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Sample records for field west texas

  1. Reservoir characterization of a Permian Giant: Yates Field, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, S.W.; Mruk, D.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Yates Field reservoir characterization project provided the geologic framework, data, and tools that support the ongoing reservoir management of Yates Field. Geologic and engineering data from 1800 wells with digital log data, 23,000 feet of quantified core analysis and description, and six decades of production data, were integrated, analyzed, and displayed in a format which could be used for field evaluation, management, and simulation. The Yates Field reservoir characterization products include: quantified, standardized, digital core descriptions for 118 cores in the field; 2-D digital cross section through every well in the field; 2-D structure and isochore maps for major and internal marker horizons, net and gross reservoir maps, net and gross shale maps, secondary calcite distribution maps, cave distribution maps, and fracture distribution maps; a 6.8 million cell 3-D geologic model of the complete reservoir that includes log, core, and production data. The reservoir characterization project resulted in a quantified description of the heterogeneous matrix and fracture network in Yates Field. It is the efficient, ongoing management of this classic dual-porosity system that has stabilized production from this sixty-eight year old, 4.2 billion barrel field.

  2. Time Lapse Gravity and Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the West Hastings Field, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. F.; Richards, T.; Klopping, F.; MacQueen, J.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Time lapse or 4D gravity and seismic reflection surveys are being conducted at the West Hastings Field near Houston, Texas to monitor the progress of CO2 injection. This Department of Energy supported CO2 sequestration experiment is conducted in conjunction with a Denbury Onshore, LLC tertiary recovery project. The reservoir is at a depth of 1.8 km in the Oligocene Frio sands and has been produced since the 1930s. Goals are an accounting and mapping of the injected CO2 and to determine if migration occurs along intra-reservoir faults. An integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys will be made together with well logs and engineering data. Gravity monitoring of water versus gas replacement has been very successful, but liquid phase CO2 monitoring is problematic due to the smaller density contrast with respect to oil and water. This reservoir has a small volume to depth ratio and hence only a small gravity difference signal is expected on the surface. New borehole gravity technology introduced by Micro-g-Lacoste can make gravity measurements at near reservoir depths with a much higher signal to noise ratio. This method has been successfully evaluated on a simulation of the Hastings project. Field operations have been conducted for repeated surface and borehole gravity surveys beginning in 2013. The surface survey of 95 stations covers an area of 3 by 5 km and 22 borehole gravity logs are run in the interval above the Frio formation. 4D seismic reflection surveys are being made at 6 month intervals on the surface and in 3 VSP wells. CO2 injection into the targeted portion of the reservoir only began in early 2015 and monitoring will continue into 2017. To date only the baseline reservoir conditions have been assessed. The overall success of the gravity monitoring will not be determined until 2017.

  3. Quaternary faults of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-04-01

    North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the basin margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in West Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the Basin and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt Basins/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.

  4. Locating earthquakes in west Texas oil fields using 3-D anisotropic velocity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Fa; Doser, D.; Baker, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Earthquakes within the War-Wink gas field, Ward County, Texas, that have been located with a 1-D velocity model occur near the edges and top of a naturally occurring overpressured zone. Because the War-Wink field is a structurally controlled anticline with significant velocity anisotropy associated with the overpressured zone and finely layered evaporites, the authors have attempted to re-locate earthquakes using a 3-D anisotropic velocity model. Preliminary results with this model give the unsatisfactory result that many earthquakes previously located at the top of the overpressured zone (3-3.5 km) moved into the evaporites (1-1.5 km) above the field. They believe that this result could be caused by: (1) aliasing the velocity model; or (2) problems in determining the correct location minima when several minima exist. They are currently attempting to determine which of these causes is more likely for the unsatisfactory result observed.

  5. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  6. Guadalupian studies in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, R.E.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Rohr, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Murchison established the Permian System in the Ural Mountains of Russia in 1841. The first North American Permian fossils were discovered by Hall (1856) about 15 years later. The fossils, which were collected in New York State, were initially described as Carboniferous (Hall, 1856) but were subsequently recognized as Permian by Girty (1902). Benjamin F. Shumard (1858), however, was the first to place an unequivocal Permian designation on some North American fossils, which has been collected by his brother George G. Shumard from the Guadalupe Mountains in Texas. A half a century passed before Girty (1908) made known an extensive Guadalupian fauna, although his field work in Texas and his study of this fauna already lead him to propose a Guadalupian "period" (Girty, 1902). Girty's suggestion was accepted only when it was formalized as the Guadalupe Series by Adams et al. (1939). The "Guadalupian fauna" was based upon fossils that Girty collected in 1901 on an expedition headed by Robert T. Hill, a revered figure in Texas geology.

  7. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P.; Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.

    1998-12-31

    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  8. Spatial prediction of caves in San Andres Dolomite, Yates field, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Nosal, E.A.; Carlson, J.L.; Craig, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Persistent speculations that caves played a key role in the high flow rates of many early wells in the Yates field (203 wells potentialed for more than 10,000 BOPD each, 26 wells for more than 80,000 BOPD each) has raised questions of why the caves exist, how many there are, and how to incorporate them into reservoir management practice. This paper describes the use of probability theory to answer these questions. Among the geologic factors that contributed to the remarkable early productivity of Yates are zones of karst in the upper San Andres Dolomite, the principle reservoir unit. Hundreds of infill wells drilled after unitization of the field in 1976 have provided ample data on cave numbers and patterns. These data indicate that karstification was produced by dynamic lenses of fresh water beneath a cluster of islands formed when lowering of Late Permian sea level exposed San Andres limestone to rainfall and dissolution. The seemingly random occurrences of caves can be fitted into a geologic framework of systematic karst processes to produce mappable petrophysical parameters. The most important of these predicts, in probabilistic terms, where the caves are located. The contribution of cave porosity to total reservoir porosity can also be estimated. This cave component of porosity can be displayed as a petrophysical log and manipulated in the same way as matrix porosity.

  9. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  10. Polyphase deformation in Marathon basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, D.; Morris, A.

    1989-03-01

    Marathon basin, Texas, is the westernmost window into the Ouachita orogene. Interpreted as a result of northwest-southeast compression, intermittent orogenic pulses began in the Mississippian and continued into the Early Permian (Wolfcampian). However, the northeastern portion of the basin contains structures that could not have resulted from a single compression orientation and indicate that deformation continued to affect Wolfcampian and Leonardian rocks. Their work confirms the protracted nature of upper Paleozoic deformation and indicates that late- and postorogenic events were not related to the northwest-southeast compression manifest throughout the Marathon basin. The northeastern part of the basin exposes Morrowan( )-Desmoinesian rocks. The authors recognize a duplex thrust system, traceable for 10 km, rooted in the uppermost Morrowan( ) Tesnus Formation and creating a double thickness of (Morrowan-Atokan) Dimple Limestone. The duplex is folded by 50 to 2000-m half-wavelength northwestverging folds which plunge gently southwestward. Dimple thickness is further increased by a large number of contraction faults, each with up to 2 m of stratigraphic throw. Superimposed upon these structures are southeast-plunging, 10-20-m half-wavelength open kinks with vergence sympathetic with the regional trend variation apparent in this part of the basin. The superimposed structures are the result of a northeast-southwest compressive event. North of the Ouachita exposure, rocks containing lower Leonardian fusulinids are deformed into gentle east-west-trending 500-m half-wavelength folds which are likely the result of another distinct compression orientation trending north-south. Pervasive east-west extension in all Pennsylvania-age rocks is indicated by subvertical, calcite-filled veins.

  11. Latest Guadalupian (Middle Permian) conodonts and foraminifers from West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, L.L.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Nestell, M.K.; Nestell, G.P.

    2002-01-01

    Clarkina, which characterizes Upper Permian (Lopingian Series) strata, evolved from Jinogondolella altudaensis in the Delaware basin of West Texas as demonstrated by transitional continuity. The West Texas section is significantly more complete in the uppermost Guadalupian interval than that of the probable GSSP reference section in South China, and clarifies the phylogenetic relationships among other conodont taxa as well. Jinogondolella granti clearly evolved into J. artafrons new species, both characterized by Pa elements with a distinctive fused carina. Representatives of Jinogondolella crofti are limited to the uppermost part of the altudaensis zone, and are interpreted as terminal paedomorphs. The associated foraminifer (non-fusulinid) fauna has some species in common with Zechstein faunas, possibly presaging the evaporitic basin that would develop following this latest Guadalupian marine deposition in West Texas.

  12. Paleomagnetic evidence of Tertiary tectonic rotation in west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, W.W.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C.A. ); Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. )

    1992-10-01

    Paleomagnetic samples obtained from Rawls Formation (26.9-28.3 Ma) lava flows of Bofecillos volcano in west Texas give a paleomagnetic pole at lat 76.5[degree]N, long 348.0[degree]E ([alpha][sub 95] = 9.4[degree]; N = 20). This pole is displaced significantly from North American reference poles of similar age, implying a clockwise rotation of 21.3[degree] [plus minus] 8.8[degree]. It is also consistent with other paleomagnetic data from west Texas. The authors argue that the discordance is a result of vertical-axis crustal rotation in west Texas caused by shear deformation that was probably related to Basin and Range tectonics.

  13. West Texas array experiment: Noise and source characterization of short-range infrasound and acoustic signals, along with lab and field evaluation of Intermountain Laboratories infrasound microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Aileen

    The term infrasound describes atmospheric sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz, while acoustics are classified within the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasound and acoustic monitoring in the scientific community is hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and a limited number of studies on regional and short-range noise and source characterization. The JASON Report (2005) suggests the infrasound community focus on more broad-frequency, observational studies within a tactical distance of 10 km. In keeping with that recommendation, this paper presents a study of regional and short-range atmospheric acoustic and infrasonic noise characterization, at a desert site in West Texas, covering a broad frequency range of 0.2 to 100 Hz. To spatially sample the band, a large number of infrasound gauges was needed. A laboratory instrument analysis is presented of the set of low-cost infrasound sensors used in this study, manufactured by Inter-Mountain Laboratories (IML). Analysis includes spectra, transfer functions and coherences to assess the stability and range of the gauges, and complements additional instrument testing by Sandia National Laboratories. The IMLs documented here have been found reliably coherent from 0.1 to 7 Hz without instrument correction. Corrections were built using corresponding time series from the commercially available and more expensive Chaparral infrasound gauge, so that the corrected IML outputs were able to closely mimic the Chaparral output. Arrays of gauges are needed for atmospheric sound signal processing. Our West Texas experiment consisted of a 1.5 km aperture, 23-gauge infrasound/acoustic array of IMLs, with a compact, 12 m diameter grid-array of rented IMLs at the center. To optimize signal recording, signal-to-noise ratio needs to be quantified with respect to both frequency band and coherence length. The higher-frequency grid array consisted of 25 microphones arranged in a five by five pattern with 3 meter spacing, without

  14. Opinions of West Texas pharmacists about emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Sutkin, Gary; Grant, Brenda; Irons, Brian K; Borders, Tyrone F

    2006-10-01

    The pharmacist's role in dispensing emergency contraception (EC) has become controversial due to the intersection of personal and professional ethics. Therefore, to examine the issue of EC availability, we surveyed a sample of West Texas pharmacists. West Texas is a religiously and politically conservative region where no methods of EC have been made available. to survey a sample of pharmacists in West Texas about their experience, beliefs, and knowledge of EC both before and after a presentation of the current literature about EC. We asked a convenience sample of 75 pharmacists about their experience, beliefs, and knowledge of EC both before and after a presentation of the current literature about EC. Sixty-four (85%) pharmacists agreed to complete the study questionnaire. None carries EC in his/her pharmacy, and scientific understanding of EC was generally poor. Fourteen percent stated EC conflicts with their religious views, 17% considered it a method of abortion, 11% would not be willing to fill an EC prescription written by a doctor. 58% would be willing to offer EC over the counter. The presentation encouraged more to offer it over the counter, but in general did not significantly change their beliefs. Our sample of West Texas pharmacists demonstrated very little experience with, a general lack of knowledge about, and some personal and religious objections to EC.

  15. Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...

  16. West Nile virus infection in killer whale, Texas, USA, 2007.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy; Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans.

  17. West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans. PMID:21801643

  18. Enterobacteriaceae isolated from iguanid lizards of west-central Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, J J

    1979-01-01

    The prevalence of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the intestines of seven species of iguanid lizards native to west-central Texas was determined. Of the 67 lizard specimens examined, 48.7% were infected with Salmonella and 9% were infected with Salmonella arizonae. Two lizard species (Sceloporus olivaceus and Crotaphytus collaris) were shown to have a 100% prevalence of Salmonella. PMID:533273

  19. Two-dimensional resistivity investigation along West Fork Trinity River, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Stanton, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitutes a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and manufacturing processes. Ground water flows from west to east toward the West Fork Trinity River. During October 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity investigation at a site along the West Fork Trinity River at the eastern boundary of NAS-JRB to characterize the distribution of subsurface resistivity. Five 2D resistivity profiles were collected, which ranged from 500 to 750 feet long and extended to a depth of 25 feet. The Goodland Limestone and the underlying Walnut Formation form a confining unit that underlies the alluvial aquifer. The top of this confining unit is the top of bedrock at NAS-JRB. The bedrock confining unit is the zone of interest because of the potential for contaminated ground water to enter the West Fork Trinity River through saturated bedrock. The study involved a capacitively-coupled resistivity survey and inverse modeling to obtain true or actual resistivity from apparent resistivity. The apparent resistivity was processed using an inverse modeling software program. The results of this program were used to generate distributions (images) of actual resistivity referred to as inverted sections or profiles. The images along the five profiles show a wide range of resistivity values. The two profiles nearest the West Fork Trinity River generally showed less resistivity than the three other profiles.

  20. West Nile virus infection among humans, Texas, USA, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Melissa S; Schuermann, Jim; Murray, Kristy O

    2013-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiologic analysis to document West Nile virus infections among humans in Texas, USA, during 2002-2011. West Nile virus has become endemic to Texas; the number of reported cases increased every 3 years. Risk for infection was greatest in rural northwestern Texas, where Culex tarsalis mosquitoes are the predominant mosquito species.

  1. Crustal deformation and seismic measurements in the region of McDonald Observatory, West Texas. [Texas and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The arrival times of regional and local earthquakes and located earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of Texas and in the adjacent areas of Chihuahua, Mexico from January 1976 to August 1980 at the UT'NASA seismic array are summarized. The August 1931 Texas earthquake is reevaluated and the seismicity and crustal structure of West Texas is examined. A table of seismic stations is included.

  2. The Friday night bunch: a lesbian community in West Texas.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jean Brashear

    2005-01-01

    Life in the rural United States, isolated and surrounded by fundamentalists, drives one farmwoman to affirm her lesbianism and fulfill her desires, while writing a dissertation about West Texas farmwomen, her friends and neighbors. By recognizing their anger and its causes, she must recognize her own and come to terms with it. In the midst of emotional turmoil about who she has been and who she might become, she accidentally gathers around her a small group of lesbians who are equally isolated, with similar radical ideas.

  3. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Evan J; Mariscal, Jacqueline; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, Margaret; Waldrup, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States.

  4. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, Evan J; Mariscal, Jacqueline; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, Margaret; Waldrup, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States. PMID:27759765

  5. Field evaluation of Bemisia parasitoids in Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two methods were employed to assess the potential of candidate parasitoid species/strains to parasitize B. tabaci under field conditions in Texas. Sleeve cage evaluations were conducted in kale, cantaloupe melons, and cotton in 1994–1995. In kale, the highest parasitism rates were observed for two s...

  6. Analysis of the Wellbore Seal at Well 49-6 in the SACROC CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Field, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, J. W.; Wigand, M.; Chipera, S.; Woldegabriel, G.; Pawar, R.; Lichtner, P. C.; Wehner, S.; Raines, M.; Guthrie, G. D.

    2005-12-01

    Long-term integrity of wellbore cements is one of the major concerns for geologic sequestration of CO2. This paper presents analyses of cement core recovered from a well used in a long-term CO2 enhanced oil recovery operation. A sidetrack system was used to obtain core from a 55 year-old well with 30 years of CO2 exposure as both an injector and a producer at the SACROC unit (Permian Basin, Texas). The mineralogy, chemistry, and hydrologic properties were evaluated for evidence of degradation by CO2. The recovered samples were located ~ 3 m above the contact with the reservoir. The recovered cement had permeabilities in the milliDarcy range and thus retained its capacity to prevent significant flow of CO2. There was evidence for CO2 migration along the casing-cement and cement-shale interfaces. The casing interface had a 1-2 mm thick rind of calcite-aragonite-halite. The CO2 producing this rind may have traveled up the casing wall or may have infiltrated through the casing threads. The cement in contact with the shale (within 1 cm) was heavily carbonated to an assemblage of calcite, aragonite, vaterite and amorphous alumino-silica residue and was transformed to a distinctive orange color. The heavily carbonated region is separated from less altered cement by a narrow, dense zone of silica and carbonate deposition. The CO2 for this carbonation process migrated from the cement-shale interface where the presence of shale fragments (wall cake) may have provided a fluid pathway. The carbonation reaction was associated with only small changes in the original cement chemistry including an increase in Na2O and decrease in CaO and MgO with a slight enrichment in SiO2. The carbonated zone also has a distinct carbon and oxygen stable isotope signature. Although the observed carbonation was intense, the measured hydrologic properties of the carbonated zone were not significantly different from those of relatively unaltered cement in adjacent parts of the core. Textural

  7. Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO), Lufkin, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherbee, James D.

    2005-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107; the complexity of such an event cannot be underestimated. The Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO) served as the primary DFO for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security. There were many organizations that had operational experience with disaster recovery. Offers to help came from many groups including the White House Liaison Office, the Department of Defense (DOD), branches of local, state and federal government, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state police, fire departments, the Texas Forestry Service, the Texas Army National Guard, medical groups, various rescue forces, contractor companies, the Salvation Army, local businesses, and citizens of our country and especially East Texas. The challenge was to know how much help to accept and how to efficiently incorporate their valuable assistance into a comprehensive and cohesive operational plan. There were more than 2,000 people involved with search and recovery.

  8. Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO), Lufkin, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherbee, James D.

    2005-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107; the complexity of such an event cannot be underestimated. The Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO) served as the primary DFO for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security. There were many organizations that had operational experience with disaster recovery. Offers to help came from many groups including the White House Liaison Office, the Department of Defense (DOD), branches of local, state and federal government, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state police, fire departments, the Texas Forestry Service, the Texas Army National Guard, medical groups, various rescue forces, contractor companies, the Salvation Army, local businesses, and citizens of our country and especially East Texas. The challenge was to know how much help to accept and how to efficiently incorporate their valuable assistance into a comprehensive and cohesive operational plan. There were more than 2,000 people involved with search and recovery.

  9. Evaluating airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains by far the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable band...

  10. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  11. Characterization of a West Nile Virus Isolate from a Human on the Gulf Coast of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Granwehr, Bruno P.; Li, Li; Davis, Charles T.; Beasley, David W. C.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic characterization of a human cerebrospinal fluid West Nile virus isolate from Beaumont, Texas, revealed several nucleotide changes and amino acid substitutions that differentiated it from all other North American strains isolated to date, suggesting that isolates from the Texas Gulf Coast may form a unique genetic group among North American strains. PMID:15528747

  12. Evolving dominant charge structures during upscale storm growth in West Texas on 4 June 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, V. C.; Bruning, E. C.; MacGorman, D. R.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Edens, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Deep Convective Cloud Chemistry (DC3) field campaign occurred from 15 May and 30 June 2012 with a primary goal of understanding the source of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the upper atmosphere due to lightning. In order to better understand this effect, it is necessary to better understand how the local environment can impact the polarity of the lightning in a storm. If polarity changes are driven by changes in electrification mechanisms, changes to the vertical distribution of the lightning channels and NOx source may result. One of the regions participating in DC3 extended from west Texas into central Oklahoma, where an arrangement of three Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMA) allowed for continuous analysis of electrification processes as storms moved across the region and through different local environments. On 4 June 2012 isolated storms initiated within range of the West Texas LMA and generated a mesoscale convective system, part of which dissipated over the West Texas LMA and Southwest Oklahoma LMA domains overnight. Initial storm cells developed within a relatively dry mid-level environment and were observed to contain a mid-level positive charge. However, later storm cells, both further east in deeper moisture and within areas that had previously been moistened by convection, were primarily observed to contain a mid-level negative charge. This presentation will detail the transition from initial discrete storm cells with mid-level positive charge regions and predominantly -IC flashes, to increased cellular coverage with a mixture of charge structures, to longer-lived multicellular clusters dominated by mid-level negative charge and +ICs at upper levels in the storm. These charge structures will be compared to proposed controls on storm electrification, including moisture variability in the mid-troposphere and its relationship to depletion of cloud liquid water.

  13. Nature of basalt-deep crust interaction in the petrogenesis of a potassium-rich, silicic-dominated eruptive system, Davis Mountain volcanic field, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Walker, J.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Davis Mountain volcanic field (DMVF) is one of several silicic-dominated eruptive centers that constitute the bulk of the Trans Pecos volcanic province (TPVP). New major-, trace element, and Pb-O isotope data on local granulite-facies xenoliths and the DMVF are used in evaluating the extent of basalt-deep crust interaction to produce voluminous silicic lavas and -ignimbrites. The DMVF (39.3--35.4 Ma) is a high-K, alkali basalt-potassic trachybasalt-shoshonite-latite-trachyte-rhyolite volcanoplutonic series with the evolved members being silica-saturated. DMF silicic rocks are characterized by high concentrations of Rb, Th, U, and K, low-[sup 18]O and have a broad range in Pb isotopes. These characteristics are inconsistent with an origin by partial melting of a Rb-Th-U depleted, unradiogenic Pb granulitic deep crust. However, distinctly different Pb isotope compositions between mafic and silicic rocks preclude an origin by fractional crystallization alone. Multistage-AFC involving a mantle-source, various proportions of OL-CPX-PLAG-KSPAR-MAG-AP-BIO-QTZ-aenigmatite-ZR differentiation, limited (<10%) amounts of deep and upper crustal contamination, and mixing between mafic and silicic magmas can satisfactorily account for the observed chemical and isotopic variation in the DMVF.

  14. Dead horse graben: A west Texas accommodation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maler, Michael O.

    1990-12-01

    The Cretaceous rocks of the Dead Horse graben area underwent two superposed deformations. Laramide (latest Cretaceous to early Tertiary) left-transpression structures are overprinted by a Basin and Range (Miocene to Recent) accommodation zone. During Laramide shortening, two northwest trending sets of monoclines developed: an en echelon set over a left-slip basement fault and a single monocline draped over the uplifted edge of a rotated basement block. Basin and Range extension caused northerly trending half-grabens that have opposing asymmetry: downthrown-to-the-east north of the study area and downthrown-to-the-west south of the area. These half-grabens are separated by an accommodation zone, expressed as a northwest trending, right-lateral pull-apart graben. The normal faults of the pull-apart graben flatten at a shallower depth than those of the half-grabens. This suggests not only that accommodation zones can be mechanically layered but that this layering can occur on a scale different from the adjacent half-grabens. The northwest trend and superposition of both sets of structures implies a tectonic control by the preexisting structural fabric of the Texas Lineament.

  15. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR Scan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by "scanning" the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  16. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  17. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  18. West Nile Virus Infection Incidence Based on Donated Blood Samples and Neuroinvasive Disease Reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shande; Sutor, Laurie J.; Stonecipher, Shelley; Janoski, Nicolette; Wright, David J.; Busch, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    During the 2012 outbreak of West Nile virus in the United States, approximately one third of the cases were in Texas. Of those, about half occurred in northern Texas. Models based on infected blood donors and persons with neuroinvasive disease showed, respectively, that ≈0.72% and 1.98% of persons in northern Texas became infected. PMID:25812045

  19. West Nile virus infection incidence based on donated blood samples and neuroinvasive disease reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Diana T; Chen, Shande; Sutor, Laurie J; Stonecipher, Shelley; Janoski, Nicolette; Wright, David J; Busch, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    During the 2012 outbreak of West Nile virus in the United States, approximately one third of the cases were in Texas. Of those, about half occurred in northern Texas. Models based on infected blood donors and persons with neuroinvasive disease showed, respectively, that ≈0.72% and 1.98% of persons in northern Texas became infected.

  20. Stratigraphy and correlation of Upper Triassic strata between west Texas and eastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G. ); Anderson, O.J. )

    1992-04-01

    Lithostratigraphy and vertebrate biochronology allow precise correlation of Upper Triassic strata between west Texas and eastern New Mexico. Upper Triassic strata are well exposed in west Texas from Oldham to Scurry counties, and are assigned to the Dockum Formation of the Chinle Group. Fossil vertebrates from the Camp Springs and Tecovas Members are of late Carnian age, whereas those from the Copper Member are of early Norian age. Upper Triassic strata in east-central New Mexico, across the Llano Estacado from the west Texas outcrops, correlate as follows: Camper Springs = lower Santa Rose; Tecovas = upper Santa Rosa/Garita Creek; Trujillo = Trujillo ('Cuervo'); Cooper = lower Bull Canyon. Upper Triassic strata in southeastern New Mexico and in Howard and adjacent counties in Texas are the lower Santa Rosa/Camper Springs overlain by mudstones and sandstones that contain late Carnian vertebrates and are informally termed upper member of Dockum Formation. Available data refute several long-held ideas about the Upper Triassic of west Texas. These data demonstrate that: (1) there is a pervasive unconformity at the base of the Dockum Formation that represents much of Triassic time; (2) the Trujillo Member is not correlative with the Santa Rosa of eastern New Mexico: Trujillo is a medial Dockum unit, whereas Santa Rosa is at the base of the Upper Triassic section; (3) very little Dockum mudrock was deposited in lakes; and (4) Dockum rivers flowed almost exclusively to the north, northwest, and west, so there was no closed depositional basin in west Texas during the Late Triassic.

  1. Reservoir geology and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Yates Formation, Central Basin Platform, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Casavant, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Computer slice maps and proprietary three-dimensional interactive graphics were used to reconstruct the paleodeposition and to map reservoir variations within the Yates Formation of west Texas. The prolific Yates Formation is a major reservoir in the North Ward Estes field, Ward County, Texas. The Upper Permian (Guadalupian) Yates Formation is an overall regressive shallowing-upward package containing variable sequences of subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal strata. Sediment types include various siliciclastics mixed with sabkha-type carbonates and evaporites. The types of rocks and their structures indicate that these sediments were deposited in a prograding tidal flat-lagoonal setting located behind a shelf margin edge on the western flank of the positive Central Basin platform during the Guadalupian. The cyclic nature of the Yates is largely the result of lagoonal expansion and construction that caused environmental belts on both sides of the lagoon to converge and diverge. These rapid migrations of facies coupled with diagenetic processes created the heterogeneities that characterize this large reservoir.

  2. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  3. Preliminary results of dust emission data from Yellow Lake Playa, West Texas, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the relationship between groundwater and dust emission rates at Yellow Lake, a saline “wet” playa in West Texas with a long history of wind erosion. Deflation of the playa surface has generated lunettes composed of silt-clay aggregates and gypsum. Saltation sensors indicate that most...

  4. Geomorphic and hydrologic controls of dust emissions during drought from Yellow Lake playa, West Texas, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research on the factors that control dust emissions from playas has revealed a number of complex geomorphic and hydrologic factors, yet there are few measurements of dust emissions from playas during drought or low-emission seasons. Deflation of Yellow Lake, a saline playa in West Texas, produces sa...

  5. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diana; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R.; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A.; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season. PMID:28726615

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE FROM EVALUATIONS OF GRADUATES IN WEST TEXAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EGGENBERGER, ULRICH LEWIS

    A STUDY OF THE 1953, 1954, AND 1955 WEST TEXAS HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES WHO HAD COMPLETED 1 OR MORE YEARS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) DETERMINE PRESENT OCCUPATIONAL STATUS, (2) DETERMINE FACTORS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE, (3) EVALUATE HIGH SCHOOL COURSES AND VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS AS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONS, AND (4)…

  7. 78 FR 25177 - Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United States shall be flown at... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... April 24, 2013 Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas By the President of the...

  8. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Diana; Murray, Kristy O; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.

  9. Karst-controlled reservoir heterogeneity in Ellenburger group carbonates of west Texas: Reply

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C. )

    1990-07-01

    A reply to a comment made on Kerans' paper (AAGP Bull. 1988) by S.J. Mazzullo is presented. The author takes exception that Mazzullo's contention that he left out important types of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Permian basin of west Texas and points out that his original intention was to model karst-controlled reservoir rocks only.

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE FROM EVALUATIONS OF GRADUATES IN WEST TEXAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EGGENBERGER, ULRICH LEWIS

    A STUDY OF THE 1953, 1954, AND 1955 WEST TEXAS HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES WHO HAD COMPLETED 1 OR MORE YEARS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) DETERMINE PRESENT OCCUPATIONAL STATUS, (2) DETERMINE FACTORS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE, (3) EVALUATE HIGH SCHOOL COURSES AND VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS AS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONS, AND (4)…

  11. Prevalence of Food Insecurity in Low-Income Neighborhoods in West Texas.

    PubMed

    Murimi, Mary W; Kanyi, Michael G; Mupfudze, Tatenda; Mbogori, Teresia N; Amin, Md Ruhul

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of food insecurity and the coping strategies and to investigate the role of safety nets among low-income households in urban and rural west Texas. The Core Food Security Module, an 18-item scale, was used in a cross-sectional purposeful convenience sample comparing rural and urban households, whereas the demographic survey assessed participation in food assistance/safety net programs. Rural and urban neighborhoods in west Texas. Sample size of 191 participants from low-income households, predominantly African American and Hispanic people. Levels of food insecurity and use of safety nets. Comparisons between rural and urban households and between food-secure and food-insecure households were analyzed using the chi-square test of independence for categorical variables. Fisher's exact test was used whenever the number in each cell was < 5 in 2 × 2 contingency tables. Prevalence of household and child food insecurity in west Texas was 63% and 43%, respectively. Forgoing balanced meals was a common coping strategy. There was high intake of affordable energy-intense foods. The high prevalence of food insecurity in low-income households in west Texas led to high intake of energy-intense food with low nutrients, resulting in higher prevalence of anemia, obesity, and other chronic diseases. There was low participation in safety net programs. Educational interventions on food choices are recommended. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Pterosaur from the latest cretaceous of west Texas: discovery of the largest flying creature.

    PubMed

    Lawson, D A

    1975-03-14

    Three partial skeletons of a large pterosaur have been found in the latest Cretaceous nonmarine rock of West Texas. This flying reptile had thin, elongate, perhaps toothless jaws and a long neck similar to Pterodaustro and Pterodactylus. With an estimated wingspan of 15.5 meters, it is undoutbtedly the largest flying creature presently known.

  13. Topographic stress perturbations in southern Davis Mountains, west Texas 2. Hydrogeologic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Savage, W.Z.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a regional groundwater investigation, geophysical logs were obtained in two municipal water wells located near the west Texas city of Alpine. These boreholes are 252 and 285 m deep and penetrate extrusive rocks of Tertiary age. The deeper well was drilled in the central valley and the other along the northern flank of an east-west trending valley-ridge setting. Analysis and interpretation of the logs reveal that the two wells are subjected to significantly different stress environments because of topographic effects and exhibit significantly different hydrogeologic properties. Water production is associated with two specific types of features common to both wells: (1) the upper and lower contacts of a dense trachyte unit located in the shallow part of the wells and (2) deeper zones of highly fractured rocks within the interior of a basalt formation. The transmissivity of the trachyte boundaries is twice as large in the central valley well as it is in the ridge flank well, whereas the transmissivity of the deeper basalts is an order of magnitude greater in the flank well than it is in the central well. This discrepancy is examined from the perspective of rock failure, fracture opening, and flow enhancement by computing values for a Drucker-Prager stability factor that is based on the magnitudes of the normal and deviatoric stress invariants as a function of depth. Thus the field measurements and subsequent stress analysis offer evidence of a coupled tectonic-hydrologic interaction at this site.

  14. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  15. Origin of reservoir compartmentalization in Lower Ordovician Karstic Dolostones, Ellenburger Group, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1988-01-01

    Ellenburger Group reservoirs constitute a major play in the Permian basin of west Texas, with over 1.4 billion bbl cumulative production through 1985. These reservoirs typically have been developed by assuming homogeneous fracture-related pore system. Examination of core, log, and production data demonstrates that most Ellenburger reservoirs are characterized by pronounced vertical and lateral heterogeneities created by post-Ellenburger karst development. Vertical reservoir compartmentalization in the Ellenburger evolved from development of a laterally extensive cave system between 100 and 300 ft beneath the original land surface. Caves were filled by relatively impermeable siliciclastics from the overlying Simpson Group, effectively isolating permeable cave-roof breccias (uppermost Ellenburger) from collapse breccias deposited on cave floors prior to shale infill. Lateral compartmentalization of Ellenburger reservoirs originated by localized collapse of the cave system both during karst formation and after burial. In the Shafter Lake field, lateral compartmentalization is the result of a 200-ft vertical collapse during deposition of Simpson Group sands. Abrupt lateral discontinuities in the Big Lake and Glasco fields may represent similar collapse-related features, such as are spectacularly displayed in Ellenburger-equivalent outcrops of the Franklin Mountains. An estimated 750 million bbl of remaining mobile oil, in addition to conventional reserves, occurs in this mature but complexly compartmentalized play. Considering this paleokarst model will aid in further exploitation of Ellenburger reservoirs.

  16. Currents and water characteristics around the West Flower Garden Bank. [West Flower Garden Bank, coral reef, Texas continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The West Flower Garden Bank is a coral reef on the Texas Continental shelf. The corals on the bank are vulnerable to sediment contamination and to excess turbidity in the overlying water column. Concern for the environmental impact on this and other banks in the region exposed to nearby hydrocarbon production prompted the Bureau of Land Management to fund a data collection effort on the Texas/Louisiana shelf which provided the data analyzed here. Data analyzed includes profiles of velocity, temperature and salinity taken around the Bank in Oct., 1980 and March, 1981. Fixed current meter moorings and a dye experiment conducted in the bottom boundary layer provided additional input. The data reveals a very complicated flow regime around the bank, with some intensification of flow around and over the bank but no movement of water from the bottom of the surrounding shelf up onto the bank.

  17. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list as endangered and propose critical habitat for six west Texas aquatic invertebrate species under the Endangered Species Act. These actions are being taken as the result of a court-approved settlement agreement. These are proposed regulations, and if finalized the effect of these regulations will be to conserve the species and protect......

  18. Geochemical constraints on magma processes in a peralkaline system - The Paisano volcano, west Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonough, W. F.; Nelson, D. O.

    1984-01-01

    Petrographic and trace element data from a continuous stratigraphic sequence of flows from the peralkaline Paisano Volcano in west Texas are used to delineate magnetic processes responsible for the chemical evolution of this volcano. It is shown that crystal fractionation of the phenocrystic assemblage explains the main compositional variation, but magma mixing of a less evolved melt composition also affected the chemical evolution of the volcano.

  19. Recognition and significance of parasequences and parasequence sets in Leonard carbonate reservoirs, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from reservoirs of Leonardian age is sizable (cumulative production from the Leonardian on the Central Basin Platform (CBP) alone totals 1.4 billion bbls), recovery efficiencies from these restricted, shallow-water platform carbonate deposits are among the lowest in west Texas, averaging only about 19%. Detailed examination of the Leonard section in the Dollarhide and Monahans fields on the CBP indicates that poor recovery from these reservoirs is a function of extreme vertical heterogeneity produced by high-order oscillations of relative sea level. The Leonard sequence is composed of thin (1- to 2-m thick), upward-shallowing parasequences, each of which is marked at its base by a prominent marine flooding surface. Parasequences are, in turn, packaged into 15- to 20-m parasequence set defined by variations in parasequence facies stacking patterns. Reservoir porosity is typically preferentially developed in very thin (less than 1 m) zones of grain-rich subtidal facies within parasequences, although porosity may also be encountered in capping tidal-flat deposits. Because these facies display distinct pore and permeability characteristics, with subtidal facies usually exhibiting the highest permeabilities, development of accurate reservoir models for simulation and exploitation depends on the ability to distinguish and map these deposits. Recognition and correlation of parasequences and parasequence stacking patterns in parasequence sets provide a powerful tool for more accurate mapping of facies and attendant porosity development and facilitate development of improved models necessary for efficient exploitation of these highly heterogeneous reservoirs.

  20. Optical properties of Aeolian dusts common to West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lulu; Zobeck, Ted M.; Hsieh, Daniel H.; Holder, Dean; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Thompson, Jonathan E.

    2011-11-01

    Both recent models and historical events such as the Dust Bowl and volcanic eruptions have illustrated aerosols can play a significant role in climate change through direct and indirect optical effects. Soil dust aerosols generated by Aeolian processes represent a significant fraction of the total mass burden of atmospheric particles. Central to a better understanding of the climate effects of dust aerosols is knowledge of their optical properties. This research study utilized a dust generator and several instruments to determine certain optical properties of Aeolian dust mimics created by the Amarillo and Pullman soil types native to the panhandle of Texas, USA. Values for the mass-extinction coefficient ranged between 1.74 and 2.97 m 2 g -1 at 522 nm depending on how mass concentration was determined. Single-scatter albedo (SSA) for both soil types ranged from 0.947 to 0.980 at visible wavelengths with SSA increasing at longer wavelengths. Angstrom absorption exponents were measured as 1.73 for Pullman and 2.17 for Amarillo soil. Observed Angstrom extinction exponents were 0.110 and 0.168 for the Pullman and Amarillo soil types. The optical properties reported may be of use for optical based estimates of soil erosion and aid in understanding how regional soil dusts may alter radiative transport presently and during historical events such as the Dust Bowl era.

  1. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

  2. Biosolids decomposition after surface applications in west Texas.

    PubMed

    Jaynes, W F; Zartman, R E; Sosebee, R E; Wester, D B

    2003-01-01

    In a semiarid environment, climate is a critical factor in the decomposition of surface-applied biosolids. This study examined the effect of 2- to 7-yr exposure times on the composition of single applications of New York, NY biosolids in western Texas. Exposure time effects on organic matter, N, P, S, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Zn were studied near Sierra Blanca, TX. Due to organic matter decomposition, total organic C decreased from 340 g kg(-1) in fresh biosolids to 180 g kg(-1) in biosolids after 82 mo of exposure, whereas the inorganic ash content of the biosolids increased from 339 to 600 g kg(-1). Total N decreased from 50 to 10 g N kg(-1) and total S decreased from 12 to 6 g S kg(-1). Bicarbonate-available P in the biosolids decreased from 0.9 to 0.2 g kg(-1). Successive H2O extractions yielded soluble P concentrations consistent with dicalcium phosphate (dical) for fresh biosolids and tricalcium phosphate (trical) for biosolids exposed for 59 months or more. Sparingly soluble phosphates, such as dical and trical, potentially yield > 0.5 mg P L(-1) in runoff waters for extended periods after biosolids applications, especially after multiple applications. Selective dissolution of the biosolids indicated that as much as 66 to 78% of P exists as iron phosphates, 16 to 21% as Fe oxides, and 5 to 12% as insoluble Ca phosphates. Chemical analyses of ash samples suggest that Cu and Zn have been lost from biosolids through leaching or runoff and no losses of Pb, Cr, or Hg have occurred since application.

  3. Stratigraphy of the Yucca Formation, Indio Mountains, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Julian, F.E. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Indio Mountains are located 25 miles south of Van Horn, Texas, on the northwestern margin of the Chihuahua Tectonic Belt. The Indio Mountains are composed of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks deposited on the edge of the Chihuahua trough. The focus of this study, the Yucca conglomerate, is the oldest known Mesozoic rock in the region, although its unconformable base is not exposed within the Indio Mountains. This area has been affected by faulting associated with both the Chihuahua tectonic belt and the Rio Grande Rift. During summer 1992, the authors measured a stratigraphic section through the Yucca conglomerate, using a custom made Jacob's staff. The measured section is over 500 meters thick and was measured and described in 3 meter intervals. The section was measured up a single valley, and did contain some minor faults. This project had three objectives: (1) to examine variations in the sand/conglomerate ratio throughout the Yucca Fm.; (2) to examine variations in conglomerate clast composition using outcrop and thin section analysis; and, (3) ultimately, to compare this stratigraphic section with sections measured by Underwood (1962) in the Eagle Mountains and Devil's Ridge to the northwest. The sand/conglomerate ratio varies, with the proportion of sand increasing up section. At the base of the section, the rocks are mostly clast supported conglomerate interbedded with thin (12 cm) sand layers. The top of the section is dominated by sandstones with pebble stringers, with some massive sand layers over 6m thick. Few truly conglomeratic layers are present near the top of the section. The composition of clasts within the conglomerate also varies. The carbonate clasts are often preferentially eroded. The carbonate content increases up section.

  4. Clinical features of West Nile virus epidemic in Dallas, Texas, 2012.

    PubMed

    Racsa, Lori; Gander, Rita; Chung, Wendy; Southern, Paul; Le, Jade; Beal, Stacy; Lee, Francesca; Cavuoti, Dominick; Reisch, Joan; Alatoom, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    In 2012, Texas has reported the highest number of West Nile virus (WNV) cases in the United States to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this report, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 57 patients with WNV disease and analyzed the clinical features of these patients. Our results revealed that 25 (44%) patients were diagnosed with West Nile fever and 32 (56%) with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). The median age for patients with WNND was 54.5 years, and those with encephalitis were more likely to be >60 years old. Pre-existing conditions such as hypertension and diabetes were more frequent in patients with WNND. Testing both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for antibodies diagnosed more cases of WNND than just testing serum or CSF alone. The increasing number of WNV cases during this epidemic highlights the need to increase efforts to control mosquito populations and educate the general public. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Continued Evolution of West Nile Virus, Houston, Texas, USA, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Brian R.; McMullen, Allison R.; Swetnam, Daniele M.; Salvato, Vence; Reyna, Martin; Guzman, Hilda; Bueno, Rudy; Dennett, James A.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the genetics and evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) since initial detection in the United States in 1999 on the basis of continual surveillance studies in the Houston, Texas, USA, metropolitan area (Harris County) as a surrogate model for WNV evolution on a national scale. Full-length genomic sequencing of 14 novel 2010–2012 WNV isolates collected from resident birds in Harris County demonstrates emergence of 4 independent genetic groups distinct from historical strains circulating in the greater Houston region since 2002. Phylogenetic and geospatial analyses of the 2012 WNV isolates indicate closer genetic relationship with 2003–2006 Harris County isolates than more recent 2007–2011 isolates. Inferred monophyletic relationships of these groups with several 2006–2009 northeastern US isolates supports potential introduction of a novel WNV strain in Texas since 2010. These results emphasize the need to maintain WNV surveillance activities to better understand WNV transmission dynamics in the United States. PMID:23965756

  6. Karst-controlled reservoir heterogeneity in Ellenburger group carbonates of west Texas: Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, S.J. )

    1990-07-01

    A discussion is presented on a paper by Charles Kerans (AAPG Bull. 1988). The paper dealt with karst-associated porosity and hydrocarbon reservoir heterogenity in Ellengurger (Lower Ordovician) carbonates in the Permian basin of west Texas. The purpose of this paper is not to dispute the model presented by Kerans, but instead to present some alternative models of reservoir occurrence that are not considered in his paper and that are also widely applicable to the Ellenburger and correlative strata in the Mid-Continent. The discussion is based on regional lithostratigraphy and subsurface mapping studies of the Ellenburger in the southern Midland basin, specifically in Irion, Reagan, Crockett, Schleicher, and Sterling counties (Texas).

  7. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  8. Basement-influenced deformation in the Marathon fold-thrust belt, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tauvers, P.R.

    1988-09-01

    The Marathon Basin of West Texas is a window into the southwestern end of the Ouachita system and formed as a response to north-to-northwest-directed late Paleozoic thrust faulting. Folds in the basin are elongate, trend northeast, and are highly non-cylindrical. Thickness and facies changes within the flysch sediments of the basin are coincident with the plunge of major anticlinoria. These features are superimposed on a pre-existing structural framework inherited from earlier deformation and modified by pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic sedimentation. Field, seismic, aeromagnetic, and deep well data indicate the presence of both northeast-trending frontal ramps and northwest-trending transverse ramps beneath the allochthonous rocks of the Marathon Basin. Evidence for reactivated northwest-trending features includes: (1) changes in plunge of first- and second-order folds; (2) large offsets in Devonian carbonate/top of basement seismic reflectors; (3) structure contours on Cretaceous rocks surrounding the basin; (4) dramatic changes in elevation of top of Ellenburger along strike; (5) variable tectonic stratigraphy and flysch thickness along strike; (6) a northwest-trending magnetic low through the middle of the basin; and (7) outcrop and well data for large-scale vertical movements along colinear northwest-trending features both north and south of the basin proper. These basement structural features (high-angle faults.) were inherited from Late Precambrian rifting and reactivated during Ouachita, Laramide, and Basin and Range events. Basement-influenced transverse structures affect the sedimentological and subsequent deformational histories of this and other fold-thrust belts around the world.

  9. Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Texas Legislature passed a comprehensive revision to the Texas Water Code. This legislation (Senate Bill 1) changed water planning in Texas from a statewide to a regional activity. By September 2001, the 16 regions created by Senate Bill 1 must produce water plans to address their water needs during drought-of-record conditions, and must identify water-management strategies for periods when streamflows, reservoir storage, and groundwater levels are 50 and 75 percent of normal.

  10. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, T.E. |; Sundberg, K.R.; Deyhim, P.; Ortoleva, P.

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  11. Structural evolution of Val Verde basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, D.E.; Petersen, N.

    1984-04-01

    The Val Verde basin is a northwest-southeast trending foreland basin contained within the southern portion of the Permian basin. The Val Verde basin has several large fields, e.g., Brown Bassett and JM, which have a combined ultimate recovery of over 1 tcf of gas. Structurally, the major fields are complexly faulted features related to differential uplift of basement blocks. Middle and Upper Permian strata are not present in the central and southern Val Verde basin. Appreciable amounts of Permian sediment were eroded prior to deposition of Cretaceous strata, thus, Cretaceous rocks unconformably overlie Wolfcamp sediments. Restored estimates for vitrinite reflectance data indicate a minimum of 8000-10,000 ft (2400-3000 m) of Permian rocks have been eroded. Therefore, in the central and southern portions of the basin, Paleozoic rocks are inferred to have occupied depths several miles deeper than present. Vitrinite reflectance values for Ellenburger (Ordovician) rocks at Brown Bassett are approximately 1.8 to 2.0% R/sub o/. Ellenburger reflectance values increase to the south and southeast to values greater than 4.5% R/sub o/. The most southerly wells also have reflectance depth trends which show a break in gradient within Wolfcamp sediments (9000-10,000 ft, 2700-3000 m). The change in gradient suggests a thermal event contemporaneous with the basin's rapid downwarping and Wolfcamp deposition. Any exploration in the basin, therefore, must recognize the unique relationships between structural timing, structural position, depth of burial, thermal pulses, and hydrocarbon mobility for a large portion of Val Verde basin.

  12. Yard flooding by irrigation canals increased the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Victor M.; Jaime, Javier; Ford, Paula B.; Gonzalez, Fernando J.; Carrillo, Irma; Gallegos, Jorge E.; Watts, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of use of water from irrigation canals to flood residential yards on the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas. Methods West Nile disease confirmed cases in 2009–2010 were compared with a random sample of 50 residents of the county according to access to and use of water from irrigation canals by subjects or their neighbors, as well as geo-referenced closest distance between their home address and the nearest irrigation canal. A windshield survey of 600 meters around the study subjects’ home address recorded the presence of irrigation canals. The distance from the residence of 182 confirmed cases of West Nile disease reported in 2003–2010 to canals was compared to that of the centroids of 182 blocks selected at random. Results Cases were more likely than controls to report their neighbors flooded their yards with water from canals. Irrigation canals were more often observed in neighborhoods of cases than of controls. Using the set of addresses of 182 confirmed cases and 182 hypothetic controls the authors found a statistically significant inverse relation with risk of West Nile disease. Conclusions Flooding of yards with water from canals increased the risk of West Nile disease. PMID:21943648

  13. Yard flooding by irrigation canals increased the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Victor M; Jaime, Javier; Ford, Paula B; Gonzalez, Fernando J; Carrillo, Irma; Gallegos, Jorge E; Watts, Douglas M

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of use of water from irrigation canals to flood residential yards on the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas. West Nile disease confirmed cases in 2009 through 2010 were compared with a random sample of 50 residents of the county according to access to and use of water from irrigation canals by subjects or their neighbors, as well as geo-referenced closest distance between their home address and the nearest irrigation canal. A windshield survey of 600 m around the study subjects' home address recorded the presence of irrigation canals. The distance from the residence of 182 confirmed cases of West Nile disease reported in 2003 through 2010 to canals was compared with that of the centroids of 182 blocks selected at random. Cases were more likely than controls to report their neighbors flooded their yards with water from canals. Irrigation canals were more often observed in neighborhoods of cases than of controls. Using the set of addresses of 182 confirmed cases and 182 hypothetical controls the authors found a significant, inverse relation with risk of West Nile disease. Flooding of yards with water from canals increased the risk of West Nile disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Confirmation of Bacillus anthracis from flesh-eating flies collected during a West Texas anthrax season.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Curtis, Andrew; Hadfield, Ted L; O'Shea, Bob; Mitchell, Mark A; Hugh-Jones, Martin E

    2010-07-01

    This case study confirms the interaction between necrophilic flies and white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, during an anthrax outbreak in West Texas (summer 2005). Bacillus anthracis was identified by culture and PCR from one of eight pooled fly collections from deer carcasses on a deer ranch with a well-documented history of anthrax. These results provide the first known isolation of B. anthracis from flesh-eating flies associated with a wildlife anthrax outbreak in North America and are discussed in the context of wildlife ecology and anthrax epizootics.

  15. Angelo State Society of Physics Students Science Outreach: West Texas Road Trip 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, Lacy; Sauncy, Toni

    2008-10-01

    The Angelo State Society of Physics Students readily embraces the opportunity to give back to the community. For the past three years, the ASU Peer Pressure Team has presented science demonstrations to elementary and junior high students in the West Texas area. The annual week-long trip involves college students seeking to inspire a younger generation about physics and science in general. The Road Trip 2008 took ten undergraduate students on a nearly 600 mile round trip. The reactions and responses from the students, teachers and administrators received by the local SPS chapter's efforts have been overwhelmingly positive, and opportunities continue to present themselves.

  16. Trace-fossil and storm-deposit relationships of San Carlos formation, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, C.L.; Bednarski, S.P.

    1986-05-01

    Two distinct assemblages of trace fossils are preserved in the storm deposits in delta-front facies of the Upper Cretaceous San Carlos Formation, west Texas. The assemblages represent two widely differing responses to storm deposition and sediment-trace-fossil relationships, indicating that other environmental parameters, probably water depth and oxygen levels, influenced trace-fossil distribution within the San Carlos delta front. Evidence of the storm-deposited nature of the sandstones includes a scoured basal contact, planar to hummocky cross-stratification, and a upper contact that is either ripple marked or is gradational with overlying shales.

  17. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  18. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  19. Cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Feng; Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cross-correlation properties between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC. We use not only the qualitative analysis of the cross-correlation test, but also take the quantitative analysis of the MF-DXA, confirming the cross-correlation relationship between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) respectively, which have strongly multifractal features, and the cross-correlations are more strongly multifractal in the short term than in the long term. Furthermore, based on the multifractal spectrum, we also find the multifractality strength between the crude oil WTI and Chinese stock market is stronger than the multifractality strength of other pairs. Based on the Iraq war (Mar 20, 2003) and the Financial crisis in 2008, we divide sample period into four segments to research the degree of the multifractal (ΔH) and the market efficiency (and the risk). Finally, we employ the technique of the rolling window to calculate the time-varying EI (efficiency index) and dependent on the EI, we can easily observe the change of stock markets. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between bivariate cross-correlation exponents (Hxy(q)) and the generalized Hurst exponents.

  20. An analysis of small changes in environment which resulted in diverse charge structures on 4 June 2012 in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, V.; Bruning, E. C.; Ancell, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field campaign, the disorganized cellular convection throughout West Texas on 4 June 2012 provided a unique opportunity to sample a full variety of charge structures in contemporaneous storms within tens of kilometers through the use of the West Texas Lightning Mapping Array. The surface moisture and related surface variables, while varying across the region, did not correlate to the observed charge structures, implying an above-surface influence dominated even what appeared to be a synoptically benign environment. Due to the close proximity of these storms to each other, a WRF ensemble was used to estimate the range of the mid-level environmental differences which may have resulted in the different charging within the storms. Most significantly, the representation of the elevated mixed layer, the base of which was near 700 mb (below cloud base), varied across the domain with the deepest and driest midlevel layers in the areas dominated by anomalous storms. This suggests that the above-surface dry modification of cloud parcels could be encouraging the positive charging of graupel within the cloud by limiting the warm cloud depth and increasing the availability of liquid in the mixed phase region. Besides the anomalous charge structures, these storms also contained fewer cloud-to-ground flashes and were slower to organize than those with a greater depth of moisture, although storms of both polarities were long-lasting. The case allows for a very unique examination of how small changes in environment can impact the storm-scale electrical and morphological properties. The ability of a set of idealized WRF models, using standard parameterizations, to capture any of these resulting differences in the overall charge structures given the very small changes in the environmental moisture across the region as resolved by the ensemble will be discussed. As part of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field campaign, the

  1. Geologic and Engineering Characterization of East Ford Field, Reeves County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Guzman, Jose I.; Zirczy, Helena

    1999-08-16

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. The project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit: it contained an estimated 18.4 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place.

