Science.gov

Sample records for field west texas

  1. Reservoir characterization of a Permian Giant: Yates Field, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, S.W.; Mruk, D.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Yates Field reservoir characterization project provided the geologic framework, data, and tools that support the ongoing reservoir management of Yates Field. Geologic and engineering data from 1800 wells with digital log data, 23,000 feet of quantified core analysis and description, and six decades of production data, were integrated, analyzed, and displayed in a format which could be used for field evaluation, management, and simulation. The Yates Field reservoir characterization products include: quantified, standardized, digital core descriptions for 118 cores in the field; 2-D digital cross section through every well in the field; 2-D structure and isochore maps for major and internal marker horizons, net and gross reservoir maps, net and gross shale maps, secondary calcite distribution maps, cave distribution maps, and fracture distribution maps; a 6.8 million cell 3-D geologic model of the complete reservoir that includes log, core, and production data. The reservoir characterization project resulted in a quantified description of the heterogeneous matrix and fracture network in Yates Field. It is the efficient, ongoing management of this classic dual-porosity system that has stabilized production from this sixty-eight year old, 4.2 billion barrel field.

  2. Quaternary faults of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-04-01

    North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the basin margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in West Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the Basin and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt Basins/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.

  3. Time Lapse Gravity and Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the West Hastings Field, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. F.; Richards, T.; Klopping, F.; MacQueen, J.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Time lapse or 4D gravity and seismic reflection surveys are being conducted at the West Hastings Field near Houston, Texas to monitor the progress of CO2 injection. This Department of Energy supported CO2 sequestration experiment is conducted in conjunction with a Denbury Onshore, LLC tertiary recovery project. The reservoir is at a depth of 1.8 km in the Oligocene Frio sands and has been produced since the 1930s. Goals are an accounting and mapping of the injected CO2 and to determine if migration occurs along intra-reservoir faults. An integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys will be made together with well logs and engineering data. Gravity monitoring of water versus gas replacement has been very successful, but liquid phase CO2 monitoring is problematic due to the smaller density contrast with respect to oil and water. This reservoir has a small volume to depth ratio and hence only a small gravity difference signal is expected on the surface. New borehole gravity technology introduced by Micro-g-Lacoste can make gravity measurements at near reservoir depths with a much higher signal to noise ratio. This method has been successfully evaluated on a simulation of the Hastings project. Field operations have been conducted for repeated surface and borehole gravity surveys beginning in 2013. The surface survey of 95 stations covers an area of 3 by 5 km and 22 borehole gravity logs are run in the interval above the Frio formation. 4D seismic reflection surveys are being made at 6 month intervals on the surface and in 3 VSP wells. CO2 injection into the targeted portion of the reservoir only began in early 2015 and monitoring will continue into 2017. To date only the baseline reservoir conditions have been assessed. The overall success of the gravity monitoring will not be determined until 2017.

  4. Locating earthquakes in west Texas oil fields using 3-D anisotropic velocity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Fa; Doser, D.; Baker, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Earthquakes within the War-Wink gas field, Ward County, Texas, that have been located with a 1-D velocity model occur near the edges and top of a naturally occurring overpressured zone. Because the War-Wink field is a structurally controlled anticline with significant velocity anisotropy associated with the overpressured zone and finely layered evaporites, the authors have attempted to re-locate earthquakes using a 3-D anisotropic velocity model. Preliminary results with this model give the unsatisfactory result that many earthquakes previously located at the top of the overpressured zone (3-3.5 km) moved into the evaporites (1-1.5 km) above the field. They believe that this result could be caused by: (1) aliasing the velocity model; or (2) problems in determining the correct location minima when several minima exist. They are currently attempting to determine which of these causes is more likely for the unsatisfactory result observed.

  5. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  6. Guadalupian studies in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, R.E.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Rohr, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Murchison established the Permian System in the Ural Mountains of Russia in 1841. The first North American Permian fossils were discovered by Hall (1856) about 15 years later. The fossils, which were collected in New York State, were initially described as Carboniferous (Hall, 1856) but were subsequently recognized as Permian by Girty (1902). Benjamin F. Shumard (1858), however, was the first to place an unequivocal Permian designation on some North American fossils, which has been collected by his brother George G. Shumard from the Guadalupe Mountains in Texas. A half a century passed before Girty (1908) made known an extensive Guadalupian fauna, although his field work in Texas and his study of this fauna already lead him to propose a Guadalupian "period" (Girty, 1902). Girty's suggestion was accepted only when it was formalized as the Guadalupe Series by Adams et al. (1939). The "Guadalupian fauna" was based upon fossils that Girty collected in 1901 on an expedition headed by Robert T. Hill, a revered figure in Texas geology.

  7. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P.; Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.

    1998-12-31

    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  8. Spatial prediction of caves in San Andres Dolomite, Yates field, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Nosal, E.A.; Carlson, J.L.; Craig, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Persistent speculations that caves played a key role in the high flow rates of many early wells in the Yates field (203 wells potentialed for more than 10,000 BOPD each, 26 wells for more than 80,000 BOPD each) has raised questions of why the caves exist, how many there are, and how to incorporate them into reservoir management practice. This paper describes the use of probability theory to answer these questions. Among the geologic factors that contributed to the remarkable early productivity of Yates are zones of karst in the upper San Andres Dolomite, the principle reservoir unit. Hundreds of infill wells drilled after unitization of the field in 1976 have provided ample data on cave numbers and patterns. These data indicate that karstification was produced by dynamic lenses of fresh water beneath a cluster of islands formed when lowering of Late Permian sea level exposed San Andres limestone to rainfall and dissolution. The seemingly random occurrences of caves can be fitted into a geologic framework of systematic karst processes to produce mappable petrophysical parameters. The most important of these predicts, in probabilistic terms, where the caves are located. The contribution of cave porosity to total reservoir porosity can also be estimated. This cave component of porosity can be displayed as a petrophysical log and manipulated in the same way as matrix porosity.

  9. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  10. Polyphase deformation in Marathon basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, D.; Morris, A.

    1989-03-01

    Marathon basin, Texas, is the westernmost window into the Ouachita orogene. Interpreted as a result of northwest-southeast compression, intermittent orogenic pulses began in the Mississippian and continued into the Early Permian (Wolfcampian). However, the northeastern portion of the basin contains structures that could not have resulted from a single compression orientation and indicate that deformation continued to affect Wolfcampian and Leonardian rocks. Their work confirms the protracted nature of upper Paleozoic deformation and indicates that late- and postorogenic events were not related to the northwest-southeast compression manifest throughout the Marathon basin. The northeastern part of the basin exposes Morrowan( )-Desmoinesian rocks. The authors recognize a duplex thrust system, traceable for 10 km, rooted in the uppermost Morrowan( ) Tesnus Formation and creating a double thickness of (Morrowan-Atokan) Dimple Limestone. The duplex is folded by 50 to 2000-m half-wavelength northwestverging folds which plunge gently southwestward. Dimple thickness is further increased by a large number of contraction faults, each with up to 2 m of stratigraphic throw. Superimposed upon these structures are southeast-plunging, 10-20-m half-wavelength open kinks with vergence sympathetic with the regional trend variation apparent in this part of the basin. The superimposed structures are the result of a northeast-southwest compressive event. North of the Ouachita exposure, rocks containing lower Leonardian fusulinids are deformed into gentle east-west-trending 500-m half-wavelength folds which are likely the result of another distinct compression orientation trending north-south. Pervasive east-west extension in all Pennsylvania-age rocks is indicated by subvertical, calcite-filled veins.

