A Field-Theoretic Approach to the Wiener Sausage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nekovar, S.; Pruessner, G.
2016-05-01
The Wiener Sausage, the volume traced out by a sphere attached to a Brownian particle, is a classical problem in statistics and mathematical physics. Initially motivated by a range of field-theoretic, technical questions, we present a single loop renormalised perturbation theory of a stochastic process closely related to the Wiener Sausage, which, however, proves to be exact for the exponents and some amplitudes. The field-theoretic approach is particularly elegant and very enjoyable to see at work on such a classic problem. While we recover a number of known, classical results, the field-theoretic techniques deployed provide a particularly versatile framework, which allows easy calculation with different boundary conditions even of higher momenta and more complicated correlation functions. At the same time, we provide a highly instructive, non-trivial example for some of the technical particularities of the field-theoretic description of stochastic processes, such as excluded volume, lack of translational invariance and immobile particles. The aim of the present work is not to improve upon the well-established results for the Wiener Sausage, but to provide a field-theoretic approach to it, in order to gain a better understanding of the field-theoretic obstacles to overcome.
On kaonic hydrogen. Quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. N.; Cargnelli, M.; Faber, M.; Marton, J.; Troitskaya, N. I.; Zmeskal, J.
2004-07-01
We study kaonic hydrogen, the bound K - p state A K p . Within a quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach we derive the energy level displacement of the ground state of kaonic hydrogen in terms of the amplitude of K - p scattering for arbitrary relative momenta. The amplitude of low-energy K - p scattering near threshold is defined by the contributions of three resonances Λ(1405), Λ(1800) and Σ^0(1750) and a smooth elastic background. The amplitudes of inelastic channels of low-energy K - p scattering fit experimental data on the near-threshold behaviour of the cross-sections and the experimental data by the DEAR Collaboration. We use the soft-pion technique (leading order in Chiral Perturbation Theory) for the calculation of the partial width of the radiative decay of pionic hydrogen A_{π p} to n + γ and the Panofsky ratio. The theoretical prediction for the Panofsky ratio agrees well with experimental data. We apply the soft-kaon technique (leading order in Chiral Perturbation Theory) to the calculation of the partial widths of radiative decays of kaonic hydrogen A_{Kp} to Λ^0 + γ and A_{K p} to Σ^0 + γ. We show that the contribution of these decays to the width of the energy level of the ground state of kaonic hydrogen is less than 1%.
A microscopic field theoretical approach for active systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alaimo, F.; Praetorius, S.; Voigt, A.
2016-08-01
We consider a microscopic modeling approach for active systems. The approach extends the phase field crystal (PFC) model and allows us to describe generic properties of active systems within a continuum model. The approach is validated by reproducing results obtained with corresponding agent-based and microscopic phase field models. We consider binary collisions, collective motion and vortex formation. For larger numbers of particles we analyze the coarsening process in active crystals and identify giant number fluctuation in a cluster formation process.
Field theoretical approach for bio-membrane coupled with flow field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oya, Y.; Kawakatsu, T.
2013-02-01
Shape deformation of bio-membranes in flow field is well known phenomenon in biological systems, for example red blood cell in blood vessel. To simulate such deformation with use of field theoretical approach, we derived the dynamical equation of phase field for shape of membrane and coupled the equation with Navier-Stokes equation for flow field. In 2-dimensional simulations, we found that a bio-membrane in a Poiseuille flow takes a parachute shape similar to the red blood cells.
Entanglement negativity in extended systems: a field theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calabrese, Pasquale; Cardy, John; Tonni, Erik
2013-02-01
We report on a systematic approach for the calculation of the negativity in the ground state of a one-dimensional quantum field theory. The partial transpose {\\rho }_{A}^{{T}_{2}} of the reduced density matrix of a subsystem A = A1∪A2 is explicitly constructed as an imaginary-time path integral and from this the replicated traces {Tr}({\\rho }_{A}^{{T}_{2}})^{n} are obtained. The logarithmic negativity E=log \\Vert {\\rho }_{A}^{{T}_{2}}\\Vert is then the continuation to n → 1 of the traces of the even powers. For pure states, this procedure reproduces the known results. We then apply this method to conformally invariant field theories (CFTs) in several different physical situations for infinite and finite systems and without or with boundaries. In particular, in the case of two adjacent intervals of lengths ℓ1,ℓ2 in an infinite system, we derive the result ℰ ∼ (c/4)ln(ℓ1ℓ2/(ℓ1 + ℓ2)), where c is the central charge. For the more complicated case of two disjoint intervals, we show that the negativity depends only on the harmonic ratio of the four end points and so is manifestly scale invariant. We explicitly calculate the scale invariant functions for the replicated traces in the case of the CFT for the free compactified boson, but we have not so far been able to obtain the n → 1 continuation for the negativity even in the limit of large compactification radius. We have checked all our findings against exact numerical results for the harmonic chain which is described by a non-compactified free boson.
Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.; Collett, M.J.
2003-01-01
We present an introduction to phase-space techniques (PST) based on a quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) approach. In addition to bridging the gap between PST and QFT, our approach results in a number of generalizations of the PST. First, for problems where the usual PST do not result in a genuine Fokker-Planck equation (even after phase-space doubling) and hence fail to produce a stochastic differential equation (SDE), we show how the system in question may be approximated via stochastic difference equations (S{delta}E). Second, we show that introducing sources into the SDE's (or S{delta}E's) generalizes them to a full quantum nonlinear stochastic response problem (thus generalizing Kubo's linear reaction theory to a quantum nonlinear stochastic response theory). Third, we establish general relations linking quantum response properties of the system in question to averages of operator products ordered in a way different from time normal. This extends PST to a much wider assemblage of operator products than are usually considered in phase-space approaches. In all cases, our approach yields a very simple and straightforward way of deriving stochastic equations in phase space.
Mean field game theoretic approach for security in mobile ad-hoc networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanwei; Tang, Helen; Yu, F. Richard; Huang, Minyi
2013-05-01
Game theory can provide a useful tool to study the security problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Most existing work on applying game theories to security only considers two players in the security game model: an attacker and a defender. While this assumption is valid for a network with centralized administration, it may not be realistic in MANETs, where centralized administration is not available. Consequently, each individual node in a MANET should be treated separately in the security game model. In this paper, using recent advances in mean field game theory, we propose a novel game theoretic approach for security in MANETs. Mean field game theory provides a powerful mathematical tool for problems with a large number of players. Since security defence mechanisms consume precious system resources (e.g., energy), the proposed scheme considers not only the security requirement of MANETs but also the system resources. In addition, each node only needs to know its own state information and the aggregate effect of the other nodes in the MANET. Therefore, the proposed scheme is a fully distributed scheme. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Field Theory in Organizational Psychology: An Analysis of Theoretical Approaches in Leadership.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garcia, Joseph E.
This literature review examines Kurt Lewin's influence in leadership psychology. Characteristics of field theory are described in detail and utilized in analyzing leadership research, including the trait approach, leader behavior studies, contingency theory, path-goal theory, and leader decision theory. Important trends in leadership research are…
Theoretical Approaches to Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempa, Krzysztof
Nanoparticles can be viewed as wave resonators. Involved waves are, for example, carrier waves, plasmon waves, polariton waves, etc. A few examples of successful theoretical treatments that follow this approach are given. In one, an effective medium theory of a nanoparticle composite is presented. In another, plasmon polaritonic solutions allow to extend concepts of radio technology, such as an antenna and a coaxial transmission line, to the visible frequency range.
A theoretical basis of the approach for the magnetic field penetration measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezotosnyi, P. I.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu; Ivanenko, O. M.; Mitsen, K. V.; Tsvetkov, A. Yu
2016-09-01
An approach for the assessment of London penetration depth of superconducting films is proposed. This approach is based on the analysis of linear response of the sample to a local low-frequency alternating magnetic field generated by the measuring coil disposed near the film surface. A visual “electrical engineering” model of induced currents distribution in the superconductor taking into account the kinetic inductance was developed for a description of this response. The possibility of determining of the penetration depth from changing the inductance of the system “coil-sample” is shown in the framework of this model. The sensitivity of the proposed method for the films with different thicknesses is considered.
Thematic Approach to Theoretical Speculations in the Field of Educational Administration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Park, Jae
2015-01-01
The purpose of this article is a critical reflection on the field of educational administration and its varied and often conflicting epistemologies. It is argued that the field of educational administration is a community of diverse epistemologies. Although epistemological heterogeneity has been persistently vilified by both theorists and…
A field-theoretic approach to the May-Leonard cyclic population dynamics model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serrao, Shannon; Täuber, Uwe
Spatially extended stochastic population dynamics models with cyclic predation interactions display intriguing time evolution and spontaneous structure formation. We study a version of the May-Leonard cyclic competition model in d dimensions with diffusive particle propagation. We use the second-quantized Doi-Peliti formalism and ensuing coherent-state path integral representation to construct its continuum representation and explore its collective dynamics. Expanding the resulting action about the mean-field species concentrations enables us to compute the diagonalized harmonic propagators and hence 'masses', i.e., relaxation rates and eigenfrequencies of the fundamental modes. Furthermore, operating near the Hopf bifurcation point, we identify the validity range for the necessary time scale separation that allows us to project out the purely relaxing eigenmode. The remaining oscillating fields obey the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which is consistent with spiral pattern formation.
Group-theoretical approach to Bloch electron in magnetic field problem
Cosic, Marko
2010-06-15
In this paper magnetic-translation group theory is extended to include full rotational symmetry of Hamiltonian. Proper generalization of small representation and star of the representation concepts are derived. Irreducible representations of magnetic-translation group and magnetic-space group are presented. Correct form of symmetrized basis function is derived, reflecting symmetry of the magnetic-point group. From viewpoint of group theory reduction of Hamiltonian symmetry group caused by magnetic field and splitting of energy levels is investigated.
Cooper, F.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on unusual dileptons at Brookhaven RHIC. A field theory approach is used based on a non-equilibrium chiral phase transformation utilizing the schroedinger and Heisenberg picture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Shehryar; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael
2015-01-01
The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H2O)-, Gd(III)DTPA(H2O)2-, and Gd(III)(H2O)83+ in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.
Khan, Shehryar Odelius, Michael; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef
2015-01-21
The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.
Field theoretic simulations of polymer nanocomposites
Koski, Jason; Chao, Huikuan; Riggleman, Robert A.
2013-12-28
Polymer field theory has emerged as a powerful tool for describing the equilibrium phase behavior of complex polymer formulations, particularly when one is interested in the thermodynamics of dense polymer melts and solutions where the polymer chains can be accurately described using Gaussian models. However, there are many systems of interest where polymer field theory cannot be applied in such a straightforward manner, such as polymer nanocomposites. Current approaches for incorporating nanoparticles have been restricted to the mean-field level and often require approximations where it is unclear how to improve their accuracy. In this paper, we present a unified framework that enables the description of polymer nanocomposites using a field theoretic approach. This method enables straightforward simulations of the fully fluctuating field theory for polymer formulations containing spherical or anisotropic nanoparticles. We demonstrate our approach captures the correlations between particle positions, present results for spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles, and we explore the effect of the numerical parameters on the performance of our approach.
Mass Media and Socialization: Theoretic Approaches.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Thomas F.
This paper examines the major theoretical approaches to the study of socialization, with an emphasis on media effects. The three major bodies of literature studied are the major theoretic approaches utilized in the general area of developmental psychology, the theoretical paradigms evident in studies dealing more specifically with child…
A gauge-theoretic approach to gravity
Krasnov, Kirill
2012-01-01
Einstein's general relativity (GR) is a dynamical theory of the space–time metric. We describe an approach in which GR becomes an SU(2) gauge theory. We start at the linearized level and show how a gauge-theoretic Lagrangian for non-interacting massless spin two particles (gravitons) takes a much more simple and compact form than in the standard metric description. Moreover, in contrast to the GR situation, the gauge theory Lagrangian is convex. We then proceed with a formulation of the full nonlinear theory. The equivalence to the metric-based GR holds only at the level of solutions of the field equations, that is, on-shell. The gauge-theoretic approach also makes it clear that GR is not the only interacting theory of massless spin two particles, in spite of the GR uniqueness theorems available in the metric description. Thus, there is an infinite-parameter class of gravity theories all describing just two propagating polarizations of the graviton. We describe how matter can be coupled to gravity in this formulation and, in particular, how both the gravity and Yang–Mills arise as sectors of a general diffeomorphism-invariant gauge theory. We finish by outlining a possible scenario of the ultraviolet completion of quantum gravity within this approach. PMID:22792040
A gauge-theoretic approach to gravity.
Krasnov, Kirill
2012-08-01
Einstein's general relativity (GR) is a dynamical theory of the space-time metric. We describe an approach in which GR becomes an SU(2) gauge theory. We start at the linearized level and show how a gauge-theoretic Lagrangian for non-interacting massless spin two particles (gravitons) takes a much more simple and compact form than in the standard metric description. Moreover, in contrast to the GR situation, the gauge theory Lagrangian is convex. We then proceed with a formulation of the full nonlinear theory. The equivalence to the metric-based GR holds only at the level of solutions of the field equations, that is, on-shell. The gauge-theoretic approach also makes it clear that GR is not the only interacting theory of massless spin two particles, in spite of the GR uniqueness theorems available in the metric description. Thus, there is an infinite-parameter class of gravity theories all describing just two propagating polarizations of the graviton. We describe how matter can be coupled to gravity in this formulation and, in particular, how both the gravity and Yang-Mills arise as sectors of a general diffeomorphism-invariant gauge theory. We finish by outlining a possible scenario of the ultraviolet completion of quantum gravity within this approach.
Rethinking Theoretical Approaches to Stigma
Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun
2008-01-01
A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman’s notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking “difference”. Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results. PMID:18436358
A theoretical approach to measuring pilot workload
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kantowitz, B. H.
1984-01-01
Theoretical assumptions used by researchers in the area of attention, with emphasis upon errors and inconsistent assumptions used by some researchers were studied. Two GAT experiments, two laboratory studies and one field experiment were conducted.
Field-theoretical description of deep inelastic scattering
Geyer, B.; Robaschik, D.; Wieczorek, E.
1980-01-01
The most important theoretical notions concerning deep inelastic scattering are reviewed. Topics discussed are the model-independent approach, which is based on the general principles of quantum field theory, the application of quantum chromodynamics to deep inelastic scattering, approaches based on the quark--parton model, the light cone algebra, and conformal invariance, and also investigations in the framework of perturbation theory.
Speaking of Gender Identity: Theoretical Approaches.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Freedman, Susan A.
Various definitions of gender identity have ranged from recognition of one's biological sex to an individual's sense of masculinity or femininity. For the purpose of this paper, which examines some of the theoretical approaches to the subject, gender identity will be defined as "the degree to which individuals are 'aware' of and accept their…
New Theoretical Approach Integrated Education and Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ding, Gang
2010-01-01
The paper focuses on exploring new theoretical approach in education with development of online learning technology, from e-learning to u-learning and virtual reality technology, and points out possibilities such as constructing a new teaching ecological system, ubiquitous educational awareness with ubiquitous technology, and changing the…
Sound velocity estimation: A system theoretic approach
Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.
1993-07-30
A system-theoretic approach is proposed to investigate the feasibility of reconstructing a sound velocity profile (SVP) from acoustical hydrophone measurements. This problem is based on a state-space representation of the normal-mode propagation model. It is shown that this representation can be utilized to investigate the so-called observability of the SVP from noisy measurement data. A model-based processor is developed to extract this information and it is shown that even in cases where limited SVP information is available, the SVP can be estimated using this approach.
A decision theoretical approach for diffusion promotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun
2009-09-01
In order to maximize cost efficiency from scarce marketing resources, marketers are facing the problem of which group of consumers to target for promotions. We propose to use a decision theoretical approach to model this strategic situation. According to one promotion model that we develop, marketers balance between probabilities of successful persuasion and the expected profits on a diffusion scale, before making their decisions. In the other promotion model, the cost for identifying influence information is considered, and marketers are allowed to ignore individual heterogeneity. We apply the proposed approach to two threshold influence models, evaluate the utility of each promotion action, and provide discussions about the best strategy. Our results show that efforts for targeting influentials or easily influenced people might be redundant under some conditions.
Theoretical approach to regional environmental conflicts
Klopatek, J.M.; Krummel, J.R.; Mankin, J.B.; O'Neill, R.V.
1983-01-01
A regional analysis framework was developed to address regional environmental problems. This interdisciplinary framework is based on the utilization of four principal variables: environmental pattern, assets, and human culture as influenced by the externalities. The framework was applied to three heuristic examples: urban energy supplies in the north-eastern United States; resource extraction in the Rocky Mountain region of the US; and cattle herding in East Africa. The illustrated analyses and their results verify the broad utility of the theory underlying this framework. Although more in-depth analyses would be required to solve the real-world problems, our preliminary analyses indicate that the theoretical framework presented here can indeed be useful in approaching the regional environmental problem, analyzing the significant interactions in the system, and describing the regional dynamics among these variables and components. 34 references, 6 figures, 3 tables
A graph theoretic approach to scene matching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.
1991-01-01
The ability to match two scenes is a fundamental requirement in a variety of computer vision tasks. A graph theoretic approach to inexact scene matching is presented which is useful in dealing with problems due to imperfect image segmentation. A scene is described by a set of graphs, with nodes representing objects and arcs representing relationships between objects. Each node has a set of values representing the relations between pairs of objects, such as angle, adjacency, or distance. With this method of scene representation, the task in scene matching is to match two sets of graphs. Because of segmentation errors, variations in camera angle, illumination, and other conditions, an exact match between the sets of observed and stored graphs is usually not possible. In the developed approach, the problem is represented as an association graph, in which each node represents a possible mapping of an observed region to a stored object, and each arc represents the compatibility of two mappings. Nodes and arcs have weights indicating the merit or a region-object mapping and the degree of compatibility between two mappings. A match between the two graphs corresponds to a clique, or fully connected subgraph, in the association graph. The task is to find the clique that represents the best match. Fuzzy relaxation is used to update the node weights using the contextual information contained in the arcs and neighboring nodes. This simplifies the evaluation of cliques. A method of handling oversegmentation and undersegmentation problems is also presented. The approach is tested with a set of realistic images which exhibit many types of sementation errors.
Field-Theoretic Studies of Nanostructured Triblock Polyelectrolyte Gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Audus, Debra; Fredrickson, Glenn
2012-02-01
Recently, experimentalists have developed nanostructured, reversible gels formed from triblock polyelectrolytes (Hunt et al. 2011, Lemmers et al. 2010, 2011). These gels have fascinating and tunable properties that reflect a heterogeneous morphology with domains on the order of tens of nanometers. The complex coacervate domains, aggregated oppositely charged end-blocks, are embedded in a continuous aqueous matrix and are bridged by uncharged, hydrophilic polymer mid-blocks. We report on simulation studies that employ statistical field theory models of triblock polyelectrolytes, and we explore the equilibrium self-assembly of these remarkable systems. As the charge complexation responsible for the formation of coacervate domains is driven by electrostatic correlations, we have found it necessary to pursue full ``field-theoretic simulations'' of the models, as opposed to the familiar self-consistent field theory approach. Our investigations have focused on morphological trends with mid- and end-block lengths, polymer concentration, salt concentration and charge density.
Potential theoretic methods for far field sound radiation calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Stenger, Edward J.; Scott, J. R.
1995-01-01
In the area of computational acoustics, procedures which accurately predict the far-field sound radiation are much sought after. A systematic development of such procedures are found in a sequence of papers by Atassi. The method presented here is an alternate approach to predicting far field sound based on simple layer potential theoretic methods. The main advantages of this method are: it requires only a simple free space Green's function, it can accommodate arbitrary shapes of Kirchoff surfaces, and is readily extendable to three-dimensional problems. Moreover, the procedure presented here, though tested for unsteady lifting airfoil problems, can easily be adapted to other areas of interest, such as jet noise radiation problems. Results are presented for lifting airfoil problems and comparisons are made with the results reported by Atassi. Direct comparisons are also made for the flat plate case.
Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.
2011-01-01
Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…
Planar dipolar polymer brush: field theoretical investigations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahalik, Jyoti; Kumar, Rajeev; Sumpter, Bobby
2015-03-01
Physical properties of polymer brushes bearing monomers with permanent dipole moments and immersed in a polar solvent are investigated using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). It is found that mismatch between the permanent dipole moments of the monomer and the solvent plays a significant role in determining the height of the polymer brush. Sign as well as magnitude of the mismatch determines the extent of collapse of the polymer brush. The mismatch in the dipole moments also affects the force-distance relations and interpenetration of polymers in opposing planar brushes. In particular, an attractive force between the opposing dipolar brushes is predicted for stronger mismatch parameter. Furthermore, effects of added monovalent salt on the structure of dipolar brushes will also be presented. This investigation highlights the significance of dipolar interactions in affecting the physical properties of polymer brushes. Csmd division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.
Understanding bimolecular machines: Theoretical and experimental approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goler, Adam Scott
This dissertation concerns the study of two classes of molecular machines from a physical perspective: enzymes and membrane proteins. Though the functions of these classes of proteins are different, they each represent important test-beds from which new understanding can be developed by the application of different techniques. HIV1 Reverse Transcriptase is an enzyme that performs multiple functions, including reverse transcription of RNA into an RNA/DNA duplex, RNA degradation by the RNaseH domain, and synthesis of dsDNA. These functions allow for the incorporation of the retroviral genes into the host genome. Its catalytic cycle requires repeated large-scale conformational changes fundamental to its mechanism. Motivated by experimental work, these motions were studied theoretically by the application of normal mode analysis. It was observed that the lowest order modes correlate with largest amplitude (low-frequency) motion, which are most likely to be catalytically relevant. Comparisons between normal modes obtained via an elastic network model to those calculated from the essential dynamics of a series of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations show the self-consistency between these calculations. That similar conformational motions are seen between independent theoretical methods reinforces the importance of large-scale subdomain motion for the biochemical action of DNA polymerases in general. Moreover, it was observed that the major subunits of HIV1 Reverse Transcriptase interact quasi-harmonically. The 5HT3A Serotonin receptor and P2X1 receptor, by contrast, are trans-membrane proteins that function as ligand gated ion channels. Such proteins feature a central pore, which allows for the transit of ions necessary for cellular function across a membrane. The pore is opened by the ligation of binding sites on the extracellular portion of different protein subunits. In an attempt to resolve the individual subunits of these membrane proteins beyond the diffraction
Efficient field-theoretic simulation of polymer solutions
Villet, Michael C.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.
2014-12-14
We present several developments that facilitate the efficient field-theoretic simulation of polymers by complex Langevin sampling. A regularization scheme using finite Gaussian excluded volume interactions is used to derive a polymer solution model that appears free of ultraviolet divergences and hence is well-suited for lattice-discretized field theoretic simulation. We show that such models can exhibit ultraviolet sensitivity, a numerical pathology that dramatically increases sampling error in the continuum lattice limit, and further show that this pathology can be eliminated by appropriate model reformulation by variable transformation. We present an exponential time differencing algorithm for integrating complex Langevin equations for field theoretic simulation, and show that the algorithm exhibits excellent accuracy and stability properties for our regularized polymer model. These developments collectively enable substantially more efficient field-theoretic simulation of polymers, and illustrate the importance of simultaneously addressing analytical and numerical pathologies when implementing such computations.
Information theoretic approaches to multidimensional neural computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzgerald, Jeffrey D.
Many systems in nature process information by transforming inputs from their environments into observable output states. These systems are often difficult to study because they are performing computations on multidimensional inputs with many degrees of freedom using highly nonlinear functions. The work presented in this dissertation deals with some of the issues involved with characterizing real-world input/output systems and understanding the properties of idealized systems using information theoretic methods. Using the principle of maximum entropy, a family of models are created that are consistent with certain measurable correlations from an input/output dataset but are maximally unbiased in all other respects, thereby eliminating all unjustified assumptions about the computation. In certain cases, including spiking neurons, we show that these models also minimize the mutual information. This property gives one the advantage of being able to identify the relevant input/output statistics by calculating their information content. We argue that these maximum entropy models provide a much needed quantitative framework for characterizing and understanding sensory processing neurons that are selective for multiple stimulus features. To demonstrate their usefulness, these ideas are applied to neural recordings from macaque retina and thalamus. These neurons, which primarily respond to two stimulus features, are shown to be well described using only first and second order statistics, indicating that their firing rates encode information about stimulus correlations. In addition to modeling multi-feature computations in the relevant feature space, we also show that maximum entropy models are capable of discovering the relevant feature space themselves. This technique overcomes the disadvantages of two commonly used dimensionality reduction methods and is explored using several simulated neurons, as well as retinal and thalamic recordings. Finally, we ask how neurons in a
Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2016-01-14
A complicated yet interesting induced photon emission can take place by a nonadiabatic intramolecular electron transfer system like LiF under an intense CW laser [Y. Arasaki, S. Scheit, and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 161103 (2013)]. Behind this phenomena, the crossing point between two potential energy curves of covalent and ionic natures in diabatic representation is forced to oscillate, since only the ionic potential curve is shifted significantly up and down repeatedly (called the Dynamical Stark effect). The wavepacket pumped initially to the excited covalent potential curve frequently encounters such a dynamically moving crossing point and thereby undergoes very complicated dynamics including wavepacket bifurcation and deformation. Intramolecular electron transfer thus driven by the coupling between nonadiabatic state-mixing and laser fields induces irregular photon emission. Here in this report we discuss the complicated spectral features of this kind of photon emission induced by infrared laser. In the low frequency domain, the photon emission is much more involved than those of ultraviolet/visible driving fields, since many field-dressed states are created on the ionic potential, which have their own classical turning points and crossing points with the covalent counterpart. To analyze the physics behind the phenomena, we develop a perturbation theoretic approach to the Riccati equation that is transformed from coupled first-order linear differential equations with periodic coefficients, which are supposed to produce the so-called Floquet states. We give mathematical expressions for the Floquet energies, frequencies, and intensities of the photon emission spectra, and the cutoff energy of their harmonic generation. Agreement between these approximate quantities and those estimated with full quantum calculations is found to be excellent. Furthermore, the present analysis provides with notions to facilitate deeper understanding for the physical and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2016-01-01
A complicated yet interesting induced photon emission can take place by a nonadiabatic intramolecular electron transfer system like LiF under an intense CW laser [Y. Arasaki, S. Scheit, and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 161103 (2013)]. Behind this phenomena, the crossing point between two potential energy curves of covalent and ionic natures in diabatic representation is forced to oscillate, since only the ionic potential curve is shifted significantly up and down repeatedly (called the Dynamical Stark effect). The wavepacket pumped initially to the excited covalent potential curve frequently encounters such a dynamically moving crossing point and thereby undergoes very complicated dynamics including wavepacket bifurcation and deformation. Intramolecular electron transfer thus driven by the coupling between nonadiabatic state-mixing and laser fields induces irregular photon emission. Here in this report we discuss the complicated spectral features of this kind of photon emission induced by infrared laser. In the low frequency domain, the photon emission is much more involved than those of ultraviolet/visible driving fields, since many field-dressed states are created on the ionic potential, which have their own classical turning points and crossing points with the covalent counterpart. To analyze the physics behind the phenomena, we develop a perturbation theoretic approach to the Riccati equation that is transformed from coupled first-order linear differential equations with periodic coefficients, which are supposed to produce the so-called Floquet states. We give mathematical expressions for the Floquet energies, frequencies, and intensities of the photon emission spectra, and the cutoff energy of their harmonic generation. Agreement between these approximate quantities and those estimated with full quantum calculations is found to be excellent. Furthermore, the present analysis provides with notions to facilitate deeper understanding for the physical and
Mizuno, Yuta; Arasaki, Yasuki; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2016-01-14
A complicated yet interesting induced photon emission can take place by a nonadiabatic intramolecular electron transfer system like LiF under an intense CW laser [Y. Arasaki, S. Scheit, and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 161103 (2013)]. Behind this phenomena, the crossing point between two potential energy curves of covalent and ionic natures in diabatic representation is forced to oscillate, since only the ionic potential curve is shifted significantly up and down repeatedly (called the Dynamical Stark effect). The wavepacket pumped initially to the excited covalent potential curve frequently encounters such a dynamically moving crossing point and thereby undergoes very complicated dynamics including wavepacket bifurcation and deformation. Intramolecular electron transfer thus driven by the coupling between nonadiabatic state-mixing and laser fields induces irregular photon emission. Here in this report we discuss the complicated spectral features of this kind of photon emission induced by infrared laser. In the low frequency domain, the photon emission is much more involved than those of ultraviolet/visible driving fields, since many field-dressed states are created on the ionic potential, which have their own classical turning points and crossing points with the covalent counterpart. To analyze the physics behind the phenomena, we develop a perturbation theoretic approach to the Riccati equation that is transformed from coupled first-order linear differential equations with periodic coefficients, which are supposed to produce the so-called Floquet states. We give mathematical expressions for the Floquet energies, frequencies, and intensities of the photon emission spectra, and the cutoff energy of their harmonic generation. Agreement between these approximate quantities and those estimated with full quantum calculations is found to be excellent. Furthermore, the present analysis provides with notions to facilitate deeper understanding for the physical and
Theoretical approaches to lightness and perception.
Gilchrist, Alan
2015-01-01
a better account of illusions and failures of constancy. Evidence for and against these approaches is reviewed.
Theoretical approaches to lightness and perception.
Gilchrist, Alan
2015-01-01
a better account of illusions and failures of constancy. Evidence for and against these approaches is reviewed. PMID:26492718
Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja
2010-01-01
The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,…
Dramaturgical and Music-Theoretical Approaches to Improvisation Pedagogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huovinen, Erkki; Tenkanen, Atte; Kuusinen, Vesa-Pekka
2011-01-01
The aim of this article is to assess the relative merits of two approaches to teaching musical improvisation: a music-theoretical approach, focusing on chords and scales, and a "dramaturgical" one, emphasizing questions of balance, variation and tension. Adult students of music pedagogy, with limited previous experience in improvisation, took part…
Postmodern Implications for Theoretical Integration of Counseling Approaches.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, James T.
2002-01-01
Theoretical integration refers to the conceptual unification of diverse counseling approaches. Contends that the general failure of integrative attempts is a by-product of the modernistic epistemic context in which the systems were considered and proposes an examination of common narrative features of counseling approaches in a postmodern…
Corporate Library Impact, Part I: A Theoretical Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edgar, William
2004-01-01
Drawing on library and information science, strategy, and organizational theory, this article presents a theoretical approach to the determination of corporate library contribution to its parent firm. This approach departs from previous work on this topic, which focused on corporate library contribution to corporate operations and standing,…
An integrated theoretical and practical approach for teaching hydrogeology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia; Cavallin, Angelo
2013-04-01
their limitations; C) by an evaluation process whose results contribute to the final examination, so that the students are evaluated on the basis of their ability to discuss theoretical subjects and/or projects and to resolving exercises and case studies either by hand calculations or by modelling. The applied hydrogeology examination is an example of the evaluation process. It involves development of a plan to resolve a real hydrogeological issue, such as the design of a hydraulic barrier for a landfill, the design of a well field to meet the supply requirements of a muncipality, or the control of possible seepage from a contaminated site close to to sensitive discharge features such as wells, springs, rivers. The students are allowed to work on computers for three consecutive mornings for a total 15 hours, and in the end are required to produce a technical report and a hydrogeological model. Obviously their solutions are neither unique nor completely optimized (just as in the real world), but the comparisons and debates among the students are important portals to learning and improvement. A second example: the groundwater pollution and remediation examination is based on the discussion of a remediation project elaborated in stages during the course, with the addition of increasing complex types of data and information. The students have one hour a week, during the course, to submit to the teacher their analysis of the problem and possible solutions. In ten years of experience all students have considered this method of examination a challenge, and found it engaging and helpful, even if unusual, at least in Italy. The University of Milano Bicocca has recently drilled a piezometric well both to monitor the flow of groundwater and to allow students to perform aquifer tests and to conduct standard groundwater sampling procedure, without any longer needing to rely on outside private donors for access to a field site. The overall approach, which includes, lectures
Approach to Mars Field Geology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muehlberger, William; Rice, James W.; Parker, Timothy; Lipps, Jere H.; Hoffman, Paul; Burchfiel, Clark; Brasier, Martin
1998-01-01
The goals of field study on Mars are nothing less than to understand the processes and history of the planet at whatever level of detail is necessary. A manned mission gives us an unprecedented opportunity to use the immense power of the human mind to comprehend Mars in extraordinary detail. To take advantage of this opportunity, it is important to examine how we should approach the field study of Mars. In this effort, we are guided by over 200 years of field exploration experience on Earth as well as six manned missions exploring the Moon.
Complex coacervation: A field theoretic simulation study of polyelectrolyte complexation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jonghoon; Popov, Yuri O.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.
2008-06-01
Using the complex Langevin sampling strategy, field theoretic simulations are performed to study the equilibrium phase behavior and structure of symmetric polycation-polyanion mixtures without salt in good solvents. Static structure factors for the segment density and charge density are calculated and used to study the role of fluctuations in the electrostatic and chemical potential fields beyond the random phase approximation. We specifically focus on the role of charge density and molecular weight on the structure and complexation behavior of polycation-polyanion solutions. A demixing phase transition to form a ``complex coacervate'' is observed in strongly charged systems, and the corresponding spinodal and binodal boundaries of the phase diagram are investigated.
Field theoretical prediction of a property of the tropical cyclone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spineanu, F.; Vlad, M.
2014-01-01
The large scale atmospheric vortices (tropical cyclones, tornadoes) are complex physical systems combining thermodynamics and fluid-mechanical processes. The late phase of the evolution towards stationarity consists of the vorticity concentration, a well known tendency to self-organization , an universal property of the two-dimensional fluids. It may then be expected that the stationary state of the tropical cyclone has the same nature as the vortices of many other systems in nature: ideal (Euler) fluids, superconductors, Bose-Einsetin condensate, cosmic strings, etc. Indeed it was found that there is a description of the atmospheric vortex in terms of a classical field theory. It is compatible with the more conventional treatment based on conservation laws, but the field theoretical model reveals properties that are almost inaccessible to the conventional formulation: it identifies the stationary states as being close to self-duality. This is of highest importance: the self-duality is known to be the origin of all coherent structures known in natural systems. Therefore the field theoretical (FT) formulation finds that the cuasi-coherent form of the atmospheric vortex (tropical cyclone) at stationarity is an expression of this particular property. In the present work we examine a strong property of the tropical cyclone, which arises in the FT formulation in a natural way: the equality of the masses of the particles associated to the matter field and respectively to the gauge field in the FT model is translated into the equality between the maximum radial extension of the tropical cyclone and the Rossby radius. For the cases where the FT model is a good approximation we calculate characteristic quantities of the tropical cyclone and find good comparison with observational data.
A note on the field-theoretical description of superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrianopoli, L.; D'Auria, R.; Grassi, P. A.; Trigiante, M.
2014-02-01
Recently, a Lagrangian description of superfluids attracted some interest from the fluid/gravity-correspondence viewpoint. In this respect, the work of Dubovksy et al. has proposed a new field theoretical description of fluids, which has several interesting aspects. On another side, we have recently provided a supersymmetric extension of the original works. In the analysis of the Lagrangian structures a new invariant appeared which, although related to known invariants, provides, in our opinion, a better parametrization of the fluid dynamics in order to describe the fluid/superfluid phases. Above the critical temperature TC the fluid has a normal behavior and is invariant under the chemical-shift symmetry [8]. It is described in terms of the comoving coordinates ϕI(x) and by the U(1)-phase field ψ(x).On the other hand, below the critical temperature the chemical-shift symmetry is spontaneously broken, giving rise to the superfluid. In particular, at T=0, the superfluid is completely described in terms of ψ. One can consider, following [9], an isotropic and homogeneous background where ψ=y0t, ϕI=b01/3xI. It corresponds to taking a configuration where the fields ϕI are comoving with the normal fluid part (which is at rest in this background), the superfluid field ψ being in relative motion with respect to it. Note that the loss of interactions between the two fluids is expressed by the property that ZI=∂μψ∂μϕI=0 in the background. Small perturbations about the background (28): ψ=y0(t+π0(x)), ϕI=b01/3(xI+πI(x)) introduce a small interaction term ZI≠0. Note that the quantity BIJ-1ZIZJ=ɛ stays small in this regime, even if ϕI→0 as T→0. Given these considerations, we can make use of the relation (18) to observe that at very low temperatures the quantity y2=-X+BIJ-1ZIZJ=-X+ɛ approaches the value -X, which is not invariant under the chemical-shift symmetry. In this regime the Lagrangian F(b,y) can be expanded in powers of ɛ around the
An information theoretic approach of designing sparse kernel adaptive filters.
Liu, Weifeng; Park, Il; Principe, José C
2009-12-01
This paper discusses an information theoretic approach of designing sparse kernel adaptive filters. To determine useful data to be learned and remove redundant ones, a subjective information measure called surprise is introduced. Surprise captures the amount of information a datum contains which is transferable to a learning system. Based on this concept, we propose a systematic sparsification scheme, which can drastically reduce the time and space complexity without harming the performance of kernel adaptive filters. Nonlinear regression, short term chaotic time-series prediction, and long term time-series forecasting examples are presented. PMID:19923047
Considering children and health literacy: a theoretical approach.
Borzekowski, Dina L G
2009-11-01
The theoretical approaches of Paulo Freire, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky frame the consideration of children and health literacy. This article includes a general discussion of literacy from the Freirian perspective. A definition of health literacy is then presented; first, the established meaning is introduced, but then a Freirian extension is proposed. Next, the theories of cognitive development by Piaget and Vygotsky are discussed, and examples related to children's health literacy are given. Finally, there is a discussion of why it is important to encourage and enable health literacy among children and adolescents.
An information theoretic approach of designing sparse kernel adaptive filters.
Liu, Weifeng; Park, Il; Principe, José C
2009-12-01
This paper discusses an information theoretic approach of designing sparse kernel adaptive filters. To determine useful data to be learned and remove redundant ones, a subjective information measure called surprise is introduced. Surprise captures the amount of information a datum contains which is transferable to a learning system. Based on this concept, we propose a systematic sparsification scheme, which can drastically reduce the time and space complexity without harming the performance of kernel adaptive filters. Nonlinear regression, short term chaotic time-series prediction, and long term time-series forecasting examples are presented.
Considering children and health literacy: a theoretical approach.
Borzekowski, Dina L G
2009-11-01
The theoretical approaches of Paulo Freire, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky frame the consideration of children and health literacy. This article includes a general discussion of literacy from the Freirian perspective. A definition of health literacy is then presented; first, the established meaning is introduced, but then a Freirian extension is proposed. Next, the theories of cognitive development by Piaget and Vygotsky are discussed, and examples related to children's health literacy are given. Finally, there is a discussion of why it is important to encourage and enable health literacy among children and adolescents. PMID:19861482
ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS - RECENT THEORETICAL ADVANCES.
BELEGGIA,M.; POZZI, G.; TONOMURA, A.
2007-01-01
It has been shown in this work that the Fourier space approach can be fruitfully applied to the calculation of the fields and the associated electron optical phase shift of several magnetic and electrostatic structures, like superconducting vortices in conventional and high-T{sub c} superconductors, reverse biased p-n junctions, magnetic domains and nanoparticles. In all these cases, this novel approach has led to unexpected but extremely interesting results, very often expressed in analytical form, which allow the quantitative and reliable interpretation of the experimental data collected by means of electron holography or of more conventional Lorentz microscopy techniques. Moreover, it is worth recalling that whenever long-range electromagnetic fields are involved, a physical model of the object under investigation is necessary in order to take into account correctly the perturbation of the reference wave induced by the tail of the field protruding into the vacuum. For these reasons, we believe that the Fourier space approach for phase computations we have introduced and discussed in this chapter will represent an invaluable tool for the investigation of electromagnetic fields at the meso- and nano-scale.
Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium
M Weimar
1998-12-10
This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.
Computational approach for calculating bound states in quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Q. Z.; Norris, S.; Brennan, R.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.
2016-09-01
We propose a nonperturbative approach to calculate bound-state energies and wave functions for quantum field theoretical models. It is based on the direct diagonalization of the corresponding quantum field theoretical Hamiltonian in an effectively discretized and truncated Hilbert space. We illustrate this approach for a Yukawa-like interaction between fermions and bosons in one spatial dimension and show where it agrees with the traditional method based on the potential picture and where it deviates due to recoil and radiative corrections. This method permits us also to obtain some insight into the spatial characteristics of the distribution of the fermions in the ground state, such as the bremsstrahlung-induced widening.
Field Theoretic Formulation of Kinetic Theory: Basic Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Shankar P.; Mazenko, Gene F.
2012-11-01
We show how kinetic theory, the statistics of classical particles obeying Newtonian dynamics, can be formulated as a field theory. The field theory can be organized to produce a self-consistent perturbation theory expansion in an effective interaction potential. The need for a self-consistent approach is suggested by our interest in investigating ergodic-nonergodic transitions in dense fluids. The formal structure we develop has been implemented in detail for the simpler case of Smoluchowski dynamics. One aspect of the approach is the identification of a core problem spanned by the variables ρ the number density and B a response density. In this paper we set up the perturbation theory expansion with explicit development at zeroth and first order. We also determine all of the cumulants in the noninteracting limit among the core variables ρ and B.
Field theoretic simulations of the interfacial properties of complex coacervates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggleman, Robert; Fredrickson, Glenn
2011-03-01
Many biological processes and emerging technologies, such as wet adhesives and biosensors, rely on the association between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. Such association is driven not only by the electrostatic interactions between the polyelectrolytes, but there is also a substantial entropy gain associated with counterion release upon complexation. In some cases, the association between oppositely charged polymers can lead to a solid precipitate while others can result in a fluid phase rich in polyelectrolytes (coacervate phase) coexisting with a polyelectrolyte-dilute solvent phase. For many of the applications seeking to exploit coacervation, characterization of the interface between the solvent phase and the coacervate is of paramount importance. In this talk, we will present the results of field-theoretic simulations for a coarse-grained polyelectrolyte model that exhibits complex coacervation. Our simulations sample the fully-fluctuating fields in three-dimensions and provide a detailed characterization of the interface between the solvent and the coacervate phase for symmetric polyelectrolytes (where both the polycations and the polyanions carry identical charge densities) as a function of salt concentration and strength of the electrostatic fields. Finally, we characterize the interfacial properties for a select set of asymmetric conditions.
Monte Carlo field-theoretic simulations of a homopolymer blend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spencer, Russell; Matsen, Mark
Fluctuation corrections to the macrophase segregation transition (MST) in a symmetric homopolymer blend are examined using Monte Carlo field-theoretic simulations (MC-FTS). This technique involves treating interactions between unlike monomers using standard Monte-Carlo techniques, while enforcing incompressibility as is done in mean-field theory. When using MC-FTS, we need to account for a UV divergence. This is done by renormalizing the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter to incorporate the divergent part of the Hamiltonian. We compare different ways of calculating this effective interaction parameter. Near the MST, the length scale of compositional fluctuations becomes large, however, the high computational requirements of MC-FTS restrict us to small system sizes. We account for these finite size effects using the method of Binder cumulants, allowing us to locate the MST with high precision. We examine fluctuation corrections to the mean field MST, χN = 2 , as they vary with the invariant degree of polymerization, N =ρ2a6 N . These results are compared with particle-based simulations as well as analytical calculations using the renormalized one loop theory. This research was funded by the Center for Sustainable Polymers.
Charge fractionalization in oxide heterostructures: A field-theoretical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karthick Selvan, M.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-06-01
LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure with polar and non-polar constituents has been shown to exhibit interface metallic conductivity due to fractional charge transfer to the interface. The interface reconstruction by electron redistribution along the (001) orientation, in which half of an electron is transferred per two-dimensional unit cell to the adjacent planes, resulting in a net transfer of half of the charge to both the interface and topmost atomic planes, has been ascribed to a polar discontinuity at the interface in the polar catastrophe model. This avoids the divergence of the electrostatic potential, as the number of layers are increased, producing an oscillatory electric field and finite potential. Akin to the description of charge fractionalization in quasi-one-dimensional polyacetylene by the field-theoretic Jackiw-Rebbi model with fermions interacting with a topologically non-trivial background field, we show an analogous connection between the polar catastrophe model and the Bell-Rajaraman model, where the charge fractionalization occurs in the soliton free sector as an end effect.
Theoretical and experimental examination of near-field acoustic levitation.
Nomura, Hideyuki; Kamakura, Tomoo; Matsuda, Kazuhisa
2002-04-01
A planar object can be levitated stably close to a piston sound source by making use of acoustic radiation pressure. This phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation [Y. Hashimoto et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2057-2061 (1996)]. In the present article, the levitation distance is predicted theoretically by numerically solving basic equations in a compressible viscous fluid subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Additionally, experiments are carried out using a 19.5-kHz piston source with a 40-mm aperture and various aluminum disks of different sizes. The measured levitation distance agrees well with the theory, which is different from a conventional theory, and the levitation distance is not inversely proportional to the square root of the surface density of the levitated disk in a strict sense. PMID:12002842
Theoretical analysis of magnetic field interactions with aortic blood flow
Kinouchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tenforde, T.S.
1996-04-01
The flow of blood in the presence of a magnetic field gives rise to induced voltages in the major arteries of the central circulatory system. Under certain simplifying conditions, such as the assumption that the length of major arteries (e.g., the aorta) is infinite and that the vessel walls are not electrically conductive, the distribution of induced voltages and currents within these blood vessels can be calculated with reasonable precision. However, the propagation of magnetically induced voltages and currents from the aorta into neighboring tissue structures such as the sinuatrial node of the heart has not been previously determined by any experimental or theoretical technique. In the analysis presented in this paper, a solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation was obtained by the finite element technique for blood flow through the ascending and descending aortic vessels in the presence of a uniform static magnetic field. Spatial distributions of the magnetically induced voltage and current were obtained for the aortic vessel and surrounding tissues under the assumption that the wall of the aorta is electrically conductive. Results are presented for the calculated values of magnetically induced voltages and current densities in the aorta and surrounding tissue structures, including the sinuatrial node, and for their field-strength dependence. In addition, an analysis is presented of magnetohydrodynamic interactions that lead to a small reduction of blood volume flow at high field levels above approximately 10 tesla (T). Quantitative results are presented on the offsetting effects of oppositely directed blood flows in the ascending and descending aortic segments, and a quantitative estimate is made of the effects of assuming an infinite vs. a finite length of the aortic vessel in calculating the magnetically induced voltage and current density distribution in tissue.
Essential amino acids interacting with flavonoids: A theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Codorniu-Hernández, Edelsys; Mesa-Ibirico, Ariel; Hernández-Santiesteban, Richel; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A.; Martínez-Luzardo, Francisco; Santana-Romero, Jorge L.; Borrmann, Tobias; Stohrer, Wolf-D.
The interaction of two flavonoid species (resorcinolic and fluoroglucinolic) with the 20 essential amino acids was studied by the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) procedures, through the AM1 and PM3 semiempirical methods. Remarkable thermodynamic data related to the properties of the molecular association of these compounds were obtained, which will be of great utility for future investigations concerning the interaction of flavonoids with proteins. These results are compared with experimental and classical force field results reported in the available literature, and new evidences and criteria are shown. The hydrophilic amino acids demonstrated high affinity in the interaction with flavonoid molecules; the complexes with lysine are especially extremely stable. An affinity order for the interaction of both flavonoid species with the essential amino acids is suggested. Our theoretical results are compared with experimental evidence on flavonoid interactions with proteins of biomedical interest.
Rainbows from inhomogeneous transparent spheres: a ray-theoretic approach.
Adam, John A; Laven, Philip
2007-02-20
A ray-theoretic account of the passage of light through a radially inhomogeneous transparent sphere has been used to establish the existence of multiple primary rainbows for some refractive index profiles. The existence of such additional bows is a consequence of a sufficiently attractive potential in the interior of the drop, i.e., the refractive index gradient should be sufficiently negative there. The profiles for which this gradient is monotonically increasing do not result in this phenomenon, but nonmonotone profiles can do so, depending on the form of n. Sufficiently oscillatory profiles can lead to apparently singular behavior in the deviation angle (within the geometrical optics approximation) as well as multiple rainbows. These results also apply to systems with circular cylindrical cross sections, and may be of value in the field of rainbow refractometry. PMID:17279138
Irreversibility of financial time series: A graph-theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flanagan, Ryan; Lacasa, Lucas
2016-04-01
The relation between time series irreversibility and entropy production has been recently investigated in thermodynamic systems operating away from equilibrium. In this work we explore this concept in the context of financial time series. We make use of visibility algorithms to quantify, in graph-theoretical terms, time irreversibility of 35 financial indices evolving over the period 1998-2012. We show that this metric is complementary to standard measures based on volatility and exploit it to both classify periods of financial stress and to rank companies accordingly. We then validate this approach by finding that a projection in principal components space of financial years, based on time irreversibility features, clusters together periods of financial stress from stable periods. Relations between irreversibility, efficiency and predictability are briefly discussed.
We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,
2013-08-01
Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates
A theoretical approach to spot active regions in antimicrobial proteins
2009-01-01
Background Much effort goes into identifying new antimicrobial compounds able to evade the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics. One strategy relies on antimicrobial peptides, either derived from fragments released by proteolytic cleavage of proteins or designed from known antimicrobial protein regions. Results To identify these antimicrobial determinants, we developed a theoretical approach that predicts antimicrobial proteins from their amino acid sequence in addition to determining their antimicrobial regions. A bactericidal propensity index has been calculated for each amino acid, using the experimental data reported from a high-throughput screening assay as reference. Scanning profiles were performed for protein sequences and potentially active stretches were identified by the best selected threshold parameters. The method was corroborated against positive and negative datasets. This successful approach means that we can spot active sequences previously reported in the literature from experimental data for most of the antimicrobial proteins examined. Conclusion The method presented can correctly identify antimicrobial proteins with an accuracy of 85% and a sensitivity of 90%. The method can also predict their key active regions, making this a tool for the design of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:19906288
GTA: a game theoretic approach to identifying cancer subnetwork markers.
Farahmand, S; Goliaei, S; Ansari-Pour, N; Razaghi-Moghadam, Z
2016-03-01
The identification of genetic markers (e.g. genes, pathways and subnetworks) for cancer has been one of the most challenging research areas in recent years. A subset of these studies attempt to analyze genome-wide expression profiles to identify markers with high reliability and reusability across independent whole-transcriptome microarray datasets. Therefore, the functional relationships of genes are integrated with their expression data. However, for a more accurate representation of the functional relationships among genes, utilization of the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) seems to be necessary. Herein, a novel game theoretic approach (GTA) is proposed for the identification of cancer subnetwork markers by integrating genome-wide expression profiles and PPIN. The GTA method was applied to three distinct whole-transcriptome breast cancer datasets to identify the subnetwork markers associated with metastasis. To evaluate the performance of our approach, the identified subnetwork markers were compared with gene-based, pathway-based and network-based markers. We show that GTA is not only capable of identifying robust metastatic markers, it also provides a higher classification performance. In addition, based on these GTA-based subnetworks, we identified a new bonafide candidate gene for breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:26750920
Field Theoretical Investigation of Fluctuation-Induced Phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langsjoen, Luke Schell
This thesis presents a field-theoretical investigation of the emergent properties of random fluctuations. We resolve a long-standing dilemma involving the ultraviolet divergences that often occur in Casimir calculations. We show that all formally divergent terms in the Casimir energy orgininate from geometrical properties of the boundary in question. Any material boundary will become transparent to sufficiently high-energy modes, and the formally divergent component of the energy is derived as an expansion in powers of this cutoff frequency. We demonstrate that the Casimir self-energy of a smooth boundary in two dimensions is a sum of two Weyl terms (exhibiting quadratic and logarithmic cutoff dependence), a geometrical term that is independent of the cutoff, and a non-geometrical intrinsic term. As by-products we resolve the puzzle of the divergent Casimir force on a ring and correct the sign of the coefficient of linear tension of a Dirichlet line predicted in earlier treatments. Next, we compute the generic mode sum that quantifies the effect on the spectrum of a harmonic field when a spherical shell is inserted into vacuum. We demonstrate that in the case of a scalar field obeying Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the shell surface the Casimir self-energy is cutoff-dependent while in the case of the electromagnetic field perturbed by a conductive shell the Casimir self-energy is universal. We also discuss generalized Casimir effects, for example an analog of the non-relativistic Casimir effect which can be realized in ferromagnets due to zero-point excitation of spin waves. We introduce a unique model for the Casimir effect of a boundary of finite thickness, with preliminary results. We present a calculation of the energy of N spinless non-interacting fermions confined to a one-dimensional interval. These results are shown to reinforce those obtained in the previous work of Kolomeisky et.al., [89]. Finally, we examine the classical Euler buckling
Theoretical investigation of bacteria polarizability under direct current electric fields.
Dingari, Naga Neehar; Buie, Cullen R
2014-04-22
We present a theoretical model to investigate the influence of soft polyelectrolyte layers on bacteria polarizability. We resolve soft-layer electrokinetics by considering the pH-dependent dissociation of ionogenic groups and specific interactions of ionogenic groups with the bulk electrolyte to go beyond approximating soft-layer electrokinetics as surface conduction. We model the electrokinetics around a soft particle by modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) to account for the effects of ion transport in the soft layer and electric double layer. Fluid flow is modeled by modified Stokes equations accounting for soft-layer permeability. Two test cases are presented to demonstrate our model: fibrillated and unfibrillated Streptococcus salivarius bacteria. We show that electrolytic and pH conditions significantly influence the extent of soft-particle polarizability in dc fields. Comparison with an approximate analytical model based on Dukhin-Shilov theory for soft particles shows the importance of resolving soft-layer electrokinetics. Insights from this study can be useful in understanding the parameters that influence soft-particle dielectrophoresis in lab-on-a-chip devices.
An Interacting Gauge Field Theoretic Model for Hodge Theory: Basic Canonical Brackets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
R., Kumar; Gupta, S.; R. P., Malik
2014-06-01
We derive the basic canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators for a two (1 + 1)-dimensional (2D) gauge held theoretic model of an interacting Hodge theory where a U(1) gauge field (Aμ) is coupled with the fermionic Dirac fields (ψ and bar psi). In this derivation, we exploit the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and the strength of the underlying six infinitesimal continuous symmetries (and the concept of their generators) that are present in the theory. We do not use the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta (corresponding to the basic fields of the theory) anywhere in our whole discussion. Thus, we conjecture that our present approach provides an alternative to the canonical method of quantization for a class of gauge field theories that are physical examples of Hodge theory where the continuous symmetries (and corresponding generators) provide the physical realizations of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry at the algebraic level.
A novel theoretical approach to the analysis of dendritic transients.