  2. 3 CFR 8963 - Proclamation 8963 of April 24, 2013. Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8963 of April 24, 2013. Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas 8963 Proclamation 8963 Presidential Documents Proclamations... President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a mark of respect for the memory of those who...

  3. 77 FR 30522 - Sunoco Pipeline L.P., West Texas Gulf Pipe Line Company, Mobil Pipe Line Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sunoco Pipeline L.P., West Texas Gulf Pipe Line Company, Mobil Pipe Line Company; Notice of Petition for Declartaory Order Take notice that on May 14, 2012, pursuant to Rule 207(a)(2) of the Commission's Rules of...

  4. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Gordon; Basom, Janet; Mattevada, Sravan; Onger, Frederick

    2015-04-15

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population.

  5. Water quality and streamflow data for the West Fork Trinity River in Forth Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCutcheon, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected on a 13.6-mile reach of the West Fork Trinity River in Fort Worth, Texas to test a dynamic Lagrangian model. Flow was steady. Loads of dissolved constituents varied with time at the beginning of the study reach and in the reach, primarily because of photosynthesis. River quality was fairly good despite low dissolved oxygen measured in the headwaters and the significant sewage load from the tributaries. Diel and longitudinal trends were defined by sampling at fixed sites and by following dyed parcels of water. Nitrification, deoxygenation, reaeration, and photosynthesis affected the dissolved oxygen balance. Independent estimates of some of the rate coefficients were 0.1 to 0.2, 0.8, and 0 to 3.6 , all per day, for deoxygenation, nitrification, and reaeration, respectively. (USGS)

  6. Spatiotemporal associations of reservoir nutrient characteristics and the invasive, harmful alga Prymnesium parvum in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a harmful alga that has caused ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems worldwide. In inland systems of North America, toxic blooms have nearly eliminated fish populations in some systems. Modifying nutrient profiles through alterations to land or water use may be a viable alternative for golden alga control in reservoirs. The main objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the nutrient dynamics that influence golden alga bloom formation and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs. We examined eight sites in the Upper Colorado River basin, Texas: three impacted reservoirs that have experienced repeated golden alga blooms; two reference reservoirs where golden alga is present but nontoxic; and three confluence sites downstream of the impacted and reference sites. Total, inorganic, and organic nitrogen and phosphorus and their ratios were quantified monthly along with golden alga abundance and ichthyotoxicity between December 2010 and July 2011. Blooms persisted for several months at the impacted sites, which were characterized by high organic nitrogen and low inorganic nitrogen. At impacted sites, abundance was positively associated with inorganic phosphorus and bloom termination coincided with increases in inorganic nitrogen and decreases in inorganic phosphorus in late spring. Management of both inorganic and organic forms of nutrients may create conditions in reservoirs unfavorable to golden alga.

  7. Depositional systems and Karst geology of the Ellenburger group (lower ordovician), subsurface West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Ellenburger Group of Texas contains estimated reserves of 1.15 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Despite its economic significance, comparatively little is known about the subsurface Ellenburger in West Texas; thus, this book presents a regional model of Ellenburger deposition and diagenesis. Using associations of lithologies and sedimentary structures observed in core, the author identified six depositional systems in the Ellenburger: fan delta-marginal marine, lower tidal flat, high-energy restricted shelf, low-energy restricted shelf, upper tidal flat, and open shallow water shelf. Diagenesis was dominated by three major styles of dolomitization: very fine crystalline dolomite (5-20 {mu}m), in tidal-flat facies; fine to medium crystalline dolomite (20-100 {mu}m), widespread in all facies; and coarse crystalline replacement mosaic dolomite and saddle dolomite cement, which formed in a burial setting after pre-Simpson karst formation and before Pennsylvanian faulting, uplift, and erosion. Other diagenetic events were karst-related dissolution episodes associated with repeated uplift and exposure and subsequent dedolomitization of the Ellenburger platform.

  8. Reduced Avian Virulence and Viremia of West Nile Virus Isolates from Mexico and Texas

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Aaron C.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Ramey, Wanichaya N.; Fang, Ying; Beasley, David W. C.; Barker, Christopher M.; Sanders, Todd A.; Reisen, William K.; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    A West Nile virus (WNV) isolate from Mexico (TM171-03) and BIRD1153, a unique genotype from Texas, have exhibited reduced murine neuroinvasive phenotypes. To determine if murine neuroinvasive capacity equates to avian virulence potential, American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were experimentally inoculated with representative murine neuroinvasive/non-neuroinvasive strains. In both avian species, a plaque variant from Mexico that was E-glycosylation competent produced higher viremias than an E-glycosylation–incompetent variant, indicating the potential importance of E-glycosylation for avian replication. The murine non-neuroinvasive BIRD1153 strain was significantly attenuated in American crows but not house sparrows when compared with the murine neuroinvasive Texas strain. Despite the loss of murine neuroinvasive properties of nonglycosylated variants from Mexico, our data indicate avian replication potential of these strains and that unique WNV virulence characteristics exist between murine and avian models. The implications of reduced avian replication of variants from Mexico for restricted WNV transmission in Latin America is discussed. PMID:21976584

  9. Differentiation of springtime vegetation indices associated with summer anthrax epizootics in west Texas, USA, deer.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Goodin, Douglas G

    2013-07-01

    Anthrax outbreaks in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, are frequent in west Texas, USA, particularly across the Edwards Plateau. However, the outbreak severity varies among years. We summarize the outbreak history in white-tailed deer at a ranch north of Del Rio, Texas, from 2001 to 2010 and compare mortality rates to remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data. It has long been posited that the occurrence of mid- to high-latitude epizootics is associated with hot, dry summer conditions preceded by a wet spring, with cases occurring after summer rain events. Here we employed vegetation green-up indices as a proxy for such environmental conditions. Annual trajectories of vegetation indices identified a clear pattern of early green springs with dry summers in severe outbreak years. In contrast, later, less intense spring green-up with greener summers were associated with enzootic mortality years, when few cases occurred. There was a statistically significant difference in the annual timing and intensity of spring green-up from vegetation indices for epizootic and enzootic years. Years with epizootics have early, intense spring conditions, whereas enzootic years have low-intensity green-up. These results suggest that early green-up signatures may be useful in identifying epizootic climatic conditions ahead of the summer anthrax period. Such analyses are required to ultimately develop an early warning system for wildlife managers and veterinary public health officials.

  10. Reduced avian virulence and viremia of West Nile virus isolates from Mexico and Texas.

    PubMed

    Brault, Aaron C; Langevin, Stanley A; Ramey, Wanichaya N; Fang, Ying; Beasley, David W C; Barker, Christopher M; Sanders, Todd A; Reisen, William K; Barrett, Alan D T; Bowen, Richard A

    2011-10-01

    A West Nile virus (WNV) isolate from Mexico (TM171-03) and BIRD1153, a unique genotype from Texas, have exhibited reduced murine neuroinvasive phenotypes. To determine if murine neuroinvasive capacity equates to avian virulence potential, American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were experimentally inoculated with representative murine neuroinvasive/non-neuroinvasive strains. In both avian species, a plaque variant from Mexico that was E-glycosylation competent produced higher viremias than an E-glycosylation-incompetent variant, indicating the potential importance of E-glycosylation for avian replication. The murine non-neuroinvasive BIRD1153 strain was significantly attenuated in American crows but not house sparrows when compared with the murine neuroinvasive Texas strain. Despite the loss of murine neuroinvasive properties of nonglycosylated variants from Mexico, our data indicate avian replication potential of these strains and that unique WNV virulence characteristics exist between murine and avian models. The implications of reduced avian replication of variants from Mexico for restricted WNV transmission in Latin America is discussed.

  11. APPLICATION OF AN AREA-OF-REVIEW (AOR) CONCEPT TO THE EAST TEXAS FIELD AND OTHER SELECTED TEXAS OILFIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Warner; Leonard F. Koederitz; Robert C. Laudon

    1997-07-01

    The Underground Injection Control (UIC) regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require an Area-of-Review (AOR) study for newly drilled or converted Class II injection wells. In Texas, the UIC program is administered by the Texas Railroad Commission. A Federal Advisory Committee (FAC) formed by the EPA recommended, in 1992, that exceptions to the AOR requirement should be allowed for wells in those areas where a variance has been granted because there is sufficiently low risk of upward fluid migration from the injection zone into an underground source of drinking water. The FAC listed conditions that could be considered in determining whether to grant a variance. The University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), under contract with the American Petroleum Institute, then expanded the FAC AOR variance conditions into an AOR variance methodology. A Department of Energy (DOE) grant to UMR, for which this is the final report, provided for study of the application of the AOR variance methodology to the East Texas field and to other selected Texas oilfields. A final report on the East Texas field portion of the DOE project was submitted by UMR to DOE in 1995. This current final report describes the results of UMR's study of AOR variance opportunities in the Texas Gulf Coast Frio Formation oil producing trend. In the course of this study, AOR variance opportunities were examined for 73 oilfields in nine Texas Gulf Coast counties. It is believed that the combination of well construction and abandonment characteristics plus the presence of sloughing and squeezing shales and porous and permeable sand sink zones provide for the possibility of AOR variances in 57 of the 73 study fields. The remaining 16 fields are ones where the oil accumulations occur in conjunction with shallow salt domes and where geologic conditions are probably too complex to allow field-wide AOR variances. The successful study results can probably be extended to at least 78 additional oilfields

  12. Precipitation, streamflow, and base flow in west-central Texas, December 1974 through March 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation, streamflow, and base-flow data were analyzed for December 1974 through March 1977 as a part of the Edwards-Trinity Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in west-central Texas. The period of record analyzed corresponds to the calibrating period of a digital groundwater-flow model of the aquifer system currently (1988) being developed. Precipitation at individual stations ranged from 6 to 45 in/yr. Precipitation normally (1951-80) ranged from 10 to 32 in/year from east to west in the study area. Precipitation was near normal over most of the area and above normal in the southeastern part of the study area. Streamflow ranged from less than 1 in/year in the western part of the study area to 13 in/yr in the southeastern part. Streamflow was 8 in/yr above normal in the southeast. Base flow ranged from less than 0.1 in/yr in the western part of the study area to 6 in/yr in the southeastern part. (USGS)

  13. 3D seismic data interpretation of Boonsville Field, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhakeem, Aamer Ali

    The Boonsville field is one of the largest gas fields in the US located in the Fort Worth Basin, north central Texas. The highest potential reservoirs reside in the Bend Conglomerate deposited during the Pennsylvanian. The Boonsville data set is prepared by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas, Austin, as part of the secondary gas recovery program. The Boonsville field seismic data set covers an area of 5.5 mi2. It includes 38 wells data. The Bend Conglomerate is deposited in fluvio-deltaic transaction. It is subdivided into many genetic sequences which include depositions of sandy conglomerate representing the potential reserves in the Boonsville field. The geologic structure of the Boonsville field subsurface are visualized by constructing structure maps of Caddo, Davis, Runaway, Beans Cr, Vineyard, and Wade. The mapping includes time structure, depth structure, horizon slice, velocity maps, and isopach maps. Many anticlines and folds are illustrated. Karst collapse features are indicated specially in the lower Atoka. Dipping direction of the Bend Conglomerate horizons are changing from dipping toward north at the top to dipping toward east at the bottom. Stratigraphic interpretation of the Runaway Formation and the Vineyard Formation using well logs and seismic data integration showed presence of fluvial dominated channels, point bars, and a mouth bar. RMS amplitude maps are generated and used as direct hydrocarbon indicator for the targeted formations. As a result, bright spots are indicated and used to identify potential reservoirs. Petrophysical analysis is conducted to obtain gross, net pay, NGR, water saturation, shale volume, porosity, and gas formation factor. Volumetric calculations estimated 989.44 MMSCF as the recoverable original gas in-place for a prospect in the Runaway and 3.32 BSCF for a prospect in the Vineyard Formation.

  14. Hylton northwest field's tectonic effect on Suggs Ellenburger producing area, Nolan County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffacker, B.F. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    An evaluation of the geology of Hylton Northwest field in southeastern Nolan County, Texas, indicates that the pre-Pennsylvanian tectonics associated with this field may have affected the producing zone of Suggs Ellenburger field 6 mi (9 km) west. Both fields are located along the Fort Chadbourne fault system of the Eastern shelf of the Midland basin. The study of the depositional environment of the Suggs Ellenburger field reveals some interesting aspects of the tectonostratigraphic terrane that appears to have in part influenced the development of the reservoir rock. The tectonics of the Cambrian-Ordovician (Ellenburger) period in Hylton Northwest field created a southwest-trending fault system with associated fractures. The fractures allowed percolating surface waters to leach carbonate rocks in the area, creating vuggy secondary porosity in the intercrystalline rock fabric. The faults were modified to a karst topography by periods of subaerial erosion of the Cambrian-Ordovician depositional plain. Sea level fluctuations that occurred in the area were associated with the alternating uplift and subsidence of the Hylton Northwest field's tectonic feature. As a result, environmental zones of porosity with varying vertical subaerial erosion formed within the overall Cambrian-Ordovician (Ellenburger) interval. The producing zone of the Suggs Ellenburger field occurs at approximately 6,400 ft (1,951 m).

  15. Land subsidence near oil and gas fields, Houston, Texas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Bluntzer, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Subsidence profiles across 29 oil and gas fields in the 12 200 km2 Houston, Texas, regional subsidence area, which is caused by the decline of ground-water level, suggest that the contribution of petroleum withdrawal to local land subsidence is small. In addition to land subsidence, faults with an aggregate length of more than 240 km have offset the land surface in historical time. Natural geologic deformation, ground-water pumping, and petroleum withdrawal have all been considered as potential causes of the historical offset across these faults. The minor amount of localized land subsidence associated with oil and gas fields, suggests that petroleum withdrawal is not a major cause of the historical faulting. -from Authors

  16. Giant gas field of northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

  17. Winter habitat use and survival of lesser prairie-chickens in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pirius, Nicholas E.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Wallace, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range since the late 1800s and is currently proposed for Federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Populations and the distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas, USA, are thought to be at or near all-time lows. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We measured home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the non-breeding seasons (1 Sep-28 Feb) of 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in the West Texas panhandle region. Home range size did not differ among years or between females (503 ha) andmales (489 ha). Over 97% of locations of both male and female prairie-chickens were within 3.2 km of the lek of capture, and 99.9% were within 3.2 km of an available water source (i.e., livestock water tank). Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges; grassland-dominated areas with co-occurring sand shinnery oak were used more than available, but sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-dominated areas with grassland and sand sagebrush-dominated areas with bare ground were both used less than available. Survival rates during the first 2 non-breeding seasons (>80%) were among the highest reported for the species. However, survival during the third non-breeding season was only 57%, resulting in a 3-year average of 72%. It does not appear that non-breeding season mortality is a strong limiting factor in lesser prairie-chicken persistence in the study area.

  18. Oil and gas developments in west Texas and eastern New Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Pause, P.H.; Adams, D.R.; Collier, W.W.; Gibson, W.R.; Miller, H.A. Jr.; Robbins, L.D.; Williams, S.M.

    1985-10-01

    1984 was a surprisingly good year for drilling activity in the Permian basin. 8012 wells were drilled in west Texas and eastern New Mexico, almost 14% more than in 1983. The success rate for all wells continued to climb, reaching 83.5%, up 3.7% from 1983. Exploratory drilling was up almost 5% to 1080 wells. Total exploratory footage increased 8%, and the success rate for exploratory tests increased 1.5% to 26.9%. Development drilling also increased with 6932 wells drilled, up 15.5% from 1983. This was only 150 wells shy of the record set in 1982. The overall development success rate climbed from 89.2% to 92.4%, reflecting increased emphasis on safe drilling. These overall increases stand in sharp contrast to gas well drilling efforts. Exploratory gas completions declined 12.8%, and development gas well drilling was down 33.4%, a result of lower gas prices and a weak market. Oil and gas production in 1984 increased for the first time in 10 years. Total oil production was 551,911,001 bbl, an increase of 0.3% from 1983. Gas production was 2,006,907 mmcf, up 0.6%. Seismic activity increased in 1984, maintaining a trend started the year before. 1993 seismic crew-weeks were reported, up almost 4% from 1983. Overall leasing interest declined again for the third year in a row. Glasscock, Midland, and Hockley Counties, Texas, however, continued to be areas of vigorous activity. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Oil and gas developments in west Texas and eastern New Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Pause, P.H.; Adams, D.R.; Collier, W.W.; Gibson, W.R.; Miller, H.A.; Robbins, L.D.; Williams, S.M.

    1985-10-01

    1984 was a surprisingly good year for drilling activity in the Permian basin. 8,012 wells were drilled in west Texas and eastern New Mexico, almost 14% more than in 1983. The success rate for all wells continued to climb, reaching 83.5%, up 3.7% from 1983. Exploratory drilling was up almost 5% to 1,080 wells. Total exploratory footage increased 8%, and the success rate for exploratory tests increased 1.5% to 26.9%. Development drilling also increased with 6,932 wells drilled, up 15.5% from 1983. This was only 150 wells shy of the record set in 1982. The overall development success rate climbed from 89.2% to 92.4%, reflecting increased emphasis on ''safe'' drilling. These overall increases stand in sharp contrast to gas well drilling efforts. Exploratory gas completions declined 12.8%, and development gas well drilling was down 33.4%, a result of lower gas prices and a weak market. Oil and gas production in 1984 increased for the first time in 10 years. Total oil production was 551,911,001 bbl, an increase of 0.3% from 1983. Gas production was 2,006,907 mmcf, up 0.6%. Seismic activity increased in 1984, maintaining a trend started the year before. 1,993 seismic crew-weeks were reported, up almost 4% from 1983. Overall leasing interest declined again for the third year in a row. Glasscock, Midland, and Hockley Counties, Texas, however, continued to be areas of vigorous activity.

  20. Sequence Analyses of 2012 West Nile Virus Isolates from Texas Fail to Associate Viral Genetic Factors with Outbreak Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Nisha K.; D'Anton, Mary; Xiang, Jeannie; Seiferth, Robyn; Day, Joanne; Nasci, Roger; Brault, Aaron C.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Texas experienced the largest outbreak of human West Nile encephalitis (WNE) since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) in 2002. Despite the large number of WNV infections, data indicated the rate of reported WNE among human cases was no higher than in previous years. To determine whether the increase in WNV human cases could have been caused by viral genetic changes, the complete genomes of 17 isolates made from mosquito pools in Dallas and Montgomery Counties in 2012 were sequenced. The 2012 Texas isolates were found to be composed of two distinct clades, both circulating in Dallas and Montgomery Counties despite a 5-fold higher disease incidence in the former. Although minor genetic differences existed between Dallas and Montgomery WNV populations, there was weak support for population subdivision or adaptive changes. On the basis of these data, alternative explanations for increased WNV disease incidence in 2012 are proposed. PMID:23817333

  1. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  2. Magnetostratigraphy susceptibility for the Guadalupian Series GSSPs (Middle Permian) in Guadalupe Mountains National Park and adjacent areas in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Lambert, Lance L.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Bell, Gordon L.; Nestell, Galina P.

    2012-01-01

    Here we establish a magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Middle Permian Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) that have recently been defined, located in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, West Texas, USA. These GSSPs, all within the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, define (1) the base of the Roadian Stage (base of the Guadalupian Series), (2) the base of the Wordian Stage and (3) the base of the Capitanian Stage. Data from two additional stratigraphic successions in the region, equivalent in age to the Kungurian–Roadian and Wordian–Capitanian boundary intervals, are also reported. Based on low-field, mass specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) measurements of 706 closely spaced samples from these stratigraphic sections and time-series analysis of one of these sections, we (1) define the magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Guadalupian Series Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points; (2) demonstrate that χ datasets provide a proxy for climate cyclicity; (3) give quantitative estimates of the time it took for some of these sediments to accumulate; (4) give the rates at which sediments were accumulated; (5) allow more precise correlation to equivalent sections in the region; (6) identify anomalous stratigraphic horizons; and (7) give estimates for timing and duration of geological events within sections.

  3. Native walnuts of Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three species of Juglans occur naturally in Texas. Eastern Black walnut, J. nigra is found in eastern to central Texas. J. major, the Arizona walnut, is reported in scattered, disjunct populations from central to west Texas. J. microcarpa, the Little walnut, occurs from central to west Texas. Hy...

  4. Clarksville field Red River County, Texas: Production and facies interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The Clarksville field was discovered in December in 1985 while targeting a deeper paleozoic horizon. Since production went on line in 1986, this field has produced over 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) with the appearance of a considerably longer and more lucrative life. The producing horizon is a Jurassic-age lithic conglomerate sitting unconformably on the Paleozoic and Triassic structural front of the buried Ouachita range. Facies correlation out of the basin indicate this unit to be Louark age. Mapping and compositional analysis indicate the depositional environmental of this unit to be an arid climate alluvial fan deposited as a 'Bajada' complex. This fan system was laid down at the updip margin of the actively forming Mesozoic embayment where it meets the Ouachita structural front. The significance of this field is demonstrated by the production yield at a relatively shallow depth (5800 ft). At this time, production similar to Clarksville field has yet to be encountered anywhere along the Mesozoic rim of the East Texas basin but does represent a viable exploration trend, in addition to being a gateway for future paleozoic production in the basin.

  5. Subsurface Glen Rose reef trend in east Texas and west-central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, G.S.

    1983-03-01

    The subsurface Glen Rose reef trend in east Texas and west-central Louisiana (Lower Cretaceous Comanchean) is a regressive carbonate complex deposited on a broad shallow water shelf. The Glen Rose reef trend can be differentiated into two separate reef tracts that prograded seaward over a slowly subsiding shelf. It remains to be seen whether the Glen Rose reefs are actual framework reefs or mounds of transported material. Reef facies include poorly sorted caprinidcoral grainstones, moderately sorted peloid and oncolite packstones and grainstones, and well-sorted, very fine grained skeletal grainstones. Coated grains, abraded skeletal fragments, scoured bedding surfaces, and minor cross-beds are evidence for deposition of the reef facies in a high-energy shoal setting. The reefal buildups grade laterally into low-energy shallow water wackestones and mudstones containing toucasids, orbitolinids, and serpulid burrows. Porosities associated with the reefal buildups appear facies controlled. Caprinid-coral packstones and grainstones exhibit intraparticle, moldic, and vuggy porosities of 10 to 15%. Pinpoint microporosity of 5 to 10% are found within the finegrained skeletal grainstones. Fracture porosity enhances permeability in several facies. Moldic and vuggy porosity types are generally secondary whereas intraparticle porosity may be preserved primary. Coarse equant calcite commonly occludes intraparticle, moldic, vuggy, and fracture porosities. Dolomitization within the reef limestones may have acted to create or preserve porosities. Poor production from the Glen Rose reef trend has been attributed to the lack of structural closure.

  6. Upper Permian (Guadalupian) facies and their association with hydrocarbons - Permian basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Kendall, C.G.S.C.; Harris, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    Outcrops of Guadalupian sedimentary rocks in the Permian basin of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico are a classic example of the facies relationships that span a carbonate shelf. In the subsurface, these rocks form classic hydrocarbon-facies taps. Proceeding from basin to the updip termination of the shelf, the facies are (1) deep-water basin, (2) an apron of allochthonous carbonates, (3) carbonate shelf margin or reef, (4) carbonate sand flats, (5) carbonate barrier islands, (6) lagoon, and (7) coastal playas and supratidal salt flats (sabkhas). Over a half century of exploration drilling has shown that hydrocarbons in the Permian rocks of the Permian basin have accumulated at the updip contact of the lagoonal dolomites and clastics with the coastal evaporites, and in the basinal channel-fill clastics. The shelf marginal (reef) facies contain cavernous porosity, but commonly are water saturated. These facies relationships and hydrocarbon occurrences provide an exploration model with which to explore and rank hydrocarbon potential in other carbonate provinces. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Occurrence of cotton herbicides and insecticides in playa lakes of the High Plains of West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.; Mollhagen, T.

    2000-01-01

    During the summer of 1997, water samples were collected and analyzed for pesticides from 32 playa lakes of the High Plains that receive drainage from both cotton and corn agriculture in West Texas. The major cotton herbicides detected in the water samples were diuron, fluometuron, metolachlor, norflurazon, and prometryn. Atrazine and propazine, corn and sorghum herbicides, were also routinely detected in samples from the playa lakes. Furthermore, the metabolites of all the herbicides studied were found in the playa lake samples. In some cases, the concentration of metabolites was equal to or exceeded the concentration of the parent compound. The types of metabolites detected suggested that the parent compounds had been transported to and had undergone degradation in the playa lakes. The types of metabolites and the ratio of metabolites to parent compounds may be useful in indicating the time that the herbicides were transported to the playa lakes. The median concentration of total herbicides was 7.2 ??g/l, with the largest total concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/l. Organophosphate insecticides were detected in only one water sample. Further work will improve the understanding of the fate of these compounds in the playa lake area. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Seasonal dynamics of four potential West Nile vector species in north-central Texas.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Bethany G; Kennedy, James H; Zimmerman, Earl G

    2005-12-01

    A population survey was conducted from April through September 2002 on mosquito species occurring on the Ray Roberts Greenbelt, a riparian corridor used for public recreation on the Elm Fork of the Trinity River, in Denton County, TX. Geographic information system software was used to set up a stratified random sampling design based on habitat parameters. Mosquitoes were collected using light traps, gravid traps, and resting boxes. A total of 29 species was collected during this study belonging to the following genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, Psorophora, and Uranotaenia. The four most common species collected during this study were Aedes vexans, Culex erraticus, Culex salinarius, and Psorophora columbiae. West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected in these species in the United States, and they may serve as important vector species in Denton County. Collections were analyzed by the Texas Department of Health for arboviruses. One pool consisting of both Cx. erraticus and Cx. salinarius, collected in August 2002, tested positive for WNV, making it the first mosquito pool to test positive for WNV in Denton County. Canonical correspondence analysis was performed using abundance data of dominant species with selected weather variables and habitat parameters. Important factors for determining dominant species abundance were temperature, precipitation, dew point, and canopy coverage. Spatial and temporal patterns of these species are discussed.

  9. Detrended fluctuation analysis on spot and futures markets of West Texas Intermediate crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yudong; Wei, Yu; Wu, Chongfeng

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we study the auto-correlations and cross-correlations of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot and futures return series employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA). Scaling analysis shows that, for time scales smaller than a month, the auto-correlations and cross-correlations are persistent. For time scales larger than a month but smaller than a year, the correlations are anti-persistent, while, for time scales larger than a year, the series are neither auto-correlated nor cross-correlated, indicating the efficient operation of the crude oil markets. Moreover, for small time scales, the degree of short-term cross-correlations is higher than that of auto-correlations. Using the multifractal extension of DFA and DCCA, we find that, for small time scales, the correlations are strongly multifractal, while, for large time scales, the correlations are nearly monofractal. Analyzing the multifractality of shuffled and surrogated series, we find that both long-range correlations and fat-tail distributions make important contributions to the multifractality. Our results have important implications for market efficiency and asset pricing models.

  10. Geologic interpretation of Apollo 6 stereophotography from Baja California to west Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawarecki, S. J.

    1970-01-01

    Excellent space photography of parts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico was obtained during the unmanned Apollo 6 spaceflight. Two features of this photography made it useful for geologic interpretations: its vertical stereocoverage and its exposure under a relatively low angle of solar illumination through an unusually cloud-free and clear atmosphere. The structural patterns, which were topographically enhanced by the longer shadows, were annotated on the photographs, in order to analyze their trends with respect to the continental tectonic framework, and to attempt to correlate the pattern with known copper or other base metal deposits. The annotated fracture patterns showed the regional trends and their distribution. The area studied was a 100- to 105-mile swath of terrain covering a total land area of approximately 60,000 square statute miles. The coverage began from a point centered on Punta Colnett on the Pacific coast of Baja California and extended to the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico and west Texas.

  11. Carbonate facies and stratigraphic framework of middle Magdalena (middle Pennsylvanian), Hueco Mountains, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.L.; Stanton, R.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The middle Magdalena of the Hueco Mountains, west Texas, is best exposed in the vicinity of Pow Wow Canyon, particularly along the western scarp of the range. It can be divided into two major depositional sequences, the lowermost of which consists predominantly of alternating bank, interbank, and shoal deposits of Atokan age. These banks are low-relief accumulations of Donezella, with coeval slackwater skeletal wackestones and interbedded deposits of foraminiferal sands. A prominent zone of intertonguing Chaetetes biostromes punctuates the middle part of this sequence. The Desmoinesian sequence begins as a series of rubbly limestones in association with abundant silicified plant remains and is interpreted as a set of paleosols. These are overlain by argillaceous, low-diversity wackestones and packstones of lagoonal origin, followed by carbonates of more open-marine circulation with abundant corals and other stenotypic fossils. In turn, these deposits are succeeded by a sequence of phylloid algal banks that increase in resistance upward to where they represent strata of the upper Magdalena. At this locality, however, the upper Magdalena is very thin because it is truncated by the pre-Hueco unconformity which, so prominent at the head of the canyon, can now be traced to the western scarp. These deposits are directly analogous to subsurface reservoir facies of the same age on the opposite side of the Diablo uplift in the Permian basin and thus provide an opportunity to generate reservoir models based on extensive outcrop exposure.

  12. Dissolution of evaporites in and around the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico and west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    permian evaporites in the Ochoan Castile, Salado, and Rustler Formations in the Delaware Basin of southeast New Mexico and west Texas have been subjected to various degrees of dissolution (notably of halite and gypsum) through geologic time. Eastward tilting of the Delaware Basin has resulted in the exhumation and erosion of Ochoan rocks in the western part of the basin. Waters in the Capitan, Rustler, Castile, and Bell Canyon Formations have previously been proposed as agents or consequences of evaporite dissolution according to four principal models: solution-and-fill, phreatic dissolution, brine density flow, and stratabound dissolutin (along bedding planes). Several geomorphological features of positive and negative relief have previously been cited as indicators of evaporite dissolution. Brine density flow has been used to explain the selective dissolution of certain evaporite horizons during the late Cenozoic. A review of available geological data has revealed that: Halite deposition was probably not so extensive as formerly believed. Waters with potential to dissolve evaporites are in the Rustler and Capitan, but not in the Bell Canyon, Salado mine seeps, or the Castile brine reservoirs. Brine density flow has not been active in removing most of the missing halite, nor are point-source dissolution features likely to have their roots at the Bell Canyon. Major evaporite dissolution has not been confined to the late Cenozoic, but much of it took place during the Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Tertiary periods. The Bell Canyon Formation has been a sink for dissolution-derived brine.

  13. Origin of micro-rhombic calcite matrix within Cretaceous reservoir rock, West Stuart City Trend, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Ronald D.

    1989-07-01

    Cores from four wells from the West Stuart City Trend in La Salle and Webb Counties, Texas, were analyzed to define depositional and diagenetic facies and to determine factors controlling porosity distribution. In all, 1187 ft (362 m) of core and 220 thin sections were examined in detail and supplemented by SEM analyses of fractured surfaces and plastic casts of pore systems. A comparison of lithofacies and ecologic facies to permeability and porosity values compiled from core data revealed that zones with permeabilities greater than 0.1 md and porosities of at least 6% were associated with rudistid grainstones cemented by isopachous, submarine cement and packstones with a finely crystalline rhombic calcite matrix. Isotopic and trace element analyses of both isopachous submarine cements and micro-rhombic matrix suggest a common origin. The precursor to the micro-rhombic calcite is believed to have been peloidal, high-magnesian calcite. This internal marine sediment may be analogous to the peloidal fabrics that have been reported from Holocene and Pleistocene carbonates. Diagenetic equilibration of both submarine cements and peloidal infill is believed to have occurred during burial either in marine pore waters at elevated temperatures or in restricted flow, phreatic freshwaters.

  14. Use of the internet for health information among primary care patients in rural West Texas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Jones, Betsy; Spalding, Mary; Young, Rodney; Ragain, Mike

    2009-06-01

    Little is known about how primary care patients in rural, remote or border areas use the internet for their health information. This study examined the factors related to internet use for medical information among primary care clinic patients in such areas of West Texas. A convenience sample was drawn from nine clinics that serve low-income rural area populations. Surveys were distributed to the patients during a 6-week period in the winter of 2006. The analytical sample included 1890 participants. Logistic regressions were conducted. Of 1890 subjects, 699 (37%) reported having used the internet for medical information. Among those who reported using the internet for health information, respondents' primary usage pattern was to request more health information (29.9%), followed by the purchase of health supplies (13.4%). Most internet users (78.8%) agreed that the online medical/health information had improved their understanding of a specific condition, disease, or treatment. Almost 60% of the internet users thought the information was reliable. The correlates of internet use included health insurance, self-rated health, health confidence, and number of worried days as well as age, education level, ethnicity, and language. Our findings showed a much lower rate of internet use for medical/health information compared with a 2006 nationwide survey. This finding suggests that promoting health/medical information through websites or other on-line resources might not be the most effective way to reach a majority of patients in remote, rural or border areas.

  15. Hydrogeological framework of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

    1996-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system underlies about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas, where mostly gently dipping Lower Cretaceous strata comprise three regional aquifers and two regional confining units. The aquifers are the Edwards Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill County, and the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos. The Navarro-Del Rio confining unit confines the downdip part of the Edwards Aquifer, and the Hammett confining unit confines the updip, basal part of the Trinity Aquifer and a small southeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Transmissivity averages less than 10,000 feet squared per day throughout more than 90 percent of the study area as the result of widespread cementation and secondary mineral growth. However, in fractured and leached rocks in the Balcones fault zone, transmissivity averages about 750,000 feet squared per day in the Edwards aquifer, which occupies less than 10 percent of the area.

  16. The Hydrogeologic Conditions in the Upper Dockum Group at the Waste Control Specialists Site, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, R. M.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Pickens, J. F.; Powers, D. W.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Cook, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site in Andrews County, west Texas has licenses from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous material. Four landfills are constructed on the WCS site, including a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. All landfills are constructed below grade and within the low-permeability Triassic Dockum Group mudrocks (Cooper Canyon Formation). The Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. The Dockum would be generally classified as an aquitard. At the WCS site, the vertical effective hydraulic conductivity of the Dockum is 1.2×10-9 cm/s, and its horizontal effective conductivity is 2.9×10-7 cm/s. Core samples reveal that at least the upper 300+ feet of the Dockum is in the unsaturated zone. The average capillary pressure in Dockum core samples is -2.84 MPa, with an average saturation of 0.87. High saturation values are not surprising, as Dockum air-entry pressures range from 0.016 to 9.8 MPa, with a mean of 1.0 MPa. Heat dissipation sensors, thermocouple psychrometers, and advanced tensiometers installed in Dockum borehole arrays generally show capillary pressures one order of magnitude less than those measured on core samples. These differences with core data are attributed to the presence of a trapped and compressed gas phase within Dockum materials. In the vicinity of an instrumented borehole, the gas phase pressure equilibrates with atmospheric pressure, lowering the capillary pressure. Little fluid has circulated vertically through the Dockum. Measurements of the electrical conductivity of a saturated paste consisting of water and

  17. Long-term evolution of Wink sinkholes in West Texas observed by high-resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Lu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Sinkhole is ground depression and/or collapse over the subsurface cavity in the karst terrain underlain by the carbonates, evaporites, and other soluble soils and rocks. The geohazards have been considered as a "hidden threat" to human life, infrastructures, and properties. The Delaware Basin of West Texas in the southwest part of the Permian Basin contains one of the greatest accumulations of evaporites in the United States. Sinkholes in West Texas have been developed by the dissolution of the subsurface evaporite deposits that come in contact with groundwater. Two Wink sinkholes in Wink, Texas, were developed in 1980 and 2002, respectively. However, monitoring the sinkholes in no man's lands has been challenging due to the lack of availability of high-resolution and temporally dense acquisitions. We employ aerial photography and radar satellite imagery to measure the long-term deformation from early 2000 and characterize the inherent hydrogeology that is closely related to sinkhole collapse and subsidence. Furthermore, data on oil/gas production and water injection into the subsurface as well as ground water level are analyzed to study their effects on the concurrent unstable ground surface in Wink sinkholes. Our study will provide invaluable information to understand the mechanism of sinkhole development and mitigate the catastrophic outcomes of the geohazards.

  18. Ochoan (upper Permian) stratigraphy and age determinations, southeastern New Mexico and west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G. ); Anderson, O.R. )

    1994-03-01

    Upper Permian strata, which are the stratotype of the Ochoan State (Series), have an extensive subsurface distribution and limited outcrop area in southeastern New Mexico and west Texas. The oldest strata are alternating laminae of anhydrite and calcite of the Castile Formation and are as much as 700 m thick. The closely related and overlying Salado Formation is a much as 600 m thick and is mostly halite and argillaceous halite with minor anhydrite. The overlying Rustler Formation is as much as 150 m thick and consists of anhydrite, red silty shale and magnesian limestone. Overlying red beds are the Quartermaster Formation (Dewey Lake Formation is a synonym, as is the term Pierce Canyon red beds), which is as much as 106 m thick and consist of fine sandstones, siltstones, and minor gypsum. The Castile rests disconformably on the Capitanian (middle Permian) Lamar Limestone Member of the Bell Canyon Formation and its equivalent, the Tansill Formation of the Artesia Group. Counting of Castile-Salado laminae and their posited relationship to astronomical cycles suggests that Castile-Salado deposition took only 200,000-300,000 yr. Limited assemblages of brachiopods and conodonts from the Rustler Formation indicate a Late Permian age, but are no more precise age indicators. A small assemblage of bivalves, K-Ar ages and magnetostratigraphy indicate a late Permian age for the Quartermaster Formation. There is no evidence to support a Triassic age assignment for the Quarter-master; it is disconformably overlain by the Upper Triassic (Carnian) Chinle group. Most workers us the Ochoan as a Late Permian Stage-Age, although its typical strata generally lack good age indicators and may represent relatively short and sporadic intervals of the Late Permian. We prefer recognition of the Ochoan as a lithostratigraphic unit (group) without regional or global geochronologial significance.

  19. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas.

    PubMed

    Gong, Gordon; Basom, Janet; Mattevada, Sravan; Onger, Frederick

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2-22µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Geochronology and Regional Correlation of Continental Permo-Triassic Sediments in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, W.; Renne, P. R.; Mundil, R.; Chang, S.; Geissman, J. W.; Tabor, N. J.; Mack, G.

    2011-12-01

    Although many aspects of marine sections spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) have been studied in great detail across a broad paleogeographic area, less is known about the timing, pace, and extent of environmental changes and extinctions across this boundary in continental environments, particularly along the Panthalassa margin. Extensive outcrops in the Ochoan Series of west Texas provide an opportunity to investigate the terrestrial record spanning the PTB. The presence of several silicic tuffs in these sections allows for precise radioisotopic dating using both U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. Dated strata then serve as a calibration basis for paleomagnetic and lithostratigraphic studies and facilitate stratigraphic correlation across the few to hundreds of kilometers separating study sites. Depending on the possible correlations, as many as seven tuffs have been identified in this region, the ages of which are within about a million years of the chronometrically-defined PTB at the Meishan section in China at ca. 252 Ma. Data obtained thus far indicate that the PTB occurs within the Quartermaster/Dewey Lake Formation. With the aims of determining the number and ages of distinct tuffs found and facilitating a well-correlated regional stratigraphy among the studied sections, we present preliminary radioisotopic age determinations of, and correlations among, these tuffs using the zircon U-Pb system, 40Ar/39Ar dating where possible, as well as mineral chemistry. Our results include the first dated tuff in the Ochoan Series that lies within the Alibates Formation which underlies the Dewey Lake Fm. Other samples in progress from the various tuffs in the region, in combination with results from magneto- and chemostratigraphy, will significantly expand the areal coverage of these strata and lead towards a greatly improved chronostratigraphic framework.

  1. Computed and estimated pollutant loads, West Fork Trinity River, Fort Worth, Texas, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; McWreath, Harry C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Trinity River Authority, did a study to estimate storm-runoff pollutant loads using two models—a deterministic model and a statistical model; the estimated loads were compared to loads computed from measured data for a large (118,000 acres) basin in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan area. Loads were computed and estimated for 12 properties and constituents in runoff from two 1997 storms at streamflow-gaging station 08048543 West Fork Trinity River at Beach Street in Fort Worth. Each model uses rainfall as a primary variable to estimate pollutant load. In addition to using point rainfall at the Beach Street station to estimate pollutant loads, areal-averaged rainfall for the basin was computed to obtain a more representative estimate of rainfall over the basin. Loads estimated by the models for the two storms, using both point and areal-averaged rainfall, generally did not compare closely to computed loads for the 12 water-quality properties and constituents. Both models overestimated loads more frequently than they underestimated loads. The models tended to yield similar estimates for the same property or constituent. In general, areal-averaged rainfall data yielded better estimates of loads than point rainfall data for both models. Neither the deterministic model nor the statistical model (both using areal-averaged rainfall) was consistently better at estimating loads. Several factors could account for the inability of the models to estimate loads closer to computed loads. Chief among them is the fact that neither model was designed for the specific application of this study.

  2. Clay mineralogy and its controls on production, Pennsylvanian upper Morrow sandstone, Farnsworth field, Ochiltree County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, T.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Farnsworth field in Ochiltree County, Texas, is the most prolific upper Morrow oil field in the Anadarko basin, producing more than 36 million bbl of oil and 27 billion ft{sup 3} of gas since its discovery in 1955. The bulk of the production comes from an upper Morrow-aged sandstone locally referred to as the Buckhaults sandstone. The Buckhaults sandstone is a coarse to very coarse-grained, arkose to arkosic wacke. Grain-size distributions, sedimentary structure analysis, and sand-body geometry indicate that the Buckhaults was deposited in a fluvial-deltaic environment as distributary channel and distributary mouth-bar sands. Depositional strike is northwest to southeast. The source area for the Buckhaults sediments was primarily a plutonic igneous terrane, with a minor contribution from volcanic and reworked sedimentary rocks. The proposed source area is the Amarillo-Wichita uplift to the south. In addition, the Cimarron arch and/or Keyes dome to the west-northwest may also have contributed sediment to the study area. The large (average) grain size, the amount of feldspar present, and the overall immaturity of the Buckhaults sediments indicate a relatively short distance of transport. Detailed scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis of cores from the productive interval coupled with comparisons of varying completion practices across the field indicate a significant correlation between individual well performance, clay mineralogy, and completion technique.

  3. Evaporite replacement within the Permian strata of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and the Delaware Basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The Park City and Goose Egg Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming and the Seven Rivers, Yates and Tansill Formations of west Texas and New Mexico contain numerous examples of silicified and calcitized evaporites. Both areas show significant preserved interstitial evaporite, but on outcrop the discrete crystals and nodular evaporites have been extensively replaced. These replacements appear to be a multistage phenomenon. Field and petrographic evidence (matted fabrics in nodules; evaporite inclusions) indicate that silicification involved direct replacement of evaporites and probably occurred during earlier stages of burial. Calcitization, however, appears to be a much later phenomenon and involved precipitation of coarse crystals within evaporite molds. The calcites are typically free of evaporite inclusions. Isotopic analyses of these calcites give a wide range of values from [minus]6.04 to [minus]25.02 [per thousand] [delta][sup 18]O and +6.40 to [minus]25.26 [per thousand] [delta][sup 13]C, reflecting their complex diagenetic histories. In both localities, silicification of evaporites was completed by the end of hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. The extremely broad isotopic range of the calcites indicates that the calcitization occurred during a long period of progressive uplift and increased groundwater circulation associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting. The very light oxygen values within the Bighorn Basin were produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction during deepest burial of the region. Evaporite diagenesis in both the Bighorn and Delaware Basins is an ongoing process that started prior to hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to do significant porosity change.

  4. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. Geologic and engineering characterization of Geraldine Ford field, Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Topical report -- 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Malik, M.A.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. The study focused on Geraldine Ford field, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon formation (Ramsey sandstone). Petrophysical characterization of the Ford Geraldine unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobile oil saturation, and other reservoir properties. Once the reservoir-characterization study was completed, a demonstration area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in the northern part of the unit was chosen for reservoir modeling/simulation. A quarter of a five-spot injection pattern in the demonstration area was selected for flow simulations, and two cases of permeability distribution were considered, one using stochastic permeability distribution generated by conditional simulation and the other using layered permeabilities. Flow simulations were performed using UTCOMP, an isothermal, three-dimensional, compositional simulator for miscible gas flooding. Results indicate that 10--30% (1 to 3 MMbbl) of remaining oil in place in the demonstration area can be produced by CO{sub 2} injection.

  6. Winter ecology and habitat use of lesser prairie-chickens in west Texas, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, Clint W.; Pirius, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range by more than 90 percent since the late 1800s. The lesser prairie-chicken has been listed as a candidate species for protection under the Endangered Species Act and is undergoing review for actual listing. Populations and distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas are thought to be at or near all time lows. These factors have led to substantially increased concern for conservation of the species. It is apparent that sound management and conservation strategies for lesser prairie-chickens are necessary to ensure the long-term persistence of the species. To develop those strategies, basic ecological information is required. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We examined home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the winters of 2008–9, 2009–10, and 2010–11 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in west Texas. We captured and radio-tagged 53 adult lesser prairie-chickens. We obtained sufficient locations to estimate winter home-range size for 23 individuals. Home-range size did not differ between years or by sex. Although female prairie-chickens had slightly larger home ranges (503.5 ± 34.9 ha) compared to males (489.1 ± 34.9 ha), the differences were not significant (t2 = 0.05, P = 0.96). During the nonbreeding season, we found that 97.2 percent of locations of male and female prairie-chickens alike were within 3.2 kilometers (km) of the lek of capture. Most locations (96.8%) were within 1.7 km of a known lek and almost all locations (99.9%) were within 3.2 km of an available water source. Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges, grassland dominated areas with sand shinnery oak were used more than available, and sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) areas dominated with grassland as well as sand sagebrush areas

  7. Topographic stress perturbations in southern Davis Mountains, west Texas 1. Polarity reversal of principal stresses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.Z.; Morin, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    We have applied a previously developed analytical stress model to interpret subsurface stress conditions inferred from acoustic televiewer logs obtained in two municipal water wells located in a valley in the southern Davis Mountains near Alpine, Texas. The appearance of stress-induced breakouts with orientations that shift by 90?? at two different depths in one of the wells is explained by results from exact solutions for the effects of valleys on gravity and tectonically induced subsurface stresses. The theoretical results demonstrate that above a reference depth termed the hinge point, a location that is dependent on Poisson's ratio, valley shape, and magnitude of the maximum horizontal tectonic stress normal to the long axis of the valley, horizontal stresses parallel to the valley axis are greater than those normal to it. At depths below this hinge point the situation reverses and horizontal stresses normal to the valley axis are greater than those parallel to it. Application of the theoretical model at Alpine is accommodated by the fact that nearby earthquake focal mechanisms establish an extensional stress regime with the regional maximum horizontal principal stress aligned perpendicular to the valley axis. We conclude that the localized stress field associated with a valley setting can be highly variable and that breakouts need to be examined in this context when estimating the orientations and magnitudes of regional principal stresses.

  8. West Central Texas. Dryhole graveyard rediscovered; some wells produce 1000 b/d

    SciTech Connect

    Wash, R.

    1983-03-01

    Two fields in Eastland County that were abandoned in the 1930s due to low reserve volumes and low pressures have been reopened, with 1,000 bopd flowing from some wells. This came about through geologic research, a different completion technique than that used in the 1930s, and a little luck. The Lake Sand and Conglomerate reservoirs are believed to stretch nearly 6 miles beneath Cisco, Texas, and the surrounding terrain. Plans are to drill in this area through 1985, which will involve sinking 200 wells on 40-acre spacing. The most prolific well drilled in the Cisco area so far is the No. 2 Boggs which open-flowed 2,000 bopd from the Conglomerate zone just above the Lake Sand Formation between 3,500 and 3,600 ft. The well is an offset to the No. 1 Boggs drilled on the 200-acre Boggs lease--the first tract purchased in the Cisco area by Hanvey and Katlaco. The No. 1 Boggs potentialed at more than 100 bopd plus 300 to 400 Mcfd of gas.

  9. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN TWO MOSQUITO POPULATIONS AND WEST NILE VIRUS IN HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS, 2003–061

    PubMed Central

    DENNETT, JAMES A.; BALA, ADILELKHIDIR; WUITHIRANYAGOOL, TAWEESAK; RANDLE, YVONNE; SARGENT, CHRISTOPHER B.; GUZMAN, HILDA; SIIRIN, MARINA; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; REYNA-NAVA, MARTIN; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.; TESH, ROBERT B.; PARSONS, RAY E.; BUENO, RUDY

    2008-01-01

    Associations between Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and West Nile virus (WNV) activity, temperature, and rainfall in Harris County, Texas 2003–06 are discussed. Human cases were highly correlated to Cx. quinquefasciatus (r = 0.87) and Ae. albopictus (r = 0.78) pools, blue jays (r = 0.83), and Ae. albopictus collected (r = 0.71), but not Cx. quinquefasciatus collected (r = 0.45). Human cases were associated with temperature (r = 0.71), not rainfall (r = 0.29), whereas temperature correlated with Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively) and Cx. quinquefasciatus pools (r = 0.75), but not Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.55). Both species (collections and pools) and blue jays were weakly correlated (r ≤ 0.41) with rainfall, but blue jays were better correlated with Cx. quinquefasciatus pools (r = 0.87), compared with Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.67), Ae. albopictus collections (r = 0.69), and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.46). Peak minimum infection rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus (4.55), and Ae. albopictus (4.41) was in August with highest human cases (17.87), blue jays (55.58), and temperature (29.01°C). Between both species, blood meal analysis indicated 68.18% of Cx. quinquefasciatus mammalian hosts were dog, while 22.72% were human, whereas Ae. albopictus had higher human (44.44%) but fewer dog hosts (22.22%). Ten bird species were identified as hosts for Cx. quinquefasciatus, with northern cardinal and blue jay representing 26.66% and 20.00%, respectively. No bird feeding activity was observed in Ae. albopictus. The earliest and latest human blood meal occurred in May (Ae. albopictus) and November (Cx. quinquefasciatus); 66.66% of human host identifications between both species occurred in October–November, after the seasonal human case peak. Based upon our data, WNV activity in both mosquito species warrants further investigation of their individual roles in WNV ecology within this region. PMID

  10. Associations between two mosquito populations and West Nile virus in Harris County, Texas, 2003-06.

    PubMed

    Dennett, James A; Bala, Adilelkhidir; Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak; Randle, Yvonne; Sargent, Christopher B; Guzman, Hilda; Siirin, Marina; Hassan, Hassan K; Reyna-Nava, Martin; Unnasch, Thomas R; Tesh, Robert B; Parsons, Ray E; Bueno, Rudy

    2007-09-01

    Associations between Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and West Nile virus (WNV) activity, temperature, and rainfall in Harris County, Texas 2003-06 are discussed. Human cases were highly correlated to Cx. quinquefasciatus (r = 0.87) and Ae. albopictus (r = 0.78) pools, blue jays (r = 0.83), and Ae. albopictus collected (r = 0.71), but not Cx. quinquefasciatus collected (r = 0.45). Human cases were associated with temperature (r = 0.71), not rainfall (r = 0.29), whereas temperature correlated with Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively) and Cx. quinqueftsciatus pools (r = 0.75), but not Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.55). Both species (collections and pools) and blue jays were weakly correlated (r 5 0.41) with rainfall, but blue jays were better correlated with Cx. quinquefasciatus pools (r = 0.87), compared with Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.67), Ae. albopictus collections (r = 0.69), and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.46). Peak minimum infection rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus (4.55), and Ae. albopictus (4.41) was in August with highest human cases (17.87), blue jays (55.58), and temperature (29.01 degrees C). Between both species, blood meal analysis indicated 68.18% of Cx. quinquefasciatus mammalian hosts were dog, while 22.72% were human, whereas Ae. albopictus had higher human (44.44%) but fewer dog hosts (22.22%). Ten bird species were identified as hosts for Cx. quinquefasciatus, with northern cardinal and blue jay representing 26.66% and 20.00%, respectively. No bird feeding activity was observed in Ae. albopictus. The earliest and latest human blood meal occurred in May (Ae. albopictus) and November (Cx. quinquefasciatus); 66.66% of human host identifications between both species occurred in October-November, after the seasonal human case peak. Based upon our data, WNV activity in both mosquito species warrants further investigation of their individual roles in WNV ecology within this region.