  11. West Texas array experiment: Noise and source characterization of short-range infrasound and acoustic signals, along with lab and field evaluation of Intermountain Laboratories infrasound microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Aileen

    The term infrasound describes atmospheric sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz, while acoustics are classified within the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasound and acoustic monitoring in the scientific community is hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and a limited number of studies on regional and short-range noise and source characterization. The JASON Report (2005) suggests the infrasound community focus on more broad-frequency, observational studies within a tactical distance of 10 km. In keeping with that recommendation, this paper presents a study of regional and short-range atmospheric acoustic and infrasonic noise characterization, at a desert site in West Texas, covering a broad frequency range of 0.2 to 100 Hz. To spatially sample the band, a large number of infrasound gauges was needed. A laboratory instrument analysis is presented of the set of low-cost infrasound sensors used in this study, manufactured by Inter-Mountain Laboratories (IML). Analysis includes spectra, transfer functions and coherences to assess the stability and range of the gauges, and complements additional instrument testing by Sandia National Laboratories. The IMLs documented here have been found reliably coherent from 0.1 to 7 Hz without instrument correction. Corrections were built using corresponding time series from the commercially available and more expensive Chaparral infrasound gauge, so that the corrected IML outputs were able to closely mimic the Chaparral output. Arrays of gauges are needed for atmospheric sound signal processing. Our West Texas experiment consisted of a 1.5 km aperture, 23-gauge infrasound/acoustic array of IMLs, with a compact, 12 m diameter grid-array of rented IMLs at the center. To optimize signal recording, signal-to-noise ratio needs to be quantified with respect to both frequency band and coherence length. The higher-frequency grid array consisted of 25 microphones arranged in a five by five pattern with 3 meter spacing, without

  12. West Nile virus infection in killer whale, Texas, USA, 2007.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy; Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans.

  13. West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans. PMID:21801643

  14. Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...

  15. Two-dimensional resistivity investigation along West Fork Trinity River, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Stanton, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitutes a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and manufacturing processes. Ground water flows from west to east toward the West Fork Trinity River. During October 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity investigation at a site along the West Fork Trinity River at the eastern boundary of NAS-JRB to characterize the distribution of subsurface resistivity. Five 2D resistivity profiles were collected, which ranged from 500 to 750 feet long and extended to a depth of 25 feet. The Goodland Limestone and the underlying Walnut Formation form a confining unit that underlies the alluvial aquifer. The top of this confining unit is the top of bedrock at NAS-JRB. The bedrock confining unit is the zone of interest because of the potential for contaminated ground water to enter the West Fork Trinity River through saturated bedrock. The study involved a capacitively-coupled resistivity survey and inverse modeling to obtain true or actual resistivity from apparent resistivity. The apparent resistivity was processed using an inverse modeling software program. The results of this program were used to generate distributions (images) of actual resistivity referred to as inverted sections or profiles. The images along the five profiles show a wide range of resistivity values. The two profiles nearest the West Fork Trinity River generally showed less resistivity than the three other profiles.

  16. West Nile virus infection among humans, Texas, USA, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Melissa S; Schuermann, Jim; Murray, Kristy O

    2013-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiologic analysis to document West Nile virus infections among humans in Texas, USA, during 2002-2011. West Nile virus has become endemic to Texas; the number of reported cases increased every 3 years. Risk for infection was greatest in rural northwestern Texas, where Culex tarsalis mosquitoes are the predominant mosquito species.

  17. Crustal deformation and seismic measurements in the region of McDonald Observatory, West Texas. [Texas and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The arrival times of regional and local earthquakes and located earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of Texas and in the adjacent areas of Chihuahua, Mexico from January 1976 to August 1980 at the UT'NASA seismic array are summarized. The August 1931 Texas earthquake is reevaluated and the seismicity and crustal structure of West Texas is examined. A table of seismic stations is included.

  18. The Friday night bunch: a lesbian community in West Texas.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jean Brashear

    2005-01-01

    Life in the rural United States, isolated and surrounded by fundamentalists, drives one farmwoman to affirm her lesbianism and fulfill her desires, while writing a dissertation about West Texas farmwomen, her friends and neighbors. By recognizing their anger and its causes, she must recognize her own and come to terms with it. In the midst of emotional turmoil about who she has been and who she might become, she accidentally gathers around her a small group of lesbians who are equally isolated, with similar radical ideas.

  19. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, Evan J; Mariscal, Jacqueline; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, Margaret; Waldrup, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States. PMID:27759765

  20. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  1. Evaluating airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains by far the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable band...

  2. Analysis of the Wellbore Seal at Well 49-6 in the SACROC CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Field, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, J. W.; Wigand, M.; Chipera, S.; Woldegabriel, G.; Pawar, R.; Lichtner, P. C.; Wehner, S.; Raines, M.; Guthrie, G. D.

    2005-12-01

    Long-term integrity of wellbore cements is one of the major concerns for geologic sequestration of CO2. This paper presents analyses of cement core recovered from a well used in a long-term CO2 enhanced oil recovery operation. A sidetrack system was used to obtain core from a 55 year-old well with 30 years of CO2 exposure as both an injector and a producer at the SACROC unit (Permian Basin, Texas). The mineralogy, chemistry, and hydrologic properties were evaluated for evidence of degradation by CO2. The recovered samples were located ~ 3 m above the contact with the reservoir. The recovered cement had permeabilities in the milliDarcy range and thus retained its capacity to prevent significant flow of CO2. There was evidence for CO2 migration along the casing-cement and cement-shale interfaces. The casing interface had a 1-2 mm thick rind of calcite-aragonite-halite. The CO2 producing this rind may have traveled up the casing wall or may have infiltrated through the casing threads. The cement in contact with the shale (within 1 cm) was heavily carbonated to an assemblage of calcite, aragonite, vaterite and amorphous alumino-silica residue and was transformed to a distinctive orange color. The heavily carbonated region is separated from less altered cement by a narrow, dense zone of silica and carbonate deposition. The CO2 for this carbonation process migrated from the cement-shale interface where the presence of shale fragments (wall cake) may have provided a fluid pathway. The carbonation reaction was associated with only small changes in the original cement chemistry including an increase in Na2O and decrease in CaO and MgO with a slight enrichment in SiO2. The carbonated zone also has a distinct carbon and oxygen stable isotope signature. Although the observed carbonation was intense, the measured hydrologic properties of the carbonated zone were not significantly different from those of relatively unaltered cement in adjacent parts of the core. Textural

  3. Evolving dominant charge structures during upscale storm growth in West Texas on 4 June 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, V. C.; Bruning, E. C.; MacGorman, D. R.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Edens, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Deep Convective Cloud Chemistry (DC3) field campaign occurred from 15 May and 30 June 2012 with a primary goal of understanding the source of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the upper atmosphere due to lightning. In order to better understand this effect, it is necessary to better understand how the local environment can impact the polarity of the lightning in a storm. If polarity changes are driven by changes in electrification mechanisms, changes to the vertical distribution of the lightning channels and NOx source may result. One of the regions participating in DC3 extended from west Texas into central Oklahoma, where an arrangement of three Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMA) allowed for continuous analysis of electrification processes as storms moved across the region and through different local environments. On 4 June 2012 isolated storms initiated within range of the West Texas LMA and generated a mesoscale convective system, part of which dissipated over the West Texas LMA and Southwest Oklahoma LMA domains overnight. Initial storm cells developed within a relatively dry mid-level environment and were observed to contain a mid-level positive charge. However, later storm cells, both further east in deeper moisture and within areas that had previously been moistened by convection, were primarily observed to contain a mid-level negative charge. This presentation will detail the transition from initial discrete storm cells with mid-level positive charge regions and predominantly -IC flashes, to increased cellular coverage with a mixture of charge structures, to longer-lived multicellular clusters dominated by mid-level negative charge and +ICs at upper levels in the storm. These charge structures will be compared to proposed controls on storm electrification, including moisture variability in the mid-troposphere and its relationship to depletion of cloud liquid water.

