grains with mechanical features diagnostic of iceberg-rafted debris (IBRD). Using a multi-proxy approach that included petrographic analysis of over 250,000 grains, detrital zircon geochronology and apatite thermochronometry we found that the IBRD sources ranged from the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains of West Antarctica to the coastal region of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica. This evidence requires that glaciers quite possibly draining mountainous regions calved at sea level across the southern Weddell Sea coast at least 2.5 million years before the oxygen isotope event Oi-1 (34-33.5 Ma), a time when atmospheric CO2 was declining. Icebergs from East Antarctic sources were transported to the SOM by the Antarctic Coastal Current and thereby mixed with icebergs from West Antarctic sources in the cyclonic Weddell Gyre, which then transported the icebergs northwards towards the Scotia Sea.

  18. Lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It kills more people than other natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes, but, because lightning usually kills people one at a time, it tends to be an underrated hazard. High risk groups are uneducated, unsheltered and rural people. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region. It is a review of records between 1993 and 2004 from the medico-legal autopsies at Umtata General Hospital (UGH). During the study period there were 10,860 autopsies performed on those who died of trauma and other unnatural circumstances which included 151 (1.4%) lightning fatalities. This represents 0.31 deaths per million per year. The highest (0.5/million) was in 1999, and the lowest (0.13/million) in 1997. The age of the victims ranged from 1 to 82 years, with a mean of 22 years. Males and females were almost equally represented (50%). The highest number of deaths (26.5%) was in the age group of 11 to 20 years, and the lowest number (2.7%) in the age group of 70+ years. There is a high incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa. People need to be educated to disregard the myths of lightning strike.

  19. Protoptiline Caddisfly Genera Endemic to the Southern Cone Region of South America (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. R.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Trichoptera fauna of the Southern Cone region of South America (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, and SE Brazil) is well known for its high degree of endemism, at both the species and genus level. This is also true for the saddle or tortoise case-making family Glossosomatidae, represented entirely in the region by members of the subfamily Protoptilinae. The Southern Cone includes six endemic protoptiline genera: Canoptila, Itauara, Mastigoptila, Merionoptila, Scotiotrichia, and Tolhuaca, containing 19 described species. Although not particularly species diverse when compared to the rest of the Neotropical Trichoptera fauna, these endemics are note-worthy: some genera display morphological characteristics that may be considered very primitive and others are very evolutionarily derived. Additionally, there are at least 11 new species whose placement is uncertain. This points out the need to reexamine the taxonomy and evaluate the evolutionary relationships among these genera. Recently several new species of Mastigoptila and Tolhuaca were described, including some females. Taxonomic revisions of the remaining genera based on careful examination of the male and female genitalia, wing venation, and other adult morphological characters, are currently underway. Included in the revisions are descriptions of new species, new illustrations of previously described species, and a phylogenetic assessment.

  20. Association of the jets of Enceladus with the warmest regions on its south-polar fractures.

    PubMed

    Spitale, Joseph N; Porco, Carolyn C

    2007-10-11

    Jets of material have been seen emanating from the south-polar terrain of Saturn's satellite Enceladus. Observations have shown that this region is anomalously warm, with the hottest measured temperatures coinciding with the four 'tiger stripe' fractures, named Alexandria, Cairo, Baghdad and Damascus, that straddle the region. Here we use Cassini images taken from a variety of viewing directions over two years to triangulate the source locations for the most prominent jets, and compare these with the infrared hotspot locations and the predictions from a recent model of tidally induced shear heating within the fractures. We find that the jets emanate from the four tiger stripes, with the strongest sources on Baghdad and Damascus. All the jets from each fracture seem to lie in the same nearly vertical plane. There is a strong spatial coincidence between our geographical sources and the locations of increased temperature revealed by the infrared experiment. Comparison with the shear heating model shows broad agreement; the exception is the prediction that Baghdad is the least active lineament, whereas we find it to be the most active. We predict that several new hotspots remain to be discovered by future thermal observations.