  11. Vitrinite reflectance data for the Permian Basin, west Texas and southeast New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark; Barker, Charles E.; McDonald, Sargent

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data based on analyses of samples of drill cuttings collected from 74 boreholes spread throughout the Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico (fig. 1). The resulting data consist of 3 to 24 individual Ro analyses representing progressively deeper stratigraphic units in each of the boreholes (table 1). The samples, Cambrian-Ordovician to Cretaceous in age, were collected at depths ranging from 200 ft to more than 22,100 ft.The R0 data were plotted on maps that depict three different maturation levels for organic matter in the sedimentary rocks of the Permian Basin (figs. 2-4). These maps show depths at the various borehole locations where the R0 values were calculated to be 0.6 (fig. 2), 1.3 (fig. 3), and 2.0 (fig. 4) percent, which correspond, generally, to the onset of oil generation, the onset of oil cracking, and the limit of oil preservation, respectively.The four major geologic structural features within the Permian Basin–Midland Basin, Delaware Basin, Central Basin Platform, and Northwest Shelf (fig. 1) differ in overall depth, thermal history and tectonic style. In the western Delaware Basin, for example, higher maturation is observed at relatively shallow depths, resulting from uplift and eastward basin tilting that began in the Mississippian and ultimately exposed older, thermally mature rocks. Maturity was further enhanced in this basin by the emplacement of early and mid-Tertiary intrusives. Volcanic activity also appears to have been a controlling factor for maturation of organic matter in the southern part of the otherwise tectonically stable Northwest Shelf (Barker and Pawlewicz, 1987). Depths to the three different Ro values are greatest in the eastern Delaware Basin and southern Midland Basin. This appears to be a function of tectonic activity related to the Marathon-Ouachita orogeny, during the Late-Middle Pennsylvanian, whose affects were widespread across the Permian

  12. Evidence of Oxyspirura petrowi in migratory songbirds found in the rolling plains of West Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Kendall, Ronald J

    2014-07-01

    Three Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) and one Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre) from the Rolling Plains of Texas, USA were sampled for eyeworms in September 2013. All four birds were infected with the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi.

  13. Structure of the Carrizo Mountain Group, southeastern Carrizo Mountains, west Texas: A transpressional zone of the Grenville orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Stephen W.; Mosher, Sharon

    2003-02-01

    The west Texas segment of the Grenville orogen includes an oblique, dextral, transpressive zone. The orogen exposed near Van Horn, Texas, displays a transition from the mid-amphibolite-facies metamorphic core to a foreland fold and thrust belt. In this paper, detailed structural mapping and analyses, presented for key exposures of the metamorphic rocks, the Mesoproterozoic Carrizo Mountain Group, show a southeastward increase in number of deformational phases and intensity of deformation. The central portion is dominated by oblique northwest convergence, which produced two phases of northwest verging folds and synchronous, oblique reverse and dextral shearing. The thick parts of pre-tectonic mafic plutons, which had been emplaced as locally discordant sills, control the spatial distribution of structures. Two dominant phases of folds form Type 0 interference patterns (essentially coaxial and coplanar; i.e., fold tightening was dominant). This central belt also contains en echelon reverse to oblique shear zones and comprises a transfer zone within the orogen between structurally higher and lower major shear zones. Overall, the mapped part of the central Carrizo Mountains represents localized dextral transpression within a larger region dominated by reverse motion, possibly indicating a change through time from orthogonal to oblique contraction. Further south in the Bass Canyon region, the earlier fold generations are refolded into Type 2 ("mushroom") interference patterns. These structures show a westward vergence and are kinematically linked to those further north across a zone of disharmonic folding and heterogeneous shear. The structure and kinematics of the polyphase deformation and ductile shearing in the metamorphic portion of the orogen is compatible with that seen in the foreland fold-thrust belt, suggesting that in both foreland and hinterland, transpression was a characteristic feature of the west Texas Grenville orogeny. The timing and kinematics of

  14. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  15. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1996-04-30

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. One the reservoir-characterization study of both field is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to: (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area; (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments; and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill well will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and producibility problem characterization.

  16. Irrigation with Treated Urban Wastewater for Bioenergy Crop Production in the Far West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjegunte, G. K.; Clark, J. A.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent years, interest in biobased fuels is increasing and the congressionally mandated goal is to use at least 36 billion gallons of bio-based transportation fuels by 2022. However, in 2009 the U.S. produced about 10.75 billion gallons of ethanol, primarily as corn starch ethanol and 550 million gallons of biodiesel. Thus, there is a huge gap between the current capacity and the mandated goal. USDA estimates that about 27 million acres of land has to be brought under bioenergy crops to produce 36 billion gallons of bio-based fuels. Meeting the challenge of bridging this huge gap requires a comprehensive regional strategy that includes bringing addition area from different regions within the country under bioenergy crops. In the southwest U.S. region such as west Texas or southern New Mexico, bringing vast abandoned crop lands and areas having permeable soils under bioenergy crops can be a part of such a regional strategy. While the region has adequate supply of land, finding reliable source of water to produce bioenergy crops is the main challenge. This challenge can be met by developing marginal quality water sources for bioenergy crops production. Use of marginal quality waters such as treated urban wastewater/saline groundwater to irrigate bioenergy crops may prove beneficial, if the bioenergy crops can grow under elevated salinity and the effects on soil and shallow groundwater can be minimized by appropriate management. The region has enormous potential for marginal quality water irrigation to produce bioenergy crops for a greater farm return. For example, at present, in El Paso alone, the total volume of treated municipal and industrial wastewater is about 65,000 acre-feet/year, of which only 13% is being reused for industrial processes and irrigating urban landscapes. The major concern associated with treated wastewater irrigation is its salinity (electrical conductivity or EC which measures salinity ranges from 1.8 to 2.1 dS m-1) and sodicity

  17. Employing spatial information technologies to monitor biological control of saltcedar in West Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhadha spp.) has shown promise as a biocontrol agent for saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) invasions in the United States. In Texas, natural resource managers need assistance in monitoring biological control of invasive saltcedars. This study describes application of a medium fo...

  18. Applying broadband spectra to assess biological control of saltcedar in West Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Texas, natural resource managers, government officials, and scientists need effective means for monitoring biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) with the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhadba spp.). This study was conducted to evaluate broadband spectra within visible, red-edge, and near-inf...

  19. Urban and community forests of the South Central West region: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes...

  20. Creating a disease risk map for West Nile virus for surveillance in Central Texas using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Following the discovery of the West Nile virus (WNv) in Brazos County, TX in 2002, mosquito research personnel at Texas A&M University established a routine WNv mosquito vector surveillance program in the county. In 2004, a map of Brazos County was created depicting areas that had a heightened leve...

  1. Precambrian basement geology of the Permian basin region of west Texas and Eastern New Mexico: A geophysical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R.

    1996-03-01

    Because most of the Permian basin region of west Texas and southern New Mexico is covered by Phanerozoic rocks, other means must be found to examine the Precambrian upper crustal geology of the region. We have combined geologic information on the Precambrian from outcrops and wells with geophysical information from gravity and magnetic surveys in an integrated analysis of the history and structure of basement rocks in the region. Geophysical anomalies can be related to six Precambrian events: formation of the Early Proterozoic outer tectonic belt, igneous activity in the southern Granite-Rhyolite province, an episode of pre-Grenville extension, the Grenville orogeny, rifting to form the Delaware aulacogen, and Eocambrian rifting to form the early Paleozoic continental margin. Two geophysical features were studied in detail: the Abilene gravity minimum and the Central Basin platform gravity high. The Abilene gravity minimum is shown to extend from the Delaware basin across north-central Texas and is interpreted to be caused by a granitic batholith similar in size to the Sierra Nevada batholith in California and Nevada. This batholith appears to be related to formation of the southern Granite- Rhyolite province, possibly as a continental margin arc batholith. Because of this interpretation, we have located the Grenville tectonic front southward from its commonly quoted position, closer to the Llano uplift. Middle Proterozoic mafic intrusions are found to core the Central Basin platform and the Roosevelt uplift. These intrusions formed at about 1.1 Ga and are related in time to both the Mid-Continent rift system and the Grenville orogeny in Texas. Precambrian basement structures and changes in lithology have influenced the structure and stratigraphy in the overlying Permian basin, and thus have potential exploration significance.

  2. Texas as seen from the Apollo 6 unmanned spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-04-06

    AS6-02-1455 (4 April 1968) --- Texas is photographed from the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission. Seen in this photograph are Midland, Brownfield, Big Spring, J. B. Thomas Lake, headwaters of Colorado and Brazos Rivers, and the west Texas gas and oil fields.

  3. Middle proterozoic tectonic activity in west Texas and eastern New Mexico and analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The Precambrian history of west Texas and eastern New Mexico is complex, consisting of four events: Early Proterozoic orogenic activity (16309-1800 Ma), formation of the western granite-rhyolite province (WGRP) (1340-1410 Ma), Grenville age tectonics (1116-1232 Ma), and middle Proterozoic extension possibly related to mid-continent rifting (1086-1109 Ma). Pre-Grenville tectonics, Grenville tectonics, and mid-continent rifting are represented in this area by the Abilene gravity minimum (AGM) and bimodal igneous rocks, which are probably younger. We have used gravity modeling and the comparison of gravity and magnetic anomalies with rock types reported from wells penetrating Precambrian basement to study the AGM and middle Proterozoic extension in this area. The AGM is an east-northeast-trending, 600 km long, gravity low, which extends from the Texas-Oklahoma border through the central basin platform (CBP) to the Delaware basin. This feature appears to predate formation of the mafic body in the CBP (1163 Ma) and is most likely related to Pre-Grenville tectonics, possibly representing a continental margin arc batholith. Evidence of middle Proterozoic extension is found in the form of igneous bodies in the CBP, the Van Horn uplift, the Franklin Mountains, and the Sacramento Mountains. Analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies shows that paired gravity and magnetic highs are related to mafic intrusions in the upper crust. Mapping of middle Proterozoic igneous rocks and the paired anomalies outlines a 530 km diameter area of distributed east-west-oriented extension. The Debaca-Swisher terrain of shallow marine and clastic sedimentary rocks is age correlative with middle Proterozoic extension. These rocks may represent the lithology of possible Proterozoic exploration targets. Proterozoic structures were reactivated during the Paleozoic, affecting both the structure and deposition in the Permian basin.

  4. A health survey of a colonia located on the west Texas, US/Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Anders, Robert L; Olson, Thomas; Robinson, Kris; Wiebe, John; DiGregorio, Rena; Guillermina, Mina; Albrechtsen, Justin; Bean, Nathaniel H; Ortiz, Melchor

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about how health disparities affect the health status and general health perceptions of Hispanics living in Texas colonias. The purpose of this study was to conduct a health survey of residents (n = 216) of a colonia community on the border between El Paso, Texas and Juarez, Mexico. Instruments used in this study included a researcher developed demographic questionnaire, the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH), Cutting down, Annoyance by criticism, Guilty feeling and Eye-openers (CAGE) for alcohol consumption, and the Short Form version 2 (SF36v2) health survey. Study findings show the average participant was approximately 42 years old, attained an average of 9.6 years of education, earned an average annual household income of $17,575 and had an average SASH score of 25.4. SASH scores range from 12 to 60, with higher scores suggesting higher levels of American acculturation. Findings from this health survey suggest the average resident of the colonia may have health disadvantages when compared to residents from other parts of El Paso and Texas. Binge drinking was self-reported by 13.4% of all participants; with 5.6% having a CAGE score greater than 2 (indicating an increased propensity towards problems with alcohol). The self-report rates of diabetes, depression and anxiety were 15.3%, 20.4% and 16.7% respectively. The SF36v2 composite functional health status scores mirrored the national norms.

  5. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  6. Sanaga Sud field - Offshore Cameroon, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pauken, R.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The Sanaga Sud field, offshore Cameroon, is located just northwest of the coastal town of Kribi in the northern part of the Douala basin. The discovery well, Sanaga Sud A-1, was drilled in 1979 to test an apparent horst block that contained a prominent horizontal seismic amplitude. The Douala basin is one of a series of passive margin basins located along the coastline of central and southern Africa, and formed during the rifting of Africa and South America during the Early Cretaceous. Drilling results showed that the amplitude was a gas/water contact. Two appraisal wells, SSA-2 and SSA-3, were drilled in 1981. All three wells tested gas and condensate. Total recoverable hydrocarbons for the field are estimated to be approximately 1 tcf of gas. The trap in this field is composed of tilted and rotated fault blocks composed of interbedded Aptian to Albian sandstones, siltstones, and shales. The fault blocks were truncated by erosion (breakup unconformity) and later buried by a considerable thickness of onlapping Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary shale. The late Albian erosional unconformity forms the top of the trap over most of the field. Geochemical studies indicate a Lower Cretaceous source for the hydrocarbons. The gross pay thickness averages 250 m with an average porosity of 23% and an average permeability of 142 md. Reservoir lithologies range from well-sorted, massive sandstones to poorly sorted fine sandstones and siltstones containing shaly laminations that are carbonaceous and micaceous. The field is located predominantly in Block PH-38, but part of the field is in the Londji concession. Mobil Producing Cameroon, Inc., is the operator of PH-38 and Total Exploration and Production Cameroon is the operator of the Londji concession.

  7. Application of integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geoenvironmental issues in far west Texas and southern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Adriana Evangelina

    The primary goal of this dissertation was to utilize a geographic information system (GIS) to better understand geological, geophysical, forestry and environmental issues in the west Texas-New Mexico region. Studies such as these are especially important in the border region where economic limitations are usually a factor in studying and solving some of these problems. The availability of satellite imagery through the Pan-American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES), data from the Geospatial Center and the collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Forest entities (Guadalupe and Lincoln Ranger Districts) enhance the value of our investigation. Research was conducted in two distinct areas: Cloudcroft-Ruidoso, New Mexico, and the Salt Flat basin of southwest Texas (Figure 1). The dissertation will be presented as a set of independent chapters. Chapter 1. A GIS and remote sensing investigation of the effects of interactions of terrain, soil, and other physiographic factors on the Pine Community of Lincoln National Park in the Sacramento Mountains of Southwest New Mexico. This study utilized GIS and remote sensing to better understand the dynamics of White Pine Blister Rust (WPBR) infestation in the white pine community of the Sacramento Mountains of southwest New Mexico. Both field spectral sampling of the needles and imagery analysis were incorporated to better understand the infestation, progression and vulnerability of the forest to this and other diseases. A major contribution of this study was to construct a GIS database, which was utilized to analyze USDA, elevation, satellite imagery, geological, and hydrological data to produce a hazard-rating map. The GIS environment also allowed for a 3-D perspective on the data, which was very useful in spatial visualization. Chapter 2. An integrated study of the basin structure of the Salt Flat basin. In this study we utilized, gravity and magnetic data, satellite

  8. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. Late Leonardian plants from West Texas: The youngest Paleozoic plant megafossils in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.; Miller, J.M.; Rohr, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Abundant Permian plant megafossils were discovered in the Del Norte Mountains of Brewster County, Trans-Pecos Texas. The flora is dominated by a new and distinctive type of gigantopteroid leaves. Marine invertebrates are closely associated, and this admixture of continental and marine fossils indicates a deltaic depositional setting, probably on the southern margin of the Permian Basin. Conodonts indicate correlation with the uppermost Leonardian Road Canyon Formation in the Glass Mountains. These are the youngest Paleozoic plant megafossils known in North America; they add an important paleontological element to the classic Permian area of this Continent.

  10. Metacercariae of Clinostomum attenuatum in Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium, Bufo cognatus and Spea multiplicata from west Texas.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Bursey, C R; Gray, M J; Smith, L M

    2004-12-01

    Tissues from barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium), Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus) and New Mexico spadefoots (Spea multiplicata) collected from 16 playa wetlands in Texas during 1999 and 2000 were examined by light microscopy. Digenean cysts were primarily distributed subcutaneously throughout the specimens and occasionally coelomic invasion was noted. The parasites within the cysts were 1.5-2 mm in diameter, with a thin (c. 10 microm wide) eosinophilic-staining tegument, two suckers (oral and ventral), posteriorly located primordial genitalia and paired digestive caeca. These digeneans were identified as the metacercariae of Clinostomum attenuatum. This is the first record of Clinostomum attenuatum in these amphibian species.

  11. Did CO2 injection induce 2006-2011 earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAN, W.; Frohlich, C.

    2013-12-01

    as a strategy for managing climate change. 1. Davis SD, Pennington WD (1989) Induced seismic deformation in the Cogdell oil field of west Texas. Bull Seismol Soc Amer 79:1477-1495.

  12. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  13. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico - petrophysical characterization of the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    Reservoir performance of the South Cowden Grayburg field suggests that only 21 percent of the original oil in place has been recovered. The purpose of this study is to construct a realistic reservoir model to be used to predict the location of the remaining mobile oil. Construction of reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation of carbonate reservoirs is difficult because they typically have complicated and unpredictable permeability patterns. Much of the difficulty results from the degree to which diagenetic overprinting masks depositional textures and patterns. For example, the task of constructing a reservoir model of a limestone reservoir that has undergone only cementation and compaction is easier than constructing a model of a karsted reservoir that has undergone cavern formation and collapse as well as cementation and compaction. The Permian-age carbonate-ramp reservoirs in the Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico, are typically anhydritic dolomitized limestone. Because the dolomitization occurred soon after deposition, depositional fabrics and patterns are often retained, and a reservoir model can be constructed using depositional concepts. Recent studies of the San Andres outcrop in the Guadalupe Mountains and the Seminole San Andres reservoir in the Permian Basin illustrate how depositional fabrics and patterns can be used to construct a reservoir model when depositional features are retained.

  14. Paleokarst, karst related diagenesis and reservoir development: Examples from Ordovician-Devonian age strata of west Texas and the Mid-continent

    SciTech Connect

    Candelaria, M.P.; Reed, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This publication served as a guidebook for a Permian Basin Section-SEPM field trip to examine exposures of paleokarst in lower Paleozoic platform carbonates of West Texas and New Mexico. Included are road logs for the field trips and a collection of eighteen papers and abstracts that focus on various aspects of paleokarst in shallow-water carbonates including: (1) recognition and classification of karst-related textures in outcrop and the subsurface; (2) sequence stratigraphic analysis of karsted platforms; (3) diagenetic products of karstification; and (4) production characteristics of karst reservoirs. Collectively, these papers provide excellent documentation of sedimentary fabrics and diagenetic products associated with paleokarst development resulting from regional exposure of Cambro-Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian carbonates of the Great American Bank.'' The major value of this volume lies in the integration of a variety of approaches for examining processes and products related to karstification. These include the use of core, outcrop, well logs, and computer modeling to better understand paleokarst development and preservation. Some of the more interesting articles are highlighted below.

  15. Improving polymer injectivity at West Coyote Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Shuler, P.J.; Kuehne, D.L.; Uhl, J.T.; Walkup, G.W.

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents a case history where laboratory and simulation results were used to model a single-well polymer injectivity field test in the West Coyote Field and improve the injectivity in a subsequent field test. The polyacrylamide polymer used in the first test exhibited low injectivity. Laboratory studies were performed to identify the causes of low injectivity and physically model the field test. Laboratory core data and reservoir properties were used in a mathematical model to calculate the polymer injectivity, which closely matched that observed in the field. The low polymer injectivity at West Coyote was due to: formation damage caused by the polymer and low salinity polymer makeup water; and the high resistance factor developed by the polymer. These problems were overcome by: using a lower molecular weight polyacrylamide; preshearing the polymer solution before injection; and increasing the salinity of the polymer makeup water. These improvements resulted in a 50% increase in injectivity during the second polymer injectivity field test at West Coyote.

  16. Improving polymer injectivity at West Coyote Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Shuler, P.J.; Kuchne, D.L.; Uhl, J.T.; Walkup, G.W.

    1987-08-01

    This paper presents a case history where laboratory and simulation results were used to model a single-well polymer injectivity field test in the West Coyote field and to improve injectivity in a subsequent field test. The polyacrylamide used in the first test exhibited low injectivity. Laboratory studies were performed to identify the causes of low injectivity and to model the field test physically. Laboratory core data and reservoir properties were used in a mathematical model to calculate the polymer injectivity, which closely matched that observed in the field. The low polymer injectivity at West Coyote was a result of formation damage caused by the polymer and low-salinity polymer makeup water and the high resistance factor developed by the polymer. These problems were overcome by using a lower-molecular-weight polyacrylamide, preshearing the polymer solution before injection, and increasing the salinity of the polymer makeup water. These improvements resulted in a 50% increase in injectivity during the second polymer injectivity field test at West Coyote.

  17. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, West Texas facility among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Buzzi Unicem cement facility in Maryneal, TX, about 60 miles west of Abilene, is among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY ST

  18. An unusual Middle Permian flora from the Blaine Formation (Pease River Group: Leonardian-Guadalupian Series) of King County, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Hook, R.W.; Nelson, W.J.; Chaney, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    A new Middle Permian plant assemblage from South Ash Pasture in King County, Texas, may be the youngest and is certainly the most unusual flora known from the Permian of either West Texas or adjoining north-central Texas. Found serendipitously in the evaporite-rich upper Blaine Formation (Pease River Group, Guadalupian Series), the flora is of very low diversity despite intensive collecting efforts, and the affinities of nearly all taxa are enigmatic. The most common elements are parallel-veined leaves that resemble cordaites but that could be isolated pinnules of a pinnate leaf. Gigantopterid foliage is present but not assignable to any known taxon. A single foliar conifer specimen is too incomplete for assignment. Numerous reproductive organs, however, and an abundance of axes may represent conifers. Conchostracans, palaeoniscoid fish scales, and small heteropolar coprolites also occur in the deposit, which originated as a small, claystone-dominated channel fill in a coastal plain setting.

  19. Texas District Finds Success with Synthetic Playing Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1973

    1973-01-01

    School district has found synthetic turf football fields are safer, save a minimum of $15,000 per field per year on maintenance, and allow the district to revise sports schedules to permit every school in the district to use the fields part of each season. (Author/JN)

  20. An evaluation of CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff field tests in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, H.K.; Alston, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Field experience in 28 Texas CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff projects is presented and discussed. These projects were designed and implemented by producing department personnel. In the absence of mechanical problems, CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff can recover oil from 23-30/sup 0/API Texas Gulf Coast Miocene Reservoirs. Shorter soak times (10-17 days) recovered as much or more oil as longer soak times for 2.3 cP crudes. Injection of larger volumes of CO/sub 2/ (8 MMSCF (230,000 m/sup 3/) instead of 4 MMSCF (11,000 m/sup 3/)) resulted in greater incremental oil recovery of a 33 cP (0.033 Pa-s) crude. Oil cut response can guide in the selection of wells to receive multiple cycles of CO/sub 2/. Two simple predictive methods are presented for estimating incremental oil recovery from CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff. One is from the literature and the other was developed for the Texas reservoirs, where oil swelling and viscosity reduction are important oil recovery mechanisms. Although predictions from both methods show modest agreement with field production, the method developed specifically for Texas cases was slightly better.

  1. Epidemiological characteristics, hospital course and outcome of snakebite victims in West Texas.

    PubMed

    Abbey, James M; Jaffar, Nabil A; Abugrara, Hazem L; Nazim, Muhammad; Smalligan, Roger D; Khasawneh, Faisal A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous snakebites are reported every spring and summer in the United States especially in the Southwestern part of the country. This is usually associated with significant morbidity but fatalities are rare. Most victims are male and the majority of bites are on the extremities. A search for all cases coded with a discharge diagnosis of snakebite injury revealed 90 patients admitted to Northwest Texas Hospital, the trauma center in Amarillo, Texas, between January 2002 and December 2012. These charts were retrospectively reviewed and data extracted including patient demographics, severity of snakebite, treatment given, and ultimate outcome. Ninety patients were admitted to the hospital due to snakebite. It was a rattlesnake in 83 cases. The mean age of the victims was 29.7 years and 74 of them were male. Fifty-one bites were on the upper extremities, thirty-eight bites were on the lower extremities and one bite was on the abdominal wall. About 95% of the lower extremity bites were moderate or severe compared to 74.5% of the upper extremity bites, Cramer's coefficient 0.3, p=0.02. Thirty-one patients had complications and twenty patients required surgical intervention. Eighty-eight patients received a median of 10 vials of antivenin that was well tolerated. Median hospital length of stay was 3 days. None of the patients died. Rattlesnake bites cause significant morbidity although mortality is rare. Early administration of antivenin and appropriate supportive measures and monitoring for complications with surgical intervention when needed leads to improved patient outcomes.

  2. Investigations of a deep drill hole in the Ouachita tend, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Borrego, P.M.; Moreno, F.; Keller, G.R.; Marsaglia, K.M.; Pingitore, N.E. )

    1994-03-01

    The Exxon 1 Gatlin well was recently drilled to a depth of over 25,000 ft in Terrell County, Texas, just north of the international boundary with Mexico. This well is deepest penetration of the interior zone of the Ouachita system to data. The well is near the apex of the interior zone gravity high, which elsewhere has been shown to approximately mark the Paleozoic continental margin. Gravity models constructed in this region, including one that was tied to this well, confirm that this well is proximal to the Paleozoic margin. The well was spudded in Lower Cretaceous rocks, and drilled through a 23,000-ft section of low-grade metamorphic rocks. Cuttings of this metamorphic section are composed predominantly of phyllite, fine-grained schist, metaquartzite, and impure marble. Based on their mineralogy and texture, the likely precursor for these rocks was a sedimentary sequence of marls and mudstones. However, no relict sedimentary structures or fauna was observed. Phyllite and schist fragments are graphitic and locally crenulated, and large fragments exhibit multiple phases of deformation. Minor coarse carbonate and quartz may represent vein fills. Downhole textural trends include a gradual change from phyllite to schist at approximately 7500 ft. and a gradual increase in schist fragments to 19,600 ft. X-ray diffraction of bulk samples indicates a downhole decrease in total carbonate content. This metamorphic sequence appears similar to Ouachita interior zone rocks encountered in wells in central Texas and in outcrops in Oklahoma and Arkansas. However, the large thickness encountered in the well and the even larger thickness suggested by the gravity modeling is indicative of proximity to the continental margin and is likely the result of thrust faulting.

  3. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  4. Associations between water physicochemistry and Prymnesium parvum presence, abundance, and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Toxic blooms of golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) have caused substantial ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems throughout the world. In North America, toxic blooms have impacted freshwater systems including large reservoirs. Management of water chemistry is one proposed option for golden alga control in these systems. The main objective of this study was to assess physicochemical characteristics of water that influence golden alga presence, abundance, and toxicity in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCR) in Texas. The UCR contains reservoirs that have experienced repeated blooms and other reservoirs where golden alga is present but has not been toxic. We quantified golden alga abundance (hemocytometer counts), ichthyotoxicity (bioassay), and water chemistry (surface grab samples) at three impacted reservoirs on the Colorado River; two reference reservoirs on the Concho River; and three sites at the confluence of these rivers. Sampling occurred monthly from January 2010 to July 2011. Impacted sites were characterized by higher specific conductance, calcium and magnesium hardness, and fluoride than reference and confluence sites. At impacted sites, golden alga abundance and toxicity were positively associated with salinity-related variables and blooms peaked at ~10°C and generally did not occur above 20°C. Overall, these findings suggest management of land and water use to reduce hardness or salinity could produce unfavorable conditions for golden alga.

  5. Structural relations between Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R.; Smith, K.J.

    1985-02-01

    The Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins and related uplifts formed the major structural elements of the southwestern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic. In contrast with the relatively simple relationships where the southern Oklahoma aulacogen intersects the Ouachita orogenic belt, structural relationships in the area of these basins are very complex. Various geologic evidence points to an allochthonous Marathon basin. However, a prominent gravity anomaly is associated with the Ouachita system as it extends from western Arkansas through Oklahoma and Texas into northern Mexico. If this anomaly is the signature of the early Paleozoic continental margin, then the location of the Marathon basin with respect to this anomaly suggests lateral displacements have been only on the scale of tens of kilometers. The Delaware basin seems clearly analogous to the Anadarko basin in that it formed as a result of reactivation of a major crustal flaw (not necessarily a rift). This reactivation was a result of the Ouachita orogeny. The Marfa basin is also flanked by a linear gravity high and basement uplift. The relationship of this anomaly to the gravity high associated with the Ouachita system suggests that the Marfa basin may be more analogous to the Delaware basin that foreland basins such as the Ft. Worth and Arkoma. A prominent gravity high that extends into northern Mexico is associated with the Devil's River uplift, and the relationships between this feature, the Val Verde basin, and adjacent structures suggest major deformation on a crustal scale.

  6. Stratigraphic hierarchy of organic carbon rich siltstones in deep-water facies, Brushy Canyon Formation (Guadalupian), Delaware Basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sageman, Bradley B.; Gardner, Michael H.; Armentrout, John M.; Murphy, Adam E.

    1998-05-01

    The first systematic test for a predictive relationship between organic carbon content and stratigraphic hierarchy in a deep-water slope to basin-floor deposit was performed. The studied section includes the Pipeline Shale, the Brushy Canyon Formation, and the lower part of the Cherry Canyon Formation of the Delaware Mountain Group, West Texas. This interval represents one large-scale, 3rd-order genetic sequence within which 4th- and 5th-order stratigraphic cycles are recognized. Samples of fine-grained facies throughout the section were collected from outcrop and analyzed for organic carbon content and hydrogen index. Degree of pyritization was also determined for a subset of the samples. The results indicate that organic enrichment is closely correlated to the stratigraphic hierarchy at the 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order levels. The data suggest that quantity and quality of preserved organic matter are controlled by changes in bulk sedimentation rate (dilution vs. condensation), which affect organic matter inputs to the sediment, as well as the balance between (1) burial and preservation of organic matter and (2) its degradation on the sea floor during times of sediment starvation.

  7. Use of the routing procedure to study dye and gas transport in the West Fork Trinity River, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Rathbun, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Rhodamine-WT dye, ethylene, and propane were injected at three sites along a 21.6-kilometer reach of the West Fork Trinity River below Fort Worth, Texas. Complete dye concentration versus time curves and peak gas concentrations were measured at three cross sections below each injection. The peak dye concentrations were located and samples were collected at about three-hour intervals for as many as six additional cross sections. These data were analyzed to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficients as well as the gas desorption coefficients using both standard techniques and a numerical routing procedure. The routing procedure, using a Lagrangian transport model to minimize numerical dispersion, provided better estimates of the dispersion coefficient than did the method of moments. At a steady flow of about 0.76 m2/s, the dispersion coefficient varied from about 0.7 m2/s in a reach contained within a single deep pool to about 2.0 m2/s in a reach containing riffles and small pools. The bulk desorption coefficients computed using the routing procedure and the standard peak method were essentially the same. The liquid film coefficient could also be obtained using the routing procedure. Both the bulk desorption coefficient and the liquid film coefficient were much smaller in the pooled reach than in the reaches containing riffles.

  8. 3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  9. 5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  10. 2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  11. 6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  12. 9. Interior of Building 1040 (gym), looking west Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1040 (gym), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1040, Enterprise Street, .37 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  13. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  14. Pesticide safety training and access to field sanitation among migrant farmworker mothers from Starr County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Shipp, E M; Cooper, S P; Burau, K D; Bolin, J N

    2005-02-01

    Very little published research describes employer compliance with EPA-mandated Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide safety training and the OSHA Field Sanitation Standard among farmworker women in general and mothers specifically. A goal of both standards is limiting farmworkers' exposure to potentially hazardous agricultural pesticides. Data from a NIOSH-supported cohort study ("Injury and Illness Surveillance in Migrant Farmworker Families") allowed for examining these issues. The cohort included 267 migrant farmworker families who usually reside along the Texas-Mexico border (Starr County, Texas). Data were collected in Starr County during in-home interviews. Of 102 mothers who participated in migrant farm work during summer 2001, 57 (55.9%) reported having ever received training/instruction in the safe use of pesticides, while 47 (46.1%) reported having received training within the previous five years, as required by WPS. Of trained mothers, 91.5% to 93.6% reported that their training covered key WPS areas: (1) entry into a recently treated field, (2) pesticide related injuries/illnesses, and (3) where to go and who to contact for emergency care following exposure. Regarding access to field sanitation, 67.5% to 84.2% of 77 mothers who worked outside Texas reported employer-provided decontamination supplies (e.g., soap, wash water, towels, and toilet facilities). However, a strikingly smaller proportion (12% to 28%) of 25 mothers who worked within Texas reported access to the same resources, suggesting discrepancies in compliance across the U.S. Due to the low level of employer compliance with both WPS and OSHA mandated standards, increased enforcement and an alternate delivery of pesticide training is recommended.

  15. Rainfall and temperature distinguish between Karnal bunt positive and negative years in wheat fields in Texas.

    PubMed

    Workneh, F; Allen, T W; Nash, G H; Narasimhan, B; Srinivasan, R; Rush, C M

    2008-01-01

    Karnal bunt of wheat, caused by the fungus Tilletia indica, is an internationally regulated disease. Since its first detection in central Texas in 1997, regions in which the disease was detected have been under strict federal quarantine regulations resulting in significant economic losses. A study was conducted to determine the effect of weather factors on incidence of the disease since its first detection in Texas. Weather variables (temperature and rainfall amount and frequency) were collected and used as predictors in discriminant analysis for classifying bunt-positive and -negative fields using incidence data for 1997 and 2000 to 2003 in San Saba County. Rainfall amount and frequency were obtained from radar (Doppler radar) measurements. The three weather variables correctly classified 100% of the cases into bunt-positive or -negative fields during the specific period overlapping the stage of wheat susceptibility (boot to soft dough) in the region. A linear discriminant-function model then was developed for use in classification of new weather variables into the bunt occurrence groups (+ or -). The model was evaluated using weather data for 2004 to 2006 for San Saba area (central Texas), and data for 2001 and 2002 for Olney area (north-central Texas). The model correctly predicted bunt occurrence in all cases except for the year 2004. The model was also evaluated for site-specific prediction of the disease using radar rainfall data and in most cases provided similar results as the regional level evaluation. The humid thermal index (HTI) model (widely used for assessing risk of Karnal bunt) agreed with our model in all cases in the regional level evaluation, including the year 2004 for the San Saba area, except for the Olney area where it incorrectly predicted weather conditions in 2001 as unfavorable. The current model has a potential to be used in a spray advisory program in regulated wheat fields.

  16. Near-Surface & High Resolution Seismic Imaging of the Bennett Thrust Fault in the Indio Mountains of West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennemann, A.; Karplus, M. S.; Kaip, G.; Harder, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Indio Mountains in southwest Texas, 34 km southwest of Van Horn at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) field station using newly acquired active-source seismic data. These new data are the first active-source seismic data acquired at the UTEP field station. The dominant regional lithologies in this area comprise a transgressive sequence nearly 2 km in total stratigraphic thickness, formed by extensional processes. The area is highly faulted with multiple fault generations. I will show images of the Bennett Thrust Fault, a northwest-striking, northeast-dipping fault associated with the Laramide Orogeny and discuss the near-surface geometries of this fault and adjacent rock units. This region is a pre-salt analog for similar areas that are ideal for petroleum reservoirs, such are reservoirs off the coasts of Brazil and Angola. While there are no petroleum plays in the Indio Mountains region, imaging and understanding subsurface structural and lithological geometries and how that geometry directs potential fluid flow has implications for other regions with petroleum plays. I will present processed data and interpretation of a 1 km 2-D near-surface, high-resolution seismic reflection line. Along the 1 km line, we collected a lower frequency dataset using 100 third-pound explosions and a higher frequency dataset produced from 500 sledge-hammer blows at the same 100 source points (5 blows will be stacked at each source point). The lower frequency data set will be the focus of this presentation. The data will be processed using standard seismic reflection practices using ProMAX. This image will be imported into Petrel to create a model of the faults' geometries and the sedimentary layers. My research will identify near-surface structures, fault geometries and lithologies.

  17. Texas Supernova Search: A Wide Field Search for Nearby SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quimby, R. M.; Castro, F.; Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P.; Kannappan, S. J.; Mondol, P.; Sellers, M.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    ROTSE-IIIb is one four robotic telescopes built by the University of Michigan to observe the prompt optical afterglows associated with gamma-ray bursts. At just 0.45m in diameter, it is the smallest research telescope at McDonald, but its 1.85 x 1.85 deg field of view and autonomous operation make it an excellent survey instrument for rare transient phenomena. We have been using ROTSE-IIIb for the past year to search for supernovae in nearby galaxy clusters such as the Virgo, Coma, and Ursa Major clusters. ROTSE-IIIb's wide field of view allows us to search the thousands of galaxies in these clusters, which cover hundreds of square degrees on the sky, in just a few tens of exposures. We can therefore observe all of these fields in a single night, and repeat the search every night. When we identify a new supernova candidate, we invoke our target of opportunity time on the neighboring 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) the following night to obtain a spectrum. Because of the rolling search and the quick spectral turn-around possible with the HET, we are able to capture spectra of the earliest phases of the explosion. By combining this information with spectra taken at later epochs, we can construct a complete description of the explosion. Through this work we aim to better understand the physical conditions of supernova explosions, identify any systematic effects that may affect how Type Ia supernovae are calibrated as standard candles and used to probe cosmology, and also to better calibrate Type II supernovae as standard candles.

  18. Characterization of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Mudrocks at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) Site, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuszmaul, J. S.; Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.; Beauheim, R.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Cook, S.

    2011-12-01

    Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At many radioactive waste disposal facilities, the long-term performance of the facility may be influenced by the transport of radionuclides through interconnected fracture networks. WCS developed an integrated geologic mapping and hydraulic testing program to evaluate the hydraulic significance of discontinuities within Dockum rocks. At the WCS site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures

  19. South Texas' Lyles Ranch field: Production from an astrobleme

    SciTech Connect

    Le Vie, D.S.

    1986-04-14

    In order to understand how impact cratering can contribute to hydrocarbon accumulations, a basic explanation of cratering mechanics is necessary. It has been estimated that more than 150,000 craters with a diameter greater than 0.5 mile have formed on the earth's surface over the last 3 billion years, and of these, more than 3,000 may have diameters greater than 6.2 miles. The important implications of the impact process to petroleum geology are that impact can instantaneously create porous and permeable rock from what would otherwise be nonreservoir material (such as crystalline basement) and that impact can alter the structural configuration of the target rock in the immediate vicinity independent of the regional geology. The term astrobleme is used to describe craters produced by impact of extraterrestrial objects. There are two types of astroblemes - simple and complex. The simple crater is characterized by a bowl-shaped depression with a raised and overturned rim. The larger complex crater typically is comparatively shallow with an uplifted central area or peak and slumped or depressed rim. The best known geographical area where hydrocarbons are associated with postulated astroblemes is the Williston basin. At least two subsurface structures have been identified as possible buried impact craters in the basin: Viewfield in Saskatchewan with 100 million bbl of oil in place and Red Creek field in North Dakota with 130 million bbl of oil in place.

  20. Cretaceous basaltic phreatomagmatic volcanism in West Texas: Maar complex at Peña Mountain, Big Bend National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K. S.; Hanson, R. E.; Lehman, T. M.; Griffin, W. R.

    2008-06-01

    A structurally complex succession of basaltic pyroclastic deposits produced from overlapping phreatomagmatic volcanoes occurs within Upper Cretaceous floodplain deposits in the Aguja Formation in Big Bend National Park, West Texas. Together with similar basaltic deposits recently documented elsewhere in the Aguja Formation, these rocks provide evidence for an episode of phreatomagmatic volcanism that predates onset of arc magmatism in the region in the Paleogene. At Peña Mountain, the pyroclastic deposits are ≥ 70 m thick and consist dominantly of tabular beds of lapillistone and lapilli tuff containing angular to fluidal pyroclasts of altered sideromelane intermixed with abundant accidental terrigenous detritus derived from underlying Aguja sediments. Tephra characteristics indicate derivation from phreatomagmatic explosions involving fine-scale interaction between magma and sediment in the shallow subsurface. Deposition occurred by pyroclastic fall and base-surge processes in near-vent settings; most base-surge deposits lack tractional sedimentary structures and are inferred to have formed by suspension sedimentation from rapidly decelerating surges. Complexly deformed pyroclastic strata beneath a distinct truncation surface within the succession record construction and collapse of an initial volcano, followed by a shift in the location of the conduit and excavation of another maar crater into Aguja strata nearby. Preserved portions of the margin of this second crater are defined by a zone of intense soft-sediment disruption of pyroclastic and nonvolcanic strata. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon grains from three basaltic bombs in the succession reveal the presence of abundant xenocrysts, in some cases with ages > 1.0 Ga. The youngest concordant analyses for all three samples yield a weighted mean age of 76.9 ± 1.2 Ma, consistent with the presence of Late Campanian vertebrate fossils in the upper Aguja Formation. We infer that the volcanism is related to the

  1. West Short Pine Hills field, Harding County, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Strothman, B.

    1988-07-01

    The West Short Pine Hills field is a shallow gas field that produces from the Shannon Sandstone Member, on the Camp Crook anticline in southwestern Harding County, South Dakota. The Alma McCutchin 1-17 Heikkila discovery was drilled in the NW1/4, Sec. 17, T16N, R2E, to a depth of 1600 ft and completed in October 1977 for 600 MCFGD from perforations at 1405-1411 ft. To date, 40 gas wells have been completed with total estimated reserves of more than 20 bcf. The field encompasses 12,000 ac, with a current drill-site spacing unit of 160 ac. The field boundaries are fairly well defined, except on the south edge of the field. The wells range in depth from 1250 to 2200 ft, and cost $60,000-$85,000 to drill and complete. Core and log analyses indicate that the field has 70 ft of net pay, with average porosity of 30% and average permeability of 114 md. Most wells have been completed with nitrogen-sand frac. Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company of Bismarck, North Dakota, operates a compressor station and 2.5 mi of 4-in. line that connects the field to their 160 in. north-south transmission line to the Rapid City area. Currently, producers are netting $1.10-$1.25/million Btu. The late Mathew T. Biggs of Casper, Wyoming, was the geologist responsible for mapping and finding this gas deposit.

  2. Evaluation of area of review variance opportunities for the East Texas field. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, D.L.; Koederitz, L.F.; Laudon, R.C.; Dunn-Norman, S.

    1995-05-01

    The East Texas oil field, discovered in 1930 and located principally in Gregg and Rusk Counties, is the largest oil field in the conterminous United States. Nearly 33,000 wells are known to have been drilled in the field. The field has been undergoing water injection for pressure maintenance since 1938. As of today, 104 Class II salt-water disposal wells, operated by the East Texas Salt Water Disposal Company, are returning all produced water to the Woodbine producing reservoir. About 69 of the presently existing wells have not been subjected to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Area-of-Review (AOR) requirements. A study has been carried out of opportunities for variance from AORs for these existing wells and for new wells that will be constructed in the future. The study has been based upon a variance methodology developed at the University of Missouri-Rolla under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute and in coordination with the Ground Water Protection Council. The principal technical objective of the study was to determine if reservoir pressure in the Woodbine producing reservoir is sufficiently low so that flow of salt-water from the Woodbine into the Carrizo-Wilcox ground water aquifer is precluded. The study has shown that the Woodbine reservoir is currently underpressured relative to the Carrizo-Wilcox and will remain so over the next 20 years. This information provides a logical basis for a variance for the field from performing AORs.

  3. A theoretical model of subsidence caused by petroleum production: Big Hill Field, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.W.; Sharp, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    In the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, there is a history of oil and gas production extending over 2 to 5 decades. Concurrent with this production history, there has been unprecedented population growth accompanied by vastly increased groundwater demands. Land subsidence on both local and regional bases in this geologic province has been measured and predicted in several studies. The vast majority of these studies have addressed the problem from the standpoint of groundwater usage while only a few have considered the effects of oil and gas production. Based upon field-based computational techniques (Helm, 1984), a model has been developed to predict land subsidence caused by oil and gas production. This method is applied to the Big Hill Field in Jefferson County, Texas. Inputs include production data from a series of wells in this field and lithologic data from electric logs of these same wells. Outputs include predicted amounts of subsidence, the time frame of subsidence, and sensitivity analyses of compressibility and hydraulic conductivity estimates. Depending upon estimated compressibility, subsidence, to date, is predicted to be as high as 20 cm. Similarly, depending upon estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity, the time frame may be decades for this subsidence. These same methods can be applied to other oil/gas fields with established production histories as well as new fields when production scenarios are assumed. Where subsidence has been carefully measured above petroleum reservoir, the model may be used inversely to calculate sediment compressibilities.

  4. Studying Geology of Central Texas through Web-Based Virtual Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C.; Khan, S. D.; Wellner, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Each year over 2500 students, mainly non-science majors, take introductory geology classes at the University of Houston. Optional field trips to Central Texas for these classes provide a unique learning opportunity for students to experience geologic concepts in a real world context. The field trips visit Enchanted Rock, Inks Lake, Bee Cave Road, Lion Mountain, and Slaughter Gap. Unfortunately, only around 10% of our students participate in these field trips. We are developing a web-based virtual field trip for Central Texas to provide an additional effective learning experience for students in these classes. The module for Enchanted Rock is complete and consists of linked geological maps, satellite imagery, digital elevation models, 3-D photography, digital video, and 3-D virtual reality visualizations. The ten virtual stops focus on different geologic process and are accompanied by questions and answers. To test the efficacy of the virtual field trip, we developed a quiz to measure student learning and a survey to evaluate the website. The quiz consists of 10 questions paralleling each stop and information on student attendance on the Central Texas field trip and/or the virtual field trip. From the survey, the average time spent on the website was 26 minutes, and overall the ratings of the virtual field trip were positive. Most noticeably students responded that the information on the website was relevant to their class and that the pictures, figures, and animations were essential to the website. Although high correlation coefficients between responses were expected for some questions (i.e., 0.89 for "The content or text of the website was clear" and "The information on the website was easy to read"), some correlations were less expected: 0.77 for "The number of test questions was appropriate" and "The information on the website was easy to read," and 0.70 for "The test questions reinforced the material presented on the website" and "The information on the

  5. A review of noise data collection at the central and south west wind farm in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, E.

    1996-12-31

    Evaluation of data collected over a 1-year period from a 6 MW wind farm is presented in the paper. Noise propagation prediction methods are compared with each other and with field data. Three forms of regulating noise are also compared: minimum separation distance, absolute noise limit, and relative noise limit.Relative noise limits were found to offer the most comprehensive approach to regulating noise and to allow each location to be treated independently. A hemispherical spreading model appears to be a useful planning tool. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Regional Variation in the Timing of Cessation of Laramide Folding, Uplift, and Post Flat-Slab Ignimbrite Flare Ups in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, M. E.; Casey, J.; Lapen, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Tertiary volcanism in the Trans-Pecos region of West Texas is thought to be related to: 1) a major Farallon buoyant object-related slab flattening period resulting in early arc volcanic activity progressively shifting eastward to New Mexico and West Texas, 2) a subsequent slab-steepening/roll back or slab break away period resulting in renewed and extensive volcanism and ignimbrite flare ups across the region, and 3) final minor volcanism related to Basin and Range extension. Evidence for these tectonic induced volcanic periods can be observed in volcanic compositional variation and the timing and style of volcanism and deformation. This includes highly varied pre-folding mafic alkaline and calc-alkane volcanic and intrusive rocks from ~46Ma (Eocene) to ~32Ma (Oligocene). This is followed by broadly distributed, post-folding calc-alkaline volcanism with subsidiary alkaline mafic volcanism during subsequent regionally varying slab steepening or break away periods (38Ma to 28Ma). Later, smaller-scale, almost exclusively mafic volcanism is associated with Basin and Range extension that occurred between 25 to 2Ma (Barker, 1987). This study attempts to refine regional differences in the cessation of Laramide folding and episodic slab-asthenosphere influenced volcanism in West Texas by utilizing LA-ICP-MS U/Pb zircon geochronology. Ages have been measured for volcanic rock samples that occur both above and below the angular unconformity, including: the Eagle Mountain Lower Rhyolite, an unnamed tuff and trachyte unit from the Garren Group in the Indio Mountains, the Davis Mountains Huelster Fm. and Petan Basalts, the Chinati Mountains Morita Ranch Fm., the Tascotal Fm. From the Alamito Creek and Green Valley area, the Vieja Group from the Rio Grande River area, and the Big Bend National Park South Rim Fm. and Chisos Fm.. In addition, ages for detrital zircons have been obtained in silicilastics below the unconformity within Tertiary Black Peaks, Hannold Hill, and Canoe

  7. Field trip guidebook on environmental impact of clays along the upper Texas coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Theron D.; Ming, Douglas W.; Tuck, Lisa Kay

    1991-01-01

    The field trip was prepared to provide an opportunity to see first hand some the environmental hazards associated with clays in the Houston, Texas area. Because of the very high clay content in area soils and underlying Beaumont Formation clay, Houston is a fitting location to host the Clay Mineral Society. Examinations were made of (1) expansive soils, (2) subsidence and surface faulting, and (3) a landfill located southeast of Houston at the Gulf Coast Waste Disposal Authority where clay is part of the liner material.

  8. Far-field acoustic data for the Texas ASE, Inc. Hush-House, supplement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    This report supplements AFAMRL-TR-73-110, which describes the data base (NOISEFILE) used in the computer program (NOISEMAP) to predict the community noise exposure resulting from military aircraft operations. The results of field test measurements to define the single-event noise produced on the ground by military aircraft/engines operating in the Texas ASE Inc. hush-house are presented as a function of angle (0 to 180 from the front of the hush-house) and distance (200 ft to 2500 ft) in various acoustic metrics.

  9. Field study and stimulation approach - Conger (PENN) Field, Sterling County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.; Kamp, B.

    1981-01-01

    With existing demands for oil and gas at continued higher prices, there has become a greater interest in previously uneconomical reservoirs. The Cisco Canyon Formations in Sterling County, Texas, fall into this category. In particular, the Conger (PENN) area has enjoyed rapid and continuous development since 1977. Hydraulic fracturing has been required to stimulate for commercial production. Stimulation practices have been reviewed and a more efficient approach developed to provide maximum productivity at an optimum cost.

  10. Hands-on Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Instruction at the University of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J. A.; Fernandez, R.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in its ninth year, the course provides instruction in survey design, data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Methods covered include seismic reflection, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling. The emphasis of the course is team-oriented, hands-on, field training in real-world situations. The course begins with classroom instruction covering the field area and field methods, followed by a week of at-sea field work in 4-student teams. The students then return to the classroom where they integrate, interpret, and visualize data using industry-standard software. The teams present results in a series of professional-level final presentations before academic and industry supporters. Our rotating field areas provide ideal locations for students to investigate coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf . In the field, student teams rotate between two research vessels: the smaller vessel, the Jackson School's newly-commissioned R/V Scott Petty (26 feet LOA), is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta (82 feet LOA) is used for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Teams also rotate through a field laboratory performing processing of geophysical data and sediment samples. This past year's course in Freeport, Texas proceeded unabated despite concurrent record-breaking rainfall and flooding, which offered students a unique opportunity to observe and image, in real time, flood-related bedform migration on a time scale of hours. The data also allowed an in-class opportunity to examine natural and anthropogenic processes recorded in the river

  11. Characterization of diagenetically altered carbonate reservoirs, South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Ruppel, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    Much of the difficulty in constructing carbonate reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation results from diagenetic overprinting of depositional permeability patterns. In the South Cowden field, diagenetic effects result in (1) low porosity and permeability in the western and northern areas due to reduction of porosity by means of dolomitization and post-dolomitization compaction, (2) elimination of the petrophysical effects of depositional texture resulting from changes in particle size due to dolomitization, and (3) creation of a touching-vug pore system due to anhydrite dissolution. The extent of anhydrite alteration can be mapped to show three distinct diagenetic areas: those dominated by unaltered, altered, or dissolved anhydrite. Each alteration type has a unique acoustic-porosity transform that can be used to map the diagenetic areas and to calculate porosity when only acoustic logs are available. A single porosity-permeability transform characterizes the areas having unaltered and altered anhydrite, and the depositional stratigraphy is useful in constructing a reservoir model. A more favorable transform characterizes the area of dissolved anhydrite, and depositional stratigraphy is not useful in constructing a reservoir model because of the large effect of the diagenetic overprint.

  12. Bird use of agricultural fields under reduced and conventional tillage in the Texas Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    We conducted bird surveys in reduced-tillage and conventional tillage fields in spring, summer, fall, and winter from 1987 to 1991 in the Texas Panhandle. Eastern meadowlarks, longspurs, and savannah sparrows were more common in reduced-tillage (sorghum and wheat stubble) fields than in conventionally tilled (plowed) fields in at least 1 season. Other species also had patterns suggestive of greater abundance in reduced-tillage fields. Hornedlarks, which prefer habitat with sparse vegetation, were more abundant in plowed fields in all seasons except summer. Bird diversity was greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields in summer. Cover density and height were greater in reduced tillage fields in all seasons except spring. Cover density and height rather than cover composition (e.g.,grain stubble or live plants) seemed to be the important factors affecting bird distribution. Patterns of bird abundance between sorghum and wheat stubble fields also were dependent on cover. Herbicide use was not greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields. Reduced-tillage agriculture for sorghum and wheat farming should be encouraged in the southern Great Plains as a means of improving the attractiveness of agricultural land to many bird species.