  4. Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO), Lufkin, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherbee, James D.

    2005-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107; the complexity of such an event cannot be underestimated. The Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO) served as the primary DFO for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security. There were many organizations that had operational experience with disaster recovery. Offers to help came from many groups including the White House Liaison Office, the Department of Defense (DOD), branches of local, state and federal government, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state police, fire departments, the Texas Forestry Service, the Texas Army National Guard, medical groups, various rescue forces, contractor companies, the Salvation Army, local businesses, and citizens of our country and especially East Texas. The challenge was to know how much help to accept and how to efficiently incorporate their valuable assistance into a comprehensive and cohesive operational plan. There were more than 2,000 people involved with search and recovery.

  5. Dead horse graben: A west Texas accommodation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maler, Michael O.

    1990-12-01

    The Cretaceous rocks of the Dead Horse graben area underwent two superposed deformations. Laramide (latest Cretaceous to early Tertiary) left-transpression structures are overprinted by a Basin and Range (Miocene to Recent) accommodation zone. During Laramide shortening, two northwest trending sets of monoclines developed: an en echelon set over a left-slip basement fault and a single monocline draped over the uplifted edge of a rotated basement block. Basin and Range extension caused northerly trending half-grabens that have opposing asymmetry: downthrown-to-the-east north of the study area and downthrown-to-the-west south of the area. These half-grabens are separated by an accommodation zone, expressed as a northwest trending, right-lateral pull-apart graben. The normal faults of the pull-apart graben flatten at a shallower depth than those of the half-grabens. This suggests not only that accommodation zones can be mechanically layered but that this layering can occur on a scale different from the adjacent half-grabens. The northwest trend and superposition of both sets of structures implies a tectonic control by the preexisting structural fabric of the Texas Lineament.

  6. Nature of basalt-deep crust interaction in the petrogenesis of a potassium-rich, silicic-dominated eruptive system, Davis Mountain volcanic field, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Walker, J.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Davis Mountain volcanic field (DMVF) is one of several silicic-dominated eruptive centers that constitute the bulk of the Trans Pecos volcanic province (TPVP). New major-, trace element, and Pb-O isotope data on local granulite-facies xenoliths and the DMVF are used in evaluating the extent of basalt-deep crust interaction to produce voluminous silicic lavas and -ignimbrites. The DMVF (39.3--35.4 Ma) is a high-K, alkali basalt-potassic trachybasalt-shoshonite-latite-trachyte-rhyolite volcanoplutonic series with the evolved members being silica-saturated. DMF silicic rocks are characterized by high concentrations of Rb, Th, U, and K, low-[sup 18]O and have a broad range in Pb isotopes. These characteristics are inconsistent with an origin by partial melting of a Rb-Th-U depleted, unradiogenic Pb granulitic deep crust. However, distinctly different Pb isotope compositions between mafic and silicic rocks preclude an origin by fractional crystallization alone. Multistage-AFC involving a mantle-source, various proportions of OL-CPX-PLAG-KSPAR-MAG-AP-BIO-QTZ-aenigmatite-ZR differentiation, limited (<10%) amounts of deep and upper crustal contamination, and mixing between mafic and silicic magmas can satisfactorily account for the observed chemical and isotopic variation in the DMVF.

  7. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  8. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  9. West Nile virus infection incidence based on donated blood samples and neuroinvasive disease reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Diana T; Chen, Shande; Sutor, Laurie J; Stonecipher, Shelley; Janoski, Nicolette; Wright, David J; Busch, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    During the 2012 outbreak of West Nile virus in the United States, approximately one third of the cases were in Texas. Of those, about half occurred in northern Texas. Models based on infected blood donors and persons with neuroinvasive disease showed, respectively, that ≈0.72% and 1.98% of persons in northern Texas became infected.

  10. Stratigraphy and correlation of Upper Triassic strata between west Texas and eastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G. ); Anderson, O.J. )

    1992-04-01

    Lithostratigraphy and vertebrate biochronology allow precise correlation of Upper Triassic strata between west Texas and eastern New Mexico. Upper Triassic strata are well exposed in west Texas from Oldham to Scurry counties, and are assigned to the Dockum Formation of the Chinle Group. Fossil vertebrates from the Camp Springs and Tecovas Members are of late Carnian age, whereas those from the Copper Member are of early Norian age. Upper Triassic strata in east-central New Mexico, across the Llano Estacado from the west Texas outcrops, correlate as follows: Camper Springs = lower Santa Rose; Tecovas = upper Santa Rosa/Garita Creek; Trujillo = Trujillo ('Cuervo'); Cooper = lower Bull Canyon. Upper Triassic strata in southeastern New Mexico and in Howard and adjacent counties in Texas are the lower Santa Rosa/Camper Springs overlain by mudstones and sandstones that contain late Carnian vertebrates and are informally termed upper member of Dockum Formation. Available data refute several long-held ideas about the Upper Triassic of west Texas. These data demonstrate that: (1) there is a pervasive unconformity at the base of the Dockum Formation that represents much of Triassic time; (2) the Trujillo Member is not correlative with the Santa Rosa of eastern New Mexico: Trujillo is a medial Dockum unit, whereas Santa Rosa is at the base of the Upper Triassic section; (3) very little Dockum mudrock was deposited in lakes; and (4) Dockum rivers flowed almost exclusively to the north, northwest, and west, so there was no closed depositional basin in west Texas during the Late Triassic.

  11. Reservoir geology and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Yates Formation, Central Basin Platform, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Casavant, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Computer slice maps and proprietary three-dimensional interactive graphics were used to reconstruct the paleodeposition and to map reservoir variations within the Yates Formation of west Texas. The prolific Yates Formation is a major reservoir in the North Ward Estes field, Ward County, Texas. The Upper Permian (Guadalupian) Yates Formation is an overall regressive shallowing-upward package containing variable sequences of subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal strata. Sediment types include various siliciclastics mixed with sabkha-type carbonates and evaporites. The types of rocks and their structures indicate that these sediments were deposited in a prograding tidal flat-lagoonal setting located behind a shelf margin edge on the western flank of the positive Central Basin platform during the Guadalupian. The cyclic nature of the Yates is largely the result of lagoonal expansion and construction that caused environmental belts on both sides of the lagoon to converge and diverge. These rapid migrations of facies coupled with diagenetic processes created the heterogeneities that characterize this large reservoir.

  12. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  13. AN ANALYSIS OF HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE FROM EVALUATIONS OF GRADUATES IN WEST TEXAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EGGENBERGER, ULRICH LEWIS

    A STUDY OF THE 1953, 1954, AND 1955 WEST TEXAS HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES WHO HAD COMPLETED 1 OR MORE YEARS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) DETERMINE PRESENT OCCUPATIONAL STATUS, (2) DETERMINE FACTORS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE, (3) EVALUATE HIGH SCHOOL COURSES AND VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS AS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONS, AND (4)…

  14. Pterosaur from the latest cretaceous of west Texas: discovery of the largest flying creature.

    PubMed

    Lawson, D A

    1975-03-14

    Three partial skeletons of a large pterosaur have been found in the latest Cretaceous nonmarine rock of West Texas. This flying reptile had thin, elongate, perhaps toothless jaws and a long neck similar to Pterodaustro and Pterodactylus. With an estimated wingspan of 15.5 meters, it is undoutbtedly the largest flying creature presently known.