  1. A new regional climate simulation using RegCM4 over the CORDEX South Asia domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Laura; Bacer, Sara; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    We present a new high-resolution regional climate simulation over the CORDEX South Asia made with the latest version of the Regional Climate Model RegCM4. The simulation has been performed at 25 km of resolution using the ERA-Interim boundary conditions. The simulated results are compared with the monthly mean surface observations for temperature and precipitation over the entire domain. The rainy season during the June-July-August-September (JJAS) over India shows a bigger improvement using a different parameterization of the MIT-Emanuel convection scheme for land and ocean. Another big improvement has been found with the UW PBL scheme (Bretherton and McCaa, 2004). The model shows in JJAS season a slight cold bias over the mountain compared with CRU dataset, instead in Indian land area the pattern of the temperature is well represented. The monsoon precipitation over the Indian continent is reasonably represented. A good agreement was found from the comparison between RegCM4 with the IMD dataset by studying the area weighted average values time series of monthly accumulated rainfall (cm) in Indian land area.

  2. Structure of Bubbles in the South-East region of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddone, M. A.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; LeCoarer, E.; Goldes, G. V.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we report the kinematical results of the structure located in the South-East region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Supershell LMC 9. The observations have been carried out in the frame of a Hα survey of the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way, carried out at ESO with a 36cm diameter telescope, equipped with a focal reducer, a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer and a photon counting camera. The Supershell LMC 9 is composed of four giant shells DEM L 164 and DEM L 165, DEM L 208, DEM L 221, and several HII regions being the most notorious DEM L 202, DEM L206 and DEM L 207. By means of energy balance we determine the characteristics parameters of these structures (superficial brightness, electronic density, emission measure, mass, luminosity, ambient density, age), that would allow us to distinguish which is the origin (stellar wind, supernova explosion or other mechanism) of the different bubbles that compose the Supershell LMC 9. In this way we try to discern if the studied objects have kinematically some identity as an ensemble, or if they are relatively isolated objects over the diffuse general background to which they belong.

  3. Surficial geologic map of the Charleston region, Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, Dorchester, and Georgetown Counties, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Lemon, Earl M.

    2014-01-01

    This map portrays the surface and shallow subsurface geology of the greater Charleston, S.C. region east of 80°30′ west and south of 33°15′ north. The region covers the entirety of Charleston County and portions of Berkeley, Colleton, Dorchester, and Georgetown Counties. Units locally exposed at the surface range in age from middle Eocene to Holocene, but most of the area is covered by Quaternary interglacial deposits. These are, from oldest to youngest, the Okefenokee, Waccamaw(?), Penholoway, Ladson, Ten Mile Hill, and Wando Formations and the Silver Bluff beds. Two cross sections, one running southeast from Harleyville to the coastline on James Island and the other running along the coastal barrier islands from the town of Edisto Beach to the northeast end of Bull Island at the southwest edge of Bull Bay, portray the complex geometry of the Paleogene and Neogene marine units that directly lie beneath the Quaternary units. These older units include the Santee Limestone, Tupelo Bay, Parkers Ferry, Ashley, Chandler Bridge, Edisto, Parachucla, and Marks Head Formations, the Goose Creek Limestone, and the Raysor Formation. The estimated locations of deeply buried active basement faults are shown which are responsible for ongoing modern seismicity in the Charleston, S.C. area.

  4. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  5. University of South Florida Field Test of the Michigan State University Protocol Materials on Learning. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    The Michigan State University protocol materials on learning were field-tested at the University of South Florida (U.S.F.). The field-testing at U.S.F. did not occur under controlled, experimental conditions. The information needs of the protocol developers were balanced with the instructional obligations of the instructors and the educational…