  13. Application of integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geological, agricultural, water and environmental issues in far west Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongjie

    This study focuses on applying integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geological, agricultural, water and environmental studies in the far west Texas area. The primary technical topics that have been investigated and employed include radar image processing, speckle removal, destriping, data fusion, seamless image mosaicking technology, mask and ROI techniques, DEM processing and 3D visualization, image classification techniques, gravity and magnetic data processing, algorithm implementation for automatic image registration, ArcView/ArcInfo GIS techniques, and GIS database building. JPL/NASA's AIRSAR/TOPSAR is a multipolarimetric, multiwavelength, and interferometric airborne synthetic aperture radar capable of imaging in C-, L-, and P-bands (5.7, 24.5, and 68 cm). The study mainly focuses on its preprocessing, despeckling, and destriping. Among statistical adaptive speckle removal algorithms, G-MAP (Gamma Maximum A Posteriori) had the best performance. For banding removal, we derived a new method that we call combined principal components analysis (CPCA) that was very effective with our data. Signature differences were studied and compared at different radar wavelengths and between radar and optical (ETM+) images. Some subsurface objects (like water pipelines) were clearly visible in the radar images, especially for the P-band. Data fusion based on the color transform technique was employed to integrate Landsat 7 (30 m ETM+ data fused with the accompanying 15 m panchromatic data) and TOPSAR data after speckle and banding removal. The resulting fused image brought out new features that were not evident in the original images and helped identify many features whose origin was not clear in the original images. AIRSAR/TOPSAR and TM/ETM+ images have been successfully used for mapping the East Franklin Mountains fault scarp and related small faults within the Hueco bolson as well as the Mayfield fault scarp. Remote sensing analysis of nuclear waste disposal

  14. Quantitative geophysical investigations at the Diamond M field, Scurry County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davogustto Cataldo, Oswaldo Ernesto

    The Diamond M field over the Horseshoe Atoll reservoir of west Texas has produced oil since 1942. Even with some 210 well penetrations, complex reservoir compartmentalization has justified an ongoing drilling program with three wells drilled within the last three years. Accurate reservoir characterization requires accurate description of the geometry, geological facies, and petrophysical property distribution ranging from core, through log to the seismic scale. The operator has conducted a careful logging and coring process including dipole sonic logs in addition to acquiring a modern 3D vertical phone - vertical vibrator "P-wave" seismic data volume and an equivalent size 2-component by 2-componet "S-wave" seismic data volume. I analyze these data at different scales, integrating them into a whole. I begin with core analysis of the petrophysical properties of the Horseshoe Atoll reservoir. Measuring porosity, permeability, NMR T2 relaxation and velocities (Vp and Vs) as a function of pressure and find that porosity measurements are consistent when measured with different techniques. When upscaled, these measurements are in excellent agreement with properties measured at the log scale. Together, these measurements provide a lithology-porosity template against which I correlate my seismic P- and S-impedance measurements. Careful examination of P- and S-impedances as well as density from prestack inversion of the P-wave survey of the original time migrated gathers showed lower vertical resolution for S-impedance and density. These latter two parameters are controlled by the far-offset data, which suffers from migration stretch. I address this shortcoming by applying a recently developed non-stretch NMO technique which not only improved the bandwidth of the data but also resulted in inversions that better match the S-impedance and density well log data. The operator hypothesized that 2C by 2C S-wave data would better delineate lithology than conventional P

  15. Combined geological and surface geochemical methods discover Agaritta and Brady Creek fields, Concho County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, D.F.; Burson, K.R.; Thompson, C.K. ); Brown, J.J. )

    1992-04-01

    From December 1987 to March 1991, 25 prospects in the lower King Sandstone (Upper Pennsylvanian Cisco) play in Concho County, Texas, were tested by several operators. They used combinations of subsurface geology, reconnaissance airborne gas sensing, surface radiometrics, soil magnetic susceptibility, and soil gas hydrocarbon measurements to define prospects. Six new King Sandstone field discoveries or extensions and three deeper pay Goen Limestone field discoveries resulted in a 36% exploratory success rate. The total exploration and development cost was approximately $0.67 per bbl of proven producing oil reserves. As examples, the authors present the discovery of Brady Creek and Agaritta fields. Agaritta field is one of the two largest of the new field discoveries with estimated proven producing recoverable reserves of 6,000,000 BO. Its discovery was based on a combination of (1) airborne hydrocarbon sensing, (2) interstitial soil gas hydrocarbon data, (3) soil magnetic susceptibility measurements, and (4) surface potassium and uranium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Interstitial soil gas hydrocarbon anomalies combined with soil magnetic susceptibility anomalies provided the best detailed surface guidance to Agaritta field. These were supported locally by radiometric anomalies. The Brady Creek field is interpreted to be a possible crevasse splay deposit. The Aggaritta field is interpreted to be a point bar deposit. Both fields are stratigraphic traps.

  16. Eustatic cycles, shoreline stacking, and stratigraphic traps: Atkinson field, Live Oak and Karnes Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bulling, T.P.; Smith, W.M.; Breyer, J.A. )

    1987-02-01

    Atkinson field in south Texas produces gas from the updip pinch-out of a shoreline sand body deposited during a stillstand or minor regression within the early middle Eocene transgression of the Texas Gulf Coast. The sand body is elongate parallel to depositional strike and pinches out downdip into marine shales of the Reklaw Formation. The sand has a maximum thickness of 60 ft, extends 9 mi along strike, and reaches a width of 2 mi. Electric log patterns indicate interfingering between sand and shale on the updip edge of the sand body and a coarsening-upward sequence from shale to sand on the downdip edge of the sand body. Most logs from wells in the central part of the sand body have blocky patterns, indicating abrupt transitions with the overlying and underlying shales and no systematic variation in grain size. Many ancient shoreline sandstones have similar characteristics. The producing sand in Atkinson field occurs in the regressive phase of a fourth-order cycle of change in relative sea level, within the transgressive phase of the third-order cycle that comprises the early middle Eocene advance and retreat of the sea in the Gulf Coast region. Other shoreline sand bodies occur at the same stratigraphic zone along depositional strike. Models of shoreline stacking patterns within third-order cycles indicate that similar sand bodies and traps should be present in younger fourth-order cycles higher on paleoslope.

  17. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivity of Carson County well field, Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, J.

    1996-11-01

    Environmental assessment, ground-water management, and aquifer remediation designs rely on comprehension of the hydraulic parameters of aquifers. Because of the heterogeneity of most aquifers, a number of pumping tests are commonly required to provide a reasonable hydraulic parameter distribution. Data for 11 pumping tests, conducted at the Carson County well field, Amarillo, Texas in the 1950s to 1970s were analyzed by the Theis solution and the Cooper and Jacob solution to provide information for optimal ground-water management. The unconfined aquifer at the well field consists of sands, sandstone, gravels, and clay. A delayed gravity response was observed in the drawdown curves from pumping tests conducted in the unconfined aquifer. Because the Theis solution and the Cooper and Jacob solution do not take this delayed response, or other unsaturated effect into account, these two solutions may overestimate hydraulic conductivity of an unconfined aquifer. Therefore, the Neuman solution which considers the delayed gravity response was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters using the software AQTESOLV. This paper presents the results of a study of the unconfined aquifer at Carson County well field, Amarillo, Texas. The analysis shows that the results obtained by the Neuman method are more reasonable than those obtained by the Theis solution and the Cooper and Jacob solution. According to results from the Neuman solution, the hydraulic conductivity of the unconfined aquifer of Carson County well field varies from 2.55 to 5.97 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} m/s (weighted average hydraulic conductivity is 4.13 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} m/s). The small difference of the estimated hydraulic conductivity between wells shows that the unconfined aquifer under Carson County well field is relatively uniform. The effects of infinitesimal borehole assumption, accuracy of individual parameters, skin effects, and spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity are discussed as well.

  18. Genetic Variability and Geographical Distribution of Mycotoxigenic Fusarium verticillioides Strains Isolated from Maize Fields in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Carlos S.; Richards, Casey; Terry, Ashlee; Parra, Joselyn; Shim, Won-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the dominant cereal crop produced in the US. One of the main fungal pathogens of maize is Fusarium verticillioides, the causative agent of ear and stalk rots. Significantly, the fungus produces a group of mycotoxins - fumonisins - on infested kernels, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Nonetheless, durable resistance against F. verticillioides in maize is not currently available. In Texas, over 2.1 million acres of maize are vulnerable to fumonisin contamination, but understanding of the distribution of toxigenic F. verticillioides in maize-producing areas is currently lacking. Our goal was to investigate the genetic variability of F. verticillioides in Texas with an emphasis on fumonisin trait and geographical distribution. A total of 164 F. verticillioides cultures were isolated from 65 maize-producing counties. DNA from each isolate was extracted and analyzed by PCR for the presence of FUM1- a key fumonisin biosynthesis gene - and mating type genes. Results showed that all isolates are in fact F. verticillioides capable of producing fumonisins with a 1:1 mating-type gene ratio in the population. To further study the genetic diversity of the population, isolates were analyzed using RAPD fingerprinting. Polymorphic markers were identified and the analysis showed no clear correlation between the RAPD profile of the isolates and their corresponding geographical origin. Our data suggest the toxigenic F. verticillioides population in Texas is widely distributed wherever maize is grown. We also hypothesize that the population is fluid, with active movement and genetic recombination occurring in the field. PMID:26361468

  19. Mafic potassic lavas of the Quaternary West Eifel volcanic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, H.; Schmincke, H.-U.

    1985-05-01

    Major and trace element analyses for 103 volcanoes of the Quaternary West Eifel volcanic field show the lavas to be dominantly primitive (MgO>7 wt.%) and potassic (Na2O/K2O˜1). The rocks are divided into (1) a foidite (F)-suite, volumetrically dominant and consisting of four types: leucitites and nephelinites, melilite-bearing foidites, olivine-free foidites, sodalite-bearing melilite-free foidites, and (2) a younger olivine-nephelinite and basanite (ONB)-suite, concentrated in the southeastern part of the field. Dominantly cpx-phyric F-suite magmas differ from the dominantly ol-phyric ONB-suite mainly in higher K2O/ Na2O and CaO/Al2O3-ratios, higher Rb, Cu, H2O, CO2 and LREE concentrations and slightly lower Sr, Ni and Y contents. Most magmas have fractionated small amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, and minor phlogopite. Systematic compositional variations within volcanoes or volcano groups are rare. Five more differentiated volcanoes (2 tephrites, 3 phonolites) occur in the center of the field. Their magmas are interpreted to have formed by fractionation within crustal magma chambers. Chemical differences between primary magmas (43% of volcanoes sampled) within both suites can be explained by different degrees of crystal fractionation at high pressures in the ascending magma column and possibly by varying degrees of partial melting (about 2 8%) in a garnetlherzolite mantle source. Distinct isotope ratios, parallel element variations, and different ratios of similarly incompatible elements, however, indicate a heterogeneous mantle beneath the West Eifel. The F-suite magmas originated from a mantle source more strongly enriched in alkalis and incompatible elements than the ONB-suite mantle source. The following model is proposed, based also on experimental studies and geophysical data: Within a large low velocity body of garnet-lherzolite, enriched in fluids and LIL elements (metasomatized mantle) between about 50 and 150 km depth, two different magma types were

  20. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, April 1,1996 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir- characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Progress to date is summarized for reservoir characterization.

  1. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  2. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir- characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sup 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Accomplishments for this past quarter are discussed.

  3. Reservoir zonation in Silurian-Devonian carbonates of Wells field, Dawson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J. )

    1992-04-01

    Wells field in Dawson County, Texas, has produced over 7.5 million bbl since 1955 from Silurian-Devonian carbonates. Although originally classified as a Devonian field, production there actually is out of the Silurian Wristen and Fusselman formations. Wells field is an extremely complex system of structured and stratigraphic reservoirs not easily characterized by traditional subsurface mapping techniques. Detailed lithologic analyses of well cuttings from 29 wells in and around this field were done to evaluate reservoir zonation and potentials for either new field development wells, or recompletions from existing well bores. These analyses have shown that paleotopographic highs on the Fusselman unconformity across the field created optimum sites for Fusselman dolomite reservoir development, and collateral development of Wristen reservoirs. The Wristen reservoirs are in the form of porous carbonate mounds that grew adjacent to the paleotopographically high areas, or simple compactionally fractured cherty carbonates over these highs. The recognition of Fusselman paleotopography in most wells is implied by thickness and facies changes in the overlying Wristen section. A certain amount of structure and facies-induced reservoir separation has been documented. The results of this study have been used to identify several areas of the field where each of the three reservoirs could be exploited for underdeveloped reserves.

  4. Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course Offered by The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Allison, M. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year six, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students participate in an initial period of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas and Galveston, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, have provided ideal locations for students to investigate coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques. In the field, students rotate between two research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, and is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibrocoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for

  5. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock-fabric flow layers

  6. Subsurface evaluation of the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, using two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Jones, Sonya A.

    2002-01-01

    During September 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey made 10 two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profile surveys in the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, to identify subsurface areas of anomalously high or low resistivity that could indicate potential contamination, contaminant pathways, or anthropogenic structures. Six of the 10 surveys (transects) were in the west parking lot. Each of the inverted sections of these transects had anomalously high resistivities in the terrace alluvium/fill (the surficial subsurface layer) that probably were caused by highly resistive fill material. In addition, each of these transects had anomalously low resistivities in the Walnut Formation (a bedrock layer immediately beneath the alluvium/fill) that could have been caused by saturation of fractures within the Walnut Formation. A high-resistivity anomaly in the central part of the study area probably is associated with pea gravel fill used in construction of a French drain. Another high resistivity anomaly in the west parking lot, slightly southeast of the French drain, could be caused by dense nonaqueous-phase liquid in the Walnut Formation. The inverted sections of the four transects in the landfill 3 area tended to have slightly higher resistivities in both the alluvium/fill and the Walnut Formation than the transects in the west parking lot. The higher resistivities in the alluvium/fill could have been caused by drier conditions in grassy areas relative to conditions in the west parking lot. Higher resistivities in parts of the Walnut Formation also could be a function of drier conditions or variations in the lithology of the Walnut Formation. In addition to the 10 vertical sections, four horizontal sections at 2-meteraltitude intervals show generally increasing resistivity with decreasing altitude that most likely results from the increased influence of the Walnut Formation, which has a higher resistivity than the terrace

  7. Subsurface evaluation of the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, using two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Jones, Sonya A.

    2002-01-01

    During September 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey made 10 two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profile surveys in the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, to identify subsurface areas of anomalously high or low resistivity that could indicate potential contamination, contaminant pathways, or anthropogenic structures. Six of the 10 surveys (transects) were in the west parking lot. Each of the inverted sections of these transects had anomalously high resistivities in the terrace alluvium/fill (the surficial subsurface layer) that probably were caused by highly resistive fill material. In addition, each of these transects had anomalously low resistivities in the Walnut Formation (a bedrock layer immediately beneath the alluvium/fill) that could have been caused by saturation of fractures within the Walnut Formation. A high-resistivity anomaly in the central part of the study area probably is associated with pea gravel fill used in construction of a French drain. Another high resistivity anomaly in the west parking lot, slightly southeast of the French drain, could be caused by dense nonaqueous-phase liquid in the Walnut Formation. The inverted sections of the four transects in the landfill 3 area tended to have slightly higher resistivities in both the alluvium/fill and the Walnut Formation than the transects in the west parking lot. The higher resistivities in the alluvium/fill could have been caused by drier conditions in grassy areas relative to conditions in the west parking lot. Higher resistivities in parts of the Walnut Formation also could be a function of drier conditions or variations in the lithology of the Walnut Formation. In addition to the 10 vertical sections, four horizontal sections at 2-meteraltitude intervals show generally increasing resistivity with decreasing altitude that most likely results from the increased influence of the Walnut Formation, which has a higher resistivity than the terrace

  8. Electro-chemical arsenic remediation: field trials in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Amrose, Susan E; Bandaru, Siva R S; Delaire, Caroline; van Genuchten, Case M; Dutta, Amit; DebSarkar, Anupam; Orr, Christopher; Roy, Joyashree; Das, Abhijit; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2014-08-01

    Millions of people in rural South Asia are exposed to high levels of arsenic through groundwater used for drinking. Many deployed arsenic remediation technologies quickly fail because they are not maintained, repaired, accepted, or affordable. It is therefore imperative that arsenic remediation technologies be evaluated for their ability to perform within a sustainable and scalable business model that addresses these challenges. We present field trial results of a 600 L Electro-Chemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) reactor operating over 3.5 months in West Bengal. These results are evaluated through the lens of a community scale micro-utility business model as a potential sustainable and scalable safe water solution for rural communities in South Asia. We demonstrate ECAR's ability to consistently reduce arsenic concentrations of ~266 μg/L to <5 μg/L in real groundwater, simultaneously meeting the international standards for iron and aluminum in drinking water. ECAR operating costs (amortized capital plus consumables) are estimated as $0.83-$1.04/m(3) under realistic conditions. We discuss the implications of these results against the constraints of a sustainable and scalable business model to argue that ECAR is a promising technology to help provide a clean water solution in arsenic-affected areas of South Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Far-field acoustic data for the Texas ASE, Inc. hush house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    This report supplements AFAMRL-TR-73-110, which describes the data base (NOISEFILE) used in the computer program (NOISEMAP) to predict the community noise exposure resulting from military aircraft operations. The results of field test measurements to define the single-event noise produced on the ground by military aircraft/engines operating in the Texas ASE Inc. hush-house are presented as a function of angle (0 deg to 180 deg from the front of the hush-house) and distance (200 ft to 2500 ft) in various acoustic metrics. All the data are normalized to standard acoustic reference conditions of 59 F temperature and 70% relative humidity. Refer to Volume I of the AFAMRL-TR-73-110 report for discussion of the scope, limitations, and definitions needed to understand and use the data in this report.

  10. Fracture orientation determination in Sandhills (McKnight) field, Crane County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, C.

    1988-01-01

    A fracture identification log (FILMAP, Schlumberger) provided an orientation of vertical fracturing in the Sandhills (McKnight) field, Crane County, Texas. During workover operations to deepen an existing well bore to test a lower porosity interval, a 200-ft core was obtained that intersected a fracture plane in several sections of the core. Verification of this fracture having been hydraulically induced (or enhanced through hydraulic stimulation) was established with the discovery of frac-sand grains along the face of the fracture. The 300-ft open-hole section of the original well bore had been fracture stimulated with 30,000 gal of refined oil and 45,000 lb of sand. The fracture identification log was included as a part of the formation evaluation program to ascertain the orientation of the fracture(s). This tool measures the differences in resistivities along a horizontal plane of the bore hole by detecting fractures that bisect the hold and determines their orientation.

  11. Effects of aldrin exposure on snow geese in Texas rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.

    1979-01-01

    In 1972 and 1974, 112 dead or moribund snow geese (Chen c. caerulescens), mostiy immature white-phase males, were found in a 'study area on the Garwood Prairie, Texas. Dying geese were observed within 2 days after rice fields planted with aldrin-treated seed were flooded by heavy tains6n 21 March 1972 and 25 March 1974. Brains from 8 snow geese that were moribund when found contained an average of 8.2 ppm (4.9-14.0 ppm) of dieldrin (a metabolite of aldrin); brains of 14 geese found dead contained an average of 14.1ppm (2.1-31 ppm). Because no mortalities occurred in 1973 when aldrin-treated rice seed was flooded after all geese had migrated or in 1975 and 1976 after the treatrnent of rice seed with aldrin was suspended, it appears certain that aldrin caused the mortalities.

  12. A unique Austin Chalk reservoir, Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Significant shallow oil production from the Austin Chalk was established in the Van field, Van Zandt County, in East Texas in the late 1980s. The Van field structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion. The Woodbine sands, which underlie the Austin Chalk, have been and continue to be the predominant reservoir rocks in the field. Evidence indicates that faults provided vertical conduits for migration of Woodbine oil into the Austin Chalk where it was trapped along the structural crest. The most prolific Austin Chalk production is on the upthrown side of the main field fault, as is the Woodbine. The Austin Chalk is a soft, white to light gray limestone composed mostly of coccoliths with some pelecypods. Unlike the Austin Chalk in the Giddings and Pearsall fields, the chalk at Van was not as deeply buried and therefore did not become brittle and susceptible to tensional or cryptic fracturing. The shallow burial in the Van field was also important in that it allowed the chalk to retain primary microporosity. The production comes entirely from this primary porosity. In addition to the structural position and underlying oil source from the Woodbine, the depositional environment and associated lithofacies are also keys to the reservoir quality in the Van field as demonstrated by cores from the upthrown and downthrown (less productive) sides of the main field fault. It appears that at the time of Austin Chalk deposition, the main field fault was active and caused the upthrown side to be a structural high and a more agreeable environment for benthonic organisms such as pelecypods and worms. The resulting bioturbation enhanced the reservoir's permeability enough to allow migration and entrapment of the oil. Future success in exploration for analogous Austin Chalk reservoirs will require the combination of a favorable environment of deposition, a nearby Woodbine oil source, and a faulted trap that will provide the conduit for migration.

  13. Estimating shorebird populations during spring stopover in rice fields of the Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norling, Wayne; Jeske, Clinton W.; Thigpen, Tyler F.; Chadwick, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Migrating shorebird populations using approximately 2% of Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coastal rice fields were surveyed during spring migration (March–May of 1997 and 1998) using biweekly stratified random surveys conducted at 50 roadside survey points and approximately 30,000 shorebirds were observed. Shorebird counts were extrapolated and almost 1.4 million birds in 1997 and over 1.6 million birds of 31 species in 1998 were estimated to use rice field habitat for stopover sites in Louisiana and Texas. Greater than 50% of the estimated North American populations were estimated to use rice field habitats for five species, including a species of concern, Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis) at 187%. Because of predictability of suitable rice field habitat acreage, timing of field preparation and water availability, coastal rice prairies are identified as critical spring migration stopover sites.

  14. Assessment of the impact of a 100% smoke-free ordinance on restaurant sales--West Lake Hills, Texas, 1992-1994.

    PubMed

    1995-05-19

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which is associated with adverse health effects among nonsmokers (1), is a health hazard of particular concern for patrons and employees in restaurants (2). To protect nonsmokers, many local governments have enacted ordinances requiring restaurants to be smoke-free. However, the potential economic impact of these laws on restaurants is an important concern for restaurant owners. On June 1, 1993, the city of West Lake Hills (a suburb of Austin), Texas (1995 population: 3000), implemented an ordinance requiring a 100% smoke-free environment in all commercial establishments to which the public has access, including all restaurants and restaurants with bar areas. This report summarizes an assessment of sales in restaurants during June 1993-December 1994 compared with January 1992-May 1993.

  15. A pilot study comparing the level of sickle cell disease knowledge in a university in southeastern Texas and a university in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2000-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most commonly inheritable blood disorder in man. Sickle cell anemia affects approximately one in 375 Blacks in the United States. There is yet no known cure for this disease. Families of sickle cell patients continue to be financially and emotionally devastated by sickle cell disease complications. A high level of sickle cell disease knowledge will encourage non-directional sickle cell disease counseling that would reduce the incidence of this disease. A pilot study to determine the level of sickle cell disease knowledge in a university in southeastern Texas and a university in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria, West Africa found that there was a need to improve retention of sickle cell disease factual information.

  16. Secondary natural gas recovery in mature fluvial sandstone reservoirs, Frio Formation, Agua Dulce Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Levey, R.A. ); Vidal, J.M. ); Sippel, M.A. ); Ballard, J.R. ); Coover, D.M. Jr. ); Bloxsom, W.E. )

    1993-09-01

    An approach that integrates detailed geologic, engineering, and petrophysical analyses combined with improved well-log analytical techniques can be used by independent oil and gas companies of successful infield exploration in mature Gulf Coast fields that larger companies may consider uneconomic. In a secondary gas recovery project conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology and funded by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, a potential incremental natural gas resource of 7.7 bcf, of which 4.0 bcf may be technically recoverable, was identified in a 490-ac lease in Agua Dulce field. Five wells in this lease had previously produced 13.7 bcf from Frio reservoirs at depths of 4600-6200 ft. The pay zones occur in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones offset by faults associated with the Vicksburg fault zone. The compartments may each contain up to 1.0 bcf of gas resources with estimates based on previous completions and the recent infield drilling experience of Pintas Creek Oil Company. Uncontacted gas resources occur in thin (typically less than 10 ft) bypassed zones that can be identified through a computed log evaluation that integrates open-hole logs, wireline pressure tests, fluid samples, and cores. At Agua Dulce field, such analysis identified at 4-ft bypassed zone uphole from previously produced reservoirs. This reservoir contained original reservoir pressure and flowed at rates exceeding 1 mmcf/d. The expected ultimate recovery is 0.4 bcf. Methodologies developed in the evaluation of Agua Dulce field can be successfully applied to other mature gas fields in the south Texas Gulf Coast. For example, Stratton and McFaddin are two fields in which the secondary gas recovery project has demonstrated the existence of thin, potentially bypassed zones that can yield significant incremental gas resources, extending the economic life of these fields.

  17. The origin of high-frequency platform carbonate cycles and third-order sequences (Lower Ordovician El Paso GP, west Texas): Constraints from outcrop data and stratigraphic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhammer, R.K.; Lehmann, P.J.; Dunn, P.A. )

    1993-05-01

    The passive-margin succession of the Diablo Platform is represented by the second-order Sauk C supersequence set, consisting of a basal transgressive clastic unit (The Bliss Sandstone) above the breakup unconformity, marking the second-order basal lowstand transgressive phase, overlain by 750 m of drift-related, shallow-marine platform carbonate (the El Paso Group) recording the second-order highstand. Due to late Paleozoic structuring of the Gondwanan passive margin, present exposures in Texas are in an updip shelf position and lack internal stratal geometries across depositional strike, so sequences and systems tracts are identified solely by the vertical stacking patterns of depositional subfacies and higher-frequency, fifth-order cycles. By analysis of outcrop data the authors develop a sequence-stratigraphic model for lower Paleozoic passive-margin, shallow-water, platform carbonates that de-emphasizes the physical expression of sequence boundaries and systems-tract boundaries and focuses on the vertical and lateral, meter-scale cyclic and subfacies architecture of carbonate shelf deposits in the framework of third-order depositional sequences. They rely on analyses of stratal stacking patterns to bridge the gap from cycle-scale stratigraphy to seismic-scale sequence stratigraphy. In many settings, like the Permian of west Texas, sequence boundaries are often obvious, but in others, especially shallow-dipping ramps or flat-topped platforms on passive margins, third-order sequence boundaries are less obvious, particularly in deformed terranes lacking two-dimensional dip continuity.

  18. Single-well evaluation program for micellar/polymer recovery, Main and 99 West Pools, West Coyote field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, K.M.; Porter, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Main and 99 West pools of the West Coyote field were selected as promising candidates for a micellar-polymer recovery project. Waterfloods initiated in 1961 are nearing their economic limit, with a current watered-oil ratio of 45. Well No. MC 374 was drilled in a water-out portion of the Main and 99 West reservoirs to accomplish an evaluation program with the following objectives: (1) provide data for an improved geologic model; (2) estimate current oil in place; and (3) determine the effectiveness of micellar-polymer chemicals in displacing residual oil. Well No. MC 374 was extensively cored and logged to provide the necessary geologic and reservoir data. A multi-well interference test was conducted to confirm reservoir continuity near the test well. Displacement tests were run in 2 intervals with micellar-polymer chemicals. 13 references.

  19. Water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for West Fork Double Bayou, Cotton Bayou, and Hackberry Gully, Chambers County, Texas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Dexter W.; Turco, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data from two sites at West Fork Double Bayou, two sites at Cotton Bayou, and one site at Hackberry Gully in Chambers County, Texas, during July 2006-August 2007. Water-quality data-collection surveys consisted of synoptic 24-hour continuous measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen at the five sites and periodically collected samples at four sites analyzed for several properties and constituents of interest. Stream-habitat data were collected at each of four sites three times during the study. At each site, a representative stream reach was selected and within this reach, five evenly spaced stream transects were determined. At each transect, stream attributes (wetted channel width, water depth, bottom material, instream cover) and riparian attributes (bank slope and erosion potential, width of natural vegetation, type of vegetation, percentage tree canopy) were measured. Benthic macroinvertebrate and fish data were collected from the same reaches identified for habitat evaluation. A total of 2,572 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified from the four reaches; insect taxa were more abundant than non-insect taxa at all reaches. A total of 1,082 fish, representing 30 species and 13 families, were collected across all reaches. Stream-habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were assessed at the four sites to evaluate aquatic life use. Habitat quality index scores generally indicated 'intermediate' aquatic life use at most reaches. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics scores indicated generally 'intermediate' aquatic life use for the West Fork Double Bayou reaches and generally 'high' aquatic life use for the Cotton Bayou and Hackberry Gully reaches. Index of biotic integrity scores for fish indicated generally

  20. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, David W.; Shannon, Gary W.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  1. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, David W.; Shannon, Gary W.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  2. Evaluation of soil sustainability along the Rio Grande in West Texas: changes in salt loading and organic nutrients due to farming practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, C. L.; Ganjegunte, G.; Borrok, D. M.; Lougheed, V.; Ma, L.; Jin, L.

    2011-12-01

    thus have higher salt loading, and that Cotton has a higher clay content. The EC values continuously increase from irrigation water to soil waters, suggesting that as water travels through the soil profile it increases in salinity. Consistent with this observation, cation concentrations in soil waters increased with depth. Therefore, the salts within the soils are mobilized during irrigation. 5TE sensors at all three depths in the field showed spikes in EC, and soil moisture during each period of flood irrigation. Data also suggests a lower bulk EC between irrigation periods which might result from a lower soil moisture content which doesn't solublize the salts. The carbonate- and gypsum- rich soils and surface water in the Rio Grande Basin change with intensity and amount of irrigation, addition of fertilizers, and other agricultural practices. Results from this project contribute to our understanding of salt loading and nutrient cycling in the vulnerable area of the Rio Grande Valley in West Texas.

  3. Reservoir development in Brahaney northwest and Patricia fields, northern Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J.

    1990-02-01

    Porous pay zones in the Silurian-Devonian section of the northern Midland basin, Texas, vary stratigraphically, as well as structurally, with their locations beneath the pre-Woodford unconformity. These variations are related to at least two major periods of widespread pre-Woodford tectonism and erosion. A major unconformable surface, present at the top of the Lower Silurian Fusselman formation, was later modified by tectonism and erosion immediately preceding deposition of the Woodford Shale. In places where the Fusselman subcrops beneath the Woodford, its capacity for reservoir development is dependent upon the severity of geologic events that affected the formation during the two major tectonic/erosional events. Where the Wristen and Thirtyone formations subcrop, their reservoir capacity depends upon the extent of structuring and subsequent erosion immediately prior to Woodford deposition. Two pre-Woodford oil fields in the northern Midland basin illustrate geologic complexity that bears on the successful application of subsurface mapping in defining potential pay zones. Brahaney Northwest field in Yoakum County is productive from fractured, coarse crystalline Silurian-Devonian dolomites on subtle, fault-bounded structures. These structures, defined seismically on the base of the Woodford, do not reveal the more complex structural and stratigraphic variations within the reservoir itself. Patricia field in Dawson County is productive from Fusselman carbonates where upper Fusselman structural and topographic relief coincides with post-Woodford faulting and low-relief anticlinal closure as defined at the base of the Woodford.

  4. Combined geological and surface geochemical methods discovered Agaritta and Brady Creek Fields, Concho County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, D.F.; Burson, K.R.; Thompson, C.K. ); Brown, J.J. )

    1993-07-01

    From December 1987 to March 1991, 25 prospects in the lower King sand (Upper Pennsylvanian Cisco) play in Concho County, Texas, were tested by several operators. They used combinations of subsurface geology, reconnaissance airborne gas sensing, surface radiometrics, soil magnetic susceptibility, and soil-gas hydrocarbon measurements to define prospects. Six new King sand discoveries or extensions and three deeper Goen discoveries resulted in a 36% exploratory success rate. The total exploration and development cost was approximately $0.67/bbl of proven producing oil reserves. Final locations for the discovery wells on each of the nine successful prospects were selected primarily on the basis of combined subsurface geology and surface geochemical data. As examples, we present information about the discovery of Brady Creek and Agaritta fields. Agaritta field is one of the two largest of the new-field discoveries, with estimated proven producing recoverable reserves of 6 million bbl of oil. Its discovery was based on a combination of (1) regional subsurface geologic projection, (2) airborne hydrocarbon sensing, (3) interstitial soil-gas hydrocarbon data, (4) soil magnetic-susceptibility measurements, and (5) surface potassium and uranium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry.

  5. Field evidence of subsidence and faulting induced by hydrocarbon production in coastal southeast Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Purcell, Noreen A.; Peterson, Russell L.

    2001-01-01

    Three large, mature hydrocarbon fields in coastal southeast Texas were examined to evaluate competing hypotheses of wetland losses and to characterize subaerial and submerged surfaces near reactivated faults and zones of subsidence. Detailed topographic and bathymetric profiles and shallow cores at the Port Neches, Clam Lake, and Caplen Fields provide a basis for distinguishing between (1) extensive land-surface subsidence without significant subaqueous erosion, and (2) localized minor subsidence near faults accompanied by extensive subaqueous erosion. Subaqueous erosion results from submergence of wetlands, current and wave excavation of surface sediments and organic detritus, and exportation of the eroded sediments through adjacent water bodies with swift currents such as navigation channels. Responses to induced subsidence and fault reactivation are different at each field site. Detailed stratigraphic correlations of sediment cores show that at Port Neches, subsidence of 35 to 90 cm and minor marsh erosion (20 to 35 cm) created more than 15 million m3 of accommodation space in a nearly circular pattern over the field. At Caplen the marsh surface subsided only about 4 cm, but the surface eroded 30 to 40 cm vertically, creating about 3.5 million m3 of accommodation space. The breakup of wetlands and their conversion to open water appears to be in an initial stage at the Clam Lake Field where marsh plants are being submerged along a fault. The different surficial responses and wetland losses at each field are related to the primary type of hydrocarbon produced and the rates of production. Although the absolute magnitude of induced subsidence may be less than 1 m, even a minor reduction in land elevation is sufficient to cause major wetland losses.

  6. Soccer field at West 101st102nd streets, Riverside Park, looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Soccer field at West 101st-102nd streets, Riverside Park, looking south with railroad retaining wall in background. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  7. International Trade Seminar (Austin, Texas, December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Selected presentations from a 1988 seminar on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC) are included in this report. Designed to direct west Texas businesses toward diversification and to prepare them for international trade and business opportunities, the seminar featured speakers in the field of international trade, including bank…

  8. International Trade Seminar (Austin, Texas, December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Selected presentations from a 1988 seminar on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC) are included in this report. Designed to direct west Texas businesses toward diversification and to prepare them for international trade and business opportunities, the seminar featured speakers in the field of international trade, including bank…

  9. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rot and associated microorganisms from fields in south Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased cotton production losses in areas of south Texas have been generally associated with a rise in boll rot that reduces lint quality and causes deteriorated seed. Here, we measured boll rot incidence during two growing seasons (2011 and 2012) at a south Texas variety trial in research plots ...

  10. High-intensity geomagnetic field 'spike' observed at ca. 3000 cal BP in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Mark D.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Waters, Michael R.; Lundelius, Ernest; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    By observing the fluctuations in direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, we increase our understanding of the fluid motions of the Earth's outer core that sustain the geomagnetic field, the geodynamo. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in the Near East have found extremely rapid increases - 'spikes' - in geomagnetic field intensity at ca. 3000 yr cal BP. These observations have proved problematic for our current understanding of core-flow. However, until now, these geomagnetic spikes had not been observed outside of the Near East, where they have been preserved in metallurgical slag and fired, mud brick walls. We present a new, fully oriented, geomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity (RPI) record for the last 17,000 yr from Hall's Cave, Texas, whose complete, >3.8 m thick sedimentary sequence spans from the present to 16 , 850 ± 110 RC yr BP (Modern to 20,600 cal BP). Within the stable, cool climate of the cave, pedogenic and bioturbation processes are negligible to non-existent, thereby limiting post-depositional physical and geochemical alteration of the magnetic record. The sub-aerial and subterranean setting of the sedimentary sequence in Hall's Cave enabled us to collect oriented palaeomagnetic cubes from a previously excavated stratigraphic section. The palaeomagnetic samples yielded high-quality vectors. An age model for the sequence, determined using 15 AMS 14C-dates on individual bones from microvertebrates, was combined with the palaeomagnetic data to construct a secular variation record. The record is in broad agreement with predictions by Holocene field models for the site's location. However, starting ca. 3000 yr ago, the RPI data indicate an almost four-fold increase in geomagnetic field intensity lasting several hundred years. This record presents well-dated evidence, obtained using conventional techniques, for the existence of a geomagnetic intensity spike in North America that is contemporaneous with the

  11. Pre-Leonardian geology of Midland Farms field area, Andrews County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mear, C.E.; Dufurrena, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Midland Farms (Ellenburger) oil field was discovered on September 16, 1952, with the completion of Anderson-Pritchard's 1 Fasken-24 well, drilled on an indicated single-fold seismic structure. The field produces from vuggy, fractured Ellenburger dolomite with up to 310 ft (94 m) of gross and net pay. The Midland Farms (Ellenburger) field is part of a larger structure which incorporates not only Midland Farms field, but Midland Farms, West (Devonian), Inez (Ellenburger), and parts of the Fasken (Penn) and Block 41 (Wolfcamp) fields. The structure is a complex, uplifted block composed of two doubly plunging, asymmetric anticlines bisected by at least one wrench-type fault and several normal faults. Penecontemporaneous leaching produced oomoldic porosity in the limestones. Ellenburger oil production was established in the Midland Farms area in September 1952, and has amounted to 61.6 million bbl oil and 28.5 bcf of gas from 91 wells to January 1983. Major Fusselman and Wolfcamp oil accumulations were discovered during development of the Ellenburger field. Fusselman oil was first produced in June 1953, and has totaled 10.1 million bbl of oil and 5 bcf of gas from 33 wells to January 1983. Wolfcamp production was established in January 1954 and totals 10.7 million bbl of oil and 1 bcf of gas from 39 wells. Total production from all zones including post-Leonard beds in the Midland Farms field area to date has been 210 million bbl of oil and 84 bcf of gas.

  12. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  13. B. C. Canyon field, Howard County, Texas: An ancient analogy to modern tropical tower karst terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Mozynski, D.C.; Reid, A.M. )

    1992-04-01

    Late in the early deposition of sediments in Canyon field, a series of glacio-eustatically controlled sea level lowstands resulted in a carbonate buildup seaward of the Horseshoe Atoll in Howard County, Texas. The resulting satellite reef tract consists of fringing boundstone; high-energy shelf grainstones; lower energy shelf packstones and wackestones; and thin, highstand, black shales and mudstones. The original extent and thickness of deposits were extensively modified during karstification coincident with successive sea level lowstands. The resulting paleotopographic landforms appear to be similar to tower karst features of Puerto Rico. During the beginning of each sea level highstand, the paleoterrain was modified by erosion. The basinal foreshelf conglomerates resulting from initial highstand erosion contain dipping strata that commonly can be detected by the dipmeter tool. The mechanism for the formation of these strata may be depositional or the result of diagenetic alteration of the rock fabric in the burial environment. Using dipmeter data, an uneconomic producer has been offset by one of the better producing wells in the field.

  14. Evaluation of waterflood operations at Iatan East Howard Field, Mitchell County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.; Mitchell, S.M.

    1988-02-01

    Mobil Exploration and Producing US Inc. completed a reservoir description study on Iatan East Howard field in Mitchell County, Texas, in 1984. The application of study results has improved subsequent development drilling and waterflood operations. Lease production has doubled within two years with the drilling of 40 producers and 13 injection wells. The field produces from thin (2 to 40 ft) porosity stringers in fractured Permian age San Angelo and Clearfork dolomites at 2300 to 3200 ft in depth. Reservoirs are areally discontinuous due to original depositional controls on porosity develoment and distribution. Pay zone reservoir parameters such as porosity and permeability vary from 4 to 17% and 0.1 to 120 md, respectively. The presence of a fracture orientation at N60/degree/E to N85/degree/E has caused producing wells to experience early breakthrough of injection water when in line with injectors and the fracture direction. Waterflows have also occurred in drilling wells when similarly aligned. Recognition of this fracture overprint has dictated the use of a staggered line drive injection pattern parallel to the fracture trend to improve sweep efficiency.

  15. Evaluation of waterflood operations at Iatan East Howard field, Mitchell County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.; Mitchell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc. completed a reservoir description study on Iatan East Howard field in Mitchell County, Texas, in 1984. The application of study results has improved subsequent development drilling and waterflood operations. Lease production has doubled within two years with the drilling of 40 producers and 13 injection wells. The field produces from thin (2 to 40 ft) porosity stringers in fractured Permian age San Angelo and Clearfork dolomites at 2,300 to 3,200 ft in depth. Reservoirs are really discontinuous due to original depositional controls on porosity development and distribution. Pay zone reservoir parameters such as porosity and permeability vary from 4 to 17% and 0.1 to 120 md, respectively. The presence of a fracture orientation at N60/sup 0/E to N85/sup 0/E has caused producing wells to experience early breakthrough of injection water when in line with injectors and the fracture direction. Waterflows have also occurred in drilling wells when similarly aligned. Recognition of this fracture overprint has dictated the use of a staggered line drive injection pattern parallel to the fracture trend to improve sweep efficiency. Reservoir matrix can be swept more uniformly as rows of injectors pressurize those aligned fractures and move oil perpendicular to the fracture trend and toward the rows of producers.

  16. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning...

  17. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado field, South Texas; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. Within the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity. The purpose of this report is (1) to describe and analyze the sand-body architecture, depositional facies variations, and structure of Prado field, (2) to determine controls on distribution of hydrocarbons pertinent to reexploration for bypassed hydrocarbons, (3) to describe reservoir models at Prado field, and (4) to develop new data affecting the suitability of Jackson oil fields as possible candidates for thermally enhanced recovery of medium to heavy oil.

  18. ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those

  19. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; McIntosh, K. D.; Saustrup, S., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. The course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas, and Galveston, TX, and Grand Isle, LA, provide ideal locations for students to investigate coastal processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques in an exploratory mode. At sea, students assist with survey design and instrumentation set up while learning about acquisition parameters, data quality control, trouble-shooting, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of four, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and data processing. During the course's final week, teams return to the classroom where they integrate, interpret, and visualize data in a final project using industry-standard software such as Echos, Landmark, Caris, and Fledermaus. The course concludes with a series of final presentations and discussions in which students examine geologic history and/or sedimentary processes represented by the Gulf Coast continental shelf with academic and industry supporters. Students report a greater understanding of marine geology and geophysics through the course's intensive, hands-on, team approach and low instructor to student ratio (sixteen

  20. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. B.; Gulick, S. P.; Allison, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Duncan, D. D.; Saustrup, S.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year five, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students seek to understand coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of these techniques in an exploratory mode. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. In the field, students rotate between two small research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and initial data processing. During the course's final week, teams

  1. The West Dallas Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Texas State Univ., Denton.

    The West Dallas Teacher Education Program is a competency-based program to better prepare teachers for service in inner-city schools. The program utilizes a field-based, professional semester format to directly relate didactic instruction and clinical practice. The project is staffed by three North Texas State University faculty members.…

  2. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  3. Diabetes prevalence and treatment adherence in residents living in a colonia located on the West Texas, USA/Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Anders, Robert L; Olson, Thomas; Wiebe, John; Bean, Nathaniel H; DiGregorio, Rena; Guillermina, Mina; Ortiz, Melchor

    2008-09-01

    Little is known about how diabetes affects the health status of Hispanic people living in colonias located along the USA/Mexico border. The purpose of this report is to describe the demographic factors, prevalence of diabetes, and the health status of the residents living in a colonia on the border between El Paso, Texas, USA, and Juarez, Mexico, and to report the residents' adherence to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) protocols for the management of type 2 diabetes. This study included 188 participants. The instruments used included a demographic questionnaire, the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics, "Cutting Down, Annoyance by Criticism, Guilty Feelings, and Eye-openers", BRFSS, and the Short Form-36 (v2). The prevalence of diabetes was 15.4% and 41.3% of the residents had a Body Mass Index score > 30. The rate of hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and depression for those reporting diabetes was significant. The SF-36 v2 physical score for the diabetic residents was 42.9 and it was 52.4 for the non-diabetic residents. The average resident of the colonia who reports diabetes has many health disadvantages when compared to those in other parts of Texas and the USA generally.

  4. Sedimentology, petrology, and reservoir characteristics of lower Strawn sandstone, Bent Tree field, Hardeman County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.R.; Bridges, K.F.

    1987-08-01

    Reservoir sandstones of the lower Strawn Formation (early Middle Pennsylvanian) in the Bent Tree field of Hardeman County, Texas, are coarse to fine-grained, texturally submature arkoses. Cores show the sandstones to have been deposited in 1.5-4.5 m thick fining-upward successions of aggraded or prograded bar units. Each bar unit has a sharp erosional base overlain by cross-bedded, coarse-grained, conglomeratic sandstone, which, in turn, is overlain by medium to fine-grained, horizontally bedded or ripple-bedded sandstone. The coarse conglomeratic sandstones are interpreted to represent deposition in main channels of a braided fluvial system that were progressively filled by aggrading and prograding bars. The interbedded, finer grained, more immature sandstones appear to have been deposited in auxiliary channels or swales, or in proximal overbank settings. The detrital framework grain suite of the reservoir sandstones averages 47% quartz, 30% feldspars, 19% igneous rock fragments, and 4% sedimentary rock fragments. The source of these sands was a plutonic/cratonic igneous massif with minor exposures of older sedimentary strata, and was probably the ancestral Wichita Mountains. Diagenesis has significantly affected the petrographic and reservoir properties of the lower Strawn sandstones, primarily through the in-situ alteration of detrital feldspathic grains and by the precipitation of authigenic quartz overgrowths, chlorite clay, and carbonate cements.

  5. Perriwinkle and Perriwinkle North fields, Martin County, Texas: A Cisco-Canyon lowstand reef complex

    SciTech Connect

    Mozynski, D.C.; Reid, A.M. )

    1992-04-01

    During the middle-early through early-middle deposition of sediments in Canyon field, a series of glacio-eustatically controlled sea level lowstands resulted in carbonate buildups seaward of the Horseshoe Atoll in Martin County, Texas. The resulting reef tracts consist of algal-bryozoan boundstones, clean forereef talus conglomerates, and other high-energy shelf carbonates. The reef complex was chemically eroded into a tower karst terrain during subsequent sea level lowstands and associated subaerial exposure. The highly sculptured paleotopography was mechanically eroded during the onset of a sea level highstand, filling lows with locally derived conglomerates. In addition, highstand basinal foreshelf conglomerates from the atoll were deposited. These conglomerates contain at least one reservoir-size upper Strawn high-energy shelf allochthon. A transgressive-regressive shelf margin reef tract was deposited seaward of the now exhumed Canyon paleokarst surface during a lowstand that occurred early in Cisco deposition. The tract consists of an algal-bryozoan boundstone, associated forereef talus conglomerates, immediate backreef grainstones and packstones, and erosional foreshelf detritus. Although subaerially exposed, the Cisco reef tract is not as highly solutioned as the Canyon tract, resulting in a lower relief paleotopographic surface. During subsequent sea level highstands, both the Cisco and Canyon reef tracts were buried under lower Cisco basinal foreshelf conglomeraters, masking the stratigraphic intricacies of the paleobathymetric surface and obscuring the relationship of time correlative reservoirs within the shelf-edge complex.

  6. Bioavailability Assessment of a Contaminated Field Sediemtn from Patrick Bayou, Texas: TIE and Equilibrium Partitioning

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are commonly found in urbanized harbors. Remediation is often necessary and diagnosing the cause of sediment toxicity becomes imperative. In the present study, sediments from Patrick Bayou, Texas were subjected to initial toxicity testing. All sediments ...

  7. Bioavailability Assessment of a Contaminated Field Sediemtn from Patrick Bayou, Texas: TIE and Equilibrium Partitioning

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are commonly found in urbanized harbors. Remediation is often necessary and diagnosing the cause of sediment toxicity becomes imperative. In the present study, sediments from Patrick Bayou, Texas were subjected to initial toxicity testing. All sediments ...

  8. West Nile virus infection in kidney and pancreas transplant recipients in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex during the 2012 Texas epidemic.

    PubMed

    Yango, Angelito F; Fischbach, Bernard V; Levy, Marlon; Chandrakantan, Arun; Tan, Valerie; Spak, Cedric; Melton, Larry; Rice, Kim; Barri, Yousri; Rajagopal, Arthi; Klintmalm, Goran

    2014-05-15

    In 2012, the United States experienced one of its worst West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics, reporting 5,387 human cases and final death toll of 243. Texas was at the epicenter of the outbreak, with 1,875 reported cases and 89 deaths that year. The Texas outbreak centered mainly in the Dallas-Fort Worth area where 30 deaths were reported. We report three cases of severe WNV infection complicated by meningoencephalitis in our organ transplant population. Clinical data were collected from chart review. Therapy and outcomes on three identified patients were reviewed and compared with previously reported cases of WNV infection in kidney/pancreas transplant recipients and the general population. Two recipients of kidney and one recipient of a combined kidney and pancreas transplant were treated at our center for WNV infection. All three patients presented with a rapid decline in mental status within 24 hours of admission consistent with meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis was made based on detection of WNV IgM in the serum. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy at 400 mg/kg × 3 to 4 doses. As a result, two patients had a full recovery, and one patient died. Transplant recipients have a higher risk of neurologic complications from WNV infection. In areas where WNV is endemic, clinicians must have a high index of suspicion when treating patients presenting with fever, headache, and confusion. Full recovery in two of three patients suggests a potential role of IVIG therapy in controlling active WNV infection, particularly in immunosuppressed patients.

  9. West Nile Virus Infection in Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Recipients in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex During the 2012 Texas Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Yango, Angelito F; Fischbach, Bernard V; Levy, Marlon; Chandrakantan, Arun; Tan, Valerie; Spak, Cedric; Melton, Larry; Rice, Kim; Barri, Yousri; Rajagopal, Arthi; Klintmalm, Goran

    2014-01-08

    In 2012, the United States experienced one of its worst West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics, reporting 5,387 human cases and final death toll of 243. Texas was at the epicenter of the outbreak, with 1,875 reported cases and 89 deaths that year. The Texas outbreak centered mainly in the Dallas-Fort Worth area where 30 deaths were reported. We report three cases of severe WNV infection complicated by meningoencephalitis in our organ transplant population. Clinical data were collected from chart review. Therapy and outcomes on three identified patients were reviewed and compared with previously reported cases of WNV infection in kidney/pancreas transplant recipients and the general population. Two recipients of kidney and one recipient of a combined kidney and pancreas transplant were treated at our center for WNV infection. All three patients presented with a rapid decline in mental status within 24 hours of admission consistent with meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis was made based on detection of WNV IgM in the serum. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy at 400 mg/kg × 3 to 4 doses. As a result, two patients had a full recovery, and one patient died. Transplant recipients have a higher risk of neurologic complications from WNV infection. In areas where WNV is endemic, clinicians must have a high index of suspicion when treating patients presenting with fever, headache, and confusion. Full recovery in two of three patients suggests a potential role of IVIG therapy in controlling active WNV infection, particularly in immunosuppressed patients.

  10. Reservoir heterogeneity in middle Frio fluvial sandstones: Case studies in Seeligson field, Jim Wells County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Detailed evaluation of middle Frio (Oligocene) fluvial sandstones reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of gas reserves through recognition of poorly drained reservoir compartments and bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/US Department of Energy/State of Texas-sponsored program, with the cooperation of Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Inc. Four reservoirs, Zones 15, 16D, 16E, and 19C, were studied in a 20 mi{sup 2} area within Seeligson field. Collectively, these reservoirs have produced more than 240 bcf of gas from wells within the study area. Detailed electric log correlation of individual reservoirs enabled subdivision of aggregate producing zones into component genetic units. Cross sections, net-sandstone maps, and log-facies maps were prepared to illustrate depositional style, sand-body geometry, and reservoir heterogeneity. Zones 15 and 19C are examples of laterally stacked fluvial architecture. Individual channel-fill sandstones range from 10 to 50 ft thick, and channel widths are approximately 2,500 ft. Crevasse-splay sandstones may extend a few thousand feet from the main channel system. Multiple, overlapping channel and splay deposits commonly form sand-rich belts that result in leaky reservoir compartments that may be incompletely drained. Zones 16D and 16E are examples of vertically stacked fluvial architecture, with discrete, relatively thin and narrow channel and splay sandstones generally encased within floodplain muds. This architectural style is likely to form more isolated reservoir compartments. Although all of these reservoirs are currently considered nearly depleted, low-pressure producers, recent well completions and bottomhole pressure data indicate that untapped or poorly drained compartments are being encountered.

  11. Impacts of spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin on spider communities in cabbage fields in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T-X; Irungu, R W; Dean, D A; Harris, M K

    2013-04-01

    Spiders are a principal arthropod group that preys on numerous pests of vegetables and other crops. In this study, we determined the effects of the two most commonly used insecticides, spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin, on diversity of spiders on cabbage in south Texas. In two seasons (fall 2008 and spring 2009), we collected a total of 588 spiders belonging to 53 species in 11 families from spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin-treated cabbages and the untreated control plants. A great majority of spiders were collected from the pitfall traps (554) where only a few (34) were collected from the blower/vacuum sampling. In the insecticide-treated plots, there were significantly fewer spider individuals, species and families than in untreated fields. Spinosad had significantly less effect on spiders in total individuals, number of species and families than λ-cyhalothrin. The effects of the two insecticides were further demonstrated by the Shannon-Weiner index (H') and the hierarchical richness index (HRI). Spider diversity in the spinosad-treated plots were not significantly different from that in the untreated fields but were greater than those in λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots in both seasons when measured by H' values. In contrast, the H' values of spider's diversity in the λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots were significantly lower than spinosad-treated and untreated plots. High values of HRI for spider richness in the spinosad-treated plots suggested that spinosad had less effect on spiders than λ-cyhalothrin. We concluded that spinosad was more compatible with spiders on cabbage compared to λ-cyhalothrin and that this information should be used when developing insecticide resistance management strategies.

  12. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  13. Comparison of Amplitudes and Frequencies of Explosive vs. Hammer Seismic Sources for a 1-km Seismic Line in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaip, G.; Harder, S. H.; Karplus, M. S.; Vennemann, A.