  15. Preliminary results of dust emission data from Yellow Lake Playa, West Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the relationship between groundwater and dust emission rates at Yellow Lake, a saline “wet” playa in West Texas with a long history of wind erosion. Deflation of the playa surface has generated lunettes composed of silt-clay aggregates and gypsum. Saltation sensors indicate that most...

  16. Geomorphic and hydrologic controls of dust emissions during drought from Yellow Lake playa, West Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the factors that control dust emissions from playas has revealed a number of complex geomorphic and hydrologic factors, yet there are few measurements of dust emissions from playas during drought or low-emission seasons. Deflation of Yellow Lake, a saline playa in West Texas, produces sa...

  17. 78 FR 25177 - Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United States shall be flown at... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... April 24, 2013 Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas By the President of the...

  18. Karst-controlled reservoir heterogeneity in Ellenburger group carbonates of west Texas: Reply

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C. )

    1990-07-01

    A reply to a comment made on Kerans' paper (AAGP Bull. 1988) by S.J. Mazzullo is presented. The author takes exception that Mazzullo's contention that he left out important types of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Permian basin of west Texas and points out that his original intention was to model karst-controlled reservoir rocks only.

  19. Topographic stress perturbations in southern Davis Mountains, west Texas 2. Hydrogeologic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Savage, W.Z.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a regional groundwater investigation, geophysical logs were obtained in two municipal water wells located near the west Texas city of Alpine. These boreholes are 252 and 285 m deep and penetrate extrusive rocks of Tertiary age. The deeper well was drilled in the central valley and the other along the northern flank of an east-west trending valley-ridge setting. Analysis and interpretation of the logs reveal that the two wells are subjected to significantly different stress environments because of topographic effects and exhibit significantly different hydrogeologic properties. Water production is associated with two specific types of features common to both wells: (1) the upper and lower contacts of a dense trachyte unit located in the shallow part of the wells and (2) deeper zones of highly fractured rocks within the interior of a basalt formation. The transmissivity of the trachyte boundaries is twice as large in the central valley well as it is in the ridge flank well, whereas the transmissivity of the deeper basalts is an order of magnitude greater in the flank well than it is in the central well. This discrepancy is examined from the perspective of rock failure, fracture opening, and flow enhancement by computing values for a Drucker-Prager stability factor that is based on the magnitudes of the normal and deviatoric stress invariants as a function of depth. Thus the field measurements and subsequent stress analysis offer evidence of a coupled tectonic-hydrologic interaction at this site.

  20. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  1. Origin of reservoir compartmentalization in Lower Ordovician Karstic Dolostones, Ellenburger Group, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1988-01-01

    Ellenburger Group reservoirs constitute a major play in the Permian basin of west Texas, with over 1.4 billion bbl cumulative production through 1985. These reservoirs typically have been developed by assuming homogeneous fracture-related pore system. Examination of core, log, and production data demonstrates that most Ellenburger reservoirs are characterized by pronounced vertical and lateral heterogeneities created by post-Ellenburger karst development. Vertical reservoir compartmentalization in the Ellenburger evolved from development of a laterally extensive cave system between 100 and 300 ft beneath the original land surface. Caves were filled by relatively impermeable siliciclastics from the overlying Simpson Group, effectively isolating permeable cave-roof breccias (uppermost Ellenburger) from collapse breccias deposited on cave floors prior to shale infill. Lateral compartmentalization of Ellenburger reservoirs originated by localized collapse of the cave system both during karst formation and after burial. In the Shafter Lake field, lateral compartmentalization is the result of a 200-ft vertical collapse during deposition of Simpson Group sands. Abrupt lateral discontinuities in the Big Lake and Glasco fields may represent similar collapse-related features, such as are spectacularly displayed in Ellenburger-equivalent outcrops of the Franklin Mountains. An estimated 750 million bbl of remaining mobile oil, in addition to conventional reserves, occurs in this mature but complexly compartmentalized play. Considering this paleokarst model will aid in further exploitation of Ellenburger reservoirs.

  2. 77 FR 30522 - Sunoco Pipeline L.P., West Texas Gulf Pipe Line Company, Mobil Pipe Line Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ...://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a... structure for the proposed West Texas--Nederland Access Project. Any person desiring to intervene or...

  3. Currents and water characteristics around the West Flower Garden Bank. [West Flower Garden Bank, coral reef, Texas continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The West Flower Garden Bank is a coral reef on the Texas Continental shelf. The corals on the bank are vulnerable to sediment contamination and to excess turbidity in the overlying water column. Concern for the environmental impact on this and other banks in the region exposed to nearby hydrocarbon production prompted the Bureau of Land Management to fund a data collection effort on the Texas/Louisiana shelf which provided the data analyzed here. Data analyzed includes profiles of velocity, temperature and salinity taken around the Bank in Oct., 1980 and March, 1981. Fixed current meter moorings and a dye experiment conducted in the bottom boundary layer provided additional input. The data reveals a very complicated flow regime around the bank, with some intensification of flow around and over the bank but no movement of water from the bottom of the surrounding shelf up onto the bank.

  4. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list as endangered and propose critical habitat for six west Texas aquatic invertebrate species under the Endangered Species Act. These actions are being taken as the result of a court-approved settlement agreement. These are proposed regulations, and if finalized the effect of these regulations will be to conserve the species and protect......

  5. Geochemical constraints on magma processes in a peralkaline system - The Paisano volcano, west Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonough, W. F.; Nelson, D. O.

    1984-01-01

    Petrographic and trace element data from a continuous stratigraphic sequence of flows from the peralkaline Paisano Volcano in west Texas are used to delineate magnetic processes responsible for the chemical evolution of this volcano. It is shown that crystal fractionation of the phenocrystic assemblage explains the main compositional variation, but magma mixing of a less evolved melt composition also affected the chemical evolution of the volcano.

  6. Recognition and significance of parasequences and parasequence sets in Leonard carbonate reservoirs, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from reservoirs of Leonardian age is sizable (cumulative production from the Leonardian on the Central Basin Platform (CBP) alone totals 1.4 billion bbls), recovery efficiencies from these restricted, shallow-water platform carbonate deposits are among the lowest in west Texas, averaging only about 19%. Detailed examination of the Leonard section in the Dollarhide and Monahans fields on the CBP indicates that poor recovery from these reservoirs is a function of extreme vertical heterogeneity produced by high-order oscillations of relative sea level. The Leonard sequence is composed of thin (1- to 2-m thick), upward-shallowing parasequences, each of which is marked at its base by a prominent marine flooding surface. Parasequences are, in turn, packaged into 15- to 20-m parasequence set defined by variations in parasequence facies stacking patterns. Reservoir porosity is typically preferentially developed in very thin (less than 1 m) zones of grain-rich subtidal facies within parasequences, although porosity may also be encountered in capping tidal-flat deposits. Because these facies display distinct pore and permeability characteristics, with subtidal facies usually exhibiting the highest permeabilities, development of accurate reservoir models for simulation and exploitation depends on the ability to distinguish and map these deposits. Recognition and correlation of parasequences and parasequence stacking patterns in parasequence sets provide a powerful tool for more accurate mapping of facies and attendant porosity development and facilitate development of improved models necessary for efficient exploitation of these highly heterogeneous reservoirs.

  7. Optical properties of Aeolian dusts common to West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lulu; Zobeck, Ted M.; Hsieh, Daniel H.; Holder, Dean; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Thompson, Jonathan E.