  6. A coordinated study of a storm system over the South American continent. 1. Weather information and quasi-DC stratospheric electric field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, O.; Pinto, I. R. C. A.; Gin, R. B. B.; Mendes, O.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on a coordinated campaign conducted in Brazil, December 13, 1989, to study the electrical signatures associated with a large storm system over the South American continent. Inside the storm, large convective cells developed extending up to the tropopause, as revealed from meteorological balloon soundings. Quasi-DC vertical electric field and temperature were measured by zero-pressure balloon-borne payload launched from Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil. The data were supported by radar and GOES satellite observations, as well as by a lightning position and tracking system (LPATS). The analysis of infrared imagery supports the general tendency for lightning strikes to be near to but not exactly under the coldest cloud tops. In turn, the radar maps located the strikes near to but outside of the most intense areas of precipitation (reflectivity levels above 40 dBz). The balloon altitude and stratospheric temperature show significant variations in association with the storm. The quasi-DC vertical electric field remained almost during the whole flight in a reversed direction relative to the usual fair weather downward orientation with values as large as 4 V/m. A simple calculation based on a static dipole model of electrical cloud structure gives charges of some tens of coulombs. In contrast with most electric field measurements in other regions, no indication of an intensification of the vertical field in the downward fair weather orientation was observed. This fact is in agreement with past observations in the South American region and seems to be related to a particular type of storm that would occur with more frequency in this region. If so, such a difference may have an important role in the global atmospheric electrical circuit, considering that South America is believed to give a significant current contribution to the global circuit.

  7. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukom, R.; Luterbacher, J.; Villalba, R.; Küttel, M.; Frank, D.; Jones, P. D.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H.; Aravena, J.-C.; Black, D. E.; Christie, D. A.; D'Arrigo, R.; Lara, A.; Morales, M.; Soliz-Gamboa, C.; Srur, A.; Urrutia, R.; von Gunten, L.

    2011-07-01

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales.

  8. North south asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields observed by different instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2015-04-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the solar and heliospheric magnetic fields are north-south asymmetric. The southward shift of the Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) (the so-called bashful ballerina phenomenon) is a persistent pattern, which occurs typically for about three years during the late declining phase of solar cycle. We study here the hemispherical asymmetry in the photospheric and coronal magnetic fields using Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO), Mount Wilson, Kitt Peak, Solis, SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI measurements of the photospheric magnetic field since the 1970s and the potential field source surface (PFSS) model.Multipole analysis of the photospheric magnetic field has shown that the bashful ballerina phenomenon is a consequence of g20 quadrupole term, which is oppositely signed to the dipole moment. We find that, at least during the four recent solar cycles, the g20 reflects the larger magnitude of the southern polar field during a few years in the declining phase of the cycle. Although the overall magnetic activity during the full solar cycle is not very different in the two hemispheres, the temporal distribution of activity is different, contributing to the asymmetry. The used data sets are in general in a good agreement with each other, but there are some significant deviations, especially in WSO data. Also, the data from Kitt Peak 512 channel magnetograph is known to suffer from zero level errors.We also note that the lowest harmonic coefficients do not scale with the overall magnitude in photospheric synoptic magnetic maps. Scaling factors based on histogram techniques can be as large as 10 (from Wilcox to HMI), but the corresponding difference in dipole strength is typically less than two. This is because the polar field has a dominant contribution to the dipole and quadrupole components. This should be noted, e.g., when using synoptic maps as input for coronal models.

  9. Secondary natural gas recovery in mature fluvial sandstone reservoirs, Frio Formation, Agua Dulce Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Levey, R.A. ); Vidal, J.M. ); Sippel, M.A. ); Ballard, J.R. ); Coover, D.M. Jr. ); Bloxsom, W.E. )

    1993-09-01

    An approach that integrates detailed geologic, engineering, and petrophysical analyses combined with improved well-log analytical techniques can be used by independent oil and gas companies of successful infield exploration in mature Gulf Coast fields that larger companies may consider uneconomic. In a secondary gas recovery project conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology and funded by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, a potential incremental natural gas resource of 7.7 bcf, of which 4.0 bcf may be technically recoverable, was identified in a 490-ac lease in Agua Dulce field. Five wells in this lease had previously produced 13.7 bcf from Frio reservoirs at depths of 4600-6200 ft. The pay zones occur in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones offset by faults associated with the Vicksburg fault zone. The compartments may each contain up to 1.0 bcf of gas resources with estimates based on previous completions and the recent infield drilling experience of Pintas Creek Oil Company. Uncontacted gas resources occur in thin (typically less than 10 ft) bypassed zones that can be identified through a computed log evaluation that integrates open-hole logs, wireline pressure tests, fluid samples, and cores. At Agua Dulce field, such analysis identified at 4-ft bypassed zone uphole from previously produced reservoirs. This reservoir contained original reservoir pressure and flowed at rates exceeding 1 mmcf/d. The expected ultimate recovery is 0.4 bcf. Methodologies developed in the evaluation of Agua Dulce field can be successfully applied to other mature gas fields in the south Texas Gulf Coast. For example, Stratton and McFaddin are two fields in which the secondary gas recovery project has demonstrated the existence of thin, potentially bypassed zones that can yield significant incremental gas resources, extending the economic life of these fields.