    2016-12-01

    In May 2016, the National Seismic Source Facility (NSSF) located at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) Department of Geological Sciences collected seismic data at the Indio Ranch located 30 km southwest of Van Horn, Texas. Both hammer on an aluminum plate and explosive sources were used. The project objective was to image subsurface structures at the ranch, owned by UTEP. Selecting the appropriate seismic source is important to reach project objectives. We compare seismic sources between explosions and hammer on plate, focusing on amplitude and frequency. The seismic line was 1 km long, trending WSW to ENE, with 200 4.5 Hz geophones at 5m spacing and shot locations at 10m spacing. Clay slurry was used in shot holes to increase shot coupling around booster. Trojan Spartan cast boosters (150g) were used in explosive sources in each shot hole (1 hole per station). The end of line shots had 5 shot holes instead of 1 (750g total). The hammer source utilized a 5.5 kg hammer and an aluminum plate. Five hammer blows were stacked at each location to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Explosive sources yield higher amplitude, but lower frequency content. The explosions exhibit a higher signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to recognize seismic energy deeper and farther from the source. Hammer sources yield higher frequencies, allowing better resolution at shallower depths but have a lower signal-to-noise ratio and lower amplitudes, even with source stacking. We analyze the details of the shot spectra from the different types of sources. A combination of source types can improve data resolution and amplitude, thereby improving imaging potential. However, cost, logistics, and complexities also have a large influence on source selection.

  14. 3-D seismic delineation and geologic explanation of channelization in the Frio Formation of Javelina/East McCook Field, Hidalgo County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    Sinuous, channel-form features were recognized on seismic amplitude time-slice maps of the shallow Oligocene Frio Formation on several Shell proprietary 3-D seismic surveys in west-central Hidalgo County, Texas. A case study of channel morphologies observed in the Frio Formation within the 50 mi{sup 2} 3-D seismic survey over Javelina/East McCook field was undertaken to better understand the distribution, lithology, origin, and hydrocarbon potential of these features. Ten separate channel-like amplitude features are observed in flattened time slices within a 200 m (approximately 1100 ft) interval on 3-D seismic. The channels have various azimuthal orientations and varying degrees of sinuosity. Several of the features have lengths that span the 3-D survey area (10 mi); apparent channel widths range from 200 to 2000 ft. The channelized seismic events tie to an interval of interbedded mudstones and claystones with siltstones. Two of the channels seen on seismic, and which were penetrated by wells, correlate to siftstone and mudstone intervals that have gross thicknesses of 30 to 60 ft. The lithologies and dimensions of the two channels indicate that they are probably small mudstone/siltstone-filled tributary/distributary channels deposited in a coastal floodplain environment; a comparison of the apparent channel dimensions to the dimensions of small channels/bayous of the modern-day Texas Gulf Coast supports this interpretation. Correlation of wells adjacent to the channels indicates that sandy point-bar facies are not present in association with the channel fill, which discounts the idea that high-quality reservoirs are flanking these particular mud-filled channels.

  15. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1993-09-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. With the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity.

  16. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  17. Astronaut Neil Armstrong - Rock Sample Study - Geological Field Trip - TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-03

    S69-25198 (25 Feb. 1969) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 prime crew, studies rock sample during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  18. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  19. Using geographic information systems and spatial and space-time scan statistics for a population-based risk analysis of the 2002 equine West Nile epidemic in six contiguous regions of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Min; Warner, Ronald D; Alexander, James L; Dixon, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) first appeared in Texas. Surveillance data were retrospectively examined to explore the temporal and spatial characteristics of the Texas equine WNV epidemic in 2002. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the Spatial and Space-Time Scan (SaTScan) statistics, we analyzed 1421 of the reported equine WNV cases from six contiguous state Health Service Regions (HSRs), comprising 158 counties, in western, northern, central and eastern Texas. Results Two primary epidemic peaks occurred in Epidemiological (Epi) week 35 (August 25 to 31) and Epi week 42 (October 13 to 19) of 2002 in the western and eastern part of the study area, respectively. The SaTScan statistics detected nine non-random spatio-temporal equine case aggregations (mini-outbreaks) and five unique high-risk areas imbedded within the overall epidemic. Conclusion The 2002 Texas equine WNV epidemic occurred in a bi-modal pattern. Some "local hot spots" of the WNV epidemic developed in Texas. The use of GIS and SaTScan can be valuable tools in analyzing on-going surveillance data to identify high-risk areas and shifts in disease clustering within a large geographic area. Such techniques should become increasingly useful and important in future epidemics, as decisions must be made to effectively allocate limited resources. PMID:17888159

  20. Geological control on the reservoir characteristics of Olkaria West Geothermal Field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Omenda, Peter A.

    1994-01-20

    The reservoir of the West Olkaria Geothermal Field is hosted within tuffs and the reservoir fluid is characterized by higher concentrations of reservoir CO{sub 2} (10,000-100,000 mg/kg) but lower chloride concentrations of about 200 mg/kg than the East and North East Fields. The West Field is in the outflow and main recharge area of the Olkaria geothermal system. Permeability is generally low in the West Field and its distribution is strongly controlled by the structures. Fault zones show higher permeability with wells drilled within the structures havin larger total mass outputs. However, N-S and NW-SE faults are mainly channels for cold water downflow into the reservoir. Well feeder zones occur mostly at lava-tuff contacts; within fractured lava flows and at the contacts of intrusives and host rocks.

  1. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G.

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from the more

  2. Book review: Peeters, H. 2007. Field guide to owls of California and the West

    Treesearch

    Eric D. Forsman

    2010-01-01

    Field Guide to Owls of California and the West. Written primarily for nonprofessionals,this little field guide is a treasure trove of published and unpublished information on the natural history and distribution of owls in the western United States. It covers just about everything you could want to know about owls, from why they take dust baths, to facultative...

  3. Development of the Wink Sink in west Texas, U.S.A., due to salt dissolution and collapse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Wink Sink, in Winkler County, Texas, is a collapse feature that formed in June 1980 when an underground dissolution cavity migrated upward by successive roof failures until it breached the land surface. The original cavity developed in the Permian Salado Formation salt beds more than 400 m (1,300 ft) below ground level. Natural dissolution of salt occurred in the vicinity of the Wink Sink in several episodes that began as early as Salado time and recurred in later Permian, Triassic, and Cenozoic times. Although natural dissolution occurred in the past below the Wink Sink, it appears likely that the dissolution cavity and resultant collapse described in this report were influenced by petroleum-production activity in the immediate area. Drilling, completion, and plugging procedures used on an abandoned oil well at the site of the sink appear to have created a conduit that enabled water to circulate down the borehole and dissolve the salt. When the dissolution cavity became large enough, the roof failed and the overlying rocks collapsed into the cavity. Similar collapse features exist where underground salt beds have been intentionally dissolved during solution mining or accidentally dissolved as a result of petroleum-production activity. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. Development of the Wink Sink in west Texas, U.S.A., due to salt dissolution and collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.

    1989-09-01

    The Wink Sink, in Winkler County, Texas, is a collapse feature that formed in June 1980 when an underground dissolution cavity migrated upward by successive roof failures until it breached the land surface. The original cavity developed in the Permian Salado Formation salt beds more than 400 m (1,300 ft) below ground level. Natural dissolution of salt occurred in the vicinity of the Wink Sink in several episodes that began as early as Salado time and recurred in later Permian, Triassic, and Cenozoic times. Although natural dissolution occurred in the past below the Wink Sink, it appears likely that the dissolution cavity and resultant collapse described in this report were influenced by petroleum-production activity in the immediate area. Drilling, completion, and plugging procedures used on an abandoned oil well at the site of the sink appear to have created a conduit that enabled water to circulate down the borehole and dissolve the salt. When the dissolution cavity became large enough, the roof failed and the overlying rocks collapsed into the cavity. Similar collapse features exist where underground salt beds have been intentionally dissolved during solution mining or accidentally dissolved as a result of petroleum-production activity.

  5. A retrospective study of septic arthritis in a tertiary hospital in West Texas with high rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sian Yik; Pannikath, Deepa; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Septic arthritis is an important concern for rheumatologists in the evaluation of joint disease. Very few studies have addressed the microbiologic epidemiology and outcomes of septic arthritis in the USA since the year 2000. We performed a retrospective study of septic arthritis in a tertiary hospital in West Texas from the year 2000 to 2013. We recorded data on patient demographics, microbiologic etiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes. The most common causative organisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) caused septic arthritis in 22.6 % of the cases. MRSA septic arthritis was associated with low rates of adequate empiric antimicrobial therapy. The mortality due to sepsis in our study was 5.5 %. Patients with septic arthritis had a mean length of stay of 13.5 ± 12.1 days and required 2.1 ± 1.4 joint operations. Many patients (29.2 %) had readmissions due to complications, and these patients had high rates of home health utilization and transfers to other facilities post hospital discharge. In our logistic regression analysis model, factors associated with poor outcomes in septic arthritis were MRSA, older age, and prosthetic joint infection. Septic arthritis is associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and health care costs, and more studies are needed to improve outcomes, especially considering the increasing rates of MRSA as the pathogen.

  6. Burial history of Lockport formation (Middle Silurian), New York, in light of studies of Ellenburger group (Lower Ordovician), west Texas-southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.I.; Ergin, M.; Friedman, G.M.

    1986-05-01

    For studies of burial depth of the Lockport Formation (Middle Silurian) of the Appalachian basin, the authors used as a control data from petrographic, stable isotope, and two-phase fluid-inclusion analyses of carbonate rocks cored from 5000 to 23,000 ft (1.5 to 7 km) burial depth of the Ellenburger Group, west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The coarse to very coarse crystalline nature of the host-rock dolomite, the vug-filling and fracture-filling saddle dolomite containing relatively light oxygen isotope compositions ranging from -6 to -12 per thousand (PDB), and the high mean homogenization temperatures for saddle dolomite formation from 100/sup 0/ to 260/sup 0/C, all suggest diagenetic changes occurred under deep burial conditions. Using Ellenburger carbonates as a control for burial depth diagenesis studies of saddle dolomite of the surface-exposed Lockport Formation, New York, other literature, and the regional conodont color alteration index (CAI) of 2-3, a former burial depth for the Lockport Formation strata of up to 5 km is indicated, much greater than the present estimation of less than 2 km of paleogeographic reconstruction. This depth was confirmed by delta/sup 18/O values ranging from -9 to -11 per thousand, and two-phase fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures ranging from 110/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C with an average of 150/sup 0/C.

  7. Surface gamma-ray logs as a correlation tool between outcrop and subsurface: Application to the Silurian-Devonian of west Texas and southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Colleary, W.M. ); Crafton, J.W. Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL )

    1992-04-01

    Outcrop gamma-ray logs are an excellent tool for correlation between surface measured sections and subsurface well logs. The work presented here illustrates the utility of constructing such profiles and the applicability of this technique to carbonate sequences such as those of the Permian basin. Outcrop sections with gamma-ray profiles have been measured over the Silurian-Devonian section in three separate areas. These sections are located in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico, and the northern Franklin Mountains and Hueco Mountains of west Texas. A hand-held Scintrex Model BGS-4 Digital Scintillometer was used to measure surface gamma radiation while detailed stratigraphic sections were being measured and described. Data were collected at regularly spaced intervals along the section. The scintillometer detects natural radiation emitted by radioactive elements that occur in most clay minerals and generally are more abundant in shales than in sandstones or carbonates. The lithology of poorly exposed or covered units also may be inferred from surface gamma-ray profiles. Organic-rich black shales are particularly radioactive, as are condensed sections. The strength of this method does not lie in the absolute reading of gamma radiation. The value of this tool lies in recognizing patterns within each profile, directly relating these patterns to their associated facies, and correlating them with subsurface profiles.

  8. 2014: A Record-Breaking Year for West Nile Virus Positive Mosquito Pools in Harris County and the City of Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Randle, Yvonne H; Freeman, Cheryl Battle; Jackson, Monique; Reyna, Martin; Debboun, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    In the 14 years since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Harris County and the city of Houston, Texas, the number of mosquitoes infected with the virus has fluctuated with several high and low count years. During this 14-year period, mosquito surveillance operational areas in Harris County were expanded from 248 to 268 and the distribution of the virus activity in mosquitoes varied from year to year. Operational areas with WNV infected mosquitoes increased from 137 in 2002 to 197 in 2006, decreased to 71 areas in 2007, and to an all-time low of 18 in 2008. The number increased to 78 areas in 2009, 96 in 2010, 133 in 2011, and 177 in 2012, but fell to 73 in 2013. However, 234 areas were confirmed in 2014, and only 138 in 2015. The WNV transmission was high in 2002 with 227 WNV positive mosquito pools. The number of positive mosquitoes remained elevated for a number of years and then declined from 2007 to 2010. Three record high years for WNV activity were: 2005, 2006, and 2011 with 698, 838, and 605 confirmed positive mosquito pools, respectively. Viral activity declined in 2012, followed by a marked decline in 2013 with only 147 WNV positive mosquito pools. In 2014, a record-breaking number of 1,286 WNV positive mosquito pools were confirmed in Harris County and the city of Houston, the most ever in a single season, while 406 were confirmed in 2015.

  9. Depositional and diagenetic controls on porosity permeability and oil production in McFarland/Magutex (Queen) reservoirs, Andrews County, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The McFarland/Magutex Queen reservoir complex lies along the northeastern edge of the Central basin platform in the west Texas Permian basin and produces oil from the Permian Queen Formation. Current production from this complex totals 42 million stock-tank barrels (MMSTB) of an estimated 219 MMSTB of original oil in place, with an estimated 90 MMSTB of remaining mobile oil (RMO). The gross pay interval contains two parasequences consisting of progradational, 30-ft-thick, upward-shoaling facies packages. Facies include shoreface, mixed tidal channel and intertidal flat, and supratidal. Elongate shoreface facies are characterized by poorly consolidated, massive to thinly laminated sandstones. The supratidal facies, which act as permeability barriers, are characterized by algal-laminated dolostone and nodular, laminated, and massive anhydrite containing halite and gypsum pseudomorphs. Highest production and the largest amount of the 90 MMSTB of RMO is associated with the shoreface and tidal-channel facies. Bulk pore volume storage capacity and permeability are also highest within these two facies. Sandstones are arkosic, containing anhydrite and dolomite cements. Accessory minerals are clays, authigenic feldspar, and dolomite. Three main pore types are recognized: interparticle, moldic and intraconstituent, and micropores. Moldic and intraconstituent porosity is associated with leached feldspars and anhydrite cement dissolution. Microporosity is associated with syndepositional, grain-coating corrensite, dissolution-enhanced feldspar cleavage planes, and authigenic multifaceted dolomite. Microporosity derived from clays and dolomite is formed preferentially in tidal-channel and intertidal flat facies.

  10. Geologic description of middle Devonian Chert Reservoir, Block 31 field, Crane County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ebanks, W.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Block 31 field is a large anticlinal structure that produces from six pay zones. The first miscible gas-injection enhanced oil recovery project has been operated by ARCO since 1952 in the middle Devonian reservoir, which is the main producing interval in the field. The middle Devonian unit was deposited as a siliceous, calcareous ooze in a basin-slope environment in the ancient Tobosa basin. Sedimentation buried earlier fault blocks, as the slope deposits aggraded and prograded mainly from the west and south. Subsequent diagenesis converted the ooze into calcareous chert. Reservoir quality of the chert depends on degree of compaction and quartz cementation. Gray, dense, glassy chert at the base of the sequence is nonporous except for small, incipient fractures in the brittle matrix. Creamy white, evenly laminated, microporous, calcareous chert, which alternates with and overlies the dense chert in the lower half of the middle Devonian interval, has porosity of 10-30% and permeability as great as 10 md. The upper half of the reservoir interval consists mainly of light-gray and white, partially porous, heterogeneous, calcareous chert. This rock type has porosity of 5-20%, but permeability is usually less than 3 md. Patchy silica cement, discontinuous low-permeability laminae, and thin beds of dense limestone reduce its effectiveness as a reservoir.

  11. Far-Field Acoustic Data for the Texas ASE, Inc. Hush-House. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    various USAF aircraft /engines operating in the Texas ASE, Inc. hush- house . The hush- house is a structure that totally encloses the aircraft /engine...6 F-4 Aircraft in the Hush- House .................................................................. 7-31 F-15... Aircraft in the Hush- House ................................................................ 32-56 F-16 Aircraft in the Hush- House

  12. Field Training Activities for Hydrologic Science in West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustina, C.; Fajri, P. N.; Fathoni, F.; Gusti, T. P.; Harifa, A. C.; Hendra, Y.; Hertanti, D. R.; Lusiana, N.; Rohmat, F. I.; Agouridis, C.; Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Pandjaitan, N.; Santoso, R.; Suharyanto, A.

    2013-12-01

    In hydrologic science and engineering, one challenge is establishing a common framework for discussion among workers from different disciplines. As part of the 'Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology: Helping Hydrologic Outreach (BOOST H2O)' project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of State, nine current or recent graduate students from four Indonesian universities participated in a week of training activities during June 2013. Students had backgrounds in agricultural engineering, civil and environmental engineering, water resources engineering, natural resources management, and soil science. Professors leading the training, which was based at Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) in west Java, included an agricultural engineer, civil engineers, and geologists. Activities in surface-water hydrology included geomorphic assessment of streams (measuring slope, cross-section, and bed-clast size) and gauging stream flow (wading with top-setting rods and a current meter for a large stream, and using a bucket and stopwatch for a small stream). Groundwater-hydrology activities included measuring depth to water in wells, conducting a pumping test with an observation well, and performing vertical electrical soundings to infer hydrostratigraphy. Students also performed relatively simple water-quality measurements (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and alkalinity) in streams, wells, and springs. The group analyzed data with commercially-available software such as AQTESOLV for well hydraulics, freeware such as the U.S. Geological Survey alkalinity calculator, and Excel spreadsheets. Results were discussed in the context of landscape position, lithology, and land use.

  13. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  14. Interdune areas of the back-island dune field, North Padre Island, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Gary; Kocurek, Gary

    1984-04-01

    The small, young (about 100 yrs) back-island dune field on north Padre Island, south Texas, consists of fairly persistant oblique dunes (up to 6 m high) with well-developed interdune areas that grade northwestward to small, ephemeral transverse and barchan dunes with interconnected "interdune" areas, thence sheet sand areas. The subhumid climate is marked by rain associated with frontal systems and tropical storms. Winds are seasonally bimodal—prevailing southeasterly are punctuated by northerly and northwesterly winds with the passage of frontal systems in winter. The entire dune field and individual oblique dunes show a net migration of about 15 m yr -1 to the northwest. The dunes however are on a seasonally reversing track, changing their slipface direction and migration direction with frontal systems. One year of monitoring shows sand transport in the dune-interdune system to be complex and cyclic. During the wind reversals of winter, dunes are very ineffecfive sand traps owing to loss of flow separation, and much sand is lost to the interdune areas. Interdune areas store sand during these wet winter months as a result of the wind reversals and higher moisture content. During the summer, the interdune areas deflate and the dunes build in size. The overall dune field deposit appears to consist of three laterally contiguous zones from southeast to northwest: (1) continuous, climbing oblique dune and interdune deposits; (2) discontinuous lenses of dune sand in overall "interdune layers"; and (3) a chaotic mixture of dune and horizontal deposits of the sheet sand areas. One year's mapping and trenching documents that interdune sedimentary structures are extremely variable laterally and vertically reflecting specific microenvironments within the interdune flat. Wet-surface features consist of current and wave ripples, channel fill, miniature deltas, wrinkle marks, mini-ripples, rills, algae and sand volcanoes. Abundant adhesion structures, rain-impacted ripples

  15. Reactive transport modeling of CO2 injection in the Farnsworth, Texas hydrocarbon field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmmed, B.; Appold, M. S.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Grigg, R.; White, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Farnsworth hydrocarbon field in northern Texas has been an experimental site for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery for the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Southwest Partnership (SWP) since April, 2013. CO2 is to be injected into the Pennsylvanian Morrow Sandstone at a rate of 200,000 tonnes per year for at least five years. The Morrow is a quartz-rich sandstone that lies at a depth of about 2400 m. Pore water in the Morrow has a total dissolved solids content of about 3600 mg/L dominated by Na, Cl, bicarbonate, and Ca. A reactive solute transport model was constructed for a 1700 × 1700 × 95 m volume using the TOUGHREACT software and the ECO2N equation of state for aqueous brine and CO2. Simulations were carried out to 100 years. The results showed immiscible CO2 gas to be concentrated in a lateral plume extending radially from the well screen, its ascent impeded by vigorous lateral groundwater flow in the more permeable upper Morrow. CO2 was much more widespread in aqueous solution, lowering pH throughout much of the model volume after 100 years, to a minimum of about 4.7. The low reactivity of the Morrow Sandstone due to its quartz-rich matrix and dilute pore fluid resulted in little mineral precipitation or dissolution, with net volume changes for any mineral no higher than order 10-4. The simulations predicted net dissolution of albite, calcite, and chlorite, and net precipitation of dawsonite, illite, and magnesite. The Morrow matrix was predicted to undergo slight net dissolution overall, resulting in porosity increases of up to 0.01%, suggesting that the Morrow would be resistant to significant changes in hydraulic properties as a result of the proposed amount of CO2 injection. For the 100 year simulation times calculated thus far, only a small fraction of the injected CO2 would be sequestered as carbonate minerals, with most of the injected CO2 dissolved in the aqueous phase.

  16. Fields of Coal: An analysis of industry and sedimentology in Dolores, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaden, A.; Besonen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Research was conducted on a historically significant pond located in the former mining town of Dolores, located north of Laredo, Texas. The intention of this work was, to determine the influence of local mining operations on the environment and determine the extent of coal production from the sedimentary record. The pond is located ~160 m downslope from a former coal mine and waste pile, and was therefore a likely site of coal accumulations, as well as other debris. Additionally, this pond was created only 130 years ago, in 1882, giving a distinct time frame for any sedimentary records. Field work was conducted to obtain sediment core samples from the pond, and corroborating evidence was gathered using historical documents from archives in Laredo, online resources, as well as library records and inter library loan. Sedimentary cores obtained were shorter than desired as a result of the densely packed clay, which reduceding the penetration of coring equipment, leaving the historical extent of the cores limited. The limited sedimentary record also gives little indication as to the extent of production in the nearby mine and how it may have varied over time. The split cores were scanned with a Minolta CM-2600d spectrophotometer, and the results were transformed into first derivative spectrum equivalent data to identify common sedimentary minerals according to their first derivative signatures. The spectral analysis on the cores determined a large amount of clay minerals, and also limonite/goethite according to prominent first derivative peaks centered on ~440 and 540 nm. This agrees with visual observations given the all minerals showing spectra most intense in the 625 -725 nm portion of the visible spectrum, giving the cores their largely yellowish-reddish/brown hue of the cores. Magnetic susceptibility analysis indicated great changes in mineral contentmagnetism, some possibly associated with ash from fires. Bulk density and loss-on-ignition analysis to further

  17. Spatiotemporal relationships among Late Pennsylvanian plant assemblages: Palynological evidence from the Markley Formation, West Texas, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Looy, Cindy V; Hotton, Carol L

    2014-12-01

    The Pennsylvanian lowlands of western Pangea are best known for their diverse wetland floras of arborescent and herbaceous ferns, and arborescent horsetails and clubmosses. In apparent juxtaposition, a very different kind of flora, dominated by a xerophilous assemblage of conifers, taeniopterids and peltasperms, is occasionally glimpsed. Once believed to represent upland or extrabasinal floras from well-drained portions of the landscape, these dryland floras more recently have been interpreted as lowland assemblages growing during drier phases of glacial/interglacial cycles. Whether Pennsylvanian dryland and wetland floras were separated spatially or temporally remains an unsettled question, due in large part to taphonomic bias toward preservation of wetland plants. Previous paleobotanical and sedimentological analysis of the Markley Formation of latest Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) age, from north central Texas, U.S.A, indicates close correlation between lithofacies and distinct dryland and wetland megaflora assemblages. Here we present a detailed analysis one of those localities, a section unusual in containing abundant palynomorphs, from the lower Markley Formation. Paleobotanical, palynological and lithological data from a section thought to represent a single interglacial/glacial phase are integrated and analyzed to create a complex picture of an evolving landscape. Megafloral data from throughout the Markley Formation show that conifer-dominated dryland floras occur exclusively in highly leached kaolinite beds, likely eroded from underlying soils, whereas a mosaic of wetland floras occupy histosols, ultisols, and fluvial overbank deposits. Palynological data largely conform to this pattern but reveal a more complex picture. An assemblage of mixed wetland and dryland palynofloral taxa is interpolated between a dryland assemblage and an overlying histosol containing wetland taxa. In this section, as well as elsewhere in the Markley Formation, kaolinite and overlying

  18. Spatiotemporal relationships among Late Pennsylvanian plant assemblages: Palynological evidence from the Markley Formation, West Texas, U.S.A

    PubMed Central

    Looy, Cindy V.; Hotton, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    The Pennsylvanian lowlands of western Pangea are best known for their diverse wetland floras of arborescent and herbaceous ferns, and arborescent horsetails and clubmosses. In apparent juxtaposition, a very different kind of flora, dominated by a xerophilous assemblage of conifers, taeniopterids and peltasperms, is occasionally glimpsed. Once believed to represent upland or extrabasinal floras from well-drained portions of the landscape, these dryland floras more recently have been interpreted as lowland assemblages growing during drier phases of glacial/interglacial cycles. Whether Pennsylvanian dryland and wetland floras were separated spatially or temporally remains an unsettled question, due in large part to taphonomic bias toward preservation of wetland plants. Previous paleobotanical and sedimentological analysis of the Markley Formation of latest Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) age, from north central Texas, U.S.A, indicates close correlation between lithofacies and distinct dryland and wetland megaflora assemblages. Here we present a detailed analysis one of those localities, a section unusual in containing abundant palynomorphs, from the lower Markley Formation. Paleobotanical, palynological and lithological data from a section thought to represent a single interglacial/glacial phase are integrated and analyzed to create a complex picture of an evolving landscape. Megafloral data from throughout the Markley Formation show that conifer-dominated dryland floras occur exclusively in highly leached kaolinite beds, likely eroded from underlying soils, whereas a mosaic of wetland floras occupy histosols, ultisols, and fluvial overbank deposits. Palynological data largely conform to this pattern but reveal a more complex picture. An assemblage of mixed wetland and dryland palynofloral taxa is interpolated between a dryland assemblage and an overlying histosol containing wetland taxa. In this section, as well as elsewhere in the Markley Formation, kaolinite and overlying

  19. Multibar sawless lint cleaner: fiber quality analysis after 3rd year of field testing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After two years of field testing a prototype spiked-tooth lint cleaner, the Multibar Sawless Lint Cleaner (MBSLC), a final year of field evaluation was conducted at commercial cotton gin in West Texas located approximately 30 miles Southwest of Lubbock, Texas.The cotton lint cleaner was tested in a ...

  20. Oil recovery in a low-permeability, wave-dominated, Cretaceous, deltaic reservoir, Big Wells (San Miguel) field, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Gholston, J.C.; Ambrose, W.A.

    1987-10-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Big Wells (San Miguel) reservoir in Dimmit and Zavala Counties, south Texas, produces from a broadly lenticular, wave-dominated deltaic sandstone encased in prodelta and shelf mudstones. An updip porosity pinch-out coincides with a gentle undulation on a uniformly gulfward-dipping monocline and forms a structurally modified stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is relatively tight and has an average porosity of 21% and average permeability of 6 md; wells require fracturing to stimulate production. Ultimate recovery, based on current production trends and technology, is projected to be 57 million bbl, or 29% of the 198 million bbl field. 24 figures, 1 table.

  1. Technical procedures for implementation of acoustics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The purpose and scope of the technical procedure for processing data from the tethered meteorological system are covered. Definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs are also addressed. This technical procedure describes how to control, organize, verify, and archive tethered meteorological system data. These data will be received at the processing location from the field measurement location and are part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas for the salt repository program. These measurements will be made in support of the sound propagation study and are a result of environmental data requirements for acoustics. 6 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Field-Based Teacher Education: Programs that Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Willis L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two field-based teacher education programs at North Texas State University are described. The West Dallas Teacher Education Project prepares education students to work in inner-city, urban schools, and the North Texas Cooperative Teacher Education Project allows education students to work as paraprofessional teacher aides. (CJ)

  3. Kitina: A West African intra-Albian field

    SciTech Connect

    Cornaggia, F.; Congo, S.A.; Agostino, M.

    1995-08-01

    Kitina field is located in Marine VII permit, offshore Congo. The field was discovered in 1991 by a joint venture composed of Agip Recherches Congo (operator), Hydrocongo and Chevron International Limited. The field is a structural four-way dip closure trap shaped as turtle-back. Halokinetic movements are responsible for the structuring. The seismic imaging of the reservoir is affected by strong lateral velocity variations caused by different sedimentation across the paleo-shelf edge in the post-Albian sequence. One pass 3D poststack depth migration, performed with a velocity field obtained by means of geostatistical integration of 2D seismic and wellbore velocities, achieved a good compromise between high dip reflector imaging and depths at well location. Three main reservoirs of lower Albian age exist between -2100 and -3100m. They are separated by tight mudstones which act as intraformational seal. Seismic trace inversion improved the resolution of petrophysical variations in some of the field reservoirs, which have the following characteristics (from top to bottom): reservoir 2A is composed of bioclastic and oolitic packstone-grainstone laid down during regional regressive phase in insulated offshore bars on the crest of structural high. Early diagenetic phenomena lead to the development of world class permeability framework. Reservoir 1A-1B are composed of sandstone bodies which were deposited as shoreface to offshore bars during short-term regressive pulse. The 1A-1B reservoir, are embedded in mudstones deposited during long lasting phases of relative high stand in relatively deep offshore setting characterised by high, halokinetic driven subsidence.

  4. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2)...

  5. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2)...

  6. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2)...

  7. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2)...

  8. Groundwater Modeling of Playa-Focused Recharge at the Southwestern Edge of the High Plains Aquifer in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blainey, J.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.; Sigda, J.; Cook, S.; Hughes, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ongoing hydrogeologic investigations at a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Andrews County, Texas include monitoring of a groundwater system in Ogallala (Neogene), Antlers (Cretaceous), and Gatuna (Neogene/Quaternary) Formation sediments on the southwestern edge of the Southern High Plains physiographic province. The disposal site is underlain by unsaturated sands and gravels of these laterally contiguous sediments, informally termed the OAG. North of the site these sediments develop into the continuously saturated High Plains or Ogallala aquifer. Episodes of focused recharge to the OAG sediments have been observed during the last 9 years of groundwater level monitoring near small playas and topographic depressions that collect water after large precipitation events. During smaller precipitation events water is stored in the unsaturated zone and evapotranspired, predominately by mesquite, creosote and grasses. The climate is semi-arid with average evaporation rates far exceeding the estimated average annual precipitation of 15-16 inches/year. Monitoring at more than 250 wells in the OAG and environmental tracer studies confirm a conceptual model of playa-focused natural recharge to the groundwater system with little or no recharge occurring in inter-playa areas. The thickness of the OAG saturated sediments in the vicinity of the disposal sites ranges from 3 feet to 10 feet, with areas of discontinuous saturation away from areas of focused recharge. Environmental tracer studies show the groundwater in the OAG is poorly mixed and disconnected from regional groundwater flow further to the northeast. The disposal facilities are located over a structural high on the erosional surface of the Dockum Group, which immediately underlies the OAG sediments. This feature, referred to as the red bed ridge, is roughly coincident with the topographic divide between the High Plains and the Pecos Valley physiographic provinces and serves as a divide for

  9. Prolific Overton field gas reservoirs within large transverse oolite shoals, Upper Jurassic Haynesville, Eastern Margin East Texas basin

    SciTech Connect

    Glynn, W.G.; Covington, T.E.; Lighty, R.G.; Ahr, W.M.

    1985-02-01

    Late Triassic rifting along a northeast-southwest spreading center in east Texas resulted in basement highs along the eastern margin of the East Texas basin that became sites of extensive ooid shoal deposition during Late Jurassic time. Reservoirs within oolite facies at Overton field contain over 1 tcf of natural gas. These large shoals, each approximately 15 mi (24 km) long and 3 mi (4.8 km) wide, trend north-south as a group and northeast-southwest individually. They are oblique to the basin margin but parallel with Jurassic diffracted tidal currents within the East Texas embayment. Modern Bahamian ooid shoals of similar size, trend, and depositional setting occur at the terminus of the deep Tongue-Of-The-Ocean platform reentrant. Overton field reservoirs are in ooid grainstone shoal facies and in transitional shoal margins of skeletal-oolitic-peloidal grainstones and packstones. Adjacent nonreservoir facies are peloidal-skeletal-siliciclastic wackestones and mudstones. Early diagenesis of grainstone reservoir facies included meteoric dissolution and grain stabilization, resulting in abundant chalky intraparticle porosity and equant and bladed calcite cements filling interparticle porosity. Subsequent burial diagenesis resulted in intense solution compaction and coarse equant calcite and saddle crystal dolomite that occluded remaining interparticle porosity. Whole-rock trace element analysis indicates greatest diagenetic flushing (less magnesium, strontium) in porous zones. Stable isotopes for grains and cements show strong overprint of later burial diagenesis, with greater depletion of delta/sup 18/O in reservoir facies. However, hydrocarbons were emplaced prior to late cementation, and unlike other Jurassic Gulf Coast reservoirs, deep burial diagenesis provided no late-stage formation of porosity.

  10. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  11. Childhood Trauma Training in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Field Visit Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobayed, Mamoun

    2004-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder is the psychological reaction to various traumas. It is common among children living in war zones or conflict regions. This paper describes a field visit to train mental health professionals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on how to help traumatised children.

  12. Childhood Trauma Training in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Field Visit Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobayed, Mamoun

    2004-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder is the psychological reaction to various traumas. It is common among children living in war zones or conflict regions. This paper describes a field visit to train mental health professionals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on how to help traumatised children.

  13. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  14. Integrated biostratigraphy of foraminifers, radiolarians and conodonts in shallow and deep water Middle Permian (Capitanian) deposits of the "Rader slide", Guadalupe Mountains, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestell, M.K.; Nestell, G.P.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Sweatt, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A diverse assemblage of microfossils is present in a 6m thick sequence of three debris flow deposits interbedded with thin turbidite limestone beds and fine grained siliciclastics exposed above the megaconglomerate in a section (known as the "Rader Slide" in numerous guidebook stops) of the Rader Limestone Member of the Bell Canyon Formation of Capitanian age (Middle Permian) in the Guadalupe Mountains of West Texas. Each debris flow, derived from nearby Capitan Reef shelf-margin and slope deposits, contains a distinct microfossil assemblage. Small foraminifers and fusulinaceans, conodonts, radiolarians, sponge spicules, fish dermal plates and teeth, and other fragmental fossils are present in this sequence. Conodonts are relatively scarce in the first (or lowest) debris flow, except in its upper part, but they are common to abundant in the other two debris flows, and very abundant in several of the thin turbidite limestone beds. All of the conodonts present appear to be morphotypes of one population of the species Jinogondolella postserrata, except for one new conodont species, and the Jinogondolella postserrata Zone is clearly documented in this sequence. The debris flows contain the fusulinaceans Rauserella, rare Codonofusiella, Polydiexodina, Leella? and various species of the small foraminifers Globivalvulina, Hemigordius, Baisalina, Abadehella, Deckerella, Neoendothyranella, Vachardella, Geinitzina, and Polarisella. Some of the thin turbidite limestone beds contain a foraminiferal assemblage similar to that found in the debris flows, but with lower diversity. Many small foraminiferal species appear to be endemic, although a few are closely related to species known in Permian age strata in Italy, Greenland, the Russian Far East, northeastern part of Russia (Omolon massif), and the Zechstein of Germany and the Baltic area. Two thin limestone beds above the second debris flow contain primarily radiolarian species known from the Follicucullus japonicus Zone of

  15. Protection of Paddy Field and Recommendation of Regional Planning in Cianjur Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munibah, Khursatul; Yudarwati, Rani; Dwi Wahyunie, Enni; Wijaya, Hermanu

    2016-11-01

    Cianjur Regency is one of “lumbung” paddies in West Java Province that can contribute to rice sufficiency for West Java 13.5%. However conversion of paddy field into other land use still happen in Indonesia because of land rent of paddy field less than other land use and also the low commitment of Government to protect the paddy field to get food self-sufficiency. Objectives are analysis of paddy field protection and recommendation of regional planning. Paddy field protection was determined based on existing paddy field, land suitability, economic value and Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW). Recommendation of regional planning was determined based on priority level of paddy field protection, Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW) and rice sufficiency status. The results showed that land suitability, economic value and also allocating land for paddy field in the RTRW can support realization of paddy field protection. The paddy field that included into the first and third priority is 30.14% and 38.45%, respectively. The other priorities of paddy field protection are around 15%. This research is recommended that 87.5% of the paddy field existing can be protected to get rice sufficiency with surplus around 48.782 ton.

  16. 3-D Monarch reservoir modelling as a development tool: West Salym field, Western Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, R.B.; Van Kuyk, A.; Van Lieshout, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Salym fields are located in the central part of the West Siberia basin. The basin developed during the Triassic and contains an almost complete stratigraphic succession from the Jurassic to the Quaternary. The main oil reserves in the Salym fields are located in the Lower Cretaceous proprading deltaic complex. The principal reservoir section in the West Salym field is interpreted as marginal marine. Shoreface, mouthbar, fluvial channel and crevasse-splay subenvironments are recognised. Due to this range of depositional environments and average (exploration) well spacing of 5 km, 3-D modelling of depositional geometries is essential to determine the reservoir architecture and reservoir property trends prior to full-scale field development.

  17. 3-D Monarch reservoir modelling as a development tool: West Salym field, Western Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, R.B.; Van Kuyk, A.; Van Lieshout, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Salym fields are located in the central part of the West Siberia basin. The basin developed during the Triassic and contains an almost complete stratigraphic succession from the Jurassic to the Quaternary. The main oil reserves in the Salym fields are located in the Lower Cretaceous proprading deltaic complex. The principal reservoir section in the West Salym field is interpreted as marginal marine. Shoreface, mouthbar, fluvial channel and crevasse-splay subenvironments are recognised. Due to this range of depositional environments and average (exploration) well spacing of 5 km, 3-D modelling of depositional geometries is essential to determine the reservoir architecture and reservoir property trends prior to full-scale field development.

  18. Spatial Arrangement of Irrigated Valencia Peanuts to Improve Light Interception and Utilization in - Eastern New Mexico and West Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Planting arrangements can be used to improve resource use efficiency. A field study was conducted on a growers farm South of Clovis, NM in 2006 to compare light interception and radiation use efficiency in a single row, twin row, and diamond planting pattern. The diamond planting pattern places see...

  19. Simulation of the Transport and Dispersion of Perfluorocarbon Tracers Released in Texas Using multiple Assimilated Meteorological Wind Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schichtel, B.; Barna, M.; Gebhart, K.; Green, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study (BRAVO) was designed to determine the causes of visibility impairment at Big Bend National Park, located in southwestern Texas. As part of BRAVO, an intensive field study was conducted during July-October 1999. Among the features of this study was the release of unique perfluorocarbon tracers from four sites within Texas, representative of industrial/urban locations. These tracers were monitored at 21 sites, throughout Texas. Other measurements collected during the field study included upper-level winds using radar profilers, and speciated fine-particulate mass concentrations. MM5 was used to simulate the regional meteorology during BRAVO, and was run in non-hydrostatic mode using a continental-scale 36km domain with nested 12km and 4km domains. MM5 employed observational nudging by incorporating the available measured wind data from the National Weather Service and data from the radar wind profilers. Meteorological data from the National Weather Service's Eta Data Assimilation System (EDAS), archived at 80km grid spacing, were also available. Several models are being used to evaluate airmass transport to Big Bend, including CMAQ, REMSAD, HYSPLIT and the CAPITA Monte Carlo Model. This combination of tracer data, meteorological data and deployment of four models provides a unique opportunity to assess the ability of the model/wind field combinations to properly simulate the regional scale atmospheric transport and dispersion of trace gases over distances of 100 to 800km. This paper will present the tracer simulations from REMSAD using the 36 and 12 km MM5 wind fields, and results from HYSPLIT and the Monte Carlo model driven by the 36km MM5 and 80km EDAS wind fields. Preliminary results from HYSPLIT and the Monte Carlo model driven by the EDAS wind fields shows that these models are able to account for the primary features of tracer concentrations patterns in the Big Bend area. However, at times the

  20. Why not biodegradation of oils some West Siberia fields?

    SciTech Connect

    Ablia, E.A.; Guseva, A.N.; Korneva, T.N.; Korneva, I.V.

    1996-10-01

    Oils were investigated from one-pool fields Shaim area, which were produced more than 20 years. Reservoirs-Jurassic clastic and porous rock of the basement; intervals - 1600-1800 m; temperature - less than 50{degrees}C; pressure - normal. The production is conducted in a mode water intrusion with use of surface waters. A comparison of oils from exploration and modem development wells revealed different direction of bulk data change - on the one hand standard relative accumulation of resins, asphaltene and wax without appreciable change of density, with the other - decrease of their concentration and appreciable facilitation of oils. The alkanes C12+ distribution in all oils has changed directly: pristane/phytane ratio from 1.3 up to 1.1-1.0 decreases, BIAS slightly decreases. The processes of biodegradation in all tests are not marked. The absence fixed biodegradation these oils under favorable external conditions can be explained (1) constant surge of {open_quotes}fresh{close_quotes} portions of HC fluid restoring the alkane balance, and, probably, (2) insignificant geological time of effect bacterium for appreciable infringement of this balance.

  1. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, DGS, Robert C.; Robinson, M.S., William C.; Wider, Kevin; Weinbrandt, Ph.D.,PE, Richard

    2000-04-14

    A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1998-1999.

  2. An evaluation of real-time air quality forecasts and their urban emissions over eastern Texas during the summer of 2006 Second Texas Air Quality Study field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeen, S.; Grell, G.; Peckham, S.; Wilczak, J.; Djalalova, I.; Hsie, E.-Y.; Frost, G.; Peischl, J.; Schwarz, J.; Spackman, R.; Holloway, J.; de Gouw, J.; Warneke, C.; Gong, W.; Bouchet, V.; Gaudreault, S.; Racine, J.; McHenry, J.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Tang, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Mathur, R.

    2009-04-01

    Forecasts of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) from seven air quality forecast models (AQFMs) are statistically evaluated against observations collected during August and September of 2006 (49 days) through the Aerometric Information Retrieval Now (AIRNow) network throughout eastern Texas and adjoining states. Ensemble O3 and PM2.5 forecasts created by combining the seven separate forecasts with equal weighting, and simple bias-corrected forecasts, are also evaluated in terms of standard statistical measures, threshold statistics, and variance analysis. For O3 the models and ensemble generally show statistical skill relative to persistence for the entire region, but fail to predict high-O3 events in the Houston region. For PM2.5, none of the models, or ensemble, shows statistical skill, and all but one model have significant low bias. Comprehensive comparisons with the full suite of chemical and aerosol measurements collected aboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the summer 2006 Second Texas Air Quality Study and the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS II/GoMACCS) field study are performed to help diagnose sources of model bias at the surface. Aircraft flights specifically designed for sampling of Houston and Dallas urban plumes are used to determine model and observed upwind or background biases, and downwind excess concentrations that are used to infer relative emission rates. Relative emissions from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999 National Emission Inventory (NEI-99) version 3 emissions inventory (used in two of the model forecasts) are evaluated on the basis of comparisons between observed and model concentration difference ratios. Model comparisons demonstrate that concentration difference ratios yield a reasonably accurate measure (within 25%) of relative input emissions. Boundary layer height and wind data are combined with the observed up-wind and downwind concentration

  3. Comparison of LANDSAT-2 and field spectrometer reflectance signatures of south Texas rangeland plant communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Escobar, D. E.; Gausman, H. W.; Everitt, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The accuracy was assessed for an atmospheric correction method that depends on clear water bodies to infer solar and atmospheric parameters for radiative transfer equations by measuring the reflectance signature of four prominent south Texas rangeland plants with the LANDSAT satellite multispectral scanner (MSS) and a ground based spectroradiometer. The rangeland plant reflectances produced by the two sensors were correlated with no significant deviation of the slope from unity or of the intercept from zero. These results indicated that the atmospheric correction produced LANDSAT MSS estimates of rangeland plant reflectances that are as accurate as the ground based spectroradiometer.

  4. Analysis of Data from a Downhole Oil/Water Separator Field Trial in East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, John A.; Layne, Arthur Langhus

    2001-04-19

    Downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology is available to separate oil from produced water at the bottom of an oil well. Produced water can be injected directly to a disposal formation rather than lifting it to the surface, treating it there, and reinjecting it. Because of a lack of detailed performance data on DOWS systems, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to secure DOWS performance data. A large U.S. oil and gas operator offered to share its data with Argonne National Laboratory. This report summarizes data from the DOWS installation in eastern Texas.

  5. Notes from the Field: Health Care-Associated Hepatitis A Outbreak - Texas, 2015.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Rachel; Weil, Lauren M; Lozano, Catalina; Johnson, Thomas J; Jin, Sherry; Moorman, Anne C; Foster, Monique A; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Khudyakov, Yury; Kuhar, David T; Graves, Julie

    2016-04-29

    On August 27-28, 2015, the Texas Department of State Health Services received calls from Fort Bend County and Harris County health departments requesting postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) recommendations for contacts of two nurses (patients A and B) with confirmed hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Both nurses had symptom onset during August 15-19 and worked for the same pediatric home health care agency in another jurisdiction. Because of the proximity of the onset dates, a common source exposure was suspected. The state and local health departments began an investigation to identify potentially exposed patients, their families, and other agency personnel; offer PEP; and identify the source of exposure.

  6. Whole genome of Klebsiella aerogenes PX01 isolated from San Jacinto River sediment west of Baytown, Texas reveals the presence of multiple antibiotic resistance determinants and mobile genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rupa; Iken, Brian; Damania, Ashish

    2017-12-01

    Klebsiella aerogenes is a Gram-negative bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae which is widely distributed in water, air and soil. It also forms part of the normal microbiota found in human and animal gastrointestinal tracts. Here we report the draft genome sequence (chromosome and 1 plasmid) of K. aerogenes strain PX01 compiled at the scaffold level from 97 contigs totaling 5,262,952 bp. K. aerogenes PX01 was isolated from sediment along the northern face of Burnet Bay west of Baytown, Texas. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession NJBB00000000.

  7. Dryland Flood-Irrigation and its Impact on CO2 Production and the Accumulation of Pedogenic Carbonate in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, A. C.; Jin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural fields in drylands are intensively irrigated. Indeed, pecan orchards at the El Paso, TX region are flooded with over one meter of water per growing season. The waters are usually oversaturated in calcite (CaCO3) and continuous evapotranspiration drives CaCO3 precipitation, releasing CO2. As such, the loading of CaCO3 through flood irrigation in drylands impacts Ca and C cycles greatly. We characterized soil, soil gas and soil water samples to quantify rates of pedogenic carbonate accumulation and CO2 release, identify the sources of C and Ca in pedogenic carbonates, and investigate kinetic and environmental controls of CaCO3 formation. Simple calculations show that up to 112000kg/km2/yr of Ca is loaded onto the fields by irrigation, evidenced by high water-soluble and acid-leachable Ca in soils, especially in clayey soils. We used 87Sr/86Sr ratios to quantify the relative importance of different Ca end-members including flood irrigation. Data show that water-soluble soil leachates have similar 87Sr/86Sr ratios as irrigation waters at depth, but lighter signatures at surface, probably due dust and fertilizer inputs. We measured daily soil-atmosphere CO2 efflux, δ13CCO2 and concentrations of CO2 gas samples at different soil depths between two irrigation events and at two sites with sandy versus clayey soils. These data help determine if sources of soil CO2 change with depth, irrigation event and if CO2 transport is controlled by texture. Correlations of δ13CCO2 and soil CO2 concentrations indicate mixing of organically respired, atmospheric and CaCO3-derived CO2. We found co-variation of δ13CCO2 and soil CO2 with time, where soil CO2 became heavier in carbon isotopes and more abundant in concentrations, illustrating shifts from soil respired CO2, characterized by lighter C, to increased proportions of CaCO3-derived CO2 with heavier C. Efflux data show peak values as soils dried, indicating supersaturation of soil waters and precipitation of pedogenic

  8. Calcitization and silicification of evaporites in Guadalupian back-reef carbonates of the Delaware basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Outcrop of the Seven Rivers, Yates, and Tansill formations contain numerous examples of evaporites that have been replaced by both quartz and calcite. The original evaporites consisted of discrete horizons, scattered nodules, enterolithic layers, and individual crystal laths of gypsum and/or anhydrite within a predominantly dolomitic matrix. Based on field and petrographic observations, evaporite replacement proceeded from the exterior to the interior of the nodules. The earliest replacement was by euhedral, black megaquartz containing abundant hydrocarbon inclusions. Calcite replacement followed silicification and consists of coarse, equant, blocky spar. Isotopic analyses of these calcites form two distinct groups: the first group ranges from -10.9 to -20.1{per thousand} (average -16.4{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 13}C and -6.4 to -13.8{per thousand} (average -10.9{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 18}O; the second group ranges from +1.4 to 5.8{per thousand} (average -2.4{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 13}C and -6.2 to 14.1{per thousand} (average -9.2{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 18}O. Evaporite silicification was coeval with hydrocarbon migration as indicated by the inclusion data. Calcitization, however, was associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting that uplifted the area causing deep groundwater circulation. The isotopically very light calcites resulted from the mixing of meteoric fluids and hydrocarbon-rich pore fluids, probably during early uplift while these strata were still at significant depth. The calcites with heavier isotopic values were produced somewhat later by meteoric fluids that had little or no contact with hydrocarbons. Evaporite diagenesis in the Delaware basin is an ongoing process that started during hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to significantly change the porosity of these units.

  9. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    comprehensive picture of the structures in the study area. These models show that the Uinta uplift is a single sedimentary block with numerous thrust faults on the northern and southern flanks of the uplift. These models also reveal the fact that the thickness of the crust is quite variable in the study area. This is also supported by the crustal thickness map constructed for this study from seismic and receiver function information. Magnetic maps show that the Proterozoic sedimentary package known as Uinta Mountain Group extends into the Basin and Range and indicates its link with the ancient rift margin in the Western United States. Findings of this research are correlated to earlier studies and placed in a broader context. Finally an analogy is made between the Uinta aulacogen, the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Dniepr-Donets aulacogen in Ukraine. This discussion focuses light on the mechanism that led to the Uinta's development from a failed rift to an uplift. Part two of this research examined the effect of saltcedar (Tamarix sp) on water and soil properties in the Rio Grande River valley in West Texas. Tamarix is a woody phreatophyte (water-loving plant) common in riparian habitats. The presence of Tamarix in a river system raises concerns about its effect on water quality because it can increase the salinity of water and surrounding soil and it reduces stream flow. Geophysical electrical techniques were used to track soil salinity and moisture changes caused by Tamarix, as well as to determine how soil salinity and moisture properties are altered when Tamarix is eradicated from the region. These techniques allowed more rapid in-situ assessment of the soil properties than the conventional method of removing soil and water samples for analysis. This study was focused on the influence of Tamarix on soil properties and hydrology at the subsurface at four sites in the Rio Bosque Wetlands Park, El Paso, Texas Two sites had flourishing Tamarix and two others were areas

  10. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

  11. Fluvial architecture and reservoir heterogeneity of middle Frio sandstones, Seeligson field, Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A.; Kerr, D.R.; Zinke, S.G.; Finley, R.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Evaluation of fluvial Frio reservoirs in south Texas reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of incremental gas reserves through recognition of untapped compartments or bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a GRI/DOE/Texas-sponsored program, in cooperation with Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Production U.S., Inc., and is designed to develop technologies and methodologies for increasing gas reserves from conventional reservoirs in mature fields. Seeligson field, discovered in 1937, has produced 2.2 tcf of gas from more than 50 middle Frio reservoirs. Cross sections as well as net sand and log facies maps illustrate depositional style, sandstone geometry, and reservoir heterogeneities. Far-offset vertical seismic profiles show laterally discontinuous reflections corresponding to the reservoirs. Lenticular lateral-bar sandstones dominate channel-fill deposits that together are commonly less than 50 ft thick, forming belts of sandstone approximately 2,500 ft wide. Crevasse-splay deposits commonly extend a few thousand feet beyond the channel system. Sand-rich channel-fill deposits are flanked by levee and overbank mudstones, isolating the reservoirs in narrow, dip-elongate trends. Deposition on an aggrading coastal plain resulted in a pattern of laterally stacked sandstone bodies that are widespread across the study area. Alternating periods of more rapid aggradation resulted in deposition of vertically stacked sandstones with limited areal distribution. Facies architecture of both depositional styles has implications for reservoir compartmentalization. Reservoir compartments within a laterally stacked system may be leaky, resulting from sandstone contact from producing wells along depositional axes. This effect is a major factor controlling incremental recovery. Reservoirs in vertically stacked systems should be better isolated.

  12. Quantifying monthly to decadal subsidence and assessing collapse potential near the Wink sinkholes, west Texas, using airborne lidar, radar interferometry, and microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, J. G.; Collins, E.; Yang, D.; Andrews, J. R.; Averett, A.; Caudle, T.; Saylam, K.