    2011-11-01

    Both recent models and historical events such as the Dust Bowl and volcanic eruptions have illustrated aerosols can play a significant role in climate change through direct and indirect optical effects. Soil dust aerosols generated by Aeolian processes represent a significant fraction of the total mass burden of atmospheric particles. Central to a better understanding of the climate effects of dust aerosols is knowledge of their optical properties. This research study utilized a dust generator and several instruments to determine certain optical properties of Aeolian dust mimics created by the Amarillo and Pullman soil types native to the panhandle of Texas, USA. Values for the mass-extinction coefficient ranged between 1.74 and 2.97 m 2 g -1 at 522 nm depending on how mass concentration was determined. Single-scatter albedo (SSA) for both soil types ranged from 0.947 to 0.980 at visible wavelengths with SSA increasing at longer wavelengths. Angstrom absorption exponents were measured as 1.73 for Pullman and 2.17 for Amarillo soil. Observed Angstrom extinction exponents were 0.110 and 0.168 for the Pullman and Amarillo soil types. The optical properties reported may be of use for optical based estimates of soil erosion and aid in understanding how regional soil dusts may alter radiative transport presently and during historical events such as the Dust Bowl era.

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

  9. Biosolids decomposition after surface applications in west Texas.

    PubMed

    Jaynes, W F; Zartman, R E; Sosebee, R E; Wester, D B

    2003-01-01

    In a semiarid environment, climate is a critical factor in the decomposition of surface-applied biosolids. This study examined the effect of 2- to 7-yr exposure times on the composition of single applications of New York, NY biosolids in western Texas. Exposure time effects on organic matter, N, P, S, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Zn were studied near Sierra Blanca, TX. Due to organic matter decomposition, total organic C decreased from 340 g kg(-1) in fresh biosolids to 180 g kg(-1) in biosolids after 82 mo of exposure, whereas the inorganic ash content of the biosolids increased from 339 to 600 g kg(-1). Total N decreased from 50 to 10 g N kg(-1) and total S decreased from 12 to 6 g S kg(-1). Bicarbonate-available P in the biosolids decreased from 0.9 to 0.2 g kg(-1). Successive H2O extractions yielded soluble P concentrations consistent with dicalcium phosphate (dical) for fresh biosolids and tricalcium phosphate (trical) for biosolids exposed for 59 months or more. Sparingly soluble phosphates, such as dical and trical, potentially yield > 0.5 mg P L(-1) in runoff waters for extended periods after biosolids applications, especially after multiple applications. Selective dissolution of the biosolids indicated that as much as 66 to 78% of P exists as iron phosphates, 16 to 21% as Fe oxides, and 5 to 12% as insoluble Ca phosphates. Chemical analyses of ash samples suggest that Cu and Zn have been lost from biosolids through leaching or runoff and no losses of Pb, Cr, or Hg have occurred since application.

  10. Stratigraphy of the Yucca Formation, Indio Mountains, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Julian, F.E. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Indio Mountains are located 25 miles south of Van Horn, Texas, on the northwestern margin of the Chihuahua Tectonic Belt. The Indio Mountains are composed of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks deposited on the edge of the Chihuahua trough. The focus of this study, the Yucca conglomerate, is the oldest known Mesozoic rock in the region, although its unconformable base is not exposed within the Indio Mountains. This area has been affected by faulting associated with both the Chihuahua tectonic belt and the Rio Grande Rift. During summer 1992, the authors measured a stratigraphic section through the Yucca conglomerate, using a custom made Jacob's staff. The measured section is over 500 meters thick and was measured and described in 3 meter intervals. The section was measured up a single valley, and did contain some minor faults. This project had three objectives: (1) to examine variations in the sand/conglomerate ratio throughout the Yucca Fm.; (2) to examine variations in conglomerate clast composition using outcrop and thin section analysis; and, (3) ultimately, to compare this stratigraphic section with sections measured by Underwood (1962) in the Eagle Mountains and Devil's Ridge to the northwest. The sand/conglomerate ratio varies, with the proportion of sand increasing up section. At the base of the section, the rocks are mostly clast supported conglomerate interbedded with thin (12 cm) sand layers. The top of the section is dominated by sandstones with pebble stringers, with some massive sand layers over 6m thick. Few truly conglomeratic layers are present near the top of the section. The composition of clasts within the conglomerate also varies. The carbonate clasts are often preferentially eroded. The carbonate content increases up section.

  11. Karst-controlled reservoir heterogeneity in Ellenburger group carbonates of west Texas: Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, S.J. )

    1990-07-01

    A discussion is presented on a paper by Charles Kerans (AAPG Bull. 1988). The paper dealt with karst-associated porosity and hydrocarbon reservoir heterogenity in Ellengurger (Lower Ordovician) carbonates in the Permian basin of west Texas. The purpose of this paper is not to dispute the model presented by Kerans, but instead to present some alternative models of reservoir occurrence that are not considered in his paper and that are also widely applicable to the Ellenburger and correlative strata in the Mid-Continent. The discussion is based on regional lithostratigraphy and subsurface mapping studies of the Ellenburger in the southern Midland basin, specifically in Irion, Reagan, Crockett, Schleicher, and Sterling counties (Texas).

  12. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  13. Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Texas Legislature passed a comprehensive revision to the Texas Water Code. This legislation (Senate Bill 1) changed water planning in Texas from a statewide to a regional activity. By September 2001, the 16 regions created by Senate Bill 1 must produce water plans to address their water needs during drought-of-record conditions, and must identify water-management strategies for periods when streamflows, reservoir storage, and groundwater levels are 50 and 75 percent of normal.

  14. Basement-influenced deformation in the Marathon fold-thrust belt, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tauvers, P.R.

    1988-09-01

    The Marathon Basin of West Texas is a window into the southwestern end of the Ouachita system and formed as a response to north-to-northwest-directed late Paleozoic thrust faulting. Folds in the basin are elongate, trend northeast, and are highly non-cylindrical. Thickness and facies changes within the flysch sediments of the basin are coincident with the plunge of major anticlinoria. These features are superimposed on a pre-existing structural framework inherited from earlier deformation and modified by pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic sedimentation. Field, seismic, aeromagnetic, and deep well data indicate the presence of both northeast-trending frontal ramps and northwest-trending transverse ramps beneath the allochthonous rocks of the Marathon Basin. Evidence for reactivated northwest-trending features includes: (1) changes in plunge of first- and second-order folds; (2) large offsets in Devonian carbonate/top of basement seismic reflectors; (3) structure contours on Cretaceous rocks surrounding the basin; (4) dramatic changes in elevation of top of Ellenburger along strike; (5) variable tectonic stratigraphy and flysch thickness along strike; (6) a northwest-trending magnetic low through the middle of the basin; and (7) outcrop and well data for large-scale vertical movements along colinear northwest-trending features both north and south of the basin proper. These basement structural features (high-angle faults.) were inherited from Late Precambrian rifting and reactivated during Ouachita, Laramide, and Basin and Range events. Basement-influenced transverse structures affect the sedimentological and subsequent deformational histories of this and other fold-thrust belts around the world.

  15. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, T.E. |; Sundberg, K.R.; Deyhim, P.; Ortoleva, P.

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  16. Trace-fossil and storm-deposit relationships of San Carlos formation, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, C.L.; Bednarski, S.P.

    1986-05-01

    Two distinct assemblages of trace fossils are preserved in the storm deposits in delta-front facies of the Upper Cretaceous San Carlos Formation, west Texas. The assemblages represent two widely differing responses to storm deposition and sediment-trace-fossil relationships, indicating that other environmental parameters, probably water depth and oxygen levels, influenced trace-fossil distribution within the San Carlos delta front. Evidence of the storm-deposited nature of the sandstones includes a scoured basal contact, planar to hummocky cross-stratification, and a upper contact that is either ripple marked or is gradational with overlying shales.