Agmon-Snir, H
1995-01-01
A novel theoretical framework for analyzing dendritic transients is introduced. This approach, called the method of moments, is an extension of Rall's cable theory for dendrites. It provides analytic investigation of voltage attenuation, signal delay, and synchronization problems in passive dendritic trees. In this method, the various moments of a transient signal are used to characterize the properties of the transient. The strength of the signal is measured by the time integral of the signal, its characteristic time is determined by its centroid ("center of gravity"), and the width of the signal is determined by a measure similar to the standard deviation in probability theory. Using these signal properties, the method of moments provides theorems, expressions, and efficient algorithms for analyzing the voltage response in arbitrary passive trees. The method yields new insights into spatiotemporal integration, coincidence detection mechanisms, and the properties of local interactions between synaptic inputs in dendritic trees. The method can also be used for matching dendritic neuron models to experimental data and for the analysis of synaptic inputs recorded experimentally. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:8580308
Intelligent cognitive radio jamming - a game-theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabcevic, Kresimir; Betancourt, Alejandro; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S.
2014-12-01
Cognitive radio (CR) promises to be a solution for the spectrum underutilization problems. However, security issues pertaining to cognitive radio technology are still an understudied topic. One of the prevailing such issues are intelligent radio frequency (RF) jamming attacks, where adversaries are able to exploit on-the-fly reconfigurability potentials and learning mechanisms of cognitive radios in order to devise and deploy advanced jamming tactics. In this paper, we use a game-theoretical approach to analyze jamming/anti-jamming behavior between cognitive radio systems. A non-zero-sum game with incomplete information on an opponent's strategy and payoff is modelled as an extension of Markov decision process (MDP). Learning algorithms based on adaptive payoff play and fictitious play are considered. A combination of frequency hopping and power alteration is deployed as an anti-jamming scheme. A real-life software-defined radio (SDR) platform is used in order to perform measurements useful for quantifying the jamming impacts, as well as to infer relevant hardware-related properties. Results of these measurements are then used as parameters for the modelled jamming/anti-jamming game and are compared to the Nash equilibrium of the game. Simulation results indicate, among other, the benefit provided to the jammer when it is employed with the spectrum sensing algorithm in proactive frequency hopping and power alteration schemes.
A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.
Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg
2016-08-01
A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements.
A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.
Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg
2016-08-01
A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements. PMID:27474181
[Decision-making process and health management councils: theoretical approaches].
Wendhausen, Agueda; Cardoso, Sandra de Mello
2007-01-01
With the institutionalization of participation in health, through conferences and management councils at national, state, municipal and local levels, a process of democratization is initiated in the health area. However, in relation to the health councils in particular, there is still much to be done, including improving the quality of the decision-making process. This work aims to place the decision-making process in its theoretical context in terms of participatory democracy, elements which make up, factors which influence its development, and finally, to explore some possibilities of this theoretical basis to analyze the practices of the health councils in the area of health. It is hoped that it will make a theoretical contribution to the analyses carried out in this area, in order to provide a decision-making process that is more inclusive in terms of participation.
Is there a weak mixed polarity background field? Theoretical arguments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spruit, H. C.; Title, A. M.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.
1987-01-01
A number of processes associated with the formation of active regions produce 'U-loops': fluxtubes having two ends at the photosphere but otherwise still embedded in the convection zone. The mass trapped on the field lines of such loops makes them behave in a qualitatively different way from the 'omega-loops' that form active regions. It is shown that U-loops will disperse though the convection zone and form a weak (down to a few gauss) field that covers a significant fraction of the solar surface. This field is tentatively identified with the inner-network fields observed at Kitt Peak and Big Bear. The process by which these fields escape through the surface is described; a remarkable property is that it can make active region fields apparently disappear in situ. The mixed polarity moving magnetic features near sunspots are interpreted as a locally intense form of this disappearance by escape of U-loops.
Inflation and quintessence: theoretical approach of cosmological reconstruction
Neupane, Ishwaree P; Scherer, Christoph
2008-05-15
In the first part of this paper, we outline the construction of an inflationary cosmology in the framework where inflation is described by a universally evolving scalar field {phi} with potential V ({phi}). By considering a generic situation that inflaton attains a nearly constant velocity during inflation. In the second part of this paper, we introduce a novel approach of constructing dark energy within the context of the standard scalar-tensor theory. The assumption that a scalar field might roll with a nearly constant velocity, during inflation, can also be applied to quintessence or dark energy models. For the minimally coupled quintessence, {alpha}{sub Q} {identical_to} dA(Q)/d({kappa}Q)=0 (where A(Q) is the standard matter-quintessence coupling), the dark energy equation of state in the range -1{<=}w{sub DE}<-0.82 can be obtained for 0{<=}{alpha}<0.63. For {alpha}<0.1, the model allows for only modest evolution of dark energy density with redshift. We also show, under certain conditions, that the {alpha}{sub Q}>0 solution decreases the dark energy equation of state w{sub Q} with decreasing redshift as compared to the {alpha}{sub Q} = 0 solution. This effect can be opposite in the {alpha}{sub Q}<0 case. The effect of the matter-quintessence coupling can be significant only if |{alpha}{sub Q}|{approx}>0.1, while a small coupling |{alpha}{sub Q}|<0.1 will have almost no effect on cosmological parameters, including {Omega}{sub Q}, w{sub Q} and H(z). The best fit value of {alpha}{sub Q} in our model is found to be {alpha}{sub Q}{approx_equal}0.06, but it may contain significant numerical errors, namely {alpha}{sub Q} = 0.06 {+-} 0.35, which clearly implies the consistency of our model with general relativity (for which {alpha}{sub Q} = 0) at 1{sigma} level.
Covariant asymmetric wave packet for a field-theoretical description of neutrino oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naumov, Vadim A.; Shkirmanov, Dmitry S.
2015-06-01
We consider a class of models for the relativistic covariant wave packets (WPs) which can be used as asymptotically free in and out states in the quantum field theoretical formalisms for description of the neutrino flavor oscillation phenomenon. We demonstrate that the new “asymmetric” wave packet (AWP) is an appropriate alternative to the more conventional “symmetric” WPs, like the so-called relativistic Gaussian packet (RGP) widely used in the quantum field theory (QFT)-based approaches to neutrino oscillations. We show that RGP is not a particular case of AWP, although many properties of these models are almost identical in the quasistable regime. We discuss some features of AWP distinguishing it from RGP.
Group theoretic approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion
Biedenharn, L.C.
1982-01-01
Three approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion are reviewed, compared and contrasted: the standard symmetry approach as typified by the Interacting Boson Model, the kinematic symmetry group approach of Gell-Mann and Tomonaga, and the recent direct construction by Buck. 50 references.
We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,
2013-08-01
Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates
Theoretical investigation of hyperfine field parameters through mossbauer gamma ray
Ali, Sikander; Hashim, Mohd
2012-06-05
When a Mossbauer gamma-ray emitting or absorbing nucleus is placed in a crystalline environment, the quadrupole moment of the nucleus interacts with the electric field gradient set up by the ligands around it. In the transition |7/2>{yields}|5/2> twelve lines are obtained. Applying the multipole radiation field theory and density matrix formalism, the determinant of coherency matrix, intensity and degree of polarization have been calculated for each line.
Three approaches to classical thermal field theory
Gozzi, E.; Penco, R.
2011-04-15
Research Highlights: > Classical thermal field theory admits three equivalent path integral formulations. > Classical Feynman rules can be derived for all three formulations. > Quantum Feynman rules reduce to classical ones at high temperatures. > Classical Feynman rules become much simpler when superfields are introduced. - Abstract: In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three well-known different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the closed-time path (CTP) formalism, the thermofield dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.
Theoretical evaluation of the acoustic field in an ultrasonic bioreactor.
Louw, Tobias M; Subramanian, Anuradha; Viljoen, Hendrik J
2015-06-01
Ultrasound-assisted bioreactors that provide mechanical conditioning to cells have broad applicability in tissue engineering, but biological experiments with ultrasound are very sensitive to environmental conditions. A mathematical model was developed to complement experimental measurements, as well as to describe ultrasonic fields existing in regions where measurements are impossible, specifically, within microporous tissue engineering scaffolds. The model uniquely combines Biot theory to predict the ultrasonic field in the scaffold with an electromechanical transducer model to couple the mechanical stimulation experienced by cells to the external electrical input. In the specific example examined here, cells immobilized on scaffolds are subjected to different forms of ultrasonic stimulation due to the formation of standing wave fields and vertical high-pressure bands. The model confirms the sensitivity of the supplied acoustic power to the liquid level in sonobioreactors and identifies the input electrical impedance as a method of detecting resonance effects.
Field theoretic treatment of gravitational interaction in electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serdyukov, A. N.
2011-03-01
A theory of gravitational interaction in classical electrodynamics is developed on the basis of an earlier-proposed minimal relativistic model of gravitation. From the variation principle, a system of gaugeinvariant equations of the interacting electromagnetic and gravitational fields is deduced and their common energy-momentum tensor is constructed. A rigorous solution to the problem of regularizing the field mass of a point charge is given with consideration for the coupling energy of the gravitational interaction. The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the gravitational field is discussed. It is shown that, under the condition of the existing resonant ratio 2: 3 for the periods of Mercury's orbital revolution and daily rotation, tidal forces cause a regular shift in the planet's perihelion in an observable forward direction.
Game Theoretic Approach to Post-Docked Satellite Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hiramatsu, Takashi; Fitz-Coy, Norman G.
2007-01-01
This paper studies the interaction between two satellites after docking. In order to maintain the docked state with uncertainty in the motion of the target vehicle, a game theoretic controller with Stackelberg strategy to minimize the interaction between the satellites is considered. The small perturbation approximation leads to LQ differential game scheme, which is validated to address the docking interactions between a service vehicle and a target vehicle. The open-loop solution are compared with Nash strategy, and it is shown that less control efforts are obtained with Stackelberg strategy.
On some theoretical problems of laser wake-field accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Hayashi, Y.; Kiriyama, H.; Koga, J. K.; Kotaki, H.; Mori, M.; Kando, M.
2016-06-01
> Enhancement of the quality of laser wake-field accelerated (LWFA) electron beams implies the improvement and controllability of the properties of the wake waves generated by ultra-short pulse lasers in underdense plasmas. In this work we present a compendium of useful formulas giving relations between the laser and plasma target parameters allowing one to obtain basic dependences, e.g. the energy scaling of the electrons accelerated by the wake field excited in inhomogeneous media including multi-stage LWFA accelerators. Consideration of the effects of using the chirped laser pulse driver allows us to find the regimes where the chirp enhances the wake field amplitude. We present an analysis of the three-dimensional effects on the electron beam loading and on the unlimited LWFA acceleration in inhomogeneous plasmas. Using the conditions of electron trapping to the wake-field acceleration phase we analyse the multi-equal stage and multiuneven stage LWFA configurations. In the first configuration the energy of fast electrons is a linear function of the number of stages, and in the second case, the accelerated electron energy grows exponentially with the number of stages. The results of the two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations presented here show the high quality electron acceleration in the triple stage injection-acceleration configuration.
DNA Looping in Prokaryotes: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches
Cournac, Axel
2013-01-01
Transcriptional regulation is at the heart of biological functions such as adaptation to a changing environment or to new carbon sources. One of the mechanisms which has been found to modulate transcription, either positively (activation) or negatively (repression), involves the formation of DNA loops. A DNA loop occurs when a protein or a complex of proteins simultaneously binds to two different sites on DNA with looping out of the intervening DNA. This simple mechanism is central to the regulation of several operons in the genome of the bacterium Escherichia coli, like the lac operon, one of the paradigms of genetic regulation. The aim of this review is to gather and discuss concepts and ideas from experimental biology and theoretical physics concerning DNA looping in genetic regulation. We first describe experimental techniques designed to show the formation of a DNA loop. We then present the benefits that can or could be derived from a mechanism involving DNA looping. Some of these are already experimentally proven, but others are theoretical predictions and merit experimental investigation. Then, we try to identify other genetic systems that could be regulated by a DNA looping mechanism in the genome of Escherichia coli. We found many operons that, according to our set of criteria, have a good chance to be regulated with a DNA loop. Finally, we discuss the proposition recently made by both biologists and physicists that this mechanism could also act at the genomic scale and play a crucial role in the spatial organization of genomes. PMID:23292776
Theoretical and experimental approaches for the hypercube-embedding problem
Chen Woeikae.
1991-01-01
The hypercube-embedding problem, a restricted version of the general mapping problem, is the problem of mapping a set of communicating processes to a hypercube multiprocessor. The goal is to find a mapping that minimizes the length of the paths between communicating processes so that communication overhead is minimized. Unfortunately, the hypercube-embedding problem has been shown to be NP-hard, even for trees. This thesis studies both experimental and theoretical issues for the hypercube-embedding problem. Many heuristics have been proposed for hypercube embedding. For experimental studies, a versatile test bed is established for the evaluation of heuristics. Extensive experiments were performed for a wide range of hypercube-embedding heuristics chosen from the literature. Overall, ten different heuristics are evaluated. It is shown that two of the new heuristic proposed are particularly successful in comparison with other heuristics. For theoretical studies, a simple linear-time heuristic is presented which embeds arbitrary binary trees to hypercubes with expansion 1 and average dilation no more than 2.
A possible generalization of the field-theoretical Hamilton's equations
Savchin, V.M. )
1988-11-01
The development of classical dynamics as well as many branches of physics shows that the solution or analysis of variety of problems can be greatly simplified if the basic equations admit an analytic representation in terms of Hamilton's equations. The author proposes a generalization of Hamilton's equations in field theory which is applicable to partial differential equations of physical relevance. It is shown that the equations constitute a conceivable basis for the generalization of the theory of contact transformations and of Poisson's method.
A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.
Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K
2014-03-01
In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.
A Game-Theoretical Approach to Multimedia Social Networks Security
Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong
2014-01-01
The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226
A Theoretical Approach to Engineering a New Enzyme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Greg; Behera, Raghu N.; Gomatam, Ravi
2016-08-01
Density function theory, a subfield of quantum mechanics (QM), in combination with molecular mechanics (MM) has opened the way to engineer new artificial enzymes. Herein, we report theoretical calculations done using QM/MM to examine whether the regioselectivity and rate of chlorination of the enzyme chloroperoxidase can be improved by replacing the vanadium of this enzyme with niobium through dialysis. Our calculations show that a niobium substituted chloroperoxidase will be able to enter the initial steps of the catalytic cycle for chlorination. Although the protonation state of the niobium substituted enzyme is calculated to be different from than that of the natural vanadium substituted enzyme, our calculations show that the catalytic cycle can still proceed forward. Using natural bond orbitals, we analyse the electronic differences between the niobium substituted enzyme and the natural enzyme. We conclude by briefly examining how good of a model QM/MM provides for understanding the mechanism of catalysis of chloroperoxidase.
Exploring the joint measurability using an information-theoretic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Li-Yi
2016-10-01
We explore the legal purity parameters for the joint measurements. Instead of direct unsharpening the measurements, we perform the quantum cloning before the sharp measurements. The necessary fuzziness in the unsharp measurements is equivalently introduced in the imperfect cloning process. Based on the information causality and the consequent noisy nonlocal computation, one can derive the information-theoretic quadratic inequalities that must be satisfied by any physical theory. On the other hand, to guarantee the classicality, the linear Bell-type inequalities deduced by these quadratic ones must be obeyed. As for the joint measurability, the purity parameters must be chosen to obey both types of inequalities. Finally, the quadratic inequalities for purity parameters in the joint measurability region are derived.
A game-theoretical approach to multimedia social networks security.
Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong
2014-01-01
The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders.
Development of Warp Yarn Tension During Shedding: A Theoretical Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Subrata; Chary, Prabhakara; Roy, Sukumar
2015-10-01
Theoretical investigation on the process of development of warp yarn tension during weaving for tappet shedding is carried out, based on the dynamic nature of shed geometry. The path of warp yarn on a weaving machine is divided into four different zones. The tension developed in each zone is estimated for every minute rotation of the bottom shaft. A model has been developed based on the dynamic nature of shed geometry and the possible yarn flow from one zone to another. A computer program, based on the model of shedding process, is developed for predicting the warp yarn tension variation during shedding. The output of the model and the experimental values of yarn tension developed in zone-D i.e. between the back rest and the back lease rod are compared, which shows a good agreement between them. The warp yarn tension values predicted by the model in zone-D are 10-13 % lesser than the experimentally measured values. By analyzing the theoretical data of the peak value of developed yarn tension at four zones i.e. zone-A, zone-B, zone-C and zone-D, it is observed that the peak yarn tension value of A, B, C-zones are much higher than the peak tension near the back rest i.e. at zone-D. It is about twice or more than the yarn tension near the back rest. The study also reveals that the developed yarn tension peak values are different for the extreme positions of a heald. The impact of coefficient of friction on peak value of yarn tension is nominal.
Mating strategies in primates: a game theoretical approach to infanticide.
Lyon, James E; Pandit, Sagar A; van Schaik, Carel P; Pradhan, Gauri R
2011-04-01
Infanticide by newly immigrated or newly dominant males is reported among a variety of taxa, such as birds, rodents, carnivores and primates. Here we present a game theoretical model to explain the presence and prevalence of infanticide in primate groups. We have formulated a three-player game involving two males and one female and show that the strategies of infanticide on the males' part and polyandrous mating on the females' part emerge as Nash equilibria that are stable under certain conditions. Moreover, we have identified all the Nash equilibria of the game and arranged them in a novel hierarchical scheme. Only in the subspace spanned by the males are the Nash equilibria found to be strict, and hence evolutionarily stable. We have therefore proposed a selection mechanism informed by adaptive dynamics to permit the females to transition to, and remain in, optimal equilibria after successive generations. Our model concludes that polyandrous mating by females is an optimal strategy for the females that minimizes infanticide and that infanticide confers advantage to the males only in certain regions of parameter space. We have shown that infanticide occurs during turbulent changes accompanying male immigration into the group. For changes in the dominance hierarchy within the group, we have shown that infanticide occurs only in primate groups where the chance for the killer to sire the next infant is high. These conclusions are confirmed by observations in the wild. This model thus has enabled us to pinpoint the fundamental processes behind the reproductive decisions of the players involved, which was not possible using earlier theoretical studies.
Theoretical Aspects of Magnetic Fields for Gamma Ray Bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanami, Hitoshi
We propose magnetic cannon ball mechanism in which the collapse of a magnetosphere onto a black hole can generate strong outward Poynting flux which drives a baryon-free fireball called the magnetic cannon ball. In the early stage, the magnetic fields in the cannon ball can prepare the explanation for the cycrotoron absorptions observed by GINGA. The magnetic cannon ball can drive, in general, a relativistic outflow which interacts with the interstellar matter and forms a shock. The magnetic field in the shock approximately equal to 104 G can induce the synchrotron radiations with peaks at approximately equal to 10^2 keV observed. This magnetic field in the cannon ball can also confine the high energy protons (gamma_p > 30) which are required for delayed photons (>25 GeV) following a burst on 1994 February 17. Accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf of > 109 G, merger of a close binary and failed type Ib supernovae are possible scenarios even without the rotation of the central object. This mechanism works at the final phase of gravitational collapse even after a neutrino driven fireball proposed in most scenarios for gamma ray bursts. Twice bursts, which consist of primary neutrino driven fireball and secondary magnetic cannon ball can be induced sometime, can be explained in this model. It suggests that the magnetic cannon ball works some parts in multiple populations and delayed or multiple burst events. The final remnant in the model should be a black hole. It implies that any gamma ray bursts can have no optical counter part if they do not have a companion in a binary.
Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Social Sciences and Knowledge Management
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lopez-Varela, Asuncion, Ed.
2012-01-01
This is a unique and groundbreaking collection of questions and answers coming from higher education institutions on diverse fields and across a wide spectrum of countries and cultures. It creates routes for further innovation, collaboration amidst the Sciences (both Natural and Social), the Humanities, and the private and public sectors of…
The Acquisition of Chinese Relative Clauses: Contrasting Two Theoretical Approaches
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hu, Shenai; Gavarró, Anna; Vernice, Mirta; Guasti, Maria Teresa
2016-01-01
This study examines the comprehension of relative clauses by Chinese-speaking children, and evaluates the validity of the predictions of the Dependency Locality Theory (Gibson, 1998, 2000) and the Relativized Minimality approach (Friedmann, Belletti & Rizzi, 2009). One hundred and twenty children from three to eight years of age were tested by…
BL Herculis stars - Theoretical models for field variables
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carson, R.; Stothers, R.
1982-01-01
Type II Cepheids with periods between 1 and 3 days, commonly designated as Bl Herculis stars, have been modeled here with the aim of interpreting the wide variety of light curves observed among the field variables. Previously modeled globular cluster members are used as standard calibration objects. The major finding is that only a small range of luminosities is capable of generating a large variety of light curve types at a given period. For a mass of approximately 0.60 solar mass, the models are able to reproduce the observed mean luminosities, dispersion of mean luminosities, periods, light amplitudes, light asymmetries, and phases of secondary features in the light curves of known BL Her stars. It is possible that the metal-rich variables (which are found only in the field) have luminosities lower than those of most metal-poor variables. The present revised mass for BL Her, a metal-rich object, is not significantly different from the mean mass of the metal-poor variables.
Photodynamic therapy: Theoretical and experimental approaches to dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin
Singlet oxygen (1O2) is the major cytotoxic species generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT), and 1O 2 reactions with biological targets define the photodynamic dose at the most fundamental level. We have developed a theoretical model for rigorously describing the spatial and temporal dynamics of oxygen (3O 2) consumption and transport and microscopic 1O 2 dose deposition during PDT in vivo. Using experimentally established physiological and photophysical parameters, the mathematical model allows computation of the dynamic variation of hemoglobin-3O 2 saturation within vessels, irreversible photosensitizer degradation due to photobleaching, therapy-induced blood flow decrease and the microscopic distributions of 3O2 and 1O 2 dose deposition under various irradiation conditions. mTHPC, a promising photosensitizer for PDT, is approved in Europe for the palliative treatment of head and neck cancer. Using the theoretical model and informed by intratumor sensitizer concentrations and distributions, we calculated photodynamic dose depositions for mTHPC-PDT. Our results demonstrate that the 1O 2 dose to the tumor volume does not track even qualitatively with long-term tumor responses. Thus, in this evaluation of mTHPC-PDT, any PDT dose metric that is proportional to singlet oxygen creation and/or deposition would fail to predict the tumor response. In situations like this one, other reporters of biological response to therapy would be necessary. In addition to the case study of mTHPC-PDT, we also use the mathematical model to simulate clinical photobleaching data, informed by a possible blood flow reduction during treatment. In a recently completed clinical trial at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma received topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and were irradiated with 633 nm light at 10-150 mW cm-2 . Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photobleaching in the lesion and the adjacent perilesion normal margin was monitored by
Molecular approaches to field studies of malaria.
Beck, Hans-Peter; Tetteh, Kevin
2008-12-01
The third 'Molecular Approaches to Malaria' conference was held in Lorne, Australia, in February 2008 and provided extensive information on the application of molecular tools in field studies on malaria. In recent years, technological advances and capacity building in malaria-endemic countries have permitted molecular tools to be applied much more frequently and successfully with exciting new findings. In this review, Hans-Peter Beck and Kevin Tetteh report on the most recent findings using molecular tools in field studies.
Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris
2015-02-01
In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe2 TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe2 TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current.
Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors
Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris
2015-02-23
In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current.
Understanding photosynthetic light-harvesting: a bottom up theoretical approach.
Renger, Thomas; Müh, Frank
2013-03-14
We discuss a bottom up approach for modeling photosynthetic light-harvesting. Methods are reviewed for a full structure-based parameterization of the Hamiltonian of pigment-protein complexes (PPCs). These parameters comprise (i) the local transition energies of the pigments in their binding sites in the protein, the site energies; (ii) the couplings between optical transitions of the pigments, the excitonic couplings; and (iii) the spectral density characterizing the dynamic modulation of pigment transition energies and excitonic couplings by protein vibrations. Starting with quantum mechanics perturbation theory, we provide a microscopic foundation for the standard PPC Hamiltonian and relate the expressions obtained for its matrix elements to quantities that can be calculated with classical molecular mechanics/electrostatics approaches including the whole PPC in atomic detail and using charge and transition densities obtained with quantum chemical calculations on the isolated building blocks of the PPC. In the second part of this perspective, the Hamiltonian is utilized to describe the quantum dynamics of excitons. Situations are discussed that differ in the relative strength of excitonic and exciton-vibrational coupling. The predictive power of the approaches is demonstrated in application to different PPCs, and challenges for future work are outlined.
An information-theoretic approach to microseismic source location
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prange, Michael D.; Bose, Sandip; Kodio, Ousmane; Djikpesse, Hugues A.
2015-04-01
There has been extensive work on seismic source localization, going as far back as Geiger's 1912 paper, that is based on least-squares fitting of arrival times. The primary advantage of time-based methods over waveform-based methods (e.g. reverse-time migration and beam forming) is that simulated arrival times are considerably more reliable than simulated waveforms, especially in the context of an uncertain velocity model, thereby yielding more reliable estimates of source location. However, time-based methods are bedeviled by the unsolved challenges of accurate time picking and labelling of the seismic phases in the waveforms for each event. Drawing from Woodward's canonical 1953 text on the application of information theory to radar applications, we show that time-based methods can be applied directly to waveform data, thus capturing the advantages of time-based methods without being impacted by the aforementioned hindrances. We extend Woodward's approach to include an unknown distortion on wavelet amplitude and phase, showing that the related marginalization integrals can be analytically evaluated. We also provide extensions for correlation-based location methods such as relative localization and the S-P method. We demonstrate this approach through applications to microseismic event location, presenting formulations and results for both absolute and relative localization approaches, with receiver arrays either in a borehole or on the surface. By properly quantifying uncertainty in our location estimates, our formulations provide an objective measure for ranking the accuracy of microseismic source location methodologies.
A NETWORK-THEORETICAL APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY
Jolley, Craig C.; Douglas, Trevor
2010-10-20
Recent years have seen dramatic advances in computational models of chemical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM). Typically, these models have been used to calculate changes in chemical abundances with time; the calculated abundances can then be compared with chemical abundances derived from observations. In this study, the output from an astrochemical simulation has been used to generate directed graphs with weighted edges; these have been analyzed with the tools of network theory to uncover whole-network properties of reaction systems in dark molecular clouds. The results allow the development of a model in which global network properties can be rationalized in terms of the basic physical properties of the reaction system. The ISM network exhibits an exponential degree distribution, which is likely to be a generic feature of chemical networks involving a broad range of reaction rate constants. While species abundances span several orders of magnitude, the formation and destruction rates for most species are approximately balanced-departures from this rule indicate species (such as CO) that play a critical role in shaping the dynamics of the system. Future theoretical or observational studies focusing on individual molecular species will be able to situate them in terms of their role in the complete system or quantify the degree to which they deviate from the typical system behavior.
Oxidative dissolution of silver nanoparticles: A new theoretical approach.
Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Mrowiec, Halina; Walas, Stanisław; Lupa, Dawid
2016-05-01
A general model of an oxidative dissolution of silver particle suspensions was developed that rigorously considers the bulk and surface solute transport. A two-step surface reaction scheme was proposed that comprises the formation of the silver oxide phase by direct oxidation and the acidic dissolution of this phase leading to silver ion release. By considering this, a complete set of equations is formulated describing oxygen and silver ion transport to and from particles' surfaces. These equations are solved in some limiting cases of nanoparticle dissolution in dilute suspensions. The obtained kinetic equations were used for the interpretation of experimental data pertinent to the dissolution kinetics of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles. In these kinetic measurements the role of pH and bulk suspension concentration was quantitatively evaluated by using the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). It was shown that the theoretical model adequately reflects the main features of the experimental results, especially the significant increase in the dissolution rate for lower pH. Also the presence of two kinetic regimes was quantitatively explained in terms of the decrease in the coverage of the fast dissolving oxide layer. The overall silver dissolution rate constants characterizing these two regimes were determined.
A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction
Peng Liu
2005-11-28
The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.
Exploring Job Satisfaction of Nursing Faculty: Theoretical Approaches.
Wang, Yingchen; Liesveld, Judy
2015-01-01
The Future of Nursing report identified the shortage of nursing faculty as 1 of the barriers to nursing education. In light of this, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the work-life of nursing faculty. The current research focused on job satisfaction of nursing faculty from 4 theoretical perspectives: human capital theory, which emphasizes the expected monetary and nonmonetary returns for any career choices; structural theory, which emphasizes the impact of institutional features on job satisfaction; positive extrinsic environment by self-determination theory, which asserts that a positive extrinsic environment promotes competency and effective outcomes at work; and psychological theory, which emphasizes the proposed relationship between job performance and satisfaction. In addition to the measures for human capital theory, institutional variables (from structural theory and self-determination theory), and productivity measures (from psychological theory), the authors also selected sets of variables for personal characteristics to investigate their effects on job satisfaction. The results indicated that variables related to human capital theory, especially salary, contributed the most to job satisfaction, followed by those related to institutional variables. Personal variables and productivity variables as a whole contributed as well. The only other variable with marginal significance was faculty's perception of institutional support for teaching. PMID:26653042
Is DNA a metal, semiconductor or insulator? A theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey-Gonzalez, Rafael; Fonseca-Romero, Karen; Plazas, Carlos; Grupo de Óptica e Información Cuántica Team
Over the last years, scientific interest for designing and making low dimensional electronic devices with traditional or novel materials has been increased. These experimental and theoretical researches in electronic properties at molecular scale are looking for developing efficient devices able to carry out tasks which are currently done by silicon transistors and devices. Among the new materials DNA strands are highlighted, but the experimental results have been contradictories pointing to behaviors as conductor, semiconductor or insulator. To contribute to the understanding of the origin of the disparity of the measurements, we perform a numerical calculation of the electrical conductance of DNA segments, modeled as 1D disordered finite chains. The system is described into a Tight binding model with nearest neighbor interactions and a s orbital per site. Hydration effects are included as random variations of self-energies. The electronic current as a function of applied bias is calculated using Launder formalism, where the transmission probability is determined into the transfer matrix formalism. We find a conductor-to-semiconductor-to-insulator transition as a function of the three effects taken into account: chain size, intrinsic disorder, and hydration We thank Fundación para la Promoción de la Investigación y la Tecnología, Colombia, and Dirección de Investigación de Bogotá, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, for partial financial support.
Theoretical approach to oxygen atom degradation of silver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fromhold, Albert T., Jr.; Noh, Seung; Beshears, Ronald; Whitaker, Ann F.; Little, Sally A.
1987-01-01
Based on available Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and ellipsometry data obtained on silver specimens subjected to atomic oxygen attack in low Earth orbit STS flight 41-G, a theory was developed to model the oxygen atom degradation of silver. The diffusion of atomic oxygen in a microscopically nonuniform medium is an essential constituent of the theory. The driving force for diffusion is the macroscopic electrochemical potential gradient developed between the specimen surface exposed to the ambient and the bulk of the silver specimen. The longitudinal electric effect developed parallel to the gradient is modified by space charge of the diffusing charged species. Lateral electric fields and concentration differences also exist due to the nonuniform nature of the medium. The lateral concentration differences are found to be more important than the lateral electric fields in modifying the diffusion rate. The model was evaluated numerically. Qualitative agreement exists between the kinetics predicted by the theory and kinetic data taken in ground-based experiments utilizing a plasma asher.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, R. S.; Kaur, Rajbir
2015-10-01
Electromagnetic electron cyclotron (EMEC) waves with temperature anisotropy in the magnetosphere of Uranus have been studied in present work. EMEC waves are investigated using method of characteristic solution by kinetic approach, in presence of AC field. In 1986, Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus revealed that magnetosphere of Uranus exhibit non-Maxwellian high-energy tail distribution. So, the dispersion relation, real frequency and growth rate are evaluated using Lorentzian Kappa distribution function. Effect of temperature anisotropy, AC frequency and number density of particles is found. The study is also extended to oblique propagation of EMEC waves in presence and absence of AC field. Through comprehensive mathematical analysis it is found that when EMEC wave propagates parallel to intrinsic magnetic field of Uranus, its growth is more enhanced than in case of oblique propagation. Results are also discussed in context to magnetosphere of Earth and also gives theoretical explanation to existence of high energetic particles observed by Voyager 2 in the magnetosphere of Uranus. The results can present a further insight into the nature of electron-cyclotron instability condition for the whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belts of Uranus or other space plasmas.
Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides
Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta
2009-02-15
To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of {sup 209-211}At comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.
Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta
2009-02-01
To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of At209-211 comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.
Theoretical Approaches to the Spin Structure of the Proton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose Osvaldo
Many aspects of the structure of the proton are still unknown. One of the most noticeable unanswered question is the one of spin, that is, how can the fundamental degrees of freedom, quarks and gluons, account for the spin of the parent proton? It is known that quarks and gluons carry not only intrinsic but also orbital angular momentum. These two, combined, should in principle should add up to the value 1/2, which characterizes the spin of the proton. The mechanism responsible for this it is yet to be understood. It is not even clear how to define or "separate" the orbital angular momentum from the intrinsic angular momentum of the constituent particles. In recent years, one promising approach to this puzzle known as the spin crisis, is the possibility of accessing the transverse structure of the proton by means of the so called Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). These functions appear in the description of exclusive scattering processes. Since GPDs cannot be calculated from first principles, they must be extracted based upon models and experimental data. This dissertation presents the development of a new flexible parametrization, based on a "Reggeized" diquark approach, for chiral-even GPDs. This model is then used to analyze the significance of the different GPDs in some Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering measurements from Jlab; the results from this analysis are extended to the kinematical region relevant at the HERMES experiment. Subsequently, the model is extended to chiral-odd GPDs. With the tool of this model in hand, a study of the flavor dependence of Dirac and Pauli form factors is conducted. The connections between GPDs and other distribution functions are addressed in the last chapter, in the context of Wigner Distributions and possible probabilistic interpretations.
Theoretical Triangulation as an Approach for Revealing the Complexity of a Classroom Discussion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Drie, Jannet; Dekker, Rijkje
2013-01-01
In this paper we explore the value of theoretical triangulation as a methodological approach for the analysis of classroom interaction. We analyze an excerpt of a whole-class discussion in history from three theoretical perspectives: interactivity of the discourse, conceptual level raising and historical reasoning. We conclude that using…
Field theoretic analysis of a class of planar microwave and optoelectronic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahm, Yeon-Chang
2000-11-01
With increasing operating frequencies in CMOS RF/microwave integrated circuits, the performance of on- chip interconnects is becoming significantly affected by the lossy substrate. It is the purpose of the first part of this thesis to develop a rigorous field theoretic analysis approach for efficient characterization of single and multiple coupled interconnects on silicon substrate, which is applicable over a wide range of substrate resistivities. The frequency-dependent transmission line parameters of a microstrip on silicon are determined by a new formulation based on a quasi- electrostatic and quasi-magnetostatic spectral domain approach. It is demonstrated that this new quasi-static formulation provides the complete frequency-dependent interconnect characteristics for all three major transmission line modes of operation. In particular, it is shown that in the case of heavily doped CMOS substrates, the distributed series inductance and series resistance parameters are significantly affected by the presence of longitudinal substrate currents giving rise to the substrate skin-effect. The method is further extended to multiple coupled single and multi-level interconnect structures with ground plane and multiple coupled co-planar stripline structures without ground plane. The finite conductor thickness is taken into account in terms of a stacked conductor model. The new quasi-static approach is validated by comparison with results obtained with a full-wave spectral domain method and the commercial planar full-wave electromagnetic field solver HP/Momentum®, as well as published simulation and measurement data. In the second part of this thesis, coupled planar optical interconnect structures are investigated based on a rigorous field theoretic analysis combined with an application of the normal mode theory for coupled transmission lines. A new transfer matrix description for a general optical directional coupler is presented. Based on this transfer matrix formulation
Schrödinger Approach to Mean Field Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swiecicki, Igor; Gobron, Thierry; Ullmo, Denis
2016-03-01
Mean field games (MFG) provide a theoretical frame to model socioeconomic systems. In this Letter, we study a particular class of MFG that shows strong analogies with the nonlinear Schrödinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations introduced in physics to describe a variety of physical phenomena. Using this bridge, many results and techniques developed along the years in the latter context can be transferred to the former, which provides both a new domain of application for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and a new and fruitful approach in the study of mean field games. Utilizing this approach, we analyze in detail a population dynamics model in which the "players" are under a strong incentive to coordinate themselves.
Floquet theoretic approach to sensitivity analysis for periodic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larter, Raima
1986-12-01
The mathematical relationship between sensitivity analysis and Floquet theory is explored. The former technique has been used in recent years to study the parameter sensitivity of numerical models in chemical kinetics, scattering theory, and other problems in chemistry. In the present work, we derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity coefficients for models of oscillating chemical reactions. These reactions have been the subject of increased interest in recent years because of their relationship to fundamental biological problems, such as development, and because of their similarity to related phenomena in fields such as hydrodynamics, plasma physics, meteorology, geology, etc. The analytical form of the sensitivity coefficients derived here can be used to determine the explicit time dependence of the initial transient and any secular term. The method is applicable to unstable as well as stable oscillations and is illustrated by application to the Brusselator and to a three variable model due to Hassard, Kazarinoff, and Wan. It is shown that our results reduce to those previously derived by Edelson, Rabitz, and others in certain limits. The range of validity of these formerly derived expressions is thus elucidated.
Electronic properties of copper aluminate examined by three theoretical approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Niels; Svane, Axel
2010-03-01
Electronic properties of 3R.CuAlO2 are derived vs. pressure from ab initio band structure calculations within the local-density approximation (LDA), LDA+U scheme as well as the quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation (QSGW, van Schilfgaarde, Kotani, and Falaev). The LDA underestimates the gap and places the Cu-3d states at too high energies. An effective U value, 8.2 eV, can be selected so that LDA+U lowers the 3d states to match XPS data and such that the lowest gap agrees rather well with optical absorption experiments. The electrical field gradient (EFG) on Cu is in error when calculated within the LDA. The agreement with experiment can be improved by LDA+U, but a larger U, 13.5 eV, is needed for full adjustment. QSGW yields correct Cu-EFG and, when electron-hole correlations are included, also correct band gaps. The QSGW and LDA band gap deformation potential values differ significantly.
A game-theoretic approach to valuating toxoplasmosis vaccination strategies.
Sykes, David; Rychtář, Jan
2015-11-01
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite often found in wild and domestic cats, and it is the cause of the disease toxoplasmosis. More than 60 million people in the United States carry the parasite, and the Centers for Disease Control have placed toxoplasmosis in their disease classification group Neglected Parasitic Infections as one of five parasitic diseases targeted as priorities for public health action. In recent years, there has been significant progress toward the development of a practical vaccine, so vaccination programs may soon be a viable approach to controlling the disease. Anticipating the availability of a toxoplasmosis vaccine, we are interested in determining when cat owners should vaccinate their own pets. We have created a mathematical model describing the conditions under which vaccination is advantageous. Our model can be used to predict the average vaccination level in the population. We find that there is a critical vaccine cost threshold above which no one will use the vaccine. A vaccine cost slightly below this threshold, however, results in high usage of the vaccine, and consequently in a significant reduction in population seroprevalence. Not surprisingly, we find that populations may achieve herd immunity only if the cost of vaccine is zero.
Desgroseilliers, Valérie; Vonarx, Nicolas
2014-01-01
The theoretical frameworks presently dominating health promotion practices mainly focus on the individual's psychosocial and cognitive components. When focusing on environments, these frameworks barely relate contextual elements to the individuals who give them a real existence. Because of the disjunction and reduction they create, the main theoretical readings only partially recognize the complexity of social life and therefore lose the Subject. Lacking theoretical reliance, these readings fail to meet the Ottawa Charter principles. Based on critical analysis of the main theoretical frameworks, we discuss the influence of disciplinary backgrounds on our modes of knowledge, tackling how epidemiological and behavioral thinking affect how we understand, conceive and problematize the objects in these fields. Based on this analysis, we illustrate how these epistemologies oversimplify social realities related to health. In order to encounter the lost subject of health promotion and thereby achieve Ottawa Charter's principles, we propose an innovative theoretical approach based on Schütz' socio-phenomenological thinking and Morin's complexity paradigm. Our theoretical proposal aims to recognize and reconcile significant aspects of individuals' meaningful life experiences, while integrating common sense principles. By transiting through the subject's identity, this theoretical proposal tends to unify all meaningful aspects that subtend social life at the subject's scale.
Theoretical approaches to turbulent transport near marginal stability
Krommes, J.A.; Boldyrev, S.
1996-12-31
The presence of large microturbulent transport, such as caused by ion-temperature-gradient-driven (ITG) fluctuations, tends to drive temperature profiles toward marginal (linear) stability over much of the minor cross-section. The possibility that some profiles may be submarginal (linearly stable) yet carry substantial turbulent flux is of particular interest: it affects the interpretation of experimental data, and may imply that linear analysis is inadequate for the accurate determination of stable (e.g., enhanced-reversed-shear) operating regimes. Submarginal profiles are intimately related to nonlinear instability mechanisms for the self-sustainment of turbulence even in the presence of eigenmodes that axe linearly stable. Such self-sustainment has been observed in a variety of computer simulations. In the present work, the following approaches to the analysis of submarginal transport and nonlinear self-sustainment are conceptually linked and exploited: exactly solvable statistical model problems; discrete {open_quotes}sand-pile{close_quotes} dynamics and self-organized criticality (SOC); bifurcation theory; and {open_quotes}nonlinear instability{close_quotes} mechanisms. A nontrivial yet solvable statistical advection model is constructed that emphasizes the importance of subcritical bifurcations to submarginal turbulent profiles. The SOC of discrete lattice automata is interpreted as a consequence of a kind of subcritical bifurcation, and the submarginal profiles of certain SOC models axe related to the subcritical dynamics of the solvable model. Drake`s recent reduced model for the nonlinear instability of collisional drift waves is shown to exhibit a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, lending support to the interpretation of the mechanism as a driver for self-sustained turbulence. An analogous bifurcation is sought for a simple model of ITG turbulence, and the universality of the nonlinear instability is addressed.
Conductivity of pure graphene: Theoretical approach using the polarization tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.
2016-06-01
We obtain analytic expressions for the conductivity of pristine (pure) graphene in the framework of the Dirac model using the polarization tensor in (2+1) dimensions defined along the real frequency axis. It is found that at both zero and nonzero temperature T the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities of graphene are equal to each other with a high precision and essentially do not depend on the wave vector. At T =0 the conductivity of graphene is real and equal to σ0=e2/(4 ℏ ) up to small nonlocal corrections in accordance with many authors. At some fixed T ≠0 the real part of the conductivity varies between zero at low frequencies ω and σ0 for optical ω . If ω is fixed, the conductivity varies between σ0 at low T and zero at high T . The imaginary part of the conductivity of graphene is shown to depend on the ratio of ω to T . In accordance with the obtained asymptotic expressions, at fixed T it varies from infinity at ω =0 to a negative minimum value reached at some ω , and then approaches to zero with further increase of ω . At fixed ω the imaginary part of the conductivity varies from zero at T =0 , reaches a negative minimum at some T , and then goes to infinity together with T . The numerical computations of both the real and imaginary parts of the conductivity are performed. The above results are obtained in the framework of quantum electrodynamics at nonzero temperature and can be generalized for graphene samples with nonzero mass gap parameter and chemical potential.
Craciun, Stefan; Brockmeier, Austin J; George, Alan D; Lam, Herman; Príncipe, José C
2011-01-01
Methods for decoding movements from neural spike counts using adaptive filters often rely on minimizing the mean-squared error. However, for non-Gaussian distribution of errors, this approach is not optimal for performance. Therefore, rather than using probabilistic modeling, we propose an alternate non-parametric approach. In order to extract more structure from the input signal (neuronal spike counts) we propose using minimum error entropy (MEE), an information-theoretic approach that minimizes the error entropy as part of an iterative cost function. However, the disadvantage of using MEE as the cost function for adaptive filters is the increase in computational complexity. In this paper we present a comparison between the decoding performance of the analytic Wiener filter and a linear filter trained with MEE, which is then mapped to a parallel architecture in reconfigurable hardware tailored to the computational needs of the MEE filter. We observe considerable speedup from the hardware design. The adaptation of filter weights for the multiple-input, multiple-output linear filters, necessary in motor decoding, is a highly parallelizable algorithm. It can be decomposed into many independent computational blocks with a parallel architecture readily mapped to a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and scales to large numbers of neurons. By pipelining and parallelizing independent computations in the algorithm, the proposed parallel architecture has sublinear increases in execution time with respect to both window size and filter order. PMID:22255367
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimm, G. W.; Potts, A. J.
2015-12-01
The Coexistence Approach has been used infer palaeoclimates for many Eurasian fossil plant assemblage. However, the theory that underpins the method has never been examined in detail. Here we discuss acknowledged and implicit assumptions, and assess the statistical nature and pseudo-logic of the method. We also compare the Coexistence Approach theory with the active field of species distribution modelling. We argue that the assumptions will inevitably be violated to some degree and that the method has no means to identify and quantify these violations. The lack of a statistical framework makes the method highly vulnerable to the vagaries of statistical outliers and exotic elements. In addition, we find numerous logical inconsistencies, such as how climate shifts are quantified (the use of a "center value" of a coexistence interval) and the ability to reconstruct "extinct" climates from modern plant distributions. Given the problems that have surfaced in species distribution modelling, accurate and precise quantitative reconstructions of palaeoclimates (or even climate shifts) using the nearest-living-relative principle and rectilinear niches (the basis of the method) will not be possible. The Coexistence Approach can be summarised as an exercise that shoe-horns a plant fossil assemblages into coexistence and then naively assumes that this must be the climate. Given the theoretical issues, and methodological issues highlighted elsewhere, we suggest that the method be discontinued and that all past reconstructions be disregarded and revisited using less fallacious methods.
A mean field approach to watershed hydrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Mark; Porporato, Amilcare
2016-04-01
Mean field theory (also known as self-consistent field theory) is commonly used in statistical physics when modeling the space-time behavior of complex systems. The mean field theory approximates a complex multi-component system by considering a lumped (or average) effect for all individual components acting on a single component. Thus, the many body problem is reduced to a one body problem. For watershed hydrology, a mean field theory reduces the numerous point component effects to more tractable watershed averages, resulting in a consistent method for linking the average watershed fluxes to the local fluxes at each point. We apply this approach to the spatial distribution of soil moisture, and as a result, the numerous local interactions related to lateral fluxes of soil water are parameterized in terms of the average soil moisture. The mean field approach provides a basis for unifying and extending common event-based models (e.g. Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method) with more modern semi-distributed models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, the Probability Distributed (PDM) model, and TOPMODEL). We obtain simple equations for the fractions of the different source areas of runoff, the spatial variability of runoff, and the average runoff value (i.e., the so-called runoff curve). The resulting space time distribution of soil moisture offers a concise description of the variability of watershed fluxes.
Forbes, Richard G
2003-01-01
The field-electron (FE) and field-ion techniques directly observe and measure atomic-level surface processes that occur in very high electric fields. In theoretical terms, the high fields put large additional terms into Hamiltonians and free energies, and significantly modify many aspects of the surface physics and chemistry, as compared with the field-free situation. This paper presents a strategic review of the fundamental science of some of these high-field surface effects and processes, as developed in the context of the field electron and ion emission techniques. It outlines the main theoretical concepts developed, notes some twists of scientific history, and suggests useful contributions made to mainstream science. Topics covered are basic aspects of FE emission, surface field ionisation, localised field adsorption, charged surfaces theory, field-ion image contrast theory and associated imaging-gas kinetics, field evaporation, and aspects of the thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Despite many years of effort, important aspects of the theory remain incomplete. Some theoretical challenges are noted.
A review of the experimental and theoretical status of the reversed-field pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, D. A.
This paper reviews the status of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) approach to the development of a compact nuclear fusion reactor. Two RFP papers in this conference are complementary; the first paper contains the historical origins and basic concepts concerning MHD instabilities, relaxation and RFP confinement properties as well as a discussion of future prospects of the RFP. This paper gives an overview of the status of plasma parameters of the present main RFP experiments and of the status of theory and experiment of the interesting RFP plasma phenomena of relaxation, self reversal and flux generation (these effects are often referred to as the dynamo effect). The low frequency oscillating-field current drive concept which exploits these effects is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the theoretical results obtained from plasma simulation codes used in these active areas of study. Selected topics of recent research on the Los Alamos ZT-40M experiments are reported. The paper concludes with descriptions of the next generation Los Alamos RFP experiment ZTH, to be located in the new Confinement Physics Research Facility presently under construction, and the characteristics of an RFP compact reactor.
Armas-Pérez, Julio C; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Guzmán, Orlando; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; de Pablo, Juan J
2015-07-28
A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.
Armas-Perez, Julio C.; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Guzman, Orlando; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan P.; de Pablo, Juan J.
2015-07-27
A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.
Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Guzmán, Orlando; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P.; Pablo, Juan J. de
2015-07-28
A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.
Charles, P. H. Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.; Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Thwaites, D. I.; Kairn, T.; Knight, R. T.; Kenny, J.
2014-04-15
Purpose: This work introduces the concept of very small field size. Output factor (OPF) measurements at these field sizes require extremely careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as each OPF measurement. Two quantifiable scientific definitions of the threshold of very small field size are presented. Methods: A practical definition was established by quantifying the effect that a 1 mm error in field size or detector position had on OPFs and setting acceptable uncertainties on OPF at 1%. Alternatively, for a theoretical definition of very small field size, the OPFs were separated into additional factors to investigate the specific effects of lateral electronic disequilibrium, photon scatter in the phantom, and source occlusion. The dominant effect was established and formed the basis of a theoretical definition of very small fields. Each factor was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian iX linear accelerator for various square field sizes of side length from 4 to 100 mm, using a nominal photon energy of 6 MV. Results: According to the practical definition established in this project, field sizes ≤15 mm were considered to be very small for 6 MV beams for maximal field size uncertainties of 1 mm. If the acceptable uncertainty in the OPF was increased from 1.0% to 2.0%, or field size uncertainties are 0.5 mm, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be very small. Lateral electronic disequilibrium in the phantom was the dominant cause of change in OPF at very small field sizes. Thus the theoretical definition of very small field size coincided to the field size at which lateral electronic disequilibrium clearly caused a greater change in OPF than any other effects. This was found to occur at field sizes ≤12 mm. Source occlusion also caused a large change in OPF for field sizes ≤8 mm. Based on the results of this study, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be theoretically very small for 6
A Relational Approach to Career Counseling: Theoretical Integration and Practical Application.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino
2003-01-01
Reviews the current status of career theory in practice and presents a theoretical overview of relational theory and its logical extension to the career domain. The relational career counseling approach moves counseling toward a contextually based relational perspective to facilitating career progress. This approach is illustrated with a case…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Jin; Hon, Yiu-Chung; Seo, Jin Keun; Yamamoto, Masahiro
2005-01-01
The Second International Conference on Inverse Problems: Recent Theoretical Developments and Numerical Approaches was held at Fudan University, Shanghai from 16-21 June 2004. The first conference in this series was held at the City University of Hong Kong in January 2002 and it was agreed to hold the conference once every two years in a Pan-Pacific Asian country. The next conference is scheduled to be held at Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan in July 2006. The purpose of this series of biennial conferences is to establish and develop constant international collaboration, especially among the Pan-Pacific Asian countries. In recent decades, interest in inverse problems has been flourishing all over the globe because of both the theoretical interest and practical requirements. In particular, in Asian countries, one is witnessing remarkable new trends of research in inverse problems as well as the participation of many young talents. Considering these trends, the second conference was organized with the chairperson Professor Li Tat-tsien (Fudan University), in order to provide forums for developing research cooperation and to promote activities in the field of inverse problems. Because solutions to inverse problems are needed in various applied fields, we entertained a total of 92 participants at the second conference and arranged various talks which ranged from mathematical analyses to solutions of concrete inverse problems in the real world. This volume contains 18 selected papers, all of which have undergone peer review. The 18 papers are classified as follows: Surveys: four papers give reviews of specific inverse problems. Theoretical aspects: six papers investigate the uniqueness, stability, and reconstruction schemes. Numerical methods: four papers devise new numerical methods and their applications to inverse problems. Solutions to applied inverse problems: four papers discuss concrete inverse problems such as scattering problems and inverse problems in
Noise and disturbance in quantum measurements: an information-theoretic approach.
Buscemi, Francesco; Hall, Michael J W; Ozawa, Masanao; Wilde, Mark M
2014-02-01
We introduce information-theoretic definitions for noise and disturbance in quantum measurements and prove a state-independent noise-disturbance tradeoff relation that these quantities have to satisfy in any conceivable setup. Contrary to previous approaches, the information-theoretic quantities we define are invariant under the relabelling of outcomes and allow for the possibility of using quantum or classical operations to "correct" for the disturbance. We also show how our bound implies strong tradeoff relations for mean square deviations.
New approaches to nonlinear diffractive field propagation.
Christopher, P T; Parker, K J
1991-07-01
In many domains of acoustic field propagation, such as medical ultrasound imaging, lithotripsy shock treatment, and underwater sonar, a realistic calculation of beam patterns requires treatment of the effects of diffraction from finite sources. Also, the mechanisms of loss and nonlinear effects within the medium are typically nonnegligible. The combination of diffraction, attenuation, and nonlinear effects has been treated by a number of formulations and numerical techniques. A novel model that incrementally propagates the field of baffled planar sources with substeps that account for the physics of diffraction, attenuation, and nonlinearity is presented. The model accounts for the effect of refraction and reflection (but not multiple reflections) in the case of propagation through multiple, parallel layers of fluid medium. An implementation of the model for axis symmetric sources has been developed. In one substep of the implementation, a new discrete Hankel transform is used with spatial transform techniques to propagate the field over a short distance with diffraction and attenuation. In the other substep, the temporal frequency domain solution to Burgers' equation is implemented to account for the nonlinear accretion and depletion of harmonics. This approach yields a computationally efficient procedure for calculating beam patterns from a baffled planar, axially symmetric source under conditions ranging from quasilinear through shock. The model is not restricted by the usual parabolic wave approximation and the field's directionality is explicitly accounted for at each point. Useage of a harmonic-limiting scheme allows the model to propagate some previously intractable high-intensity nonlinear fields. Results of the model are shown to be in excellent agreement with measurements performed on the nonlinear field of an unfocused 2.25-MHz piston source, even in the near field where the established parabolic wave approximation model fails. Next, the model is used to
A minimax approach to mean field games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averboukh, Yu V.