    2014-12-01

    We are using airborne lidar and satellite-based radar interferometry (InSAR) to quantify short-term (months to years) and longer-term (decades) subsidence in the area surrounding two large (100- to 200-m diameter) sinkholes that formed above Permian bedded salt in 1980 and 2002 in the Wink area, west Texas. Radar interferograms constructed from synthetic aperture radar data acquired between 2008 and 2011 with the ALOS PALSAR L-band satellite-borne instrument reveal local areas that are subsiding at rates that reach a few cm per month. Subsiding areas identified on radar interferograms enable labor-intensive ground investigations (such as microgravity surveys) to focus on areas where subsidence is occurring and shallow-source mass deficits might exist that could be sites of future subsidence or collapse. Longer-term elevation changes are being quantified by comparing digital elevation models (DEMs) constructed from high-resolution airborne lidar data acquired over a 32-km2 area in 2013 with older, lower-resolution DEMs constructed from data acquired during the NASA- and NGA-sponsored Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission in February 2000 and from USGS aerial photogrammetry-derived topographic data from the 1960s. Total subsidence reaches more than 10 m over 45 years in some areas. Maximum rates of subsidence measured on annual (from InSAR) and decadal (from lidar) time scales are about 0.25 m/yr. In addition to showing the extent and magnitude of subsidence at the 1980 and 2002 sinkholes, comparison of the 2013 lidar-derived DEM with the 1960s photogrammetry-derived DEM revealed other locations that have undergone significant (more than 1 m) elevation change since the 1960s, but show no evidence of recent (2008 to 2011) ground motion from satellite radar interferograms. Regional coverage obtained by radar interferometry and local coverage obtained with airborne lidar show that areas of measurable subsidence are all within a few km of the 1980 and 2002 sinkholes.

  13. Simulation of storm peaks and storm volumes for selected subbasins in the West Fork Trinity River Basin, Texas, water years 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    A model parameter set for use with the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN watershed model was developed to simulate storm peaks and storm volumes for the 28 subbasins of the West Fork Trinity River Basin upstream from Lake Worth, northwest of Fort Worth, Texas, from the calibration and testing of 5 gaged subbasins. These parameters can be transferred to the 23 ungaged subbasins. The model simulates storm runoff for a channel-routing model that can be used to improve reservoir operation during floods in the basin. Rainfall and runoff data were collected from October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1994. A total of 55 storms were recorded at the 5 streamgage stations during the 24 months. Twelve different pervious land segments were defined based on types of soil, land cover, and watershed slope. A total of 20 process-related parameters were defined for each land segment, and 6 basin-related parameters were defined for each stream reach. The mean absolute errors for the 5 subbasins for simulation of storm peaks range from 48.0 to 470 percent and for simulation of storm volumes range from 34.4 to 416 percent. A sensitivity analysis was done to determine what a change in a parameter value has on the largest storm peak and on the total storm volume. The model then was recalibrated and tested on the basis of the analysis of the sensitivity of parameters and on the analysis of the errors from the initial model calibration and testing. The mean absolute errors for the 5 subbasins using the recalibrated parameters for simulation of storm peaks range from 47.1 to 297 percent, and for simulation of storm volumes range from 27.6 to 193 percent. The model produced better results for simulation of the larger storm peaks and storm volumes than for simulation of the smaller storm peaks and storm volumes, especially after an extended period of no runoff. The same range in errors can be expected when transferring the parameters to the 23 ungaged subbasins. Additional data collection

  14. The persistence of Black males in the STEM fields at Texas State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Beverly Woodson

    For the past five years, enrollment in the College of Science and Engineering by first-time undergraduate students has steadily increased. However, retaining the students through their first-year and their persistence to their second year of college and beyond has been problematic. The purpose of this study is to add to the knowledge of why Black students, specifically Black men, are not persisting at Texas State University in the STEM majors. It will also determine if specific factors like the SAT scores, parent's education, high school rank, college GPA, college science and math courses (physics, math, biology and chemistry), college credits earned and average GPA in all science and math college courses predict college preparation and college performance for all students and for Black male students.

  15. Magnetic and gravity anomaly patterns related to hydrocarbon fields in northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Piskarev, A.L.; Tchernyshev, M.Yu.

    1997-05-01

    A study of the features of gravity and magnetic fields in the vicinity of oil and gas reservoirs in West Siberia demonstrated a spatial relationship with the hydrocarbon deposits. The relevant magnetic and gravity anomalies cover approximately 900,000 km{sup 2} in northern West Siberia. Amplitude and frequency were investigated initially using double Fourier spectrum (DFS) analysis. This was followed by (1) application of transformations, filtering, and moving windows analysis; (2) compilation of maps of regional and local anomalies, and potential field derivatives; and (3) investigation of the distribution of parameters in areas of known deposits. Hydrocarbon deposits are located mostly at the slopes of positive regional gravity and magnetic anomalies which are interpreted as relating to deep riftogenic structures. At the same time, it is established that the location of hydrocarbon depositions coincides commonly with local gravity and magnetic minima generated by lows in basement density and magnetization. All known hydrocarbon deposits in northern West Siberia are in areas characterized by comparatively high gradients of constituent of gravity anomalies with a wavelength of about 90--100 km. These newly revealed links between reservoirs and potential field parameters may be a means to predict new discoveries in poorly explored territories and seas, primarily in Russia`s Arctic shelf.

  16. NASA Spacecraft Views Aftermath of Texas Floods

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-02

    The torrential rains that lashed Texas in late May 2015 caused widespread flooding and devastation. Now that skies have partially cleared, evidence of the excessive water can still be seen in this image, acquired June 1, 2015 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Located south of San Antonio, the Nueces River was one of many that overflowed its banks, sending water into adjacent fields and towns. The image covers an area of 23 by 13 miles (37 by 21 kilometers), and is located at 28.2 degrees north, 99 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19681

  17. Texas Field Experiment Results: Performance of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Hot-Climate, Low-Income Homes

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, Lance Neil; Goeltz, Rick; Ternes, Mark P; Berry, Linda G

    2008-04-01

    A field test involving 35 houses was performed in Texas between 2000 and 2003 to study the response of low-income homes in hot climates to weatherization performed as part of the U.S Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program and to investigate certain methods to improve weatherization performance. The study found that improved Program designs and the use of advanced energy audits resulted in better weatherization measures being installed (use of blower doors to guide the infiltration work, more frequent installation of attic insulation, and installation of wall insulation) in the study homes, improved space-heating savings performance compared to the Program as implemented in the hot climates in 1989, and more comfortable indoor temperatures. Two key policy dilemmas for Texas and other hot-climate states were highlighted by the study; namely, how to balance expenditures between installing cost-effective weatherization measures and performing health, safety, and repair items, and that health, safety, and repair items can have an adverse impact on energy savings, which further complicates the weatherization decision process. Several occupant and equipment-related behaviors were observed in the field test homes that help explain why audits may over predict energy consumptions and savings and why air-conditioning electricity savings are difficult to measure. Based on this study, it is recommended that states in hot climates be encouraged to select from an expanded list of measures using advanced audits or other techniques, and further studies examining the benefits obtained from air conditioner measures should be performed. In addition, guidelines should be developed for the hot-climate states on how to (a) balance the objectives of saving energy, improving health and safety, and addressing repair issues, and (b) select repair items.

  18. An interdisciplinary approach to reservoir management: The Malu Field, West Niger Delta, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.A.; Bluhm, C.T.; Adokpaye, E.U.

    1995-08-01

    The Malu Field is 175 kilometers southeast of Lagos, offshore Nigeria. The field was discovered in 1967 and brought on stream in 1971. Peak production reached 31,300 barrels per day in 1972. Twenty-six wells have been drilled in the thirty-six square kilometer size field. In 1990 original-oil-in-place was estimated at 345 million barrels with cumulative production of 109 million barrels and an estimated 40 million barrels of remaining reserves. The Main Field review was initiated in 1994 to resolve structural and production inconsistencies and therefore improve reservoir performance. The tools used include reprocessed three-dimensional seismic, oil chemistry (primarily gas chromatography), and production data. The complexly faulted field is subdivided into seven different fault blocks. Growth faults generally trend northwest to southeast and are downthrown to the west. Twenty-five different hydrocarbon-bearing sands have been identified within the field. These sands are separated into sixty-three different reservoirs by the series of southeast trending growth faults. Most sands are laterally continuous within mapped fault blocks except in east Malu. Cross-fault communication of oils occurs among several of the shallow reservoirs in west Malu allowing wells to deplete unintended horizons. In addition, three of the dual string completions are producing oil only from only the upper sands. The integration of seismic, oil chemistry, and production data allows more efficient management of production by providing accurate structure maps, reserve estimates, drainage pathways, and justification for workovers and future development drilling.

  19. High resolution reservoir architecture of late Jurassic Haynesville ramp carbonates in the Gladewater field, East Texas Salt Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhammer, R.K. )

    1996-01-01

    The East Texas Salt Basin contains numerous gas fields within Upper Jurassic Haynesville ramp-complex reservoirs. A sequenced-keyed, high-resolution zonation scheme was developed for the Haynesville Formation in Gladewater field by integrating core description, well-log, seismic, porosity and permeability data. The Haynesville at Gladewater represents a high-energy ramp system, localized on paleotopographic highs induced by diapirism of Callovian Age Salt (Louann). Ramp crest grainstones serve as reservoirs. We have mapped the distribution of reservoir facies within a hierarchy of upward-shallowing parasequences grouped into low-frequency sequences. The vertical stacking patterns of parasequences and sequences reflect the interplay of eustasy, sediment accumulation patterns, and local subsidence (including salt movement and compaction). In this study we draw on regional relations from analogous, Jurassic systems in Mexico to constrain the stratigraphic architecture, age model, and facies model. Additionally, salt-cored Holocene, grain-rich shoals from the Persian Gulf provide excellent facies analogs. The result is a new high-resolution analysis of reservoir architecture at a parasequence scale that links reservoir facies to depositional facies. The new stratigraphy scheme demonstrates that different geographic portions of the field have markedly distinct reservoir intervals, both in terms of total pay and the sequence-stratigraphic interval within which it occurs. Results from this study are used to evaluate infill drill well potential, in well planning, for updating reservoir models, and in refining field reserve estimates.

  20. High resolution reservoir architecture of late Jurassic Haynesville ramp carbonates in the Gladewater field, East Texas Salt Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhammer, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    The East Texas Salt Basin contains numerous gas fields within Upper Jurassic Haynesville ramp-complex reservoirs. A sequenced-keyed, high-resolution zonation scheme was developed for the Haynesville Formation in Gladewater field by integrating core description, well-log, seismic, porosity and permeability data. The Haynesville at Gladewater represents a high-energy ramp system, localized on paleotopographic highs induced by diapirism of Callovian Age Salt (Louann). Ramp crest grainstones serve as reservoirs. We have mapped the distribution of reservoir facies within a hierarchy of upward-shallowing parasequences grouped into low-frequency sequences. The vertical stacking patterns of parasequences and sequences reflect the interplay of eustasy, sediment accumulation patterns, and local subsidence (including salt movement and compaction). In this study we draw on regional relations from analogous, Jurassic systems in Mexico to constrain the stratigraphic architecture, age model, and facies model. Additionally, salt-cored Holocene, grain-rich shoals from the Persian Gulf provide excellent facies analogs. The result is a new high-resolution analysis of reservoir architecture at a parasequence scale that links reservoir facies to depositional facies. The new stratigraphy scheme demonstrates that different geographic portions of the field have markedly distinct reservoir intervals, both in terms of total pay and the sequence-stratigraphic interval within which it occurs. Results from this study are used to evaluate infill drill well potential, in well planning, for updating reservoir models, and in refining field reserve estimates.

  1. Site study plan for utilities and solid waste, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This site plan describes utilities and solid waste studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. After utilities and solid waste information needs derived from Federal, State, and local statutes and regulations and the project specifications are briefly described, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, and data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs to characterize electrical power, natural gas, communication, water, wastewater sludge, nonradiological solid waste, nonradiological hazardous waste, and low-level radiological waste. These programs include details for the collection of project needs, identification of utilities and solid waste disposal contractor capabilities, and verification of the obtained data. Utilities and solid waste field activities will begin approximately at the time of site access. Utilities and solid waste characterization will be completed within the first year of activity. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Notes from the Field: Zika Virus-Associated Neonatal Birth Defects Surveillance - Texas, January 2016-July 2017.

    PubMed

    Hall, Noemi Borsay; Broussard, Kelly; Evert, Nicole; Canfield, Mark

    2017-08-11

    On November 28, 2016, the Texas Department of State Health Services (Texas DSHS) reported its first confirmed case of local mosquitoborne Zika virus transmission in the city of Brownsville, located in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico border. Zika virus infection during pregnancy has been linked to adverse congenital outcomes including microcephaly, neural tube defects, early brain malformations, structural eye abnormalities, congenital deafness, and limb contractures (1). On January 1, 2016, Texas DSHS established enhanced surveillance to identify women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy and suspected cases of Zika virus-associated birth defects among completed pregnancies.

  3. First highlights of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Knippertz, P.; Flamant, C.; Adon, J.; Akpo, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Assamoi, E.; Baeza, A.; Julien, B.; Bedou, M.; Brooks, B. J.; Chiu, J. Y. C.; Chiron, C.; Coe, H.; Danuor, S.; Djossou, J.; Evans, M. J.; Fayomi, B.; Fink, A. H.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Gardrat, E.; Jegede, O.; Kalthoff, N.; Kedote, M.; Keita, S.; Kouame, K.; Konare, A.; Leon, J. F.; Mari, C. H.; Lohou, F.; Roblou, L.; Schlager, H.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Toure, E. N.; Veronique, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The EU-funded project DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) is investigating the relationship between weather, climate, air pollution and health in southern West Africa. The air over the coastal region of West Africa is a unique mixture of natural and anthropogenic gases, liquids and particles, emitted in an environment, in which multi-layer cloud decks frequently form. These exert a large influence on the local weather and climate, which has never been studied in detail over West Africa: this information is currently not included in the majority of weather and climate models. For the first time, the entire chain of impacts of natural and manmade emissions on the West African atmosphere was investigated in a coordinated field campaign. As part of this campaign, three research aircraft (Falcon 20, Twin Otter and ATR) based in Lomé (Togo) flew targeted 50 missions over West Africa from 27 June to 16 July 2016. In that campaign also, three highly instrumented measuring sites inland were set up with weather balloons launched several times a day across the region. The main objective was to build robust statistics of cloud properties in southern West Africa in different chemical landscapes (background state, ship/flaring emissions, polluted megacities, agricultural and forest areas, dust from the Sahel/Sahara). In addition, DACCIWA scientists working on measurements of urban emissions, air pollution, and health have set up four urban sites in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Cotonou (Benin) focusing on main specific regional combustion sources (domestic fires, traffic and waste burning). Long-term measurements of gases and particles and census of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases were started in January 2015 and will continue until March 2017 to determine the links between human health and air pollution. Intensive measurement periods took place in July 2015, January 2016, and July 2016 (a final one is planned for January 2017) in

  4. Texas Rural Health Care Program and Research Priorities for the 1980's. Report of a Conference Sponsored by the Texas Rural Health Field Services Program (Austin, Texas, April 18, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Caire, Donnie; And Others

    An invitational conference brought experts and concerned, active individuals together to review and identify research and program needs for rural Texas health care. The goals of the conference were to prioritize the top five program and research activities for rural health care in the 1980's, to develop a network of communication and cooperation…

  5. Controls on Methane Occurrences in Shallow Aquifers Overlying the Haynesville Shale Gas Field, East Texas.

    PubMed

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Larson, Toti; Darvari, Roxana; Mickler, Patrick; Slotten, Michael; Aldridge, Jordan; Uhlman, Kristine; Costley, Ruth

    2017-01-19

    Understanding the source of dissolved methane in drinking-water aquifers is critical for assessing potential contributions from hydraulic fracturing in shale plays. Shallow groundwater in the Texas portion of the Haynesville Shale area (13,000 km(2) ) was sampled (70 samples) for methane and other dissolved light alkanes. Most samples were derived from the fresh water bearing Wilcox formations and show little methane except in a localized cluster of 12 water wells (17% of total) in a approximately 30 × 30 km(2) area in Southern Panola County with dissolved methane concentrations less than 10 mg/L. This zone of elevated methane is spatially associated with the termination of an active fault system affecting the entire sedimentary section, including the Haynesville Shale at a depth more than 3.5 km, and with shallow lignite seams of Lower Wilcox age at a depth of 100 to 230 m. The lignite spatial extension overlaps with the cluster. Gas wetness and methane isotope compositions suggest a mixed microbial and thermogenic origin with contribution from lignite beds and from deep thermogenic reservoirs that produce condensate in most of the cluster area. The pathway for methane from the lignite and deeper reservoirs is then provided by the fault system.

  6. Corpus Christi, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This near vertical view of the south Texas coast shows the city of Corpus Christi (28.0N, 97.0W) and Corpus Christi Bay. Mustang Island and the Gulf of Mexico are seen in the Southeast corner of the view. The Nueces River flows into the bay from the west. The light toned squiggly lines in Corpus Christi Bay are mud trails caused by shrimp boats dragging their nets along the shallow bottom of the bay.

  7. San Antonio, Texas, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    This sharp, cloud free view of San Antonio, Texas (29.5N, 98.5W) illustrates the classic pattern of western cities. The city has a late nineteenth century Anglo grid pattern overlaid onto an earlier, less regular Hispanic settlement. A well marked central business district having streets laid out north/south and east/west is surrounded by blocks of suburban homes and small businesses set between the older colonial radial transportation routes.

  8. Immersive, hands-on, team-based geophysical education at the University of Texas Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.; Reece, R.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a unique and intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring/summer semester intersession. Now entering its seventh year, the course transitions students from a classroom environment through real-world, hands-on field acquisition, on to team-oriented data interpretation, culminating in a professional presentation before academic and industry employer representatives. The course is available to graduate students and select upper-division undergraduates, preparing them for direct entry into the geoscience workforce or for further academic study. Geophysical techniques used include high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, sediment coring, grab sampling, data processing, and laboratory analysis of sediments. Industry-standard equipment, methods, software packages, and visualization techniques are used throughout the course, putting students ahead of many of their peers in this respect. The course begins with a 3-day classroom introduction to the field area geology, geophysical methods, and computing resources used. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of hands-on field and lab work aboard two research vessels: UTIG's 22-foot, aluminum hulled Lake Itasca; and NOAA's 82-foot high-speed catamaran R/V Manta. The smaller vessel handles primarily shallow, inshore targets using multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and grab sampling. The larger vessel is used both inshore and offshore for multichannel seismic, CHIRP profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Field areas to date have included Galveston and Port Aransas, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, with further work in Grand Isle scheduled for 2014. In the field, students work in teams of three, participating in survey design, instrument set-up, field deployment

  9. Petroleum system analysis of the Hunton Group in West Edmond field, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Higley, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    West Edmond field, located in central Oklahoma, is one of the largest oil accumulations in the Silurian–Devonian Hunton Group in this part of the Anadarko Basin. Production from all stratigraphic units in the field exceeds 170 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 400 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), of which approximately 60 MMBO and 100 BCFG have been produced from the Hunton Group. Oil and gas are stratigraphically trapped to the east against the Nemaha uplift, to the north by a regional wedge-out of Hunton strata, and by intraformational diagenetic traps. Hunton Group reservoirs are the Bois d'Arc and Frisco Limestones, with lesser production from the Chimneyhill subgroup, Haragan Shale, and Henryhouse Formation. Hunton Group cores from three wells that were examined petrographically indicate that complex diagenetic relations influence permeability and reservoir quality. Greatest porosity and permeability are associated with secondary dissolution in packstones and grainstones, forming hydrocarbon reservoirs. The overlying Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale is the major petroleum source rock for the Hunton Group in the field, based on one-dimensional and four-dimensional petroleum system models that were calibrated to well temperature and Woodford Shale vitrinite reflectance data. The source rock is marginally mature to mature for oil generation in the area of the West Edmond field, and migration of Woodford oil and gas from deeper parts of the basin also contributed to hydrocarbon accumulation.

  10. Characterization and Field Studies of a Cucumber Mosaic Virus Isolate from Spinach in the Winter Garden Area of Texas

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson; R.S. Halliwell

    1985-01-01

    An isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was identified from spinach in the Winter Garden area of Texas. The isolate was very closely related serologically to strain S of CMVand is designated the Texas spinach isolate of CMV-S. The virus infected 39 species of crop plants and wild hosts in 12 of 13 families tested. The green peach aphid efficiently transmitted the...

  11. Technical procedures for utilities and solid waste: Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The evaluation of environmental issues and concerns and the addressing of statutory requirements are fundamental parts in the characterization of the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Utilities and Solid Waste considerations. This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Utilities and Solid Waste Site Study Plan. The purpose and scope of the Utilities and Solid Waste Technical Procedure is to develop and implement a data collection procedure to fulfill the data base needs of the Utilities and Solid Waste SSP. The procedure describes a method of obtaining, assessing and verifying the capabilities of the regional service utilities and disposal contractors. This data base can be used to identify a preferred service source for the engineering contractor. The technical procedure was produced under the guidelines established in Technical Administrative Procedure No. 1.0, Preparation, Review and Approval of Technical Procedures.

  12. Sugmut field: A forced regression deposit within the Neocomian prograding clinoform complex, West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M. ); Oleg, M.; Igirgi, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Volgian-Neocomian interval of the Middle Ob Region of the intracratonic West Siberian Basin consists of between 35 and 45 regional transgressive/regressive cycles infilling a basin which had an average water depth of approximately 200 meters. Within local clinoforms, wells have encountered elongate shelf-edge sandstone bodies ranging from 15 to 100 kilometers in strike-oriented length. In most areas the seismic interval correlative to the reservoir sandstone pinches-out against the foreset of the preceding clinoform. This geometric relationship, and the sharp-based log pattern of sandstones along the more landward margin of the sandstone body, suggests that the sandstone may have been deposited as a consequence of marked downward shift in baselevel as part of a lowstand prograding complex, or possibly as a late highstand forced regression deposit. The Sugmut field, located in the northeast part of the study area, is 12 km wide east-west and 75 km long north-south, and grades laterally into shale to the west, south and east. Relative to the regressive phase isopach, the transgressive phase isopach thick shifts slightly northward and eastward indicating the direction of littoral drift and marginward transgression. In the northern part of the field the shelf-edge sandstone interval may correlate with a thin depositional-dip oriented shelf sandstone mapped within the transgressive interval. This mapped pattern may be interpreted as lowstand incision of a fluvial system supplying sand to a shelf-edge delta followed by infilling of the fluvial valley during transgression. Subsequent down-to-the-north regional tilt resulted in structural closure forming the Sugmut field trap.

  13. Sugmut field: A forced regression deposit within the Neocomian prograding clinoform complex, West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.; Oleg, M.; Igirgi, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Volgian-Neocomian interval of the Middle Ob Region of the intracratonic West Siberian Basin consists of between 35 and 45 regional transgressive/regressive cycles infilling a basin which had an average water depth of approximately 200 meters. Within local clinoforms, wells have encountered elongate shelf-edge sandstone bodies ranging from 15 to 100 kilometers in strike-oriented length. In most areas the seismic interval correlative to the reservoir sandstone pinches-out against the foreset of the preceding clinoform. This geometric relationship, and the sharp-based log pattern of sandstones along the more landward margin of the sandstone body, suggests that the sandstone may have been deposited as a consequence of marked downward shift in baselevel as part of a lowstand prograding complex, or possibly as a late highstand forced regression deposit. The Sugmut field, located in the northeast part of the study area, is 12 km wide east-west and 75 km long north-south, and grades laterally into shale to the west, south and east. Relative to the regressive phase isopach, the transgressive phase isopach thick shifts slightly northward and eastward indicating the direction of littoral drift and marginward transgression. In the northern part of the field the shelf-edge sandstone interval may correlate with a thin depositional-dip oriented shelf sandstone mapped within the transgressive interval. This mapped pattern may be interpreted as lowstand incision of a fluvial system supplying sand to a shelf-edge delta followed by infilling of the fluvial valley during transgression. Subsequent down-to-the-north regional tilt resulted in structural closure forming the Sugmut field trap.

  14. Monitoring of landscape change in paddy fields: Case study of Karawang District - West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franjaya, E. E.; Syartinilia; Setiawan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Paddy field is an important agricultural land in Indonesia, as one of the largest rice producing-country in the world. At least 26 from 33 provinces in Indonesia are characterized by the existence of paddy field landscape. However, due to the increasing of population and development of infrastructure building, a conversion of paddy field rapidly occurs in many sites. This study aimed to examine the dynamics change in paddy field in Karawang District-West Java during the period of 1994-2015. The method used in this study mainly by the remote sensing technique using satellite images data. The result indicated that conversion of paddy fields to built area/infrastructure in Karawang is approximately 10.326,6 ha. It took up 56% from the paddy that were changed. Based on the result, the changes are likely to occur in the middle of karawang district, near the central city. This result showed the change of paddy field in 1994 converted into some built-up areas such as settlement or roads in 2015. However, about 85.597,56 ha paddy field is not changed during these period. The study showed that paddy fields landscape is facing a changes over the last two decades.

  15. New Argentine Central-West Line taps rich Neuquen gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.

    1982-02-01

    Argentina's Centro-Oeste (Central-West) Gas Pipeline is now a reality, carrying gas from the extensive Loma de la Lata (Hill of Tin) field in Neuquen State to cities which had been relying on bottled gas. The project is impressive, but hardly seems unique. A pipeline consisting of 697 miles of 30-in. line and 451 miles of smaller diameter gathering and distribution lines is a big project but nothing that has not been done before. Sometimes figures and statistics hide more than they reveal. A discussion is provided of project financing, logistics, pipeline outlets, treatment plants, route, construction, other lines, compressor stations, and suppliers.

  16. New Argentine Central-West line taps rich Neuquen gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.

    1982-02-01

    Argentina's new Central-West gas pipeline consists of 697 miles of 30-in. line and 451 miles of smaller gathering and distribution lines that link the rich Neuquen gas field with cities to the north. A financing package drawn up by 21 banks in the US and Europe allowed Cogasco S.A. to build the line for Gas del Estado across the roadless pampas east of the Andes. Primarily an agricultural country, Argentina had to import all the equipment and materials for the project. Site work began in July, 1980 with 800 workers employed on three spreads; the line was commissioned in November, 1981, 15 months ahead of the contract schedule.

  17. Optimal field partitioning for center-pivot irrigated cotton in the Texas High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the yield or profit from a cotton field can be increased by irrigating only a fraction of the field while keeping the rest as dryland when the irrigation water availability is sub-optimal. The cotton growth simulation model Cotton2K was used to si...

  18. Reservoir heterogeneity in the middle Frio Formation: Case studies in Stratton and Agua Dulce fields, Nueces County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Selected middle Frio (Oligocene) reservoirs of Stratton field and the contiguous Agua Dulce field are being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/Department of Energy/State of Texas cosponsored program designed to improve reserve growth in mature gas fields. Over the past four decades, Stratton has produced 2.0 tcf of gas from 113 middle Frio reservoirs, and Agua Dulce has produced 1.6 tcf from 116 reservoirs. Recent drilling and workover activities, however, suggest the presence of additional untapped or bypassed middle Frio reservoirs. Four reservoirs, the E18/6,020-ft, E21/6,050-ft, E31/6,100-ft, and E41/Bertram, were evaluated over a 13,000-acre tract that includes areas adjacent to both fields. The middle Frio is composed of sand-rich channel-fill and splay deposits interstratified with floodplain mudstones, all forming part of the Gueydan fluvial system. Channel-fill deposits are 30 ({plus minus}15) ft thick and 2,500 ({plus minus}500) ft wide. Splay deposits are up to 30 ft thick proximal to channels and extend as much as 2 mi from channels. Channel-fill and associated splay sandstones are reservoir facies (porosity 20%; permeability = 10s to 100s md); floodplain mudstones and levee sandy mudstones are barriers to flow facies separating individual reservoirs vertically and laterally. The E41/Bertram reservoir is an example of a laterally stacked channel system deposited during relatively slow aggradation. This reservoir includes sand-on-sand contacts and is composed of mostly leaky compartments. The E 18/6,020-ft, E21/6,050-ft, and E31/6,100ft reservoirs are examples of vertically stacked channel systems reflecting higher rates of aggradation. Vertically stacked architectures are more favorable for isolated compartments and therefore are better candidates for infield reserve growth.

  19. Thermal and mass history of Fairway Field in east Texas: Implication for geothermal energy development in an oil and gas setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweik, Ramsey Sharif

    Fairway Field is an oil field operated by Hunt Oil Company located in East Texas near the town of Poynor, Texas in Henderson County. The field was discovered in 1960 and is still producing today with the field life projected beyond 2015 (Webster et al., 2008). Hunt Oil Company granted access to over 2,900 open-hole well logs and pressure surveys for this research project. This thermal and mass history of production from a major hydrocarbon field is an especially rare opportunity, as oil and gas companies in Texas are generally not required to share pressure survey data with regulatory agencies, and thus these types of data are not typically available to the research community. This data set, coupled with fluid production and injection data, provides an opportunity to analyze temperature variations associated with fluid migration and field development as a function of time. Fairway Field was determined to have an average conductive heat flow value of 69 +/- 6 mW/m2. Using fluid production volumes, heat loss was determined to be -1.7 x 1017 Joules which represents a thermal recovery factor of -6.2% for the James Limestone Formation in Fairway Field. Given the fact that the field has been in development for over 50 years and has not exhibited a decrease but an increase in reservoir temperatures (+20 °F over 54 years), Fairway Field illustrates that sedimentary basins have considerable potential for geothermal development. An increased availability of pressure survey temperature data and fluid data from oil and gas companies provides a better understanding of such dynamic geothermal systems, helps evaluate the working life of a field, and is a tool for assessing development risk associated with future geothermal energy development in such settings.

  20. Guidelines for collection and field analysis of water-quality samples from streams in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, F.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Dorsey, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are by necessity performed in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature; (2) specific conductance; (3) pH; (4) alkalinity; (5) dissolved oxygen; and (6) bacteria.

  1. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Angevine, W. M.; Bianco, L.; McKeen, S. A.; Senff, C. J.; Trainer, M.; Tucker, S. C.; Zamora, R. J.

    2011-03-01

    The performance of different urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) in simulating urban boundary layer (UBL) was investigated using extensive measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. The extensive field measurements collected on surface (meteorological, wind profiler, energy balance flux) sites, a research aircraft, and a research vessel characterized 3-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structures over the Houston-Galveston Bay area, providing a unique opportunity for the evaluation of the physical parameterizations. The model simulations were performed over the Houston metropolitan area for a summertime period (12-17 August) using a bulk urban parameterization in the Noah land surface model (original LSM), a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM). The UCM simulation compared quite well with the observations over the Houston urban areas, reducing the systematic model biases in the original LSM simulation by 1-2 °C in near-surface air temperature and by 200-400 m in UBL height, on average. A more realistic turbulent (sensible and latent heat) energy partitioning contributed to the improvements in the UCM simulation. The original LSM significantly overestimated the sensible heat flux (~200 W m-2) over the urban areas, resulting in warmer and higher UBL. The modified LSM slightly reduced warm and high biases in near-surface air temperature (0.5-1 °C) and UBL height (~100 m) as a result of the effects of urban vegetation. The relatively strong thermal contrast between the Houston area and the water bodies (Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico) in the LSM simulations enhanced the sea/bay breezes, but the model performance in predicting local wind fields was similar among the simulations in terms of statistical evaluations. These results suggest that a proper surface representation (e.g. urban vegetation, surface morphology) and explicit parameterizations of urban physical

  2. Geologic model of San Andres reservoir, Roberts Unit CO sub 2 Phase III area, Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, J.V. Jr. )

    1992-04-01

    Roberts unit is a mature San Andres waterflood project located in Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas. Texaco, as operator, has evaluated the reservoir for CO{sub 2} flooding, and a four-phased CO{sub 2} project has been designed for the unit. A critical aspect of CO{sub 2} flood design is the development of geologic reservoir management, such as flood monitoring and evaluation of infill drilling. The geologic reservoir model established for the southeastern part of the unit (the CO{sub 2} Phase III area) is an example of this design. The reservoir consists of stacked carbonate depositional sequences. The cyclic nature of these depositional sequences is reflected in both core-defined lithofacies and porosity log character. Sequences consist of basal mudstones, restricted-shelf skeletal wackestones, open-shelf skeletal wackestones and packstones, solution and brecciated zones, and peloidal packstone caps. Intertidal mudstones and wackestones occur at the top of the reservoir and in the overlying reservoir seal. Porosity distribution is controlled by diagenetic events, but these events are closely related to depositional facies. Reservoir geometry and reservoir quality are interpreted from study of carbonate lithofacies, porosity and permeability relationships, and injection characteristics. Depositional sequences are subdivided into layers (flow units) for use in reservoir simulation. Log normalization, core description, porosity interpretation, reservoir mapping, three-dimensional modeling, and joint effort between project geologists and engineers contributed to development of the reservoir model.

  3. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2004-07-14

    A regenerating biochemical mixture and organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, followed by approximately 140 barrels of a 2% KCl solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area and into the producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris which was immediately produced into the flowlines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. Next steps include larger treatments and tracer tests to better understand the fluid flow dynamics.

  4. Seismic estimation of porosity in the Permian San Andres carbonate reservoir, Welch Field, Dawson, County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.P.; Hinterlong, G.D. )

    1996-01-01

    OXY and the DOE Are partners in a advanced technology demonstration project at OXY's West Welch Unit. Production is from a low permeability San Andres reservoir of Permian age similar to many shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin. The project involves the construction of a detailed geological model for numerical simulation to design and then conduct a CO[sub 2] flood of the reservoir. Depositional textures of the reservoir rock are highly variable from diagenesis, mostly anhydritic cementing, creating a highly complex pore system. Identification of the interwell reservoir continuity and flow units present the greatest challenge to the reservoir description. A 1993 vintage 3-D seismic survey with a bin spacing of 110[prime] by 165[prime] has been used to assist with the interwell reservoir description. The structure definition at the top and base of the reservoir have been accurately mapped with respect to the well data. Core and well log measurements of porosity, permeability and water saturation were computed and summed across the seismic reservoir interval. Measurements of amplitude, frequency and phase within the 3-D volume were summed across the reservoir interval. All seismic attributes were sampled to the wells and compared through scatterplots to the well log and core measurements. Excellent correlation between three seismic attributes and porosity has been documented. A deterministic method has been used to estimate porosity values at each seismic bin location. The method uses the seismic measurements to shape the geology between the wells while maintaining agreement with the well data at the well locations.

  5. Seismic estimation of porosity in the Permian San Andres carbonate reservoir, Welch Field, Dawson, County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.P.; Hinterlong, G.D.

    1996-12-31

    OXY and the DOE Are partners in a advanced technology demonstration project at OXY`s West Welch Unit. Production is from a low permeability San Andres reservoir of Permian age similar to many shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin. The project involves the construction of a detailed geological model for numerical simulation to design and then conduct a CO{sub 2} flood of the reservoir. Depositional textures of the reservoir rock are highly variable from diagenesis, mostly anhydritic cementing, creating a highly complex pore system. Identification of the interwell reservoir continuity and flow units present the greatest challenge to the reservoir description. A 1993 vintage 3-D seismic survey with a bin spacing of 110{prime} by 165{prime} has been used to assist with the interwell reservoir description. The structure definition at the top and base of the reservoir have been accurately mapped with respect to the well data. Core and well log measurements of porosity, permeability and water saturation were computed and summed across the seismic reservoir interval. Measurements of amplitude, frequency and phase within the 3-D volume were summed across the reservoir interval. All seismic attributes were sampled to the wells and compared through scatterplots to the well log and core measurements. Excellent correlation between three seismic attributes and porosity has been documented. A deterministic method has been used to estimate porosity values at each seismic bin location. The method uses the seismic measurements to shape the geology between the wells while maintaining agreement with the well data at the well locations.

  6. Mapping ERS-1 wind fields over north west Atlantic using a variational objective analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefridt, L.; Legler, D. M.; Barnier, B.; Obrien, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    A variational method is implemented to produce five day mean gridded ERS-1 analyzed wind fields in the north west Atlantic with the aim of providing for wind forcing of basin scale ocean models. The method consists of minimizing a cost functional, designed to measure misfits to prescribed weighted constraints which express a smoothed behavior and the proximity to input data vectors and curl. The weights are empirically determined by comparison with independent ship and buoy data over four five day periods. Root mean square differences between analyzed winds and independent data are thus further decreased: they range from 0.8 up to 1.8 m/s. Some problems present in the initial data remain; they are principally due to incomplete data coverage (instrumental problems), and possibly unresolved ambiguities. The resulting curl fields are smoothed and show coherent patterns. A comparison with the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) analysis is encouraging.

  7. Slope stability analysis of landslide in Wayang Windu Geothermal Field, Pangalengan, West Java Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhendar, A. H.; Wusqa, U.; Kartiko, R. D.; Raya, N. R.; Misbahudin

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale landslide occurred in Margamukti village, Pangalengan, Bandung Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. The landslide damaged geothermal gas pipeline along 300 m in Wayang Windu Geothermal Field. Based on field observation, landslide occured in rotational sliding movement. Laboratory analysis were conducted to obtain the characteristics of the soil. Based on the condition of the landslide in this area, the Factor of Safety can be simulated by the soil mechanics approach. Factor of safety analysis based on soil cohesion and internal friction angle was conducted using manual sensitivity analysis for back analysis. The analysis resulted soil cohesion in critical condition (FS<1) is 6.01 kPa. This value is smaller than cohesion of undisturbed slope soil sample. Water from rainfall is the most important instability factors in research area. Because it decreases cohesion in soils and increases weight and pore water pressure in granular media.

  8. Water-alternating-steam process improves project economics at West Coalinga field

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, K.C.; Stevens, C.E. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on the water-alternating-steam process (WASP) applied to vertical expansion (VE) sands in the pilot area of Section 13D, West Coalinga field to stop wasteful steam production and to improve vertical conformance of injected steam. Before the WASP application, steam breakthrough in the VE sands caused well sanding, cutting of downhole tubulars, and high-temperature-fluid handling problems. To alleviate these problems, pumps had to be raised in five wells and one well had to be shut in, reducing oil production from the VE sands and the lower waterflooded zones. A WASP field test, based on a numerical simulation study, was implemented in July 1988 with alternating slugs of water and steam, each injected over 4 months. The WASP eliminated steam production, allowing the pumps to be lowered and the one shut-in well to return to production.

  9. Heluma and King Mountain fields, back-thrusted structures, Upton County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Turmelle, J.M. )

    1992-04-01

    Heluma field was discovered and initially developed in 1956 as a four-well Ellenburger pool with some marginal Devonian reserves up-hole. For fifteen years it was reasonable to map the field as a tilted fault block at the Ellenburger level. In 1971, a field extension well proved that the supposed bounding high-angle normal fault was instead a low-angle backthrust, which overrides and does not cut the Ellenburger. The Devonian came in 500 ft structurally high to the older wells and has since produced nearly 4 million bbl of oil. Eighteen additional Ellenburger locations were also drilled beneath the backthrust. The present spacing shows that some structurally low Ellenburger tops were due to drilling into Ordovician sinkholes. King Mountain field is a long narrow anticline that has produced 5.5 million bbl of oil from the Ellenburger. This field was more completely developed than Heluma during the late 1950s and the same style of backthrust so prolific at Heluma is also present here, yet with a lesser throw. During the 1950s, all faults easily may have been interpreted as very high-angle normal faults. Similarly, one can easily conclude they are flower structures created by wrench tectonics. These oil fields lie in an ancillary direction to the Big Lake fault. The key to the backthrusts, however, is the compression of the intervening asymmetric synclines. The thick section of Devonian limestone and chert could not be tightly folded so it rode up the flank of the syncline until the limb was higher than the adjacent anticline.

  10. Geology of oil fields and future exploration potential in west African Aptian Salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.D.; Edwards, A.D.

    1987-05-01

    The Aptian Salt basin of west Africa, extends from Equatorial Guinea southward to Angola, contains recoverable reserves estimated at nearly 4 billion BOE, and is current producing 600,000 BOPD. The basin developed as a result of tensional forces between west Africa and South America initiated at the end of the Jurassic. The prospective sedimentary sequences ranged in age from Early Cretaceous (uppermost Jurassic in places) to Holocene and is divided by the Aptian transgressive sand and salt into a pre-salt, nonmarine, syn-rift sequence and a post-salt, marine, post-rift sequence. Both the pre- and post-salt sequences contain several successful exploration plays, the most prolific of which are the Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstone fields in tilted fault blocks of Gabon and Cabinda; Early Cretaceous carbonate buildups on the margins of basement highs in Cabinda; Early Cretaceous transgressive marine sandstone fields in anticlines draped over basement highs in Gabon; Late Cretaceous shallow marine sandstone and carbonate fields in salt-related structures in the Congo, Zaire, Cabinda, and Angola; Late Cretaceous dolomites in structural/stratigraphic traps in Angola; Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary deltaic/estuarine sandstone traps formed by salt movement in Gabon, Cabinda, and angola; and Tertiary marine turbidite fields in Cabinda and Angola. Despite the exploration success in these trends, much of the basin is under or poorly explored. The major problems for exploration are the poor quality of seismic definition beneath the salt, which makes it difficult to predict pre-salt structure and stratigraphy, and the importance of a stratigraphic element in many of the post-salt traps, also difficult to detect on seismic.

  11. Exploring the Diversity of Field Strains of Brucella abortus Biovar 3 Isolated in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sanogo, Moussa; Fretin, David; Thys, Eric; Saegerman, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonotic diseases in the world, affecting both humans and domestic and wild animals. Identification and biotyping of field strains of Brucella are of key importance for a better knowledge of the epidemiology of brucellosis, for identifying appropriate antigens, for managing disease outbreaks and for setting up efficient preventive and control programmes. Such data are required both at national and regional level to assess potential threats for public health. Highly discriminative genotyping methods such as the multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) allow the comparison and assessment of genetic relatedness between field strains of Brucella within the same geographical area. In this study, MLVA biotyping data retrieved from the literature using a systematic review were compared using a clustering analysis and the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI). Thus, the analysis of the 42 MLVA genotyping results found in the literature on West Africa [i.e., from Ivory Coast (1), Niger (1), Nigeria (34), The Gambia (3), and Togo (3)] did not allow a complete assessment of the actual diversity among field strains of Brucella. However, it provided some preliminary indications on the co-existence of 25 distinct genotypes of Brucella abortus biovar 3 in this region with 19 genotypes from Nigeria, three from Togo and one from Ivory Coast, The Gambia, and Niger. The strong and urgent need for more sustainable molecular data on prevailing strains of Brucella in this sub-region of Africa and also on all susceptible species including humans is therefore highlighted. This remains a necessary stage to allow a comprehensive understanding of the relatedness between field strains of Brucella and the epidemiology of brucellosis within West Africa countries. PMID:28713359

  12. Site study plan for cultural resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Cultural Resources Site Study Plan describes a field program to identify and evaluate the archaeological, historical, and Native American Indian resources of the site on local and regional perspectives; monitor and manage discovered cultural resources; and establish a worker education program. The archaeological field program consists of three pedestrian surveys: Survey 1 includes two EDBH seismic survey lines and the area within the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); Survey 2 includes the remainder of the site plus a 1/4 to 3/4-mi border area; and Survey 3 includes an assortment of offsite areas. The historical studies will identify and evaluate known and discovered historical sites and structures and the Native American Indian will identify and evaluate cultural and religious concerns expressed by Indian tribal groups. Prehistoric and historic sites will be evaluated to determine if they meet eligibility criteria for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. This site study plan describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities; organization of field personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements. The cultural resource studies will provide data for satisfying the Programmatic Agreement, engineering design needs, and SRP requirements for permits and approvals, and for minimizing effects to any cultural properties discovered during site characterization. 75 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Regional Impacts of Woodland Expansion on Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Texas Savannahs: Combining Field, Modeling and Remote Sensing Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Woody encroachment has contributed to documented changes world-wide and locally in the southwestern U.S. Specifically, in North Texas rangelands encroaching mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) a known N-fixing species has caused changes in aboveground biomass. While measurements of aboveground plant production are relatively common, measures of soil N availability are scarce and vary widely. N trace gas emissions (nitric and nitrous oxide) flom soils reflect patterns in current N cycling rates and availability as they are stimulated by inputs of organic and inorganic N. Quantification of N oxide emissions from savanna soils may depend upon the spatial distribution of woody plant canopies, and specifically upon the changes in N availability and cycling and subsequent N trace gas production as influenced by the shift from herbaceous to woody vegetation type. The main goal of this research was to determine whether remotely sensible parameters of vegetation structure and soil type could be used to quantify biogeochemical changes in N at local, landscape and regional scales. To accomplish this goal, field-based measurements of N trace gases were carried out between 2000-2001, encompassing the acquisition of imaging spectrometer data from the NASA Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) on September 29, 2001. Both biotic (vegetation type and soil organic N) and abiotic (soil type, soil pH, temperature, soil moisture, and soil inorganic N) controls were analyzed for their contributions to observed spatial and temporal variation in soil N gas fluxes. These plot level studies were used to develop relationships between spatially extensive, field-based measurements of N oxide fluxes and remotely sensible aboveground vegetation and soil properties, and to evaluate the short-term controls over N oxide emissions through intensive field wetting experiments. The relationship between N oxide emissions, remotely-sensed parameters (vegetation cover, and

  14. Natural gas production from Ordovician Queenston Formation in West Auburn field, Cayuga County, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.L.

    1988-08-01

    Gas has been produced from the Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation at West Auburn field, Cayuga County, New York, for over 20 years. This field indicates Queenston production to be long lived, with substantially economic reserves found at depths shallower than 2,000 ft. Locally, The Queenston is comprised of sand and silty shale with the primary reservoirs found in quartzose sandstones. The overall thickness of the Queenston clastic interval is over 700 ft with gas found in the upper 300 ft. Three primary gas sands are continuous across the field area and have high average porosities of as much as 13.0% and average permeabilities of 0.20 md. Extreme examples show peak porosities approaching 20% and permeabilities of over 5.0 md. The reservoir is composed of very fine to medium-grained, moderately sorted, red sandstone. Sand grains are predominantly quartz with minor amounts of feldspar. The main pore-filling constituent is abundant authigenic clay with iron oxides, thus contributing to reduced permeabilities. These sands vary in reservoir quality through the field and, hence, allow for stratigraphic trapping of the gas. Other factors involved include the updip accumulation of gas against the Silurian-Ordovician unconformity at the top of the Queenston. Some of the pay sands are absent due to this unconformity in the area farthest updip and, therefore, decrease the overall reserve potential of the individual well in that part of the field.

  15. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. B.; Gulick, S. P.; Allison, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Duncan, D. D.; Saustrup, S.

    2010-12-01

    During the spring-summer intersession, we annually offer an intensive three-week field course designed to provide hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in the acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization of marine geological and geophysical data. Now in year four, the course covers high-resolution air gun and streamer seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students first participate in three days of classroom instruction designed to provide theoretical and technical background on each field method and impart geologic context of the study area. Students then travel to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. In the field, students rotate between two small research vessels: one vessel, the 22’ aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA’s R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, is used for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Students assist with survey design, learn systems setup and acquisition parameters, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval techniques. Students also perform on-shore sedimentology lab work, data quality control, data processing and visualization using industry-standard software such as Focus, Landmark, Caris, and Fledermaus. During the course’s final week, students return to the classroom where, collaborating in teams of three, they integrate and interpret data in a final project which examines the geologic history and/or sedimentary processes as typified by the Gulf Coast continental shelf. The course culminates in a series of professional

  16. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Angevine, W. M.; Bianco, L.; McKeen, S. A.; Senff, C. J.; Trainer, M.; Tucker, S. C.; Zamora, R. J.

    2010-10-01

    The impact of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model on the simulation of local meteorological fields is investigated. The Noah land surface model (LSM), a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM) have been compared, focusing on urban patches. The model simulations were performed for 6 days from 12 August to 17 August during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. Analysis was focused on the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area. The model simulated temperature, wind, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height were compared with observations from surface meteorological stations (Continuous Ambient Monitoring Stations, CAMS), wind profilers, the NOAA Twin Otter aircraft, and the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The UCM simulation showed better results in the comparison of ABL height and surface temperature than the LSM simulations, whereas the original LSM overestimated both the surface temperature and ABL height significantly in urban areas. The modified LSM, which activates hydrological processes associated with urban vegetation mainly through transpiration, slightly reduced warm and high biases in surface temperature and ABL height. A comparison of surface energy balance fluxes in an urban area indicated the UCM reproduces a realistic partitioning of sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, consequently improving the simulation of urban boundary layer. However, the LSMs have a higher Bowen ratio than the observation due to significant suppression of latent heat flux. The comparison results suggest that the subgrid heterogeneity by urban vegetation and urban morphological characteristics should be taken into account along with the associated physical parameterizations for accurate simulation of urban boundary layer if the region of interest has a large fraction of vegetation within the urban patch. Model showed significant discrepancies in the specific meteorological conditions when nocturnal

  17. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  18. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Treesearch

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  19. Site Study Plan for Aesthetics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Aesthetic Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of identification of the visually affected area; determination of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual management classes of the site and vicinity; and analysis of the level of visual contrast that would be created by the project. Field ratings of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual contrast will be supplemented by a public perception survey designed to incorporate the views of the public. This plan describes the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule for proposed activities, and quality assurance program. This study will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, SRPO Requirement Document (SRP-RD). 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Deposition, diagenesis, and porosity relationships in the Glorieta formation, Keystone (Holt) field, Winkler County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, R.C.; Jacka, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Production of hydrocarbons from the Chevron 7C H.E. Lovett well, Keystone (Holt) field, is from the upper part of the Glorieta formation (Leonardian). The field is located near the western margin of the Central Basin platform (Permian basin) on a present-day structural high. The 116-ft (35.4-m) core contains at least 7 cycles of deposition, which consist, upward from the base, of progradational subtidal, intertidal and supratidal deposits. Supratidal deposits predominantly consist of dolostones with fenestral cavities; sabkha deposits are not represented. Scattered nodules of nonevaporitic anhydrite have been emplaced within subtidally deposited carbonates after dolomitization. Intrabiopelgrapestone grainstones, oointrabiopelgrainstones, intrabiopelpackstones and wackestones, and intrapelpackstones and wackestones are the predominant lithofacies. Dolostone is the predominant lithology.

  1. Site Study Plan for Acoustics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Acoustics site study plan describes a field program which characterizes existing sound levels, determines the area's sound propagation characteristics, and monitors the project-related sound emissions. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Requirements Document. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast–southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006–2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957–1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change. PMID:24191019

  3. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-11-19

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change.

  4. Lower Cisco Formation (Pennsylvanian-Virgilian) paleokarst, Wolf Flat field Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C. ); Lindsay, R.F. ); Pack, D.D. )

    1996-01-01

    Wolf Flat field produces from karstified Lower Cisco Formation at the rimmed northeast shelf margin. Mounds, peripheral skeletal debris, and oolitic facies form the vertical/lateral succession. Mounds are composed of crinoids, bryozoans, corals and algae. Skeletal packstone/grainstones surround mounds, With back-mound wackestone. Ooid grainstone formed in high-energy passages onto the shelf and cap shallowing-upward cycles. Karstification resulted from two 100+ ft. (30+ m) sea level drops, that dropped in a step-by-step manner to form [approximately]20 porous intervals that extend through all facies and lithologies in the field. Aragonitic mound and skeletal grainstone/wackestones experienced intense dissolution. Calcitic ooid grainstones dissolved less and form cave roofs and floors. Dissolution was in two phases: first, small vertically oriented pipes formed, resembling a [open quotes]swiss cheese[close quotes] texture; second, was intense lateral dissolution that created a [open quotes]sponge[close quotes] texture, with porosities up to 60-70%. Eventually, collapse breccias formed, with some clasts transported in the karst system. Porosity was reduced by vadose silt, breccia clasts, speleothem cements, transgressive shale infilling, and burial saddle dolomite. Portions of the field nearest the rimmed margin were dolomitized. [delta][sup 18]O is within the range of early meteoric diagenesis and [delta][sup 13]C is negative and becomes more negative toward the exposure surface.

  5. Lower Cisco Formation (Pennsylvanian-Virgilian) paleokarst, Wolf Flat field Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Lindsay, R.F.; Pack, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    Wolf Flat field produces from karstified Lower Cisco Formation at the rimmed northeast shelf margin. Mounds, peripheral skeletal debris, and oolitic facies form the vertical/lateral succession. Mounds are composed of crinoids, bryozoans, corals and algae. Skeletal packstone/grainstones surround mounds, With back-mound wackestone. Ooid grainstone formed in high-energy passages onto the shelf and cap shallowing-upward cycles. Karstification resulted from two 100+ ft. (30+ m) sea level drops, that dropped in a step-by-step manner to form {approximately}20 porous intervals that extend through all facies and lithologies in the field. Aragonitic mound and skeletal grainstone/wackestones experienced intense dissolution. Calcitic ooid grainstones dissolved less and form cave roofs and floors. Dissolution was in two phases: first, small vertically oriented pipes formed, resembling a {open_quotes}swiss cheese{close_quotes} texture; second, was intense lateral dissolution that created a {open_quotes}sponge{close_quotes} texture, with porosities up to 60-70%. Eventually, collapse breccias formed, with some clasts transported in the karst system. Porosity was reduced by vadose silt, breccia clasts, speleothem cements, transgressive shale infilling, and burial saddle dolomite. Portions of the field nearest the rimmed margin were dolomitized. {delta}{sup 18}O is within the range of early meteoric diagenesis and {delta}{sup 13}C is negative and becomes more negative toward the exposure surface.