  10. Epidemiological aspects of astrovirus and coronavirus in poults in the South Eastern Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, S.E.L.; Bonetti, A.M.; Petrocelli, A.; Ferrari, H.F.; Luvizotto, M.C.R.; Cardoso, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of Turkey Coronavirus (TCoV) and Astrovirus (TAstV-2) prevalence was carried out from February to December during 2006 year in semiarid region of Brazil, from a turkey producer area, localized in South Eastern of Brazil. To asses the risk factor related to clinical material, climatic condition and type of RT-PCR applied, cloacal swabs (CS), faeces, sera, bursa of Fabricius (BF), thymus (TH) and spleen (SP) and ileum-caeca region were collected from 30-day-old poults suffering of enteritis episode characterized as poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS). The PEMS clinical features were characterized by watery to foamy faeces, light brown-yellow in colour and low mortality rate. Meteorological data (rainfall and relative humidity) observed during along the study presented monthly average temperature ranging from 39.3 and 31.2ºC, precipitation in rainy season from 40 to 270.3 mm/month, and no rain during dry season. Simplex RT-PCR gave odds ratio (OR) values suggesting that ileum-caeca region is at higher chance (OR=1.9; p=0.9741) to have both viral RNA than faeces (OR=1.5; p=0.7319). However, multiplex RT-PCR showed 3.98 (p=0.89982) more chance to give positive results in faeces than CS at dry season. The major risk factors seem to be low rate of humidity and high temperatures at winter, probably responsible for spread, easily, the TCoV and TAstv-2 among the flocks. The positive results of both virus suggested that they can play an important role in enteric disorders, associated to low humidity and high temperatures frequently found in tropical countries. PMID:24031353

  11. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam M; Latimer, Andrew M; Silander, John A

    2015-07-21

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080-2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally.

  12. MOMENT TENSOR SOLUTIONS OF RECENT EARTHQUAKES IN THE CALABRIAN REGION (SOUTH ITALY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, B.; D'Amico, S.; Gervasi, A.; Guerra, I.; Presti, D.; Zhu, L.; Herrmann, R. B.; Neri, G.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for recent events occurred in the Calabrian region (South Italy), an area struck by several destructive earthquakes in the last centuries. The seismicity of the area under investigation is actually characterized by low to moderate magnitude earthquakes (up to 4.5) not properly represented in the Italian national catalogues of focal mechanisms like RCMT (Regional Centroid Moment Tensor, Pondrelli et al., PEPI, 2006) and TDMT (Time Domain Moment Tensors, Dreger and Helmerger, BSSA, 1993). Also, the solutions estimated from P-onset polarities are often poorly constrained due to network geometry in the study area. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the “Cut And Paste” method originally proposed by Zhao and Helmerger (BSSA, 1994) and later modified by Zhu and Helmerger (BSSA, 1996). Each waveform is broken into the Pnl and surface wave segments and the source depth and focal mechanisms are determined using a grid search technique. The technique allows time shifts between synthetics and observed data in order to reduce dependence of the solution on the assumed velocity model and earthquake locations. This method has shown to provide good-quality solutions for earthquakes of magnitude as small as 2.5. The data set of the present study consists of waveforms from more than 100 earthquakes that were recorded by the permanent seismic network run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and about 40 stations of the NSF CAT/SCAN project. The results concur to check and better detail the regional geodynamic model assuming subduction of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Tyrrhenian one and related response of the shallow structures in terms of normal and strike-slip faulting seismicity.