2015-07-01
An initial boundary value problem for the system of equations of a determined mean field game is considered. The proposed definition of a generalized solution is based on the minimax approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We prove the existence of the generalized (minimax) solution using the Nash equilibrium in the auxiliary differential game with infinitely many identical players. We show that the minimax solution of the original system provides the \\varepsilon-Nash equilibrium in the differential game with a finite number of players. Bibliography: 34 titles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhavalikar, Rohan; Rinaldi, Carlos
2016-12-01
Magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) transfer some of the field's energy to their surroundings in the form of heat, a property that has attracted significant attention for use in cancer treatment through hyperthermia and in developing magnetic drug carriers that can be actuated to release their cargo externally using magnetic fields. To date, most work in this field has focused on the use of AMFs that actuate heat release by nanoparticles over large regions, without the ability to select specific nanoparticle-loaded regions for heating while leaving other nanoparticle-loaded regions unaffected. In parallel, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has emerged as a promising approach to image the distribution of magnetic nanoparticle tracers in vivo, with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The underlying principle in MPI is the application of a selection magnetic field gradient, which defines a small region of low bias field, superimposed with an AMF (of lower frequency and amplitude than those normally used to actuate heating by the nanoparticles) to obtain a signal which is proportional to the concentration of particles in the region of low bias field. Here we extend previous models for estimating the energy dissipation rates of magnetic nanoparticles in uniform AMFs to provide theoretical predictions of how the selection magnetic field gradient used in MPI can be used to selectively actuate heating by magnetic nanoparticles in the low bias field region of the selection magnetic field gradient. Theoretical predictions are given for the spatial decay in energy dissipation rate under magnetic field gradients representative of those that can be achieved with current MPI technology. These results underscore the potential of combining MPI and higher amplitude/frequency actuation AMFs to achieve selective magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) guided by MPI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimm, Guido W.; Potts, Alastair J.
2016-03-01
The Coexistence Approach has been used to infer palaeoclimates for many Eurasian fossil plant assemblages. However, the theory that underpins the method has never been examined in detail. Here we discuss acknowledged and implicit assumptions and assess the statistical nature and pseudo-logic of the method. We also compare the Coexistence Approach theory with the active field of species distribution modelling. We argue that the assumptions will inevitably be violated to some degree and that the method lacks any substantive means to identify or quantify these violations. The absence of a statistical framework makes the method highly vulnerable to the vagaries of statistical outliers and exotic elements. In addition, we find numerous logical inconsistencies, such as how climate shifts are quantified (the use of a "centre value" of a coexistence interval) and the ability to reconstruct "extinct" climates from modern plant distributions. Given the problems that have surfaced in species distribution modelling, accurate and precise quantitative reconstructions of palaeoclimates (or even climate shifts) using the nearest-living-relative principle and rectilinear niches (the basis of the method) will not be possible. The Coexistence Approach can be summarised as an exercise that shoehorns a plant fossil assemblage into coexistence and then assumes that this must be the climate. Given the theoretical issues and methodological issues highlighted elsewhere, we suggest that the method be discontinued and that all past reconstructions be disregarded and revisited using less fallacious methods. We outline six steps for (further) validation of available and future taxon-based methods and advocate developing (semi-quantitative) methods that prioritise robustness over precision.
Field evaporation of insulators and semiconductors: Theoretical insights for ZnO.
Karahka, Markus; Kreuzer, H J
2015-12-01
We look at the new challenges associated with Atom Probe Tomography of insulators and semiconductors with regard to local fields inside and on the surface of such materials. The theoretical discovery that in high fields the band gap in these materials is drastically reduced to the point where at the evaporation field strength it vanishes will be crucial in our discussion. To understand Atom Probe results on the field evaporation of insulators and semiconductors we use density functional theory on ZnO clusters to follow the structural and electronic changes during field evaporation and to obtain potential energy curves, HOMO-LUMO gaps, field distributions, desorption pathways and fragments, dielectric constants, and polarizabilities. We also examine the effects of electric field reversal on the evaporation of ZnO and compare the results with Si. PMID:25825027
Field evaporation of insulators and semiconductors: Theoretical insights for ZnO.
Karahka, Markus; Kreuzer, H J
2015-12-01
We look at the new challenges associated with Atom Probe Tomography of insulators and semiconductors with regard to local fields inside and on the surface of such materials. The theoretical discovery that in high fields the band gap in these materials is drastically reduced to the point where at the evaporation field strength it vanishes will be crucial in our discussion. To understand Atom Probe results on the field evaporation of insulators and semiconductors we use density functional theory on ZnO clusters to follow the structural and electronic changes during field evaporation and to obtain potential energy curves, HOMO-LUMO gaps, field distributions, desorption pathways and fragments, dielectric constants, and polarizabilities. We also examine the effects of electric field reversal on the evaporation of ZnO and compare the results with Si.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jolly, Jennifer L.
2005-01-01
The previous Historical Perspectives column focused on the foundations of gifted education and the influence that Francis Galton, Alfred Binet, and Cesare Lombroso had in shaping the field. This work seeks to extend the examination of the historical roots of gifted education by focusing on definitions and theoretical underpinnings of giftedness…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jun, Su; Kochan, O.; Chunzhi, Wang; Kochan, R.
2015-12-01
The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton's law of cooling. They converge well.
Can realistic interaction be useful for nuclear mean-field approaches?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakada, H.; Sugiura, K.; Inakura, T.; Margueron, J.
2016-07-01
Recent applications of the M3Y-type semi-realistic interaction to the nuclear mean-field approaches are presented: i) Prediction of magic numbers and ii) isotope shifts of nuclei with magic proton numbers. The results exemplify that the realistic interaction, which is derived from the bare 2 N and 3 N interaction, furnishes a new theoretical instrument for advancing nuclear mean-field approaches.
[Theoretical perspectives on medicine and the medical profession: an anthropological approach].
Queiroz, M de S
1991-08-01
The medical field and profession are studied from the theoretical point of view of the social sciences. The most representative works on this subject are presented. The analysis shows that conservative positivism and orthodox Marxism are the main obstacles to development in this field of study. At the same time it suggests the concept of culture and the anthropological method of research as the best means for the overcoming of some of the main contradictions which paralyse its progress.
Making a Traditional Study-Abroad Program Geographic: A Theoretically Informed Regional Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jokisch, Brad
2009-01-01
Geographers have been active in numerous focused study-abroad programs, but few have created or led language-based programs overseas. This article describes the development of a Spanish language program in Ecuador and how it was made geographic primarily through a theoretically informed regional geography course. The approach employs theoretical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Golden, Linda L.; And Others
1990-01-01
The general-information-theoretic approach was used to identify informational overlap and asymmetry between variables, using affective, cognitive, and behavioral measures. Using the chi-squared test, no significant differences were found in response rates, demographics, or patronage frequency of three stores between numerical (n=453) and graphic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldner, Matthew T.; Monson, Candice M.; Friedman, Matthew J.
2007-01-01
Although efforts to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have met with relatively limited success, theoretically driven preventive approaches with promising efficacy are emerging. The current article critically reviews investigations of PTSD prevention programs that target persons at risk for being exposed to a traumatic event or who have…
Understanding Older Adults' Physical Activity Behavior: A Multi-Theoretical Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grodesky, Janene M.; Kosma, Maria; Solmon, Melinda A.
2006-01-01
Physical inactivity is a health issue with serious consequences for older adults. Investigating physical activity promotion within a multi-theoretical approach may increase the predictive strength of physical activity determinants and facilitate the development and implementation of effective interventions for older adults. This article examines…
A theoretical investigation of the sound radiation fields associated with a Bellmouth inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, W. L.; Zinn, B. T.
1983-01-01
Analytical results are obtained by numerical integration of a cylindrically symmetric integral representation of the external solutions of the Helmholtz equation. The accuracy of this method is checked by comparisons of computed results with 'exact' solutions generated by the point source method. In all cases, the average error for the amplitude and phase of the points calculated in the field is found to be less than ten percent. Theoretical studies which model experiments run for the NASA Langely Bellmouth inlet configuration are presented and comparisons are made with the experimental results. In all cases very good agreement is obtained between the experimental and theoretically calculated values.
A theoretical investigation of the sound radiation fields associated with a Bellmouth inlet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, W. L.; Zinn, B. T.
1983-04-01
Analytical results are obtained by numerical integration of a cylindrically symmetric integral representation of the external solutions of the Helmholtz equation. The accuracy of this method is checked by comparisons of computed results with 'exact' solutions generated by the point source method. In all cases, the average error for the amplitude and phase of the points calculated in the field is found to be less than ten percent. Theoretical studies which model experiments run for the NASA Langely Bellmouth inlet configuration are presented and comparisons are made with the experimental results. In all cases very good agreement is obtained between the experimental and theoretically calculated values.
Elementary Theoretical Forms for the Spatial Power Spectrum of Earth's Crustal Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voorhies, C.
1998-01-01
The magnetic field produced by magnetization in Earth's crust and lithosphere can be distinguished from the field produced by electric currents in Earth's core because the spatial magnetic power spectrum of the crustal field differs from that of the core field. Theoretical forms for the spectrum of the crustal field are derived by treating each magnetic domain in the crust as the point source of a dipole field. The geologic null-hypothesis that such moments are uncorrelated is used to obtain the magnetic spectrum expected from a randomly magnetized, or unstructured, spherical crust of negligible thickness. This simplest spectral form is modified to allow for uniform crustal thickness, ellipsoidality, and the polarization of domains by an periodically reversing, geocentric axial dipole field from Earth's core. Such spectra are intended to describe the background crustal field. Magnetic anomalies due to correlated magnetization within coherent geologic structures may well be superimposed upon this background; yet representing each such anomaly with a single point dipole may lead to similar spectral forms. Results from attempts to fit these forms to observational spectra, determined via spherical harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data, are summarized in terms of amplitude, source depth, and misfit. Each theoretical spectrum reduces to a source factor multiplied by the usual exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n due to geometric attenuation with attitude above the source layer. The source factors always vary with n and are approximately proportional to n(exp 3) for degrees 12 through 120. The theoretical spectra are therefore not directly proportional to an exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n. There is no radius at which these spectra are flat, level, or otherwise independent of n.
A group theoretical approach to structural transitions of icosahedral quasicrystals and point arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zappa, Emilio; Dykeman, Eric C.; Geraets, James A.; Twarock, Reidun
2016-04-01
In this paper we describe a group theoretical approach to the study of structural transitions of icosahedral quasicrystals and point arrays. We apply the concept of Schur rotations, originally proposed by Kramer, to the case of aperiodic structures with icosahedral symmetry; these rotations induce a rotation of the physical and orthogonal spaces invariant under the icosahedral group, and hence, via the cut-and-project method, a continuous transformation of the corresponding model sets. We prove that this approach allows for a characterisation of such transitions in a purely group theoretical framework, and provide explicit computations and specific examples. Moreover, we prove that this approach can be used in the case of finite point sets with icosahedral symmetry, which have a wide range of applications in carbon chemistry (fullerenes) and biology (viral capsids).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Politano, A.; Chiarello, G.; Cupolillo, A.
2015-08-01
The discovery of quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) crystals has started a new era of materials science. Novel materials, atomically thin and mechanically, thermally and chemically stable, with a large variety of electronic properties are available and they can be assembled in ultrathin flexible devices. Understanding collective electronic excitations (plasmons) in Q2D systems is mandatory for engineering applications in plasmonics. In view of recent developments in the emerging field of graphene-based plasmonics, the correspondence between the theoretically calculated quantities and the observables experimentally measured in Q2D crystals is still unsatisfactory. Motivated by recent Nazarov’s findings (Nazarov 2015 New J. Phys. 17 073018), here we discuss some crucial issues of current theoretical approaches as well as the computational methods applied to two-dimensional materials with special emphasis to cover their peculiarities, range of application and pitfalls.
Tenforde, T.S.; Gaffey, C.T.; Moyer, B.R.; Budinger, T.F.
1983-01-01
Simultaneous measurements were made of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the intraarterial blood pressure of adult male Macaca monkeys during acute exposure to homogeneous stationary magnetic fields ranging in strength up to 1.5 tesla. An instantaneous, field strength-dependent increase in the ECG signal amplitude at the locus of the T wave was observed in fields greater than 0.1 tesla. The temporal sequence of this signal in the ECG record and its reversibility following termination of the magnetic field exposure are consistent with an earlier suggestion that it arises from a magnetically induced aortic blood flow potential superimposed on the native T-wave signal. No measurable alterations in blood pressure resulted from exposure to fields up to 1.5 tesla. This experimental finding is in agreement with theoretical calculations of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on blood flow in the major arteries of the cardiovascular system. 27 references, 1 figure, 1 table.
Sharma, Suresh C.; Gupta, Neha
2015-12-15
A theoretical modeling for the catalyst-assisted growth of graphene sheet in the presence of plasma has been investigated. It is observed that the plasma parameters can strongly affect the growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet. The model developed accounts for the charging rate of the graphene sheet; number density of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms; various elementary processes on the surface of the catalyst nanoparticle; surface diffusion and accretion of ions; and formation of carbon-clusters and large graphene islands. In our investigation, it is found that the thickness of the graphene sheet decreases with the plasma parameters, number density of hydrogen ions and RF power, and consequently, the field emission of electrons from the graphene sheet surface increases. The time evolution of the height of graphene sheet with ion density and sticking coefficient of carbon species has also been examined. Some of our theoretical results are in compliance with the experimental observations.
Dynamical gap generation in graphene nanoribbons: An effective relativistic field theoretical model
Chaves, A. J.; Paula, W. de; Frederico, T.; Lima, G. D.; Cordeiro, C. E.; Delfino, A.
2011-04-15
We show that the assumption of a nontrivial zero band gap for a graphene sheet within an effective relativistic field theoretical model description of interacting Dirac electrons on the surface of graphene describes the experimental band gap of graphene nanoribbons for a wide range of widths. The graphene band gap is dynamically generated, corresponding to a nontrivial gapless solution, found in the limit of an infinitely wide graphene ribbon. The nanoribbon band gap is determined by the experimental graphene work function.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elliott, D. G.
1977-01-01
Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.
Investigation of the interfacial tension of complex coacervates using field-theoretic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggleman, Robert A.; Kumar, Rajeev; Fredrickson, Glenn H.
2012-01-01
Complex coacervation, a liquid-liquid phase separation that occurs when two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes are mixed in a solution, has the potential to be exploited for many emerging applications including wet adhesives and drug delivery vehicles. The ultra-low interfacial tension of coacervate systems against water is critical for such applications, and it would be advantageous if molecular models could be used to characterize how various system properties (e.g., salt concentration) affect the interfacial tension. In this article we use field-theoretic simulations to characterize the interfacial tension between a complex coacervate and its supernatant. After demonstrating that our model is free of ultraviolet divergences (calculated properties converge as the collocation grid is refined), we develop two methods for calculating the interfacial tension from field-theoretic simulations. One method relies on the mechanical interpretation of the interfacial tension as the interfacial pressure, and the second method estimates the change in free energy as the area between the two phases is changed. These are the first calculations of the interfacial tension from full field-theoretic simulation of which we are aware, and both the magnitude and scaling behaviors of our calculated interfacial tension agree with recent experiments.
Investigation of the interfacial tension of complex coacervates using field-theoretic simulations
Kumar, Rajeev
2012-01-01
Complex coacervation, a liquid-liquid phase separation that occurs when two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes are mixed in a solution, has the potential to be exploited for many emerging applications including wet adhesives and drug delivery vehicles. The ultra-low interfacial tension of coacervate systems against water is critical for such applications, and it would be advantageous if molecular models could be used to characterize how various system properties (e.g., salt concentration) affect the interfacial tension. In this article we use field-theoretic simulations to characterize the interfacial tension between a complex coacervate and its supernatant. After demonstrating that our model is free of ultraviolet divergences (calculated properties converge as the collocation grid is refined), we develop two methods for calculating the interfacial tension from field-theoretic simulations. One method relies on the mechanical interpretation of the interfacial tension as the interfacial pressure, and the second method estimates the change in free energy as the area between the two phases is changed. These are the first calculations of the interfacial tension from full field theoretic simulation of which we are aware, and both the magnitude and scaling behaviors of our calculated interfacial tension agree with recent experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawar, Anit; Chandra, Amita
2012-11-01
The influence of electric field on the diffusion limited aggregation has been observed experimentally. The observation provides experimental confirmation of the theoretical model proposed by Zhi-Jie Tan et al. [Phys. Lett. A 268 (2000) 112]. Most strikingly, a transition from a disordered ramified pattern to an ordered pattern (chain-like growth) has been observed. The growth is governed by diffusion, convection and migration in an electric field which give rise to the different patterns. This Letter can also be considered as an experimental evidence of computer simulated fractal growth given by Huang and Hibbert [Physica A 233 (1996) 888].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyren, K.; Winter, S.
1984-01-01
Field experiments with full scale releases of pressurized through siphon pipes from a storage tank were performed. It is found that the flow is a damped critical flow causing a violent turbulent spray jet. The pronounced atomization of the liquid and the quick air entrainment prevent rainout and no traces of land spills are observed. A theoretical model is also presented. Comparisons with the field experiments and laboratory experiments show that the model gives very good predictions of the mass flow rate and the jet determining parameters. The model is useful also for long pipe systems as it takes into account friction and other resistances.
Field-theoretic model of inhomogeneous supramolecular polymer networks and gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohan, Aruna; Elliot, Richard; Fredrickson, Glenn H.
2010-11-01
We present a field-theoretic model of the gelation transition in inhomogeneous reversibly bonding systems and demonstrate that our model reproduces the classical Flory-Stockmayer theory of gelation in the homogeneous limit. As an illustration of our model in the context of inhomogeneous gelation, we analyze the mean-field behavior of an equilibrium system of reacting trifunctional units in a good solvent confined within a slit bounded by parallel, repulsive walls. Our results indicate higher conversions and, consequently, higher concentrations of gel following the gelation transition near the center of the slit relative to the edges.
Field-theoretic model of inhomogeneous supramolecular polymer networks and gels.
Mohan, Aruna; Elliot, Richard; Fredrickson, Glenn H
2010-11-01
We present a field-theoretic model of the gelation transition in inhomogeneous reversibly bonding systems and demonstrate that our model reproduces the classical Flory-Stockmayer theory of gelation in the homogeneous limit. As an illustration of our model in the context of inhomogeneous gelation, we analyze the mean-field behavior of an equilibrium system of reacting trifunctional units in a good solvent confined within a slit bounded by parallel, repulsive walls. Our results indicate higher conversions and, consequently, higher concentrations of gel following the gelation transition near the center of the slit relative to the edges. PMID:21054065
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toida, Mieko
2016-07-01
The electric field parallel to the magnetic field in nonlinear magnetosonic waves in three component plasmas (two-ion-species plasma and electron-positron-ion plasma) is theoretically studied based on a three-fluid model. In a two-ion-species plasma, a magnetosonic mode has two branches, high-frequency mode and low-frequency mode. The parallel electric field E ∥ and its integral along the magnetic field, F = - ∫ E ∥ d s , in the two modes propagating quasiperpendicular to the magnetic field are derived as functions of the wave amplitude ɛ and the density ratio and cyclotron frequency ratio of the two ion species. The theory shows that the magnitude of F in the high-frequency-mode pulse is much greater than that in the low-frequency-mode pulse. Theoretical expressions for E ∥ and F in nonlinear magnetosonic pulses in an electron-positron-ion plasma are also obtained under the assumption that the wave amplitudes are in the range of ( m e / m i ) 1 / 2 < ɛ < 1 , where m e / m i is the electron to ion mass ratio.
Xiao, Chunyan; Rubinsky, Boris
2014-12-01
An analytical model was used to explore the feasibility of sinusoidal electric field transmission across a frozen saline layer into biological tissue. The study is relevant to electroporation and permeabilization of the cell membrane by electric fields. The concept was analyzed for frequencies in the range of conventional electroporation frequencies and electric field intensity. Theoretical analysis for a variety of tissues show that the transmission of electroporation type electric fields through a layer of frozen saline into tissue is feasible and the behavior of this composite system depends on tissue type, frozen domain temperature, and frequency. Freezing could become a valuable method for adherence of electroporation electrodes to moving tissue surfaces, such as the heart in the treatment of atrial fibrillation or blood vessels for the treatment of restenosis.
Nuclear radii calculations in various theoretical approaches for nucleus-nucleus interactions
Merino, C.; Novikov, I. S.; Shabelski, Yu.
2009-12-15
The information about sizes and nuclear density distributions in unstable (radioactive) nuclei is usually extracted from the data on interaction of radioactive nuclear beams with a nuclear target. We show that in the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the values of the parameters depend somewhat strongly on the considered theoretical approach and on the assumption about the parametrization of the nuclear density distribution. The obtained values of root-mean-square radii (R{sub rms}) for stable nuclei with atomic weights A=12-40 vary by approximately 0.1 fm when calculated in the optical approximation, in the rigid target approximation, and using the exact expression of the Glauber theory. We present several examples of R{sub rms} radii calculations using these three theoretical approaches and compare these results with the data obtained from electron-nucleus scattering.
Research on the Field of Education Policy: Exploring Different Levels of Approach and Abstraction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mainardes, Jefferson; Tello, César
2016-01-01
This paper, of theoretical nature, explores the levels of approach and abstraction of research in the field of education policy: description, analysis and understanding. Such categories were developed based on concepts of Bourdieu's theory and on the grounds of epistemological studies focused on education policy and meta-research. This paper…
Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches
Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios
2013-05-15
Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.
Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Luo, Jing; Yang, Yongying; Zhou, Yudi; Zhang, Yupeng; Duan, Lulin; Su, Lin; Yang, Liming; Shen, Yibing; Wang, Kaiwei; Bai, Jian
2015-05-01
A field-widened Michelson interferometer (FWMI) is developed to act as the spectral discriminator in high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL). This realization is motivated by the wide-angle Michelson interferometer (WAMI) which has been used broadly in the atmospheric wind and temperature detection. This paper describes an independent theoretical framework about the application of the FWMI in HSRL for the first time. In the framework, the operation principles and application requirements of the FWMI are discussed in comparison with that of the WAMI. Theoretical foundations for designing this type of interferometer are introduced based on these comparisons. Moreover, a general performance estimation model for the FWMI is established, which can provide common guidelines for the performance budget and evaluation of the FWMI in the both design and operation stages. Examples incorporating many practical imperfections or conditions that may degrade the performance of the FWMI are given to illustrate the implementation of the modeling. This theoretical framework presents a complete and powerful tool for solving most of theoretical or engineering problems encountered in the FWMI application, including the designing, parameter calibration, prior performance budget, posterior performance estimation, and so on. It will be a valuable contribution to the lidar community to develop a new generation of HSRLs based on the FWMI spectroscopic filter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xin; Zhou, Wei-Man; Liu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Li
2015-05-01
Field emission properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated experimentally and theoretically. CNTs are in situ decorated with ZnO NPs during the growth process by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from the iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The experimental field emission test shows that the ZnO NP decoration significantly improves the emission current from 50 μA to 275 μA at 550 V and the reduced threshold voltage from 450 V to 350 V. The field emission mechanism of ZnO NPs on CNTs is theoretically studied by the density functional theory (DFT) combined with the Penn-Plummer method. The ZnO NPs reconstruct the ZnO-CNT structure and pull down the surface barrier of the entire emitter system to 0.49 eV so as to reduce the threshold electric field. The simulation results suggest that the presence of ZnO NPs would increase the LDOS near the Fermi level and increase the emission current. The calculation results are consistent with the experiment results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91123018, 61172040, and 61172041) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014JM7277).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fahim-Al-Fattah, Md.; Rahman, Md. Tawabur; Islam, Md. Sherajul; Bhuiyan, Ashraful G.
2016-02-01
This paper presents a detailed study of theoretical performance of graphene field effect transistor (GFET) using analytical approach. GFET shows promising performance in terms of faster saturation as well as extremely high cutoff frequency (3.9THz). A significant shift of the Dirac point as well as an asymmetrical ambipolar behavior is observed on the transfer characteristics. Similarly, an approximate symmetrical capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics is obtained where it has guaranteed the consistency because it shows a significant saturation both in the accumulation and inversion region. In addition, a high transconductance of 6800uS at small channel length (20nm) along with high cutoff frequency (3.9THz) has been observed which demands for high speed field effect devices.
Sugimura, A; Zakharov, A V
2011-08-01
The peculiarities in the dynamic of the director reorientation in a liquid crystal (LC) film under the influence of the electric E field directed at an angle α to the magnetic B field have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Time-resolved deuterium NMR spectroscopy is employed to investigate the field-induced director dynamics. Analysis of the experimental results, based on the predictions of hydrodynamic theory including both the director motion and fluid flow, provides an evidence for the appearance of the spatially periodic patterns in 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl LC film, at the angles α>60∘, in response to the suddenly applied E. These periodic distortions produce a lower effective rotational viscosity. This gives a faster response of the director rotation than for a uniform mode, as observed in our NMR experiment. PMID:21929001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, R. A.; Kamide, Y.
1983-10-01
Advanced techniques considered by Kamide et al. (1981) seem to have the potential for providing observation-based high time resolution pictures of the global ionospheric current and electric field patterns for interesting events. However, a reliance on the proposed magnetogram-inversion schemes for the deduction of global ionospheric current and electric field patterns requires proof that reliable results are obtained. 'Theoretical' tests of the accuracy of the magnetogram inversion schemes have, therefore, been considered. The present investigation is concerned with a test, involving the developed KRM algorithm and the Rice Convection Model (RCM). The test was successful in the sense that there was overall agreement between electric fields and currents calculated by the RCM and KRM schemes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, R. A.; Kamide, Y.
1983-01-01
Advanced techniques considered by Kamide et al. (1981) seem to have the potential for providing observation-based high time resolution pictures of the global ionospheric current and electric field patterns for interesting events. However, a reliance on the proposed magnetogram-inversion schemes for the deduction of global ionospheric current and electric field patterns requires proof that reliable results are obtained. 'Theoretical' tests of the accuracy of the magnetogram inversion schemes have, therefore, been considered. The present investigation is concerned with a test, involving the developed KRM algorithm and the Rice Convection Model (RCM). The test was successful in the sense that there was overall agreement between electric fields and currents calculated by the RCM and KRM schemes.
Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Peduzzi, Marina; Mandú, Edir Nei Teixeira; Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita
2012-01-01
This theoretical reflection intends to show the inter-subjective relationship that takes place in health and nursing practices under the following theoretical perspectives: Institutional Analysis, Psychodynamics of Labor and the Theory of Communicative Action, with an emphasis on the latter. Linking these concepts to the Marxist approach to work in the field of health emerges from recognizing the need for its continuous reconstruction-in this case, with a view to understand the interaction and communication intrinsic to work in action. The theory of Communicative Action seeks to consider these two inextricable dimensions: work as productive action and as interaction. The first corresponds to instrumental action based on technical rules with a production-guided rationale. The second refers to the interaction that takes place as communicative action and seeks understanding among subjects. We assume that adopting this theoretical perspective in the analysis of health and nursing practices opens new possibilities for clarifying its social and historical process and inter-subjective connections. PMID:22481717
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konik, Robert M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Misewich, James A.
2015-02-01
We demonstrate that a nonperturbative framework for the treatment of the excitations of single-walled carbon nanotubes based upon a field theoretic reduction is able to accurately describe experiment observations of the absolute values of excitonic energies. This theoretical framework yields a simple scaling function from which the excitonic energies can be read off. This scaling function is primarily determined by a single parameter, the charge Luttinger parameter of the tube, which is in turn a function of the tube chirality, dielectric environment, and the tube's dimensions, thus expressing disparate influences on the excitonic energies in a unified fashion. We test this theory explicitly on the data reported by Dukovic et al. [Nano Lett. 5, 2314 (2005), 10.1021/nl0518122] and Sfeir et al. [Phys. Rev. B 82, 195424 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.195424] and so demonstrate the method works over a wide range of reported excitonic spectra.
Konik, Robert M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Misewich, James A.
2015-02-17
We demonstrate that a non-perturbative framework for the treatment of the excitations of single walled carbon nanotubes based upon a field theoretic reduction is able to accurately describe experiment observations of the absolute values of excitonic energies. This theoretical framework yields a simple scaling function from which the excitonic energies can be read off. This scaling function is primarily determined by a single parameter, the charge Luttinger parameter of the tube, which is in turn a function of the tube chirality, dielectric environment, and the tube's dimensions, thus expressing disparate influences on the excitonic energies in a unified fashion. As a result, we test this theory explicitly on the data reported in [NanoLetters 5, 2314 (2005)] and [Phys. Rev. B 82, 195424 (2010)] and so demonstrate the method works over a wide range of reported excitonic spectra.
Konik, Robert M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Misewich, James A.
2015-02-17
We demonstrate that a non-perturbative framework for the treatment of the excitations of single walled carbon nanotubes based upon a field theoretic reduction is able to accurately describe experiment observations of the absolute values of excitonic energies. This theoretical framework yields a simple scaling function from which the excitonic energies can be read off. This scaling function is primarily determined by a single parameter, the charge Luttinger parameter of the tube, which is in turn a function of the tube chirality, dielectric environment, and the tube's dimensions, thus expressing disparate influences on the excitonic energies in a unified fashion. Asmore » a result, we test this theory explicitly on the data reported in [NanoLetters 5, 2314 (2005)] and [Phys. Rev. B 82, 195424 (2010)] and so demonstrate the method works over a wide range of reported excitonic spectra.« less
Illustrating the quantum approach with an Earth magnetic field MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pars Benli, Kami; Dillmann, Baudouin; Louelh, Ryma; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Darrasse, Luc
2015-05-01
Teaching imaging of magnetic resonance (MR) today is still as challenging as it has always been, because it requires admitting that we cannot express fundamental questions of quantum mechanics with straightforward language or without using extensive theory. Here we allow students to face a real MR setup based on the Earth's magnetic field. We address the applied side of teaching MR using a device that is affordable and that proves to be sufficiently robust, at universities in Orsay, France, and San Sebastian, Spain, in experimental practicals at undergraduate and graduate levels. We specifically present some of the advantages of low field for measuring R2 relaxation rates, reaching a power of separation of 1.5 μmol on Mn(II) ions between two water bottles each of half a liter. Finally we propose key approaches for the lecturers to adopt when they are asked to pass from theoretical knowledge to teachable knowhow. The outcomes are fast calibration and the MR acquisition protocols, demonstrating the reproducibility of energy transfer during the saturation pulses, and the quantitative nature of MR, with water protons and a helium-3 sample.
Embury, J.D. |; Han, K.
1999-04-01
The usual method of introducing engineers to the concept of dislocations and their role in plastic flow is to compare an estimate of the theoretical strength of solid (of order {micro}/30 where {micro} is the shear modulus) and the observed strength of either single crystals ({mu}/10{sup 4}) or practical engineering material such as structural steels where the yield stress in shear is of order {mu}/10{sup 3}. However, if one considers the problem in reverse, one can consider the accumulation of dislocations as an important mechanism by which one can produce engineering materials in which the strength level approaches the theoretical strength. If one assumes that the flow stress can be expressed in terms of te mean free path between stored dislocations or as the square root of the global dislocation density, then one can see the influence of dislocation density in a diagrammatic form. It is clear that the strengthening by dislocation accumulation due to large imposed plastic strains represents an important approach both to the development of new, potentially valuable, engineering materials and an important area of basic understanding in terms of the mechanical response of materials close to their theoretical strength. Thus, this article will survey some of the factors which influence dislocation accumulation at large strains and the consequences of such accumulation processes.
From moral theory to penal attitudes and back: a theoretically integrated modeling approach.
de Keijser, Jan W; van der Leeden, Rien; Jackson, Janet L
2002-01-01
From a moral standpoint, we would expect the practice of punishment to reflect a solid and commonly shared legitimizing framework. Several moral legal theories explicitly aim to provide such frameworks. Based on the theories of Retributivism, Utilitarianism, and Restorative Justice, this article first sets out to develop a theoretically integrated model of penal attitudes and then explores the extent to which Dutch judges' attitudes to punishment fit the model. Results indicate that penal attitudes can be measured in a meaningful way that is consistent with an integrated approach to moral theory. The general structure of penal attitudes among Dutch judges suggests a streamlined and pragmatic approach to legal punishment that is identifiably founded on the separate concepts central to moral theories of punishment. While Restorative Justice is frequently presented as an alternative paradigm, results show it to be smoothly incorporated within the streamlined approach.
Shafii, Mohammad Ali Meidianti, Rahma Wildian, Fitriyani, Dian; Tongkukut, Seni H. J.; Arkundato, Artoto
2014-09-30
Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation.
STL, a new approach to field development
Smedal, A.; Syvertsen, K.
1995-12-31
Submerged Turret and Loading (STL) is an efficient and safe system for offshore loading and storage. The loading system can effectively be adapted to specific field requirements and operational conditions. The STL is designed to meet the requirements for versatile and flexible field development, allowing loading operations to take place all year round in the harshest environments. The STL concept has been selected for field development projects with different operational requirements i.e. (1) Direct Shuttle Loading (DSL) which permits loading of processed crude oil directly into shuttle tankers without the requirement for oil storage at the field. A Direct Shuttle Loading system is installed at the Heidrun Field (Conoco). (2) STL as a Floating Storage Unit (FSU) application has been selected for the Fulmar Field (Shell/Esso) and the Yme Field (Statoil). Both FSU`s are converted standard tankers (Aframax and Suezmax) and designed for operation in extreme North Sea environments. (3) An STL buoy can be arranged as an effective offshore loading terminal. BP have selected STL for the Harding Field. The STL loading terminal will be used for export from a subsea field storage. (4) Based on the STL technology Statoil have launched a new design, Multipurpose Shuttle Tanker (MST). This unit will be equipped with the STL ship systems allowing it to operate as an STL tanker for direct shuttle loading, as an STL loading terminal or as a storage unit. In addition the vessel is equipped for operation as a standard North Sea shuttle tanker capable of loading from floating storage units and standard North Sea loading terminals via a loading hose in the conventional manner. (5) The production concept, developed from STL technology can effectively be used for conversion of standard tankers to FPSO or for new-built FPSOs.
Mean field approach to nuclear structure
Nazarewicz, W. |
1993-12-01
Several examples of mean-field calculations, relevant to the recent and planned low-spin experimental works, are presented. The perspectives for future studies (mainly related to spectroscopy of exotic nuclei) are reviewd.
A Maximum-Likelihood Approach to Force-Field Calibration.
Zaborowski, Bartłomiej; Jagieła, Dawid; Czaplewski, Cezary; Hałabis, Anna; Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Żmudzińska, Wioletta; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Karczyńska, Agnieszka; Omieczynski, Christian; Wirecki, Tomasz; Liwo, Adam
2015-09-28
A new approach to the calibration of the force fields is proposed, in which the force-field parameters are obtained by maximum-likelihood fitting of the calculated conformational ensembles to the experimental ensembles of training system(s). The maximum-likelihood function is composed of logarithms of the Boltzmann probabilities of the experimental conformations, calculated with the current energy function. Because the theoretical distribution is given in the form of the simulated conformations only, the contributions from all of the simulated conformations, with Gaussian weights in the distances from a given experimental conformation, are added to give the contribution to the target function from this conformation. In contrast to earlier methods for force-field calibration, the approach does not suffer from the arbitrariness of dividing the decoy set into native-like and non-native structures; however, if such a division is made instead of using Gaussian weights, application of the maximum-likelihood method results in the well-known energy-gap maximization. The computational procedure consists of cycles of decoy generation and maximum-likelihood-function optimization, which are iterated until convergence is reached. The method was tested with Gaussian distributions and then applied to the physics-based coarse-grained UNRES force field for proteins. The NMR structures of the tryptophan cage, a small α-helical protein, determined at three temperatures (T = 280, 305, and 313 K) by Hałabis et al. ( J. Phys. Chem. B 2012 , 116 , 6898 - 6907 ), were used. Multiplexed replica-exchange molecular dynamics was used to generate the decoys. The iterative procedure exhibited steady convergence. Three variants of optimization were tried: optimization of the energy-term weights alone and use of the experimental ensemble of the folded protein only at T = 280 K (run 1); optimization of the energy-term weights and use of experimental ensembles at all three temperatures (run 2
Hektner, Joel M; Brennan, Alison L; Brotherson, Sean E
2013-09-01
The Nurtured Heart Approach to parenting (NHA; Glasser & Easley, 2008) is summarized and evaluated in terms of its alignment with current theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence in family studies and developmental science. Originally conceived and promoted as a behavior management approach for parents of difficult children (i.e., with behavior disorders), NHA is increasingly offered as a valuable strategy for parents of any children, despite a lack of published empirical support. Parents using NHA are trained to minimize attention to undesired behaviors, provide positive attention and praise for compliance with rules, help children be successful by scaffolding and shaping desired behavior, and establish a set of clear rules and consequences. Many elements of the approach have strong support in the theoretical and empirical literature; however, some of the assumptions are more questionable, such as that negative child behavior can always be attributed to unintentional positive reinforcement by parents responding with negative attention. On balance, NHA appears to promote effective and validated parenting practices, but its effectiveness now needs to be tested empirically. PMID:24033240
Coupling between the nematic/isotropic transition and a thickness transition: A theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Effenterre, D.; Valignat, M. P.; Roux, D.
2003-05-01
In this letter, we develop a theoretical model of the effect of a free surface on the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition in a confined geometry. Simply by coupling a bulk first-order phase transition with a thickness-dependent elastic distortion field in a Landau-like description, the model predicts a coexistence at equilibrium between the isotropic and the nematic phases at two different thicknesses. A phase diagram is constructed in the temperature-thickness plane and a comparison is given with experimental results obtained on thin films (van Effenterre D., Ober R., Valignat M. P. and Cazabat A. M., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2001) 125701).
Recent Developments in Fully Fluctuating Field-Theoretic Simulations of Polymer Melts and Solutions.
Delaney, Kris T; Fredrickson, Glenn H
2016-08-11
We review the latest developments in computational methods for direct simulation of fully fluctuating field theories of polymeric assemblies. In this context, we describe a newly developed theoretical and computational framework for accurately computing fluctuation-corrected phase diagrams of mesostructured polymer systems and report the first such complete phase diagram for a diblock copolymer melt. The method is based on complex Langevin sampling of a UV regularized field-theoretic model, with Helmholtz free energies computed using thermodynamic integration. UV regularization ensures that the free energies do not have an arbitrary reference; they can be compared between incommensurate phases, permitting for the first time the computation of order-order transitions with fluctuation corrections. We further demonstrate that computed free energies are accurate in the disordered phase by comparison to perturbation theory on the one-loop level. Importantly, we note that our method uses no uncontrolled approximations beyond the initial definition of a coarse-grained molecular model for the polymer melt or solution. The method can be applied straightforwardly to melts and solutions containing multiple species with diverse polymer architectures. PMID:27414265
Mono- or bis-ligand complexes are better for chelation therapy? Theoretical approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakusch, Tamás; Kiss, Tamás
2014-10-01
In our theorethical approach we would like to point out that the dissociation constant (Kd value) of the complexes itself not enough parameter to describe the metal ion binding ability of the MPACS. The ligand concentration dependence of the free metal ion concentration is stronger is bis- or tris complexes are also formed (second or third order), than just mono complex (first order) exists, the theoretical therapeutic window should be more wide for tetra- penta- or hexadentate ligands (only mono complexes formed) than for bi- or tridentate chelators (bis- and tris complex formation is possible).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Taehwang; Kim, Donghyun
2015-03-01
We present a theoretical approach to single nanoparticle detection using surface plasmon scattering microscopy. Through rigorous coupled wave analysis assuming light incidence on a gold coated BK7 glass substrate under total internal reflection condition for a 200-nm polystyrene as targets attached to the gold film, it was found that surface plasmon polariton induced by incident light on the gold thin film is perturbed. As a result, parabolic waves were observed in the reflection plane. By varying angles of incidence and wavelengths, optimum incident conditions for surface plasmon scattering microscopy were obtained.
Fermion bag approach to lattice field theories
Chandrasekharan, Shailesh
2010-07-15
We propose a new approach to the fermion sign problem in systems where there is a coupling U such that when it is infinite the fermions are paired into bosons, and there is no fermion permutation sign to worry about. We argue that as U becomes finite, fermions are liberated but are naturally confined to regions which we refer to as fermion bags. The fermion sign problem is then confined to these bags and may be solved using the determinantal trick. In the parameter regime where the fermion bags are small and their typical size does not grow with the system size, construction of Monte Carlo methods that are far more efficient than conventional algorithms should be possible. In the region where the fermion bags grow with system size, the fermion bag approach continues to provide an alternative approach to the problem but may lose its main advantage in terms of efficiency. The fermion bag approach also provides new insights and solutions to sign problems. A natural solution to the ''silver blaze problem'' also emerges. Using the three-dimensional massless lattice Thirring model as an example, we introduce the fermion bag approach and demonstrate some of these features. We compute the critical exponents at the quantum phase transition and find {nu}=0.87(2) and {eta}=0.62(2).
Avian genetics: A field and ecological approach
Cooke, F.; Buckley, P.A.
1987-01-01
The authors wanted to present the ecological/population approach they used in their own research, and a compendium of carefully referred chapters written by invited experts was essential. The book follows the historical evolution of work in avian genetics, proceeding from a discussion of Mendelian (i.e. classical) genes through quantitative genetics, chromosomal genetics, biochemical genetics, to extensive treatment of population genetics, and concluding with some examples of long-term studies. In this book concentration has been more on intra- than on inter-specific variation; in that sense the approach has been more genetic than evolutionary or taxonomic.
A study of Ti-doped WO3 thin films using comparative theoretical and experimental approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paez, Aurelio
Metal oxides like Tungsten Oxide (WO3) are well documented and characterized in the literature, with uses in darkening windows and mirrors, flat computer displays, solar panel cooling, and sensors (of interest in this study). Ti doping of WO3 is less documented and the focus of this study. Sample thin films of pure WO3 and varyingly Ti doped WO3 were prepared using Radio Frequency magnetron sputtering (RF) (13.56 MHz) to grow thin films on a silicon substrate. This study aims to compare multiple Ti doping percentages in WO3 theoretically and then compare with experimental data taken from thin films of various Ti doping levels grown at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 0°C. Characterization of the materials was to be conducted using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and other theoretical and simulated approaches. Theoretical calculations optimized Ti doping at somewhere between 6.25% and 12%. Experimental data indicates that under the given growing conditions optimal Ti doping is 5%. The percentage of Ti may be able to be increased and the material retain desired characteristics with an increased growth temperature above 400 0°C as annealing samples post-growth has no positive impact on the thin film structure.
Electric-field induced mutation of DNA: a theoretical investigation of the GC base pair.
Cerón-Carrasco, José P; Jacquemin, Denis
2013-04-01
It is known that intense external electric fields affect the proton transfer (PT) reactions in simple chemical systems, such as hydrated chlorhydric acid or formic acid dimer. Accordingly, electric fields might be used to modulate the PT reactions responsible for the spontaneous mutation mechanism in DNA. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of these fields on the tautomeric equilibria of the guanine-cytosine (GC) base pair in order to gain further insight into this hypothesis. This task is performed with both density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) approaches. Our results demonstrate that electric fields not only drastically alter the rate constants of PT but also tune the mechanism of the PT reactions in the GC base pair. PMID:23338206
Semiclassical and quantum field theoretic bounds for traversable Lorentzian stringy wormholes
Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang Yuanzhong; Kumar, K.B. Vijaya
2004-09-15
A lower bound on the size of a Lorentzian wormhole can be obtained by semiclassically introducing the Planck cutoff on the magnitude of tidal forces (Horowitz-Ross constraint). Also, an upper bound is provided by the quantum field theoretic constraint in the form of the Ford-Roman Quantum Inequality for massless minimally coupled scalar fields. To date, however, exact static solutions belonging to this scalar field theory have not been worked out to verify these bounds. To fill this gap, we examine the wormhole features of two examples from the Einstein frame description of the vacuum low energy string theory in four dimensions which is the same as the minimally coupled scalar field theory. Analyses in this paper support the conclusion of Ford and Roman that wormholes in this theory can have sizes that are indeed only a few order of magnitudes larger than the Planck scale. It is shown that the two types of bounds are also compatible. In the process, we point out a 'wormhole' analog of naked black holes.
New Approaches to Generalist Field Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Teigiser, Karen S.
2009-01-01
The practice of social work has changed significantly over the years, but models for student field learning have changed relatively little. This article describes two recent changes implemented by the School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago that are intended to connect the contemporary demands of generalist social work…
Afterschool Education: Approaches to an Emerging Field.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noam, Gil G.; Biancarosa, Gina; Dechausay, Nadine
Noting that there exists little systematic and conclusive research on after-school education to guide the development of practices in this emerging field, this book contributes to the definition of after-school education by focusing on three essential aspects of such programming: (1) bridging school to after-school (2) homework, or extended…
Suflita, Joseph M.; Duncan, Kathleen E.
2010-08-14
The Joint United States - European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for in situ Biodegradation was held May 24 through June 7 at The University of Oklahoma. Twenty-four graduate and postgraduate students from both the United States and the European Union attended the course. Nine states and ten European countries were represented. Students were assigned living quarters and laboratory partners to maximize interactions between US and EU participants as well as to mix people with different technical backgrounds together. The students used the latest methods in molecular biology to characterize beneficial microorganisms and genes involved in the biodegradation of pollutants at a nearby landfill as well as an active hydrocarbon-producing site, part of which is undergoing bioremediation. Seminars by distinguished scientists were organized to expose the students to the breadth of the environmental field, including field assay and engineering applications, laboratory scale bioreactors, microbiology, genetics, regulation, pathway analysis, design of recombinant bacteria, and application of the associated techniques to the field. Lectures were given by various OU faculty on the principles behind the techniques to be used in the laboratory. These lectures included troubleshooting hints and encouraged questions and comments from the audience. The laboratory experiments covered chemical, microbiological, and molecular genetic analyses of soils; bioavailability of contaminants; enrichment cultures; gene probing; PCR amplification of known genes and gene families; identification of microbes based traditional and nontraditional approaches, nutritional capabilities, and 16S rRNA sequence; mRNA detection; and enzyme assays. Field trips were made to the USGS landfill field sampling site, and to the Tall Grass Prairie Preserve, a Nature Conservancy site which also featured long-term studies of bioremediation of crude oil and brine spills by one of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawthorne, Frank C.
2012-11-01
Here, I describe a theoretical approach to the structure and chemical composition of minerals based on their bond topology. This approach allows consideration of many aspects of minerals and mineral behaviour that cannot be addressed by current theoretical methods. It consists of combining the bond topology of the structure with aspects of graph theory and bond-valence theory (both long range and short range), and using the moments approach to the electronic energy density-of-states to interpret topological aspects of crystal structures. The structure hierarchy hypothesis states that higher bond-valence polyhedra polymerize to form the (usually anionic) structural unit, the excess charge of which is balanced by the interstitial complex (usually consisting of large low-valence cations and (H2O) groups). This hypothesis may be justified within the framework of bond topology and bond-valence theory, and may be used to hierarchically classify oxysalt minerals. It is the weak interaction between the structural unit and the interstitial complex that controls the stability of the structural arrangement. The principle of correspondence of Lewis acidity-basicity states that stable structures will form when the Lewis-acid strength of the interstitial complex closely matches the Lewis-base strength of the structural unit, and allows us to examine the factors that control the chemical composition and aspects of the structural arrangements of minerals. It also provides a connection between a structure, the speciation of its constituents in aqueous solution and its mechanism of crystallization. The moments approach to the electronic energy density-of-states provides a link between the bond topology of a structure and its thermodynamic properties, as indicated by correlations between average anion coordination number and reduced enthalpy of formation from the oxides for [6]Mg{/m [4]}Si n O( m+2 n) and MgSO4(H2O) n .
A new approach to observe toroidal magnetic fields of magnetars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, H.; Makishima, K.; Enoto, T.; Nakano, T.; Furuta, Y.; Nakazawa, K.
2016-06-01
Over the last decade, observational evidence has amounted that magnetars harbor enormous surface dipole magnetic fields (MFs) of B_{d} = 10^{14-15} {G}. Theoretically, we expect even stronger toroidal MFs B_{t} (e.g., Takiwaki+2009), which is observationally supported by a discovery of low-B_{d} magnetars (e.g., SGR 0418+5729; Rea+2013). Here, we will present a new approach to access B_{t} more directly. Suzaku allows us to simultaneously observe a soft thermal component and a distinct hard X-ray tail of magnetars. Extensively analyzing two magnetars, 4U 0142+61 and 1E 1547.0-5408, we found that their hard X-ray pulses suffered from slow phase modulations (Makishima+2014, 2015). This can be interpreted as a manifestation of free precession, under an axial deformation by ˜0.01%. If this effect is attributed to the magnetic stress, B_{t}˜10^{16} G is inferred. We further found that, within 6 years observation of 4U 0142+61, the modulation periods remained constant, while the amplitude gradually increased from < 0.4 to ˜1.3 sec. These results suggest the shift of the hard X-ray emission region (or direction).
Bartholomeusz, Cali F.; Allott, Kelly
2012-01-01
Improving functional outcome, in addition to alleviating psychotic symptoms, is now a major treatment objective in schizophrenia research. Given the large body of evidence suggesting pharmacological treatments generally have minimal effects on indices of functioning, research has turned to psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Among these, neurocognitive and social cognitive interventions are at the forefront of this field and are argued to target core deficits inherent to the schizophrenia illness. However, to date, research trials have primarily focused on chronic schizophrenia populations, neglecting the early psychosis groups who are often as severely impaired in social and occupational functioning. This theoretical paper will outline the rationale for investigating adjunctive cognitive-based interventions in the early phases of psychotic illness, critically examine the current approach strategies used in these interventions, and assess the evidence supporting certain training programs for improving functional outcome in early psychosis. Potential pathways for future research will be discussed. PMID:22966447
Random field estimation approach to robot dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, Guillermo
1990-01-01
The difference equations of Kalman filtering and smoothing recursively factor and invert the covariance of the output of a linear state-space system driven by a white-noise process. Here it is shown that similar recursive techniques factor and invert the inertia matrix of a multibody robot system. The random field models are based on the assumption that all of the inertial (D'Alembert) forces in the system are represented by a spatially distributed white-noise model. They are easier to describe than the models based on classical mechanics, which typically require extensive derivation and manipulation of equations of motion for complex mechanical systems. With the spatially random models, more primitive locally specified computations result in a global collective system behavior equivalent to that obtained with deterministic models. The primary goal of applying random field estimation is to provide a concise analytical foundation for solving robot control and motion planning problems.
Infrared optical activity: electric field approaches in time domain.
Rhee, Hanju; Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng
2010-12-21
Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy provides detailed information about the absolute configurations of chiral molecules including biomolecules and synthetic drugs. This method is the infrared (IR) analogue of the more popular electronic CD spectroscopy that uses the ultraviolet and visible ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Because conventional electronic CD spectroscopy measures the difference in signal intensity, problems such as weak signal and low time-resolution can limit its utility. To overcome the difficulties associated with that approach, we have recently developed femtosecond IR optical activity (IOA) spectrometry, which directly measures the IOA free-induction-decay (FID), the impulsive chiroptical IR response that occurs over time. In this Account, we review the time-domain electric field measurement and calculation methods used to simultaneously characterize VCD and related vibrational optical rotatory dispersion (VORD) spectra. Although conventional methods measure the electric field intensity, this vibrational technique is based on a direct phase-and-amplitude measurement of the electric field of the chiroptical signal over time. This method uses a cross-polarization analyzer to carry out heterodyned spectral interferometry. The cross-polarization scheme enables us to selectively remove the achiral background signal, which is the dominant noise component present in differential intensity measurement techniques. Because we can detect the IOA FID signal in a phase-amplitude-sensitive manner, we can directly characterize the time-dependent electric dipole/magnetic dipole response function and the complex chiral susceptibility that contain information about the angular oscillations of charged particles. These parameters yield information about the VCD and VORD spectra. In parallel with such experimental developments, we have also calculated the IOA FID signal and the resulting VCD spectrum. These simulations use a quantum mechanical
Infrared optical activity: electric field approaches in time domain.
Rhee, Hanju; Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng
2010-12-21
Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy provides detailed information about the absolute configurations of chiral molecules including biomolecules and synthetic drugs. This method is the infrared (IR) analogue of the more popular electronic CD spectroscopy that uses the ultraviolet and visible ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Because conventional electronic CD spectroscopy measures the difference in signal intensity, problems such as weak signal and low time-resolution can limit its utility. To overcome the difficulties associated with that approach, we have recently developed femtosecond IR optical activity (IOA) spectrometry, which directly measures the IOA free-induction-decay (FID), the impulsive chiroptical IR response that occurs over time. In this Account, we review the time-domain electric field measurement and calculation methods used to simultaneously characterize VCD and related vibrational optical rotatory dispersion (VORD) spectra. Although conventional methods measure the electric field intensity, this vibrational technique is based on a direct phase-and-amplitude measurement of the electric field of the chiroptical signal over time. This method uses a cross-polarization analyzer to carry out heterodyned spectral interferometry. The cross-polarization scheme enables us to selectively remove the achiral background signal, which is the dominant noise component present in differential intensity measurement techniques. Because we can detect the IOA FID signal in a phase-amplitude-sensitive manner, we can directly characterize the time-dependent electric dipole/magnetic dipole response function and the complex chiral susceptibility that contain information about the angular oscillations of charged particles. These parameters yield information about the VCD and VORD spectra. In parallel with such experimental developments, we have also calculated the IOA FID signal and the resulting VCD spectrum. These simulations use a quantum mechanical
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maracci, Mirko; Cazes, Claire; Vandebrouck, Fabrice; Mariotti, Maria Alessandra
2013-01-01
Mathematics education as a research domain is characterized by a plurality of theoretical approaches. Acknowledging the existence of such diversity and the risks of an excessive theoretical fragmentation does not mean to search for a unifying theory but to urge the community to develop strategies for coping with this diversity. This article is…
Shared Viewing as an Approach to Transforming Early Field Experiences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heafner, Tina; Plaisance, Michelle
2012-01-01
Although early field experiences are touted as vital for providing a hands-on preview of how teaching unfolds in the classroom, these essential components of teacher preparation programs have consistently fallen short of the desired outcomes. In the spirit of Dewey, candidates need substantive experiences that transform their theoretical learning…
Jiao, Junjie; He, Yong; Leong, Thomas; Kentish, Sandra E; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Manasseh, Richard; Lee, Judy
2013-10-17
When subjected to an ultrasonic standing-wave field, cavitation bubbles smaller than the resonance size migrate to the pressure antinodes. As bubbles approach the antinode, they also move toward each other and either form a cluster or coalesce. In this study, the translational trajectory of two bubbles moving toward each other in an ultrasonic standing wave at 22.4 kHz was observed using an imaging system with a high-speed video camera. This allowed the speed of the approaching bubbles to be measured for much closer distances than those reported in the prior literature. The trajectory of two approaching bubbles was modeled using coupled equations of radial and translational motions, showing similar trends with the experimental results. We also indirectly measured the secondary Bjerknes force by monitoring the acceleration when bubbles are close to each other under different acoustic pressure amplitudes. Bubbles begin to accelerate toward each other as the distance between them gets shorter, and this acceleration increases with increasing acoustic pressure. The current study provides experimental data that validates the theory on the movement of bubbles and forces acting between them in an acoustic field that will be useful in understanding bubble coalescence in an acoustic field.