  6. Site Study Plan for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Land Use Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of characterization of the site; seismic survey rights-of-way and transportation and utility corridors, the vicinity, the region, future land use, and monitoring land-use change. Aerial photography will be used to characterize the site, seismic rows and transportation and utility corridors, and the vicinity. The resulting land-use maps and overlays will then be verified in the field. Interviews with farm managers and local experts will provide additional information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) and satellite imagery will be used to characterize the region, monitor land-use change, and provide information to assist with the future land use study. The site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the filed data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the personnel requirements and management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The directives and requirements that drive these studies are derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 51 refs; 6 figs; 3 tabs.

  7. History and geology of the giant Elk-Poca field, West Virginia, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G. ); Bruner, K.R.; Noald, M.T. )

    1991-03-01

    The 165,000 acre Elk-Poca field was discovered in 1933 when a wildcat well tested the Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian) on the Milliken Anticline in Elk District, Kanawha County. Rapid expansion occurred northward, along the anticline, and westward into Poca District on the Sissonville high. Begun as a structural play, it soon became an exploration program for thick, well-developed clean sandstones. Elk-Poca is a combination stratigraphic and structural trap. In Jackson County, salt water is present downdip, and updip production is limited by a loss of highly permeable beds. The reservoir was developed in clean, highly permeable sandstones in the upper part of the Oriskany. The average pay section is 30 ft thick, and characterized by high permeabilities, and consistent, but low porosities. High initial flow rates for both natural wells and wells stimulated by shooting correlate with areas of thick sandstone. Nearly 1200 wells were drilled in the field, and more than 1100 produced gas. Since 1933, nearly 1 tcf of gas have been produced, with the best wells in areas of thick sandstone. Production decline was rapid, due to the high permeability and moderate porosity. This giant field is in the only area in West Virginia where a certain set of geologic factors coincide. The north-south structural strike is paralleled by an east-west decrease in sandstone thickness, and a westeast increase in thickness of the organic-rich Devonian shales. Gas migrated from the shales into the permeable Oriskany before compaction and cementation by carbonate eliminated all porosity and permeability. The presence of gas in open pores may have retarded further cementation.

  8. San Andres dolomite reservoir, Emma field, Andrews County, Texas: Depositional facies and diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C. )

    1987-02-01

    Although nearly 100% (19 million bbl of oil) of the estimated recoverable oil in the Emma San Andres reservoir has been produced, indications are that as much as 15 million bbl of recoverable, movable oil remains. Detailed study of facies and diagenesis in the reservoir reveals considerable lateral and vertical variability, which has important implications for recovery and injection efficiencies in the field. The upper San Andres Formation in the Emma field comprises a shallowing-upward sequence of pervasively dolomitized, shallow-water subtidal to supratidal carbonates that accumulated on a gently east-sloping ramp. The lowermost part of the reservoir interval is composed of laterally extensive fusulinid packstone deposited in an open-marine ramp setting. Abruptly overlying this facies is a sequence of interbedded fusulinid/algal grainstone, formed in a migrating sand-shoal complex, and burrowed, skeletal mudstone deposited on a restricted inner ramp. The grainstone is restricted to the western and central parts of the field. These deposits are overlain by pisolitic and cryptalgal mudstones and terrigenous siliciclastics of supratidal origin. Anydrite is abundant throughout the section. Porosity and permeability are facies controlled. Highest permeabilities are developed in shoal complex grainstone (100 md) and in fusulinid packstone (925-50 md). Lateral and vertical facies variations resulted in considerable reservoir heterogeneity. Trace-element and isotope data indicate that most of the San Andres dolomite and associated sulfate (anhydrite) precipitated from downward-moving, seawater-derived brines during shallow burial in the late Guadalupian. Subsequent anhydrite dissolution has locally enhanced original porosity.

  9. Evaluation of evaporite facies as a tool for exploration, Yates Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, A.W.; Warren, J.K.

    1987-05-01

    Evaporites have long been recognized as the most efficient reservoir seal; however, the seal can itself serve as an exploration tool to locate subtle stratigraphic traps. By analogy with modern environments, thick massive evaporites form subaqueously in ponds (salinas) in topographic lows while sabkhas form on the subaerially exposed supratidal zone on topographic highs. Recognition of evaporite facies distribution can delineate paleotopography where sabkhas form a seal over local highs and closure is provided by salinas forming a lateral seal in lows. These relationships are illustrated by the giant Yates field (2 billion bbl reserves), situated at the southern tip of the Central basin platform in the Permian basin. The seal over the Yates reservoir (San Andres formation) is formed by the evaporites at the base of the Seven Rivers Formation (Guadalupian). Within the evaporite, two distinct depositional facies are recognized: a massive, salina-anhydrite in the central and western parts of the field; and on the east, stacked sabkha sequences consisting of sandy dolomite overlying a sharp base, grading into nodular anhydrite and capped by an erosional surface. The depositional topography on the underlying San Andres reservoir controlled the facies distribution in the basal Seven Rivers. Carbonate buildups formed on the eastern side of the field, while interbedded shales and dolomites accumulated in the quiet lagoonal waters behind. Due to dewatering and compaction during early burial, the lagoons remained topographically low until early Seven Rivers time when they were finally filled with salina evaporites. The rigid shelf margin buildups remained as topographic highs over which sabkhas developed. Only 10% of the production has come from the lagoonal muds under the salinas, while 90% has been produced from the carbonate buildups under the sabkhas.

  10. Ozonesonde and aircraft measurements in the tropical West Pacific from the CAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Richard; Vaughan, Geraint; Ricketts, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    The Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign comprised of ozonesonde launches and an aircraft campaign in the West Pacific in January-March 2014. Previous field campaigns in this region have highlighted an area to the east of Papua New Guinea and near the Solomon Islands as sources of deep convection and anomalously low ozone in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The CAST campaign provides a unique dataset of ozonesonde launches from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, close to the hypothesized source region. CAST was performed in coordination with two sister campaigns, CONTRAST and ATTREX, bringing the FAAM BAe 146, NCAR Gulfstream V and NASA Global Hawk aircraft respectively to Guam. The aircraft campaign allowed an unprecedented comparison between ozonesondes and aircraft, which was used to verify the ozonesonde measurements and support the choice of background correction; this correction is of paramount importance in the tropics as the background constitutes half of the measured signal. The data obtained from the CAST ozonesondes suggest that the lowest ozone concentrations, at ~15 ppb, found in the tropical tropopause layer were accompanied by easterly winds from an area of deep convection, suggesting the air was lifted quickly from the marine boundary layer. The evidence from the CAST campaign suggests that the anomalously low near-zero ozone measured during previous campaigns in the tropical West Pacific is an artefact of the ozonesonde behaviour at low pressures (high altitude) - the low-ozone measurements can be recreated with the CAST ozonesondes if the background is not properly treated.

  11. Overview of the DACCIWA ground-based field campaign in southern West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohou, Fabienne; Kalthoff, Norbert; Brooks, Barbara; Jegede, Gbenga; Adler, Bianca; Ajao, Adewale; Ayoola, Muritala; Babić, Karmen; Bessardon, Geoffrey; Delon, Claire; Dione, Cheikh; Handwerker, Jan; Jambert, Corinne; Kohler, Martin; Lothon, Marie; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Smith, Victoria; Sunmonu, Lukman; Wieser, Andreas; Derrien, Solène

    2017-04-01

    During June and July 2016, a ground-based field campaign took place in southern West Africa within the framework of the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project. In the investigated region, extended low-level stratus clouds form very frequently during night-time and persist long into the following day influencing the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer and, hence, the regional climate. The motivation for the measurements was to identify the meteorological controls on the whole process chain from the formation of nocturnal stratus clouds, via the daytime transition to convective clouds and the formation of deep precipitating clouds. During the measurement period, extensive remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed at three supersites in Kumasi (Ghana), Savè (Benin) and Ile-Ife (Nigeria). The gathered observations included the energy-balance components at the Earth's surface, the mean and turbulent conditions in the nocturnal and daytime ABL as well as the de- and entrainment processes between the ABL and the free troposphere. The meteorological measurements were supplemented by aerosol and air-chemistry observations. We will give an overview of the conducted measurements including instrument availability and strategy during intensive observation periods.

  12. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Texas Trilogy on Public Education and Taxes. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCown, F. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. It also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  14. Deposition and diagenesis of an upper Clear Fork Reef Trend, Palm Sunday field, Hockley County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Palm Sunday field produces from upper Clear Fork dolomite strata situated along a linear, shelf-edge reef trend just north of the Midland basin. Thickness of the reef core ranges from 65 to 140 ft. Oil production occurs from within sub-reef and reef-flank facies, but the reef itself is highly cemented. However, the influence of the reef buildup as an impermeable, localized structural high on the basinward-sloping shelf is an important factor in migration and trapping within adjacent beds. The reef facies is comprised of a crinoid-sponge-bryozoan fauna that trapped and consolidated micritic mud as the reef developed. High initial porosity was lost to early emplacement of massive and nodular anhydrite. Other diagenetic characteristics include dolomite and late-stage anhydrite cementation, and the replacement of nodular anhydrite by chalcedony. Productive facies below and adjacent to the reef trend are wackestones and packstones composed of crinoid and bryozoan skeletal debris. Reservoir porosity is predominantly intergranular and vuggy. The lower initial porosity of these deposits enabled them to escape the massive anhydrite emplacement characteristic of the reef sequence. Late-stage anhydrite cements are present but do not critically occlude porosity. The Palm Sunday field, currently defined by five producing wells, is still in an early stage of development. However, similar upper Clear Fork productive trends, though not possessing these reef-related characteristics, have shown production totals ranging from 1 to 2.5 million bbl of oil.

  15. Calcrete profiles and porosity development in the Wagon Wheel (Pennsylvanian) field, Ward County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Abegg, F.E. ); Grover, G.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Cisco and Canyon formations in the Wagon Wheel field, located on the western edge of the Central Basin platform, contain 10-15 previously unrecognized calcrete profiles, providing excellent evidence of repeated Late Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure. Evidence for calcretes includes (1) rhizoliths, (2) alveolar texture, (3) circumgranular cracking, (4) tangential needle fibers, (5) calcrete glaebules, (6) light shifts in {delta}{sup 13}C profiles, (7) autobrecciation, and (8) laminated crusts. Extreme lateral variability of calcrete profiles makes correlation of subaerial exposure surfaces difficult. Porosity within calcrete profiles is occluded, providing a seal for underlying reservoir facies. Porosity in the Wagon Wheel field is strongly facies dependent. Porous intervals consist of lenticular skeletal grainstone-packstone facies, typically capped by calcrete profiles. Repeated meteoric phreatic lenses established during Late Pennsylvanian exposure events are interpreted to have formed moldic porosity through selective dissolution in strata containing mineralogically metastable allochems. Secondary porosity development, however, is often balanced by precipitation of eogenetic calcite cement. Therefore, meteoric diagenesis associated with Wagon Wheel calcrete development commonly occludes and only rarely enhances primary porosity. Two stages of calcite cementation are recognized: (1) an early pore-rimming nonferroan nonluminescent calcite cement with thin moderate to brightly luminescent microzones, and (2) a later ferroan, dully luminescent calcite cement with broad, indistinct zones. Truncated cements in Cisco- and Canyon-derived lithoclasts indicate nonluminescent cement was precipitated from oxidizing meteoric phreatic waters. Microzones were precipitated during brief periods of stagnation in the phreatic lenses.

  16. Transgressive-regressive sequences in Canyon Formation (Missourian) at the Salt Creek field, Kent County, Texas, correlate to worldwide depositional events

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.M.; Walker, D.A. )

    1990-05-01

    At least nine transgressive-regressive depositional units have been delineated for the Late Pennsylvanian (Missourian) Canyon Formation within the Salt Creek reef of the Horseshoe atoll of west Texas. The nine lithostratigraphic units consist of shoaling-upward carbonate sequences bounded by unconformities. These units coincide with fusulinid biostratigraphic zonations established for the Permian basin. The lithostratigraphic-biostratigraphic units correlate to other transgressive-regressive sequences and faunal successions found on widely separated cratonic shelves from around the world. These correlative sequences are the result of eustatic sea level changes due to repeated glaciation during the Pennsylvanian. The Salt Creek reef is unique in that these sequences were deposited in a siliciclastics-starved basin as a freestanding carbonate buildup on a preexisting platform. This is significant in that other contemporaneous sequences, of mixed lithologies, were deposited on broad, stable cratonic shelves.

  17. Technical procedure for transportation, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This Technical Procedures Manual (TP TR-5) is a description of five specific studies to be carried out within the site vicinity area. Primary emphasis is on studying various aspects of traffic characteristics on highways. All relate to traffic capacity in the site vicinity area. The studies are Continuous Automatic Counts, Manual Turning Movement Counts, Manual Counts by Vehicle Classification, Origin-Destination Studies, and Travel Time-Delay Route Studies. The purpose of TP TR-5 is to assemble a reliable data base for analyzing traffic in the site vicinity. The data collection activities for Survey Existing Information (TP T-1) will furnish some data that will be useful in the development of this set of data. Detailed field studies will be taken on the site vicinity routes to provide baseline data for analyzing projected traffic impacts. Assembled data for projected repository activities will also furnish data on future needs which are important in analyzing total traffic impacts. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Site Study Plan for salt, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Salt Site Study Plan (SSP) describes a program for characterizing the existing salt environment in the site vicinity. A step-by-step approach is described which proceeds from published data and planned theoretical studies, to planned laboratory studies, and finally to planned field studies, to provide the necessary data to meet program requirements contained in the Salt Repository Project - Requirements Document (SRP-RD). The plan also draws on the results of other SSP's for certain data; for example, soil salinity data are to be provided under the Soils SSP. The salt studies consist of evaluation of control and mitigation measures, salt monitoring studies, emission factors development, air models development and validation, and risk assessment. For each study, its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of activities; organization of personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements are described. 90 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Site Study Plan for soils, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Soils Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of a soil characterization survey, impact monitoring of soils, predisturbance soil salinity survey, and a reclamation suitability study. This information will be used to plan for soil stripping, stockpiling, and replacement; reclamation of soils; determining predisturbance chemical and physical characteristics of the soils; including salinity levels; and monitoring for changes in chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. The SSP describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and the quality assurance program. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 75 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Environment of deposition of downdip Lower Wilcox sandstones, Provident City field, Lavaca County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vest, S.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Lower Wilcox section at Provident City field produces dry gas from thin-bedded, silty sandstones, at depths of 12,500 to 14,100 ft (3,810 to 4,298 m). Cores show that sandstone cosets range 0.1 to 2.7 ft (0.03 to 0.82 m) and average 0.5 8 ft (0. 18 m) in thickness. Sedimentary structures within the cosets range upward from a massive unit (A) to a planar-laminated unit (B) to a ripple-laminated unit (C). The cosets have an average composition of lithic arkose and show textural grading indicative of deposition from turbidity flows. The sandstones lie within the Wilcox fault zone, downdip of the Colorado and Guadalupe deltas of the Rockdale Delta System. Regional stratigraphy and structural trends indicate that the sandstones were deposited in a deep marine environment. A growth fault, having approximately 1000 ft (3048 m) of throw at a depth of 12,300 ft (3750 m), bounds the field to the northwest and largely controls the distribution of lithofacies. Stacked, AB-type, turbidite cosets indicate channel facies. The M Sandstone was deposited as a constructional channel, with abrupt lateral grading to overbank facies, where turbidites of the BC- and C-type are dominant. The S Sandstone was deposited as a series of thin, constructional channels, mostly with turbidites of the AB- and ABC-type that are generally stacked, causing superimposed, dip-trending lobes on an otherwise strike-trending sandstone.

  1. Geology and hydrogeology of Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad, Bee and Goliad counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Large vertical hydraulic-head gradients are present between the unconfined Evangeline aquifer and confined Fleming aquifers at Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad. These gradients, together with the results of the aquifer test at Naval Air Station Chase Field and assumed characteristics of the confining units, indicate that downward flow of ground water probably occurs from the water-table aquifer to the underlying aquifers. The rate of downward flow between the two confined Fleming aquifers (from A-sand to B-sand) can be approximated using an estimate of vertical hydraulic conductivity of the intervening confining unit obtained from assumed storage characteristics and data from the aquifer test. Under the relatively high vertical hydraulic-head gradient induced by the aquifer test, ground-water movement from the A-sand aquifer to the B-sand aquifer could require about 490 years; and about 730 years under the natural gradient. Future increases in ground-water withdrawals from the B-sand aquifer might increase downward flow in the aquifer system of the study area.

  2. Evaluation of baits for oral rabies vaccination of mongooses: pilot field trials in Antigua, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Linhart, S B; Creekmore, T E; Corn, J L; Whitney, M D; Snyder, B D; Nettles, V F

    1993-04-01

    A field study was conducted on the island of Antigua, West Indies, to evaluate baits for delivering an oral rabies vaccine to the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). Tracking tiles were used to determine that mongooses were nonselective and took both egg-flavored polyurethane baits and fish-flavored polymer baits containing several different food materials. A high proportion of baits were taken the day of placement with minimal disturbance by nontarget species. DuPont Oil Blue A dye was an effective short-term biomarker for use in baits; based on its subsequent detection in mongooses, some of the population had consumed and not cached or discarded baits. Central point baiting stations showed promise as an alternative delivery technique.

  3. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2005-04-29

    A combination of a regenerating biochemical mixture and an organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, with a 2% KCl carrier solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area adjacent to producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris, which was immediately produced into the flow lines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. In task 3 the permeability restrictions in a cylindrical area of 10 to 20 feet from the wellbore within the reservoir were treated with the biochemical solution. Fluid was forced into the producing horizon using the hydraulic head of the well filled with 2 % KCl solution, allowed to acclimate, and then withdrawn by pumping. The chloride content of the produce water was measured and production of oil and water monitored. The most significant effect in improving permeability and removing scale and high molecular weight hydrocarbons was accomplished in the wellbore perforations and near wellbore treatments of tasks 1 and 2. The effect the deeper insertion of solution in task 3 had minimal impact on production.

  4. Withdrawals from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas, December 1974 through March 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Pavlicek, Dianne J.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the categories, rates, and distribution of withdrawals from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units during December 1974 through March 1977. The report includes withdrawal information from all or parts of the 50 counties in the study area. In those regions where only part of a county is within the study area, the percentage of the total county area was used to calculate the estimates of livestock and domestic withdrawals. The authors wish to thank the Texas Water Development Board for providing withdrawal information for this report.

  5. Potentiometric surface of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas, winter, 1974-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    1990-01-01

    The data used to compile this map were obtained from the Texas Natural Resources Information System on magnetic tape and from Rees and Buckner (1980). The winter of 1974-75 (December 1974 through February 1975) was selected for mapping for two reasons: (1) More water-level data were available throughout the study area for this winter season than for other winter seasons, and (2) during winter there is almost no loss of ground water as a result of evaporation, irrigation withdrawals, and transpiration.

  6. Origin of late Quaternary dune fields on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Holliday, V.T.

    2001-01-01

    Mostly stabilized late Holocene eolian sands on the Southern High Plains of the United States were studied to determine their origins and to assess whether present dune stability depends more strongly on sediment supply, sediment availability, or transport limitations. Geomorphic, sedimentological, and geochemical trends indicate that late Holocene dunes formed under westerly paleowinds, broadly similar to those of today. Mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that the most likely source for the sands is not the Pecos River valley, but the Pleistocene Blackwater Draw Formation, an older, extensive eolian deposit in the region. These observations suggest that new sand is supplied whenever vegetation cover is diminished to the extent that the Blackwater Draw Formation can be eroded, in agreement with modern observations of wind erosion in the region. We conclude, therefore, that Southern High Plains dunes are stabilized primarily due to a vegetation cover. The dunes are thus sediment-availability limited. This conclusion is consistent with the observation that, in the warmest, driest part of the region (where vegetation cover is minimal), dunes are currently active over a large area. Geochemical data indicate that Southern High Plains dunes are the most mineralogically mature (quartz rich) sands yet studied in the Great Plains, which suggests a long history of eolian activity, either in the dune fields or during deposition of the Blackwater Draw Formation.

  7. Technical procedures for implementation of aesthetics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This chapter introduces the purpose and scope of the visually affected areas determination, as well as definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs. This procedure provides a method for determining the extent of visibility of the project. This area is identified as the visually affected area, and becomes the area within which all visual analysis is conducted. The visually affected area analysis of the Deaf Smith County site will involve identifying and mapping the visibility of all major proposed project features. Baseline analysis will be conducted within the overall visually affected area; impact assessment will be conducted within the visually affected area of each major project feature. This procedure presents the guidelines for determining the visually affected area will be in computer data base construction; viewshed modeling, and site visit and verification of results. Computer data base construction will involve digitizing topographic and project facility data from available data source. The extent of the visible area from each major project feature will then be plotted. Finally, these computer-generated visibility plots will be verified in the field.

  8. Deposition, diagenesis, and porosity history of San Andres Formation, Shafter Lake Field, Andrews County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, S.E.; Jacka, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    In the Shafter Lake field area, the San Andres contains 14 depositional cycles, consisting of upward-shoaling progradational sequences of subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal deposits. The deposits can be correlated between the two cores located 2 mi apart along the depositional strike. Six of the cycles are capped by supratidal deposits and are essentially complete, whereas eight were subjected to erosional truncation, which generally excavated supratidal and intertidal deposits. Thus, the San Andres reflects a complex eustatic history. The San Andres consists entirely of dolostones, the diagenesis of which records the following multicyclic stages: (1) dolomitization; (2) emplacement of anhydrite as cement, replacement, or a combination of cement and replacement; (3) dissolution of anhydrite or its alteration by gypsum, hemihydrate, or calcite. Many intervals record at least two complete diagenetic cycles (six stages). Three types of primary porosity were formed initially: intergranular, intrabiotic, and fenestral voids. Secondary pore types include intercrystalline pores, biomolds, and fractures. Varieties of tertiary pores are anhydrite porphryoblast models and intracrystalline voids. A previously undescribed variety of intracrystalline porosity was observed. A medial area between the dolomite crystal core and the outer rim was dissolved to create a moat-like pore. The principal occluders of all pore types are dolomite and anhydrite cements. The best effective porosity zones are preserved in subtidal facies wherein intercrystalline and intracrystalline pores, biomolds, and anhydrite porphyroblast molds are interconnected.

  9. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, September 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels, and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 16 well fields which supplied 123.7 million gallons to municipalities on September 18, 1979. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Water levels were generally higher in September 1979 than in May 1979 and higher than the average September levels. Change of water levels ranged from an increase of 15 feet at Cosme well field to a decrease of 9 feet at Verna well field. (USGS)

  10. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semi-annually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 200.7 million gallons to municipalities on May 18, 1981. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal on ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Water levels were lower in May 1981 than in May and September 1980. Annual change of water levels ranged from decreases of 19 feet at Sun City well field to less than 1 foot at Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  11. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, May 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared showing water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well-field areas that supplied 155 million gallons to municipalities on May 12, 1980. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Water levels were lower in May 1980 than in September 1979 and a little higher than the average May levels. Change of water levels ranged from a decrease of 12 feet at Verna well field to an increase of 7 feet at Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  12. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, September 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 141.8 million gallons to municipalities on September 18, 1980. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Potentiometric levels in the Floridan aquifer were higher in September 1980 than in May 1980 and generally lower than in September 1979. Annual change of water levels ranged from a decrease of 6 feet at Morris Bridge well field to an increase of 2 feet at Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  13. Coalbed gas production, Big Run and Pine Grove fields, Wetzel County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Schwietering, J.F.; Avary, K.L.; Repine, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) conducted a Geologic Evaluation of Critical Production Parameters for Coalbed Methane Resources in the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin.'' During the initial phase of the project, the authors examined thousands of old drillers' logs in a search for gas production and gas shows from coalbeds between the Sewickley coal (Monongahela Group) and the base of the Pottsville Group. In this regional approach to this project, they attempted to correlate these coals throughout a narrow elliptical area extending from the Pennsylvania border to Calhoun County using cable tool drillers' records and wire-line log character. In their field-scale task, they attempted to relate gas production to geologic parameters in Wetzel County where gas has been produced from the Pittsburgh and Sewickley coals in a half-dozen small areas. This report focuses on geologic parameters and production data gathered from the two largest productive areas, the Big Run and Pine Grove fields. The report describes field histories, geologic structures, stratigraphy, and gas occurrence and production.

  14. The effects of tropical cyclone characteristics on the surface wave fields in Australia's North West region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, Edwin J. F.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ivey, Greg N.; Jones, Nicole L.; Péquignet, Christine A.

    2017-05-01

    The numerical wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) and historical wave buoy observations were used to investigate the response of surface wave fields to tropical cyclone (TC) wind forcing on the Australian North West Shelf (NWS). Analysis of historical wave data during TC events at a key location on the NWS showed that an average of 1.7 large TCs impacted the region each year, albeit with high variability in TC track, intensity and size, and also in the surface wave field response. An accurately modeled TC wind field resulted in a good prediction of the observed extreme wave conditions by SWAN. Results showed that the presence of strong background winds during a TC and a long TC lifetime (with large variations in translation speed) can provide additional energy input. This potentially enhances the generated swell waves and increases the spatial extent of the TC generated surface wave fields. For the TC translation speeds in this study, a positive relationship between TC translation speed and the resulting maximum significant wave height and wave field asymmetry was observed. Bottom friction across the wide NWS limited the amount of wave energy reaching the coastal region; consistently reducing wave energy in depths below 50 m, and in the case of the most extreme conditions, in depths up to 100 m that comprise much of the shelf. Nevertheless, whitecapping was still the dominant dissipation mechanism on the broader shelf region. Shelf-scale refraction had little effect on the amount of wave energy reaching the nearshore zone; however, refraction locally enhanced or reduced wave energy depending on the orientation of the isobaths with respect to the dominant wave direction during the TC.

  15. Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  16. Development of a Spatially Targeted Field Sampling Technique for the Southern Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by Mapping Whitetailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Habitat in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela L.; Welch, John B.; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. PMID:25368044

  17. Ellsworth Subglacial Lake, West Antarctica: A review of its history and recent field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, N.; Siegert, M. J.; Rivera, A.; Bentley, M. J.; Blake, D.; Capper, L.; Clarke, R.; Cockell, C. S.; Corr, H. F. J.; Harris, W.; Hill, C.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Hodgson, D. A.; King, E. C.; Lamb, H.; Maher, B.; Makinson, K.; Mowlem, M.; Parnell, J.; Pearce, D. A.; Priscu, J.; Smith, A. M.; Tait, A.; Tranter, M.; Wadham, J. L.; Whalley, W. B.; Woodward, J.

    Ellsworth Subglacial Lake, first observed in airborne radio echo sounding data acquired in 1978, is located within a long, deep subglacial trough within the Ellsworth Subglacial Highlands of West Antarctica. Geophysical surveys have characterized the lake, its subglacial catchment, and the thickness, structure, and flow of the overlying ice sheet. Covering 28.9 km2, Ellsworth Subglacial Lake is located below 2.9 to 3.3 km of ice at depths of -1361 to -1030 m. Seismic reflection data have shown the lake to be up to 156 m deep and underlain by unconsolidated sediments. Ice sheet flow over the lake is characterized by low velocities (<6 m yr-1), flow convergence, and longitudinal extension. The lake appears to be in steady state, although the hydrological balance may vary over glacial-interglacial cycles. Direct access, measurement, and sampling of Ellsworth Subglacial Lake are planned for the 2012/2013 Antarctic field season. The aims of this access experiment are to determine (1) the presence, character, and maintenance of microbial life in Antarctic subglacial lakes and (2) the Quaternary history of the West Antarctic ice sheet. Geophysical data have been used to define a preferred lake access site. The factors that make this location suitable for exploration are (1) a relatively thin overlying ice column (˜3.1 km), (2) a significant measured water depth (˜143 m), (3) >2 m of sediment below the lake floor, (4) water circulation modeling suggesting a melting ice-water interface, and (5) coring that can target the deepest point of the lake floor away from marginal, localized sediment sources.

  18. Dalhart Texas 1972-2011

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A water-rich polka dot pattern takes over the traditional rectangular patchwork of fields in this 40 year sequence of Landsat images of the dry Texas panhandle near the town of Dalhart. In this ser...

  19. Insecticide resistance in field populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Houndété, Thomas A; Kétoh, Guillaume K; Hema, Omer S A; Brévault, Thierry; Glitho, Isabelle A; Martin, Thibaud

    2010-11-01

    The tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), has developed a high degree of resistance to several chemical classes of insecticides throughout the world. To evaluate the resistance status in West Africa, eight insecticides from different chemical families were tested using the leaf-dip method on four field populations collected from cotton in Benin, Togo and Burkina Faso. Some field populations showed a significant loss of susceptibility to pyrethroids such as deltamethrin [resistance ratio (RR) 3-5] and bifenthrin (RR 4-36), to organophosphates (OPs) such as dimethoate (RR 8-15) and chlorpyrifos (RR 5-7) and to neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (RR 7-8) and thiamethoxam (RR 3-7). Bemisia tabaci was also resistant to pymetrozine (RR 3-18) and to endosulfan (RR 14-30). The resistance of B. tabaci to pyrethroids and OPs is certainly due to their systematic use in cotton treatments for more than 30 years. Acetamiprid has been recently introduced for the control of whiteflies. Unfortunately, B. tabaci populations from Burkina Faso seem to be already resistant. Because cross-resistance between these compounds has never been observed elsewhere, resistance to neonicotinoids could be due to the presence of an invasive B. tabaci biotype recently detected in the region. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  1. Hale cycle effects in cosmic ray east-west anisotropy and interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1993-07-01

    We have reanalyzed diurnal anisotropy data obtained with the shielded ion chamber (IC) at Cheltenham/Fredericksburg and the neutron monitor (NM) at Swarthmore/Newark. IC data are for the 1936-1977 period and NM data are for the 1965-1988 period. We have corrected IC data for the diurnal temperature effect. Application of this correction results in a better agreement between IC and other data sets, thereby making it possible to study the long-term changes in the diurnal anisotropy using IC data. The behavior of the annual mean east-west anisotropy is studied for 53 years of observations. The period encompasses more than two solar magnetic (Hale) cycles. Its amplitude undergoes the expected 11 and 22 year variations, with the largest changes occurring near solar activity minima. Moreover, the data indicate the presence of the subsidiary maxima for the entire 53-year period, following the solar polar field reversals, during the declining phases of activity cycles when high-speed solar wind streams are present in the heliosphere. The data suggest that the amplitude of the subsidiary maximum is large when the solar polar magnetic field points toward the sun in the Northern Hemisphere, and radial anisotropy is absent.

  2. Enhanced Thermospheric Density: The Roles of East-West and Northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, D. J.; Drake, K. A.; Lei, J.; Crowley, G.

    2009-12-01

    During 2005 solar EUV energy input to the thermosphere waned as Solar Cycle 23 declined. The reduction allowed a clearer delineation of episodic density disturbances caused by geomagnetic storms. We show new views of these disturbances based on Poynting flux calculations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F-series satellites, as well as from 1) accelerometer data from polar orbiting satellites, 2) the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure and 3) the Thermospheric Ionospheric Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIEGCM). The new Poynting flux estimates and TIEGCM results allow us to trace the origins of disturbances that are poorly specified by ground indices. In particular we find that intervals of enhanced northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) combined with strong east-west components of the IMF allow significant electromagnetic energy input into localized dayside regions of the high-latitude thermosphere. In some cases this energy deposition is consistent with IMF-geomagnetic field merging tailward of the Earth’s magnetic cusps. In other cases the energy is deposited in the vicinity of an extremely narrow convection throat. This mode of interaction provides little energy to the magnetotail; and instead concentrates the energy in the dayside thermosphere. We discuss the solar cycle variability of this type of interaction. as well as compare the relative value of Poynting flux and particle energy deposition for such events.

  3. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I: Records Search Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    1980. Paleozic Stratigrapohy of the Llano Region, Texas . West Texas Geological Society. Wermund, E.G. and Jenkins, W.A. Jr. 1969. Late Pennsylvanian...AD-A±54 713 INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM PHASE I: RECORDS ±4 SEARCH GOODFELLON AIR FORCE BASE TEXAS (U) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING INC...SEARCH GOODFELLW AIR FORCE BASE TEXAS 4. Prepared for: UNITED STATES AIR FORCE HQ A1ESC/IZVP Tyndall AFB, Florida and HQ ATC/DEEV Randolph APB, Texas

  4. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on potato under laboratory and field conditions in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Hua, Lei; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2010-10-01

    Effective management of potato 'Zebra Chip' (ZC) disease caused by Cadidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (syn. solanacearum) depends on the management of its insect vector insect, potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). To elucidate the age-specific population dynamics of B. cockerelli, the life-table parameters were determined on potato, Solanum tuberosum L., under both laboratory and field conditions in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas. Generally, survival, fecundity, and longevity of B. cockerelli were significantly greater under laboratory than under field conditions. The mortality under laboratory conditions was mainly due to natural intrinsic mortality. However, under field conditions, most (83.2%) B. cockerelli were missing, and of those that were not, they developed slower, and had shorter preoviposition period, shorter oviposition period, shorter longevity, lower fecundity, and higher mortality than those under laboratory conditions. As a result, most of the life-table parameters of B. cockerelli, including the intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and net reproductive rate, were significantly lower in the field under the environmental conditions of the LRGV of Texas than in the laboratory. The information could help increase our understanding of the epidemiology of the ZC diseases associated with the pathogens transmitted by this insect pest.

  5. Texas Greenup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    June 2007 was one of the wettest Junes on record for the state of Texas. Starting in late May, a string of low-pressure systems settled in over the U.S. Southern Plains and unleashed weeks of heavy to torrential rain. During the final week of June, much of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas received more than 330 percent of their average rainfall, said the National Climatic Data Center. The widespread heavy rain brought deadly floods to the entire region. On July 6, the Associated Press reported that every major river basin in Texas was at flood stage, an event that had not occurred since 1957. In addition to causing floods, the rains stimulated plant growth. The grassy, often arid, plains and plateaus of northern Mexico (bottom left), Texas (center), and New Mexico (top, left of center) burst to life with dense vegetation as this vegetation anomaly image shows. Regions where plants were growing more quickly or fuller than average are green, while areas where growth is below average are brown. Most of Texas is green, with a concentrated deep green, almost black, spot where vegetation growth was greatest. This area of western Texas is where the Pecos River flows out of New Mexico and heads southeast to the Rio Grande. In the darkest areas, vegetation was more than 100 percent above average. The brown spots in northeastern Texas and Oklahoma (top, right of center) may be areas where persistent clouds or water on the ground are hiding the plants from the satellite's view. Plants may also be growing less than average if swamped by too much rain. The image was made with data collected by the SPOT satellite between June 11 and June 20, 2007. NASA imagery created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using SPOT data provided courtesy of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service and processed by Jennifer Small and Assaf Anyamba of the GIMMS Group at NASA GSFC.

  6. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... and Salt Lake Field Offices AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake Field Offices will be changing from 2370 South 2300 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84119-2022, to 2370 South...

  7. Quantitative seismic reservoir characterization of tight sands (granite wash) play at Stiles Ranch field in the Anadarko Basin, Texas (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Muhammad Zahid Afzal

    The main objective of this study is to conduct quantitative seismic reservoir characterization study of the Granite Wash (Marmaton-tight sand) play at Stiles Ranch field in the Anadarko Basin, Texas (USA). The proposed methodology incorporates seismic petrophysics, rock physics, Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) analysis and seismic pre-stack simultaneous elastic impedance inversion. In addition, it utilizes geostatistical technique to improve the reservoir property estimation and quantify uncertainty in seismic lithology and fluid prediction. The general objective encompasses several more specific goals to study: well data conditioning and prediction of essential petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, permeability and saturation), and their relationship to the elastic properties. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of seismic petrophysics, only three core aspects are focused on that cover the desired objectives: 1) porosity modeling, 2) shear wave prediction, and (3) fluid substitution. The rock types are characterized by Rock Physics Diagnostic (RPD) approach conducted on well log data calibrated with core data and thin sections. The Granite Wash reservoir elastic properties are upscaled from log to seismic scale using Backus averaging to obtain a more coarsely (upscaled) sampled data set equivalent to the seismic scale. Anisotropy parametric (epsilon, gamma and delta) log curves are estimated consistent with seismic measurements using rock properties, seismic velocity and clay volume (Vsh) as a function of depth. The reservoir elastic properties are related to both the depositional environment and burial history through rock physics depth trends as function of depth. Furthermore, based on the practical aspects two separate inversion approaches; AVO and Elastic Impedance (EI) are evaluated prior to their application to real seismic. Various AVO derived attribute volumes such as intercept (A), gradient (B) and reflection coefficients (scaled Poisson's ratio

  8. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  9. Basement-involved faults and deep structures in the West Philippine Basin: constrains from gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Sanzhong; Zhang, Huixuan; Lei, Jianping; Gao, Song; Zhao, Feiyu

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the basement-involved faults and deep structures of the West Philippine Basin (WPB), the gravitational responses caused by these faults are observed and analyzed based on the latest spherical gravity model: WGM2012 Model. By mapping the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, several main faults and some other linear structures are located and observed in the WPB. Then, by conducting a 2D discrete multi-scale wavelet decomposition, the Bouguer anomalies are decomposed into the first- to eighth-order detail and approximation fields (the first- to eighth-order Details and Approximations). The first- to third-order Details reflect detailed and localized geological information of the crust at different depths, and of which the higher-order reflects gravity field of the deeper depth. The first- to fourth-order Approximations represent the regional gravity fields at different depths of the crust, respectively. The fourth-order Approximation represents the regional gravity fluctuation caused by the density inhomogeneity of Moho interface. Therefore, taking the fourth-order Approximation as input, and adopting Parker-Oldenburg interactive inversion, We calculated the depth of Moho interface in the WPB. Results show that the Moho interface depth in the WPB ranges approximately from 8 to 12 km, indicating that there is typical oceanic crust in the basin. In the Urdaneta Plateau and the Benham Rise, the Moho interface depths are about 14 and 16 km, respectively, which provides a piece of evidence to support that the Banham Rise could be a transitional crust caused by a large igneous province. The second-order vertical derivative and the horizontal derivatives in direction 0° and 90° are computed based on the data of the third-order Detail, and most of the basement-involved faults and structures in the WPB, such as the Central Basin Fault Zone, the Gagua Ridge, the Luzon-Okinawa Fault Zone, and the Mindanao Fault Zone are interpreted by the gravity derivatives.

  10. Effects of tropical cyclone characteristics on the surface wave fields in the Australian North West region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, Edwin; Lowe, Ryan; Péquignet, Christine; Ivey, Greg; Jones, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    The northwestern Australian coastline is subject to frequent extreme wave forcing resulting from tropical cyclones (TCs) during the summer months on Australia's North West Shelf (NWS). Compared to the northern hemisphere, knowledge about the wave climate, and TC generated waves in particular on the NWS is limited. TCs on the NWS show considerable variability in paths: some move predominantly parallel to the coastline, while others propagate in a coast-normal direction. It has been suggested that surface wave fields generated by coast-parallel moving TCs are different compared to TCs moving in a coast-normal direction across the shelf. In particular, wave heights generated by coast-parallel storms may be limited in size due to both refraction and bottom friction effects. First, this study evaluates the performance of a numerical wave model (SWAN) to hindcast the surface wave fields under different TC conditions forced by a parametric TC wind model of the region. Hindcast simulations were run for 4 case studies: the coast-parallel TCs Nicholas (2008) and Bianca (2011), and the coast-normal TCs Lua (2012) and Christine (2013). Model output was compared both temporally and spatially by in situ wave buoy data and satellite altimeter data and generally showed a good agreement for throughout the history of these TCs. However, for the more intense and larger system TC Lua, the model was found to overestimate the significant wave heights, especially in the left front quadrant of the storm. A modified SWAN model using adjusted wave energy dissipation terms was found to improve model output under these conditions. Second, output from the numerical simulations is used to analyse the mechanisms behind the generation and dissipation of the wave field and to relate them to tropical cyclone characteristics including the radius of maximum winds and the storm translation speed and direction.

  11. Laboratory and field testing of bednet traps for mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Andris, Heri; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Barbara, Kathryn A; Munif, Amrul

    2010-06-01

    Surveillance of medically important mosquitoes is critical to determine the risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. The purpose of this research was to test self-supporting, exposure-free bednet traps to survey mosquitoes. In the laboratory we tested human-baited and unbaited CDC light trap/cot bednet (CDCBN) combinations against three types of traps: the Mbita Trap (MIBITA), a Tent Trap (TENT), and a modified Townes style Malaise trap (TSM). In the laboratory, 16 runs comparing MBITA, TSM, and TENT to the CDCBN were conducted for a total of 48 runs of the experiment using 13,600 mosquitoes. The TENT trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The CDCBN collected significantly more than the MBITA and there was no difference between the TSM and the CDCBN. Two field trials were conducted in Cibuntu, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. The first test compared human-baited and unbaited CDCBN, TENT, and TSM traps during six nights over two consecutive weeks per month from January, 2007 to September, 2007 for a total of 54 trapnights. A total of 8,474 mosquitoes representing 33 species were collected using the six trapping methods. The TENT-baited trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than both the CDCBN and the TSM. The second field trial was a comparison of the baited and unbaited TENT and CDCBN traps and Human Landing Collections (HLCs). The trial was carried out from January, 2008 to May, 2008 for a total of 30 trap nights. A total of 11,923 mosquitoes were collected representing 24 species. Human Landing Collections captured significantly more mosquitoes than either the TENT or the CDCBN. The baited and unbaited TENT collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The TENT trap was found to be an effective, light-weight substitute for the CDC light-trap, bednet combination in the field and should be considered for use in surveys of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, arboviruses, and filariasis.

  12. Gas hydrates in the Messoyakha gas field of the West Siberian Basin - a re-examination of the geologic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Ginsburg, Gabriel D.; ,

    1997-01-01

    The amount of natural gas within the gas hydrate accumulations of the world is believed to greatly exceed the volume of known conventional natural gas reserves. The hydrocarbon production history of the Russian Messoyakha field, located in the West Siberian Basin, has been used as evidence that gas hydrates are an immediate source of natural gas that can be produced by conventional means. Re-examination of available geologic, geochemical, and hydrocarbon production data suggests, however, that gas hydrates may not have contributed to gas production in the Messoyakha field. More field and laboratory studies are needed to assess the historical contribution of gas hydrate production in the Messoyakha field.

  13. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Barr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 140.3 million gallons to municipalities on September 21, 1981. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal on ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. In September 1981, ground-water levels were significantly higher than those of May 1981 and were unchanged or within a few feet of those in September 1980. Seasonal recharge from summer rains and reduced pumpage are factors in the water-level recovery from record and near record low levels of May 1981. (USGS)

  14. Cowboys, scientists, and fossils: the field site and local collaboration in the American West.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Jeremy

    2008-06-01

    Even as the division between professional scientists and laypeople became sharper by the end of the nineteenth century, the collaboration of local people remained important in scientific fieldwork, especially in sciences such as vertebrate paleontology that required long-term extractive access to research sites. In the North American West, the competition between museums and universities for the best fossil quarry sites involved negotiations with locals. The conflict over differing conceptions of the field site is vividly demonstrated through an examination of one site on the High Plains of western Nebraska in the early twentieth century. This case offers a rare opportunity to see not only how professionals regarded such sites but also how the resident ranching family, the Cooks, attempted to exercise leverage over the scientific fieldwork that took place there. While the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh became mired in protracted conflict with the Cooks over discovery claims and the ongoing control of the site, the University of Nebraska and the American Museum of New York developed more harmonious relations with the site's resident ranching family.

  15. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, May 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,700-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with the seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 181.1 million gallons to municipalities on May 10, 1982. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal on ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. In May 1982, ground-water levels were lower than those of September 1981. Seasonal recharge from above-average rainfall and reduced pumpage aided in the water-level recovery from record to near record levels of May 1981. (USGS)

  16. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin.

  17. Reservoir Characterization around Geothermal Field, West Java, Indonesia Derived from 4-D Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdhora Ry, Rexha; Nugraha, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observation of micro-seismic events induced by intensive geothermal exploitation in a particular geothermal field, located in West Java region, Indonesia was used to detect the fracture and permeability zone. Using local monitoring seismometer network, tomographic inversions were conducted for the three-dimensional Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs structure of the reservoir for January - December 2007, January - December 2008, and January - December 2009. First, hypocenters location was relocated using joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method in purpose to estimate best location. Then, seismic tomographic inversions were conducted using delay time tomography for dataset of every year respectively. The travel times passing through the three-dimensional velocity model were calculated using ray tracing pseudo-bending method. Norm and gradient damping were added to constrain blocks without ray and to produce smooth solution model. The inversion algorithm was developed in Matlab environment. Our tomographic inversion results from 3-years of observations indicate the presence of low Vp, low Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio at depths of about 1 - 3 km below sea level. These features were interpreted may be related to steam-saturated rock in the reservoir area of this geothermal field. The locations of the reservoir area were supported by the data of well- trajectory, where the zones of high Vp/Vs were observed around the injection wells and the zones of low Vp/Vs were observed around the production wells. The extensive low Vp/Vs anomaly that occupies the reservoir is getting stronger during the 3-years study period. This is probably attributed to depletion of pore liquid water in the reservoir and replacement with steam. Continuous monitoring of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective tool for geothermal reservoir characterization and depletion monitoring and can potentially provide information in parts of the reservoir which have not been drilled.

  18. Saline-water resources of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Allen George; Kister, Lester Ray

    1956-01-01

    Most of the aquifers in Texas contain saline water in some parts, and a few are capable of producing large quantities of saline water. Of the early Paleozoic formations, the Hickory sandstone member of the Riley formation of Cambrian age and the Ellenburger group of Ordovician age are potential sources of small to moderate supplies of saline water in parts of central and west-central Texas.

  19. Late Pennsylvanian depositional cycles and fusulinid zonations for the Salt Creek reef of the Horseshoe Atoll of west Texas - Implications for a sea level curve and regional correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.M. )

    1992-04-01

    The Salt Creek reef is one of a number of carbonate reef-mound complexes that makes up the Horseshoe Atoll. At least eleven depositional cycles have been delineated from the Strawn Formation (Late Desmoinesian) through the Canyon Limestone (Missourian) to the Cisco Formation (Early Virgilian). A typical cycle consists of a basal unit of intraclastic and skeletal grainstone to dark-gray lime-mudstone with black shale laminations, chert nodules, and scattered crinoid fragments; an intermediary unit of crinoid wackestone and packstone grading up to interbedded skeletal packstone and algal baffle-boundstone; and a capping unit of skeletal and oolitic grainstone. The cycle is bounded by unconformities. These cycles were deposited in a starved basin as a fringing reef-mound complex on an isolated, drowned platform. Nine fusulinid biostratigraphy zones established for the Permian basin are recognized in Salt Creek: one Strawn zone; seven zones in the Canyon, and one in the Cisco. These zones coincide with the eleven major depositional cycles at Salt Creek. The authors have correlated these eleven lithostratigraphic-biostratigraphic units to a series of 14 major transgressive sequences in north Texas and 16 sequences in the mid-continent of North America. These correlations suggest that glacial eustasy is the basic control of these cycles. Differences in the correlation between the cycles may be due to the unique setting of the Salt Creek reef, variations in sea level fluctuations and basin subsidence, or variations in sedimentation rates between carbonate platforms and cratonic shelves with mixed lithologies.

  20. The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, a strategy to improve disease surveillance and epidemic control in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mutabaruka, Evariste; Sawadogo, Mamadou; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ouédraogo, Lauren; Sangare, Lassana; Ousmane, Badolo; Ndjakani, Yassa; Namusisi, Olivia; Mukanga, David; Evering-Watley, Michele; Hounton, Sennen; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (WA-FELTP) which was established in September 2007, is an inter-country, competency-based, in-service and post -graduate training program in applied epidemiology and public health that builds the capacity to strengthen the surveillance and response system as well as epidemic control in the French-speaking countries where they are implemented. The overall purpose is to provide epidemiological and public health laboratory services to the public health systems at national, provincial, district and local levels. The program includes four countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Togo with an overarching goal to progressively cover all French speaking countries in West Africa through a phased-in approach. WA-FELTP's 2- year Master's program was launched in 2010 with 12 residents, three from each country, and consists of medical and veterinary doctors, pharmacists, and laboratory scientists. The training comprises 25% didactic sessions and 75% practical in-the-field mentored training. During the practical training, residents rovide service to their respective ministries of health and ministries of animal resources by contributing to outbreak investigations and activities that help to improve national surveillance systems at national, regional, district and local levels. The pressing challenges that the program must address consist of the lack of funds to support the second cohort of trainees, though trainee selection was completed, inadequate funds to support staff compensation, and shortage of funds to support trainees’ participation in critical activities in field epidemiology practice, and a need to develop a 5-year plan for sustainability. PMID:22359698

  1. The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, a strategy to improve disease surveillance and epidemic control in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Evariste; Sawadogo, Mamadou; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Ouédraogo, Lauren; Sangare, Lassana; Ousmane, Badolo; Ndjakani, Yassa; Namusisi, Olivia; Mukanga, David; Evering-Watley, Michele; Hounton, Sennen; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (WA-FELTP) which was established in September 2007, is an inter-country, competency-based, in-service and post -graduate training program in applied epidemiology and public health that builds the capacity to strengthen the surveillance and response system as well as epidemic control in the French-speaking countries where they are implemented. The overall purpose is to provide epidemiological and public health laboratory services to the public health systems at national, provincial, district and local levels. The program includes four countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Togo with an overarching goal to progressively cover all French speaking countries in West Africa through a phased-in approach. WA-FELTP's 2- year Master's program was launched in 2010 with 12 residents, three from each country, and consists of medical and veterinary doctors, pharmacists, and laboratory scientists. The training comprises 25% didactic sessions and 75% practical in-the-field mentored training. During the practical training, residents rovide service to their respective ministries of health and ministries of animal resources by contributing to outbreak investigations and activities that help to improve national surveillance systems at national, regional, district and local levels. The pressing challenges that the program must address consist of the lack of funds to support the second cohort of trainees, though trainee selection was completed, inadequate funds to support staff compensation, and shortage of funds to support trainees' participation in critical activities in field epidemiology practice, and a need to develop a 5-year plan for sustainability.

  2. Proximity of residence to bodies of water and risk for west nile virus infection: a case-control study in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Melissa S; Zangeneh, Ana; Khuwaja, Salma A; Martinez, Diana; Rossmann, Susan N; Cardenas, Victor; Murray, Kristy O

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne virus, has clinically affected hundreds of residents in the Houston metropolitan area since its introduction in 2002. This study aimed to determine if living within close proximity to a water source increases one's odds of infection with WNV. We identified 356 eligible WNV-positive cases and 356 controls using a population proportionate to size model with US Census Bureau data. We found that living near slow moving water sources was statistically associated with increased odds for human infection, while living near moderate moving water systems was associated with decreased odds for human infection. Living near bayous lined with vegetation as opposed to concrete also showed increased risk of infection. The habitats of slow moving and vegetation lined water sources appear to favor the mosquito-human transmission cycle. These methods can be used by resource-limited health entities to identify high-risk areas for arboviral disease surveillance and efficient mosquito management initiatives.

  3. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and it`s application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Annual technical report, January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-02-01

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the most advanced application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. A preliminary analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil of 20% of the original stock tank oil in place will be produced above waterflooding. The cost of the incremental oil will be less than $2.50 per incremental barrel. A statistical analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 200 million barrels. This project (1) evaluates the geological deposition environment of West Kiehl and adjacent Minneluse sand reservoirs; (2) compares the production performance results of the best geologic and reservoir performance analogs and select two fields for future study; (3) compares the two best field analogs to the west Kiehl field using numerical simulation; (4) predict results of applying the enhancement technology on two mature Minneluse waterflood analog units using engineering and numerical simulation; (5) predict waterflood and polymer flood performance of the West Kiehl field using numerical simulation.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of the Rockeskyllerkopf Volcanic Centre, West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, C.; Woodland, A. B.; Hopp, J.; Trenholm, N.

    2009-04-01

    The Rockeskyllerkopf volcanic center in the Quaternary West Eifel volcanic field, Germany was active between 474 ± 39 ka and 360 ± 40 ka during which time phreatomagmatic to magmatic eruptions occurred sequentially at three distinct centers: SE Lammersdorf (SEL), Rockeskyllerkopf (RKK) and Franzosenbuche (FB). Eruptions at the SEL center were predominantly phreatomagmatic which resulted in deposition of lithic-rich pyroclastic flow deposits with minor juvenile-lapilli dominated, magmatic eruptions in the middle of the sequence. These deposits have their source in an elongate crater to the north east of the present outcrop. The N-S trending RKK center is dominated by lithic-poor, magmatic, coarse grained partially welded deposits with a distinct horizon of fine-grained airfall deposits. The RKK deposits fill a small valley and likely form the main mass of the current topographic high at Rockeskyllerkopf. The deposits of the FB center locally overlie a palaeosol and plant fossil rich horizon that indicate a significant hiatus in eruptive activity prior to this last eruptive phase. The FB deposits are magmatic and comprise an elongate scoria cone with a deep crater that has been filled by airfall deposits and later lava flows. The geochemical signatures of the lavas at each center are distinct, indicating that the mantle source region is heterogeneous on the scale of 100's of m to ~ 1 km. All the lavas have incompatible trace element characteristics indicative of derivation from depths corresponding to the garnet - spinel transition zone in the presence of hydrous phases: phlogopite in the source of the SEL magma, amphibole in the FB source and both amphibole and phlogopite in the RKK source region.