  13. Tectonic evolution of the South Fiji Basin: UNCLOS helps tackle regional tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzer, R.; Roest, W.; Barker, D.; Mortimer, N.; Mauffret, A.; Lafoy, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Marine surveys to study the evolution of remnant arcs and backarc basins north of New Zealand have been complemented by UNCLOS surveys by three countries - France, New Zealand and Australia - with potential extended continental shelf claims in the region. The UNCLOS factor allowed 9 cruises to focus on the region in the past 9 years, collecting approximately 30,000 km of seismic reflection (5,000 deep crustal), 263,700 sq km of swath bathymetry, and 70 dredge samples. Feedback through sharing or publishing data and joint participation allowed efficient planning and deployment of academic and UNCLOS cruises. Two models for South Fiji (SFB) and Norfolk (NB) basin evolution arise from current studies: at the level of the Three Kings Ridge - NB - southern SFB both involve Pacific trench roll-back and southward propagating spreading, but one also uses two subduction systems and arc-continent collision. Linked spreading of the NB and SFB is invoked in both models, but the veracity and geodynamics of the link are not investigated. A growing body of petrological and radiometric evidence and the tectonics of the New Zealand continental margin point to tandem Early Miocene spreading of the SFB and NB despite published magnetic interpretations that would confine SFB spreading to the Oligocene. The Franco-NZ NOUCAPLAC-1 cruise, the last cruise relevant to UNCLOS in this region, included a scientific objective to investigate the SFB-NB link in the critical area bounded by the Loyalty Ridge (LR), the Cook Fracture Zone (CFZ), the Bounty spreading centre (BSC) and the Julia Lineament (JL) with swath mapping, magnetics and seismic reflection. Initial results show a complex bathymetry where a possible link between the BSC and the CFZ involves ridge propagation, overlapping spreading centres, rift blocks and overprinting volcanoes. The link to the JL was not adequately tested due to sparse coverage. Closer to the LR, a thick, faulted sedimentary basin was found.

  14. Insecticide concentrations in stream sediments of soy production regions of South America.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Lisa; Bonetto, Carlos; Resh, Vincent H; Buss, Daniel Forsin; Fanelli, Silvia; Marrochi, Natalia; Lydy, Michael J

    2016-03-15

    Concentrations of 17 insecticides were measured in sediments collected from 53 streams in soy production regions of South America (Argentina in 2011-2014, Paraguay and Brazil in 2013) during peak application periods. Although environmental regulations are quite different in each country, commonly used insecticides were detected at high frequencies in all regions. Maximum concentrations (and detection frequencies) for each sampling event ranged from: 1.2-7.4 ng/g dw chlorpyrifos (56-100%); 0.9-8.3 ng/g dw cypermethrin (20-100%); 0.42-16.6 ng/g dw lambda-cyhalothrin (60-100%); and, 0.49-2.1 ng/g dw endosulfan (13-100%). Other pyrethroids were detected less frequently. Banned organochlorines were most frequently detected in Brazil. In all countries, cypermethrin and/or lambda-cyhalothrin toxic units (TUs), based on Hyalella azteca LC50 bioassays, were occasionally>0.5 (indicating likely acute toxicity), while TUs for other insecticides were <0.5. All samples with total insecticide TU>1 were collected from streams with riparian buffer width<20 m. A multiple regression analysis that included five landscape and habitat predictor variables for the Brazilian streams examined indicated that buffer width was the most important predictor variable in explaining total insecticide TU values. While Brazil and Paraguay require forested stream buffers, there were no such regulations in the Argentine pampas, where buffer widths were smaller. Multiple insecticides were found in almost all stream sediment samples in intensive soy production regions, with pyrethroids most often occurring at acutely toxic concentrations, and the greatest potential for insecticide toxicity occurring in streams with minimum buffer width<20 m. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Adam M.; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080–2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  16. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Volga and South Ural regions of Russia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2010-2012, a survey was conducted to determine the distribution and species diversity of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi within the Volga and South Ural regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 270 soil samples were collected. Seven populations of CCN were found in the rhiz...