A theoretical analysis of the observed variability of the geomagnetic dipole field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyng, P.; Schmitt, D.; Ossendrijver, M. A. J. H.
2002-04-01
We present a detailed analysis of the Sint-800 virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) data in terms of an αΩ mean field model of the geodynamo that features a non-steady generation of poloidal from toroidal magnetic field. The result is a variable excitation of the dipole mode and the overtones, and there are occasional dipole reversals. The model permits a theoretical evaluation of the statistical properties of the dipole mode. We show that the model correctly predicts the distribution of the VADM and the autocorrelation function inferred from the Sint-800 data. The autocorrelation technique allows us to determine the turbulent diffusion time τd= R2/ β of the geodynamo. We find that τd is about 10-15 kyr. The model is able to reproduce the observed secular variation of the dipole mode, and the mean time between successive dipole reversals. On the other hand, the duration of a reversal is a factor ˜2 too long. This could be due to imperfections in the model or to unknown systematics in the Sint-800 data. The use of mean field theory is shown to be selfconsistent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, Jeffrey K.; Pande, Vijay S.
2013-09-01
The protein folding problem has long represented a "holy grail" in statistical physics due to its physical complexity and its relevance to many human diseases. While past theoretical work has yielded apt descriptions of protein folding landscapes, recent large-scale simulations have provided insights into protein folding that were impractical to obtain from early theories. In particular, the role that non-native contacts play in protein folding, and their relation to the existence of misfolded, β-sheet rich trap states on folding landscapes, has emerged as a topic of interest in the field. In this paper, we present a modified model of heteropolymer freezing that includes explicit secondary structural characteristics which allow observations of "intramolecular amyloid" states to be probed from a theoretical perspective. We introduce a variable persistence length-based energy penalty to a model Hamiltonian, and we illustrate how this modification alters the phase transitions present in the theory. We find, in particular, that inclusion of this variable persistence length increases both generic freezing and folding temperatures in the model, allowing both folding and glass transitions to occur in a more highly optimized fashion. We go on to discuss how these changes might relate to protein evolution, misfolding, and the emergence of intramolecular amyloid states.
Hatada, Tomohisa; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo
2004-01-01
Detection of weak magnetic fields induced by neuronal electrical activities with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a potentially effective method for functional imaging of the brain. In this study, we compared the theoretical and practical limits of sensitivity for detecting weak magnetic fields with a columnar phantom. The theoretical limit of sensitivity was estimated from signal and noise intensities in magnetic resonance images. The theoretical limit of sensitivity was approximately 10(-8)T. The practical limit was 10 times the theoretical limit. The dependence of the theoretical limit of sensitivity on acquisition parameters, such as the repetition time (TR), echo time (TE), number of pixels, and spectral width, was quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated the existence of an optimal value in T(E)/T2*.
Constraints on field theoretical models for variation of the fine structure constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinhardt, Charles L.
2005-02-01
Recent theoretical ideas and observational claims suggest that the fine structure constant α may be variable. We examine a spectrum of models in which α is a function of a scalar field. Specifically, we consider three scenarios: oscillating α, monotonic time variation of α, and time-independent α that is spatially varying. We examine the constraints imposed upon these theories by cosmological observations, particle detector experiments, and “fifth force” experiments. These constraints are very strong on models involving oscillation but cannot compete with bounds from the Oklo subnuclear reactor on models with monotonic timelike variation of α. One particular model with spatial variation is consistent with all current experimental and observational measurements, including those from two seemingly conflicting measurements of the fine structure constant using the many multiplet method on absorption lines.
Sebai, Jihane
2016-01-01
Various organizational, functional or structural issues have led to a review of the foundations of the former health care system based on a traditional market segmentation between general practice and hospital medicine, and between health and social sectors and marked by competition between private and public sectors. The current reconfiguration of the health care system has resulted in “new” levers explained by the development of a new organizational reconfiguration of the primary health care model. Coordinated care structures (SSC) have been developed in this context by making coordination the cornerstone of relations between professionals to ensure global, continuous and quality health care. This article highlights the contributions of various theoretical approaches to the understanding of the concept of coordination in the analysis of the current specificity of health care. PMID:27392057
Sebai, Jihane
2016-01-01
Various organizational, functional or structural issues have led to a review of the foundations of the former health care system based on a traditional market segmentation between general practice and hospital medicine, and between health and social sectors and marked by competition between private and public sectors. The current reconfiguration of the health care system has resulted in “new” levers explained by the development of a new organizational reconfiguration of the primary health care model. Coordinated care structures (SSC) have been developed in this context by making coordination the cornerstone of relations between professionals to ensure global, continuous and quality health care. This article highlights the contributions of various theoretical approaches to the understanding of the concept of coordination in the analysis of the current specificity of health care.
The Goodwyn Field - an integrated approach to optimal field development
Newman, S.H.; Taylor, N.C.
1996-12-31
The Goodwyn gas field is located some 130 km offshore of Western Australia in a water depth of 130m and is currently under development. First production commenced in February 1995. The rich gas (CGR - 90 bbl/MMscf) is trapped within fluvio-deltaic reservoirs of the Triassic Mungaroo Formation In a large notated fault block on the northwestern edge of the Dampier Sub-Basin. The reservoir units, ranging in thickness between 30 and 80 meters, dip gently below the overlying Cretaceous shales which provide the updip seal. The target production levels and ultimate recovery are based on the optimization of gas recycling along strike in the individual reservoir units. The success of the development plan depends on an accurate model of the reservoir architecture. Prior to development drilling, only four wells had penetrated the primary reservoir units. Successful development planning required the recognition and management of key subsurface uncertainties. Integration between seismic interpretation, stochastic reservoir modelling and reservoir engineering proved essential to achieve the development objectives. A detailed evaluation of the reservoir stratigraphy, sedimentology, high resolution seismic and high resolution palynology provided the framework for the 3D stochastic reservoir modeling. The modelling converted the information into a number of geological realizations which were then used to generate a family of dynamic reservoir models. The location of the various development wells was thus optimized on a risked basis. Seven development wells have now been drilled and although these wells have shown that there is more variability than originally envisaged, the broad framework of the reservoir model remains robust.
The Goodwyn Field - an integrated approach to optimal field development
Newman, S.H.; Taylor, N.C.
1996-01-01
The Goodwyn gas field is located some 130 km offshore of Western Australia in a water depth of 130m and is currently under development. First production commenced in February 1995. The rich gas (CGR - 90 bbl/MMscf) is trapped within fluvio-deltaic reservoirs of the Triassic Mungaroo Formation In a large notated fault block on the northwestern edge of the Dampier Sub-Basin. The reservoir units, ranging in thickness between 30 and 80 meters, dip gently below the overlying Cretaceous shales which provide the updip seal. The target production levels and ultimate recovery are based on the optimization of gas recycling along strike in the individual reservoir units. The success of the development plan depends on an accurate model of the reservoir architecture. Prior to development drilling, only four wells had penetrated the primary reservoir units. Successful development planning required the recognition and management of key subsurface uncertainties. Integration between seismic interpretation, stochastic reservoir modelling and reservoir engineering proved essential to achieve the development objectives. A detailed evaluation of the reservoir stratigraphy, sedimentology, high resolution seismic and high resolution palynology provided the framework for the 3D stochastic reservoir modeling. The modelling converted the information into a number of geological realizations which were then used to generate a family of dynamic reservoir models. The location of the various development wells was thus optimized on a risked basis. Seven development wells have now been drilled and although these wells have shown that there is more variability than originally envisaged, the broad framework of the reservoir model remains robust.
Rousochatzakis, Ioannis
2005-12-17
The field of molecular magnetism[l-6] has become a subject of intense theoretical and experimental interest and has rapidly evolved during the last years. This inter-disciplinary field concerns magnetic systems at the molecular or "nanoscopic" level, whose realization has become feasible due to recent advances in the field of chemical synthesis. The present theoretical work provides a first step towards exploiting the possibilities that are offered by probing magnetic molecules using external magnetic fields with high sweep rates. These probes, apart for providing information specific to magnetic molecules, offer the possibility of conducting a detailed study of the relaxational behavior of interacting spin systems as a result of their coupling with a "heat bath" and in particular the excitations of the host lattice. Development of a broad theoretical framework for dealing with relaxational phenomena induced by dynamical magnetic fields is indeed a worthy goal.
a Field-Theoretical Investigation of 2-D Coulomb Systems with Short-Range Yukawa Repulsion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jargocki, Krzysztof Piotr
The two-dimensional Coulomb gas, consisting of positive and negative charges, is an important system which, on one hand, is equivalent to the vortex sector of the planar X-Y model, and, on the other, to the sine-Gordon field theory. In most treatments the charged particles are assumed to have a repulsive hard core which prevents arbitrarily close approaches. In the present work a new regularization scheme based on a soft short-range Yukawa repulsion between the Coulomb gas particles is presented. This formulation is transcribed into a local sine-Gordon-like field theory involving two Bose fields, one the original massless sine -Gordon field corresponding to the long-range Coulomb interaction and an auxiliary massive field corresponding to the short -range Yukawa repulsion. The resulting Lagrangian is not Hermitian. Using the techniques of functional integration, an effective field theory involving the Coulomb field alone is obtained by integrating out the massive field. The resulting Lagrangian is now Hermitian. Then a generalization of Peierls' inequality is used to make a variational calculation of the ground state energy of the Coulomb system. Unlike in the pure sine-Gordon case the theory has a well-defined ground state energy for (beta)q('2) > 2 (or (beta)c('2) > 8(pi)). A new method is used to derive the Kosterlitz -Thouless renormalization group equations, starting with the original sine-Gordon-like theory. The equations are identical to those found previously by other authors. A wave function renormalization is found to be necessary in addition to the normal ordering discussed by Coleman. A fermionized version of the theory is obtained, using the dictionary provided by Kogut and Susskind, which involves two Fermi fields and an electromagnetic potential. Position -space correlation functions are calculated at the critical point. The effective potential is computed in the one -loop approximation. A nonlinear field theory with derivative couplings is found to
Fedorovich, E.
1995-09-01
The paper presents an extended theoretical background for applied modeling of the atmospheric convective boundary layer within the so-called zero-order jump approach, which implies vertical homogeneity of meteorological fields in the bulk of convective boundary layer (CBL) and zero-order discontinuities of variables at the interfaces of the layer. The zero-order jump model equations for the most typical cases of CBL are derived. The models of nonsteady, horizontally homogeneous CBL with and without shear, extensively studied in the past with the aid of zero-order jump models, are shown to be particular cases of the general zero-order jump theoretical framework. The integral budgets of momentum and heat are considered for different types of dry CBL. The profiles of vertical turbulent fluxes are presented and analyzed. The general version of the equation of CBL depth growth rate (entrainment rate equation) is obtained by the integration of the turbulence kinetic energy balance equation, invoking basic assumptions of the zero-order parameterizations of the CBL vertical structure. The problems of parameterizing the turbulence vertical structure and closure of the entrainment rate equation for specific cases of CBL are discussed. A parameterization scheme for the horizontal turbulent exchange in zero-order jump models of CBL is proposed. The developed theory is generalized for the case of CBL over irregular terrain. 28 refs., 2 figs.
Model-free information-theoretic approach to infer leadership in pairs of zebrafish
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butail, Sachit; Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio
2016-04-01
Collective behavior affords several advantages to fish in avoiding predators, foraging, mating, and swimming. Although fish schools have been traditionally considered egalitarian superorganisms, a number of empirical observations suggest the emergence of leadership in gregarious groups. Detecting and classifying leader-follower relationships is central to elucidate the behavioral and physiological causes of leadership and understand its consequences. Here, we demonstrate an information-theoretic approach to infer leadership from positional data of fish swimming. In this framework, we measure social interactions between fish pairs through the mathematical construct of transfer entropy, which quantifies the predictive power of a time series to anticipate another, possibly coupled, time series. We focus on the zebrafish model organism, which is rapidly emerging as a species of choice in preclinical research for its genetic similarity to humans and reduced neurobiological complexity with respect to mammals. To overcome experimental confounds and generate test data sets on which we can thoroughly assess our approach, we adapt and calibrate a data-driven stochastic model of zebrafish motion for the simulation of a coupled dynamical system of zebrafish pairs. In this synthetic data set, the extent and direction of the coupling between the fish are systematically varied across a wide parameter range to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of transfer entropy in inferring leadership. Our approach is expected to aid in the analysis of collective behavior, providing a data-driven perspective to understand social interactions.
Model-free information-theoretic approach to infer leadership in pairs of zebrafish.
Butail, Sachit; Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio
2016-04-01
Collective behavior affords several advantages to fish in avoiding predators, foraging, mating, and swimming. Although fish schools have been traditionally considered egalitarian superorganisms, a number of empirical observations suggest the emergence of leadership in gregarious groups. Detecting and classifying leader-follower relationships is central to elucidate the behavioral and physiological causes of leadership and understand its consequences. Here, we demonstrate an information-theoretic approach to infer leadership from positional data of fish swimming. In this framework, we measure social interactions between fish pairs through the mathematical construct of transfer entropy, which quantifies the predictive power of a time series to anticipate another, possibly coupled, time series. We focus on the zebrafish model organism, which is rapidly emerging as a species of choice in preclinical research for its genetic similarity to humans and reduced neurobiological complexity with respect to mammals. To overcome experimental confounds and generate test data sets on which we can thoroughly assess our approach, we adapt and calibrate a data-driven stochastic model of zebrafish motion for the simulation of a coupled dynamical system of zebrafish pairs. In this synthetic data set, the extent and direction of the coupling between the fish are systematically varied across a wide parameter range to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of transfer entropy in inferring leadership. Our approach is expected to aid in the analysis of collective behavior, providing a data-driven perspective to understand social interactions. PMID:27176333
Pant, Sanjay; Lombardi, Damiano
2015-10-01
A new approach for assessing parameter identifiability of dynamical systems in a Bayesian setting is presented. The concept of Shannon entropy is employed to measure the inherent uncertainty in the parameters. The expected reduction in this uncertainty is seen as the amount of information one expects to gain about the parameters due to the availability of noisy measurements of the dynamical system. Such expected information gain is interpreted in terms of the variance of a hypothetical measurement device that can measure the parameters directly, and is related to practical identifiability of the parameters. If the individual parameters are unidentifiable, correlation between parameter combinations is assessed through conditional mutual information to determine which sets of parameters can be identified together. The information theoretic quantities of entropy and information are evaluated numerically through a combination of Monte Carlo and k-nearest neighbour methods in a non-parametric fashion. Unlike many methods to evaluate identifiability proposed in the literature, the proposed approach takes the measurement-noise into account and is not restricted to any particular noise-structure. Whilst computationally intensive for large dynamical systems, it is easily parallelisable and is non-intrusive as it does not necessitate re-writing of the numerical solvers of the dynamical system. The application of such an approach is presented for a variety of dynamical systems--ranging from systems governed by ordinary differential equations to partial differential equations--and, where possible, validated against results previously published in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joyce, Arthur A.; Goman, Michelle
2012-11-01
In this article we discuss two theoretical approaches to landscape studies in archaeology: the ecological and social/symbolic. We suggest that an integrated approach can provide a more effective means through which archaeologists and earth scientists can model the complex interplay between people and the environment. Our perspective views peoples' engagements with the landscape as simultaneously ecological and social, material and symbolic. To illustrate this synthetic approach we discuss our research from the highland and lowland regions of the Mexican state of Oaxaca using archaeological, ethnographic, ethnohistorical, paleoecological, and geomorphological data. In highland Oaxaca we examine the ways in which political and religious principles were embedded in the landscape as well as the social, symbolic, and material dimensions of anthropogenic landscape change during the Formative period. For the coastal lowlands, we discuss the social and ecological implications of the transition to sedentism and the effects of anthropogenic landscape change during the Formative period. We also examine the interplay between politics and land use during the Classic and Postclassic periods.
Luan, Chongbiao; Lin, Zhaojun Zhao, Jingtao; Wang, Yutang; Lv, Yuanjie; Chen, Hong; Wang, Zhanguo
2014-07-28
The theoretical model of the polarization Coulomb field scattering (PCF) caused by the polarization charge density variation at the AlGaN/AlN interface in strained AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors has been developed. And the theoretical values for the electron drift mobility, which were calculated using the Matthiessen's rule that includes PCF, piezoelectric scattering, polar optical-phonon scattering, and interface roughness scattering, are in good agreement with our experimental values. Therefore, the theoretical model for PCF has been confirmed.
A simple theoretical approach to calculate the electrical conductivity of nonideal copper plasma
Zaghloul, Mofreh R.
2008-04-15
A simple theoretical approach to calculate the electrical conductivity of partially ionized nonideal copper plasma is introduced. The densities of plasma species are calculated, to machine accuracy, including electronic excitation and allowing for high ionization states up to the atomic number of the element. Depression of ionization energies is taken into account using an interpolation formula that is valid over a wide range of densities. The formula yields the results of the Debye-Hueckel and the ion-sphere models at the limiting boundaries of low and high densities, respectively. The nonideal Coulomb logarithm is represented by an analytic wide-range formula supplemented by a specially tailored cutoff parameter. Effects of excluding excited and high ionization states on the calculation of ionization equilibrium and electrical conductivity of copper are investigated and assessed. Computational results of the electrical conductivity are compared with results from other theoretical models and available experimental measurements and showed reasonable agreement. A discussion about the choice of the ion-sphere radius is included and concerns about thermodynamic inconsistency when using the modified nonideal Saha equations are discussed and cleared.
Understanding Confounding Effects in Linguistic Coordination: An Information-Theoretic Approach
Gao, Shuyang; Ver Steeg, Greg; Galstyan, Aram
2015-01-01
We suggest an information-theoretic approach for measuring stylistic coordination in dialogues. The proposed measure has a simple predictive interpretation and can account for various confounding factors through proper conditioning. We revisit some of the previous studies that reported strong signatures of stylistic accommodation, and find that a significant part of the observed coordination can be attributed to a simple confounding effect—length coordination. Specifically, longer utterances tend to be followed by longer responses, which gives rise to spurious correlations in the other stylistic features. We propose a test to distinguish correlations in length due to contextual factors (topic of conversation, user verbosity, etc.) and turn-by-turn coordination. We also suggest a test to identify whether stylistic coordination persists even after accounting for length coordination and contextual factors. PMID:26115446
Theoretical investigation of antiferroelectric (SmCA*) subphases by hydrodynamical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahiri, T.; Pal Majumder, T.
2011-12-01
We provide a hydrodynamical approach utilizing time dependent Landau-Ginzburg model (L-G) and the Cahn-Hilliard model (C-H) to investigate antiferroelectric liquid crystals (AFLCs) exhibiting different chiral phases between paraelectric smectic A (SmA*) phase and antiferroelectric smectic CA* phase (SmCA*). Introducing conserved and non-conserved order parameters in C-H and L-G models, we have predicted the appearance of a chiral smectic C (SmC*) phase and a ferrielectric SmCFI1* phase (three layers SmCA*) in an antiferroelectric phase sequence. The three layers periodicity for SmCFI1* phase is studied in detail with a non-uniform layer interactions among smectic layers with strong experimental support. Finally, we provide some theoretical basis for the non-uniformity of our proposed layer interactions.
The self-schema model: a theoretical approach to the self-concept in eating disorders.
Stein, K F
1996-04-01
Over the last several decades, the self-concept has been implicated as a important determinant of eating disorders (ED). Although considerable progress has been made, questions remain unanswered about the properties of self-concept that distinguish women with an ED from other populations, and mechanisms that link the self-concept to the disordered behaviors. Markus's self-schema model is presented as a theoretical approach to explore the role of the self-concept in ED. To show how the schema model can be integrated with existing work on the self-concept in ED, a framework is proposed that addresses the number, content, and accessibility of the self-schemas. More specifically, it is posited that a limited collection of positive self-schemas available in memory, in combination with a chronically and inflexibly accessible body-weight self-schema, lead to the disordered behaviors associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Yi; Tamai, Tetsuo
2009-01-01
Since the complexity of software systems continues to grow, most engineers face two serious problems: the state space explosion problem and the problem of how to debug systems. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach to full branching time model checking on three-valued semantics. The three-valued models and logics provide successful abstraction that overcomes the state space explosion problem. The game style model checking that generates counter-examples can guide refinement or identify validated formulas, which solves the system debugging problem. Furthermore, output of our game style method will give significant information to engineers in detecting where errors have occurred and what the causes of the errors are.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrada, K.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we study the Fisher information for a quantum system consisting of two identical qubits, each of them locally interacting with a bosonic reservoir in the same environment for non-Markovian open, dissipative quantum system. Based on the influx of the information, we propose an information-theoretical approach for characterizing the time-dependent memory effect of environment and diffusion function under the effect of the physical parameters. More precisely, an interesting monotonic relation between the time derivative of quantum Fisher information (QFI) and diffusion function behavior is observed during the time evolution. The phenomenon is that the QFI, namely the precision of estimation, changes dramatically with the environment structure. The dependence of the physical parameters shows that the increasing in the temperature will damage the amount of the QFI with respect of the ratio between the reservoir cutoff frequency and the system oscillation frequency.
Information-theoretic approach for the discovery of design rules for crystal chemistry.
Kong, Chang Sun; Luo, Wei; Arapan, Sergiu; Villars, Pierre; Iwata, Shuichi; Ahuja, Rajeev; Rajan, Krishna
2012-07-23
In this work, it is shown that for the first time that, using information-entropy-based methods, one can quantitatively explore the relative impact of a wide multidimensional array of electronic and chemical bonding parameters on the structural stability of intermetallic compounds. Using an inorganic AB2 compound database as a template data platform, the evolution of design rules for crystal chemistry based on an information-theoretic partitioning classifier for a high-dimensional manifold of crystal chemistry descriptors is monitored. An application of this data-mining approach to establish chemical and structural design rules for crystal chemistry is demonstrated by showing that, when coupled with first-principles calculations, statistical inference methods can serve as a tool for significantly accelerating the prediction of unknown crystal structures.
Alonso, Ariel; Van der Elst, Wim; Molenberghs, Geert; Buyse, Marc; Burzykowski, Tomasz
2016-09-01
In this work a new metric of surrogacy, the so-called individual causal association (ICA), is introduced using information-theoretic concepts and a causal inference model for a binary surrogate and true endpoint. The ICA has a simple and appealing interpretation in terms of uncertainty reduction and, in some scenarios, it seems to provide a more coherent assessment of the validity of a surrogate than existing measures. The identifiability issues are tackled using a two-step procedure. In the first step, the region of the parametric space of the distribution of the potential outcomes, compatible with the data at hand, is geometrically characterized. Further, in a second step, a Monte Carlo approach is proposed to study the behavior of the ICA on the previous region. The method is illustrated using data from the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study. A newly developed and user-friendly R package Surrogate is provided to carry out the evaluation exercise. PMID:26864244
Forming Reversible Gels with Triblock Polyelectrolytes: a Field-theoretic Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Audus, Debra; Fredrickson, Glenn
2011-03-01
Recently, two research groups have formed reversible gels using triblock polyelectrolytes (Lemmers et al. 2010; Hunt et al., in preparation). This gel formation is driven by a phenomenon called complex coacervation, in which two oppositely charged homopolymers in solution phase separate into a polymer rich phase, known as a coacervate, and a solution phase. If instead, the polymers are triblocks with a neutral midblock and charged end blocks, under appropriate conditions they will microphase separate into micelles with cores of coacervated charged groups and coronas of neutral midblocks. These neutral midblocks act as bridges between the micelles, thereby creating a gel. One of the advantages of forming gels in this way is that the coacervate domains, and thus the gel, can be easily tuned by varying parameters such as pH, salt concentration and temperature. In order to understand the microstructures and solution sensitivity of these reversible gels, we have numerically simulated field-theoretic models of triblock polyelectrolyte mixtures in an implicit solvent. Because coacervation is driven by charge correlations, the usual mean-field assumption fails, and it is necessary to study the model beyond the level of SCFT.
Relativistic and Field Theoretic Effects in the Nuclear Many-Body Problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poorakkiat, Chaisingh
Field theoretic effects of a nucleon of an oxygen -17 have been studied. A computational scheme involving sigma and omega mesons has been set up. It employs the Furry picture of quantum field theory along with an introduction of vector and scalar Woods-Saxon potentials. Use of an adiabatic switching on an interaction leads to an energy shift in form of a symmetric Gell-Mann and Low formula which contains the S matrix. The S matrix allows an expansion in terms of Feynman diagrams which in turn enables us to write a perturbative series analogous to that in many-body perturbation theory. Retardation effects and the first-order energy correction E_{1} of two valence states, 1d_{5/2} and 2s_{1/2}, have been calculated from the diagrams. The self-energy of the 1s _{1/2} state is investigated along with the use of a renormalization technique. The retardation effects are small in the order of 10 kev while the self-energy and E_{1} corrections are big in the order of 700 and 10 Mev respectively.
Information-Theoretic Approaches for Evaluating Complex Adaptive Social Simulation Systems
Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Ganguly, Auroop R; Jiao, Yu
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose information-theoretic approaches for comparing and evaluating complex agent-based models. In information theoretic terms, entropy and mutual information are two measures of system complexity. We used entropy as a measure of the regularity of the number of agents in a social class; and mutual information as a measure of information shared by two social classes. Using our approaches, we compared two analogous agent-based (AB) models developed for regional-scale social-simulation system. The first AB model, called ABM-1, is a complex AB built with 10,000 agents on a desktop environment and used aggregate data; the second AB model, ABM-2, was built with 31 million agents on a highperformance computing framework located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and fine-resolution data from the LandScan Global Population Database. The initializations were slightly different, with ABM-1 using samples from a probability distribution and ABM-2 using polling data from Gallop for a deterministic initialization. The geographical and temporal domain was present-day Afghanistan, and the end result was the number of agents with one of three behavioral modes (proinsurgent, neutral, and pro-government) corresponding to the population mindshare. The theories embedded in each model were identical, and the test simulations focused on a test of three leadership theories - legitimacy, coercion, and representative, and two social mobilization theories - social influence and repression. The theories are tied together using the Cobb-Douglas utility function. Based on our results, the hypothesis that performance measures can be developed to compare and contrast AB models appears to be supported. Furthermore, we observed significant bias in the two models. Even so, further tests and investigations are required not only with a wider class of theories and AB models, but also with additional observed or simulated data and more comprehensive performance measures.
Theoretical investigation of alignment-dependent intense-field fragmentation of acetylene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doblhoff-Dier, Katharina; Kitzler, Markus; Gräfe, Stefanie
2016-07-01
We analyze the alignment-dependent dissociative and nondissociative ionization of acetylene, C2H2 . Numerical models describing the yield of the singly and doubly charged ions (C2H2+,C2H22 +) and several fragmentation and isomerization channels (C2H++H+ ,CH++CH+ ,CH2++C+ ) as a function of the relative alignment angle between the laser polarization axis and the molecular axis are presented. We apply and compare two different approaches. The first is based on time-dependent density functional theory. The second is a quasi-single-particle approach using the Dyson orbitals. We find good agreement between the results of both methods. A comparison of our theoretical predictions with experimental data allows us to show that the alignment-dependent yield of most reaction channels is described to high accuracy assuming sequential ionization. However, for some of the fragmentation channels, namely, CH++CH+ and C2H++H+ , we find non-negligible influence of recollisional ionization.
MAGNETARS VERSUS HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD PULSARS: A THEORETICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE APPARENT DICHOTOMY
Pons, Jose A.; Perna, Rosalba
2011-11-10
Highly magnetized neutron stars (NSs) are characterized by a bewildering range of astrophysical manifestations. Here, building on our simulations of the evolution of magnetic stresses in the NS crust and its ensuing fractures, we explore in detail, for the middle-aged and old NSs, the dependence of starquake frequency and energetics on the relative strength of the poloidal (B{sub p}) and toroidal (B{sub tor}) components. We find that, for B{sub p} {approx}> 10{sup 14} G, since a strong crustal toroidal field B{sub tor} {approx} B{sub p} is quickly formed on a Hall timescale, the initial toroidal field needs to be B{sub tor} >> B{sub p} to have a clear influence on the outbursting behavior. For initial fields B{sub p} {approx}< 10{sup 14} G, it is very unlikely that a middle-aged (t {approx} 10{sup 5} years) NS shows any bursting activity. This study allows us to solve the apparent puzzle of how NSs with similar dipolar magnetic fields can behave in a remarkably different way: an outbursting 'magnetar' with a high X-ray luminosity, or a quiet, low-luminosity, 'high-B' radio pulsar. As an example, we consider the specific cases of the magnetar 1E 2259+586 and the radio pulsar PSR J1814-1744, which at present have a similar dipolar field {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G. We determine for each object an initial magnetic field configuration that reproduces the observed timing parameters at their current age. The same two configurations also account for the differences in quiescent X-ray luminosity and for the 'magnetar/outbursting' behavior of 1E 2259+586 but not of PSR J1814-1744. We further use the theoretically predicted surface temperature distribution to compute the light curve for these objects. In the case of 1E 2259+586, for which data are available, our predicted temperature distribution gives rise to a pulse profile whose double-peaked nature and modulation level are consistent with the observations.
Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Salvatore, Sergio
2016-07-01
Notwithstanding the many methodological advances made in the field of psychotherapy research, at present a metatheoretical, school-independent framework to explain psychotherapy change processes taking into account their dynamic and complex nature is still lacking. Over the last years, several authors have suggested that a dynamic systems (DS) approach might provide such a framework. In the present paper, we review the main characteristics of a DS approach to psychotherapy. After an overview of the general principles of the DS approach, we describe the extent to which psychotherapy can be considered as a self-organizing open complex system, whose developmental change processes are described in terms of a dialectic dynamics between stability and change over time. Empirical evidence in support of this conceptualization is provided and discussed. Finally, we propose a research design strategy for the empirical investigation of psychotherapy from a DS approach, together with a research case example. We conclude that a DS approach may provide a metatheoretical, school-independent framework allowing us to constructively rethink and enhance the way we conceptualize and empirically investigate psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record
An effectiveness analysis of healthcare systems using a systems theoretic approach
Chuang, Sheuwen; Inder, Kerry
2009-01-01
provides a systematic search for improving the impact of accreditation on quality of care and hence on the accreditation/performance correlation. Conclusion There is clear value in developing a theoretical systems approach to achieving quality in health care. The introduction of the systematic surveyor-based search for improvements creates an adaptive-control system to optimize health care quality. It is hoped that these outcomes will stimulate further research in the development of strategic planning using systems theoretic approach for the improvement of quality in health care. PMID:19852837
Field-theoretic studies of phase coexistence and supramolecular assembly in block copolymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mester, Zoltan
Field-theoretic methods for studying supramolecular self-assembly in multiblock copolymer melts are developed. The reversibility of noncovalent bonds in supramolecular assemblies allows for environmental control (temperature, pH, etc.) over reaction equilibrium. When chemically distinct polymers are linked, environmental and stoichiometric control over the bonding is used to select from a variety of phase behaviors including macrophase separation into homogeneous phases, microphase separation into ordered mesophases, coexistence of homogeneous phases and ordered mesophases, and coexistence of ordered mesophases that differ in composition and possibly structure. The formalism for describing the gelation and macro- and microphase separation behavior of binary melts of A and B star-shaped polymers that reversibly bond to form copolymer networks is obtained by incorporating a graphical representation of polymers as trees into a grand canonical ensemble field-theoretic model of continuous Gaussian chains. The enumeration of clusters of different isomeric forms and compositions takes place via generating functions that are a system of nonlinear, transcendental, integral equations. The integral equations are turned into purely algebraic equations by making use of the random phase approximation (RPA). The macro- and microphase separation separation and gelation behavior is first investigated for heterogeneously bonded networks, and, later, the methodology is applied to calculate the melt phase behavior of polyester elastomers. A new computational technique is developed to investigate the phase behavior of melts of multiple polymer species based on an intensive formulation of the Gibbs ensemble SCFT method. The intensive formulation allows constituent mesophases of macrophase separated systems to be represented by single representative unit cells. The compositions of coexisting phases in equilibrium are found by minimizing the intensive free energy of the overall system
The Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Field through the Hamiltonian Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Likar, A.; Razpet, N.
2009-01-01
The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is…
Approach to non-equilibrium behaviour in quantum field theory
Kripfganz, J.; Perlt, H.
1989-05-01
We study the real-time evolution of quantum field theoretic systems in non-equilibrium situations. Results are presented for the example of scalar /lambda//phi//sup 4/ theory. The degrees of freedom are discretized by studying the system on a torus. Short-wavelength modes are integrated out to one-loop order. The long-wavelength modes considered to be the relevant degrees of freedom are treated by semiclassical phase-space methods. /copyright/ 1989 Academic Press, Inc.
Cell death following BNCT: a theoretical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations.
Ballarini, F; Bakeine, J; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S
2011-12-01
In parallel to boron measurements and animal studies, investigations on radiation-induced cell death are also in progress in Pavia, with the aim of better characterisation of the effects of a BNCT treatment down to the cellular level. Such studies are being carried out not only experimentally but also theoretically, based on a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code. Such model assumes that: (1) only clustered DNA strand breaks can lead to chromosome aberrations; (2) only chromosome fragments within a certain threshold distance can undergo misrejoining; (3) the so-called "lethal aberrations" (dicentrics, rings and large deletions) lead to cell death. After applying the model to normal cells exposed to monochromatic fields of different radiation types, the irradiation section of the code was purposely extended to mimic the cell exposure to a mixed radiation field produced by the (10)B(n,α) (7)Li reaction, which gives rise to alpha particles and Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness, and by the (14)N(n,p)(14)C reaction, which produces 0.58 MeV protons. Very good agreement between model predictions and literature data was found for human and animal cells exposed to X- or gamma-rays, protons and alpha particles, thus allowing to validate the model for cell death induced by monochromatic radiation fields. The model predictions showed good agreement also with experimental data obtained by our group exposing DHD cells to thermal neutrons in the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia; this allowed to validate the model also for a BNCT exposure scenario, providing a useful predictive tool to bridge the gap between irradiation and cell death. PMID:21481595
GRAIL gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Daniel; Bertone, Stefano; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard; Mervart, Leos
2015-11-01
The NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) inherited its concept from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. We present lunar gravity fields based on the data of GRAIL's primary mission phase. Gravity field recovery is realized in the framework of the Celestial Mechanics Approach, using a development version of the Bernese GNSS Software along with Ka-band range-rate data series as observations and the GNI1B positions provided by NASA JPL as pseudo-observations. By comparing our results with the official level-2 GRAIL gravity field models we show that the lunar gravity field can be recovered with a high quality by adapting the Celestial Mechanics Approach, even when using pre-GRAIL gravity field models as a priori fields and when replacing sophisticated models of non-gravitational accelerations by appropriately spaced pseudo-stochastic pulses (i.e., instantaneous velocity changes). We present and evaluate two lunar gravity field solutions up to degree and order 200 - AIUB-GRL200A and AIUB-GRL200B. While the first solution uses no gravity field information beyond degree 200, the second is obtained by using the official GRAIL field GRGM900C up to degree and order 660 as a priori information. This reduces the omission errors and demonstrates the potential quality of our solution if we resolved the gravity field to higher degree.
Ground/satellite signatures of field line resonance: A test of theoretical predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vellante, M.; Lühr, H.; Zhang, T. L.; Wesztergom, V.; Villante, U.; de Lauretis, M.; Piancatelli, A.; Rother, M.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Koren, W.; Magnes, W.
2004-06-01
During June-July 2002 the low-altitude (h ˜ 400 km) Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite passed approximately every 2nd day close to the South European Geomagnetic Array (SEGMA, 1.56 < L < 1.88) during daytime hours. We present here the analysis of a Pc3 geomagnetic pulsation event observed simultaneously in space and at the ground array during the conjunction of 6 July 2002. Both compressional and transverse oscillations were identified in CHAMP magnetic measurements. A close correspondence between the compressional component and the ground signals is observed. The behavior of the CHAMP azimuthal component shows evidence for the occurrence of a field line resonance at L ≅ 1.6. The frequency of these azimuthal oscillations is ˜20% higher than the frequency of both the compressional oscillation and the ground pulsations. Such a difference is explained in terms of a sort of Doppler shift caused by the fast movement of the satellite across the resonance region where the phase signal changes rapidly. A further analysis verifies for the first time by space measurements the theoretical pattern of the wave polarization sense in the resonance region. The comparison with corresponding SEGMA measurements also provides an unprecedented direct confirmation of the well-known 90° rotation of the ULF wave polarization ellipse through the ionosphere.
Chen, Y; Zhu, Y
1999-07-01
The influence of an external radial electric field (E(R)) on electroosmosis in capillary electrophoresis was studied theoretically. Based on a Stern-like model, three basic equations were deduced, with only two unknown parameters of delta and psi(d) where delta is the distance between the flowing shear interface and the tube wall, while psi(d) is the potential at the starting point of diffuse layer. The new equations reveal that, to effectively regulate the electroosmosis at E(R) <3 x 10(8) V/m, buffer pH should be kept below 5. In a common case of E(R) <10(8) V/m, the buffer pH should be below 4, otherwise the flow direction of the electroosmosis cannot be reversed. A way to increase the working pH range lies in the use of chemically coated rather than bare tubes. As expected, small capillaries and low ionic strength are preferred.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chanteur, Gerard
A multi-spacecraft mission with at least four spacecraft, like CLUSTER, MMS, or Cross-Scales, can determine the local geometry of the magnetic field lines when the size of the cluster of spacecraft is small enough compared to the gradient scale lengths of the magnetic field. Shen et al. (2003) and Runov et al. (2003 and 2005) used CLUSTER data to estimate the normal and the curvature of magnetic field lines in the terrestrial current sheet: the two groups used different approaches. Reciprocal vectors of the tetrahedron formed by four spacecraft are a powerful tool for estimating gradients of fields (Chanteur, 1998 and 2000). Considering a thick and planar current sheet model and making use of the statistical properties of the reciprocal vectors allows to discuss theoretically how physical and geometrical errors affect these estimations. References Chanteur, G., Spatial Interpolation for Four Spacecraft: Theory, in Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data, ISSI SR-001, pp. 349-369, ESA Publications Division, 1998. Chanteur, G., Accuracy of field gradient estimations by Cluster: Explanation of its dependency upon elongation and planarity of the tetrahedron, pp. 265-268, ESA SP-449, 2000. Runov, A., Nakamura, R., Baumjohann, W., Treumann, R. A., Zhang, T. L., Volwerk, M., V¨r¨s, Z., Balogh, A., Glaßmeier, K.-H., Klecker, B., R‘eme, H., and Kistler, L., Current sheet oo structure near magnetic X-line observed by Cluster, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 33-1, 2003. Runov, A., Sergeev, V. A., Nakamura, R., Baumjohann, W., Apatenkov, S., Asano, Y., Takada, T., Volwerk, M.,V¨r¨s, Z., Zhang, T. L., Sauvaud, J.-A., R‘eme, H., and Balogh, A., Local oo structure of the magnetotail current sheet: 2001 Cluster observations, Ann. Geophys., 24, 247-262, 2006. Shen, C., Li, X., Dunlop, M., Liu, Z. X., Balogh, A., Baker, D. N., Hapgood, M., and Wang, X., Analyses on the geometrical structure of magnetic field in the current sheet based on cluster measurements, J. Geophys. Res
Zlatar, Matija; Gruden, Maja; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Buvaylo, Elena A; Ponomarev, A N; Zvyagin, S A; Wosnitza, J; Krzystek, J; Garcia-Fernandez, Pablo; Duboc, Carole
2016-02-01
The aim of this work was to determine and understand the origin of the electronic properties of Mn(IV) complexes, especially the zero-field splitting (ZFS), through a combined experimental and theoretical investigation on five well-characterized mononuclear octahedral Mn(IV) compounds, with various coordination spheres (N6, N3O3, N2O4 in both trans (trans-N2O4) and cis configurations (cis-N2O4) and O4S2). High-frequency and -field EPR (HFEPR) spectroscopy has been applied to determine the ZFS parameters of two of these compounds, MnL(trans-N2O4) and MnL(O4S2). While at X-band EPR, the axial-component of the ZFS tensor, D, was estimated to be +0.47 cm(-1) for MnL(O4S2), and a D-value of +2.289(5) cm(-1) was determined by HFEPR, which is the largest D-magnitude ever measured for a Mn(IV) complex. A moderate D value of -0.997(6) cm(-1) has been found for MnL(trans-N2O4). Quantum chemical calculations based on two theoretical frameworks (the Density Functional Theory based on a coupled perturbed approach (CP-DFT) and the hybrid Ligand-Field DFT (LF-DFT)) have been performed to define appropriate methodologies to calculate the ZFS tensor for Mn(IV) centers, to predict the orientation of the magnetic axes with respect to the molecular ones, and to define and quantify the physical origin of the different contributions to the ZFS. Except in the case of MnL(trans-N2O4), the experimental and calculated D values are in good agreement, and the sign of D is well predicted, LF-DFT being more satisfactory than CP-DFT. The calculations performed on MnL(cis-N2O4) are consistent with the orientation of the principal anisotropic axis determined by single-crystal EPR, validating the calculated ZFS tensor orientation. The different contributions to D were analyzed demonstrating that the d-d transitions mainly govern D in Mn(IV) ion. However, a deep analysis evidences that many factors enter into the game, explaining why no obvious magnetostructural correlations can be drawn in this
Understanding uncertainty in seagrass injury recovery: an information-theoretic approach.
Uhrin, Amy V; Kenworthy, W Judson; Fonseca, Mark S
2011-06-01
Vessel groundings cause severe, persistent gaps in seagrass beds. Varying degrees of natural recovery have been observed for grounding injuries, limiting recovery prediction capabilities, and therefore, management's ability to focus restoration efforts where natural recovery is unlikely. To improve our capacity for predicting seagrass injury recovery, we used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate the relative contribution of specific injury attributes to the natural recovery of 30 seagrass groundings in Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Florida, USA. Injury recovery was defined by three response variables examined independently: (1) initiation of seagrass colonization, (2) areal contraction, and (3) sediment in-filling. We used a global model and all possible subsets for four predictor variables: (1) injury age, (2) original injury volume, (3) original injury perimeter-to-area ratio, and (4) wave energy. Successional processes were underway for many injuries with fast-growing, opportunistic seagrass species contributing most to colonization. The majority of groundings that exhibited natural seagrass colonization also exhibited areal contraction and sediment in-filling. Injuries demonstrating colonization, contraction, and in-filling were on average older and smaller, and they had larger initial perimeter-to-area ratios. Wave energy was highest for colonizing injuries. The information-theoretic approach was unable to select a single "best" model for any response variable. For colonization and contraction, injury age had the highest relative importance as a predictor variable; wave energy appeared to be associated with second-order effects, such as sediment in-filling, which in turn, facilitated seagrass colonization. For sediment in-filling, volume and perimeter-to-area ratio had similar relative importance as predictor variables with age playing a lesser role than seen for colonization and contraction. Our findings confirm that these injuries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raterron, P.; Castelnau, O.; Detrez, F.; Bollinger, C.; Cordier, P.; Fraysse, G.; Merkel, S.
2013-12-01
Quantifying peridotite plastic properties has been a major quest for experimental mineralogy, with direct implications for upper-mantle seismology and geodynamics. It raises, however, serious difficulties such as understanding the complex mechanisms involved within grains and at grain boundaries in multiphase aggregates deforming at high temperature (T), quantifying the effects of extreme pressures (P) on these mechanisms, and addressing stress and strain scaling issues between laboratory experiments and natural deformations. In order to address some of these issues, we developed a multiscale approach which integrates experimental deformation and diffusion data, together with first-principle calculations and theoretical considerations on mineral lattice friction (Peierls stress), within a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model for peridotite aggregates. We will present an application of a recently improved second-order (SO) VPSC scheme (e.g., Ponte Castañeda, 2002, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 50, 737) to an olivine rich + pyroxenes aggregate deformed at geological strain rate along an oceanic geotherm. Beside mineral dislocation slip systems, the SO-model extension accounts for an isotropic relaxation mechanism representing ';diffusion-related' creep in olivine. Slip-system critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) are evaluated - as functions of P, T, oxygen fugacity and strain rate - from previously reported (e.g., Raterron et al., 2012, PEPI, 200-201, 105) and new experimental data (see Fraysse et al., this session), or from theoretical Peierls stress computations (e.g., Metsue et al, 2010, PCM, 37, 711). The isotropic-mechanism dependence on T and P matches that of Si self-diffusion in olivine, while its relative activity with respect to that of dislocations is constrained by reported data. The model accounts for olivine and pyroxenes known lattice preferred orientations (LPO), as well as for observed sensitivities of aggregate strength to the volume fraction of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoisser, C. M.; Audebert, S.
2008-05-01
In order to describe the state-of-the-art on cracked rotor related problems, the current work presents the comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach adopted by EDF for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery. The work mainly focuses on the theoretical cracked beam model developed in the past years by S. Andrieux and C. Varé and associates both numerical and experimental aspects related to the crack detection problem in either turboset or turbo pump units. The theoretical part consists of the derivation of a lumped cracked beam model from the three-dimensional formulation of the general problem of elasticity with unilateral contact conditions on the crack lips, valid for any shape and number of cracks in the beam section and extended to cracks not located in a cross-section. This leads to the assessment of the cracked beam rigidity as a function of the rotation angle, in case of pure bending load or bending plus shear load. In this way the function can be implemented in a 1D rotordynamics code. An extension of the cracked beam model taking into account the torsion behaviour is also proposed. It is based on the assumption of full adherence between crack lips, when the crack closes, and on an incremental formulation of deformation energy. An experimental validation has been carried out using different cracked samples, both in static and dynamic configurations, considering one or three elliptic cracks in the same cross-section and helix-shaped cracks. Concerning the static configuration, a good agreement between numerical and experimental results is found. It is shown to be equal to 1% maximal gap of the beam deflection. Concerning the dynamical analysis, the main well-known indicator 2× rev. bending vibration component at half critical speed is approximated at maximum by 18% near the crack position. Our experiments also allowed for the observation of the bending and torsion resonance frequency shifts determined by the extra
Magnetic Hyperfine Fields in Lu_2 V_2 O_7 : A Model Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agzamova, Polina; Nikiforov, Anatoliy; Nazipov, Dmitriy
2016-02-01
We report a theoretical approach to the investigation of the magnetic hyperfine interaction on the ^{51} V nucleus in Lu_2 V_2 O_7 with the view of understanding the orbital ordering pattern in this compound. First, we have evaluated the vanadium 3d^1 -level splitting (Δ ) under the crystal field with the D _{3d} -symmetry using the point charges approximation. Second, we have calculated the exchange interaction constant (J) using the ab initio approach. It is shown that the crystal field energy is much stronger than the exchange interaction one and hence the orbital liquid state cannot occur in Lu_2 V_2 O_7 . Finally we have analyzed the magnetic hyperfine field affecting the vanadium nucleus leaning upon these results.
Network-Based Enriched Gene Subnetwork Identification: A Game-Theoretic Approach.
Razi, Abolfazl; Afghah, Fatemeh; Singh, Salendra; Varadan, Vinay
2016-01-01
Identifying subsets of genes that jointly mediate cancer etiology, progression, or therapy response remains a challenging problem due to the complexity and heterogeneity in cancer biology, a problem further exacerbated by the relatively small number of cancer samples profiled as compared with the sheer number of potential molecular factors involved. Pure data-driven methods that merely rely on multiomics data have been successful in discovering potentially functional genes but suffer from high false-positive rates and tend to report subsets of genes whose biological interrelationships are unclear. Recently, integrative data-driven models have been developed to integrate multiomics data with signaling pathway networks in order to identify pathways associated with clinical or biological phenotypes. However, these approaches suffer from an important drawback of being restricted to previously discovered pathway structures and miss novel genomic interactions as well as potential crosstalk among the pathways. In this article, we propose a novel coalition-based game-theoretic approach to overcome the challenge of identifying biologically relevant gene subnetworks associated with disease phenotypes. The algorithm starts from a set of seed genes and traverses a protein-protein interaction network to identify modulated subnetworks. The optimal set of modulated subnetworks is identified using Shapley value that accounts for both individual and collective utility of the subnetwork of genes. The algorithm is applied to two illustrative applications, including the identification of subnetworks associated with (i) disease progression risk in response to platinum-based therapy in ovarian cancer and (ii) immune infiltration in triple-negative breast cancer. The results demonstrate an improved predictive power of the proposed method when compared with state-of-the-art feature selection methods, with the added advantage of identifying novel potentially functional gene subnetworks
A game-theoretic approach for calibration of low-cost magnetometers under noise uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siddharth, S.; Ali, A. S.; El-Sheimy, N.; Goodall, C. L.; Syed, Z. F.
2012-02-01
Pedestrian heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Additionally, the heading observability considerably degrades in low-speed mode of operation (e.g. walking), making this problem even more challenging. The goal of this work is to improve the heading solution when hand-held personal/portable devices, such as cell phones, are used for positioning and to improve the heading estimation in GNSS-denied signal environments. Most smart phones are now equipped with self-contained, low cost, small size and power-efficient sensors, such as magnetometers, gyroscopes and accelerometers. A magnetometer needs calibration before it can be properly employed for navigation purposes. Magnetometers play an important role in absolute heading estimation and are embedded in many smart phones. Before the users navigate with the phone, a calibration is invoked to ensure an improved signal quality. This signal is used later in the heading estimation. In most of the magnetometer-calibration approaches, the motion modes are seldom described to achieve a robust calibration. Also, suitable calibration approaches fail to discuss the stopping criteria for calibration. In this paper, the following three topics are discussed in detail that are important to achieve proper magnetometer-calibration results and in turn the most robust heading solution for the user while taking care of the device misalignment with respect to the user: (a) game-theoretic concepts to attain better filter parameter tuning and robustness in noise uncertainty, (b) best maneuvers with focus on 3D and 2D motion modes and related challenges and (c) investigation of the calibration termination criteria leveraging the calibration robustness and efficiency.
Network-Based Enriched Gene Subnetwork Identification: A Game-Theoretic Approach.
Razi, Abolfazl; Afghah, Fatemeh; Singh, Salendra; Varadan, Vinay
2016-01-01
Identifying subsets of genes that jointly mediate cancer etiology, progression, or therapy response remains a challenging problem due to the complexity and heterogeneity in cancer biology, a problem further exacerbated by the relatively small number of cancer samples profiled as compared with the sheer number of potential molecular factors involved. Pure data-driven methods that merely rely on multiomics data have been successful in discovering potentially functional genes but suffer from high false-positive rates and tend to report subsets of genes whose biological interrelationships are unclear. Recently, integrative data-driven models have been developed to integrate multiomics data with signaling pathway networks in order to identify pathways associated with clinical or biological phenotypes. However, these approaches suffer from an important drawback of being restricted to previously discovered pathway structures and miss novel genomic interactions as well as potential crosstalk among the pathways. In this article, we propose a novel coalition-based game-theoretic approach to overcome the challenge of identifying biologically relevant gene subnetworks associated with disease phenotypes. The algorithm starts from a set of seed genes and traverses a protein-protein interaction network to identify modulated subnetworks. The optimal set of modulated subnetworks is identified using Shapley value that accounts for both individual and collective utility of the subnetwork of genes. The algorithm is applied to two illustrative applications, including the identification of subnetworks associated with (i) disease progression risk in response to platinum-based therapy in ovarian cancer and (ii) immune infiltration in triple-negative breast cancer. The results demonstrate an improved predictive power of the proposed method when compared with state-of-the-art feature selection methods, with the added advantage of identifying novel potentially functional gene subnetworks
2012-01-01
Background Transmembrane β-barrel proteins are a special class of transmembrane proteins which play several key roles in human body and diseases. Due to experimental difficulties, the number of transmembrane β-barrel proteins with known structures is very small. Over the years, a number of learning-based methods have been introduced for recognition and structure prediction of transmembrane β-barrel proteins. Most of these methods emphasize on homology search rather than any biological or chemical basis. Results We present a novel graph-theoretic model for classification and structure prediction of transmembrane β-barrel proteins. This model folds proteins based on energy minimization rather than a homology search, avoiding any assumption on availability of training dataset. The ab initio model presented in this paper is the first method to allow for permutations in the structure of transmembrane proteins and provides more structural information than any known algorithm. The model is also able to recognize β-barrels by assessing the pseudo free energy. We assess the structure prediction on 41 proteins gathered from existing databases on experimentally validated transmembrane β-barrel proteins. We show that our approach is quite accurate with over 90% F-score on strands and over 74% F-score on residues. The results are comparable to other algorithms suggesting that our pseudo-energy model is close to the actual physical model. We test our classification approach and show that it is able to reject α-helical bundles with 100% accuracy and β-barrel lipocalins with 97% accuracy. Conclusions We show that it is possible to design models for classification and structure prediction for transmembrane β-barrel proteins which do not depend essentially on training sets but on combinatorial properties of the structures to be proved. These models are fairly accurate, robust and can be run very efficiently on PC-like computers. Such models are useful for the genome
On the group-theoretical approach to the study of interpenetrating nets.
Baburin, Igor A
2016-05-01
Using group-subgroup and group-supergroup relations, a general theoretical framework is developed to describe and derive interpenetrating 3-periodic nets. The generation of interpenetration patterns is readily accomplished by replicating a single net with a supergroup G of its space group H under the condition that site symmetries of vertices and edges are the same in both H and G. It is shown that interpenetrating nets cannot be mapped onto each other by mirror reflections because otherwise edge crossings would necessarily occur in the embedding. For the same reason any other rotation or roto-inversion axes from G \\ H are not allowed to intersect vertices or edges of the nets. This property significantly narrows the set of supergroups to be included in the derivation of interpenetrating nets. A procedure is described based on the automorphism group of a Hopf ring net [Alexandrov et al. (2012). Acta Cryst. A68, 484-493] to determine maximal symmetries compatible with interpenetration patterns. The proposed approach is illustrated by examples of twofold interpenetrated utp, dia and pcu nets, as well as multiple copies of enantiomorphic quartz (qtz) networks. Some applications to polycatenated 2-periodic layers are also discussed. PMID:27126113
A graph theoretical approach for assessing bio-macromolecular complex structural stability.
Del Carpio, Carlos Adriel; Iulian Florea, Mihai; Suzuki, Ai; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Miyamoto, Akira
2009-11-01
Fast and proper assessment of bio macro-molecular complex structural rigidity as a measure of structural stability can be useful in systematic studies to predict molecular function, and can also enable the design of rapid scoring functions to rank automatically generated bio-molecular complexes. Based on the graph theoretical approach of Jacobs et al. [Jacobs DJ, Rader AJ, Kuhn LA, Thorpe MF (2001) Protein flexibility predictions using graph theory. Proteins: Struct Funct Genet 44:150-165] for expressing molecular flexibility, we propose a new scheme to analyze the structural stability of bio-molecular complexes. This analysis is performed in terms of the identification in interacting subunits of clusters of flappy amino acids (those constituting regions of potential internal motion) that undergo an increase in rigidity at complex formation. Gains in structural rigidity of the interacting subunits upon bio-molecular complex formation can be evaluated by expansion of the network of intra-molecular inter-atomic interactions to include inter-molecular inter-atomic interaction terms. We propose two indices for quantifying this change: one local, which can express localized (at the amino acid level) structural rigidity, the other global to express overall structural stability for the complex. The new system is validated with a series of protein complex structures reported in the protein data bank. Finally, the indices are used as scoring coefficients to rank automatically generated protein complex decoys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schouten, Stefan; Middelburg, Jack J.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.