  17. Yard flooding by irrigation canals increased the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Victor M.; Jaime, Javier; Ford, Paula B.; Gonzalez, Fernando J.; Carrillo, Irma; Gallegos, Jorge E.; Watts, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of use of water from irrigation canals to flood residential yards on the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas. Methods West Nile disease confirmed cases in 2009–2010 were compared with a random sample of 50 residents of the county according to access to and use of water from irrigation canals by subjects or their neighbors, as well as geo-referenced closest distance between their home address and the nearest irrigation canal. A windshield survey of 600 meters around the study subjects’ home address recorded the presence of irrigation canals. The distance from the residence of 182 confirmed cases of West Nile disease reported in 2003–2010 to canals was compared to that of the centroids of 182 blocks selected at random. Results Cases were more likely than controls to report their neighbors flooded their yards with water from canals. Irrigation canals were more often observed in neighborhoods of cases than of controls. Using the set of addresses of 182 confirmed cases and 182 hypothetic controls the authors found a statistically significant inverse relation with risk of West Nile disease. Conclusions Flooding of yards with water from canals increased the risk of West Nile disease. PMID:21943648

  18. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  20. Cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Feng; Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cross-correlation properties between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC. We use not only the qualitative analysis of the cross-correlation test, but also take the quantitative analysis of the MF-DXA, confirming the cross-correlation relationship between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) respectively, which have strongly multifractal features, and the cross-correlations are more strongly multifractal in the short term than in the long term. Furthermore, based on the multifractal spectrum, we also find the multifractality strength between the crude oil WTI and Chinese stock market is stronger than the multifractality strength of other pairs. Based on the Iraq war (Mar 20, 2003) and the Financial crisis in 2008, we divide sample period into four segments to research the degree of the multifractal (ΔH) and the market efficiency (and the risk). Finally, we employ the technique of the rolling window to calculate the time-varying EI (efficiency index) and dependent on the EI, we can easily observe the change of stock markets. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between bivariate cross-correlation exponents (Hxy(q)) and the generalized Hurst exponents.

  1. Geologic and Engineering Characterization of East Ford Field, Reeves County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Guzman, Jose I.; Zirczy, Helena

    1999-08-16

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. The project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit: it contained an estimated 18.4 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place.

  2. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Gordon; Basom, Janet; Mattevada, Sravan; Onger, Frederick

    2015-04-15

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population.

  3. Water quality and streamflow data for the West Fork Trinity River in Forth Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCutcheon, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected on a 13.6-mile reach of the West Fork Trinity River in Fort Worth, Texas to test a dynamic Lagrangian model. Flow was steady. Loads of dissolved constituents varied with time at the beginning of the study reach and in the reach, primarily because of photosynthesis. River quality was fairly good despite low dissolved oxygen measured in the headwaters and the significant sewage load from the tributaries. Diel and longitudinal trends were defined by sampling at fixed sites and by following dyed parcels of water. Nitrification, deoxygenation, reaeration, and photosynthesis affected the dissolved oxygen balance. Independent estimates of some of the rate coefficients were 0.1 to 0.2, 0.8, and 0 to 3.6 , all per day, for deoxygenation, nitrification, and reaeration, respectively. (USGS)

  4. Spatiotemporal associations of reservoir nutrient characteristics and the invasive, harmful alga Prymnesium parvum in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a harmful alga that has caused ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems worldwide. In inland systems of North America, toxic blooms have nearly eliminated fish populations in some systems. Modifying nutrient profiles through alterations to land or water use may be a viable alternative for golden alga control in reservoirs. The main objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the nutrient dynamics that influence golden alga bloom formation and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs. We examined eight sites in the Upper Colorado River basin, Texas: three impacted reservoirs that have experienced repeated golden alga blooms; two reference reservoirs where golden alga is present but nontoxic; and three confluence sites downstream of the impacted and reference sites. Total, inorganic, and organic nitrogen and phosphorus and their ratios were quantified monthly along with golden alga abundance and ichthyotoxicity between December 2010 and July 2011. Blooms persisted for several months at the impacted sites, which were characterized by high organic nitrogen and low inorganic nitrogen. At impacted sites, abundance was positively associated with inorganic phosphorus and bloom termination coincided with increases in inorganic nitrogen and decreases in inorganic phosphorus in late spring. Management of both inorganic and organic forms of nutrients may create conditions in reservoirs unfavorable to golden alga.

  5. Differentiation of springtime vegetation indices associated with summer anthrax epizootics in west Texas, USA, deer.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Goodin, Douglas G

    2013-07-01

    Anthrax outbreaks in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, are frequent in west Texas, USA, particularly across the Edwards Plateau. However, the outbreak severity varies among years. We summarize the outbreak history in white-tailed deer at a ranch north of Del Rio, Texas, from 2001 to 2010 and compare mortality rates to remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data. It has long been posited that the occurrence of mid- to high-latitude epizootics is associated with hot, dry summer conditions preceded by a wet spring, with cases occurring after summer rain events. Here we employed vegetation green-up indices as a proxy for such environmental conditions. Annual trajectories of vegetation indices identified a clear pattern of early green springs with dry summers in severe outbreak years. In contrast, later, less intense spring green-up with greener summers were associated with enzootic mortality years, when few cases occurred. There was a statistically significant difference in the annual timing and intensity of spring green-up from vegetation indices for epizootic and enzootic years. Years with epizootics have early, intense spring conditions, whereas enzootic years have low-intensity green-up. These results suggest that early green-up signatures may be useful in identifying epizootic climatic conditions ahead of the summer anthrax period. Such analyses are required to ultimately develop an early warning system for wildlife managers and veterinary public health officials.

  6. Reduced avian virulence and viremia of West Nile virus isolates from Mexico and Texas.

    PubMed

    Brault, Aaron C; Langevin, Stanley A; Ramey, Wanichaya N; Fang, Ying; Beasley, David W C; Barker, Christopher M; Sanders, Todd A; Reisen, William K; Barrett, Alan D T; Bowen, Richard A

    2011-10-01

    A West Nile virus (WNV) isolate from Mexico (TM171-03) and BIRD1153, a unique genotype from Texas, have exhibited reduced murine neuroinvasive phenotypes. To determine if murine neuroinvasive capacity equates to avian virulence potential, American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were experimentally inoculated with representative murine neuroinvasive/non-neuroinvasive strains. In both avian species, a plaque variant from Mexico that was E-glycosylation competent produced higher viremias than an E-glycosylation-incompetent variant, indicating the potential importance of E-glycosylation for avian replication. The murine non-neuroinvasive BIRD1153 strain was significantly attenuated in American crows but not house sparrows when compared with the murine neuroinvasive Texas strain. Despite the loss of murine neuroinvasive properties of nonglycosylated variants from Mexico, our data indicate avian replication potential of these strains and that unique WNV virulence characteristics exist between murine and avian models. The implications of reduced avian replication of variants from Mexico for restricted WNV transmission in Latin America is discussed.

  7. Depositional systems and Karst geology of the Ellenburger group (lower ordovician), subsurface West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Ellenburger Group of Texas contains estimated reserves of 1.15 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Despite its economic significance, comparatively little is known about the subsurface Ellenburger in West Texas; thus, this book presents a regional model of Ellenburger deposition and diagenesis. Using associations of lithologies and sedimentary structures observed in core, the author identified six depositional systems in the Ellenburger: fan delta-marginal marine, lower tidal flat, high-energy restricted shelf, low-energy restricted shelf, upper tidal flat, and open shallow water shelf. Diagenesis was dominated by three major styles of dolomitization: very fine crystalline dolomite (5-20 {mu}m), in tidal-flat facies; fine to medium crystalline dolomite (20-100 {mu}m), widespread in all facies; and coarse crystalline replacement mosaic dolomite and saddle dolomite cement, which formed in a burial setting after pre-Simpson karst formation and before Pennsylvanian faulting, uplift, and erosion. Other diagenetic events were karst-related dissolution episodes associated with repeated uplift and exposure and subsequent dedolomitization of the Ellenburger platform.