  17. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  18. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  19. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  20. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  1. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  2. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  3. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in Afro-Uruguayans from two geographical regions (South and North).

    PubMed

    Da Luz, Julio; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Sonati, Maria de Fatima; Sans, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    The beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes were identified in 52 and 40 chromosomes from two Afro-Uruguayan populations located in the South and North of the country, respectively. In both regions, the 5' haplotype 2 (+ - - - -), characteristic of non-African populations, was the most frequent, reflecting a strong process of admixture in Afro-Uruguayans (0.355 and 0.262, respectively). The haplotypes 3 (- - - - +) and 4 (- + - - +), characteristics of African sub-Saharan populations, present inverse frequencies in North and South: whereas in the South haplotype 3 is the second most frequent (0.232), and haplotype 4 presents a low frequency (0.019), in the North haplotype 4 is the third most frequent (0.140), and haplotype 3 only reaches an intermediate frequency (0.088). The pairwise F(ST) and the exact test of differentiation show genetic heterogeneity between both regions. Nei's genetic distance show that South and North present affinities with Bantu groups, although the North present the smallest genetic distance with the Mandenka, a Senegalese population. With respect to 3' haplotypes, haplotype I was the most frequent in both populations, followed by haplotype II, characteristic of sub-Saharan Africans. The high frequencies of haplotype III-Asian could indicate admixture with Native American populations. The differences observed between both Uruguayan regions could be explained by microevolutionary events as genetic drift, founder effects, differential admixture, and/or distinct origin of the African slaves introduced in those regions.

  4. A Current Overview of Veterinary Medical Education in the South: A Staff Report to the Southern Regional Education Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    The need for veterinarians and the capacity of the South for providing veterinary medical education are examined. Summarized are eight current veterinary medical education programs in the region and planned developments in education (in Kentucky, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Arkansas). Projected are the effects of the…

  5. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  6. Regional assemblages of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Montana canola fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweep net sampling of canola (Brassica napus L.) was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species composition and parasitism levels in four regions of Montana. Regardless of region or seasonal change, Lygus elisus (Van Duzee) was the dominant species in all canola fi...

  7. Rongbuk re-visited: Geochronology of leucogranites in the footwall of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Everest Region, Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, John M.; Searle, Michael P.; Jessup, Micah J.; Crowley, James L.; Law, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The Hermit's Gorge area adjacent to the Rongbuk Glacier on the north side of Mount Everest is a critical location to establish the timing and duration of movement along the ductile strand of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS), a low-angle, north-dipping normal fault that bounds the upper part of the Greater Himalayan Sequence. Monazite from four leucogranite samples in the Hermit's Gorge that bracket the timing of ductile fabric development has been dated using both U/Th-Pb ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICPMS. Results suggest that the earliest, ~ 16.4 Ma, leucogranite sills have been folded and deformed along with the host sillimanite gneisses and calc-silicates whereas structurally higher sills and dykes that post-date fabric development are slightly younger, all within uncertainty of one another at 15.6 to 15.4 Ma. Field relations combined with age data constrain ductile fabric formation associated with movement along this strand of the STDS as being on-going at 16.4 Ma but had ceased prior to 15.6 Ma, while brittle faulting along the STDS is younger than 15.4 Ma. Combined with data from the Everest massif and surrounding region, ages of granite crystallization and ductile shearing propagated up-structural section and northward with time.

  8. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  9. Magnetic fields in non-convective regions of stars.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jonathan; Spruit, Henk C

    2017-02-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of magnetic fields inside stars, concentrating on recent developments concerning magnetic fields in stably stratified (zones of) stars, leaving out convective dynamo theories and observations of convective envelopes. We include the observational properties of A, B and O-type main-sequence stars, which have radiative envelopes, and the fossil field model which is normally invoked to explain the strong fields sometimes seen in these stars. Observations seem to show that Ap-type stable fields are excluded in stars with convective envelopes. Most stars contain both radiative and convective zones, and there are potentially important effects arising from the interaction of magnetic fields at the boundaries between them; the solar cycle being one of the better known examples. Related to this, we discuss whether the Sun could harbour a magnetic field in its core. Recent developments regarding the various convective and radiative layers near the surfaces of early-type stars and their observational effects are examined. We look at possible dynamo mechanisms that run on differential rotation rather than convection. Finally, we turn to neutron stars with a discussion of the possible origins for their magnetic fields.