2010-07-01
Intact polar membrane lipids (IPLs) are frequently used as markers for living microbial cells in sedimentary environments. The assumption with these studies is that IPLs are rapidly degraded upon cell lysis and therefore IPLs present in sediments are derived from in situ microbial production. We used a theoretical approach to assess whether IPLs in surface sediments can potentially represent fossilized IPLs derived from the upper part of the water column and whether IPLs can be preserved during sediment burial. Previous studies which examined the degradation kinetics of IPLs show that phospholipids, i.e. ester-linked lipids with a phosphor-containing head group, degrade more rapidly than glycosidic ether lipids, i.e. ether-linked lipids with a glycosidically bound sugar moiety. Based on these studies, we calculate that only a minor fraction of phospholipids but a major fraction of glycosidic ether lipids biosynthesized in the upper part of the water column can potentially reach deep-sea surface sediments. Using a simple model and power law kinetic degradation parameters reported in the literature, we also evaluated the degradation of IPLs during sediment burial. Our model predicts a log-log relationship between IPL concentrations and depth, consistent with what has been observed in studies of IPLs in subsurface sediments. Although our results do not exclude production of IPLs in subsurface sediment, they do suggest that IPLs present in the deep biosphere may contain a substantial fossil component potentially masking in situ IPL production.
GTXOP: a game theoretic approach for QoS provisioning using transmission opportunity tuning.
Ghazvini, Mahdieh; Movahedinia, Naser; Jamshidi, Kamal
2013-01-01
In unsupervised contention-based networks such as EDCA mode of IEEE 802.11(e)(s), upon winning the channel, each node gets a transmission opportunity (TXOP) in which the node can transmit multiple frames consequently without releasing the channel. Adjusting TXOP can lead to better bandwidth utilization and QoS provisioning. To improve WLAN throughput performance, EDCA packet bursting can be used in 802.11e, meaning that once a station has gained an EDCA-TXOP, it can be allowed to transmit more than one frame without re-contending for the channel. Following the access to the channel, the station can send multiple frames as long as the total access time does not exceed the TXOP Limit. This mechanism can reduce the network overhead and increase the channel utilization instead. However, packet bursting may cause unfairness in addition to increasing jitter, delay and loss. To the best of the authors' knowledge, although TXOP tuning has been investigated through different methods, it has not been considered within a game theory framework. In this study, based on the analytical models of EDCA, a game theoretic approach called GTXOP is proposed to determine TXOP dynamically (i.e. according to the dynamisms of WLAN networks and the number of nodes in the network). Using GTXOP, each node can choose its TXOP autonomously, such that in addition to QoS improvement, the overall network performance is also improved. PMID:23650539
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannan, Srinivasa Ramanujam; Chandrasekar, V.
2016-05-01
Even though both the rain measuring instruments, radar and radiometer onboard the TRMM observe the same rain scenes, they both are fundamentally different instruments. Radar is an active instrument and measures backscatter component from vertical rain structure; whereas radiometer is a passive instrument that obtains integrated observation of full depth of the cloud and rain structure. Further, their spatial resolutions on ground are different. Nevertheless, both the instruments are observing the same rain scene and retrieve three dimensional rainfall products. Hence it is only natural to seek answer to the question, what type of information about radiometric observations can be directly retrieved from radar observations. While there are several ways to answer this question, an informational theoretic approach using neural networks has been described in the present work to find if radiometer observations can be predicted from radar observations. A database of TMI brightness temperature and collocated TRMM vertical attenuation corrected reflectivity factor from the year 2012 was considered. The entire database is further classified according to surface type. Separate neural networks were trained for land and ocean and the results are presented.
White, Craig R; Frappell, Peter B; Chown, Steven L
2012-09-01
The effects of body mass and temperature on metabolic rate (MR) are among the most widely examined physiological relationships. Recently, these relationships have been incorporated into the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) that links the ecology of populations, communities and ecosystems to the MR of individual organisms. The fundamental equation of MTE derives the relation between mass and MR using first principles and predicts the temperature dependence of MR based on biochemical kinetics. It is a deliberately simple, zeroth-order approximation that represents a baseline against which variation in real biological systems can be examined. In the present study, we evaluate the fundamental equation of MTE against other more parameter-rich models for MR using an information-theoretic approach to penalize the inclusion of additional parameters. Using a comparative database of MR measurements for 1359 species, from 11 groups ranging from prokaryotes to mammals, and spanning 16 orders of magnitude in mass and a 59°C range in body temperature, we show that differences between taxa in the mass and temperature dependence of MR are sufficiently large as to be retained in the best model for MR despite the requirement for estimation of 22 more parameters than the fundamental equation of MTE.
Miki, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Taichi; Matsui, Kazuaki
2014-02-01
Ecosystems have a limited buffering capacity of multiple ecosystem functions against biodiversity loss (i.e. low multifunctional redundancy). We developed a novel theoretical approach to evaluate multifunctional redundancy in a microbial community using the microbial genome database (MBGD) for comparative analysis. In order to fully implement functional information, we defined orthologue richness in a community, each of which is a functionally conservative evolutionary unit in genomes, as an index of community multifunctionality (MF). We constructed a graph of expected orthologue richness in a community (MF) as a function of species richness (SR), fit the power function to SR (i.e. MF = cSR(a)), and interpreted the higher exponent a as the lower multifunctional redundancy. Through a microcosm experiment, we confirmed that MF defined by orthologue richness could predict the actual multiple functions. We simulated random and non-random community assemblages using full genomic data of 478 prokaryotic species in the MBGD, and determined that the exponent in microbial communities ranged from 0.55 to 0.75. This exponent range provided a quantitative estimate that a 6.6-8.9% loss limit in SR occurred in a microbial community for an MF reduction no greater than 5%, suggesting a non-negligible initial loss effect of microbial diversity on MF.
A game theoretic approach to a finite-time disturbance attenuation problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhee, Ihnseok; Speyer, Jason L.
1991-01-01
A disturbance attenuation problem over a finite-time interval is considered by a game theoretic approach where the control, restricted to a function of the measurement history, plays against adversaries composed of the process and measurement disturbances, and the initial state. A zero-sum game, formulated as a quadratic cost criterion subject to linear time-varying dynamics and measurements, is solved by a calculus of variation technique. By first maximizing the quadratic cost criterion with respect to the process disturbance and initial state, a full information game between the control and the measurement residual subject to the estimator dynamics results. The resulting solution produces an n-dimensional compensator which expresses the controller as a linear combination of the measurement history. A disturbance attenuation problem is solved based on the results of the game problem. For time-invariant systems it is shown that under certain conditions the time-varying controller becomes time-invariant on the infinite-time interval. The resulting controller satisfies an H(infinity) norm bound.
Combination of real options and game-theoretic approach in investment analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arasteh, Abdollah
2016-02-01
Investments in technology create a large amount of capital investments by major companies. Assessing such investment projects is identified as critical to the efficient assignment of resources. Viewing investment projects as real options, this paper expands a method for assessing technology investment decisions in the linkage existence of uncertainty and competition. It combines the game-theoretic models of strategic market interactions with a real options approach. Several key characteristics underlie the model. First, our study shows how investment strategies rely on competitive interactions. Under the force of competition, firms hurry to exercise their options early. The resulting "hurry equilibrium" destroys the option value of waiting and involves violent investment behavior. Second, we get best investment policies and critical investment entrances. This suggests that integrating will be unavoidable in some information product markets. The model creates some new intuitions into the forces that shape market behavior as noticed in the information technology industry. It can be used to specify best investment policies for technology innovations and adoptions, multistage R&D, and investment projects in information technology.
Optimal hemoglobin concentration and high altitude: a theoretical approach for Andean men at rest.
Villafuerte, Francisco C; Cárdenas, Rosa; Monge-C, Carlos
2004-05-01
The beneficial role of erythrocytosis for O2 transport has been questioned by evidence from bloodletting and hemodilution research as well as by studies suggesting the existence of an "optimal" hematocrit (Hct) or hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) value. To assess to what extent erythrocytosis is beneficial in Andean men at high altitude, we examined and discussed optimal [Hb] using a mathematical approach by modeling the mixed (mean) venous Po2 (Pv(O2)) and arterial O2 content, considering for both the relation between [Hb] and arterial Po2. Relations of [Hb] to other physiological variables such as cardiac output and convective arterial O2 transport were also discussed, revealing the importance of Pv(O2) in this model. Our theoretical analysis suggests that increasing [Hb] allows increase and maintenance of Pv(O2) with only moderate declines in arterial Po2 as a consequence of moderate increases in altitude, reaching its maximum at the optimal [Hb] of 14.7 g/dl. Our analysis also shows that [Hb] corresponding to high arterial O2 content and O2 transport values is apparently not quite advantageous for improvement of oxygenation. Furthermore, chronic mountain sickness is discussed as an insightful example of the effects of excessive erythrocytosis at high altitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.
2016-05-01
Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET-PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different -OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H-atom abstraction from 4'-OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B-ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.
A Markov game theoretic data fusion approach for cyber situational awareness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.; Haynes, Leonard; Kruger, Martin; Blasch, Erik
2007-04-01
This paper proposes an innovative data-fusion/ data-mining game theoretic situation awareness and impact assessment approach for cyber network defense. Alerts generated by Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) or Intrusion Prevention Sensors (IPSs) are fed into the data refinement (Level 0) and object assessment (L1) data fusion components. High-level situation/threat assessment (L2/L3) data fusion based on Markov game model and Hierarchical Entity Aggregation (HEA) are proposed to refine the primitive prediction generated by adaptive feature/pattern recognition and capture new unknown features. A Markov (Stochastic) game method is used to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack pattern. Game theory captures the nature of cyber conflicts: determination of the attacking-force strategies is tightly coupled to determination of the defense-force strategies and vice versa. Also, Markov game theory deals with uncertainty and incompleteness of available information. A software tool is developed to demonstrate the performance of the high level information fusion for cyber network defense situation and a simulation example shows the enhanced understating of cyber-network defense.
Strategic exploration of battery waste management: A game-theoretic approach.
Kaushal, Rajendra Kumar; Nema, Arvind K; Chaudhary, Jyoti
2015-07-01
Electronic waste or e-waste is the fastest growing stream of solid waste today. It contains both toxic substances as well as valuable resources. The present study uses a non-cooperative game-theoretic approach for efficient management of e-waste, particularly batteries that contribute a major portion of any e-waste stream and further analyses the economic consequences of recycling of these obsolete, discarded batteries. Results suggest that the recycler would prefer to collect the obsolete batteries directly from the consumer rather than from the manufacturer, only if, the incentive return to the consumer is less than 33.92% of the price of the battery, the recycling fee is less than 6.46% of the price of the battery, and the price of the recycled material is more than 31.08% of the price of the battery. The manufacturer's preferred choice of charging a green tax from the consumer can be fruitful for the battery recycling chain.
Universality of Preferential Flow in Field Soils across Scales: Theoretical Perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, H.
2009-12-01
Preferential flow (PF) is a fundamentally important soil hydrologic process that directly links to hydrological connectivity across scales. Based on three connected theories and extensive published experimental evidence, this paper attempts to justify the universality of PF in natural soils--meaning that PF can potentially occur in any soil anywhere in nature. First, we examine non-equilibrium thermodynamics as applied to the open dissipative system of field soils with continuous energy inputs. This provides a theoretical foundation for explaining the genesis and evolution of ubiquitous structured heterogeneity in soils that leads to widespread potential for PF occurrence. A dual-partitioning of pedogenesis results in ΔSsoil = ΔSmatrix + ΔSstructure, where ΔSmatrix is the entropy change related to dissipative processes and soil matrix formation, while ΔSstructure is the entropy exchange with the surrounding that is associated with organizing processes and soil structure formation. Second, we explore constructal theory to explain universal dual-flow regimes in natural soils--one with high resistivity (Darcy flow) and the other with low resistivity (PF)--together, they form natural PF configuration that provides the least global resistance to flow. While limited chronologic data suggest reduction in subsoil saturated hydraulic conductivity as soil ages, constructal theory appears to partially explain some general characteristics of weathering process. Third, the theory of evolving networks sheds light on diverse flow networks in soils that increase the efficiency or effectiveness of matter or energy transfer in the subsurface, because networks are part of the organization resulting from minimum energy dissipation and far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics. All the three theories discussed support the notion that PF is universal in natural soils.
Subjective evaluation and electroacoustic theoretical validation of a new approach to audio upmixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usher, John S.
Audio signal processing systems for converting two-channel (stereo) recordings to four or five channels are increasingly relevant. These audio upmixers can be used with conventional stereo sound recordings and reproduced with multichannel home theatre or automotive loudspeaker audio systems to create a more engaging and natural-sounding listening experience. This dissertation discusses existing approaches to audio upmixing for recordings of musical performances and presents specific design criteria for a system to enhance spatial sound quality. A new upmixing system is proposed and evaluated according to these criteria and a theoretical model for its behavior is validated using empirical measurements. The new system removes short-term correlated components from two electronic audio signals using a pair of adaptive filters, updated according to a frequency domain implementation of the normalized-least-means-square algorithm. The major difference of the new system with all extant audio upmixers is that unsupervised time-alignment of the input signals (typically, by up to +/-10 ms) as a function of frequency (typically, using a 1024-band equalizer) is accomplished due to the non-minimum phase adaptive filter. Two new signals are created from the weighted difference of the inputs, and are then radiated with two loudspeakers behind the listener. According to the consensus in the literature on the effect of interaural correlation on auditory image formation, the self-orthogonalizing properties of the algorithm ensure minimal distortion of the frontal source imagery and natural-sounding, enveloping reverberance (ambiance) imagery. Performance evaluation of the new upmix system was accomplished in two ways: Firstly, using empirical electroacoustic measurements which validate a theoretical model of the system; and secondly, with formal listening tests which investigated auditory spatial imagery with a graphical mapping tool and a preference experiment. Both electroacoustic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang Chien, Nguyen; Shih, Chun-Hsing; Hoa, Phu Chi; Minh, Nguyen Hong; Thi Thanh Hien, Duong; Nhung, Le Hong
2016-06-01
The two-band Kane model has been popularly used to calculate the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) current in tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) which is currently considered as a promising candidate for low power applications. This study theoretically clarifies the maximum electric field approximation (MEFA) of direct BTBT Kane model and evaluates its appropriateness for low bandgap semiconductors. By analysing the physical origin of each electric field term in the Kane model, it has been elucidated in the MEFA that the local electric field term must be remained while the nonlocal electric field terms are assigned by the maximum value of electric field at the tunnel junction. Mathematical investigations have showed that the MEFA is more appropriate for low bandgap semiconductors compared to high bandgap materials because of enhanced tunneling probability in low field regions. The appropriateness of the MEFA is very useful for practical uses in quickly estimating the direct BTBT current in low bandgap TFET devices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matsumoto, Mitsuko
2015-01-01
Some argue that the field of study of "education and conflict" has yet to be solidified since its emergence in the 1990s, partly due to the weak theory base. This article reviews the literature on the "contribution" of schooling in contemporary violent conflict, via three strands of theoretical ideas, to demonstrate the…
Sexuality Education for Young People: A Theoretically Integrated Approach from Australia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
2010-01-01
Background: Teachers of sexuality education can often be uncertain about what theoretical basis and pedagogical strategies to use in their teaching. Sexuality educational programmes designed by teachers can often show few evident theoretical principles that have been applied in its construction. Thus, there seems to be a dearth of evidence of ways…
Game-theoretic approach for improving cooperation in wireless multihop networks.
Ng, See-Kee; Seah, Winston K G
2010-06-01
Traditional networks are built on the assumption that network entities cooperate based on a mandatory network communication semantic to achieve desirable qualities such as efficiency and scalability. Over the years, this assumption has been eroded by the emergence of users that alter network behavior in a way to benefit themselves at the expense of others. At one extreme, a malicious user/node may eavesdrop on sensitive data or deliberately inject packets into the network to disrupt network operations. The solution to this generally lies in encryption and authentication. In contrast, a rational node acts only to achieve an outcome that he desires most. In such a case, cooperation is still achievable if the outcome is to the best interest of the node. The node misbehavior problem would be more pronounced in multihop wireless networks like mobile ad hoc and sensor networks, which are typically made up of wireless battery-powered devices that must cooperate to forward packets for one another. However, cooperation may be hard to maintain as it consumes scarce resources such as bandwidth, computational power, and battery power. This paper applies game theory to achieve collusive networking behavior in such network environments. In this paper, pricing, promiscuous listening, and mass punishments are avoided altogether. Our model builds on recent work in the field of Economics on the theory of imperfect private monitoring for the dynamic Bertrand oligopoly, and adapts it to the wireless multihop network. The model derives conditions for collusive packet forwarding, truthful routing broadcasts, and packet acknowledgments under a lossy wireless multihop environment, thus capturing many important characteristics of the network layer and link layer in one integrated analysis that has not been achieved previously. We also provide a proof of the viability of the model under a theoretical wireless environment. Finally, we show how the model can be applied to design a generic
An information theoretic approach for non-rigid image registration using voxel class probabilities.
D'Agostino, Emiliano; Maes, Frederik; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul
2006-06-01
We propose two information theoretic similarity measures that allow to incorporate tissue class information in non-rigid image registration. The first measure assumes that tissue class probabilities have been assigned to each of the images to be registered by prior segmentation of both of them. One image is then non-rigidly deformed to match the other such that the fuzzy overlap of corresponding voxel object labels becomes similar to the ideal case whereby the tissue probability maps of both images are identical. Image similarity is assessed during registration by the divergence between the ideal and actual joint class probability distributions of both images. A second registration measure is proposed that applies in case a segmentation is available for only one of the images, for instance an atlas image that is to be matched to a study image to guide the segmentation thereof. Intensities in one image are matched to the fuzzy class labels in the other image by minimizing the conditional entropy of the intensities in the first image given the class labels in the second image. We derive analytic expressions for the gradient of each measure with respect to individual voxel displacements to derive a force field that drives the registration process, which is regularized by a viscous fluid model. The performance of the class-based measures is evaluated in the context of non-rigid inter-subject registration and atlas-based segmentation of MR brain images and compared with maximization of mutual information using only intensity information. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of class information in the registration measure significantly improves the overlap between corresponding tissue classes after non-rigid matching. The methods proposed here open new perspectives for integrating segmentation and registration in a single process, whereby the output of one is used to guide the other.
Espelt, M V; Alleva, K; Amodeo, G; Krumschnabel, G; Rossi, R C; Schwarzbaum, P J
2008-05-01
In this study we use a theoretical approach to study the volumetric response of goldfish hepatocytes challenged by osmotic gradients and compared it with that of hepatocytes from another teleost (the trout) and a mammal (the rat). Particular focus was given to the multiple non-linear interactions of transport systems enabling hypotonically challenged cells to trigger a compensatory response known as volume regulatory decrease or RVD. For this purpose we employed a mathematical model which describes the rates of change of the intracellular concentrations of main diffusible ions, of the cell volume, and of the membrane potential. The model was fitted to experimental data on the kinetics of volume change of hepatocytes challenged by anisotonic media. In trout and rat hepatocytes, experimental results had shown that hypotonic cell swelling was followed by RVD, whereas goldfish cells swelled with no concomitant RVD (M.V. Espelt et al., 2003, J. Exp. Biol. 206, 513-522). A comparison between data predicted by the model and that obtained experimentally suggests that in trout and rat hepatocytes hypotonicity activates a sensor element and this, in turn, activates an otherwise silent efflux of KCl - whose kinetics could be successfully predicted - thereby leading to volume down-regulation. In contrast, with regard to the absence of RVD in goldfish hepatocytes the model proposed suggests that either a sensor element triggering RVD is absent or that the effector mechanism (the loss of KCl) remains inactive under the conditions employed. In line with this, we recently found that extracellular nucleotides may be required to induce RVD in these cells, indicating that our model could indeed lead to useful predictions. PMID:18329306
Spherical wave decompostion approach to ultrasonic field calculations
Griffice, C.P.; Seydel, J.A.
1981-12-01
A simple, flexible, accurate, and comprehensive numerical method is presented for theoretically analyzing the diffraction field of a continuous wave transducer of arbitrary size, shape, and frequency. Using the extensively studied circular transducer for comparison, numerical results are shown for an unfocused transducer with uniform velocity excitation as well as for a focused transducer with Gaussian velocity excitation. Data concerning the execution time, program size, and convergence of the method are also presented for its implementation as a design tool on a minicomputer system.
Cognitive Learning Style: A Review of the Field Dependent-Field Independent Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pithers, R. T.
2002-01-01
Cumulative research evidence on field dependence-field independence suggests that matching teacher and learner cognitive styles has limits, but can be used to identify varied teaching methods. Both learners and teachers should develop a flexible approach to cognitive style attitudes and behavior. (Contains 41 references.) (SK)
An algorithmic and information-theoretic approach to multimetric index construction
Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Mitchell, Brian R.; Miller, Kathryn M.; Little, Amanda M.
2013-01-01
The use of multimetric indices (MMIs), such as the widely used index of biological integrity (IBI), to measure, track, summarize and infer the overall impact of human disturbance on biological communities has been steadily growing in recent years. Initially, MMIs were developed for aquatic communities using pre-selected biological metrics as indicators of system integrity. As interest in these bioassessment tools has grown, so have the types of biological systems to which they are applied. For many ecosystem types the appropriate biological metrics to use as measures of biological integrity are not known a priori. As a result, a variety of ad hoc protocols for selecting metrics empirically has developed. However, the assumptions made by proposed protocols have not be explicitly described or justified, causing many investigators to call for a clear, repeatable methodology for developing empirically derived metrics and indices that can be applied to any biological system. An issue of particular importance that has not been sufficiently addressed is the way that individual metrics combine to produce an MMI that is a sensitive composite indicator of human disturbance. In this paper, we present and demonstrate an algorithm for constructing MMIs given a set of candidate metrics and a measure of human disturbance. The algorithm uses each metric to inform a candidate MMI, and then uses information-theoretic principles to select MMIs that capture the information in the multidimensional system response from among possible MMIs. Such an approach can be used to create purely empirical (data-based) MMIs or can, optionally, be influenced by expert opinion or biological theory through the use of a weighting vector to create value-weighted MMIs. We demonstrate the algorithm with simulated data to demonstrate the predictive capacity of the final MMIs and with real data from wetlands from Acadia and Rocky Mountain National Parks. For the Acadia wetland data, the algorithm identified
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masseroni, D.; Corbari, C.; Ceppi, A.; Milleo, G.; Mancini, M.
2012-04-01
Not many experimental data about intra-field spatial variability of scalar flux densities are presented in literature. In this work theoretical footprint models and experimental intra-field turbulent fluxes of latent, sensible heat and CO2 were compared. The experimental data were obtained using a mobile eddy covariance station moving it from a discontinuity point, represented by the field edge, to the centre of the field where a fixed eddy covariance station was placed. The experimental fields were in Landriano (PV) in the Po Valley, Italy and Barrax (Albacete) in Spain. Simple analytical footprint models that describe the representative source area for turbulent fluxes were compared with the experimental data. Mathematical relationship between footprint models and gamma function was explained. Energy balance closure was calculated starting from fixed tower measurements. Aerodynamic roughness and gamma distribution parameters were estimated for these specific fields.
READ: Field Test of an Educational Approach to Reading Disability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morsink, Catherine
This investigation describes a field test of the materials entitled "Reading: An Educational Approach to Disability" (READ), which were developed to aid disabled readers in the beginning stages of learning to decode English print. The subjects were 15 Title I reading teachers working in small groups with 183 second-grade children. The questions of…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alford, William J , Jr
1957-01-01
The flow-field characteristics beneath swept and unswept wings as determined by potential-flow theory are compared with the experimentally determined flow fields beneath swept and unswept wing-fuselage combinations. The potential-flow theory utilized considered both spanwise and chordwise distributions of vorticity as well as the wing-thickness effects. The perturbation velocities induced by a unit horseshoe vortex are included in tabular form. The theoretical predictions of the flow-field characteristics were qualitatively correct in all cases considered, although there were indications that the magnitudes of the downwash angles tended to be overpredicted as the tip of the swept wing was approached and that the sidewash angles ahead of the unswept wing were underpredicted. The calculated effects of compressibility indicated that significant increases in the chordwise variation of flow angles and dynamic-pressure ratios should be expected in going from low to high subsonic speeds.
Moving beyond the Galloway diagrams for delta classification: A graph-theoretic approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Caldwell, Rebecca; Edmonds, Douglas; Zaliapin, Ilya; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi
2016-04-01
Delta channel networks self-organize to a variety of stunning and complex patterns in response to different forcings (e.g., river, tides and waves) and the physical properties of their sediment (e.g., particle size, cohesiveness). Understanding and quantifying properties of these patterns is an essential step to solve the inverse problem of inferring process from form. A recently introduced framework based on spectral graph theory allows us to assess delta channel network complexity from a topologic (channel connectivity) and dynamic (flux exchange) perspective [Tejedor et al., 2015a,b]. We demonstrate the potential of this framework, together with numerical and experimental deltas, wherein different delta properties can be varied individually, to replace the qualitative approach still in use today [Galloway, 1975; Orton and Reading, 1993]. Specifically, in this work we have examined the effect of sediment parameters (grain size, cohesiveness) on the channel structure of river dominated deltas generated by a morphodynamic model (Delft3D). Our analysis shows that deltas with coarser incoming sediment are more complex topologically (increased number of looped pathways) but simpler dynamically (reduced flux exchange between subnetworks). We capitalize on the combined approach of controlled simulation (with known drivers) and quantitative comparison by positioning field and simulated deltas in the so-called TopoDynamic space to open up a path to provide valuable information towards a refined classification and inference scheme of delta morphology. Furthermore, numerical deltas allow us to explore the delta channel structure not only in a spatially explicit manner but also temporally, since the complete temporal record of delta evolution is available
This project investigated an innovative approach for transport of inorganic species under the influence of electric fields. This process, commonly known as electrokinetics uses low-level direct current (dc) electrical potential difference across a soil mass applied through inert...
Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.
Collins-Dogrul, Julie
2006-12-01
During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems. PMID:16987573
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.
1982-01-01
A mathematical representation for the electromagnetic force field and the fluid flow field in a coreless induction furnace is presented. The fluid flow field was represented by writing the axisymmetric turbulent Navier-Stokes equation, containing the electromagnetic body force term. The electromagnetic body force field was calculated by using a technique of mutual inductances. The kappa-epsilon model was employed for evaluating the turbulent viscosity and the resultant differential equations were solved numerically. Theoretically predicted velocity fields are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental measurements reported by Hunt and Moore; furthermore, the agreement regarding the turbulent intensities are essentially quantitative. These results indicate that the kappa-epsilon model provides a good engineering representation of the turbulent recirculating flows occurring in induction furnaces. At this stage it is not clear whether the discrepancies between measurements and the predictions, which were not very great in any case, are attributable either to the model or to the measurement techniques employed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bridges, N. T.; Laity, J. E.
2001-01-01
rocks on Mars should erode at a rate of 7.7 to 210 micrometers/yr. These rates cannot have operated over the entire history of the Pathfinder site or elsewhere on Mars, because craters, knobs, and other obstacles would be quickly worn away. More likely, rock abrasion occurs over short time periods when sand supplies are sufficient and saltation friction speeds are frequently reached. Depletion or exhaustion of sand and a decline in wind fluxes at speeds greater than that of saltation friction will then act to reduce the rate of further abrasion. We are currently engaged in a new set of wind tunnel experiments coupled with theoretical models and field studies that address rock abrasion and ventifact formation on Mars and Earth. These studies have implications for the Noachian, when sand supplies were probably more plentiful and the threshold friction speed was possibly lower because of a more dense atmosphere. Under these conditions, erosion rates from the wind could have been much greater than to day, contributing, along with probable fluvial erosion, to the Noachian landscape that is in limited preservation today.
Phase-field approach to implicit solvation of biomolecules with Coulomb-field approximation
Zhao, Yanxiang; Kwan, Yuen-Yick; Che, Jianwei; Li, Bo; McCammon, J. Andrew
2013-01-01
A phase-field variational implicit-solvent approach is developed for the solvation of charged molecules. The starting point of such an approach is the representation of a solute-solvent interface by a phase field that takes one value in the solute region and another in the solvent region, with a smooth transition from one to the other on a small transition layer. The minimization of an effective free-energy functional of all possible phase fields determines the equilibrium conformations and free energies of an underlying molecular system. All the surface energy, the solute-solvent van der Waals interaction, and the electrostatic interaction are coupled together self-consistently through a phase field. The surface energy results from the minimization of a double-well potential and the gradient of a field. The electrostatic interaction is described by the Coulomb-field approximation. Accurate and efficient methods are designed and implemented to numerically relax an underlying charged molecular system. Applications to single ions, a two-plate system, and a two-domain protein reveal that the new theory and methods can capture capillary evaporation in hydrophobic confinement and corresponding multiple equilibrium states as found in molecular dynamics simulations. Comparisons of the phase-field and the original sharp-interface variational approaches are discussed. PMID:23862933
Approaches to the sign problem in lattice field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gattringer, Christof; Langfeld, Kurt
2016-08-01
Quantum field theories (QFTs) at finite densities of matter generically involve complex actions. Standard Monte Carlo simulations based upon importance sampling, which have been producing quantitative first principle results in particle physics for almost forty years, cannot be applied in this case. Various strategies to overcome this so-called sign problem or complex action problem were proposed during the last thirty years. We here review the sign problem in lattice field theories, focusing on two more recent methods: dualization to worldline type of representations and the density-of-states approach.
PDF approach for turbulent scalar field: Some recent developments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gao, Feng
1993-01-01
The probability density function (PDF) method has been proven a very useful approach in turbulence research. It has been particularly effective in simulating turbulent reacting flows and in studying some detailed statistical properties generated by a turbulent field There are, however, some important questions that have yet to be answered in PDF studies. Our efforts in the past year have been focused on two areas. First, a simple mixing model suitable for Monte Carlo simulations has been developed based on the mapping closure. Secondly, the mechanism of turbulent transport has been analyzed in order to understand the recently observed abnormal PDF's of turbulent temperature fields generated by linear heat sources.
Pogorelov, A. A.; Suslov, I. M.
2008-06-15
New estimates of the critical exponents have been obtained from the field-theoretical renormalization group using a new method for summing divergent series. The results almost coincide with the central values obtained by Le Guillou and Zinn-Justin (the so-called standard values), but have lower uncertainty. It has been shown that usual field-theoretical estimates implicitly imply the smoothness of the coefficient functions. The last assumption is open for discussion in view of the existence of the oscillating contribution to the coefficient functions. The appropriate interpretation of the last contribution is necessary both for the estimation of the systematic errors of the standard values and for a further increase in accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neuhauser, Daniel; Gao, Yi; Arntsen, Christopher; Karshenas, Cyrus; Rabani, Eran; Baer, Roi
2014-08-01
We develop a formalism to calculate the quasiparticle energy within the GW many-body perturbation correction to the density functional theory. The occupied and virtual orbitals of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian are replaced by stochastic orbitals used to evaluate the Green function G, the polarization potential W, and, thereby, the GW self-energy. The stochastic GW (sGW) formalism relies on novel theoretical concepts such as stochastic time-dependent Hartree propagation, stochastic matrix compression, and spatial or temporal stochastic decoupling techniques. Beyond the theoretical interest, the formalism enables linear scaling GW calculations breaking the theoretical scaling limit for GW as well as circumventing the need for energy cutoff approximations. We illustrate the method for silicon nanocrystals of varying sizes with Ne>3000 electrons.
Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Audrey, Suzanne; Trotter, Caroline; Hickman, Matthew
2015-01-01
Background Interventions to increase uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination by young women may be more effective if they are underpinned by an appropriate theoretical model or framework. The aims of this review were: to describe the theoretical models or frameworks used to explain behaviours in relation to HPV vaccination of young women, and: to consider the appropriateness of the theoretical models or frameworks used for informing the development of interventions to increase uptake. Methods Primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of databases from inception to December 2013. Results Thirty-four relevant studies were identified, of which 31 incorporated psychological health behaviour models or frameworks and three used socio-cultural models or theories. The primary studies used a variety of approaches to measure a diverse range of outcomes in relation to behaviours of professionals, parents, and young women. The majority appeared to use theory appropriately throughout. About half of the quantitative studies presented data in relation to goodness of fit tests and the proportion of the variability in the data. Conclusion Due to diverse approaches and inconsistent findings across studies, the current contribution of theory to understanding and promoting HPV vaccination uptake is difficult to assess. Ecological frameworks encourage the integration of individual and social approaches by encouraging exploration of the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and policy levels when examining public health issues. Given the small number of studies using such approach, combined with the importance of these factors in predicting behaviour, more research in this area is warranted. PMID:26314783
Revolution in Field Science: Apollo Approach to Inaccessible Surface Exploration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, P. E.
2010-07-01
The extraordinary challenge mission designers, scientists, and engineers, faced in planning the first human expeditions to the surface of another solar system body led to the development of a distinctive and even revolutionary approach to field work. Not only were those involved required to deal effectively with the extreme limitation in resources available for and access to a target as remote as the lunar surface; they were required to developed a rigorous approach to science activities ranging from geological field work to deploying field instruments. Principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work are discussed here, including the highly integrated, intensive, and lengthy science planning, simulation, and astronaut training; the development of a systematic scheme for description and documentation of geological sites and samples; and a flexible yet disciplined methodology for site documentation and sample collection. The capability for constant communication with a ‘backroom’ of geological experts who make requests and weigh in on surface operations was innovative and very useful in encouraging rapid dissemination of information to the greater community in general. An extensive archive of the Apollo era science activity related documents provides evidence of the principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work. The Apollo Surface Journal allows analysis of the astronaut’s performance in terms of capability for traveling on foot, documentation and sampling of field stations, and manual operation of tools and instruments, all as a function of time. The application of these analysis as ‘lessons learned’ for planning the next generation of human or robotic field science activities on the Moon and elsewhere are considered here as well.
Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S; Watanabe, Noboru; Takahashi, Masahiko
2015-03-01
The influence of thermally induced nuclear dynamics (molecular vibrations) in the initial electronic ground state on the valence orbital momentum profiles of furan has been theoretically investigated using two different approaches. The first of these approaches employs the principles of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, whereas the so-called harmonic analytical quantum mechanical approach resorts to an analytical decomposition of contributions arising from quantized harmonic vibrational eigenstates. In spite of their intrinsic differences, the two approaches enable consistent insights into the electron momentum distributions inferred from new measurements employing electron momentum spectroscopy and an electron impact energy of 1.2 keV. Both approaches point out in particular an appreciable influence of a few specific molecular vibrations of A1 symmetry on the 9a1 momentum profile, which can be unravelled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing.
Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S.; Watanabe, Noboru; Takahashi, Masahiko
2015-03-07
The influence of thermally induced nuclear dynamics (molecular vibrations) in the initial electronic ground state on the valence orbital momentum profiles of furan has been theoretically investigated using two different approaches. The first of these approaches employs the principles of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, whereas the so-called harmonic analytical quantum mechanical approach resorts to an analytical decomposition of contributions arising from quantized harmonic vibrational eigenstates. In spite of their intrinsic differences, the two approaches enable consistent insights into the electron momentum distributions inferred from new measurements employing electron momentum spectroscopy and an electron impact energy of 1.2 keV. Both approaches point out in particular an appreciable influence of a few specific molecular vibrations of A{sub 1} symmetry on the 9a{sub 1} momentum profile, which can be unravelled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing.
Schwinger-Dyson approach to Liouville field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, P.
2016-06-01
We discuss Liouville field theory in the framework of the Schwinger-Dyson approach and derive a functional equation for the three-point structure constant. We prove the existence of a second Schwinger-Dyson equation based on the duality between the screening charge operators and obtain a second functional equation for the structure constant. We use the system of these two equations to uniquely determine the structure constant.
THEORETICAL ESTIMATES OF TWO-POINT SHEAR CORRELATION FUNCTIONS USING TANGLED MAGNETIC FIELDS
Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Sethi, Shiv K.
2012-03-20
The existence of primordial magnetic fields can induce matter perturbations with additional power at small scales as compared to the usual {Lambda}CDM model. We study its implication within the context of a two-point shear correlation function from gravitational lensing. We show that a primordial magnetic field can leave its imprints on the shear correlation function at angular scales {approx}< a few arcminutes. The results are compared with CFHTLS data, which yield some of the strongest known constraints on the parameters (strength and spectral index) of the primordial magnetic field. We also discuss the possibility of detecting sub-nano Gauss fields using future missions such as SNAP.
On Theoretical Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Near-Field Cross-Spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Steven A. E.
2015-01-01
The cross-spectral acoustic analogy is used to predict auto-spectra and cross-spectra of broadband shock-associated noise in the near-field and far-field from a range of heated and unheated supersonic off-design jets. A single equivalent source model is proposed for the near-field, mid-field, and far-field terms, that contains flow-field statistics of the shock wave shear layer interactions. Flow-field statistics are modeled based upon experimental observation and computational fluid dynamics solutions. An axisymmetric assumption is used to reduce the model to a closed-form equation involving a double summation over the equivalent source at each shock wave shear layer interaction. Predictions are compared with a wide variety of measurements at numerous jet Mach numbers and temperature ratios from multiple facilities. Auto-spectral predictions of broadband shock-associated noise in the near-field and far-field capture trends observed in measurement and other prediction theories. Predictions of spatial coherence of broadband shock-associated noise accurately capture the peak coherent intensity, frequency, and spectral width.
A Theoretical and Empirical Comparison of Three Approaches to Achievement Testing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haladyna, Tom; Roid, Gale
Three approaches to the construction of achievement tests are compared: construct, operational, and empirical. The construct approach is based upon classical test theory and measures an abstract representation of the instructional objectives. The operational approach specifies instructional intent through instructional objectives, facet design,…
The Interpretation of Classically Quantified Sentences: A Set-Theoretic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Politzer, Guy; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste; Delle Luche, Claire; Noveck, Ira A.
2006-01-01
We present a set-theoretic model of the mental representation of classically quantified sentences (All P are Q, Some P are Q, Some P are not Q, and No P are Q). We take inclusion, exclusion, and their negations to be primitive concepts. We show that although these sentences are known to have a diagrammatic expression (in the form of the Gergonne…
A group-theoretic approach to constructions of non-relativistic spin-statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, J. M.; Robbins, J. M.
2000-11-01
We give a group-theoretical generalization of Berry and Robbins' treatment of identical particles with spin. The original construction, which leads to the correct spin-statistics relation, is seen to arise from particular irreducible representations—the totally symmetric representations—of the group SU(4). Here we calculate the exchange signs and corresponding statistics for all irreducible representations of SU(4).
Analysing Teachers' Practices in Technology Environments from an Activity Theoretical Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abboud-Blanchard, Maha; Vandebrouck, Fabrice
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to emphasize some research results about teachers' practices in technology-based-lessons. Articulating several theoretical developments of Activity Theory enables us to conceive a frame to characterise the evolutions of these practices and to interpret them in terms of "geneses of technology uses". We consider these…
Explaining Teacher-Student Interactions in Early Childhood: An Interpersonal Theoretical Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thijs, Jochem; Koomen, Helma; Roorda, Debora; ten Hagen, Judith
2011-01-01
The present study used an interpersonal theoretical perspective to examine the interactions between Dutch teachers and kindergartners. Interpersonal theory provides explanations for dyadic interaction behaviors by stating that complementary behaviors (dissimilar in terms of control, and similar in terms of affiliation) elicit and sustain each…
Approaches, field considerations and problems associated with radio tracking carnivores
Sargeant, A.B.; Amlaner, C. J.; MacDonald, D.W.
1979-01-01
The adaptation of radio tracking to ecological studies was a major technological advance affecting field investigations of animal movements and behavior. Carnivores have been the recipients of much attention with this new technology and study approaches have varied from simple to complex. Equipment performance has much improved over the years, but users still face many difficulties. The beginning of all radio tracking studies should be a precise definition of objectives. Study objectives dictate type of gear required and field procedures. Field conditions affect equipment performance and investigator ability to gather data. Radio tracking carnivores is demanding and generally requires greater time than anticipated. Problems should be expected and planned for in study design. Radio tracking can be an asset in carnivore studies but caution is needed in its application.
A conservative approach for flow field calculations on multiple grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kathong, Monchai; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1988-01-01
In the computation of flow fields about complex configurations, it is very difficult to construct body-fitted coordinate systems. An alternative approach is to use several grids at once, each of which is generated independently. This procedure is called the multiple grids or zonal grids approach and its applications are investigated in this study. The method follows the conservative approach and provides conservation of fluxes at grid interfaces. The Euler equations are solved numerically on such grids for various configurations. The numerical scheme used is the finite-volume technique with a three-state Runge-Kutta time integration. The code is vectorized and programmed to run on the CDC VPS-32 computer. Some steady state solutions of the Euler equations are presented and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, R. A.; Wheat, L. W.
1975-01-01
A control theoretic model of the human pilot was used to analyze a baseline electronic cockpit display in a helicopter landing approach task. The head down display was created on a stroke written cathode ray tube and the vehicle was a UH-1H helicopter. The landing approach task consisted of maintaining prescribed groundspeed and glideslope in the presence of random vertical and horizontal turbulence. The pilot model was also used to generate and evaluate display quickening laws designed to improve pilot vehicle performance. A simple fixed base simulation provided comparative tracking data.
Zhadin, M N
1998-01-01
This is an attempt to solve the energetic problem of the primary detection of weak parallel static (DC) and alternating (AC) extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields. We studied the equations of motion for an ion situated inside a macromolecule under the influence of these fields. The main concern is with the magnetic field influence on thermal motion of the ion in the macromolecule. The resonance effects are revealed at discrete frequencies of the ion thermal oscillations determined by the DC field magnitude and the AC field frequency. These phenomena result from the Larmor precession of the ion thermal motion. When the DC field or, to a greater extent, the combined DC and AC fields with the specific frequencies are turned on or cut off, changes occur in the energy of the ion thermal motion. If, inside the macromolecule, the ion is sufficiently protected against immediate impacts of particles of the medium surrounding the macromolecule, these changes may be enough to trigger alteration in the quantum state of the macromolecule.
Theoretical investigation of boundary contours of ground-state atoms in uniform electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Hua; Zhao, Dong-Xia; Yang, Zhong-Zhi
2015-12-01
The boundary contours were investigated for first 54 ground-state atoms of the periodic table when they are in uniform electric fields of strengths 106, 107 and 108 V/m. The atomic characteristic boundary model in combination with an ab-initio method was employed. Some regularities of the deformation of atoms, ΔR, in above electric fields are revealed. Furthermore, atomic polarisabilities of the first 54 elements of the periodic table are shown to correlate strongly with the mean variation rate of atomic radial size divided by the strength of the electric field F, ?, which provides a predictive method of calculating atomic polarisabilities of 54 atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conde, J. C.; Riveiro, A.; Comesana, R.; Pou, J.
2011-11-01
The properties of orthopaedic/dental implants can be tuned through the laser surface modifications that take place during a laser ablation process. Processing assisted by a laser is adequate to produce macro- and micro-structures on metallic alloys and polymer surfaces in order to improve their biological response. The evaluation of the minimum energy density that causes an optimum ablation process on different kinds of surfaces was theoretically established by numerical simulation of the thermal process and some experiments have been systematically carried out to produce a periodic pattern in the surface. The selection of the laser power has been predicted from numerical analysis solving of the heat conduction differential equation using commercial software, ANSYS (11.0). This analysis has allowed us to predict the extent and the depth of the holes. The theoretical results agree with the experimental measurements that were carried out by profilometry.
Black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity: a number-theoretical approach.
Agulló, Iván; Barbero G, J Fernando; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernández-Borja, Enrique; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S
2008-05-30
We give an efficient method, combining number-theoretic and combinatorial ideas, to exactly compute black hole entropy in the framework of loop quantum gravity. Along the way we provide a complete characterization of the relevant sector of the spectrum of the area operator, including degeneracies, and explicitly determine the number of solutions to the projection constraint. We use a computer implementation of the proposed algorithm to confirm and extend previous results on the detailed structure of the black hole degeneracy spectrum.
Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Sukstanskii, Alexander L.; He, Xiang
2012-01-01
Quantitative evaluation of brain hemodynamics and metabolism, particularly the relationship between brain function and oxygen utilization, is important for understanding normal human brain operation as well as pathophysiology of neurological disorders. It can also be of great importance for evaluation of hypoxia within tumors of the brain and other organs. A fundamental discovery by Ogawa and co-workers of the BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) contrast opened a possibility to use this effect to study brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties by means of MRI measurements. Such measurements require developing theoretical models connecting MRI signal to brain structure and functioning and designing experimental techniques allowing MR measurements of salient features of theoretical models. In our review we discuss several such theoretical models and experimental methods for quantification brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties. Our review aims mostly at methods for measuring oxygen extraction fraction, OEF, based on measuring blood oxygenation level. Combining measurement of OEF with measurement of CBF allows evaluation of oxygen consumption, CMRO2. We first consider in detail magnetic properties of blood – magnetic susceptibility, MR relaxation and theoretical models of intravascular contribution to MR signal under different experimental conditions. Then, we describe a “through-space” effect – the influence of inhomogeneous magnetic fields, created in the extravascular space by intravascular deoxygenated blood, on the MR signal formation. Further we describe several experimental techniques taking advantage of these theoretical models. Some of these techniques - MR susceptometry, and T2-based quantification of oxygen OEF – utilize intravascular MR signal. Another technique – qBOLD – evaluates OEF by making use of through-space effects. In this review we targeted both scientists just entering the MR field and more experienced MR researchers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Miller, Ronald H.
1993-01-01
The early-time evolution of plasmas moving across a background magnetic field is addressed with a 2D model in which a plasma cloud is assumed to have formed instantaneously with a velocity across a uniform background magnetic field and with a Gaussian density profile in the two dimensions perpendicular to the direction of motion. This model treats both the dynamics associated with the formation of a polarization field and the generation and propagation of electromagnetic waves. In general, the results indicate that, to zeroth order, the plasma cloud behaves like a large dipole antenna oriented in the direction of the polarization field which oscillates at frequencies defined by the normal mode of the system. Radiation damping is shown to play an important role in defining the plasma cloud evolution, causing a rapid decay of the polarizaiton field and a loss of plasma kinetic energy and momentum on time scales comprable to several ion gyroperiods. Scaling laws are derived for the plasma momentum and energy loss rates, and predictions for the braking time, the amplitude and spectrum of the radiation field, and the total radiated power are presented for conditions relevant to the recent Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasper, R. G.
1985-02-01
Based on completed experimental electric-field scans and the corresponding finite-element field predictions, it appears that the finite-element numerical technique presents a strong analytical tool in calculating the nearfield (within 650 micrometers electric-field distributions about active microcells. This was analytically achieved with the new double membrane finite-element configuration representing nonlinear polarization and by using a local tangent slope (impedance) definition dependent on the local potential difference. The experimental determination of the normal current was realized with a newly developed scanning vibrating electrode technique. The finite-element model utilizes a priori measured uncoupled polarization curves for pure iron and pure copper. The current densities and the electric field intensity was calculated for all the grid points within the electrolyte and on its boundaries. Results appear to indicate that first order anodic mass loss can be predicted using finite-element predicted current density distributions on the anodic surface and the imposition of Faraday's law. The electric-field correlation established for the normal current-density vector provides the confidence to proceed in the evaluation of electric fields associated with pitting and crevice corrosion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuo, Wanlong; Ben, Shuai; Lv, Hang; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen; Xu, Haifeng; Jin, Mingxing; Ding, Dajun
2016-05-01
Nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of carbon disulfide CS2 in strong 800-nm laser fields is studied experimentally and theoretically. A knee structure is observed in the intensity-dependent double ionization (DI) yield in linearly polarized laser fields, which exhibits a strong dependence on the laser ellipticity. The electron momentum distributions and energy trajectories after DI in both linearly and circularly polarized laser fields are investigated by employing the two-dimensional classical ensemble method. The results clearly show the evidence of NSDI in the strong-field DI of CS2 molecules. It is demonstrated that, similar to that of atoms, NSDI of CS2 molecules is produced via laser-driven electron recollision with the ion core and presents electron-electron correlations in the process. Analysis indicates that both mechanisms in atomic strong-field NSDI, i.e., recollision impact ionization and recollision excitation with subsequent ionization, may also be contributed to NSDI of CS2 in strong laser fields. Further studies are no doubt necessary for a full understanding of the underlying physical mechanism of molecular strong-field NSDI, due to the multicenter character of the molecular structure and the complex molecular excited states that could be involved in the ionization.
Practical approaches to field problems of stationary combustion systems
Lee, S.W.
1997-09-01
The CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) business plan dictates collaboration with industrial clients and other government agencies to promote energy efficiency, health and safety, pollution reduction and productivity enhancement. The Advanced Combustion Technologies group of CETC provides consultation to numerous organizations in combustion related areas by conducting laboratory and field investigations of fossil fuel-fired combustion equipment. CETC, with its modern research facilities and technical expertise, has taken this practical approach since the seventies and has assisted many organizations in overcoming field problems and in providing cost saving measures and improved profit margins. This paper presents a few selected research projects conducted for industrial clients in north and central America. The combustion systems investigated are mostly liquid fuel fired, with the exception of the utility boiler which was coal-fired. The key areas involved include fuel quality, fuel storage/delivery system contamination, waste derived oils, crude oil combustion, unacceptable pollutant emissions, ambient soot deposition, slagging, fouling, boiler component degradation, and particulate characterization. Some of the practical approaches taken to remedy these field problems on several combustion systems including residential, commercial and industrial scale units are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gaebelein, Jacquelyn W.
Research strategies used to study human aggression include laboratory study, experimental simulation, field experiment, field study, judgment task, sample survey, and less empirical strategies such as computer simulations and formal theory. The context of these strategies can be classified as either contrived, natural, or irrelevant. Major issues…
Huang, Xinting; Yang, Dapeng; Yao, Li
2014-09-15
In this work, the laser-parameter effects on the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum and attosecond trains by mixing two-color laser field, a visible light field of 800 nm and a mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser pulses of 2400 nm, are theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Different schemes are applied to discuss the function of intensity, carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and pulse duration on the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse. As a consequence, an isolated 16as pulse is obtained by Fourier transforming an ultrabroad XUV continuum of 208 eV with the fundamental field of duration of 6 fs, 9×10(14)W/cm2 of intensity, the duration of 12 fs, the CEPs of the two driving pulses of -π and the relative strength ratio √R=0.2. PMID:24759780
Huang, Xinting; Yang, Dapeng; Yao, Li
2014-09-15
In this work, the laser-parameter effects on the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum and attosecond trains by mixing two-color laser field, a visible light field of 800 nm and a mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser pulses of 2400 nm, are theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Different schemes are applied to discuss the function of intensity, carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and pulse duration on the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse. As a consequence, an isolated 16as pulse is obtained by Fourier transforming an ultrabroad XUV continuum of 208 eV with the fundamental field of duration of 6 fs, 9×10(14)W/cm2 of intensity, the duration of 12 fs, the CEPs of the two driving pulses of -π and the relative strength ratio √R=0.2.
Ab-Initio Hamiltonian Approach to Light Nuclei And to Quantum Field Theory
Vary, J.P.; Honkanen, H.; Li, Jun; Maris, P.; Shirokov, A.M.; Brodsky, S.J.; Harindranath, A.; de Teramond, G.F.; Ng, E.G.; Yang, C.; Sosonkina, M.; /Ames Lab
2012-06-22
Nuclear structure physics is on the threshold of confronting several long-standing problems such as the origin of shell structure from basic nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions. At the same time those interactions are being developed with increasing contact to QCD, the underlying theory of the strong interactions, using effective field theory. The motivation is clear - QCD offers the promise of great predictive power spanning phenomena on multiple scales from quarks and gluons to nuclear structure. However, new tools that involve non-perturbative methods are required to build bridges from one scale to the next. We present an overview of recent theoretical and computational progress with a Hamiltonian approach to build these bridges and provide illustrative results for the nuclear structure of light nuclei and quantum field theory.
Snodin, A. P.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H. E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th
2013-01-01
The turbulent random walk of magnetic field lines plays an important role in the transport of plasmas and energetic particles in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, but most theoretical work has concentrated on determination of the asymptotic field line diffusion coefficient. Here we consider the evolution with distance of the field line random walk using a general ordinary differential equation (ODE), which for most cases of interest in astrophysics describes a transition from free streaming to asymptotic diffusion. By challenging theories of asymptotic diffusion to also describe the evolution, one gains insight on how accurately they describe the random walk process. Previous theoretical work has effectively involved closure of the ODE, often by assuming Corrsin's hypothesis and a Gaussian displacement distribution. Approaches that use quasilinear theory and prescribe the mean squared displacement ({Delta}x {sup 2}) according to free streaming (random ballistic decorrelation, RBD) or asymptotic diffusion (diffusive decorrelation, DD) can match computer simulation results, but only over specific parameter ranges, with no obvious 'marker' of the range of validity. Here we make use of a unified description in which the ODE determines ({Delta}x {sup 2}) self-consistently, providing a natural transition between the assumptions of RBD and DD. We find that the minimum kurtosis of the displacement distribution provides a good indicator of whether the self-consistent ODE is applicable, i.e., inaccuracy of the self-consistent ODE is associated with non-Gaussian displacement distributions.
Maity, Supratim; Banerjee, Diptonil; Das, Nirmalya Sankar; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar
2016-05-01
Here a dual approach has been adopted to study the effect of both synthesis as well as annealing temperature on the electron field emission property of differently synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that include solid state chemical reaction as well as chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Experimental findings were supported by theoretical simulation. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD as well as TEM study confirms the amorphous nature (aCNTs) of the samples for both the synthesis techniques which is attributed to lower synthesis temperature. Prominent morphological differences of these two types of aCNTs are clearly observed from both FESEM and TEM images. It is found that electron field emission characteristics of aCNTs synthesized by CVD shows better field emission properties as compared to aCNTs synthesized by solid state reaction. Finite element based simulation shows that temperature has prominent effect on morphology, screening effect or degree of graphitization that leads to improved field emission characteristics for the CVD synthesized aCNTs.