  8. APPLICATION OF AN AREA-OF-REVIEW (AOR) CONCEPT TO THE EAST TEXAS FIELD AND OTHER SELECTED TEXAS OILFIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Warner; Leonard F. Koederitz; Robert C. Laudon

    1997-07-01

    The Underground Injection Control (UIC) regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require an Area-of-Review (AOR) study for newly drilled or converted Class II injection wells. In Texas, the UIC program is administered by the Texas Railroad Commission. A Federal Advisory Committee (FAC) formed by the EPA recommended, in 1992, that exceptions to the AOR requirement should be allowed for wells in those areas where a variance has been granted because there is sufficiently low risk of upward fluid migration from the injection zone into an underground source of drinking water. The FAC listed conditions that could be considered in determining whether to grant a variance. The University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), under contract with the American Petroleum Institute, then expanded the FAC AOR variance conditions into an AOR variance methodology. A Department of Energy (DOE) grant to UMR, for which this is the final report, provided for study of the application of the AOR variance methodology to the East Texas field and to other selected Texas oilfields. A final report on the East Texas field portion of the DOE project was submitted by UMR to DOE in 1995. This current final report describes the results of UMR's study of AOR variance opportunities in the Texas Gulf Coast Frio Formation oil producing trend. In the course of this study, AOR variance opportunities were examined for 73 oilfields in nine Texas Gulf Coast counties. It is believed that the combination of well construction and abandonment characteristics plus the presence of sloughing and squeezing shales and porous and permeable sand sink zones provide for the possibility of AOR variances in 57 of the 73 study fields. The remaining 16 fields are ones where the oil accumulations occur in conjunction with shallow salt domes and where geologic conditions are probably too complex to allow field-wide AOR variances. The successful study results can probably be extended to at least 78 additional oilfields

  9. Precipitation, streamflow, and base flow in west-central Texas, December 1974 through March 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation, streamflow, and base-flow data were analyzed for December 1974 through March 1977 as a part of the Edwards-Trinity Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in west-central Texas. The period of record analyzed corresponds to the calibrating period of a digital groundwater-flow model of the aquifer system currently (1988) being developed. Precipitation at individual stations ranged from 6 to 45 in/yr. Precipitation normally (1951-80) ranged from 10 to 32 in/year from east to west in the study area. Precipitation was near normal over most of the area and above normal in the southeastern part of the study area. Streamflow ranged from less than 1 in/year in the western part of the study area to 13 in/yr in the southeastern part. Streamflow was 8 in/yr above normal in the southeast. Base flow ranged from less than 0.1 in/yr in the western part of the study area to 6 in/yr in the southeastern part. (USGS)

  10. Hylton northwest field's tectonic effect on Suggs Ellenburger producing area, Nolan County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffacker, B.F. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    An evaluation of the geology of Hylton Northwest field in southeastern Nolan County, Texas, indicates that the pre-Pennsylvanian tectonics associated with this field may have affected the producing zone of Suggs Ellenburger field 6 mi (9 km) west. Both fields are located along the Fort Chadbourne fault system of the Eastern shelf of the Midland basin. The study of the depositional environment of the Suggs Ellenburger field reveals some interesting aspects of the tectonostratigraphic terrane that appears to have in part influenced the development of the reservoir rock. The tectonics of the Cambrian-Ordovician (Ellenburger) period in Hylton Northwest field created a southwest-trending fault system with associated fractures. The fractures allowed percolating surface waters to leach carbonate rocks in the area, creating vuggy secondary porosity in the intercrystalline rock fabric. The faults were modified to a karst topography by periods of subaerial erosion of the Cambrian-Ordovician depositional plain. Sea level fluctuations that occurred in the area were associated with the alternating uplift and subsidence of the Hylton Northwest field's tectonic feature. As a result, environmental zones of porosity with varying vertical subaerial erosion formed within the overall Cambrian-Ordovician (Ellenburger) interval. The producing zone of the Suggs Ellenburger field occurs at approximately 6,400 ft (1,951 m).

  11. Winter habitat use and survival of lesser prairie-chickens in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pirius, Nicholas E.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Wallace, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range since the late 1800s and is currently proposed for Federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Populations and the distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas, USA, are thought to be at or near all-time lows. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We measured home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the non-breeding seasons (1 Sep-28 Feb) of 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in the West Texas panhandle region. Home range size did not differ among years or between females (503 ha) andmales (489 ha). Over 97% of locations of both male and female prairie-chickens were within 3.2 km of the lek of capture, and 99.9% were within 3.2 km of an available water source (i.e., livestock water tank). Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges; grassland-dominated areas with co-occurring sand shinnery oak were used more than available, but sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-dominated areas with grassland and sand sagebrush-dominated areas with bare ground were both used less than available. Survival rates during the first 2 non-breeding seasons (>80%) were among the highest reported for the species. However, survival during the third non-breeding season was only 57%, resulting in a 3-year average of 72%. It does not appear that non-breeding season mortality is a strong limiting factor in lesser prairie-chicken persistence in the study area.

  12. Giant gas field of northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

  13. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  14. Magnetostratigraphy susceptibility for the Guadalupian Series GSSPs (Middle Permian) in Guadalupe Mountains National Park and adjacent areas in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Lambert, Lance L.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Bell, Gordon L.; Nestell, Galina P.

    2012-01-01

    Here we establish a magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Middle Permian Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) that have recently been defined, located in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, West Texas, USA. These GSSPs, all within the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, define (1) the base of the Roadian Stage (base of the Guadalupian Series), (2) the base of the Wordian Stage and (3) the base of the Capitanian Stage. Data from two additional stratigraphic successions in the region, equivalent in age to the Kungurian–Roadian and Wordian–Capitanian boundary intervals, are also reported. Based on low-field, mass specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) measurements of 706 closely spaced samples from these stratigraphic sections and time-series analysis of one of these sections, we (1) define the magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Guadalupian Series Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points; (2) demonstrate that χ datasets provide a proxy for climate cyclicity; (3) give quantitative estimates of the time it took for some of these sediments to accumulate; (4) give the rates at which sediments were accumulated; (5) allow more precise correlation to equivalent sections in the region; (6) identify anomalous stratigraphic horizons; and (7) give estimates for timing and duration of geological events within sections.

  15. Origin of micro-rhombic calcite matrix within Cretaceous reservoir rock, West Stuart City Trend, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Ronald D.

    1989-07-01

    Cores from four wells from the West Stuart City Trend in La Salle and Webb Counties, Texas, were analyzed to define depositional and diagenetic facies and to determine factors controlling porosity distribution. In all, 1187 ft (362 m) of core and 220 thin sections were examined in detail and supplemented by SEM analyses of fractured surfaces and plastic casts of pore systems. A comparison of lithofacies and ecologic facies to permeability and porosity values compiled from core data revealed that zones with permeabilities greater than 0.1 md and porosities of at least 6% were associated with rudistid grainstones cemented by isopachous, submarine cement and packstones with a finely crystalline rhombic calcite matrix. Isotopic and trace element analyses of both isopachous submarine cements and micro-rhombic matrix suggest a common origin. The precursor to the micro-rhombic calcite is believed to have been peloidal, high-magnesian calcite. This internal marine sediment may be analogous to the peloidal fabrics that have been reported from Holocene and Pleistocene carbonates. Diagenetic equilibration of both submarine cements and peloidal infill is believed to have occurred during burial either in marine pore waters at elevated temperatures or in restricted flow, phreatic freshwaters.