  10. Magnetic fields in non-convective regions of stars

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of magnetic fields inside stars, concentrating on recent developments concerning magnetic fields in stably stratified (zones of) stars, leaving out convective dynamo theories and observations of convective envelopes. We include the observational properties of A, B and O-type main-sequence stars, which have radiative envelopes, and the fossil field model which is normally invoked to explain the strong fields sometimes seen in these stars. Observations seem to show that Ap-type stable fields are excluded in stars with convective envelopes. Most stars contain both radiative and convective zones, and there are potentially important effects arising from the interaction of magnetic fields at the boundaries between them; the solar cycle being one of the better known examples. Related to this, we discuss whether the Sun could harbour a magnetic field in its core. Recent developments regarding the various convective and radiative layers near the surfaces of early-type stars and their observational effects are examined. We look at possible dynamo mechanisms that run on differential rotation rather than convection. Finally, we turn to neutron stars with a discussion of the possible origins for their magnetic fields. PMID:28386410

  11. Magnetic fields in non-convective regions of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, Jonathan; Spruit, Henk C.

    2017-02-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of magnetic fields inside stars, concentrating on recent developments concerning magnetic fields in stably stratified (zones of) stars, leaving out convective dynamo theories and observations of convective envelopes. We include the observational properties of A, B and O-type main-sequence stars, which have radiative envelopes, and the fossil field model which is normally invoked to explain the strong fields sometimes seen in these stars. Observations seem to show that Ap-type stable fields are excluded in stars with convective envelopes. Most stars contain both radiative and convective zones, and there are potentially important effects arising from the interaction of magnetic fields at the boundaries between them; the solar cycle being one of the better known examples. Related to this, we discuss whether the Sun could harbour a magnetic field in its core. Recent developments regarding the various convective and radiative layers near the surfaces of early-type stars and their observational effects are examined. We look at possible dynamo mechanisms that run on differential rotation rather than convection. Finally, we turn to neutron stars with a discussion of the possible origins for their magnetic fields.

  12. Atmospheric trace metals measured at a regional background site (Welgegund) in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, Andrew D.; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Beukes, Johan P.; Josipovic, Micky; Hendriks, Johan; Vakkari, Ville; Laakso, Lauri

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric trace metals can cause a variety of health-related and environmental problems. Only a few studies on atmospheric trace metal concentrations have been conducted in South Africa. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine trace metal concentrations in aerosols collected at a regional background site, i.e. Welgegund, South Africa. PM1, PM1-2. 5 and PM2. 5-10 samples were collected for 13 months, and 31 atmospheric trace metal species were detected. Atmospheric iron (Fe) had the highest concentrations in all three size fractions, while calcium (Ca) was the second-most-abundant species. Chromium (Cr) and sodium (Na) concentrations were the third- and fourth-most-abundant species, respectively. The concentrations of the trace metal species in all three size ranges were similar, with the exception of Fe, which had higher concentrations in the PM1 size fraction. With the exception of titanium (Ti), aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mg), 70 % or more of the trace metal species detected were in the smaller size fractions, which indicated the influence of industrial activities. However, the large influence of wind-blown dust was reflected by 30 % or more of trace metals being present in the PM2. 5-10 size fraction. Comparison of trace metals determined at Welgegund to those in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex indicated that at both locations similar species were observed, with Fe being the most abundant. However, concentrations of these trace metal species were significantly higher in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex. Fe concentrations at the Vaal Triangle were similar to levels thereof at Welgegund, while concentrations of species associated with pyrometallurgical smelting were lower. Annual average Ni was 4 times higher, and annual average As was marginally higher than their respective European standard values, which could be attributed to regional influence of pyrometallurgical industries in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex. All three size