Maity, Supratim; Banerjee, Diptonil; Das, Nirmalya Sankar; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar
2016-05-01
Here a dual approach has been adopted to study the effect of both synthesis as well as annealing temperature on the electron field emission property of differently synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that include solid state chemical reaction as well as chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Experimental findings were supported by theoretical simulation. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD as well as TEM study confirms the amorphous nature (aCNTs) of the samples for both the synthesis techniques which is attributed to lower synthesis temperature. Prominent morphological differences of these two types of aCNTs are clearly observed from both FESEM and TEM images. It is found that electron field emission characteristics of aCNTs synthesized by CVD shows better field emission properties as compared to aCNTs synthesized by solid state reaction. Finite element based simulation shows that temperature has prominent effect on morphology, screening effect or degree of graphitization that leads to improved field emission characteristics for the CVD synthesized aCNTs. PMID:27483810
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikki, Said M.
Although electromagnetism was developed originally as a branch of theoretical physics, the wide spread proliferation of wireless communications and other applications since the turn of the 20th century quickly transformed the field into a well-defined discipline standing by itself as an autonomous part of engineering. This in turn accelerated the growth of both numerical techniques and practical designs aiming all to improve technology. However, one negative drawback was the increasing isolation between the practicality of engineering electromagnetism and the depth and sophistication of the tools that had been developed solely within electromagnetic theory as a branch of theoretical physics. In this dissertation, we propose a new look to engineering electromagnetism from the perspective of theoretical physics. We show that techniques usually associated with abstract physical models in theoretical physics can be successfully employed to enhance our understanding of problems in engineering electromagnetism. Also, such adaptations of theoretical methods allow for new kinds of applications to be invented. This dissertation is organized in two main parts. Part I is concerned with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. We first construct a physical theory for the particle swarm optimization and show how this could open the door not just for deeper understanding of the algorithm itself, but also for new techniques to improve the performance of the method when applied to engineering electromagnetics problems. Inspired by the wider perspective derived from physics, we apply quantum effects to the basic (classical) PSO and derive a new general quantum PSO (QPSO) algorithm suitable for engineering electromagnetism. The new method will be shown to be superior to the classical counterpart when applied to some practical problems. A detailed case study that was formulated extensively in our work is the infinitesimal dipole model (IDM), which can simulate arbitrary antennas
Hill, D.W.; Sharp, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)
1993-02-01
In the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, there is a history of oil and gas production extending over 2 to 5 decades. Concurrent with this production history, there has been unprecedented population growth accompanied by vastly increased groundwater demands. Land subsidence on both local and regional bases in this geologic province has been measured and predicted in several studies. The vast majority of these studies have addressed the problem from the standpoint of groundwater usage while only a few have considered the effects of oil and gas production. Based upon field-based computational techniques (Helm, 1984), a model has been developed to predict land subsidence caused by oil and gas production. This method is applied to the Big Hill Field in Jefferson County, Texas. Inputs include production data from a series of wells in this field and lithologic data from electric logs of these same wells. Outputs include predicted amounts of subsidence, the time frame of subsidence, and sensitivity analyses of compressibility and hydraulic conductivity estimates. Depending upon estimated compressibility, subsidence, to date, is predicted to be as high as 20 cm. Similarly, depending upon estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity, the time frame may be decades for this subsidence. These same methods can be applied to other oil/gas fields with established production histories as well as new fields when production scenarios are assumed. Where subsidence has been carefully measured above petroleum reservoir, the model may be used inversely to calculate sediment compressibilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Xu; Xiaohong, Hu; Ye, Feng; Yuanshan, Liu; Wei, Zhang; Zhi, Yang; Wei, Zhao; Yishan, Wang
2016-03-01
We study the spatiotemporal evolution of the electromagnetic field inside a microresonator showing an anomalous dispersion at the pump wavelength by using the normalized Lugiato-Lefever equation. Unlike the traditional single continuous wave (CW) pumping, an additional pump source consisting of periodical pulse train with variable repetition rate is adopted. The influences of the microresonator properties and the pump parameters on the field evolution and the electromagnetic field profile are analyzed. The simulation results indicate that, in the anomalous dispersion regime, both increases of the input pulse amplitude and the repetition frequency can result in the field profiles consisting of multiple peaks. A series of equidistant pulses can also be obtained by increasing the CW pump power. In addition, we find that a large physical detuning between the pump laser carrier and the cavity resonance frequency also causes the splitting of the inside field. Project supported by the National Major Scientific Instrumentation Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011YQ120022), CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams, China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61275164).
Huber, Christoph; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Prior, Yehiam; Kautek, Wolfgang
2014-02-14
A systematic study of the influence of the excitation angle, the light polarization and the coating thickness of commercial SPM tips on the field enhancement in an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope is presented. A new method to optimize the alignment of the electric field vector along the major tip axis by measuring the resonance frequency was developed. The simulations were performed with a MNPBEM toolbox based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The influence of the coating thickness was investigated for the first time. Coatings below 40 nm showed a drastic influence both on the resonance wavelength and the enhancement. A shift to higher angles of incidence for the maximum enhancement could be observed for greater tip radii.
Schakel, M. D.; Slob, E. C.; Heller, H. K. J.; Smeulders, D. M. J.
2011-04-01
A full-waveform seismoelectric numerical model incorporating the directivity pattern of a pressure source is developed. This model provides predictions of coseismic electric fields and the electromagnetic waves that originate from a fluid/porous-medium interface. An experimental setup in which coseismic electric fields and interface responses are measured is constructed. The seismo-electric origin of the signals is confirmed. The numerically predicted polarity reversal of the interfacial signal and seismoelectric effects due to multiple scattering are detected in the measurements. Both the simulated coseismic electric fields and the electromagnetic waves originating from interfaces agree with the measurements in terms of travel times, waveform, polarity, amplitude, and spatial amplitude decay, demonstrating that seismoelectric effects are comprehensively described by theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, M. A.
1975-01-01
It has been shown previously (Anath et al., 1973 and Kane, 1974) that 20 to 25% of days, the diffusion component of the cosmic-ray neutron diurnal anisotropy is directed more than 30 degrees away from the ecliptic projection of the interplanetary magnetic field averaged over the same 24 hours. A number of explanations for this deviation are discussed and it is concluded that transverse gradient drifts due to gradients perpendicular to the ecliptic are likely, that diurnal variations in the diffusion component of the neutron anisotropy may affect results from single stations and that the 24 hour mean interplanetary magnetic field may not be the field appropriate to the streaming equation at neutron monitor energies.
Theoretical study of alignment dynamics of magnetic oblate spheroids in rotating magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Mingyang; Song, Han; Dhagat, Pallavi; Jander, Albrecht; Walker, Travis W.
2016-06-01
Magnetic composites containing anisotropic magnetic particles can achieve properties not possible in corresponding bulk or thin films of the magnetic material. In this work, we discuss how planar magnetic anisotropy may be achieved in a composite by aligning disk-shaped particles in an in-plane rotating magnetic field. Previous efforts have reported a simple model of aligning particles in a high-frequency rotating magnetic field. However, no complete analytic solution was proposed. Here, we provide a full analytic solution that describes the alignment dynamics of microdisks in a rotating field that covers the entire frequency range. We also provide simplified solutions at both high-frequency and low-frequency limits through asymptotic expansions for easy implementation into industrial settings. The analytic solution is confirmed by numerical simulation and shows agreement with experiments.
Liang, Yunye; Wang, Vei; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki
2012-11-14
The electronic properties of silicene zigzag nanoribbons with the presence of perpendicular fields are studied by using first-principles calculations and the generalized nearest neighboring approximation method. In contrast to the planar graphene, in silicene the Si atoms are not coplanar. As a result, by applying perpendicular fields to the two-dimensional silicene sheet, the on-site energy can be modulated and the band gap at the Dirac point is open. The buckled structure also creates a height difference between the two edges of the silicene zigzag nanoribbons. We find that the external fields can modulate the energies of spin-polarized edge states and their corresponding band gaps. Due to the polarization in the plane, the modulation effect is width dependent and becomes much more significant for narrow ribbons.
A Thematic Analysis of Theoretical Models for Translational Science in Nursing: Mapping the Field
Mitchell, Sandra A.; Fisher, Cheryl A.; Hastings, Clare E.; Silverman, Leanne B.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.
2010-01-01
Background The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. Purpose This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. Method Literature searches identified 47 models for knowledge translation. Four thematic areas emerged: (1) evidence-based practice and knowledge transformation processes; (2) strategic change to promote adoption of new knowledge; (3) knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry; (4) designing and interpreting dissemination research. Discussion This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation. Conclusions A flexible theoretical stance is essential to simultaneously develop new knowledge and accelerate the translation of that knowledge into practice behaviors and programs of care that support optimal patient outcomes. PMID:21074646
An analytic approach to optimize tidal turbine fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelz, P.; Metzler, M.
2013-12-01
Motivated by global warming due to CO2-emission various technologies for harvesting of energy from renewable sources are developed. Hydrokinetic turbines get applied to surface watercourse or tidal flow to gain electrical energy. Since the available power for hydrokinetic turbines is proportional to the projected cross section area, fields of turbines are installed to scale shaft power. Each hydrokinetic turbine of a field can be considered as a disk actuator. In [1], the first author derives the optimal operation point for hydropower in an open-channel. The present paper concerns about a 0-dimensional model of a disk-actuator in an open-channel flow with bypass, as a special case of [1]. Based on the energy equation, the continuity equation and the momentum balance an analytical approach is made to calculate the coefficient of performance for hydrokinetic turbines with bypass flow as function of the turbine head and the ratio of turbine width to channel width.
Neutral current neutrino oscillation via quantum field theory approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ettefaghi, M. M.; Askaripour Ravari, Z.
2015-07-01
Neutrino and anti-neutrino states coming from the neutral current or Z0 decay are blind with respect to the flavor. The neutrino oscillation is observed and formulated when its flavor is known. However, it has been shown that we can see neutrino oscillation pattern for Z0 decay neutrinos provided that both neutrino and anti-neutrino are detected. In this paper, we restudy this oscillation via quantum field theory approach. Through this approach, we find that the oscillation pattern ceases if the distance between the detectors is larger than the coherence length, while both neutrino and antineutrino states may be coherent. Also the uncertainty of source (region of Z0 decay) does not have any role in the coherency of neutrino and antineutrino.
Nuclear Magnetic Moment of {sup 210}Fr: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Approach
Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Sprouse, G. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Iskrenova-Tchoukova, E.; Safronova, M. S.
2008-05-02
We measure the hyperfine splitting of the 9S{sub 1/2} level of {sup 210}Fr, and find a magnetic dipole hyperfine constant A=622.25(36) MHz. The theoretical value, obtained using the relativistic all-order method from the electronic wave function at the nucleus, allows us to extract a nuclear magnetic moment of 4.38(5){mu}{sub N} for this isotope, which represents a factor of 2 improvement in precision over previous measurements. The same method can be applied to other rare isotopes and elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odio, Oscar F.; Martínez, Ariel; Martínez, Ricardo; Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A.
2011-01-01
The acrylamide polymerization in presence of diosgenin has been investigated by experimental and theoretical methods. NMR spectroscopy shows the absence of copolymerization. Viscosimetric and dilatometric experiments support the occurrence of transfer reactions that retard the polymerization. The mechanism was studied at the MPWB1K/6-31G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Transfer, homopropagation, copolymerization and reinitiation reactions were considered either in gas or solution phase. According to results, the retardation seems to be originated by the formation of an allylic radical in the ring B of diosgenin that reinitiates acrylamide polymerization at slow rate.
Theoretical study of the formation reaction of the methyl vinyl ketone: A conformational approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez-Ramírez, Víctor M.; Nebot-Gil, Ignacio
The formation reaction of both isomers of the methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) from the corresponding alkoxy radicals was investigated by means of theoretical methods based on quantum chemistry. Perturbative unrestricted Möller-Plesset (UMP2) and density functional methods B3LYP and BH and HLYP were used to obtain the stationary points on the potential energy surface. In addition to this, the interconversion reaction between both isomers of the MVK was studied, characterizing the corresponding transition state. A conformational study was done, and the energy and geometry of the stationary points located were analyzed by means of ab initio calculations.
Experimental and theoretical approach to chemical beam epitaxy of cBN
Komatsu, Shojiro; Satoh, Yoichiro
1995-12-31
Chemical beam epitaxy(CBE) method is introduced to carry out the study of cBN deposition on well-defined surfaces and the in-situ observation of the surfaces using an RHEED (reflection high energy electron diffraction)-TRAXS (total reflection angle X-ray spectroscopy) system. The CBE study is theoretically assisted by semiempirical MO calculations of nanocrystals to model hydrogenated surfaces of cBN. The (100)N was found unique because it stabilizes as fully-hydrogenated dihydride structure. On the other hand, the (100)B was predicted to stabilize as monohydride structure, which is similar to hydrogenated surface of diamond(100).
Five Faces of Cognition: Theoretical Influences on Approaches to Learning Disabilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hresko, Wayne P.; Reid, D. Kim
1981-01-01
The label "cognitive" has been used to designate five substantially different approaches to the study of learning disabilities: information processing, metacognition, genetic epistemology, cognitive behavior modification, and the specific abilities model. (Author)
Theoretical Developments in Decision Field Theory: Comment on Tsetsos, Usher, and Chater (2010)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hotaling, Jared M.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Li, Jiyun
2010-01-01
Tsetsos, Usher, and Chater (2010) presented several criticisms of decision field theory (DFT) involving its distance function, instability under externally controlled stopping times, and lack of robustness to various multialternative choice scenarios. Here, we counter those claims with a specification of a distance function based on the…
Zou, Yong; Wang, Changzhen; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Lifeng; Hu, Xiangjun
2015-04-01
A change of the transmembrane voltage is considered to cause biophysical and biochemical responses in cells. The present study focuses on the cellular transmembrane voltage (Δφ) induced by external fields. We detail analytical equations for the transmembrane voltage induced by external high-frequency (above the relaxation frequency of the cell membrane) fields on cells of a spherical shape in suspensions and layers. At direct current (DC) and low frequencies, the cell membrane was assumed to be non-conductive under physiologic conditions. However, with increasing frequency, the permittivity of the cytoplasm/extracellular medium and conductivity of the membrane must be accounted for. Our main work is to extend application of the analytical solution of Δφ to the high-frequency range. We first introduce the transmembrane voltage generated by DC and low-frequency exposures on a single cell. Then, we focus on cell suspensions exposed to high-frequency fields. Using the effective medium theory and the reasonable assumption, the approximate analytical solution of Δφ on cells in suspensions and layers can be derived. Phenomenological effective medium theory equations cannot be used to calculate the local electric field of cell suspensions, so we raised a possible solution based on the Bergman theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claret, A.
2016-04-01
Aims: Recent observations of very fast rotating stars show systematic deviations from the von Zeipel theorem and pose a challenge to the theory of gravity-darkening exponents (β1). In this paper, we present a new insight into the problem of temperature distribution over distorted stellar surfaces to try to reduce these discrepancies. Methods: We use a variant of the numerical method based on the triangles strategy, which we previously introduced, to evaluate the gravity-darkening exponents. The novelty of the present method is that the theoretical β1 is now computed as a function of the optical depth, that is, β1 ≡ β1(τ). The stellar evolutionary models, which are necessary to obtain the physical conditions of the stellar envelopes/atmospheres inherent to the numerical method, are computed via the code GRANADA. Results: When the resulting theoretical β1(τ) are compared with the best accurate data of very fast rotators, a good agreement for the six systems is simultaneously achieved. In addition, we derive an equation that relates the locus of constant convective efficiency in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram with gravity-darkening exponents.
Field theoretical model of multilayered Josephson junction and dynamics of Josephson vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimori, Toshiaki; Iida, Hideaki; Nitta, Muneto
2016-09-01
Multilayered Josephson junctions are modeled in the context of a field theory, and dynamics of Josephson vortices trapped inside insulators are studied. Starting from a theory consisting of complex and real scalar fields coupled to a U(1) gauge field which admit parallel N -1 domain-wall solutions, Josephson couplings are introduced weakly between the complex scalar fields. The N -1 domain walls behave as insulators separating N superconductors, where one of the complex scalar fields has a gap. We construct the effective Lagrangian on the domain walls, which reduces to a coupled sine-Gordon model for well-separated walls and contains more interactions for walls at short distance. We then construct sine-Gordon solitons emerging in an effective theory in which we identify Josephson vortices carrying singly quantized magnetic fluxes. When two neighboring superconductors tend to have the same phase, the ground state does not change with the positions of domain walls (the width of superconductors). On the other hand, when two neighboring superconductors tend to have π -phase differences, the ground state has a phase transition depending on the positions of domain walls; when the two walls are close to each other (one superconductor is thin), frustration occurs because of the coupling between the two superconductors besides the thin superconductor. Focusing on the case of three superconductors separated by two insulators, we find for the former case that the interaction between two Josephson vortices on different insulators changes its nature, i.e., attractive or repulsive, depending on the positions of the domain walls. In the latter case, there emerges fractional Josephson vortices when two degenerate ground states appear due to spontaneous charge-symmetry breaking, and the number of the Josephson vortices varies with the position of the domain walls. Our predictions should be verified in multilayered Josephson junctions.
Iida, Kenji; Noda, Masashi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki
2014-09-28
We propose a theoretical approach for optical response in electrochemical systems. The fundamental equation to be solved is based on a time-dependent density functional theory in real-time and real-space in combination with its finite temperature formula treating an electrode potential. Solvation effects are evaluated by a dielectric continuum theory. The approach allows us to treat optical response in electrochemical systems at the atomistic level of theory. We have applied the method to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4-mercaptopyridine on an Ag electrode surface. It is shown that the SERS intensity has a peak as a function of the electrode potential. Furthermore, the real-space computational approach facilitates visualization of variation of the SERS intensity depending on an electrode potential.
Armas-Pérez, Julio C; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; de Pablo, Juan J
2015-12-28
A theoretically informed Monte Carlo method is proposed for Monte Carlo simulation of liquid crystals on the basis of theoretical representations in terms of coarse-grained free energy functionals. The free energy functional is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. A piecewise finite element discretization is used to approximate the alignment field, thereby providing an excellent geometrical representation of curved interfaces and accurate integration of the free energy. The method is suitable for situations where the free energy functional includes highly non-linear terms, including chirality or high-order deformation modes. The validity of the method is established by comparing the results of Monte Carlo simulations to traditional Ginzburg-Landau minimizations of the free energy using a finite difference scheme, and its usefulness is demonstrated in the context of simulations of chiral liquid crystal droplets with and without nanoparticle inclusions.
Cold collisions of ground-state calcium atoms in a laser field: A theoretical study
Bussery-Honvault, Beatrice; Launay, Jean-Michel; Moszynski, Robert
2003-09-01
State-of-the-art ab initio techniques have been applied to compute the potential-energy curves for the ground X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} and excited {sup 1}{pi}{sub g}(4s3d) states of the calcium dimer in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The weakly bound ground state was calculated by symmetry-adapted perturbation theory, while the strongly bound excited state was computed using a combination of the linear-response theory within the coupled-cluster singles and doubles framework for the core-valence electronic correlation and of the full configuration interaction for the valence-valence correlation. The ground-state potential has been corrected by considering the relativistic terms resulting from the first-order many-electron Breit theory, and the retardation corrections. The magnetic electronic transition dipole moment governing the {sup 1}{pi}{sub g}(leftarrow){sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} transitions has been obtained as the first residue of the polarization propagator computed with the coupled-cluster method restricted to single and double excitations. The computed energies and transition moments have been analytically fitted and used in the dynamical calculations of the rovibrational energy levels, ground-state scattering length, photoassociation intensities at ultralow temperatures, and spontaneous emission coefficients from the {sup 1}{pi}{sub g}(4s3d) to the X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state. The spectroscopic constants of the theoretical ground-state potential are in a good agreement with the experimental values derived from the Fourier-transform spectra [O. Allard et al., Eur. Phys. J. D (to be published)]. The theoretical s-wave scattering length for the ground state is a=44 bohrs, suggesting that it should be possible to obtain a stable Bose-Einstein condensate of calcium atoms. Finally, the computed photoassociation intensities and spontaneous emission coefficients suggest that it should be possible to obtain cold calcium molecules by
Theoretical and experimental studies of microwave radiation from a natural snow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiuri, M.; Schultz, H.
1980-01-01
The brightness temperature of a natural snow field in northern Europe was studied theortically and experimentally at 5, 12, and 37 GHz for satellite remote sensing applications. A snow model consisting of ice spheres covered by a water shell was used in calculation, taking into account scattering and absorption. The brightness temperature of a natural snow field as a function of view angle was measured from a tower in 1978 and 1979. The measured brightness temperature curves can be fitted with calculated ones by assuming reasonable values for the wetness and the particle size of snow. Experimental results also show that relatively small changes in the snow conditions cause large changes in the brightness temperature. In order to obtain a more controlled situation, experiments were continued in 1980 using a measuring site covered with aluminum sheets and determining the wetness and the particle size in addition to the density and physical temperature.
Zhang, Y; Joines, W T; Jirtle, R L; Samulski, T V
1993-08-01
The magnitude of E-field patterns generated by an annular array prototype device has been calculated and measured. Two models were used to describe the radiating sources: a simple linear dipole and a stripline antenna model. The stripline model includes detailed geometry of the actual antennas used in the prototype and an estimate of the antenna current based on microstrip transmission line theory. This more detailed model yields better agreement with the measured field patterns, reducing the rms discrepancy by a factor of about 6 (from approximately 23 to 4%) in the central region of interest where the SEM is within 25% of the maximum. We conclude that accurate modeling of source current distributions is important for determining SEM distributions associated with such heating devices.
Zhang, Y; Joines, W T; Jirtle, R L; Samulski, T V
1993-08-01
The magnitude of E-field patterns generated by an annular array prototype device has been calculated and measured. Two models were used to describe the radiating sources: a simple linear dipole and a stripline antenna model. The stripline model includes detailed geometry of the actual antennas used in the prototype and an estimate of the antenna current based on microstrip transmission line theory. This more detailed model yields better agreement with the measured field patterns, reducing the rms discrepancy by a factor of about 6 (from approximately 23 to 4%) in the central region of interest where the SEM is within 25% of the maximum. We conclude that accurate modeling of source current distributions is important for determining SEM distributions associated with such heating devices. PMID:8258444
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amorós, Jaume; de Haro, Jaume
2016-09-01
The PLANCK collaboration has determined, or greatly constrained, values for the spectral parameters of the CMB radiation, namely the spectral index n s , its running α s , the running of the running β s , using a growing body of measurements of CMB anisotropies by the Planck satellite and other missions. These values do not follow the hierarchy of sizes predicted by single field, slow roll inflationary theory, and are thus difficult to fit for such inflation models. In this work we present first a study of 49 single field, slow roll inflationary potentials in which we assess the likelyhood of these models fitting the spectral parameters to their currently most accurate determination given by the PLANCK collaboration. We check numerically with a MATLAB program the spectral parameters that each model can yield for a very broad, comprehensive list of possible parameter and field values. The comparison of spectral parameter values supported by the models with their determinations by the PLANCK collaboration leads to the conclusion that the data provided by PLANCK2015 TT+lowP and PLANCK2015 TT,TE,EE+lowP taking into account the running of the running disfavours 40 of the 49 models with confidence level at least 92.8 %. Next, we discuss the reliability of the current computations of these spectral parameters. We identify a bias in the method of determination of the spectral parameters by least residue parameter fitting (using MCMC or any other scheme) currently used to reconstruct the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. This bias can explain the observed contradiction between theory and observations. Its removal is computationally costly, but necessary in order to compare the forecasts of single field, slow roll theories with observations.
Theoretical investigation of single dopant in core/shell nanocrystal in magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talbi, A.; Feddi, E.; Oukerroum, A.; Assaid, E.; Dujardin, F.; Addou, M.
2015-09-01
The control of single dopant or "solitary dopant" in semiconductors constitute a challenge to achieve new range of tunable optoelectronic devices. Knowing that the properties of doped monocrystals are very sensitive to different external perturbations, the aim of this study is to understand the effect of a magnetic field on the ground state energy of an off-center ionized donor in a core/shell quantum dot (CSQD). The binding energies with and without an applied magnetic field are determined by the Ritz variational method taking into account the electron-impurity correlation in the trial wave function deduced from the second-order perturbation. It has been found that the external magnetic field affects strongly the binding energy, and its effect varies as a function of the core radius and the shell thickness. We have shown the existence of a threshold ratio (a / b) crit which represents the limit between the tridimensional and the spherical surface confinement. In addition our analysis demonstrates the important influence of the position of ionized donor in the shell material.
Comparison of theoretical approaches for computing the bond length alternation of polymethineimine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A.; Chermette, Henry; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo
2007-01-01
Using electron-correlated wavefunction approaches and several pure and hybrid density functionals combined with three atomic basis sets, we have optimized the ground-state geometry of increasingly long polymethineimine oligomers presenting all- trans and gliding-plane symmetries. It turns out that MP2 bond length alternations (BLA) are in good agreement with higher-order electron-correlated wavefunction approaches, whereas, for both conformers, large qualitative and quantitative discrepancies between MP2 and DFT geometries have been found. Indeed, all the selected GGA, meta-GGA and hybrid functionals tend to overestimate bond length equalization in extended polymethineimine structures. On the other hand, self-interaction corrections included in the ADSIC framework provide, in this particular case, a more efficient approach to predict the BLA for medium-size oligomers.
Horie, Masanobu; Sakurai, Tatsunari; Kitahata, Hiroyuki
2016-01-01
We investigated the phase-response curve of a coupled system of density oscillators with an analytical approach. The behaviors of two-, three-, and four-coupled systems seen in the experiments were reproduced by the model considering the phase-response curve. Especially in a four-coupled system, the clustering state and its incidence rate as functions of the coupling strength are well reproduced with this approach. Moreover, we confirmed that the shape of the phase-response curve we obtained analytically was close to that observed in the experiment where a perturbation is added to a single-density oscillator. We expect that this approach to obtaining the phase-response curve is general in the sense that it could be applied to coupled systems of other oscillators such as electrical-circuit oscillators, metronomes, and so on.
Toward a theoretical approach to medical error reporting system research and design.
Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Escoto, Kamisha Hamilton; Beasley, John W; Holden, Richard J
2006-05-01
The release of the Institute of Medicine (Kohn et al., 2000) report "To Err is Human", brought attention to the problem of medical errors, which led to a concerted effort to study and design medical error reporting systems for the purpose of capturing and analyzing error data so that safety interventions could be designed. However, to make real gains in the efficacy of medical error or event reporting systems, it is necessary to begin developing a theory of reporting systems adoption and use and to understand how existing theories may play a role in explaining adoption and use. This paper presents the results of a 9-month study exploring the barriers and facilitators for the design of a statewide medical error reporting system and discusses how several existing theories of technology acceptance, adoption and implementation fit with many of the results. In addition we present an integrated theoretical model of medical error reporting system design and implementation. PMID:16182233
Role of word-of-mouth for programs of voluntary vaccination: A game-theoretic approach.
Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T; Breban, Romulus
2015-11-01
We propose a model describing the synergetic feedback between word-of-mouth (WoM) and epidemic dynamics controlled by voluntary vaccination. The key feature consists in combining a game-theoretic model for the spread of WoM and a compartmental model describing VSIR disease dynamics in the presence of a program of voluntary vaccination. We evaluate and compare two scenarios for determinants of behavior, depending on what WoM disseminates: (1) vaccine advertising, which may occur whether or not an epidemic is ongoing and (2) epidemic status, notably disease prevalence. Understanding the synergy between the two strategies could be particularly important for designing voluntary vaccination campaigns. We find that, in the initial phase of an epidemic, vaccination uptake is determined more by vaccine advertising than the epidemic status. As the epidemic progresses, epidemic status becomes increasingly important for vaccination uptake, considerably accelerating vaccination uptake toward a stable vaccination coverage. PMID:26367185
An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach for Conjunctive Surface and Ground Water Allocation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsapour Moghaddam, P.; Abed Elmdoust, A.; Kerachian, R.
2011-12-01
In this paper, a non-cooperative game theoretic methodology is developed for determining evolutionary stable policies for surface and groundwater allocation to stakeholders with conflicting objectives. In the proposed methodology, the information of water balance, hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifer and some other crucial data are used for modeling groundwater flow using the MODFLOW and MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models. An optimization model based on genetic algorithm is also developed that yields the evolutionary stable water allocation strategies for the stakeholders considering different non-cooperative common pool resources (CPR) management institutions within short and long term planning horizons. In the methodology, some basic characteristics of beneficiaries are also considered to determine how different planning variables are affected by the different rationales and exploitation strategies of stakeholders. To illustrate the practical utility of the proposed methodology, it is applied to the Rafsanjan Basin in Iran.
Formation of Virtual Organizations in Grids: A Game-Theoretic Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel
The execution of large scale grid applications requires the use of several computational resources owned by various Grid Service Providers (GSPs). GSPs must form Virtual Organizations (VOs) to be able to provide the composite resource to these applications. We consider grids as self-organizing systems composed of autonomous, self-interested GSPs that will organize themselves into VOs with every GSP having the objective of maximizing its profit. We formulate the resource composition among GSPs as a coalition formation problem and propose a game-theoretic framework based on cooperation structures to model it. Using this framework, we design a resource management system that supports the VO formation among GSPs in a grid computing system.
Role of word-of-mouth for programs of voluntary vaccination: A game-theoretic approach.
Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T; Breban, Romulus
2015-11-01
We propose a model describing the synergetic feedback between word-of-mouth (WoM) and epidemic dynamics controlled by voluntary vaccination. The key feature consists in combining a game-theoretic model for the spread of WoM and a compartmental model describing VSIR disease dynamics in the presence of a program of voluntary vaccination. We evaluate and compare two scenarios for determinants of behavior, depending on what WoM disseminates: (1) vaccine advertising, which may occur whether or not an epidemic is ongoing and (2) epidemic status, notably disease prevalence. Understanding the synergy between the two strategies could be particularly important for designing voluntary vaccination campaigns. We find that, in the initial phase of an epidemic, vaccination uptake is determined more by vaccine advertising than the epidemic status. As the epidemic progresses, epidemic status becomes increasingly important for vaccination uptake, considerably accelerating vaccination uptake toward a stable vaccination coverage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fletcher, J. R.; Swift, G. P.; Dai, De Chang; Levitt, J. A.; Chamberlain, J. M.
2007-01-01
A model describing the propagation of terahertz frequency radiation through inhomogeneous materials is proposed. In such materials (e.g., powders or clothing), the size of the scattering centers, their separation, and the wavelength of the radiation are all commensurate. A phase distribution function is used to model the optical properties of a randomly structured transmitting layer. The predictions of the model are compared with exact (Mie) theory for isolated spherical scatterers and with previously published experimental data. Measurements of the transmission of terahertz radiation through a variety of samples in order to validate the present model are also reported. These include arrays of cylinders, textiles, powders, and glass balls. Overall, satisfactory agreement between the experimental data and theoretical predictions is obtained.
Sone, Daichi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ota, Miho; Maikusa, Norihide; Kimura, Yukio; Sumida, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Kota; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Watanabe, Masako; Watanabe, Yutaka; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Noriko
2016-09-01
Graph theory is an emerging method to investigate brain networks. Altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) has frequently been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but graph theoretical findings of CBF are poorly understood. Here, we explored graph theoretical networks of CBF in TLE using arterial spin labeling imaging. We recruited patients with TLE and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (19 patients with left TLE, and 21 with right TLE) and 20 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects. We obtained all participants' CBF maps using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and analyzed them using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT) software program. As a result, compared to the controls, the patients with left TLE showed a significantly low clustering coefficient (p=0.024), local efficiency (p=0.001), global efficiency (p=0.010), and high transitivity (p=0.015), whereas the patients with right TLE showed significantly high assortativity (p=0.046) and transitivity (p=0.011). The group with right TLE also had high characteristic path length values (p=0.085), low global efficiency (p=0.078), and low resilience to targeted attack (p=0.101) at a trend level. Lower normalized clustering coefficient (p=0.081) in the left TLE and higher normalized characteristic path length (p=0.089) in the right TLE were found also at a trend level. Both the patients with left and right TLE showed significantly decreased clustering in similar areas, i.e., the cingulate gyri, precuneus, and occipital lobe. Our findings revealed differing left-right network metrics in which an inefficient CBF network in left TLE and vulnerability to irritation in right TLE are suggested. The left-right common finding of regional decreased clustering might reflect impaired default-mode networks in TLE. PMID:27497065
Sone, Daichi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ota, Miho; Maikusa, Norihide; Kimura, Yukio; Sumida, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Kota; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Watanabe, Masako; Watanabe, Yutaka; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Noriko
2016-09-01
Graph theory is an emerging method to investigate brain networks. Altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) has frequently been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but graph theoretical findings of CBF are poorly understood. Here, we explored graph theoretical networks of CBF in TLE using arterial spin labeling imaging. We recruited patients with TLE and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (19 patients with left TLE, and 21 with right TLE) and 20 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects. We obtained all participants' CBF maps using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and analyzed them using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT) software program. As a result, compared to the controls, the patients with left TLE showed a significantly low clustering coefficient (p=0.024), local efficiency (p=0.001), global efficiency (p=0.010), and high transitivity (p=0.015), whereas the patients with right TLE showed significantly high assortativity (p=0.046) and transitivity (p=0.011). The group with right TLE also had high characteristic path length values (p=0.085), low global efficiency (p=0.078), and low resilience to targeted attack (p=0.101) at a trend level. Lower normalized clustering coefficient (p=0.081) in the left TLE and higher normalized characteristic path length (p=0.089) in the right TLE were found also at a trend level. Both the patients with left and right TLE showed significantly decreased clustering in similar areas, i.e., the cingulate gyri, precuneus, and occipital lobe. Our findings revealed differing left-right network metrics in which an inefficient CBF network in left TLE and vulnerability to irritation in right TLE are suggested. The left-right common finding of regional decreased clustering might reflect impaired default-mode networks in TLE.
Bindu, G; Semenov, S
2013-01-01
This paper describes an efficient two-dimensional fused image reconstruction approach for Microwave Tomography (MWT). Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) models were created for a viable MWT experimental system having the transceivers modelled using thin wire approximation with resistive voltage sources. Born Iterative and Distorted Born Iterative methods have been employed for image reconstruction with the extremity imaging being done using a differential imaging technique. The forward solver in the imaging algorithm employs the FDTD method of solving the time domain Maxwell's equations with the regularisation parameter computed using a stochastic approach. The algorithm is tested with 10% noise inclusion and successful image reconstruction has been shown implying its robustness.
O'Toole, Alice J; Jiang, Fang; Abdi, Hervé; Pénard, Nils; Dunlop, Joseph P; Parent, Marc A
2007-11-01
The goal of pattern-based classification of functional neuroimaging data is to link individual brain activation patterns to the experimental conditions experienced during the scans. These "brain-reading" analyses advance functional neuroimaging on three fronts. From a technical standpoint, pattern-based classifiers overcome fatal f laws in the status quo inferential and exploratory multivariate approaches by combining pattern-based analyses with a direct link to experimental variables. In theoretical terms, the results that emerge from pattern-based classifiers can offer insight into the nature of neural representations. This shifts the emphasis in functional neuroimaging studies away from localizing brain activity toward understanding how patterns of brain activity encode information. From a practical point of view, pattern-based classifiers are already well established and understood in many areas of cognitive science. These tools are familiar to many researchers and provide a quantitatively sound and qualitatively satisfying answer to most questions addressed in functional neuroimaging studies. Here, we examine the theoretical, statistical, and practical underpinnings of pattern-based classification approaches to functional neuroimaging analyses. Pattern-based classification analyses are well positioned to become the standard approach to analyzing functional neuroimaging data.
Hamiltonian truncation approach to quenches in the Ising field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakovszky, T.; Mestyán, M.; Collura, M.; Kormos, M.; Takács, G.
2016-10-01
In contrast to lattice systems where powerful numerical techniques such as matrix product state based methods are available to study the non-equilibrium dynamics, the non-equilibrium behaviour of continuum systems is much harder to simulate. We demonstrate here that Hamiltonian truncation methods can be efficiently applied to this problem, by studying the quantum quench dynamics of the 1 + 1 dimensional Ising field theory using a truncated free fermionic space approach. After benchmarking the method with integrable quenches corresponding to changing the mass in a free Majorana fermion field theory, we study the effect of an integrability breaking perturbation by the longitudinal magnetic field. In both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the model we find persistent oscillations with frequencies set by the low-lying particle excitations not only for small, but even for moderate size quenches. In the ferromagnetic phase these particles are the various non-perturbative confined bound states of the domain wall excitations, while in the paramagnetic phase the single magnon excitation governs the dynamics, allowing us to capture the time evolution of the magnetisation using a combination of known results from perturbation theory and form factor based methods. We point out that the dominance of low lying excitations allows for the numerical or experimental determination of the mass spectra through the study of the quench dynamics.
Analytical Psychology: A Review of a Theoretical Approach and Its Application to Counseling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ziff, Katherine K.
Analytical psychology is a field supported by training centers, specially trained analysts, and a growing body of literature. While it receives much recognition, it remains mostly outside the mainstream of counseling and counselor education. This document presents a brief history of analytical psychology and how it has been revisited and renamed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nevo, Ofra; Wiseman, Hadas
2002-01-01
The Developmental Career Counseling model incorporates the following principles of Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy: life-span approach, limited time, working alliance, rapid and early assessment, central focus, active and directive counselor participation, therapeutic flexibility, and termination issues. The model enables career and personal…
A Theoretical Study of Recall and Precision Using a Topological Approach to Information Retrieval.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald
1998-01-01
Demonstrates how recall and precision can be expressed using a topological approach to retrieval introduced by S.C. Cater (1986); investigates threshold and close match retrieval systems and optimal and non-optimal searching; and highlights relations with hypergeometric and non-standard distributions. Includes seven appendices of mathematical…
Five Faces of Cognition: Theoretical Influences on Approaches to Learning Disabilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hresko, Wayne P.; Reid, D. Kim
1988-01-01
The article points out that the label "cognitive" has been used to designate five substantially different approaches to learning disabilities: information processing, metacognition, genetic epistemology, cognitive behavior modification, and the specific-abilities model. Despite the similar label, the instructional interventions of these approaches…
Thought and Creation in Contemporary Education: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Suggestions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cupertino, Christina; Arantes, Denise R. B.; Melcher, Mariangela F.
2016-01-01
This article discusses the role of creation and thought in contemporary life, education and, in particular, gifted education. Beginning with traditional approaches to creativity, some implications of diverse ways of understanding these two human activities in education are discussed, and reflections upon ways in which the particular concepts of…
Long Term Change in Personal Income Distribution: Theoretical Approaches, Evidence and Explanations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schultz, T. Paul
The paper discusses various models and theories of personal income distribution inequality. The first section presents the logic for adopting one conceptual and statistical approach in measuring and analyzing income inequality and the second presents empirical evidence on income inequality from 1939 to 1970. A brief survey of the human capital…
A Theoretical Framework for Media Law Courses (Approaches to Teaching Freedom of Expression).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Helle, Steven
1991-01-01
Suggests that most students prefer teachers have a theme that provides coherence and cohesiveness to media law courses. Explains how libertarian and neoliberal themes can guide learning and enumerates some of the principles of the two theories. Identifies drawbacks of the case analysis approach to such courses. (SG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yashiki, Satoshi
2016-09-01
We analyze the controllability of interference phenomena between partially coherent fields by introducing the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and entropy, which is defined using the intensity matrix [H. Gamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 976 (1957)]. The analytical derivation of the WDF and entropy is presented for a partially coherent imaging system consisting of two pinholes illuminated by a circular source. It is shown that the WDF, defined in the 4D space–spatial frequency region, and entropy can be useful tools to understand how one can freely and quantitatively control the interference when any optical components in the partially coherent imaging system are changed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ziebell, L. F.; Wu, C. S.; Yoon, Peter H.
1991-01-01
A theory of generation of radio waves observed by ground-based facilities in the frequency range 150-700 kHz is discussed. This work is a continuation of an earlier discussion (Wu et al., 1989) in which it was proposed that the trapped electrons along the auroral field lines can lead to a cyclotron instability which amplifies the whistler waves observed at ground level. The objective of the present study is to investigate the propagation effect on the wave amplification and to examine whether the proposed mechanism is indeed viable.
A New Approach to Reduce Number of Split Fields in Large Field IMRT
Lee, Chen-Chiao; Wu, Andrew; Garg, Madhur; Mutyala, Subhakar; Kalnicki, Shalom; Sayed, Gary; Mah, Dennis
2011-04-01
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been applied for treatments of primary head with neck nodes, lung with supraclavicular nodes, and high-risk prostate cancer with pelvis wall nodes, all of which require large fields. However, the design of the Varian multileaf collimator requires fields >14 cm in width to be split into 2 or more carriage movements. With the split-field technique, both the number of monitor units (MUs) and total treatment time are significantly increased. Although many different approaches have been investigated to reduce the MU, including introducing new leaf segmentation algorithms, none have resulted in widespread success. In addition, for most clinics, writing such algorithms is not a feasible solution, particularly with commercial treatment planning systems. We introduce a new approach that can minimize the number of split fields and reduce the total MUs, thereby reducing treatment time. The technique is demonstrated on the Eclipse planning system V7.3, but could be generalized to any other system.
Theoretical development of Monte Carlo codes for modeling cumulus cloud fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, R. M.
1984-01-01
Reflected fluxes are calculated for stratocumulus cloud fields as a function of skycover, cloud aspect ratio, and cloud shape. Cloud liquid water volume is held invariant as cloud shape is varied so that the results can be utilized more effectively by general circulation models and climate models. On the basis of required accuracy in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment program, an order of magnitude value of 10 W/sq m is used to estimate significant differences between plane parallel and broken cloudiness. This limit is exceeded for cloud covers between 10% and 90%, indicating that plane paralel calculations are not satisfactory at most values of cloud cover. The choice of cloud shape also leads to large differences in reflected fluxes. These differences are traced to the anisotropic intensity pattern out the cloud sides, to the size and shape of the holes between clouds, and to variations in cloud area as viewed from the solar direction. An empirical relationship for effective cloud cover is given at solar zenith angle of theta = 60 deg. This relationship allows for the relatively accurate (delta F = 10 - 15 W/sq m.) computation of broken cloud field reflected fluxes from plane parallel calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whiting, Ellis E.
1990-01-01
Future space vehicles returning from distant missions or high earth orbits may enter the upper regions of the atmosphere and use aerodynamic drag to reduce their velocity before they skip out of the atmosphere and enter low earth orbit. The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) is designed to explore the special problems encountered in such entries. A computer code was developed to calculate the radiative transport along line-or-sight in the general 3-D flow field about an arbitrary entry vehicle, if the temperatures and species concentrations along the line-of-sight are known. The radiative heating calculation at the stagnation point of the AFE vehicle along the entry trajectory was performed, including a detailed line-by-line accounting of the radiative transport in the vacuum ultraviolet (below 200 nm) by the atomic N and O lines. A method was developed for making measurements of the haze particles in the Titan atmosphere above 200 km altitude. Several other tasks of a continuing nature, to improve the technical ability to calculate the nonequilibrium gas dynamic flow field and radiative heating of entry vehicles, were completed or advanced.
Analysis of optically variable devices using a photometric light-field approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soukup, Daniel; Å tolc, Svorad; Huber-Mörk, Reinhold
2015-03-01
Diffractive Optically Variable Image Devices (DOVIDs), sometimes loosely referred to as holograms, are popular security features for protecting banknotes, ID cards, or other security documents. Inspection, authentication, as well as forensic analysis of these security features are still demanding tasks requiring special hardware tools and expert knowledge. Existing equipment for such analyses is based either on a microscopic analysis of the grating structure or a point-wise projection and recording of the diffraction patterns. We investigated approaches for an examination of DOVID security features based on sampling the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of DOVIDs using photometric stereo- and light-field-based methods. Our approach is demonstrated on the practical task of automated discrimination between genuine and counterfeited DOVIDs on banknotes. For this purpose, we propose a tailored feature descriptor which is robust against several expected sources of inaccuracy but still specific enough for the given task. The suggested approach is analyzed from both theoretical as well as practical viewpoints and w.r.t. analysis based on photometric stereo and light fields. We show that especially the photometric method provides a reliable and robust tool for revealing DOVID behavior and authenticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przyklenk, A.; Hördt, A.; Radić, T.
2016-05-01
Capacitively-Coupled Resistivity (CCR) is conventionally used to emulate DC resistivity measurements and may provide important information about the ice content of material in periglacial areas. The application of CCR theoretically enables the determination of both electrical parameters, i.e. the resistivity and the electrical permittivity, by analyzing magnitude and phase shift spectra. The electrical permittivity may dominate the impedance, especially in periglacial areas or regions of hydrogeological interest. However, previous theoretical work suggested that the phase shift may strongly depend on electrode height above ground, implying that electrode height must be known with great accuracy to determine electrical permittivity. Here, we demonstrate with laboratory test measurements, theoretical modelling and by analysing the Jacobian matrix of the inversion, that the sensitivity towards electrode height is drastically reduced if the electrical permittivity is frequency dependent in a way that is typical for ice. For the fist time, we used a novel broadband CCR device "Chameleon" for a field test located in one of the ridge galleries beneath the crest of Mount Zugspitze. A permanently ice covered bottom of a tunnel was examined. For the inversion of the measured spectra, the frequency dependance of the electrical parameters was parameterized in 3 different ways. A Debye Model for pure ices, a Cole-Cole Model for pure ices and a dual Cole-Cole Model including interfacial water additionally. The frequency-dependent resistivity and permittivity spectra obtained from the inversion, including low and high frequency limits, agree reasonably well with laboratory and field measurements reported in the literature.
Optimal Surface Segmentation in Volumetric Images—A Graph-Theoretic Approach
Li, Kang; Wu, Xiaodong; Chen, Danny Z.; Sonka, Milan
2008-01-01
Efficient segmentation of globally optimal surfaces representing object boundaries in volumetric data sets is important and challenging in many medical image analysis applications. We have developed an optimal surface detection method capable of simultaneously detecting multiple interacting surfaces, in which the optimality is controlled by the cost functions designed for individual surfaces and by several geometric constraints defining the surface smoothness and interrelations. The method solves the surface segmentation problem by transforming it into computing a minimum s-t cut in a derived arc-weighted directed graph. The proposed algorithm has a low-order polynomial time complexity and is computationally efficient. It has been extensively validated on more than 300 computer-synthetic volumetric images, 72 CT-scanned data sets of different-sized plexiglas tubes, and tens of medical images spanning various imaging modalities. In all cases, the approach yielded highly accurate results. Our approach can be readily extended to higher-dimensional image segmentation. PMID:16402624
Modern approaches for the theoretical description of multiparticle scattering and nuclear reactions
Kukulin, V. I.; Rubtsova, O. A.
2012-11-15
A review of novel approaches to solution of multiparticle scattering problems in the area above three-body breakup together with the review of new computational technologies which provide very effective and ultrafast realization of the novel approaches with ordinary PC are given. The novel direction presented here is based on two key points: a new formulation of the quantum scattering theory in a discrete Hilbert space of stationary wave packets and the massive-parallel solution of the resulted matrix equations with usage of ultrafast graphic processors (the so called GPU-computations). For the reader's convenience, a short review of the modern GPU calculations for the medicine, physics, military applications etc. is presented.
Theoretical aspects of self-assembly of proteins: A Kirkwood-Buff-theory approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Naim, Arieh
2013-06-01
A new approach to the problem of self-assembly of proteins induced by temperature, pressure, or changes in solute concentration is presented. The problem is formulated in terms of Le Chatelier principle, and a solution is sought in terms of the Kirkwood-Buff theory of solutions. In this article we focus on the pressure and solute effects on the association-dissociation equilibrium. We examine the role of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic effects. We argue that the latter are more important than the former. The solute effect, on the other hand, depends on the preferential solvation of the monomer and the aggregate with respect to solvent and co-solvent molecules. An experimental approach based on model compounds to study these effects is suggested.
Modern approaches for the theoretical description of multiparticle scattering and nuclear reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukulin, V. I.; Rubtsova, O. A.
2012-11-01
A review of novel approaches to solution of multiparticle scattering problems in the area above three-body breakup together with the review of new computational technologies which provide very effective and ultrafast realization of the novel approaches with ordinary PC are given. The novel direction presented here is based on two key points: a new formulation of the quantum scattering theory in a discrete Hilbert space of stationary wave packets and the massive-parallel solution of the resulted matrix equations with usage of ultrafast graphic processors (the so called GPU-computations). For the reader's convenience, a short review of the modern GPU calculations for the medicine, physics, military applications etc. is presented.
Planning additional drilling campaign using two-space genetic algorithm: A game theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumral, Mustafa; Ozer, Umit
2013-03-01
Grade and tonnage are the most important technical uncertainties in mining ventures because of the use of estimations/simulations, which are mostly generated from drill data. Open pit mines are planned and designed on the basis of the blocks representing the entire orebody. Each block has different estimation/simulation variance reflecting uncertainty to some extent. The estimation/simulation realizations are submitted to mine production scheduling process. However, the use of a block model with varying estimation/simulation variances will lead to serious risk in the scheduling. In the medium of multiple simulations, the dispersion variances of blocks can be thought to regard technical uncertainties. However, the dispersion variance cannot handle uncertainty associated with varying estimation/simulation variances of blocks. This paper proposes an approach that generates the configuration of the best additional drilling campaign to generate more homogenous estimation/simulation variances of blocks. In other words, the objective is to find the best drilling configuration in such a way as to minimize grade uncertainty under budget constraint. Uncertainty measure of the optimization process in this paper is interpolation variance, which considers data locations and grades. The problem is expressed as a minmax problem, which focuses on finding the best worst-case performance i.e., minimizing interpolation variance of the block generating maximum interpolation variance. Since the optimization model requires computing the interpolation variances of blocks being simulated/estimated in each iteration, the problem cannot be solved by standard optimization tools. This motivates to use two-space genetic algorithm (GA) approach to solve the problem. The technique has two spaces: feasible drill hole configuration with minimization of interpolation variance and drill hole simulations with maximization of interpolation variance. Two-space interacts to find a minmax solution
An information theoretic approach for generating an aircraft avoidance Markov Decision Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinert, Andrew J.
Developing a collision avoidance system that can meet safety standards required of commercial aviation is challenging. A dynamic programming approach to collision avoidance has been developed to optimize and generate logics that are robust to the complex dynamics of the national airspace. The current approach represents the aircraft avoidance problem as Markov Decision Processes and independently optimizes a horizontal and vertical maneuver avoidance logics. This is a result of the current memory requirements for each logic, simply combining the logics will result in a significantly larger representation. The "curse of dimensionality" makes it computationally inefficient and unfeasible to optimize this larger representation. However, existing and future collision avoidance systems have mostly defined the decision process by hand. In response, a simulation-based framework was built to better understand how each potential state quantifies the aircraft avoidance problem with regards to safety and operational components. The framework leverages recent advances in signals processing and database, while enabling the highest fidelity analysis of Monte Carlo aircraft encounter simulations to date. This framework enabled the calculation of how well each state of the decision process quantifies the collision risk and the associated memory requirements. Using this analysis, a collision avoidance logic that leverages both horizontal and vertical actions was built and optimized using this simulation based approach.
The interpretation of classically quantified sentences: a set-theoretic approach.
Politzer, Guy; Henst, Jean-Baptiste; Delle Luche, Claire; Noveck, Ira A
2006-07-01
We present a set-theoretic model of the mental representation of classically quantified sentences (All P are Q, Some P are Q, Some P are not Q, and No P are Q). We take inclusion, exclusion, and their negations to be primitive concepts. We show that although these sentences are known to have a diagrammatic expression (in the form of the Gergonne circles) that constitutes a semantic representation, these concepts can also be expressed syntactically in the form of algebraic formulas. We hypothesized that the quantified sentences have an abstract underlying representation common to the formulas and their associated sets of diagrams (models). We derived 9 predictions (3 semantic, 2 pragmatic, and 4 mixed) regarding people's assessment of how well each of the 5 diagrams expresses the meaning of each of the quantified sentences. We report the results from 3 experiments using Gergonne's (1817) circles or an adaptation of Leibniz (1903/1988) lines as external representations and show them to support the predictions.
Laser cooling of MgCl and MgBr in theoretical approach
Wan, Mingjie; Shao, Juxiang; Huang, Duohui; Yang, Junsheng; Cao, Qilong; Jin, Chengguo; Wang, Fanhou; Gao, Yufeng
2015-07-14
Ab initio calculations for three low-lying electronic states (X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}, A{sup 2}Π, and 2{sup 2}Π) of MgCl and MgBr molecules, including spin-orbit coupling, are performed using multi-reference configuration interaction plus Davidson correction method. The calculations involve all-electronic basis sets and Douglas–Kroll scalar relativistic correction. Spectroscopic parameters well agree with available theoretical and experimental data. Highly diagonally distributed Franck-Condon factors f{sub 00} for A{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2,1/2} (υ′ = 0) → X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}{sub 1/2} (υ″ = 0) are determined for both MgCl and MgBr molecules. Suitable radiative lifetimes τ of A{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2,1/2} (υ′ = 0) states for rapid laser cooling are also obtained. The proposed laser drives A{sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} (υ′ = 0) → X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}{sub 1/2} (υ″ = 0) transition by using three wavelengths (main pump laser λ{sub 00}; two repumping lasers λ{sub 10} and λ{sub 21}). These results indicate the probability of laser cooling MgCl and MgBr molecules.
Theoretical approach to obtaining dynamic characteristics of noncontacting spiral-grooved seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Yang, Bo-Suk; Ibaraki, Ryuji
1987-01-01
The dynamic characteristics of spiral-grooved seals are theoretically obtained by using the Navier-Stokes equation. First, with the inertia term of the fluid considered, the flow and pressure in the steady state are obtained for the directions parallel to and perpendicular to the groove. Next, the dynamic character is obtained by analyzing the steady state and by analyzing the labyrinth seal. As a result, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) As the land width becomes shorter or the helix angle decreases, the cross-coupling stiffness, direct and cross-coupling damping, and add mass coefficients decrease; (2) As the axial Reynolds number increases, the stiffness and damping coefficients increase. But the add mass coefficient is not influenced by the axial Reynolds number; (3) The rotational Reynolds number influences greatly the direct and cross-coupling stiffness and direct damping coefficients; and (4) As the journal rotating frequency increases, the leakage flow decreases. Therefore zero net leakage flow is possible at a particular rotating frequency.
An information-theoretic approach to curiosity-driven reinforcement learning.
Still, Susanne; Precup, Doina
2012-09-01
We provide a fresh look at the problem of exploration in reinforcement learning, drawing on ideas from information theory. First, we show that Boltzmann-style exploration, one of the main exploration methods used in reinforcement learning, is optimal from an information-theoretic point of view, in that it optimally trades expected return for the coding cost of the policy. Second, we address the problem of curiosity-driven learning. We propose that, in addition to maximizing the expected return, a learner should choose a policy that also maximizes the learner's predictive power. This makes the world both interesting and exploitable. Optimal policies then have the form of Boltzmann-style exploration with a bonus, containing a novel exploration-exploitation trade-off which emerges naturally from the proposed optimization principle. Importantly, this exploration-exploitation trade-off persists in the optimal deterministic policy, i.e., when there is no exploration due to randomness. As a result, exploration is understood as an emerging behavior that optimizes information gain, rather than being modeled as pure randomization of action choices.