  5. Base Realignment Activities at Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-08

    Amphibians and Reptiles of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Static=. 434 p. Hall. E.R. 1981. The Mamals of North America . John Wiley and Sons...areas such as West Texas and the Gulf of Mexico . Only a small percentage of flight time is involved Vithflight over occupied areas such as Bergstrom AFB...simulator facility - secure aircraft parking area S- central security control facility - EQ/Vcomputer center - alter various facilities - warehouse storage

  6. Secondary natural gas recovery: Targeted applications for infield reserve growth in midcontinent reservoirs, Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Topical report, May 1993--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Ballard, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to define undrained or incompletely drained reservoir compartments controlled primarily by depositional heterogeneity in a low-accommodation, cratonic Midcontinent depositional setting, and, afterwards, to develop and transfer to producers strategies for infield reserve growth of natural gas. Integrated geologic, geophysical, reservoir engineering, and petrophysical evaluations are described in complex difficult-to-characterize fluvial and deltaic reservoirs in Boonsville (Bend Conglomerate Gas) field, a large, mature gas field located in the Fort Worth Basin of North Texas. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate approaches to overcoming the reservoir complexity, targeting the gas resource, and doing so using state-of-the-art technologies being applied by a large cross section of Midcontinent operators.

  7. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. This brief also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  8. Overview of the structural geology and tectonics of the Central Basin Platform, Delaware Basin, and Midland Basin, West Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.; Ortoleva, P.

    1998-12-31

    The structural geology and tectonics of the Permian Basin were investigated using an integrated approach incorporating satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, gravity, seismic, regional subsurface mapping and published literature. The two primary emphases were on: (1) delineating the temporal and spatial evolution of the regional stress state; and (2) calculating the amount of regional shortening or contraction. Secondary objectives included delineation of basement and shallower fault zones, identification of structural style, characterization of fractured zones, analysis of surficial linear features on satellite imagery and their correlation to deeper structures. Gandu Unit, also known as Andector Field at the Ellenburger level and Goldsmith Field at Permian and younger reservoir horizons, is the primary area of interest and lies in the northern part of Ector county. The field trends northwest across the county line into Andrews County. The field(s) are located along an Ellenburger thrust anticline trap on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform.

  9. Seasonal parameter extraction of paddy rice fields in West Java using multi-temporal MODIS imagery datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianturi, Riswan S.; Nieuwenhuis, Willem; Jetten, V. G.

    2015-10-01

    Continuous monitoring on farming practices is urgently needed provided the challenges faced by rice fields. Information of seasonal parameters supplies crucial inputs for monitoring rice fields as well as improving other applications, such as biomass monitoring, yield estimation, integrated pest management, irrigation water management, and precision farming. We extracted the heading stages using multi-temporal MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imageries in rice fields in northern districts of West Java, Indonesia. The spatial distribution of the heading stages in the whole year suggests complex cropping pattern of rice fields in West Java. The monthly average of EVI shows that green waves move northward as the results of stipulated cropping calendar. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the heading stages is 12.77 days. The heading stages periods of most rice fields are from the middle of February to the middle of March and from the middle of June to the middle of July for rendeng and gadu, consecutively. The findings provide timely and cost effective information for monitoring rice fields.

  10. Streamflow and water-quality properties in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin and regression models to estimate real-time suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids concentrations and loads in the West Fork San Jacinto River in the vicinity of Conroe, Texas, July 2008-August 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, Lee J.; Oden, Jeannette H.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the hydrology (streamflow and water quality) of the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas, including spatial and temporal variation in suspended-sediment (SS) and total suspended-solids (TSS) concentrations and loads, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, measured streamflow and collected continuous and discrete water-quality data during July 2008-August 2009 in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe. During July 2008-August 2009, discrete samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made over the range of flow conditions at two streamflow-gaging stations on the West Fork San Jacinto River: West Fork San Jacinto River below Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas (station 08067650) and West Fork San Jacinto River near Conroe, Texas (station 08068000). In addition to samples collected at these two main monitoring sites, discrete sediment samples were also collected at five additional monitoring sites to help characterize water quality in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin. Discrete samples were collected semimonthly, regardless of flow conditions, and during periods of high flow resulting from storms or releases from Lake Conroe. Because the period of data collection was relatively short (14 months) and low flow was prevalent during much of the study, relatively few samples collected were representative of the middle and upper ranges of historical daily mean streamflows. The largest streamflows tended to occur in response to large rainfall events and generally were associated with the largest SS and TSS concentrations. The maximum SS and TSS concentrations at station 08067650 (180 and 133 milligrams per liter [mg/L], respectively) were on April 19, 2009, when the instantaneous streamflow was the third largest associated with a discrete sample at the station. SS concentrations

  11. Proximity of Residence to Bodies of Water and Risk for West Nile Virus Infection: A Case-Control Study in Houston, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Melissa S.; Zangeneh, Ana; Khuwaja, Salma A.; Martinez, Diana; Rossmann, Susan N.; Cardenas, Victor; Murray, Kristy O.

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne virus, has clinically affected hundreds of residents in the Houston metropolitan area since its introduction in 2002. This study aimed to determine if living within close proximity to a water source increases one's odds of infection with WNV. We identified 356 eligible WNV-positive cases and 356 controls using a population proportionate to size model with US Census Bureau data. We found that living near slow moving water sources was statistically associated with increased odds for human infection, while living near moderate moving water systems was associated with decreased odds for human infection. Living near bayous lined with vegetation as opposed to concrete also showed increased risk of infection. The habitats of slow moving and vegetation lined water sources appear to favor the mosquito-human transmission cycle. These methods can be used by resource-limited health entities to identify high-risk areas for arboviral disease surveillance and efficient mosquito management initiatives. PMID:22315511

  12. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  13. Trap types vs productivity of significant Wilcox gas fields in the south Texas, listric growth fault trend, and the divergent origin of its two largest producers

    SciTech Connect

    Stricklin, F.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    Detailed mapping and analysis of 23 Wilcox fields in the subject trend indicates that gas production is related to trap type. Of total cumulative production of 3.4 TCFG, 65% is from upthrown fault blocks implying very effective fault seals due to differential pressure and/or shale smears. NE Thompsonville and Bob West fields have produced 650 and 200 BCFG, respectively, with 400 BCFG remaining reserves in the latter. The field structures are not attributed to listric growth faulting, as is suggested by their trend location. NE Thompsonville is a 9-mile-long turtle structure that originated through depositional loading of an upper slope basin, followed by tilting, and then eventual collapse of a sediment squeeze-up mound due to gravitational instability. These events provide an excellent example of basin evolution through sediment loading accompanied by withdrawal of a salt-shale substrate; the basin flanks are defined by basin-dipping listric faulting that accommodated subsidence and merge beneath its floor. Bob West Field lies along the edge of the Laramide fold belt. The 1-1/2 x 4 mile field anticline adjoins a deep-seated fault that slices over and across a buried structural ridge of probable Cretaceous age. Uplift of the latter, immediately following deposition of 20+ stacked, shelf-bar producing sands, upwarped the fault and resulted in rollover growth of the Wilcox anticline. The fault shows no downward decrease in dip typical of listric faults. NE Thompsonville and Bob West fields both produce upthrown along crestal faults. This analysis indicates that {open_quotes}high-side{close_quotes} closures, irrespective of diverse origins, have achieved head-of-the-class stature as Wilcox gas producers.

  14. 76 FR 52229 - Establishment of Area Navigation Route Q-37; Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... route around potentially constrained airspace during convective weather events in west Texas. DATES... around potentially constrained airspace during convective weather events in west Texas. Additionally, the new route is being integrated into the existing severe weather national playbook routes to Houston, TX...

  15. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F. Jerry; Jennings, Jr., James W.

    2001-05-08

    A preliminary reservoir model was constructed for the Lower Clear Fork of the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir. The model was constructed by calibrating high-frequency cycles observed in cores to the porosity log. The rock fabrics mostly fall in petrophysical class 1, and cross plots of porosity and water saturation could not be used to identify rock fabrics. Data from two limestone fields and one dolostone field were presented to support the contention that grain-dominated fabrics have higher porosity than mud-dominated fabrics do and that this difference is retained when the limestone is dolomitized.

  16. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  17. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  18. Texas Heart Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Texas Heart Institute, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, MD Anderson Cancer Center, and The University of Houston. Held most ... for Physicians Fellowships & Residencies School ...

  19. Field trial of a tree injector in a weeding in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Carter B. Gibbs

    1963-01-01

    In June 1960 a 5-acre plot of mixed hardwoods under intensive selection management on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia was weeded to eliminate poor-quality stems that were competing directly with desirable regeneration. Treatment was confined to stems in the 1- to 5-inch diameter (at breast height) classes.

  20. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  1. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics' Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course: A Hand-On Education Approach to Applied Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. B.; Goff, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Fernandez, R.; Duncan, D.; Saustrup, S.

    2016-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, Jackson School of Geosciences, offers a 3-week marine geology and geophysics field course. The course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling and analysis. Students first participate in 3 days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work at locations that provide an opportunity to investigate coastal and continental shelf processes. Teams of students rotate between UTIG's 26' R/V Scott Petty and NOAA's 82' R/V Manta. They assist with survey design, instrumentation set up, and learn about acquisition, quality control, and safe instrument deployment. Teams also process data and analyze samples in onshore field labs. During the final week teams integrate, interpret, and visualize data in a final project using industry-standard software. The course concludes with team presentations on their interpretations with academic and industry supporters. Students report a greater understanding of marine geology and geophysics through the course's intensive, hands-on, team approach and high instructor/student ratio (sixteen students, three faculty, and three teaching assistants). Post-class, students may incorporate course data in senior honors or graduate thesis and are encouraged to publish and present results at national meetings. This course (to our knowledge) remains the only one of its kind, satisfies field experience requirements for some degree programs, and provides an alternative to land-based field courses. Alumni note the course's applicability to energy, environmental, and geotechnical industries as well as coastal restoration/management fields.

  2. Evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer in southern West Africa - an overview from the DACCIWA field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalthoff, Norbert; Lohou, Fabienne; Brooks, Barbara; Jegede, Gbenga; Adler, Bianca; Ajao, Adewale; Ayoola, Muritala; Babić, Karmen; Bessardon, Geoffrey; Delon, Claire; Dione, Cheikh; Handwerker, Jan; Jambert, Corinne; Kohler, Martin; Lothon, Marie; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Smith, Victoria; Sunmonu, Lukman; Wieser, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    In southern West Africa, extended low-level stratus clouds form very frequently during night-time and persist long into the following day influencing the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). During the course of the day, a transition from nocturnal low-level stratus to stratocumulus, cumulus, and sometimes congestus and possibly cumulonimbus clouds is observed. In June and July 2016, a ground-based field campaign took place in southern West Africa within the framework of the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project with the aim to identify the meteorological controls on the stratus and the evolution of the ABL. During the measurement period, extensive remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed at three supersites in Kumasi (Ghana), Savè (Benin) and Ile-Ife (Nigeria). We give an overview of the atmospheric conditions during the whole measurement period focusing on the vertical and temporal distribution of the stratus and relevant related atmospheric features.

  3. Selenium availability in Texas: possible clinical significance

    SciTech Connect

    Cech, I.; Holguin, A.; Sokolow, H.; Smith, V.

    1984-11-01

    In light of recent reports that have indicated that selenium is an essential micronutrient and possible natural cancer inhibitor, data on the geographic distributions of selenium in Texas were gathered and compared with the distribution of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. We considered concentrations of selenium measured in ground and surface water to be indicators of its presence in rocks, soil, and locally grown crops. Texas water sources were found to be poor in selenium, except for the Panhandle and the West Texas regions, where soil consists of erosion products from the selenium-rich Rocky Mountains. In general, lower cancer mortality was observed for the selenium-rich regions of Texas compared with cancer mortality for the selenium poor regions. Even though the risks from cancer-provoking factors also differed geographically, the observed pattern was sufficiently suggestive to warrant further attention to selenium. 13 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Selenium availability in Texas: possible clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Cech, I; Holguin, A; Sokolow, H; Smith, V

    1984-11-01

    In light of recent reports that have indicated that selenium is an essential micronutrient and possible natural cancer inhibitor, data on the geographic distributions of selenium in Texas were gathered and compared with the distribution of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. We considered concentrations of selenium measured in ground and surface water to be indicators of its presence in rocks, soil, and locally grown crops. Texas water sources were found to be poor in selenium, except for the Panhandle and the West Texas regions, where soil consists of erosion products from the selenium-rich Rocky Mountains. In general, lower cancer mortality was observed for the selenium-rich regions of Texas compared with cancer mortality for the selenium-poor regions. Even though the risks from cancer-provoking factors also differed geographically, the observed pattern was sufficiently suggestive to warrant further attention to selenium.

  5. Sedimentation architecture of the volcanically-dammed Alf valley in the West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Lange, Thomas; Engelhardt, Jörn; Polom, Ulrich; Pirrung, Michael; Büchel, Georg

    2015-04-01

    In the southeastern part of the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, the Alf valley with its morphologically wide (~ 500 m) and flat valley bottom is visibly outstanding. This flat valley bottom was formed during the Marine Isotope Stage 2 due to fluviolacustrine sediments which deposited upstream of a natural volcanic dam. The dam consisted of lava and scoria breccia from the Wartgesberg Volcano complex (Cipa 1958, Hemfler et al. 1991) that erupted ~ 31 BP (40Ar/ 39Ar dating on glass shards, Mertz, pers. communication 2014). Due to this impoundment, the Alf creek turned into a dendritic lake, trapping the catchment sediments. The overall aim is to create the sedimentation architecture of the Alf valley. In comparison to maar archives like Holzmaar or Meerfelder Maar in the vicinity, the fluviolacustrine sediments of the Alf valley show clay-silt lamination despite the water percolation. This archive covers the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to Early Holocene (Pirrung et al. 2007). Focus of this study is the creation of a 3D model by applying the program ESRI ArcGIS 10.2 to reconstruct the pre-volcanic Alf valley. Moreover, the sedimentation architecture is reconstructed and the sediment fill quantified. Therefore, the digital elevation model with 5 m resolution from the State Survey and Geobasis Information of Rhineland-Palatinate, polreduced magnetic data measured on top of the Strohn lava stream, shear seismic data and core stratigraphies were utilized. Summarizing previous results, Lake Alf had a catchment area of ~ 55 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 1.27 km²) and a surface area of 8.2 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 0.24 km²) considering a maximum lake water level of 410 m a.s.l.. In the deepest parts (~ 50 m) of Lake Alf, lake sediments are laminated, up to 21 m thick and show a very high sedimentation rate ~ 3 mm a-1 (Dehner Maar ~ 1.5 mm a-1, (Sirocko et al. 2013)). The sediments become coarser upstream und stratigraphically above the fine-grained lake sediments

  6. Evaluation of remotely sensed DMP product using multi-year field measurements of biomass in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutini, Francesco; Stroppiana, Daniela; Boschetti, Mirco; Brivio, Pietro A.; Bartholome, Etienne; Beye, Gora

    2011-11-01

    The Sahelian belt of West Africa is a region characterized by wide climate variations, which can in turn affect the survival of local populations especially in rangeland, as happened during the dramatic food crisis in the 70-80s caused by severe drought. This work has been carried out in the framework of the EU FP7 Geoland2 project as a contribution to the ECOWAS component (Economic Community Of West African States) of the AMESD (African Monitoring of the Environment for Sustainable Development) programme with the purpose of establishing the reliability of Dry Matter Productivity (DMP) developed by Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), a spatial estimation of dry matter (DM) obtained from remotely sensed data. DMP can be of great help in monitoring savanna pasturelands in a region characterized by food insecurity and a significant variability of biomass production, linked to climate variations, which can in turn affect the survival of local populations. The evaluation of DMP was carried out thanks to the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE) and Action Contre la Fame (ACF), the partners who provided the field biomass measurements. The paper shows the correlation of DMP with field measurements of herbaceous biomass, and discusses the differences among the different sites where ground data were collected. The analysis of other environmental variables (land cover, rainfall), which can be influential on rangeland biomass production, is presented in order to better explain the variance of field measurements among the different years.

  7. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles

    1997-05-29

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.

  8. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles

    1997-05-19

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.

  9. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Ruppel, S.C.

    2001-02-01

    Characterization of cycle and facies architecture on lower Clear Fork and lowermost upper Clear Fork equivalent outcrops in Apache Canyon of Sierra Diablo was complete. The focus of detailed study in Apache Canyon has been the upper Clear Fork section because this interval contains the productive interval in South Wasson field, the preliminary subsurface study area. Parts of three high-frequency sequences (HFS), each 60 to 100 ft thick, are present on the south wall of Apache Canyon. HFS's display an upper-deepening or backstepping pattern associated with longer-term sea level rise. Each HFS is composed of upward-shallowing cycles whose thickness, facies composition, and continuity vary within and between HFS's.

  10. From the pore scale to reservoir scale: Lithohydraulic flow unit characterization of a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir, North Robertson Unit, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vessell, R.K.; Davies, D.K. )

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of integrated geological-petrophysical reservoir characterization performed as part of the US Department of Energy Class II reservoir program. Petrographic image analysis, using a specially equipped SEM, allowed for the identification of 8 petrophysical rock types at the North Robertson Unit. Detailed log analysis resulted in the development of algorithms for the log-based identification of these rock types in 109 wells. Porosity was related to permeability for each Rock Type: thus permeability is determined from well log data. Evaluation of porosity, permeability, Sw and HPV distribution has allowed for the identification of 12 lithohydraulic flow units. These flow units have been mapped across the unit. The technique allows for the development of log-based reservoir models that are simulator-ready. The results of this study have application to all heterogeneous, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs, they demonstrate that large fields can be successfully characterized using few cores and emphasize the importance of integrated geological-engineering analysis in reservoir characterization.

  11. From the pore scale to reservoir scale: Lithohydraulic flow unit characterization of a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir, North Robertson Unit, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vessell, R.K.; Davies, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of integrated geological-petrophysical reservoir characterization performed as part of the US Department of Energy Class II reservoir program. Petrographic image analysis, using a specially equipped SEM, allowed for the identification of 8 petrophysical rock types at the North Robertson Unit. Detailed log analysis resulted in the development of algorithms for the log-based identification of these rock types in 109 wells. Porosity was related to permeability for each Rock Type: thus permeability is determined from well log data. Evaluation of porosity, permeability, Sw and HPV distribution has allowed for the identification of 12 lithohydraulic flow units. These flow units have been mapped across the unit. The technique allows for the development of log-based reservoir models that are simulator-ready. The results of this study have application to all heterogeneous, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs, they demonstrate that large fields can be successfully characterized using few cores and emphasize the importance of integrated geological-engineering analysis in reservoir characterization.

  12. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R. O.

    2003-02-24

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to site a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue.

  13. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and its application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.

    1995-03-01

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the first application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. The following analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil greater than waterflooding was produced at a cost of less than $2.00 per incremental barrel. A analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the total original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 130 million barrels. The goals of ``Detailed Evaluation of the West Kield Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Field Project and It`s Application to Mature Minnelusa Waterfloods`` are to evaluate both the field performance of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer enhanced oil recovery technology as well as its potential application to other Minnelusa oil fields.

  14. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and its application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Annual report for the period January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.; Mundorf, W.R.

    1994-11-01

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the most advanced application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. A preliminary analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil of 20% of the original stock tank oil in place will be produced above waterflooding. The cost of the incremental oil will be less than $2.50 per incremental barrel. A statistical analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 200 million barrels. {open_quotes}Detailed Evaluation of the West Kiehl Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Field Project and Its Application to Mature Minnelusa Waterfloods{close_quotes} objective is to evaluate both the field performance of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer enhanced oil recovery technology as well as its potential application to other Minnelusa oil fields.

  15. Evidence for the emergence of new rice types of interspecific hybrid origin in West African farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Edwin; van Treuren, Robbert; Struik, Paul C; Mokuwa, Alfred; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Richards, Paul

    2009-10-06

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess genetic diversity in West Africa (including the countries The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Togo) using 315 rice samples morphologically classified prior to analysis. We show evidence for farmer interspecific hybrids of African and Asian rice, resulting in a group of novel genotypes, and identify possible mechanisms for in-field hybridization. Spontaneous back-crossing events play a crucial role, resulting in different groups of genetic diversity in different regions developed by natural and cultural selection, often under adverse conditions. These new groups of genotypes may have potential relevance for exploitation by plant breeders. Future advances in crop development could be achieved through co-operation between scientists and marginalized farmer groups in order to address challenges of rapid adaptation in a world of increasing socio-political and climatic uncertainty.

  16. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa.

    PubMed

    Onzo, Alexis; Sabelis, Maurice W; Hanna, Rachid

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus gossypii. These fields also harboured the cassava apex-inhabiting predator Typhlodromalus aripo and either the leaf-inhabiting predator Amblydromalus manihoti or Euseius fustis. We manipulated predator species composition on individual plants to determine their effect on prey and predator densities. In fields with T. aripo plus A. manihoti, M. tanajoa densities were reduced by T. aripo alone or together with A. manihoti, but neither of these predators, alone or together, reduced O. gossypii densities. In fields with T. aripo plus E. fustis, T. aripo alone or together with E. fustis exerted significant control over O. gossypii, but weak control over M. tanajoa. Densities of any of the predator species were not affected by co-occurring predator species, suggesting a minor role for intraguild predation in the field, contrary to earlier experiments on small plants in the laboratory. We conclude that (1) T. aripo is the most effective predator species in suppressing M. tanajoa, (2) two predator species, T. aripo and E. fustis, are needed to suppress O. gossypii, and (3) predator species together on the same plant do not negatively affect each other nor the extent to which they control their prey. We argue that intraguild predation is reduced due to partial niche separation among predator species.

  17. Status Report on the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb Dating of Tuffs in the Dewey Lake Formation of West Texas Towards Constraining the Permo-Triassic Magnetostratigraphic Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; Renne, P. R.; Mundil, R.

    2007-12-01

    A detailed magnetic polarity time scale for the Permo-Triassic Boundary interval, critical for correlating events in marine and terrestrial paleoenvironments, is not yet well-established. Recently, late Permian magnetostratigraphic studies have been reported for non-marine sections in Europe and South Africa (Szurlies et al., 2003; Nawrocki, 2004; Ward et al., 2005). However, these sections are devoid of index fossil suitable for correlation with marine successions and also lack age constraints from radioisotopic dating methods. In other words, it is dubious to correlate these magnetostratigraphic data with the GSSP Permo-Triassic boundary and mass extinction. The Dewey Lake red beds formation of West Texas, believed to be the youngest Permian formation in North America, has yielded high-quality paleomagnetic data (Molina-Garza et al., 1989; Steiner, 2001) and contains several silicic tuffs potentially enabling high-resolution calibration of the magnetic polarity time scale in this critical age range. The tuffs have yet to be placed into a regional stratigraphic or magnetostratigraphic framework, and it is unclear exactly how many distinct eruptive units are represented by the 7 distinct samples collected to date from widely separated (>160 km) localities. 40Ar/39Ar (sanidine and biotite) and U/Pb (zircon) studies reveal that all 7 sampled tuffs were probably erupted within several hundred ka of the Permo-Triassic boundary as dated at the Meishan GSSP section (Renne et al., 1995; Mundil et al., 2004) but results thus far are inadequate to convincingly resolve age differences between the various samples. U/Pb dating of some samples is severely challenged by Pb-loss from the zircons despite application of the Mattinson (2005) annealing/chemical abrasion technique. 40Ar/39Ar data have been obtained from as many as four different irradiations in order to reduce neutron fluence related error. We observe the familiar ~1% bias between U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Biotite

  18. Geomagnetic Secular Variation in Texas over the Last 17,000 Years: High-Intensity Geomagnetic Field 'Spike' Observed at ca. 3000 cal BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, M. D.; Feinberg, J. M.; Waters, M. R.; Stafford, T. W., Jr.; Forman, S. L.; Lundelius, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    By observing the fluctuations in direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, we increase our understanding of the fluid motions in the Earth's outer core that sustain the geomagnetic field, the geodynamo. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in the Near East have proposed extremely rapid increases - 'spikes' - in geomagnetic field intensity ca. 3000 years ago that have proved problematic for our current understanding of core-flow. However, until now, these geomagnetic spikes had not been observed outside of the Near East, where they have been found in metallurgical slag and mud brick walls. We present a new fully-oriented, geomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity (RPI) record for the last 17,000 years from Hall's Cave, Texas. Sediment washed into the cave has formed a continuous stratigraphic sequence that is at least 3.5 m thick. Within the stable, cool climate of the cave, pedogenic and bioturbation processes are almost non-existent, thereby limiting post-depositional physical and geochemical alteration of the magnetic record. The sub-aerial and subterranean setting of the sedimentary sequence in Hall's Cave enabled us to collect oriented palaeomagnetic cubes from an excavated section through the sequence. The palaeomagnetic samples yielded high-quality vectors. An age model for the sequence, determined using 57 AMS 14C-dates on individual bones from microvertebrate, was combined with the palaeomagnetic data to construct a secular variation record. The record is in broad agreement with predictions by Holocene field models for the site's location. However, at ca. 3000 years ago, the RPI data indicate an almost four-fold increase in geomagnetic field intensity lasting several hundred years and contemporaneous with the more short-lived, decadal-scale spikes reported from the Near East. Evidence for this extreme intensity event outside of the Near East has major implications for our current understanding of core-dynamics.

  19. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  1. Late diagenetic indicators of buried oil and gas: II, Direct detection experiment at Cement and Garza oil fields, Oklahoma and Texas, using enhanced LANDSAT I and II images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Terrence J.; Termain, Patricia A.; Henry, Mitchell E.

    1979-01-01

    The Cement oil field, Oklahoma, was a test site for an experiment designed to evaluate LANDSAT's capability to detect an alteration zone in surface rocks caused by hydrocarbon microseepage. Loss of iron and impregnation of sandstone by carbonate cements and replacement of gypsum by calcite are the major alteration phenomena at Cement. The bedrock alterations are partially masked by unaltered overlying beds, thick soils, and dense natural and cultivated vegetation. Interpreters biased by detailed ground truth were able to map the alteration zone subjectively using a magnified, filtered, and sinusoidally stretched LANDSAT composite image; other interpreters, unbiased by ground truth data, could not duplicate that interpretation. Similar techniques were applied at a secondary test site (Garza oil field, Texas), where similar alterations in surface rocks occur. Enhanced LANDSAT images resolved the alteration zone to a biased interpreter and some individual altered outcrops could be mapped using higher resolution SKYLAB color and conventional black and white aerial photographs suggesting repeat experiments with LANDSAT C and D.

  2. Site study plan for Upper Aquifer Hydrology Clusters, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas, 15 wells at 5 locations will be completed in the Ogallala Formation and Dockum Group. The purposes of the wells, which are called Upper Aquifer (2) establish background hydrologic and water quality conditions, (3) provide analysis, (4) monitor responses of the shallow hydrologic system to site activities and nearby pumpage for irrigation, (5) collect water samples from both saturated and unsaturated materials to help define recharge rates and ground-water flow patterns, (6) monitor variations on water quality, and (7) define ground-water resources near the site. The test wells will be installed during a 14-month period starting about 1-1/2 years after site characterization activities begin. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 44 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Operation of agricultural test fields for study of stressed crops by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toler, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A test site for the study of winter wheat development and collection of ERTS data was established in September of 1973. The test site is a 10 mile square area located 12.5 miles west of Amarillo, Texas on Interstate Hwy. 40, in Randall and Potter counties. The center of the area is the Southwestern Great Plains Research Center at Bushland, Texas. Within the test area all wheat fields were identified by ground truth and designated irrigated or dryland. The fields in the test area other than wheat were identified as to pasture or the crop that was grown. A ground truth area of hard red winter wheat was established west of Hale Center, Texas. Maps showing the location of winter wheat fields in excess of 40 acres in size within a 10 mile radius were supplied NASA. Satellite data was collected for this test site (ERTS-1).

  4. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  5. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. Transferring Knowledge Gained From a Field Experience in Tierra del Fuego, the Uttermost Part of the Earth, to Central Texas Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormiston, C.; Dovzak, N.; Anderson, S.; Perry, E.; Ellins, K.; Tingle, D.; Knettel, P.; Redding, S.; Odle, K.

    2005-12-01

    As part of the UTIG's Teachers in the Field program, we, three teachers from Boerne High School in south-central Texas, and four of our students, collaborated with an international team of geoscientists studying the tectonic and climatic evolution of the Lago Fagnano region in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, in March 2005. This unique field experience allowed us to participate in all aspects of the scientific process: the consideration of research questions, development of a research plan, collection of field data and observations, and synthesis and presentation of results. In addition to field work and reconnaissance tied directly to the project objectives, we characterized the modern chemical/physical soil and water parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, NH4 content, etc.) and isotopic (18O and D) composition of the Lago Fagnano watershed. These data are now integrated into an existing database of comparable chemical/physical information gathered for North American sites through our summer field courses. We will utilize this rich data set to make Texas-Tierra del Fuego ecosystem comparisons with our classes. The level of mentoring, preparation and follow-up provided by an NSF GK-12 Fellow was a key factor contributing to the success of our experience and an important element in helping us transfer components of this challenging experience to our students. Before, during, and following a two-week field season at Lago Fagnano, we and our students were actively engaged as learners and as scientists. We acquired concepts and skills that are readily applicable in a classroom setting: geologic mapping, GIS applications, isotopic data collection and analysis, tectonics concepts, and a general understanding of how science is truly conducted. Other factors that contributed to a positive experience included the team of dynamic scientists, who encouraged, helped and inspired us, the strong support that we received from our high school campus and district level

  7. NDEA FIELD SUMMER LANGUAGE INSTITUTE FOR SECONDARY FRENCH AND SPANISH (2D WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY, JUNE 27 TO AUGUST 19, 1966). FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STILWELL, ROBERT

    PARTICIPANTS IN THE 1966 NDEA LANGUAGE INSTITUTE HELD AT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY WERE THOSE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS WHO HAD PREVIOUSLY ATTENDED AN NDEA INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED TRAINING IN THEIR PRINCIPAL LANGUAGE TEACHING FIELD, BUT WHO FROM CHOICE OR NECESSITY HAD BEEN ASSIGNED FRENCH OR SPANISH AS A SECOND TEACHING FIELD. THE REPORT OF THIS…

  8. Registration verification of SEA/AR fields. [Oregon, Texas, Montana, Nebraska, Washington, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.; Lautenschlager, L. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A method of field registration verification for 20 SEA/AR sites for the 1979 crop year is evaluated. Field delineations for the sites were entered into the data base, and their registration verified using single channel gray scale computer printout maps of LANDSAT data taken over the site.

  9. Technical procedures for implementation of background environmental radioactivity site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this technical procedure is to describe the method for performing field maintenance on low-volume air samplers and the associated topics of personnel and organization, procedure preparation, documentation, and quality assurance. The scope of this procedure includes the maintenance of low-volume air samplers in the field and does not encompass maintenance performed by the manufacturer.

  10. Influence of structural evolution on reservoir development and distribution in the Silurian Fusselman: Vermejo-Moore Hopper field, Loving and Ward Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Colleary, W.M.; Hulme, J.R. ); Crafton, J.W. Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL )

    1992-04-01

    The Vermejo-Moore Hooper field lies in the deep Delaware basin adjacent to the Pecos River in Loving and Ward counties, Texas. Discovered in 1973, the field produces dry gas from the Fusselman and Ellenburger formations. The Fusselman reservoir has produced over 400 bcf of gas from depths between 18,500 and 19,200 ft. The field primarily is a structural trap, but the distribution of reserves in the reservoir suggests a strong stratigraphic component. The reservoir is composed of fractured dolomites and cherts of the Silurian Fusselman and overlying Wristen formations. Unconformities and their accompanying diagenetic processes play a major role in the reservoir. The occurrence of pervasive dolomitization and nodular cherts are interpreted to indicate diagenesis associated with subaerial exposure and karsting. Thick sections also may be absent due to erosion over paleostructures, and preserved in flanking positions. Detailed paleostructural interpretation of the Vermejo-Moore Hooper field reveals a history of recurrent movement of the basement and demonstrates the influence of structural growth on the development and distribution of porosity and permeability in the Fusselman reservoir. Early structural growth can influence the distribution of both depositional facies and erosional processes. Paleostructure maps in the Silurian-Devonian indicate that a series of northwest-southeast-trending, low-relief structures existed during the Silurian. Growth of these structures through the Devonian can be documented and the presence of fault-bounded basement blocks can be inferred. The influence of this structural growth on the development of the reservoir is also demonstrated.

  11. Texas Educational History: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, James H., Comp.

    The bibliography provides a comprehensive listing of the literature of Texas educational history up to March, 1978. Objectives are to provide access to the sources and to stimulate interest and research in the field. Over 1050 books, journal articles, pamphlets, theses, and doctoral dissertations are arranged in nine subject sections: General…

  12. Houston, Galveston Bay, Texas, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-10-07

    Long regarded as one of the best photo of Houston, Texas (29.5N, 95.0W), this view from space shows the entire greater Houston/Galveston region in remarkable detail and clarity. The dark north/south line in the water between Houston and Galveston is the Houston Ship Channel. NASA's Johnson Space Center and Mission Control is located on the north shore of Clear Lake west of the channel. The extensive road and highway network can be seen in great detail.

  13. Stylolites in the Caballos Novaculite, west Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Mark A.; Whitford-Stark, J. L.

    1987-05-01

    Stylolites within the Caballos Novaculite developed by pressure solution in response to lithostatic pressure after the original sediment had been converted to a novaculite. Estimates of minimum stratigraphic thinning of the novaculite are fairly uniform across the Marathon basin; they range from 3.5% to 5.6% on the basis of stylolite column amplitude.

  14. Chagas Disease Risk in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Strutz, Stavana E.; Frank, David M.; Rivaldi, Chissa–Louise; Sissel, Blake; Sánchez–Cordero, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. Methods and Findings The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five–stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post–1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc–minute). The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence–based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag–York–Mollié model and post–1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This risk

  15. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

    2001-05-03

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

  16. Technical procedures for water resources: Volume 3, Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Water Resources (ONWI, 1987). This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Water Resources Site Study Plan. This procedure provides the general method for the field collection of water and sediment samples from playa lakes using an Alpha horizontal type sampler or equivalent or a peristaltic pump for water and a KB-coring devise or ponar grab for sediments. The samples will be preserved and then shipped to a laboratory for analysis. The water quality and sediment samples will be collected as part of the surface-water quality field study described in the Site Plan for Water Resources. 15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater Abstract: Sulfate (SO4) is one of the most important anions in soils and groundwater in semiarid regions, including West Texas. Crops’ sulfur (S) requirement is about 10 to 20 % of the nitrogen (N) require...

  18. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

  19. First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Nasci, R S; Godsey, M S; Savage, H M; Lutwama, J J; Lanciotti, R S; Peters, C J

    2000-02-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito borne flavivirus endemic over a large geographic area including Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Although the virus generally causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness in humans, it has sporadically caused central nervous system infections during epidemics. An isolate of West Nile virus was obtained from a pool of four male Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes while we were conducting an investigation of Rift Valley fever along the Kenya-Uganda border in February-March 1998. This represents the first field isolation of West Nile virus from male mosquitoes and strongly suggests that vertical transmission of the virus occurs in the primary maintenance mosquito vector in Kenya. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete amino acid sequence of the viral envelope glycoprotein demonstrated a sister relationship with a Culex pipiens mosquito isolate from Romania made in 1996. This unexpected finding probably reflects the role of migratory birds in disseminating West Nile virus between Africa and Europe.

  20. APPLICATION OF WATER-JET HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY TO DRILL AND ACIDIZE HORIZONTAL DRAIN HOLES, TEDBIT (SAN ANDRES) FIELD, GAINES COUNTY, TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Rose

    2005-09-22

    The San Andres Formation is one of the major hydrocarbon-producing units in the Permian Basin, with multiple reservoirs contained within the dolomitized subtidal portions of upward shoaling carbonate shelf cycles. The test well is located in Tedbit (San Andres) Field in northeastern Gaines County, Texas, in an area of scattered San Andres production associated with local structural highs. Selected on the basis of geological and historical data, the Oil and Gas Properties Wood No. 1 well is considered to be typical of a large number of San Andres stripper wells in the Permian Basin. Thus, successful completion of horizontal drain holes in this well would demonstrate a widely applicable enhanced recovery technology. Water-jet horizontal drilling is an emerging technology with the potential to provide significant economic benefits in marginal wells. Forecast benefits include lower recompletion costs and improved hydrocarbon recoveries. The technology utilizes water under high pressure, conveyed through small-diameter coiled tubing, to jet horizontal drain holes into producing formations. Testing of this technology was conducted with inconclusive results. Paraffin sludge and mechanical problems were encountered in the wellbore, initially preventing the water-jet tool from reaching the kick-off point. After correcting these problems and attempting to cut a casing window with the water-jet milling assembly, lateral jetting was attempted without success.

  1. USING 3D COMPUTER MODELING, BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS, AND HIGH CAPACITY PUMPS TO RESTORE PRODUCTION TO MARGINAL WELLS IN THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Bassett

    2003-06-09

    Methods for extending the productive life of marginal wells in the East Texas Field were investigated using advanced computer imaging technology, geophysical tools, and selective perforation of existing wells. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy, TENECO Energy and Schlumberger Wireline and Testing. Drillers' logs for more than 100 wells in proximity to the project lease were acquired, converted to digital format using a numerical scheme, and the data were used to create a 3 Dimensional geological image of the project site. Using the descriptive drillers' logs in numerical format yielded useful cross sections identifying the Woodbine Austin Chalk contact and continuity of sand zones between wells. The geological data provided information about reservoir continuity, but not the amount of remaining oil, this was obtained using selective modern logs. Schlumberger logged the wells through 2 3/8 inch tubing with a new slimhole Reservoir Saturation Tool (RST) which can measure the oil and water content of the existing porosity, using neutron scattering and a gamma ray spectrometer (GST). The tool provided direct measurements of elemental content yielding interpretations of porosity, lithology, and oil and water content, confirming that significant oil saturation still exists, up to 50% in the upper Woodbine sand. Well testing was then begun and at the end of the project new oil was being produced from zones abandoned or bypassed more than 25 years ago.

  2. A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J. T.; Phillips, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    In May and July, 1997, a consortia of operators and service companies conducted a series of hydraulic fracture imaging tests in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of East Texas (Walker, 1997). Microseismic data were collected and processed for six hydraulic fracture treatments in two wells (3 completion intervals per well) (Mayerhofer et al., 2000). One well was completed with gel-proppant treatments in which a viscous crosslink gel was injected to entrain high concentrations of sand proppant into formation. The second well was completed using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs). Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost. Mayerhofer and Meehan (1998) suggest two possible reasons why waterfracs are successful: (1) Induced shear displacement along natural and hydraulic fractures results in self-propping (shear dilation enhanced by fracture branching, proppant and spalled rock fragments), and (2) Fracture extension and cleanup is easier to achieve with low-viscosity fluids. With improved source location precision and focal mechanism determination (fracture plane orientation and sense of slip), we have reexamined the Cotton Valley data, comparing the seismicity induced by water and gel-proppant treatments at common depth intervals. We have improved the location precision and computed focal mechanism of microearthquakes induced during a series of hydraulic fracture completions within the Cotton Valley formation of East Texas. Conventional gel-proppant treatments and treatments using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs) were monitored. Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost (Mayerhofer and Meehan, 1998). Comparison of the seismicity induced by the two treatment types show similar distributions of

  3. Tight gas sands research program: Field operations and analysis. Cooperative well report. ARCO Oil and Gas B. F. Phillips No. 1 Chapel Hill Field Smith County, Texas, March 1985. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Holditch, S.A.; Robinson, B.M.; Whitehead, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the ARCO Oil Gas B.F. Phillips Well No. 1 which is completed in the upper Travis Peak formation in Chapel Hill Field, Smith County, Texas. The Phillips No. 1 was the first cooperative well in the GRI program which was monitored with the Mobile Testing and Control (T C) Facility during pre-fracture and post-fracture testing, and fracture treatment. In addition to coring and logging, activities included performing an in-situ stress test in a sandstone interval, performing a mini-frac, running post fracture gamma ray and temperature surveys, and monitoring hydraulic fracture treatment. Fracture treatment summaries and the pressure buildup test analysis are included in appendixes.

  4. Microbial diversity of acidic hot spring (kawah hujan B) in geothermal field of kamojang area, west java-indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria.

  5. Microbial Diversity of Acidic Hot Spring (Kawah Hujan B) in Geothermal Field of Kamojang Area, West Java-Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria. PMID:19440252

  6. Utilizing WASP and hot waterflood to maximize the value of a thermally mature steam drive in the West Coalinga field

    SciTech Connect

    DeFrancisco, S.T.; Sanford, S.J.; Hong, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Water-Alternating-Steam-Process (WASP) has been utilized on Section 13D, West Coalinga Field since 1988. Originally implemented to control premature, high-temperature steam breakthrough, the process has improved sales oil recovery in both breakthrough and non-breakthrough patterns. A desktop, semi-conceptual simulation study was initiated in June 1993 to provide a theoretical basis for optimizing and monitoring the WASP project. The simulation study results showed that the existing WASP injection strategy could be further optimized. It also showed that conversion to continuous hot waterflood was the optimum injection strategy for the steamflood sands. The Section 13D WASP project was gradually converted to hot waterflood during 1994. Conversion to hot waterflood has significantly improved project cash flow and increased the value of the Section 13D thermal project.

  7. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

    2002-02-26

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

  9. Mapping rainfall fields and their ENSO variation in data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basher, Reid E.; Zheng, Xiaogu

    1998-03-01

    Rainfall fields for the data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region have been mapped by partial thin-plate smoothing spline surface modelling applied to island rainfall measurements, enhanced by the use of satellite observations of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) as a regression covariate. The aim is to obtain spatially realistic rainfall maps, especially in the data-sparse areas between island groups, through a fully objective and statistically valid method that includes error estimates. The method has been applied to the region 4°N-24°S, 168°E-154°W. The rainfall data set initially comprised 57 stations, most with 40 year records. As a first step, a regression of annual OLR and rainfall for atolls only was formed and used to eliminate outlier rainfall stations, all of which are on mountainous islands and thus are probably influenced orographically.The maps clearly show the spatial patterns and seasonal behaviour of the regions key meteorological features, namely, the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the southern edge of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the wedge shaped region of divergent easterlies lying between them. To identify ENSO variations, maps of 3-month seasonal rainfall were constructed from composites of eight El Niño (negative SOI) episodes and nine La Niña (positive SOI) episodes. These maps are relatively rough in appearance, but nevertheless they show the evolution of the spatial patterns through each composite episode and the strong and symmetrically opposite differences between them. Marked variations in the strength and position of the SPCZ are evident and the isohyets in the equatorial dry zone exhibit east-west shifts of nearly 3000 km relative to the average field. The rainfall variation at a particular location may be understood in terms of competition of influence among the changing features of the pattern, rather than as a simple linear function of the SOI.

  10. Foliar potassium fertilization improves fruit quality of field-grown muskmelon on calcareous soils in south Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among plant nutrients, potassium (K) has the strongest influence on crop quality parameters that determine consumer preference. However, many soil plant factors often limit adequate soil K uptake to satisfy plant requirements during fruit development stages. The objectives of this multiyear field ...

  11. Produced water treating equipment: Recent field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.R.; Choi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    For several decades, flotation cells have been workhorses for treatment of oilfield produced water for disposal or reinjection. In the last few years several alternative devices which have come on the market for the removal of oil from water have been tested in the oil field. Some of these have distinct advantages over flotation cells in terms of space and weight, better oil-recovery efficiency, and lower operating costs. This paper summarizes the results of field trials of a passive hydrocyclone, in the Arabian Gulf and in the North Sea, a coalescer which uses a specially treated ion-exchange resin as a medium in the Gulf of Mexico, two somewhat similar filter-coalescers which use crushed nut shells as media, onshore in New Mexico, West Texas, and California, and an upflow sand coalescer system in New Mexico and West Texas.

  12. Lake-bottom sediment composition for the assessment of ecological state of West Siberian oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoyarova, N. A.; Russkikh, I. V.; Strel'nikova, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents research findings on the oil composition of Fedorovskoe and Nivagal'skoe, Nizhnevartovskoe and Samotlorskoe (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug), Verkhtarskoe (Novosibirsk region) fields and also the organic components of bottom sediments of Vachlor, Dolgoe, and Balman Lakes. A comparison is given for hydrocarbon composition in bituminous components of lake-bottom sediments and nearby oil fields. The contribution of crude oils to the organic composition of bottom sediments of Vachlor and Balman Lakes is studied in this paper.

  13. The Health Insurance Gap After Implementation of the Affordable Care Act in Texas.

    PubMed

    Gong, Gordon; Huey, Cassandra C; Johnson, Coleman; Curti, Debra; Philips, Billy U

    2017-03-01

    Households with incomes between 18% and 99% of the federal poverty level (FPL) are ineligible for Medicaid or enrollment in the health insurance exchange marketplace in Texas, resulting in the health insurance gap. We sought to determine the number of non-elderly adult Texans (NEATs) aged between 18 and 64 years in the insurance gap in rural vs urban areas in East Texas, West Texas, and South Texas. Data were obtained from the US Census Bureau website. In 2014, there were 1,101,000 NEATs in the insurance gap, accounting for 24.5% of all uninsured persons in Texas. The gap was significantly higher in rural vs urban areas in East and South Texas and in Texas as a whole. Large coverage gaps in states like Texas not expanding Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act pose major hurdles to reducing the number of uninsured individuals in these states.

  14. Houston, Texas and Gulf Coast area as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The Houston, Texas and Gulf Coast area, looking southeast, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 91st revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 101 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 144 hours and 26 minutes. The morning sun causes a reflection on the water surfaces such as the Gulf of Mexico, Galveston Bay, Buffalo Bayou and the Brazos River and causes a unique reflection in the canals and fields west of Alvin. Some of the landmarks visible in this picture include highways and freeways, the Astrodome, the Intercontinental Airport and the Manned Spacecraft Center.

  15. An Investigation of the Mass Balance of Oil and Gas Produced Versus Estimated Reserves Remaining within the A.W.P. Field, McMullen County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Scott Murphy

    The A.W.P. Field is located in McMullen County, approximately 4 to 6 miles southeast of the town of Tilden in the Rio Grande Embayment. The study area was believed to be near depletion of all hydrocarbons; however, a recent well drilled (fall 2014) just to the west of the study area has produced significant hydrocarbons. This prompted Milagro Exploration to launch an effort to reevaluate the potential within the field in order to investigate whether the field is, in fact, entirely depleted. My approach to solving this problem began with researching the area to develop an understanding of the geological setting, depositional systems, and productive intervals, then acquiring the proper data, as this data was the foundation of the project. I completed a detailed correlation framework of key formations with the acquired well logs. I interpreted an extensive 3D seismic data set to map my areas of interest and faults. With all relevant information, I completed structure maps, isopach maps, production maps, and calculated volumetrics, concluding with my recommendation, and determined whether the field is ultimately depleted or not. I concluded that there are two relevant intervals within the study area. First, the Wilcox-Wales Formation (Wales; Early Tertiary) was a random stratigraphic accumulation that had sporadic hydrocarbon production, and would be essentially high risk to drill. Second, the Olmos Formation (Olmos; Late Cretaceous) had significant potential for 2 horizontal wells on the western side of the lease area.

  16. Experiences and results of acid prepacking and gravelpacking wells in the West Lutong field in Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Rajah, B.; Linder, R.; Todd, B.

    1995-10-01

    Gravel packed wells in North Borneo have had a long history of impairment. The historical average skin factor for the wells in the Baram Delta area has been around 25. As a result of the success reported in other locations, acid prepacking was chosen for field evaluation in the Baram Delta. Acid prepacking trials were carried out in the Bokor field with encouraging results. It was decided that the acid prepacking procedure would be used on all internally gravel packed zones during the 1992--1993 West Lutong field revisit campaign. Flowing build-up surveys were ran on those zones that are currently producing. Because the wells are completed as dual selective, not all zones are available for testing. Good data are available for 13 of the 29 zones completed with the acid prepacking technique. The total skin values for the zones included in the analysis ranged from 1.3 to 20, with an average of 9.8 and an average removable skin of 6.6.

  17. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model.

  18. Sequence stratigraphic controls on reservoir compartmentalization, hydrocarbon distribution and optimization of field development process: Vicksburg trend, South Texas, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmanian, V.D.; Thering, M.L.; Ely, P.B.

    1996-12-31

    We have utilized integrated core facies, well log and 3-D Seismic Sequence stratigraphy and production history of the Vicksburg Formation to understand reservoir distribution, optimized field development, and guide field management processes. In South Texas area, up to 4000 feet of the Oligocene Vicksburg strata are preserved as rollover anticlines and their associated antithetic and synthetic faults. This stratal configuration resulted from syndepositional movement of the expanded Vicksburg strata along a composite decollement surface on top of the underlying Eocene Jackson shale. These strata were, thus, developed in a high-accommodation depositional setting controlled by a complex interaction between eustatic fluctuations and syndepositional listric normal fault movement. The Vicksburg Formation is marked by a distinctive hierarchy of sequence stacking and an orderly and predictive pattern of lateral sequence distribution. It can be characterized as a super sequence composed of lowstand, transgressive, and highstand composite sequence sets. The sequence sets, in turn, contain numerous high-frequency sequences. The high-frequency sequences range from 50-100 feet in thickness and, largely due to high accommodation potential, are dominated by sandy and often gas-bearing lowstand and mud-prone transgressive systems tract parasequences of deltaic and shoreface to offshore origin, respectively. Lateral patterns of reservoir facies, geometry, and quality are profoundly controlled by the structural positions of strata within the rollover sedimentary wedges and/or proximity to syndepositional faults. Reservoirs are thicker, sandier and of patter quality in down flank, away from crestal rollover, or proximal direction. During development of late lowstand to transgressive composite sequence sets the older Vicksburg depocenters; were retrogradationally displaced in landward direction across the lop of the underlying Jackson Shale.

  19. Sequence stratigraphic controls on reservoir compartmentalization, hydrocarbon distribution and optimization of field development process: Vicksburg trend, South Texas, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmanian, V.D.; Thering, M.L.; Ely, P.B.

    1996-01-01

    We have utilized integrated core facies, well log and 3-D Seismic Sequence stratigraphy and production history of the Vicksburg Formation to understand reservoir distribution, optimized field development, and guide field management processes. In South Texas area, up to 4000 feet of the Oligocene Vicksburg strata are preserved as rollover anticlines and their associated antithetic and synthetic faults. This stratal configuration resulted from syndepositional movement of the expanded Vicksburg strata along a composite decollement surface on top of the underlying Eocene Jackson shale. These strata were, thus, developed in a high-accommodation depositional setting controlled by a complex interaction between eustatic fluctuations and syndepositional listric normal fault movement. The Vicksburg Formation is marked by a distinctive hierarchy of sequence stacking and an orderly and predictive pattern of lateral sequence distribution. It can be characterized as a super sequence composed of lowstand, transgressive, and highstand composite sequence sets. The sequence sets, in turn, contain numerous high-frequency sequences. The high-frequency sequences range from 50-100 feet in thickness and, largely due to high accommodation potential, are dominated by sandy and often gas-bearing lowstand and mud-prone transgressive systems tract parasequences of deltaic and shoreface to offshore origin, respectively. Lateral patterns of reservoir facies, geometry, and quality are profoundly controlled by the structural positions of strata within the rollover sedimentary wedges and/or proximity to syndepositional faults. Reservoirs are thicker, sandier and of patter quality in down flank, away from crestal rollover, or proximal direction. During development of late lowstand to transgressive composite sequence sets the older Vicksburg depocenters; were retrogradationally displaced in landward direction across the lop of the underlying Jackson Shale.

  20. Field-based estimates of avian mortality from West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Beveroth, Tara A; Lampman, Richard; Raim, Arlo; Enstrom, David; Novak, Robert

    2010-11-01

    One of the unique characteristics of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America is the large number of bird species for which the virus can be fatal. WNV mortality has been documented through experimental infections of captive birds and necropsies of free-ranging birds. Investigations of WNV-related mortality in wild birds often focus on species with dramatic population declines (e.g., American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos); however, few studies have addressed WNV-related mortality in species not exhibiting marked population declines since the arrival of WNV. We conducted a mark-recapture study of 204 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) in an area with endemic WNV activity to estimate WNV-related mortality. Previous research has shown that once a bird is infected and recovers from WNV it develops antibodies making it resistant to future infection. Assuming that mortality risks from non-WNV causes were the same for individuals with (had been exposed to WNV) and without antibodies (had not been exposed to WNV), we compared the survival rates of birds with and without WNV antibodies to estimate the impact of WNV on wild birds. An information theoretic approach was used, and the apparent survival was found to be 34.6% lower for individuals without antibodies during the period when WNV was most active (July-September). However, the apparent survival rate was 9.0% higher for individuals without antibodies over the rest of the year. These differences in apparent survival suggest that WNV increases mortality during the WNV season and that chronic effects of WNV infection may also be contributing to mortality. Although WNV appears to have increased mortality rates within the population, population trend data do not indicate declines, suggesting that some cardinal populations can compensate for WNV-related mortality.