Fawzy, Manal; Nasr, Mahmoud; Helmi, Shacker; Nagy, Heba
2016-11-01
Biomass of Oryza sativa (OS) was tested for the removal of Cd(II) ions from synthetic and real wastewater samples. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of operating parameters on Cd(II) biosorption. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to examine the surface characteristics of the Cd(II)-loaded biomass. The maximum removal efficiency of Cd(II) was 89.4% at optimum pH 6.0, biosorbent dose 10.0 g L(-1), initial Cd(II) 50 mg L(-1), and biosorbent particle size 0.5 mm. The applicability of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to the sorbent system implied the existence of both monolayer and heterogeneous surface conditions. Kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption process of Cd(II) followed the pseudo-second-order model (r2: 0.99). On the theoretical side, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied to select the operating parameter that mostly influences the Cd(II) biosorption process. Results from ANFIS indicated that pH was the most influential parameter affecting Cd(II) removal efficiency, indicating that the biomass of OS was strongly pH sensitive. Finally, the biomass was confirmed to adsorb Cd(II) from real wastewater samples with removal efficiency close to 100%. However, feasibility studies of such systems on a large-scale application remain to be investigated.
Solubility of caffeine from green tea in supercritical CO2: a theoretical and empirical approach.
Gadkari, Pravin Vasantrao; Balaraman, Manohar
2015-12-01
Decaffeination of fresh green tea was carried out with supercritical CO2 in the presence of ethanol as co-solvent. The solubility of caffeine in supercritical CO2 varied from 44.19 × 10(-6) to 149.55 × 10(-6) (mole fraction) over a pressure and temperature range of 15 to 35 MPa and 313 to 333 K, respectively. The maximum solubility of caffeine was obtained at 25 MPa and 323 K. Experimental solubility data were correlated with the theoretical equation of state models Peng-Robinson (PR), Soave Redlich-Kwong (SRK), and Redlich-Kwong (RK). The RK model had regressed experimental data with 15.52 % average absolute relative deviation (AARD). In contrast, Gordillo empirical model regressed the best to experimental data with only 0.96 % AARD. Under supercritical conditions, solubility of caffeine in tea matrix was lower than the solubility of pure caffeine. Further, solubility of caffeine in supercritical CO2 was compared with solubility of pure caffeine in conventional solvents and a maximum solubility 90 × 10(-3) mol fraction was obtained with chloroform.
A theoretical treatment of two approaches to SBS mitigation with two-tone amplification.
Dajani, Iyad; Zeringue, Clint; Bronder, T J; Shay, Thomas; Gavrielides, Athanasios; Robin, Craig
2008-09-01
A technique that employs two seed signals for the purpose of mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects in narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is investigated theoretically by constructing a self-consistent model that incorporates the laser gain, SBS, and four-wave mixing (FWM). The model reduces to solving a two-point boundary problem consisting of an 8x8 system of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Optimal operating conditions are determined by examining the interplay between the wavelength separation and power ratio of the two seeds. Two variants of this 'two-tone' amplification are considered. In one case the wavelength separation is precisely twice the Brillouin shift, while the other case considers a greater wavelength separation. For the former case, a two-fold increase in total output power over a broad range of seed power ratios centered about a ratio of approximately 2 is obtained, but with fairly large FWM. For the latter case, this model predicts an approximately 100% increase in output power (at SBS threshold with no signs of FWM) for a 'two-tone' amplifier with seed signals at 1064nm and 1068nm, compared to a conventional fiber amplifier with a single 1068nm seed. More significantly for this case, it is found that at a wavelength separation greater than 10nm, it is possible to appreciably enhance the power output of one of the laser frequencies. PMID:18773034
An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Allison; Smith, Ralph; Williams, Brian; Figueroa, Victor
2016-11-01
For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.
An information-theoretic approach to curiosity-driven reinforcement learning.
Still, Susanne; Precup, Doina
2012-09-01
We provide a fresh look at the problem of exploration in reinforcement learning, drawing on ideas from information theory. First, we show that Boltzmann-style exploration, one of the main exploration methods used in reinforcement learning, is optimal from an information-theoretic point of view, in that it optimally trades expected return for the coding cost of the policy. Second, we address the problem of curiosity-driven learning. We propose that, in addition to maximizing the expected return, a learner should choose a policy that also maximizes the learner's predictive power. This makes the world both interesting and exploitable. Optimal policies then have the form of Boltzmann-style exploration with a bonus, containing a novel exploration-exploitation trade-off which emerges naturally from the proposed optimization principle. Importantly, this exploration-exploitation trade-off persists in the optimal deterministic policy, i.e., when there is no exploration due to randomness. As a result, exploration is understood as an emerging behavior that optimizes information gain, rather than being modeled as pure randomization of action choices. PMID:22791268
Information Theoretic Approaches to Rapid Discovery of Relationships in Large Climate Data Sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knuth, Kevin H.; Rossow, William B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Mutual information as the asymptotic Bayesian measure of independence is an excellent starting point for investigating the existence of possible relationships among climate-relevant variables in large data sets, As mutual information is a nonlinear function of of its arguments, it is not beholden to the assumption of a linear relationship between the variables in question and can reveal features missed in linear correlation analyses. However, as mutual information is symmetric in its arguments, it only has the ability to reveal the probability that two variables are related. it provides no information as to how they are related; specifically, causal interactions or a relation based on a common cause cannot be detected. For this reason we also investigate the utility of a related quantity called the transfer entropy. The transfer entropy can be written as a difference between mutual informations and has the capability to reveal whether and how the variables are causally related. The application of these information theoretic measures is rested on some familiar examples using data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) to identify relation between global cloud cover and other variables, including equatorial pacific sea surface temperature (SST), over seasonal and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles.
Theoretical approaches of semiconductor interfaces and of their defects : recent developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priester, C.
1991-04-01
We describe recent developments of theoretical studies concerning semiconductor interfaces from different points of view: the widely used effective mass approximation and its limitations are considered ; different ways to calculate band offsets are described and compared; the interesting problem of the effect of strains is discussed; several interface defects that have been recently studied are also considered. Nous donnons ici une revue des diverses études théoriques sur les interfaces de semiconducteurs et leurs défauts. Divers aspects sont considérés: d'une part le problème délicat de l'approximation de la masse effective (utilisée très fréquemment) et de ses limitations ; d'autre part nous passons en revue les différentes approches possibles pour le calcul des discontinuités de bandes à l'hétérojonction ; une attention particulière est accordée aux modifications apportées par la présence d'une contrainte biaxiale (due à un désaccord de maille); enfin divers défauts localisés à l'interface, qui ont fait l'objet d'études récentes, sont pris en compte.
Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun
2008-08-01
A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman's notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking "difference". Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results. PMID:18436358
Laser cooling of MgCl and MgBr in theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Mingjie; Shao, Juxiang; Gao, Yufeng; Huang, Duohui; Yang, Junsheng; Cao, Qilong; Jin, Chengguo; Wang, Fanhou
2015-07-01
Ab initio calculations for three low-lying electronic states (X2Σ+, A2Π, and 22Π) of MgCl and MgBr molecules, including spin-orbit coupling, are performed using multi-reference configuration interaction plus Davidson correction method. The calculations involve all-electronic basis sets and Douglas-Kroll scalar relativistic correction. Spectroscopic parameters well agree with available theoretical and experimental data. Highly diagonally distributed Franck-Condon factors f00 for A2Π3/2,1/2 (υ' = 0) → X2Σ+1/2 (υ″ = 0) are determined for both MgCl and MgBr molecules. Suitable radiative lifetimes τ of A2Π3/2,1/2 (υ' = 0) states for rapid laser cooling are also obtained. The proposed laser drives A2Π3/2 (υ' = 0) → X2Σ+1/2 (υ″ = 0) transition by using three wavelengths (main pump laser λ00; two repumping lasers λ10 and λ21). These results indicate the probability of laser cooling MgCl and MgBr molecules.
Solubility of caffeine from green tea in supercritical CO2: a theoretical and empirical approach.
Gadkari, Pravin Vasantrao; Balaraman, Manohar
2015-12-01
Decaffeination of fresh green tea was carried out with supercritical CO2 in the presence of ethanol as co-solvent. The solubility of caffeine in supercritical CO2 varied from 44.19 × 10(-6) to 149.55 × 10(-6) (mole fraction) over a pressure and temperature range of 15 to 35 MPa and 313 to 333 K, respectively. The maximum solubility of caffeine was obtained at 25 MPa and 323 K. Experimental solubility data were correlated with the theoretical equation of state models Peng-Robinson (PR), Soave Redlich-Kwong (SRK), and Redlich-Kwong (RK). The RK model had regressed experimental data with 15.52 % average absolute relative deviation (AARD). In contrast, Gordillo empirical model regressed the best to experimental data with only 0.96 % AARD. Under supercritical conditions, solubility of caffeine in tea matrix was lower than the solubility of pure caffeine. Further, solubility of caffeine in supercritical CO2 was compared with solubility of pure caffeine in conventional solvents and a maximum solubility 90 × 10(-3) mol fraction was obtained with chloroform. PMID:26604372
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, H.; Fujita, N.
2002-01-01
Grain size in polycrystalline materials was changed from larger than phi 10 mum to smaller than phi 10 nm, and the effects of both grain size and strain rate on the strength has been investigated from a view point of heterogeneous deformation. Grains of phi10 nm or less in size were obtained by crystallization of amorphous alloys. The experimental results are summarized as follows: (a) Heterogeneous deformation is effectively suppressed when grain size decreases smaller than about phi0.1 mum. As a result, the strength remarkably increases in this grain size range, and takes the maximum value when grains of phi10 nm in size are homogeneously formed, (b) When grain size becomes smaller than phi10 nm, those ultrafine grains are embedded into the amorphous matrix, and the strength decreases with increasing volume fraction of amorphous phase. (c) Heterogeneous deformation is also effectively suppressed by increasing strain rate in general as well as decreasing grain size. The maximum strength obtained experimentally is compared with the theoretical strengths estimated under various conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yang; Zhou, Jianhua; Liu, Tianran; Tao, Yuting; Jiang, Ruibin; Liu, Mingxuan; Xiao, Guohui; Zhu, Jinhao; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wang, Xuehua; Jin, Chongjun; Wang, Jianfang
2013-08-01
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based sensing has found wide applications in medical diagnosis, food safety regulation and environmental monitoring. Compared with commercial propagating surface plasmon resonance (PSPR)-based sensors, LSPR ones are simple, cost-effective and suitable for measuring local refractive index changes. However, the figure of merit (FOM) values of LSPR sensors are generally 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than those of PSPR ones, preventing the widespread use of LSPR sensors. Here we describe an array of submicrometer gold mushrooms with a FOM reaching ~108, which is comparable to the theoretically predicted upper limit for standard PSPR sensors. Such a high FOM arises from the interference between Wood’s anomaly and the LSPRs. We further demonstrate the array as a biosensor for detecting cytochrome c and alpha-fetoprotein, with their detection limits down to 200 pM and 15 ng ml-1, respectively, suggesting that the array is a promising candidate for label-free biomedical sensing.
Theoretical and experimental engine-inlet flow fields for fighter forebodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yaros, S. F.
1984-01-01
The capability of two numerical methods, one for transonic and one for supersonic flows, to predict the flow fields about representative fighter aircraft forebodies in the vicinity of the engine inlets was examined. The Mach number range covered was 0.9 to 2.5 and the angle-of-attack range was 0 deg to 25 deg. The computer progams that implement each of the numerical methods are described as to their features and usage, and results are compared with comprehensive wind tunnel data. Although both prediction methods were inviscid, results show that the aerodynamic effects of the forebody, with and without a wing, can be simulated fairly well. Futher work is needed to include the effects of viscosity, including vortex shedding.
David, Allan E.; Cole, Adam J.; Chertok, Beata; Park, Yoon Shin; Yang, Victor C.
2011-01-01
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) continue to draw considerable attention as potential diagnostic and therapeutic tools in the fight against cancer. Although many interacting forces present themselves during magnetic targeting of MNP to tumors, most theoretical considerations of this process ignore all except for the magnetic and drag forces. Our validation of a simple in vitro model against in vivo data, and subsequent reproduction of the in vitro results with a theoretical model indicated that these two forces do indeed dominate the magnetic capture of MNP. However, because nanoparticles can be subject to aggregation, and large MNP experience an increased magnetic force, the effects of surface forces on MNP stability cannot be ignored. We accounted for the aggregating surface forces simply by measuring the size of MNP retained from flow by magnetic fields, and utilized this size in the mathematical model. This presumably accounted for all particle-particle interactions, including those between magnetic dipoles. Thus, our “corrected” mathematical model provided a reasonable estimate of not only fractional MNP retention, but also predicted the regions of accumulation in a simulated capillary. Furthermore, the model was also utilized to calculate the effects of MNP size and spatial location, relative to the magnet, on targeting of MNPs to tumors. This combination of an in vitro model with a theoretical model could potentially assist with parametric evaluations of magnetic targeting, and enable rapid enhancement and optimization of magnetic targeting methodologies. PMID:21295085
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladysiewicz, M.; Janicki, L.; Misiewicz, J.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Kudrawiec, R.
2016-09-01
Polarization engineering of GaN-based heterostructures opens a way to develop advanced transistor heterostructures, although measurement of the electric field in such heterostructures is not a simple task. In this work, contactless electroreflectance (CER) spectroscopy has been applied to measure the electric field in GaN-based heterostructures. For a set of GaN(d = 0, 5, 15, and 30 nm)/AlGaN(20 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of electric field in the GaN(cap) layer from 0.66 MV cm-1 to 0.27 MV cm-1 and an increase of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 0.57 MV cm-1 to 0.99 MV cm-1 have been observed with the increase in the GaN(cap) thickness from 5-30 nm. For a set of GaN(20 nm)/AlGaN(d = 10, 20, 30, and 40 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 1.77 MV cm-1 to 0.64 MV cm-1 and an increase of the electric field in the GaN layer from 0.57 MV cm-1 to 0.99 MV cm-1 were observed with the increase in the AlGaN thickness from 10-40 nm. To determine the distribution of the electric field in these heterostructures the Schrödinger and Poisson equations are solved in a self-consistent manner and matched with experimental data. It is shown that the built-in electric field in the GaN(cap) and AlGaN layers obtained from measurements does not reach values of electric field resulting only from polarization effects. The measured electric fields are smaller due to a screening of polarization effects by free carriers, which are inhomogeneously distributed across the heterostructure and accumulate at interfaces. The results clearly demonstrate that CER measurements supported by theoretical calculations are able to determine the electric field distribution in GaN-based heterostructures quantitatively, which is very important for polarization engineering in this material system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladysiewicz, M.; Janicki, L.; Misiewicz, J.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Kudrawiec, R.
2016-09-01
Polarization engineering of GaN-based heterostructures opens a way to develop advanced transistor heterostructures, although measurement of the electric field in such heterostructures is not a simple task. In this work, contactless electroreflectance (CER) spectroscopy has been applied to measure the electric field in GaN-based heterostructures. For a set of GaN(d = 0, 5, 15, and 30 nm)/AlGaN(20 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of electric field in the GaN(cap) layer from 0.66 MV cm‑1 to 0.27 MV cm‑1 and an increase of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 0.57 MV cm‑1 to 0.99 MV cm‑1 have been observed with the increase in the GaN(cap) thickness from 5–30 nm. For a set of GaN(20 nm)/AlGaN(d = 10, 20, 30, and 40 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 1.77 MV cm‑1 to 0.64 MV cm‑1 and an increase of the electric field in the GaN layer from 0.57 MV cm‑1 to 0.99 MV cm‑1 were observed with the increase in the AlGaN thickness from 10–40 nm. To determine the distribution of the electric field in these heterostructures the Schrödinger and Poisson equations are solved in a self-consistent manner and matched with experimental data. It is shown that the built-in electric field in the GaN(cap) and AlGaN layers obtained from measurements does not reach values of electric field resulting only from polarization effects. The measured electric fields are smaller due to a screening of polarization effects by free carriers, which are inhomogeneously distributed across the heterostructure and accumulate at interfaces. The results clearly demonstrate that CER measurements supported by theoretical calculations are able to determine the electric field distribution in GaN-based heterostructures quantitatively, which is very important for polarization engineering in this material system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yilong; Cahill, Nathan D.; Saber, Eli; Messinger, David W.
2015-10-01
In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic tree matching algorithm for object detection in high resolution (HR) remotely sensed images, where, given a scene image and an object image, the goal is to determine whether or not the object exists in the scene image. To that effect, tree based representations of the images are obtained using a hierarchical scale space approach. The nodes of the tree denote regions in the image and edges represent the relative containment between different regions. Once we have the tree representations of each image, the task of object detection is reformulated as a tree matching problem. We propose a game-theoretic technique to search for the node correspondences between a pair of trees. This method involves defining a non-cooperative matching game, where strategies denote the possible pairs of matching regions and payoffs determine the compatibilities between these strategies. Trees are matched by finding the evolutionary stable states (ESS) of the game. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we perform experiments on both synthetic and HR remotely sensed images. Our results demonstrate the robustness of the tree representation with respect to different spatial variations of the images, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed game-theoretic tree matching algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Weiguo; Hou, Shilin
2002-05-01
An algebraic method (AM) is proposed to study the accurate vibrational constants and energies based on an accurate limited experimental/theoretical input data set, and a potential variational method (PVM) is suggested to generate reliable force constants, rotational spectrum constants and rovibrational energies for a diatomic molecular electronic state based on the second order perturbation theory. The vibrational force constants fn's used to evaluate the rotational spectrum constants are determined variationally. The AM generates accurate vibrational constants and energies using standard algebraic approach without any mathematical and/or physical approximations. The accuracy of the AM vibrational constants and energies is uniquely dependent on the quality of the input experimental/theoretical data. Both the AM and the PVM have been applied to study 10 diatomic electronic states of H2, N2, O2, and Br2 molecules. These example studies show that: 1.) the AM not only reproduce the input energies, but also generate the Ev's of high vibrational excited states which may be difficult to obtain experimentally or theoretically; 2.) the PVM vibrational force constants fn's may be used to measure the relative chemical bond strengths of different diatomic electronic states for a molecule quantitatively.
Predicting peptide vaccine candidates against H1N1 influenza virus through theoretical approaches.
Bello, Martiniano; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul; Contis-Montes de Oca, Arturo; Correa-Basurto, José
2015-05-01
Identification of potential epitopes that might activate the immune system has been facilitated by the employment of algorithms that use experimental data as templates. However, in order to prove the affinity and the map of interactions between the receptor (major histocompatibility complex, MHC, or T-cell receptor) and the potential epitope, further computational studies are required. Docking and molecular dynamics (MDs) simulations have been an effective source of generating structural information at molecular level in immunology. Herein, in order to provide a detailed understanding of the origins of epitope recognition and to select the best peptide candidate to develop an epitope-based vaccine, docking and MDs simulations in combination with MMGBSA free energy calculations and per-residue free energy decomposition were performed, taking as starting complexes those formed between four designed epitopes (P1-P4) from hemagglutinin (HA) of the H1N1 influenza virus and MHC-II anchored in POPC membrane. Our results revealed that the energetic contributions of individual amino acids within the pMHC-II complexes are mainly dictated by van der Waals interactions and the nonpolar part of solvation energy, whereas the electrostatic interactions corresponding to hydrogen bonds and salt bridges determine the binding specificity, being the most favorable interactions formed between p4 and MHC-II. Then, P1-P4 epitopes were synthesized and tested experimentally to compare theoretical and experimental results. Experimental results show that P4 elicited the highest strong humoral immune response to HA of the H1N1 and may induce antibodies that are cross-reactive to other influenza subtypes, suggesting that it could be a good candidate for the development of a peptide-based vaccine.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.
1990-01-01
In the foreseeable future, an expedition may be undertaken to explore the planet Mars. Some of the power source options being considered for such a mission are photovoltaics, regenerative fuel cells and nuclear reactors. In addition to electrical power requirements, environmental conditions en route to Mars, in the planetary orbit and on the Martian surface must be simulated and studied in order to anticipate and solve potential problems. Space power systems components such as photovoltaic arrays, radiators, and solar concentrators may be vulnerable to degradation in the Martian environment. Natural characteristics of Mars which may pose a threat to surface power systems include high velocity winds, dust, ultraviolet radiation, large daily variation in temperature, reaction to components of the soil, atmosphere and atmospheric condensates as well as synergistic combinations. Most of the current knowledge of the characteristics of the Martian atmosphere and soil composition was obtained from the Viking 1 and 2 missions in 1976. A theoretical study is presented which was used to assess the effects of the Martian atmospheric conditions on the power systems components. A computer program written at NASA-Lewis for combustion research that uses a free energy minimization technique was used to calculate chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states of temperature and pressure. The power system component materials selected for this study include: silicon dioxide, silicon, carbon, copper, and titanium. Combinations of environments and materials considered include: (1) Mars atmosphere with power surface material, (2) Mars atmosphere and dust component with power surface material, and (3) Mars atmosphere and hydrogen peroxide or superoxide or superoxide with power system material. The chemical equilibrium calculations were performed at a composition ratio (oxidant to reactant) of 100. The temperature for the silicon dioxide material and silicon, which simulate
Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach
Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin
2013-01-01
Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282
Perez-Davis, M.E.; Gaier, J.R.
1994-09-01
In the foreseeable future, an expedition may be undertaken to explore the planet Mars. Some of the power source options being considered for such a mission are photovoltaics, regenerative fuel cells and nuclear reactors. In addition to electrical power requirements, environmental conditions en route to Mars, in the planetary orbit and on the Martian surface must be simulated and studied in order to anticipate and solve potential problems. Space power systems components such as photovoltaic arrays, radiators, and solar concentrators may be vulnerable to degradation in the Martian environment. Natural characteristics of Mars which may pose a threat to surface power systems include high velocity winds, dust, ultraviolet radiation, large daily variations in temperature, reaction to components of the soil, atmosphere and atmospheric condensates as well as synergistic combinations. Most of the current knowledge of the characteristics of the Martian atmosphere and soil composition was obtained from the Viking 1 and 2 missions in 1976. This paper presents a theoretical study used to assess the effects of the Martian atmospheric conditions on the power systems components. A computer program written at NASA Lewis Research Center in 1961 to 1962 for combustion research that uses a free-energy minimization technique was used to calculate chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states of temperature and pressure. The power system component materials selected for this study include: Silicon dioxide, silicon, carbon, copper, and titanium. Combinations of environments and materials considered in this study include: (1) Mars atmosphere with power surface material, (2) Mars atmosphere and dust component with power surface material, (3) Mars atmosphere and hydrogen peroxide or superoxide with power system material.
Fawzy, Manal; Nasr, Mahmoud; Helmi, Shacker; Nagy, Heba
2016-11-01
Biomass of Oryza sativa (OS) was tested for the removal of Cd(II) ions from synthetic and real wastewater samples. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of operating parameters on Cd(II) biosorption. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to examine the surface characteristics of the Cd(II)-loaded biomass. The maximum removal efficiency of Cd(II) was 89.4% at optimum pH 6.0, biosorbent dose 10.0 g L(-1), initial Cd(II) 50 mg L(-1), and biosorbent particle size 0.5 mm. The applicability of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to the sorbent system implied the existence of both monolayer and heterogeneous surface conditions. Kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption process of Cd(II) followed the pseudo-second-order model (r2: 0.99). On the theoretical side, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied to select the operating parameter that mostly influences the Cd(II) biosorption process. Results from ANFIS indicated that pH was the most influential parameter affecting Cd(II) removal efficiency, indicating that the biomass of OS was strongly pH sensitive. Finally, the biomass was confirmed to adsorb Cd(II) from real wastewater samples with removal efficiency close to 100%. However, feasibility studies of such systems on a large-scale application remain to be investigated. PMID:27185086
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turchyn, Alexandra V.; Brüchert, Volker; Lyons, Timothy W.; Engel, Gregory S.; Balci, Nurgul; Schrag, Daniel P.; Brunner, Benjamin
2010-04-01
Kinetic isotope effects related to the breaking of chemical bonds drive sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR), whereas oxygen isotope fractionation during DSR is dominated by exchange between intercellular sulfur intermediates and water. We use a simplified biochemical model for DSR to explore how a kinetic oxygen isotope effect may be expressed. We then explore these relationships in light of evolving sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions (δ 34S SO4 and δ 18O SO4) during batch culture growth of twelve strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cultured under conditions to optimize growth and with identical δ 18O H2O and initial δ 18O SO4, all strains show 34S enrichment, whereas only six strains show significant 18O enrichment. The remaining six show no (or minimal) change in δ 18O SO4 over the growth of the bacteria. We use these experimental and theoretical results to address three questions: (i) which sulfur intermediates exchange oxygen isotopes with water, (ii) what is the kinetic oxygen isotope effect related to the reduction of adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) to sulfite (SO 32-), (iii) does a kinetic oxygen isotope effect impact the apparent oxygen isotope equilibrium values? We conclude that oxygen isotope exchange between water and a sulfur intermediate likely occurs downstream of APS and that our data constrain the kinetic oxygen isotope fractionation for the reduction of APS to sulfite to be smaller than 4‰. This small oxygen isotope effect impacts the apparent oxygen isotope equilibrium as controlled by the extent to which APS reduction is rate-limiting.
Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosicka, M.; Ramanathan, R.; Gnaciński, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Severini, S.
2016-04-01
We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.
Cost Allocation of Multiagency Water Resource Projects: Game Theoretic Approaches and Case Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lejano, Raul P.; Davos, Climis A.
1995-05-01
Water resource projects are often jointly carried out by a number of communities and agencies. Participation in a joint project depends on how costs are allocated among the participants and how cost shares compare with the cost of independent projects. Cooperative N-person game theory offers approaches which yield cost allocations that satisfy rationality conditions favoring participation. A new solution concept, the normalized nucleolus, is discussed and applied to a water reuse project in southern California. Results obtained with the normalized nucleolus are compared with those derived with more traditional solution concepts, namely, the nucleolus and the Shapley value.
Theoretical and Applied Research in the Field of Higher Geodesy Conducted in Rzeszow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadaj, Roman; Świętoń, Tomasz
2016-06-01
Important qualitative changes were taking place in polish geodesy in last few years. It was related to application of new techniques and technologies and to introduction of European reference frames in Poland. New reference stations network ASG-EUPOS, together with Internet services which helps in precise positioning was created. It allows to fast setting up precise hybrid networks. New, accurate satellite networks became the basis of new definitions in the field of reference systems. Simultaneously arise the need of new software, which enables to execute the geodetic works in new technical conditions. Authors had an opportunity to participate in mentioned undertakings, also under the aegis of GUGiK, by creation of methods, algorithms and necessary software tools. In this way the automatic postprocessing module (APPS) in POZGEO service, a part of ASG-EUPOS system came into being. It is an entirely polish product which works in Trimble environment. Universal software for transformation between PLETRF89, PL-ETRF2000, PULKOWO'42 reference systems as well as defined coordinate systems was created (TRANSPOL v. 2.06) and published as open product. An essential functional element of the program is the quasi-geoid model PL-geoid-2011, which has been elaborated by adjustment (calibration) of the global quasi-geoid model EGM2008 to 570 geodetic points (satellite-leveling points). Those and other studies are briefly described in this paper.
Theoretical and experimental flow fields for a supersonic cruise fighter forebody
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yaros, S. F.
1985-01-01
The capability of two numerical methods to predict the flow field about a representative supersonic cruise aircraft was examined. The two codes were a small-disturbance transonic program of Boppe and a conservative form full-potential transonic program of Shankar and Szema. For the former code, comparisons were made with wind-tunnel data at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 and angles of attack of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg (7.5 deg instead of 10 deg at a Mach number of 1.2). Predictions from the two codes were compared at a Mach number of 1.2 and an angle of attack of 7.5 deg. The comparison criteria were contours of local angle of attack, local angle of sideslip, and local Mach number. The comparisons indicated that both codes may be considered useful for design applications, depending on the degree of accuracy required by the user's solution. Both solutions show an inaccuracy in their predictions, particularly as Mach number and/or angle of attack increases, because of their lack of viscous effects and any mechanisms to predict vortex development.
Chomiak, Taylor; Hu, Bin
2009-01-01
Background The biological process underlying axonal myelination is complex and often prone to injury and disease. The ratio of the inner axonal diameter to the total outer diameter or g-ratio is widely utilized as a functional and structural index of optimal axonal myelination. Based on the speed of fiber conduction, Rushton was the first to derive a theoretical estimate of the optimal g-ratio of 0.6 [1]. This theoretical limit nicely explains the experimental data for myelinated axons obtained for some peripheral fibers but appears significantly lower than that found for CNS fibers. This is, however, hardly surprising given that in the CNS, axonal myelination must achieve multiple goals including reducing conduction delays, promoting conduction fidelity, lowering energy costs, and saving space. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we explore the notion that a balanced set-point can be achieved at a functional level as the micro-structure of individual axons becomes optimized, particularly for the central system where axons tend to be smaller and their myelin sheath thinner. We used an intuitive yet novel theoretical approach based on the fundamental biophysical properties describing axonal structure and function to show that an optimal g-ratio can be defined for the central nervous system (≈0.77). Furthermore, by reducing the influence of volume constraints on structural design by about 40%, this approach can also predict the g-ratio observed in some peripheral fibers (≈0.6). Conclusions/Significance These results support the notion of optimization theory in nervous system design and construction and may also help explain why the central and peripheral systems have evolved different g-ratios as a result of volume constraints. PMID:19915661
External versus internal triggering of substorms: An information-theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Jay R.; Wing, Simon
2014-08-01
The role of external triggering of substorms through northward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field has been examined in a number of recent studies. While Hsu and McPherron (2002, 2004) argue that the strong association between external triggers defined by Lyons et al. (1997) and substorm onsets could be responsible for most substorms, Morley and Freeman (2007) argue that the association between northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) turnings and substorm onsets are coincidental rather than causal, because the same external triggers are also closely associated with an artificial list of substorm onsets generated with the Minimal Substorm Model, which has no requirement of northward IMF turning. We examine an expanded list of substorms using conditional redundancy, an entropy-based measure of conditional dependency, to examine whether northward IMF turning as an external trigger provides any additional information about substorm onset beyond knowing that there has been a period of sustained loading of energy flux (southward IMF). Our analysis reveals that only a few percent additional information is provided by the northward turning criterion, which is consistent with the statistics of surrogate data sets of external triggers constructed to coincide with 2% of substorms. We therefore conclude that northward turning of the IMF is, in general, coincidentally, rather than causally, associated with substorm onsets.
Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes
Not Available
1990-08-22
While developing dry sorbent duct injection flue gas desulfurization processes may offer significant improvement in capital cost and process simplicity compared to wet scrubbing systems, the economics of this technology can be improved significantly by an improvement in sorbent utilization. While a general understanding of the mechanism by which the sorbents operate is known, a much more detailed knowledge of reaction rate-controlling phenomena, the role of inherent reactivity, and mass transfer effects and their interaction in needed. Objectives of this project are threefold: 1. Mass transfer investigation--determine the controlling physical and chemical processes that limit sorbent utilization. In particular, determine whether mass transfer is a controlling factor in in-duct flue gas desulfurization and establish the relative contributions of gas- and liquid-phase mass transfer and inherent sorbent reactivity. 2. Field test support--evaluate various sorbents, operating conditions and process schemes to support large-scale field testings at Meredosia and Beverly. 3. Mass transfer enhancement--examine various techniques that will enable sorbent utilization rates of at least 75 percent to be achieved. Sorbents investigated were Ca(OH){sub 2}, Mississippi hydrate and Mississippi slaked lime. Epsom Salt was investigated as an additive. Agglomeration of Ca(OH){sub 2} solids was also investigated. 3 refs., 92 figs., 23 tabs.
Saturated hydraulic conductivity and biofilms: A theoretical approach linking pore and pedon scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, M.; Moenickes, S.; Richter, O.; Schröder, T.
2012-04-01
The fate of active substances in the soil environment is shaped by soil physical properties as well as microbial life. Microorganisms degrading those substances occur in soil pores either in suspension or as biofilms on grain surfaces. At the same scale, i.e. pore scale, the soil physical properties texture, density, porosity, and water content have an impact on transport behaviour of active substances. Macroscopic parameters describe these processes at pedon scale; e.g. hydraulic conductivity summarizes the effect of named pore scale parameters. Narsilio et al. [2009] derived a relationship between the saturated hydraulic conductivity and pore scale water velocity fields based on Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible fluids. However, they did not analyse the influence of heterogeneity and microbial activity, whereas microorganisms, especially biofilms, do have an impact on hydraulic conductivity [Vandevivere and Baveye, 1992]. Biofilms alter the pore geometry while growing. This alteration directly influences the soil water flow field and hence the convective transport of active substances. Here, we present a way to couple the saturated hydraulic conductivity at macro scale to biomass population dynamics and pore space. The hydraulic conductivity will be analysed with regard to heterogeneous soils. The model combining fluid flow, reactive transport, and biofilm dynamics is applied to investigate the degradation and transport behaviour of pesticides in heterogeneous soils.
Mean field approach to fluctuations of surface line defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margetis, Dionisios
2011-03-01
Below the roughening transition temperature, the dynamics of crystal surfaces are driven by the motion of line defects (steps) of atomic size. According to the celebrated Burton Cabrera-Frank (BCF) model, the steps move by mass conservation, as adsorbed atoms (adatoms) diffuse on terraces and attach/detach at step edges. The resulting deterministic equations of motion incorporate nonlinear couplings due to entropic and elastic-dipole step-step interactions. In this talk, I will discuss a formal theory for stochastic aspects of step motion by adding noise to the BCF model in 1+1 dimensions. I will define systematically a ``mean field'' that enables the conversion of the coupled, nonlinear stochastic equations for the distance between neighboring steps (terrace widths) to a single Langevin-type equation for an effective terrace width. In the course of my study, I invoke the Bogoliubov-Born-Green Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for joint terrace-width probability densities and a decorrelation ansatz for terrace widths. By using an example drawn from epitaxial growth (with material deposition from above), I will compare the mean field approach to an exact result from a linearized growth model. [D. Margetis, J. Phys A: Math. Theor. 43, 065003 (2010).] This work was supported by NSF under Grant DMS-0847587.
Spectral Synthesis via Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ning; Su, Shan-Shan; Kong, Xu
2016-03-01
We apply a new statistical analysis technique, the Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis (MF-ICA) in a Bayseian framework, to galaxy spectral analysis. This algorithm can compress a stellar spectral library into a few Independent Components (ICs), and the galaxy spectrum can be reconstructed by these ICs. Compared to other algorithms which decompose a galaxy spectrum into a combination of several simple stellar populations, the MF-ICA approach offers a large improvement in efficiency. To check the reliability of this spectral analysis method, three different methods are used: (1) parameter recovery for simulated galaxies, (2) comparison with parameters estimated by other methods, and (3) consistency test of parameters derived with galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that our MF-ICA method can not only fit the observed galaxy spectra efficiently, but can also accurately recover the physical parameters of galaxies. We also apply our spectral analysis method to the DEEP2 spectroscopic data, and find it can provide excellent fitting results for low signal-to-noise spectra.
A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus
1989-09-01
This thesis is organized in the following way. In Chapter 2 we will give a brief introduction to conformal field theory along the lines of standard quantum field theory, without any claims to originality. We introduce the important concepts of the stress-energy tensor, the Virasoro algebra, and primary fields. The general principles are demonstrated by fermionic and bosonic free field theories. This also allows us to discuss some general aspects of moduli spaces of CFT's. In particular, we describe in some detail the space of iiiequivalent toroidal comi)actificalions, giving examples of the quantum equivalences that we already mentioned. In Chapter 3 we will reconsider general quantum field theory from a more geometrical point of view, along the lines of the so-called operator formalism. Crucial to this approach will be the consideration of topology changing amplitudes. After a simple application to 2d topological theories, we proceed to give our second introduction to CFT, stressing the geometry behind it. In Chapter 4 the so-called rational conformal field theories are our object of study. These special CFT's have extended symmetries with only a finite number of representations. If an interpretation as non-linear sigma model exists, this extra symmetry can be seen as a kind of resonance effect due to the commensurability of the size of the string and the target space-time. The structure of rational CFT's is extremely rigid, and one of our results will be that the operator content of these models is—up to some discrete choices—completely determined by the symmetry algebra. The study of rational models is in its rigidity very analogous to finite group theory. In Chapter 5 this analogy is further pursued and substantiated. We will show how one can construct from general grounds rational conformal field theories from finite groups. These models are abstract versions of non-linear o-models describing string propagation on 'orbifoids.' An orbifold is a singular
Designing an optimal software intensive system acquisition: A game theoretic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buettner, Douglas John
The development of schedule-constrained software-intensive space systems is challenging. Case study data from national security space programs developed at the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (USAF SMC) provide evidence of the strong desire by contractors to skip or severely reduce software development design and early defect detection methods in these schedule-constrained environments. The research findings suggest recommendations to fully address these issues at numerous levels. However, the observations lead us to investigate modeling and theoretical methods to fundamentally understand what motivated this behavior in the first place. As a result, Madachy's inspection-based system dynamics model is modified to include unit testing and an integration test feedback loop. This Modified Madachy Model (MMM) is used as a tool to investigate the consequences of this behavior on the observed defect dynamics for two remarkably different case study software projects. Latin Hypercube sampling of the MMM with sample distributions for quality, schedule and cost-driven strategies demonstrate that the higher cost and effort quality-driven strategies provide consistently better schedule performance than the schedule-driven up-front effort-reduction strategies. Game theory reasoning for schedule-driven engineers cutting corners on inspections and unit testing is based on the case study evidence and Austin's agency model to describe the observed phenomena. Game theory concepts are then used to argue that the source of the problem and hence the solution to developers cutting corners on quality for schedule-driven system acquisitions ultimately lies with the government. The game theory arguments also lead to the suggestion that the use of a multi-player dynamic Nash bargaining game provides a solution for our observed lack of quality game between the government (the acquirer) and "large-corporation" software developers. A note is provided that argues this multi
Creating healthy nursing home environment via lighting interventions: a theoretical approach.
Huisman, Emelieke R C M; Kort, Helianthe S M
2015-01-01
In the Netherlands long-term care facilities made investments in order to improve the well-being of their residents and to support healthcare professionals in their daily task. Light is one of the technical solutions that might be contribute to support the well-being of older residents in long-term care facilities. This study investigates which possibilities are available to enrich the current situation to support the well-being, activities of daily living, and quality of life of older residents from lighting perspective. The light measurements show that the conditions are low and the value of 750 lux mainly reached on measurements points close to the window area. In this field study the light conditions are improved through a static lighting system. Further research is needed in order to investigate how the new light plan affect the quality of life and to define light guidelines for long-term care facilities.
The mechanism of physiological height vertigo. I. Theoretical approach and psychophysics.
Brandt, T; Arnold, F; Bles, W; Kapteyn, T S
1980-01-01
A theory is presented supporting a geometrical explanation of physiological height vertigo as a 'distance vertigo' created by visual destabilization of posture when the distance between the observer and visible stationary contrasts becomes critically large. Though height vertigo is generally regarded as a psychopathological process, we hypothesize that it might instead result from an intersensory mismatch when visual information is at variance with vestibular and proprioceptive inputs. Psychophysical experiments confirming the hypothesis revealed that: 1) height vertigo is clearly related to body position, being the greatest in the upright stance; 2) it is the eye-object distance rather than the direction of gaze which is critical; 3) there is a saturation of height vertigo magnitude. Subjective vertigo increases with increasing altitude only below 20 metres. Physiological 'distance vertigo' must be distinguished from psychological 'acrophobia'. Its postural consequences may be ameliorated by strategies gleaned from knowledge of its mechanism such as providing nearby stationary contrasts in the peripheral visual field.
In-line type micropulse lidar with an annular beam: theoretical approach.
Shiina, Tatsuo; Yoshida, Kei; Ito, Masafumi; Okamura, Yasuyuki
2005-12-01
An in-line type micropulse lidar (MPL) with an annular beam was designed and the transmitting and receiving characteristics were analyzed. Because the in-line MPL utilizes a common telescope for a transmitter and a receiver and the annular beam always overlaps with the receiver's field of view (FOV), it can measure near-range lidar echoes with a narrow FOV. The transmitting annular beam changes its shape to a nearly nondiffractive beam through propagation. It improves the spatial resolution of the lidar observation. The receiving characteristics showed the ideal lidar echo variation, which was inversely proportional to the square of the distance the beam propagated, even if it was in the near range. PMID:16353820
Binarisms, regressive outcomes and biases in the drug policy interventions: a theoretical approach.
Gerevich, József
2005-01-01
The golden age of drug policy was characterized by the informal regulation of drug use. Formalization of the control over regulation and its increasingly strict, aggressive character led to the emergence of a binary attitude. The main binarisms: pharmaceutical or drug; ban or tolerance; punishment or treatment; psychopathological or pathopsychological approach; subjective or objective knowledge; traditional or alternative. On the basis of Kuhn's paradigm theory, these binarisms can be integrated. Drug policy interventions based on the binary attitude have had regressive effects. Using the work of Sam Sieber, the author distinguishes nine regressive influences: functional imbalance, perverse diagnosis, ricochet, overload, goal displacement, exploitation, provocation, classification, and placation. The regressive influences have caused the escalation of "the drug problem," which in turn has led to further regressive interventions. This vicious circle could be broken by eliminating the four biases--the paternalistic, elitist, rationalist, and activist biases--underlying the regressive interventions.
Theoretical aspects of pressure and solute denaturation of proteins: A Kirkwood-buff-theory approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Naim, Arieh
2012-12-01
A new approach to the problem of pressure-denaturation (PD) and solute-denaturation (SD) of proteins is presented. The problem is formulated in terms of Le Chatelier principle, and a solution is sought in terms of the Kirkwood-Buff theory of solutions. It is found that both problems have one factor in common; the excluded volumes of the folded and the unfolded forms with respect to the solvent molecules. It is shown that solvent-induced effects operating on hydrophilic groups along the protein are probably the main reason for PD. On the other hand, the SD depends on the preferential solvation of the folded and the unfolded forms with respect to solvent and co-solvent molecules.
Arefin, Ahmed Shamsul; Vimieiro, Renato; Riveros, Carlos; Craig, Hugh; Moscato, Pablo
2014-01-01
In this paper we analyse the word frequency profiles of a set of works from the Shakespearean era to uncover patterns of relationship between them, highlighting the connections within authorial canons. We used a text corpus comprising 256 plays and poems from the 16th and 17th centuries, with 17 works of uncertain authorship. Our clustering approach is based on the Jensen-Shannon divergence and a graph partitioning algorithm, and our results show that authors' characteristic styles are very powerful factors in explaining the variation of word use, frequently transcending cross-cutting factors like the differences between tragedy and comedy, early and late works, and plays and poems. Our method also provides an empirical guide to the authorship of plays and poems where this is unknown or disputed. PMID:25347727
A billiard-theoretic approach to elementary one-dimensional elastic collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redner, S.
2004-12-01
A simple relation is developed between the elastic collisions of freely moving particles in one dimension and a corresponding billiard system. For two particles with masses m1 and m2 on the half-line x>0 that approach an elastic barrier at x=0, the corresponding billiard system is an infinite wedge. The collision history of the two particles can be easily inferred from the corresponding billiard trajectory. This connection explains the classic demonstrations of the "dime on the superball" and the "baseball on the basketball" that are a staple in elementary physics courses. It also is shown that three elastic particles on an infinite line and three particles on a finite ring correspond, respectively, to the motion of a billiard ball in an infinite wedge and on a triangular billiard table. It is shown how to determine the angles of these two sets in terms of the particle masses.
Metallogeny by Trans-magmatic Fluids—Theoretical Analysis and Field Evidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Zhaohua; Mo, Xuanxue; Lu, Xinxiang; Chen, Bihe; Ke, Shan; Hou, Zengqian; Jiang, Wan
the magma. The field investigations of copper-bearing Melanocratic Macrogranular Enclaves (MME) in the Qushui massif, Gangdise belt are very helpful for understanding of source, transport and precipitation of ore-forming materials. In this example, it can be seen that fluid-rich MMEs is the source of the ore-forming element copper. Copper is transported out from MMEs by the fluid, following dispersal in the granitic magma. The copper-bearing fluid is then transferred through the magma and induced to deposit mineralization elsewhere. These processes have been noted when comparing the metallogenic features in both MME in the Qushui massif and the porphyry copper deposits in Yulong, eastern Tibet. It is obvious that MTTF is a very important theory for metallogeny of endogenic deposits. Using this theory, many paradoxes in metallogenesis can be interpreted in easier manner.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamar, R. C.; Mensio, O.
2004-12-01
By means of the Jeener-Broekaert nuclear magnetic resonance pulse sequence, the proton spin system of a liquid crystal can be prepared in quasiequilibrium states of high dipolar order, which relax to thermal equilibrium with the molecular environment with a characteristic time (T1D). Previous studies of the Larmor frequency and temperature dependence of T1D in thermotropic liquid crystals, that included field cycling and conventional high-field experiments, showed that the slow hydrodynamic modes dominate the behavior of T1D, even at high Larmor frequencies. This noticeable predominance of the cooperative fluctuations (known as order fluctuations of the director, OFD) could not be explained by standard models based on the spin-lattice relaxation theory in the limit of high temperature (weak order). This fact points out the necessity of investigating the role of the quantum terms neglected in the usual high temperature theory of dipolar order relaxation. In this work, we present a generalization of the proton dipolar order relaxation theory for highly correlated systems, which considers all the spins belonging to correlated domains as an open quantum system interacting with quantum bath. As starting point, we deduce a formulation of the Markovian master equation of relaxation for the statistical spin operator, valid for all temperatures, which is suitable for introducing a dipolar spin temperature in the quantum regime, without further assumptions about the form of the spin-lattice Hamiltonian. In order to reflect the slow dynamics occurring in correlated systems, we lift the usual short-correlation-time assumption by including the average over the motion of the dipolar Hamiltonian together with the Zeeman Hamiltonian into the time evolution operator. In this way, we calculate the time dependence of the spin operators in the interaction picture in a closed form, valid for high magnetic fields, bringing into play the spin-spin interactions within the microscopic time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daher, Walid; Pistre, Séverin; Kneppers, Angeline; Bakalowicz, Michel; Najem, Wajdi
2011-10-01
SummaryManaged Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is an emerging sustainable technique that has already generated successful results and is expected to solve many water resource problems, especially in semi-arid and arid zones. It is of great interest for karst aquifers that currently supply 20-25% of the world's potable water, particularly in Mediterranean countries. However, the high heterogeneity in karst aquifers is too complex to be able to locate and describe them simply via field observations. Hence, as compared to projects in porous media, MAR is still marginal in karst aquifers. Accordingly, the present work presents a conceptual methodology for Aquifer Rechargeability Assessment in Karst - referred to as ARAK. The methodology was developed noting that artificial recharge in karst aquifers is considered an improbable challenge to solve since karst conduits may drain off recharge water without any significant storage, or recharge water may not be able to infiltrate. The aim of the ARAK method is to determine the ability of a given karst aquifer to be artificially recharged and managed, and the best sites for implementing artificial recharge from the surface. ARAK is based on multi-criteria indexation analysis modeled on karst vulnerability assessment methods. ARAK depends on four independent criteria, i.e. Epikarst, Rock, Infiltration and Karst. After dividing the karst domain into grids, these criteria are indexed using geological and topographic maps refined by field observations. ARAK applies a linear formula that computes the intrinsic rechargeability index based on the indexed map for every criterion, coupled with its attributed weighting rate. This index indicates the aptitude for recharging a given karst aquifer, as determined by studying its probability first on a regional scale for the whole karst aquifer, and then by characterizing the most favorable sites. Subsequently, for the selected sites, a technical and economic feasibility factor is applied, weighted
A Probabilistic Approach to Receptive Field Mapping in the Frontal Eye Fields
Mayo, J. Patrick; Morrison, Robert M.; Smith, Matthew A.
2016-01-01
Studies of the neuronal mechanisms of perisaccadic vision often lack the resolution needed to determine important changes in receptive field (RF) structure. Such limited analytical power can lead to inaccurate descriptions of visuomotor processing. To address this issue, we developed a precise, probabilistic technique that uses a generalized linear model (GLM) for mapping the visual RFs of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons during stable fixation (Mayo et al., 2015). We previously found that full-field RF maps could be obtained using 1–8 dot stimuli presented at frame rates of 10–150 ms. FEF responses were generally robust to changes in the number of stimuli presented or the rate of presentation, which allowed us to visualize RFs over a range of spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we compare the quality of RFs obtained over different stimulus and GLM parameters to facilitate future work on the detailed mapping of FEF RFs. We first evaluate the interactions between the number of stimuli presented per trial, the total number of trials, and the quality of RF mapping. Next, we vary the spatial resolution of our approach to illustrate the tradeoff between visualizing RF sub-structure and sampling at high resolutions. We then evaluate local smoothing as a possible correction for situations where under-sampling occurs. Finally, we provide a preliminary demonstration of the usefulness of a probabilistic approach for visualizing full-field perisaccadic RF shifts. Our results present a powerful, and perhaps necessary, framework for studying perisaccadic vision that is applicable to FEF and possibly other visuomotor regions of the brain. PMID:27047352
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albora, A. Muhittin; Ucan, Osman N.; Aydogan, Davut
2007-05-01
In this study, a Markov Random Field (MRF) approach is used to locate source boundary positions which are difficult to identify from Bouguer gravity and magnetic maps. As a generalized form of Markov Chains, the MRF approach is an unsupervised statistical model based algorithm and is applied to the analysis of images, particularly in the detection of visual patterns or textures. Here, we present a dynamic programming based on the MRF approach for boundary detection of noisy and super-positioned potential anomalies, which are produced by various geological structures. In the MRF method, gravity and magnetic maps are considered as two-dimensional (2-D) images with a matrix composed of N 1 × N 2 pixels. Each pixel value of the matrix is optimized in real time with no a priori processing by using two parameter sets; average steering vector (θ) and quantization level (M). They carry information about the correlation of neighboring pixels and the locality of their connections. We have chosen MRF as a processing approach for geophysical data since it is an unsupervised, efficient model for image enhancement, border detection and separation of 2-D potential anomalies. The main benefit of MRF is that an average steering vector and a quantization level are enough in evaluation of the potential anomaly maps. We have compared the MRF method to noise implemented synthetic potential field anomalies. After satisfactory results were found, the method has been applied to gravity and magnetic anomaly maps of Gelibolu Peninsula in Western Turkey. Here, we have observed Anafartalar thrust fault and another parallel fault northwest of Anafartalar thrust fault. We have modeled a geological structure including a lateral fault, which results in a higher susceptibility and anomaly amplitude increment. We have shown that the MRF method is effective to detect the broad-scale geological structures in the Gelibolu Peninsula, and thus to delineate the complex tectonic structure of Gelibolu
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boughariou, F.; Chouikhi, S.; Kallel, A.; Belgaroui, E.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we present a new theoretical and numerical formulation for the electrical and thermal breakdown phenomena, induced by charge packet dynamics, in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) insulating film under dc high applied field. The theoretical physical formulation is composed by the equations of bipolar charge transport as well as by the thermo-electric coupled equation associated for the first time in modeling to the bipolar transport problem. This coupled equation is resolved by the finite-element numerical model. For the first time, all bipolar transport results are obtained under non-uniform temperature distributions in the sample bulk. The principal original results show the occurring of very sudden abrupt increase in local temperature associated to a very sharp increase in external and conduction current densities appearing during the steady state. The coupling between these electrical and thermal instabilities reflects physically the local coupling between electrical conduction and thermal joule effect. The results of non-uniform temperature distributions induced by non-uniform electrical conduction current are also presented for several times. According to our formulation, the strong injection current is the principal factor of the electrical and thermal breakdown of polymer insulating material. This result is shown in this work. Our formulation is also validated experimentally.
Electronic properties of 3R-CuAlO2 under pressure: Three theoretical approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.; Laskowski, R.; Palanivel, B.; Modak, P.; Chantis, A. N.; van Schilfgaarde, M.; Kotani, T.
2010-01-01
The pressure variation in the structural parameters, u and c/a , of the delafossite CuAlO2 is calculated within the local-density approximation (LDA). Further, the electronic structures as obtained by different approximations are compared: LDA, LDA+U , and a recently developed “quasiparticle self-consistent GW ” (QSGW) approximation. The structural parameters obtained by the LDA agree very well with experiments but, as expected, gaps in the formal band structure are underestimated as compared to optical experiments. The (in LDA too high lying) Cu3d states can be down shifted by LDA+U . The magnitude of the electric field gradient (EFG) as obtained within the LDA is far too small. It can be “fitted” to experiments in LDA+U but a simultaneous adjustment of the EFG and the gap cannot be obtained with a single U value. QSGW yields reasonable values for both quantities. LDA and QSGW yield significantly different values for some of the band-gap deformation potentials but calculations within both approximations predict that 3R-CuAlO2 remains an indirect-gap semiconductor at all pressures in its stability range 0-36 GPa, although the smallest direct gap has a negative pressure coefficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hancer, Mehmet; Arkaz, Harun
2015-11-01
Although there are many viable approaches to induce hydrophobicity, a superhydrophobic surface could only be fabricated by combination of surface chemistry modification and roughness enhancement. In this study, surface roughness was obtained by 12 nm SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) which were chemically modified using a self-assembled monolayer of perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane. The SiO2 NPs which were rendered hydrophobic, then successfully dispersed into a poly silicon (silsesquioxane) matrix at varying concentrations from 0.5 to 4%. The NPs dispersed polymer suspension was then spray coated on to glass and aluminum coupons in order to achieve polymer thin film nanocomposites. The results were revealed a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle exceeding 178° with low hysteresis and bouncing water droplet behavior. Furthermore the composite film reliability (hot-humid and ice build-up) was tested in an environmental control chamber by precisely adjusting both temperature (85 °C) and relative humidity (85 RH). Taber abrasion testing was applied in order to gain insights into the abrasion resistance of nanocomposite film. Finally, ice formation was simulated at -20 °C on the superhydrophobic nanocomposite film coated substrates.
Mechanisms-based viscoplasticity: Theoretical approach and experimental validation for steel 304L
Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Oliferuk, Wiera
2016-01-01
We propose a mechanisms-based viscoplasticity approach for metals and alloys. First, we derive a stochastic model for thermally-activated motion of dislocations and, then, introduce power-law flow rules. The overall plastic deformation includes local plastic slip events taken with an appropriate weight assigned to each angle of the plane misorientation from the direction of maximum shear stress. As deformation progresses, the material experiences successive reorganizations of the slip systems. The microstructural evolution causes that a portion of energy expended on plastic deformation is dissipated and the rest is stored in the defect structures. We show that the reorganizations are stable in a homogeneously deformed material. The concept is tested for steel 304L, where we reproduce experimentally obtained stress-strain responses, we construct the Frost-Ashby deformation map and predict the rate of the energy storage. The storage is assessed in terms of synchronized measurements of temperature and displacement distributions on the specimen surface during tensile loading. PMID:27026209
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sethi, Arun; Bhatia, Akriti; Maurya, Atul; Panday, Anil; Bhatia, Gitika; Shrivastava, Atul; Singh, Ranvijay Pratap; Prakash, Rohit
2013-11-01
Synthesis of a number of pregnane derivatives including the glycoside has been described in detail. These compounds were synthesized by reaction of 3β-acetoxy-5, 16-pregnadiene-20-one, derived from diosgenin and then treating it with different nucleophilic reagents. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were established on the basis of their physical, chemical and spectral data. The molecular geometry of compounds were calculated in ground state by density functional theory method (DFT/B3LYP) using 6-31G (d,p) basis set. 1H NMR chemical shifts were also studied using gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) approach, which were found in good agreement with the experimental values. The study of electronic properties such as UV-Vis spectral analysis, HOMO and LUMO energy calculations were performed with time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Global and local reactivity descriptors were calculated to study the reactive sites within the molecules. These compounds were also evaluated for their anti-dyslipidemic (Triton model) and in vitro anti-oxidant activities. Out of these, compound 9 showed potent anti-dyslipidemic and anti-oxidant activity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tejedor, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Longjas, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.
2014-12-01
River deltas are intricate landscapes with complex channel networks that self-organize to deliver water, sediment, and nutrients from the apex to the delta top and eventually to the coastal zone. The natural balance of material and energy fluxes which maintains a stable hydrologic, geomorphologic, and ecological state of a river delta, is often disrupted by external factors causing topological and dynamical changes in the delta structure and function. A formal quantitative framework for studying river delta topology and transport dynamics and their response to change is lacking. Here we present such a framework based on spectral graph theory and demonstrate its value in quantifying the complexity of the delta network topology, computing its steady state fluxes, and identifying upstream (contributing) and downstream (nourishment) areas from any point in the network. We use this framework to construct vulnerability maps that quantify the relative change of sediment and water delivery to the shoreline outlets in response to possible perturbations in hundreds of upstream links. This enables us to evaluate which links (hotspots) and what management scenarios would most influence flux delivery to the outlets, paving the way of systematically examining how local or spatially distributed delta interventions can be studied within a systems approach for delta sustainability.
A graph-theoretic approach to comparing and integrating genetic, physical and sequence-based maps.
Yap, Immanuel V; Schneider, David; Kleinberg, Jon; Matthews, David; Cartinhour, Samuel; McCouch, Susan R
2003-01-01
For many species, multiple maps are available, often constructed independently by different research groups using different sets of markers and different source material. Integration of these maps provides a higher density of markers and greater genome coverage than is possible using a single study. In this article, we describe a novel approach to comparing and integrating maps by using abstract graphs. A map is modeled as a directed graph in which nodes represent mapped markers and edges define the order of adjacent markers. Independently constructed graphs representing corresponding maps from different studies are merged on the basis of their common loci. Absence of a path between two nodes indicates that their order is undetermined. A cycle indicates inconsistency among the mapping studies with regard to the order of the loci involved. The integrated graph thus produced represents a complete picture of all of the mapping studies that comprise it, including all of the ambiguities and inconsistencies among them. The objective of this representation is to guide additional research aimed at interpreting these ambiguities and inconsistencies in locus order rather than presenting a "consensus order" that ignores these problems. PMID:14704199
Mechanisms-based viscoplasticity: Theoretical approach and experimental validation for steel 304L.
Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Oliferuk, Wiera
2016-01-01
We propose a mechanisms-based viscoplasticity approach for metals and alloys. First, we derive a stochastic model for thermally-activated motion of dislocations and, then, introduce power-law flow rules. The overall plastic deformation includes local plastic slip events taken with an appropriate weight assigned to each angle of the plane misorientation from the direction of maximum shear stress. As deformation progresses, the material experiences successive reorganizations of the slip systems. The microstructural evolution causes that a portion of energy expended on plastic deformation is dissipated and the rest is stored in the defect structures. We show that the reorganizations are stable in a homogeneously deformed material. The concept is tested for steel 304L, where we reproduce experimentally obtained stress-strain responses, we construct the Frost-Ashby deformation map and predict the rate of the energy storage. The storage is assessed in terms of synchronized measurements of temperature and displacement distributions on the specimen surface during tensile loading. PMID:27026209
Mechanisms-based viscoplasticity: Theoretical approach and experimental validation for steel 304L
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Oliferuk, Wiera
2016-03-01
We propose a mechanisms-based viscoplasticity approach for metals and alloys. First, we derive a stochastic model for thermally-activated motion of dislocations and, then, introduce power-law flow rules. The overall plastic deformation includes local plastic slip events taken with an appropriate weight assigned to each angle of the plane misorientation from the direction of maximum shear stress. As deformation progresses, the material experiences successive reorganizations of the slip systems. The microstructural evolution causes that a portion of energy expended on plastic deformation is dissipated and the rest is stored in the defect structures. We show that the reorganizations are stable in a homogeneously deformed material. The concept is tested for steel 304L, where we reproduce experimentally obtained stress-strain responses, we construct the Frost-Ashby deformation map and predict the rate of the energy storage. The storage is assessed in terms of synchronized measurements of temperature and displacement distributions on the specimen surface during tensile loading.
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies on aspirin : An experimental and theoretical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premkumar, R.; Premkumar, S.; Rekha, T. N.; Parameswari, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2016-05-01
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies on aspirin molecule adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were synthesized by the solution-combustion method and characterized by the X-ray diffraction and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques. The averaged particle size of synthesized AgNPs was calculated as ˜55 nm. The normal Raman spectrum (nRs) and SERS spectrum of the aspirin were recorded. The molecular structure of the aspirin and aspirin adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/ B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The calculated nRs and SERS frequencies were correlated well with the observed frequencies. The flat-on orientation was predicted from the nRs and SERS spectra, when the aspirin adsorbed on the AgNPs. Hence, the present studies lead to the understanding of adsorption process of aspirin on the AgNPs, which paves the way for biomedical applications.
The spatial distribution of X-ray selected AGN in the Chandra deep fields: a theoretical perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marulli, Federico; Bonoli, Silvia; Branchini, Enzo; Gilli, Roberto; Moscardini, Lauro; Springel, Volker
2009-07-01
We study the spatial distribution of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the framework of hierarchical coevolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies and dark matter haloes. To this end, we have applied the theoretical model developed by Croton et al., De Lucia & Blaizot and Marulli et al. to the output of the Millennium Run and obtained hundreds of realizations of past light cones from which we have extracted realistic mock AGN catalogues that mimic the Chandra deep fields. We find that the model AGN number counts are in fair agreement with observations both in the soft and in the hard X-ray bands, except at fluxes <~10-15ergcm-2s-1, where the model systematically overestimates the observations. However, a large fraction of these faint objects are typically excluded from the spectroscopic AGN samples of the Chandra fields. We find that the spatial two-point correlation function predicted by the model is well described by a power-law relation out to 20h-1Mpc, in close agreement with observations. Our model matches the correlation length r0 of AGN in the Chandra Deep Field-North but underestimates it in the Chandra Deep Field-South. When fixing the slope to γ = 1.4, as in Gilli et al., the statistical significance of the mismatch is 2σ-2.5σ, suggesting that the predicted cosmic variance, which dominates the error budget, may not account for the different correlation length of the AGN in the two fields. However, the overall mismatch between the model and the observed correlation function decreases when both r0 and γ are allowed to vary, suggesting that more realistic AGN models and a full account of all observational errors may significantly reduce the tension between AGN clustering in the two fields. While our results are robust to changes in the model prescriptions for the AGN light curves, the luminosity dependence of the clustering is sensitive to the different light-curve models adopted. However, irrespective of the model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, Y.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Finken, K. H.; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Lehnen, M.; Liang, Y.; Loewenbrueck, K.; Matsunaga, G.; Reiser, D.; Samm, U.; Sewell, G.; Takamura, S.; Unterberg, B.; Wolf, R. C.; Zimmermann, O.; TEXTOR-team
2007-05-01
Penetration processes of rotating helical magnetic perturbation field into tokamak plasmas have been investigated by the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) in TEXTOR. Experimental observations of the field penetration and field amplification are performed and the data are interpreted by theoretical analyses based on a linearized two-fluid plasma model. It is observed that the growth of the forced magnetic reconnection by the rotating DED-field is accompanied by a change in the plasma fluid rotation. The theoretical model is also applied to the DED experiment in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. It is confirmed that the theoretical analyses can explain the observed radial profiles of the DED-field in the plasma by inserting small magnetic pick-up coils in HYBTOK-II.
Figueroa, R G; Valente, M
2015-09-21
The main purpose of this work is to determine the feasibility and physical characteristics of a new teletherapy device of radiation therapy based on the application of a convergent x-ray beam of energies like those used in radiotherapy providing highly concentrated dose delivery to the target. We have denominated it Convergent Beam Radio Therapy (CBRT). Analytical methods are developed first in order to determine the dosimetry characteristic of an ideal convergent photon beam in a hypothetical water phantom. Then, using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code, a similar convergent beam that is applied to the water phantom is compared with that of the analytical method. The CBRT device (Converay(®)) is designed to adapt to the head of LINACs. The converging beam photon effect is achieved thanks to the perpendicular impact of LINAC electrons on a large thin spherical cap target where Bremsstrahlung is generated (high-energy x-rays). This way, the electrons impact upon various points of the cap (CBRT condition), aimed at the focal point. With the X radiation (Bremsstrahlung) directed forward, a system of movable collimators emits many beams from the output that make a virtually definitive convergent beam. Other Monte Carlo simulations are performed using realistic conditions. The simulations are performed for a thin target in the shape of a large, thin, spherical cap, with an r radius of around 10-30 cm and a curvature radius of approximately 70 to 100 cm, and a cubed water phantom centered in the focal point of the cap. All the interaction mechanisms of the Bremsstrahlung radiation with the phantom are taken into consideration for different energies and cap thicknesses. Also, the magnitudes of the electric and/or magnetic fields, which are necessary to divert clinical-use electron beams (0.1 to 20 MeV), are determined using electromagnetism equations with relativistic corrections. This way the above-mentioned beam is manipulated and guided for its perpendicular impact
Figueroa, R G; Valente, M
2015-09-21
The main purpose of this work is to determine the feasibility and physical characteristics of a new teletherapy device of radiation therapy based on the application of a convergent x-ray beam of energies like those used in radiotherapy providing highly concentrated dose delivery to the target. We have denominated it Convergent Beam Radio Therapy (CBRT). Analytical methods are developed first in order to determine the dosimetry characteristic of an ideal convergent photon beam in a hypothetical water phantom. Then, using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code, a similar convergent beam that is applied to the water phantom is compared with that of the analytical method. The CBRT device (Converay(®)) is designed to adapt to the head of LINACs. The converging beam photon effect is achieved thanks to the perpendicular impact of LINAC electrons on a large thin spherical cap target where Bremsstrahlung is generated (high-energy x-rays). This way, the electrons impact upon various points of the cap (CBRT condition), aimed at the focal point. With the X radiation (Bremsstrahlung) directed forward, a system of movable collimators emits many beams from the output that make a virtually definitive convergent beam. Other Monte Carlo simulations are performed using realistic conditions. The simulations are performed for a thin target in the shape of a large, thin, spherical cap, with an r radius of around 10-30 cm and a curvature radius of approximately 70 to 100 cm, and a cubed water phantom centered in the focal point of the cap. All the interaction mechanisms of the Bremsstrahlung radiation with the phantom are taken into consideration for different energies and cap thicknesses. Also, the magnitudes of the electric and/or magnetic fields, which are necessary to divert clinical-use electron beams (0.1 to 20 MeV), are determined using electromagnetism equations with relativistic corrections. This way the above-mentioned beam is manipulated and guided for its perpendicular impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Zaliapin, Ilya; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi
2015-04-01
River deltas are landforms with complex channel networks that deliver water, sediment and nutrient fluxes from rivers to oceans or inland water bodies via multiple pathways. Most of the deltas are subject to anthropogenic and natural perturbations causing topological and dynamical changes in the delta structure and function. We present a quantitative framework based on spectral graph theory within which a systematic study of the topology, transport dynamics and response to change of river deltas can be performed, as well as computation of sub-networks (from apex to shoreline outlets), and contributing/nourishing areas. We introduce metrics of topologic and dynamic complexity and define a multidimensional complexity space where each delta projects. By analysis of seven deltas of different morphodynamic and environmental settings, we report a surprising power law relationship between sub-network size and its dynamic exchange with surrounding sub-networks within the deltaic system. The exponent of the relationship is universal (predicting that a sub-network twice as large leaks out to other sub-networks only 1.3 times its total flux) and the pre-exponent depends on the topologic complexity of the delta network as a whole, i.e., the ensemble of the interacting sub-sub-networks. We also use the developed framework to construct vulnerability maps that quantify the relative change of sediment and water delivery to the shoreline outlets in response to possible perturbations in hundreds of upstream links. This enables us to evaluate which links (hotspots) and what management scenarios would most influence flux delivery to the outlets, paving the way for systematically examining how local or spatially distributed delta interventions can be studied within a systems approach for delta sustainability.
Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo
2015-12-28
A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.
Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo
2015-12-28
A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a “quantum dot”), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1–014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1–245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals’ behavior.
Kurouski, Dmitry; Large, Nicolas; Chiang, Naihao; Greeneltch, Nathan; Carron, Keith T; Seideman, Tamar; Schatz, George C; Van Duyne, Richard P
2016-03-01
Simplicity and low cost has positioned inkjet paper- and fabric-based 3D substrates as two of the most commonly used surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platforms for the detection and the identification of chemical and biological analytes down to the nanogram and femtogram levels. The relationship between far-field and near-field properties of these 3D SERS platforms remains poorly understood and warrants more detailed characterization. Here, we investigate the extremely weak optical scattering observed from commercial and home-fabricated paper-, as well as fabric-based 3D SERS substrates. Using wavelength scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy (WS-SERES) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations we were able to determine their near-field SERS properties and correlate them with morphological and far-field properties. It was found that nanoparticle dimers, trimers, and higher order nanoparticle clusters primarily determine the near-field properties of these substrates. At the same time, the far-field response of 3D SERS substrates either originates primarily from the monomers or cannot be clearly defined. Using FDTD we demonstrate that LSPR bands of nanoparticle aggregates near perfectly overlap with the maxima of the near-field surface-enhanced Raman scattering responses of the 3D SERS substrates. This behaviour of far-field spectroscopic properties and near-field surface-enhanced Raman scattering has not been previously observed for 2D SERS substrates, known as nanorod arrays. The combination of these analytical approaches provides a full spectroscopic characterization of 3D SERS substrates, while FDTD simulation can be used to design new 3D SERS substrates with tailored spectral characteristics.
Ab initio, theoretical and Monte Carlo approaches for the magnetocaloric effect in DyNi4Si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laghrissi, Ayoub; Salmani, El Mehdi; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah
2016-08-01
The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of DyNi4Si alloys in YNi4Si-type orthorhombic structure have been investigated by using a combination of first-principles calculations and mean field theory, effective field theory, and Monte Carlo simulation. We find that Magnetic results of DyNi4Si compound show ferromagnetic-type ordering at 19 K, the magnetization-field isotherms for DyNi4Si exhibit hysteresis loop at 2 K due to strong magnetic anisotropy. The non-saturating behavior and the value of the magnetic moment of 7.7 μB/fu in 140 kOe at 2 K where the theoretical value for DyNi4Si only is about 10 μB, this suggest a not completely ordered ferromagnetic state of DyNi4Si (Morozkin et al., 2015) [2]. The isothermal entropy changes for H=14 T at T=22 K is -ΔS=15.6 J/(kg K). The obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data. This study allows the suggestion of the compatible Ising model for a new class of compound YNi4Si-type, which shows magnetocaloric behavior at low temperature.
Theoretical investigation of the behavior of CuSe2O5 compound in high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saghafi, Z.; Jahangiri, J.; Mahdavifar, S.; Hadipour, H.; Farjami Shayesteh, S.
2016-01-01
Based on the analytical and numerical approaches, we investigate thermodynamic properties of CuSe2O5 compound at high magnetic fields which is a candidate for the strong intra-chain interaction in quasi one-dimensional (1D) quantum magnets. Magnetic behavior of the system can be described by the 1D spin-1/2 XXZ model in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. Under these circumstances, there is one quantum critical field in this compound. Below the quantum critical field the spin chain system is in the gapless Luttinger liquid (LL) regime, whereas above it one observes a crossover to the gapped saturation magnetic phase. Indications on the thermodynamic curves confirm the occurrence of such a phase transition. The main characteristics of the LL phase are gapless and spin-spin correlation functions decay algebraic. The effects of zero-temperature quantum phase transition are observed even at rather high temperatures in comparison with the counterpart compounds. In addition, we calculate the Wilson ratio in the model. The Wilson ratio at a fixed temperature remains almost independent of the field in the LL region. In the vicinity of the quantum critical field, the Wilson ratio increases and exhibits anomalous enhancement.
Arantes, Lucas M; Varejão, Eduardo V V; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin J; Cereda, Cíntia M S; de Paula, Eneida; Lourenço, Maicon P; Duarte, Hélio A; Fernandes, Sergio A
2014-05-01
The aim of this work was to study the interaction between the local anesthetic benzocaine and p-sulfonic acid calix[n]arenes using NMR and theoretical calculations and to assess the effects of complexation on cytotoxicity of benzocaine. The architectures of the complexes were proposed according to (1) H NMR data (Job plot, binding constants, and ROESY) indicating details on the insertion of benzocaine in the cavity of the calix[n]arenes. The proposed inclusion compounds were optimized using the PM3 semiempirical method, and the electronic plus nuclear repulsion energy contributions were performed at the DFT level using the PBE exchange/correlation functional and the 6-311G(d) basis set. The remarkable agreement between experimental and theoretical approaches adds support to their use in the structural characterization of the inclusion complexes. In vitro cytotoxic tests showed that complexation intensifies the intrinsic toxicity of benzocaine, possibly by increasing the water solubility of the anesthetic and favoring its partitioning inside of biomembranes.
Pietrucci, Fabio; Saitta, Antonino Marco
2015-01-01
Increasing experimental and theoretical evidence points to formamide as a possible hub in the complex network of prebiotic chemical reactions leading from simple precursors like H2, H2O, N2, NH3, CO, and CO2 to key biological molecules like proteins, nucleic acids, and sugars. We present an in-depth computational study of the formation and decomposition reaction channels of formamide by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. To this aim we introduce a new theoretical method combining the metadynamics sampling scheme with a general purpose topological formulation of collective variables able to track a wide range of different reaction mechanisms. Our approach is flexible enough to discover multiple pathways and intermediates starting from minimal insight on the systems, and it allows passing in a seamless way from reactions in gas phase to reactions in liquid phase, with the solvent active role fully taken into account. We obtain crucial new insight into the interplay of the different formamide reaction channels and into environment effects on pathways and barriers. In particular, our results indicate a similar stability of formamide and hydrogen cyanide in solution as well as their relatively facile interconversion, thus reconciling experiments and theory and, possibly, two different and competing prebiotic scenarios. Moreover, although not explicitly sought, formic acid/ammonium formate is produced as an important formamide decomposition byproduct in solution. PMID:26598679
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaiss, Moritz; Bachert, Peter
2013-11-01
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) of metabolite protons that undergo exchange processes with the abundant water pool enables a specific contrast for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The CEST image contrast depends on physical and physiological parameters that characterize the microenvironment such as temperature, pH, and metabolite concentration. However, CEST imaging in vivo is a complex technique because of interferences with direct water saturation (spillover effect), the involvement of other exchanging pools, in particular macromolecular systems (magnetization transfer, MT), and nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs). Moreover, there is a strong dependence of the diverse effects on the employed parameters of radiofrequency irradiation for selective saturation which makes interpretation of acquired signals difficult. This review considers analytical solutions of the Bloch-McConnell (BM) equation system which enable deep insight and theoretical description of CEST and the equivalent off-resonant spinlock (SL) experiments. We derive and discuss proposed theoretical treatments in detail to understand the influence of saturation parameters on the acquired Z-spectrum and how the different effects interfere and can be isolated in MR Z-spectroscopy. Finally, we provide an overview of reported CEST effects in vivo and discuss proposed methods and technical approaches applicable to in vivo CEST studies on clinical MRI systems.
Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach
Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É.; Park, Minjoon; Watson, Scott E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu
2013-08-01
We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ΛCDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.
Reniers, Genserik; Dullaert, Wout; Karel, Soudan
2009-08-15
Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces domino effect risks, whose magnitude depends on every company's own risk management strategies and on those of all others. Preventing domino effects is therefore very important to avoid catastrophes in the chemical process industry. Given that chemical companies are interlinked by domino effect accident links, there is some likelihood that even if certain companies fully invest in domino effects prevention measures, they can nonetheless experience an external domino effect caused by an accident which occurred in another chemical enterprise of the cluster. In this article a game-theoretic approach to interpret and model behaviour of chemical plants within chemical clusters while negotiating and deciding on domino effects prevention investments is employed.
Rejuvenation of a giant oil field-Quiriquire Field, Venezuela: A team approach
Friestad, H.; Hull, R.; Miller, D.
1996-08-01
Quiriquire field is located in the Maturin basin of eastern Venezuela, at the southeastern corner of the Serrania del Interior mountain range. Since its discovery in 1928, the field has produced over 750 MMBO from a stratigraphically trapped, shallow, Pliocene alluvial fan (Quiriquire Formation). A deep oil zone, the Los Jabillos sand of Oligocene age, was discovered in 1952 on a deep thrust anticline situated below the shallow oil field. Both zones potentially have significant reserves yet to be recovered. In 1994, Maxus, BP, and Otepi began working with Lagoven to rejuvenate oil production from both zones. Maxus, as operator, has been utilizing geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, and reservoir, drilling, construction, and environmental engineers, working together as a team, to fully evaluate the most economic methods of developing these remaining reserves. A program of reactivation and recompletion of old wells, as well as the drilling of deviated infill wells, stepouts, and new exploration plays has been formulated by the team. A staged approach to the broad program will enable Maxus to prioritize those projects which have the best economic return. The use of new technology in seismic, drilling, logging, and completions is expected to improve the recovery of oil over previous conventional methods. Using modern technology to enhance the understanding of the structural and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms, the team has defined and built structural and seismic models to help identify possible productive reservoirs.
Geosynergetic Approach for Analyze of Rock State, Theoretical and Experimental Redlts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, A. Y.; Khachay, O. Y.
2012-04-01
releasing the system returns to the same phase trajectory attracting area. That is confirmed by detailed analyze of phase trajectories of seismic massive response before and after high energetic rock burst. In the book [5] is developed a new mathematical method for modeling of processes in local active continuum, which are energetically influenced from an outer energy source. The common cause of chaotization and stochastization of dynamical system movements are its losses of stability and exponential recession of near located phase trajectories together with its common boundedness and its common compression. The mathematical result coincides as a whole with the practical result: in the phase area the smaller attracting phase trajectories area exists where can occur an exponential recession of them, then the movement character changes and the further movement of phase points lead to return to the same attracting area. These movements can occur in resonance or spontaneous mood. The work was supported by the grant RFBR 10-05-00013. 1. Hachay, O.A., and Khachay, O.Yu. 2009. "Results of electromagnetic and seismic monitoring of the state of rock massive by use the approach of the open dynamical systems,"presented at the EGU2009 - EGU General Assembly 2009, session: Thermo- hydro- mechanical coupling in stressed rock, 19 April 19 - 24 April 2009. 2. Hachay, O.A. "Synergetic events in geological medium and nonlinear features of wave propagation," presented at the EGU2009 - EGU General Assembly 2009, session: Solid Earth geocomplexity: surface processes, morphology and natural resources over wide ranges of scale, 19 April 19 - 24 April 2009. 3. Chulichkov, A.I. 2003. Mathematical models of nonlinear dynamics. Moscow: Phismatlit, p.420. 4. Malineckiy, G.G. 2007. Mathematical base of synergetics. Moscow: LKI, p.375. 5. Naimark, Yu.I.and Landa, P.S. 2009. Stochastic and Chaotic oscillations. Moscow: Knigniy dom "LIBROKOM", p.424.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, Nisarg K.; Vyas, Pulastya R.; Gohel, Vinod B.
2016-10-01
The thermophysical properties of rhodium are studied up to melting temperature by incorporating anharmonic effects due to lattice ions and thermally excited electrons. In order to account anharmonic effects due to lattice vibrations, we have employed mean field potential (MFP) approach and for thermally excited electrons Mermin functional. The local form of the pseudopotential with only one effective adjustable parameter rc is used to construct MFP and hence vibrational free energy due to ions - Fion. We have studied equation of state at 300 K and further, to access the applicability of present conjunction scheme, we have also estimated shock-Hugoniot and temperature along principle Hugoniot. We have carried out the study of temperature variation of several thermophysical properties like thermal expansion (βP), enthalpy (EH), specific heats at constant pressure and volume (CP and CV), specific heats due to lattice ions and thermally excited electrons ( and , isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli (BT and Bs) and thermodynamic Gruneisen parameter (γth) in order to examine the inclusion of anharmonic effects in the present study. The computed results are compared with available experimental results measured by using different methods and previously obtained theoretical results using different theoretical philosophy. Our computed results are in good agreement with experimental findings and for some physical quantities better or comparable with other theoretical results. We conclude that local form of the pseudopotential used accounts s-p-d hybridization properly and found to be transferable at extreme environment without changing the values of the parameter. Thus, even the behavior of transition metals having complexity in electronic structure can be well understood with local pseudopotential without any modification in the potential at extreme environment. Looking to the success of present scheme (MFP + pseudopotential) we would like to extend it further for the
McCormick, Laurette C; Slater, Gary W
2007-11-01
DNA sequencing by electrophoresis can be dramatically sped up by overcoming the need for the sieving medium. Normally it is possible to separate DNA based on size in free solution; however, not end-labeled free-solution electrophoresis (ELFSE) uses a neutral drag-tag molecule to make it possible. In experiments to date, the drag-tag and DNA together form a random coil conformation; while with future generation drag-tags and high fields, deformation of this conformation may occur. In the first paper in this series we investigated the conditions under which the DNA and label become hydrodynamically distinct (or segregated), based on a theoretical approach developed for the electrophoresis of polyampholytes. In this paper we study further deformation wherein either the DNA and/or a polymeric label stretch. We show that deformation may dramatically improve the capabilities of ELFSE, especially when both the DNA and a polymeric drag-tag fully stretch; however, reaching these regimes will require extremely high field intensities, something that only microchip technologies may be able to achieve.
Data, Methods, and Theoretical Implications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hannagan, Rebecca J.; Schneider, Monica C.; Greenlee, Jill S.
2012-01-01
Within the subfields of political psychology and the study of gender, the introduction of new data collection efforts, methodologies, and theoretical approaches are transforming our understandings of these two fields and the places at which they intersect. In this article we present an overview of the research that was presented at a National…
Magnetic field of Jupiter: A generalized inverse approach
Connerney, J.E.P.
1981-09-01
The estimation of planetary magnetic fields from observations of the magnetic field gathered along a spacecraft flyby trajectory is examined with the aid of generalized inverse techniques, with application to the internal magnetic field of Jupiter. Model non-uniqueness resulting from the limited spatial extent of the observations and noise on the data is explored and quantitative estimates of the model parameter resolution are found. The presence of a substantial magnetic field of external origin due to the currents flowing in the Jovian magnetodisc is found to be an important source of error in estimates of the internal Jovian field, and new models explicitly incorporating these currents are proposed. New internal field models are derived using the vector helium magnetometer observations and the high field fluxgate observations of Pioneer 11, and knowledge of the external current system gained from the Pioneer 10 and Voyagers 1 and 2 encounters.
Magnetic field of Jupiter: A generalized inverse approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connerney, J. E. P.
1981-01-01
The estimation of planetary magnetic fields from observations of the magnetic field gathered along a spacecraft flyby trajectory is examined with the aid of generalized inverse techniques, with application to the internal magnetic field of Jupiter. Model nonuniqueness resulting from the limited spatial extent of the observations and noise on the data is explored and quantitative estimates of the model parameter resolution are found. The presence of a substantial magnetic field of external origin due to the currents flowing in the Jovian magnetodisc is found to be an important source of error in estimates of the internal Jovian field, and new models explicitly incorporating these currents are proposed. New internal field models are derived using the vector helium magnetometer observations and the high field fluxgate observations of Pioneer 11, and knowledge of the external current system gained from the Pioneer 10 and Voyagers 1 and 2 encounters.
Ruggieri, G
2009-01-01
Many parameters of biological functions, interesting different branches of medicine, have to be indexed by the same value for each other comparison between single individuals or between-within groups.Body Surface Area (BSA) and 1.73 m2 reference value are probably the most used tools for indexation, but a growing number of scientific papers emphasize the risk of under or over estimates of data by BSA indexation in overweight-obese or on the contrary underweight individuals. This study has been planned to evaluate such a problem: a) by a theoretical approach, indexing to 1.73 m2 the creatinine clearance(CtCl) in an ideal population, and b) analysing and debating the doubts and problems about the indexation by BSA in many fields, the possibilities of indexation by other methods, or to use BSA with different approach, to reduce the risk of bias, evaluating the possibility of this target in a real population of 45 men and 84 women undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) - II - The feasibility to agree to an identical value of normal or abnormal renal function for every age or, on the contrary, to have a normal range for each age, are analysed and discussed.About BSA as indexing tool, it is pointed out: a) the lack of significative correlation between BSA and GFR and other parameters b) the increasing gap during years between 1.73 m2 BSA and the average BSA.
Zhuo, Ye
2011-01-01
In this thesis, we theoretically study the electromagnetic wave propagation in several passive and active optical components and devices including 2-D photonic crystals, straight and curved waveguides, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and etc. Several optical designs are also presented like organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells and solar concentrators. The first part of the thesis focuses on theoretical investigation. First, the plane-wave-based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is briefly described with a short review of photonic crystals and other numerical methods to study them (Chapter 1 and 2). Next TMM, the numerical method itself is investigated in details and developed in advance to deal with more complex optical systems. In chapter 3, TMM is extended in curvilinear coordinates to study curved nanoribbon waveguides. The problem of a curved structure is transformed into an equivalent one of a straight structure with spatially dependent tensors of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In chapter 4, a new set of localized basis orbitals are introduced to locally represent electromagnetic field in photonic crystals as alternative to planewave basis. The second part of the thesis focuses on the design of optical devices. First, two examples of TMM applications are given. The first example is the design of metal grating structures as replacements of ITO to enhance the optical absorption in OPV cells (chapter 6). The second one is the design of the same structure as above to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 7). Next, two design examples by ray tracing method are given, including applying a microlens array to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 5) and an all-angle wide-wavelength design of solar concentrator (chapter 8). In summary, this dissertation has extended TMM which makes it capable of treating complex optical systems. Several optical designs by TMM and ray tracing method are also given as a full complement of this
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assadi, Amir H.; Eghbalnia, Hamid
2000-06-01
In standard differential geometry, the Fundamental Theorem of Space Curves states that two differential invariants of a curve, namely curvature and torsion, determine its geometry, or equivalently, the isometry class of the curve up to rigid motions in the Euclidean three-dimensional space. Consider a physical model of a space curve made from a sufficiently thin, yet visible rigid wire, and the problem of perceptual identification (by a human observer or a robot) of two given physical model curves. In a previous paper (perceptual geometry) we have emphasized a learning theoretic approach to construct a perceptual geometry of the surfaces in the environment. In particular, we have described a computational method for mathematical representation of objects in the perceptual geometry inspired by the ecological theory of Gibson, and adhering to the principles of Gestalt in perceptual organization of vision. In this paper, we continue our learning theoretic treatment of perceptual geometry of objects, focusing on the case of physical models of space curves. In particular, we address the question of perceptually distinguishing two possibly novel space curves based on observer's prior visual experience of physical models of curves in the environment. The Fundamental Theorem of Space Curves inspires an analogous result in perceptual geometry as follows. We apply learning theory to the statistics of a sufficiently rich collection of physical models of curves, to derive two statistically independent local functions, that we call by analogy, the curvature and torsion. This pair of invariants distinguish physical models of curves in the sense of perceptual geometry. That is, in an appropriate resolution, an observer can distinguish two perceptually identical physical models in different locations. If these pairs of functions are approximately the same for two given space curves, then after possibly some changes of viewing planes, the observer confirms the two are the same.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limkumnerd, Surachate
2014-03-01
Interest in thin-film fabrication for industrial applications have driven both theoretical and computational aspects of modeling its growth. One of the earliest attempts toward understanding the morphological structure of a film's surface is through a class of solid-on-solid limited-mobility growth models such as the Family, Wolf-Villain, or Das Sarma-Tamborenea models, which have produced fascinating surface roughening behaviors. These models, however, restrict the motion of an incidence atom to be within the neighborhood of its landing site, which renders them inept for simulating long-distance surface diffusion such as that observed in thin-film growth using a molecular-beam epitaxy technique. Naive extension of these models by repeatedly applying the local diffusion rules for each hop to simulate large diffusion length can be computationally very costly when certain statistical aspects are demanded. We present a graph-theoretic approach to simulating a long-range diffusion-attachment growth model. Using the Markovian assumption and given a local diffusion bias, we derive the transition probabilities for a random walker to traverse from one lattice site to the others after a large, possibly infinite, number of steps. Only computation with linear-time complexity is required for the surface morphology calculation without other probabilistic measures. The formalism is applied, as illustrations, to simulate surface growth on a two-dimensional flat substrate and around a screw dislocation under the modified Wolf-Villain diffusion rule. A rectangular spiral ridge is observed in the latter case with a smooth front feature similar to that obtained from simulations using the well-known multiple registration technique. An algorithm for computing the inverse of a class of substochastic matrices is derived as a corollary.
2011-01-01
Background Since cut-out still remains one of the major clinical challenges in the field of osteoporotic proximal femur fractures, remarkable developments have been made in improving treatment concepts. However, the mechanics of these complications have not been fully understood. We hypothesize using the experimental data and a theoretical model that a previous rotation of the femoral head due to de-central implant positioning can initiate a cut-out. Methods In this investigation we analysed our experimental data using two common screws (DHS/Gamma 3) and helical blades (PFN A/TFN) for the fixation of femur fractures in a simple theoretical model applying typical gait pattern on de-central positioned implants. In previous tests during a forced implant rotation by a biomechanical testing machine in a human femoral head the two screws showed failure symptoms (2-6Nm) at the same magnitude as torques acting in the hip during daily activities with de-central implant positioning, while the helical blades showed a better stability (10-20Nm). To calculate the torque of the head around the implant only the force and the leverarm is needed (N [Nm] = F [N] * × [m]). The force F is a product of the mass M [kg] multiplied by the acceleration g [m/s2]. The leverarm is the distance between the center of the head of femur and the implant center on a horizontal line. Results Using 50% of 75 kg body weight a torque of 0.37Nm for the 1 mm decentralized position and 1.1Nm for the 3 mm decentralized position of the implant was calculated. At 250% BW, appropriate to a normal step, torques of 1.8Nm (1 mm) and 5.5Nm (3 mm) have been calculated. Comparing of the experimental and theoretical results shows that both screws fail in the same magnitude as torques occur in a more than 3 mm de-central positioned implant. Conclusion We conclude the center-center position in the head of femur of any kind of lag screw or blade is to be achieved to minimize rotation of the femoral head and to prevent
The BAARA (Biological AutomAted RAdiotracking) System: A New Approach in Ecological Field Studies
Řeřucha, Šimon; Bartonička, Tomáš; Jedlička, Petr; Čížek, Martin; Hlouša, Ondřej; Lučan, Radek; Horáček, Ivan
2015-01-01
Radiotracking is an important and often the only possible method to explore specific habits and the behaviour of animals, but it has proven to be very demanding and time-consuming, especially when frequent positioning of a large group is required. Our aim was to address this issue by making the process partially automated, to mitigate the demands and related costs. This paper presents a novel automated tracking system that consists of a network of automated tracking stations deployed within the target area. Each station reads the signals from telemetry transmitters, estimates the bearing and distance of the tagged animals and records their position. The station is capable of tracking a theoretically unlimited number of transmitters on different frequency channels with the period of 5–15 seconds per single channel. An ordinary transmitter that fits within the supported frequency band might be used with BAARA (Biological AutomAted RAdiotracking); an extra option is the use of a custom-programmable transmitter with configurable operational parameters, such as the precise frequency channel or the transmission parameters. This new approach to a tracking system was tested for its applicability in a series of field and laboratory tests. BAARA has been tested within fieldwork explorations of Rousettus aegyptiacus during field trips to Dakhla oasis in Egypt. The results illustrate the novel perspective which automated radiotracking opens for the study of spatial behaviour, particularly in addressing topics in the domain of population ecology. PMID:25714910
Abelian p-form (p = 1, 2, 3) gauge theories as the field theoretic models for the Hodge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, R.; Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R. P.
2014-09-01
Taking the simple examples of an Abelian 1-form gauge theory in two (1+1)-dimensions, a 2-form gauge theory in four (3+1)-dimensions and a 3-form gauge theory in six (5+1)-dimensions of space-time, we establish that such gauge theories respect, in addition to the gauge symmetry transformations that are generated by the first-class constraints of the theory, additional continuous symmetry transformations. We christen the latter symmetry transformations as the dual-gauge transformations. We generalize the above gauge and dual-gauge transformations to obtain the proper (anti-)BRST and (anti-)dual-BRST transformations for the Abelian 3-form gauge theory within the framework of BRST formalism. We concisely mention such symmetries for the 2D free Abelian 1-form and 4D free Abelian 2-form gauge theories and briefly discuss their topological aspects in our present endeavor. We conjecture that any arbitrary Abelian p-form gauge theory would respect the above cited additional symmetry in D = 2p(p = 1, 2, 3, …) dimensions of space-time. By exploiting the above inputs, we establish that the Abelian 3-form gauge theory, in six (5+1)-dimensions of space-time, is a perfect model for the Hodge theory whose discrete and continuous symmetry transformations provide the physical realizations of all aspects of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry. As far as the physical utility of the above nilpotent symmetries is concerned, we demonstrate that the 2D Abelian 1-form gauge theory is a perfect model of a new class of topological theory and 4D Abelian 2-form as well as 6D Abelian 3-form gauge theories are the field theoretic models for the quasi-topological field theory.
Peng, Wenbo; Yu, Ruomeng; He, Yongning; Wang, Zhong Lin
2016-04-26
Triboelectric nanogenerator has drawn considerable attentions as a potential candidate for harvesting mechanical energies in our daily life. By utilizing the triboelectric potential generated through the coupling of contact electrification and electrostatic induction, the "tribotronics" has been introduced to tune/control the charge carrier transport behavior of silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Here, we perform a theoretical study of the performances of tribotronic MOSFET gated by triboelectric potential in two working modes through finite element analysis. The drain-source current dependence on contact-electrification generated triboelectric charges, gap separation distance, and externally applied bias are investigated. The in-depth physical mechanism of the tribotronic MOSFET operations is thoroughly illustrated by calculating and analyzing the charge transfer process, voltage relationship to gap separation distance, and electric potential distribution. Moreover, a tribotronic MOSFET working concept is proposed, simulated and studied for performing self-powered FET and logic operations. This work provides a deep understanding of working mechanisms and design guidance of tribotronic MOSFET for potential applications in micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), human-machine interface, flexible electronics, and self-powered active sensors.
Peng, Wenbo; Yu, Ruomeng; He, Yongning; Wang, Zhong Lin
2016-04-26
Triboelectric nanogenerator has drawn considerable attentions as a potential candidate for harvesting mechanical energies in our daily life. By utilizing the triboelectric potential generated through the coupling of contact electrification and electrostatic induction, the "tribotronics" has been introduced to tune/control the charge carrier transport behavior of silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Here, we perform a theoretical study of the performances of tribotronic MOSFET gated by triboelectric potential in two working modes through finite element analysis. The drain-source current dependence on contact-electrification generated triboelectric charges, gap separation distance, and externally applied bias are investigated. The in-depth physical mechanism of the tribotronic MOSFET operations is thoroughly illustrated by calculating and analyzing the charge transfer process, voltage relationship to gap separation distance, and electric potential distribution. Moreover, a tribotronic MOSFET working concept is proposed, simulated and studied for performing self-powered FET and logic operations. This work provides a deep understanding of working mechanisms and design guidance of tribotronic MOSFET for potential applications in micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), human-machine interface, flexible electronics, and self-powered active sensors. PMID:27077327
Zheng, Yu; Gao, Yang; Chen, Ruijuan; Wang, Huiquan; Dong, Lei; Dou, Junrong
2016-10-01
Time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMF) can induce some physiological effects in neuronal tissues, which have been explored in many applications such as transcranial magnetic stimulation. Although transmembrane potentials and induced currents have already been the subjects of many theoretical studies, most previous works about this topic are mainly completed by utilizing Maxwell's equations, often by solving a Laplace equation. In previous studies, cells were often considered to be three-compartment models with different electroconductivities in different regions (three compartments are often intracellular regions, membrane, and extracellular regions). However, models like that did not take dynamic ion channels into consideration. Therefore, one cannot obtain concrete ionic current changes such as potassium current change or sodium current change by these models. The aim of the present work is to present a new and more detailed model for calculating transmembrane potentials and ionic currents induced by time-varying EMF. Equations used in the present paper originate from Nernst-Plank equations, which are ionic current-related equations. The main work is to calculate ionic current changes induced by EMF exposure, and then transmembrane potential changes are calculated with Hodgkin-Huxley model. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:481-492, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27438778
Yao, Hongbin; Zhao, Guangjiu
2014-10-01
The competitive mechanism between dissociation and ionization of hydrogen molecular ion in intense field has been theoretically investigated by using an accurate non-Born-Oppenheimer method. The relative yield of fragments indicates that the dissociation and ionization channels are competitive with the increasing laser intensity from 5.0 × 10(13) to 2.0 × 10(14) W/cm(2). In the case of intensity lower than 1.0 × 10(14) W/cm(2), the dissociation channel is dominant, with a minor contribution from ionization. The mechanism of dissociation includes the contributions from the bond softening, bond hardening, below-threshold dissociation, and above-threshold dissociation, which are strongly dependent on the laser intensity and initial vibrational state. Furthermore, the ionization dominates over the dissociation channel at the highest intensity of 2.0 × 10(14) W/cm(2). The reasonable origin of ionization is ascribed as the above-threshold Coulomb explosion, which has been demonstrated by the space-time dependent ionization rate. Moreover, the competition mechanism between dissociation and ionization channels are displayed on the total kinetic energy resolved (KER) spectra, which could be tested at current experimental conditions.
Ronald Fowler
2004-11-30
This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir
A Field Course Based on the Community Energy Flow Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Townsend, Colin; Phillipson, John
1977-01-01
The concept of community energy flow provides a basis for a field course. This paper describes the methodology used in a field course for estimating parameters and for monitoring physical environmental variables. The paper culminates in the construction of a model of energy flow through the community. (Author/MA)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everhart, Joel Lee
1988-01-01
A theoretical examination of the slotted-wall flow field is conducted to determine the appropriate wall pressure drop (or boundary condition) equation. This analysis improves the understanding of the fluid physics of these types of flow fields and helps in evaluating the uncertainties and limitations existing in previous mathematical developments. It is shown that the resulting slotted-wall boundary condition contains contributions from the airfoil-induced streamline curvature and the non-linear, quadratic, slot crossflow in addition to an often neglected linear term which results from viscous shearing in the slot. Existing and newly acquired experimental data are examined in the light of this formulation and theoretical developments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocifaj, Miroslav
2016-09-01
The study of diffuse light of a night sky is undergoing a renaissance due to the development of inexpensive high performance computers which can significantly reduce the time needed for accurate numerical simulations. Apart from targeted field campaigns, numerical modeling appears to be one of the most attractive and powerful approaches for predicting the diffuse light of a night sky. However, computer-aided simulation of night-sky radiances over any territory and under arbitrary conditions is a complex problem that is difficult to solve. This study addresses three concepts for modeling the artificial light propagation through a turbid stratified atmosphere. Specifically, these are two-stream approximation, iterative approach to Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) and Method of Successive Orders of Scattering (MSOS). The principles of the methods, their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed with respect to their implications for night-light modeling in different environments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sinko, P. J.; Leesman, G. D.; Amidon, G. L.
1993-01-01
A theoretical analysis for estimating the extent of intestinal peptide and peptide analogue absorption was developed on the basis of a mass balance approach that incorporates convection, permeability, and reaction. The macroscopic mass balance analysis (MMBA) was extended to include chemical and enzymatic degradation. A microscopic mass balance analysis, a numerical approach, was also developed and the results compared to the MMBA. The mass balance equations for the fraction of a drug absorbed and reacted in the tube were derived from the general steady state mass balance in a tube: [formula: see text] where M is mass, z is the length of the tube, R is the tube radius, Pw is the intestinal wall permeability, kr is the reaction rate constant, C is the concentration of drug in the volume element over which the mass balance is taken, VL is the volume of the tube, and vz is the axial velocity of drug. The theory was first applied to the oral absorption of two tripeptide analogues, cefaclor (CCL) and cefatrizine (CZN), which degrade and dimerize in the intestine. Simulations using the mass balance equations, the experimental absorption parameters, and the literature stability rate constants yielded a mean estimated extent of CCL (250-mg dose) and CZN (1000-mg dose) absorption of 89 and 51%, respectively, which was similar to the mean extent of absorption reported in humans (90 and 50%). It was proposed previously that 15% of the CCL dose spontaneously degraded systematically; however, our simulations suggest that significant CCL degradation occurs (8 to 17%) presystemically in the intestinal lumen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Karabulut, Sedat; Namli, Hilmi; Leszczynski, Jerzy
2013-08-01
Molecular structures of stable tautomers of dimedone [5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione and 3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enone] were optimized and vibrational frequencies were calculated in five different organic solvents (dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, acetonitrile, dichloromethane and chloroform). Geometry optimizations and harmonic vibrational frequency calculations were performed at DFT 6-31+G(d,p), DFT 6-311++G(2d,2p), MP2 6-311++G (2d,2p) and MP2 aug-cc-pVDZ levels for both stable forms of dimedone. Experimental FT-IR spectra of dimedone have also been recorded in the same solvents. A new approach was developed in order to determine tautomers' ratio using both experimental and theoretical data in Lambert-Beer equation. Obtained results were compared with experimental results published in literature. It has been concluded that while DFT 6-31+G(d,p) method provides accurate enol ratio in DMSO, MeOH, and DCM, in order to obtain accurate results for the other solvents the MP2 aug-cc-pVDZ level calculations should be used for CH₃CN and CHCl₃ solutions. PMID:23922034
Painter, K J; Hunt, G S; Wells, K L; Johansson, J A; Headon, D J
2012-08-01
In his seminal 1952 paper, 'The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis', Alan Turing lays down a milestone in the application of theoretical approaches to understand complex biological processes. His deceptively simple demonstration that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals could, under certain conditions, generate spatial patterning out of homogeneity provided an elegant solution to the problem of how one of nature's most intricate events occurs: the emergence of structure and form in the developing embryo. The molecular revolution that has taken place during the six decades following this landmark publication has now placed this generation of theoreticians and biologists in an excellent position to rigorously test the theory and, encouragingly, a number of systems have emerged that appear to conform to some of Turing's fundamental ideas. In this paper, we describe the history and more recent integration between experiment and theory in one of the key models for understanding pattern formation: the emergence of feathers and hair in the skins of birds and mammals.
Painter, K J; Hunt, G S; Wells, K L; Johansson, J A; Headon, D J
2012-08-01
In his seminal 1952 paper, 'The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis', Alan Turing lays down a milestone in the application of theoretical approaches to understand complex biological processes. His deceptively simple demonstration that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals could, under certain conditions, generate spatial patterning out of homogeneity provided an elegant solution to the problem of how one of nature's most intricate events occurs: the emergence of structure and form in the developing embryo. The molecular revolution that has taken place during the six decades following this landmark publication has now placed this generation of theoreticians and biologists in an excellent position to rigorously test the theory and, encouragingly, a number of systems have emerged that appear to conform to some of Turing's fundamental ideas. In this paper, we describe the history and more recent integration between experiment and theory in one of the key models for understanding pattern formation: the emergence of feathers and hair in the skins of birds and mammals. PMID:23919127
Painter, K. J.; Hunt, G. S.; Wells, K. L.; Johansson, J. A.; Headon, D. J.
2012-01-01
In his seminal 1952 paper, ‘The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis’, Alan Turing lays down a milestone in the application of theoretical approaches to understand complex biological processes. His deceptively simple demonstration that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals could, under certain conditions, generate spatial patterning out of homogeneity provided an elegant solution to the problem of how one of nature's most intricate events occurs: the emergence of structure and form in the developing embryo. The molecular revolution that has taken place during the six decades following this landmark publication has now placed this generation of theoreticians and biologists in an excellent position to rigorously test the theory and, encouragingly, a number of systems have emerged that appear to conform to some of Turing's fundamental ideas. In this paper, we describe the history and more recent integration between experiment and theory in one of the key models for understanding pattern formation: the emergence of feathers and hair in the skins of birds and mammals. PMID:23919127
Nonrelativistic approach for cosmological scalar field dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ureña-López, L. Arturo
2014-07-01
We derive nonrelativistic equations of motion for the formation of cosmological structure in a scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model corresponding to a complex scalar field endowed with a quadratic scalar potential. Starting with the equations of motion written in the Newtonian gauge of scalar perturbations, we separate out the involved fields into relativistic and nonrelativistic parts and find the equations of motion for the latter that can be used to build up the full solution. One important assumption will be that the SFDM field is in the regime of fast oscillations, under which its behavior in the homogeneous regime is exactly that of cold dark matter. The resultant equations are quite similar to the Schrödinger-Poisson system of Newtonian boson stars plus relativistic leftovers, and they can be used to study the formation of cosmological structure in SFDM models, and others alike, to ultimately prove their viability as complete dark matter models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bebout, Leslie; Keller, R.; Miller, S.; Jahnke, L.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Ames Exobiology Culture Collection Database (AECC-DB) has been developed as a collaboration between microbial ecologists and information technology specialists. It allows for extensive web-based archiving of information regarding field samples to document microbial co-habitation of specific ecosystem micro-environments. Documentation and archiving continues as pure cultures are isolated, metabolic properties determined, and DNA extracted and sequenced. In this way metabolic properties and molecular sequences are clearly linked back to specific isolates and the location of those microbes in the ecosystem of origin. Use of this database system presents a significant advancement over traditional bookkeeping wherein there is generally little or no information regarding the environments from which microorganisms were isolated. Generally there is only a general ecosystem designation (i.e., hot-spring). However within each of these there are a myriad of microenvironments with very different properties and determining exactly where (which microenvironment) a given microbe comes from is critical in designing appropriate isolation media and interpreting physiological properties. We are currently using the database to aid in the isolation of a large number of cyanobacterial species and will present results by PI's and students demonstrating the utility of this new approach.
A Riccati equation based approach to isotropic scalar field cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.
2014-05-01
Gravitationally coupled scalar fields ϕ, distinguished by the choice of an effective self-interaction potential V(ϕ), simulating a temporarily nonvanishing cosmological term, can generate both inflation and late time acceleration. In scalar field cosmological models the evolution of the Hubble function is determined, in terms of the interaction potential, by a Riccati type equation. In the present work, we investigate scalar field cosmological models that can be obtained as solutions of the Riccati evolution equation for the Hubble function. Four exact integrability cases of the field equations are presented, representing classes of general solutions of the Riccati evolution equation. The solutions correspond to cosmological models in which the Hubble function is proportional to the scalar field potential plus a linearly decreasing function of time, models with the time variation of the scalar field potential proportional to the potential minus its square, models in which the potential is the sum of an arbitrary function and the square of the function integral, and models in which the potential is the sum of an arbitrary function and the derivative of its square root, respectively. The cosmological properties of all models are investigated in detail, and it is shown that they can describe the inflationary or the late accelerating phase in the evolution of the universe.
Marc Vanderhaeghen
2007-04-01
The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.
Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Quartarone, Giuseppe; Ronchin, Lucio; Tortato, Claudio; Vavasori, Andrea
2013-08-01
Indole and its derivatives are molecules which play important roles in different fields, from biology to pharmacology. Here we report a thorough investigation on the anharmonic force fields of indole as well as the ab initio determinations of its gas phase basicity and aqueous pK(a) value. For the geometry optimizations, the calculations have been performed using both density functional (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of theory employing different basis sets. Anharmonic force fields have been obtained employing both the B3LYP and the B97-1 functionals and an hybrid approach: the best agreement to the experimental data has been determined employing the B3LYP functional combined with the recently developed N07D basis set (mean unsigned error, MUE, of 5.1 cm(-1) and a root-mean-square error, RMSE, of 7.2 cm(-1)). Gas phase basicity and proton affinity have been computed employing several computational schemes, namely the G3 and G4 Gaussian models, the complete basis set (CBS) extrapolation methods of Petersson and co-workers, several DFT calculations, and different hybrid extrapolation schemes based on combining single-point energy calculations performed at MP2 as well as at coupled cluster level of theory with single, double and perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T). Regarding the aqueous pK(a) computations, two implicit solvation models (SMD and SM8) have been employed to determine the free energy of solvation and the corresponding pKa value.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tweeikat, Mashhour Mohammad; AL-Kaddah, Muhammad Ibrahim
2014-01-01
This paper aims at studying to what extent the female students in Child Education department at Princess Alia University College manage to apply the theoretical part in field training program. The data, which is the scope of this study, consists of 42 staff members and 36 educational supervisors responsible for the program. The two researchers…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyun, Y.; Ahn, Y.
2012-12-01
A wavelet-based scaling approach has recently been used to characterize and/or upscale hydro-geologic variables with given Hurst coefficient, characteristic length scale, and orientation. A wavelet-based approach requires specifying a mother wavelet for wavelet analysis. We perform the sensitivity analysis of wavelet transforms to several types of mother wavelets in characterizing and scaling two-dimensional random fractal fields which are theoretically generated for various Hurst coefficient, characteristic lengths, and orientations. We use haar, Daubechies, Symlets, and Coiflets wavelets and compare the results. The numerical studies are carried out using Matlab wavelet toolbox. Results show that the Daubechies wavelet is most suitable for scaling random fractal fields with among various wavelets. In characterization of heterogeneous fields on a multiresolution, characteristic lengths inferred from simulated fields vary with mother wavelets. This study suggests that one should be careful in choosing a mother wavelet function for scaling studies by means of wavelet-based analyses for reliable results and no reliable results are expected for characterizing fractal fields on a multiresolution with various mother wavelets.