  16. Detrended fluctuation analysis on spot and futures markets of West Texas Intermediate crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yudong; Wei, Yu; Wu, Chongfeng

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we study the auto-correlations and cross-correlations of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot and futures return series employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA). Scaling analysis shows that, for time scales smaller than a month, the auto-correlations and cross-correlations are persistent. For time scales larger than a month but smaller than a year, the correlations are anti-persistent, while, for time scales larger than a year, the series are neither auto-correlated nor cross-correlated, indicating the efficient operation of the crude oil markets. Moreover, for small time scales, the degree of short-term cross-correlations is higher than that of auto-correlations. Using the multifractal extension of DFA and DCCA, we find that, for small time scales, the correlations are strongly multifractal, while, for large time scales, the correlations are nearly monofractal. Analyzing the multifractality of shuffled and surrogated series, we find that both long-range correlations and fat-tail distributions make important contributions to the multifractality. Our results have important implications for market efficiency and asset pricing models.

  17. Upper Permian (Guadalupian) facies and their association with hydrocarbons - Permian basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Kendall, C.G.S.C.; Harris, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    Outcrops of Guadalupian sedimentary rocks in the Permian basin of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico are a classic example of the facies relationships that span a carbonate shelf. In the subsurface, these rocks form classic hydrocarbon-facies taps. Proceeding from basin to the updip termination of the shelf, the facies are (1) deep-water basin, (2) an apron of allochthonous carbonates, (3) carbonate shelf margin or reef, (4) carbonate sand flats, (5) carbonate barrier islands, (6) lagoon, and (7) coastal playas and supratidal salt flats (sabkhas). Over a half century of exploration drilling has shown that hydrocarbons in the Permian rocks of the Permian basin have accumulated at the updip contact of the lagoonal dolomites and clastics with the coastal evaporites, and in the basinal channel-fill clastics. The shelf marginal (reef) facies contain cavernous porosity, but commonly are water saturated. These facies relationships and hydrocarbon occurrences provide an exploration model with which to explore and rank hydrocarbon potential in other carbonate provinces. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Occurrence of cotton herbicides and insecticides in playa lakes of the High Plains of West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.; Mollhagen, T.

    2000-01-01

    During the summer of 1997, water samples were collected and analyzed for pesticides from 32 playa lakes of the High Plains that receive drainage from both cotton and corn agriculture in West Texas. The major cotton herbicides detected in the water samples were diuron, fluometuron, metolachlor, norflurazon, and prometryn. Atrazine and propazine, corn and sorghum herbicides, were also routinely detected in samples from the playa lakes. Furthermore, the metabolites of all the herbicides studied were found in the playa lake samples. In some cases, the concentration of metabolites was equal to or exceeded the concentration of the parent compound. The types of metabolites detected suggested that the parent compounds had been transported to and had undergone degradation in the playa lakes. The types of metabolites and the ratio of metabolites to parent compounds may be useful in indicating the time that the herbicides were transported to the playa lakes. The median concentration of total herbicides was 7.2 ??g/l, with the largest total concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/l. Organophosphate insecticides were detected in only one water sample. Further work will improve the understanding of the fate of these compounds in the playa lake area. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of four potential West Nile vector species in north-central Texas.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Bethany G; Kennedy, James H; Zimmerman, Earl G

    2005-12-01

    A population survey was conducted from April through September 2002 on mosquito species occurring on the Ray Roberts Greenbelt, a riparian corridor used for public recreation on the Elm Fork of the Trinity River, in Denton County, TX. Geographic information system software was used to set up a stratified random sampling design based on habitat parameters. Mosquitoes were collected using light traps, gravid traps, and resting boxes. A total of 29 species was collected during this study belonging to the following genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, Psorophora, and Uranotaenia. The four most common species collected during this study were Aedes vexans, Culex erraticus, Culex salinarius, and Psorophora columbiae. West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected in these species in the United States, and they may serve as important vector species in Denton County. Collections were analyzed by the Texas Department of Health for arboviruses. One pool consisting of both Cx. erraticus and Cx. salinarius, collected in August 2002, tested positive for WNV, making it the first mosquito pool to test positive for WNV in Denton County. Canonical correspondence analysis was performed using abundance data of dominant species with selected weather variables and habitat parameters. Important factors for determining dominant species abundance were temperature, precipitation, dew point, and canopy coverage. Spatial and temporal patterns of these species are discussed.

  20. Dissolution of evaporites in and around the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico and west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    permian evaporites in the Ochoan Castile, Salado, and Rustler Formations in the Delaware Basin of southeast New Mexico and west Texas have been subjected to various degrees of dissolution (notably of halite and gypsum) through geologic time. Eastward tilting of the Delaware Basin has resulted in the exhumation and erosion of Ochoan rocks in the western part of the basin. Waters in the Capitan, Rustler, Castile, and Bell Canyon Formations have previously been proposed as agents or consequences of evaporite dissolution according to four principal models: solution-and-fill, phreatic dissolution, brine density flow, and stratabound dissolutin (along bedding planes). Several geomorphological features of positive and negative relief have previously been cited as indicators of evaporite dissolution. Brine density flow has been used to explain the selective dissolution of certain evaporite horizons during the late Cenozoic. A review of available geological data has revealed that: Halite deposition was probably not so extensive as formerly believed. Waters with potential to dissolve evaporites are in the Rustler and Capitan, but not in the Bell Canyon, Salado mine seeps, or the Castile brine reservoirs. Brine density flow has not been active in removing most of the missing halite, nor are point-source dissolution features likely to have their roots at the Bell Canyon. Major evaporite dissolution has not been confined to the late Cenozoic, but much of it took place during the Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Tertiary periods. The Bell Canyon Formation has been a sink for dissolution-derived brine.

  1. Subsurface Glen Rose reef trend in east Texas and west-central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, G.S.

    1983-03-01

    The subsurface Glen Rose reef trend in east Texas and west-central Louisiana (Lower Cretaceous Comanchean) is a regressive carbonate complex deposited on a broad shallow water shelf. The Glen Rose reef trend can be differentiated into two separate reef tracts that prograded seaward over a slowly subsiding shelf. It remains to be seen whether the Glen Rose reefs are actual framework reefs or mounds of transported material. Reef facies include poorly sorted caprinidcoral grainstones, moderately sorted peloid and oncolite packstones and grainstones, and well-sorted, very fine grained skeletal grainstones. Coated grains, abraded skeletal fragments, scoured bedding surfaces, and minor cross-beds are evidence for deposition of the reef facies in a high-energy shoal setting. The reefal buildups grade laterally into low-energy shallow water wackestones and mudstones containing toucasids, orbitolinids, and serpulid burrows. Porosities associated with the reefal buildups appear facies controlled. Caprinid-coral packstones and grainstones exhibit intraparticle, moldic, and vuggy porosities of 10 to 15%. Pinpoint microporosity of 5 to 10% are found within the finegrained skeletal grainstones. Fracture porosity enhances permeability in several facies. Moldic and vuggy porosity types are generally secondary whereas intraparticle porosity may be preserved primary. Coarse equant calcite commonly occludes intraparticle, moldic, vuggy, and fracture porosities. Dolomitization within the reef limestones may have acted to create or preserve porosities. Poor production from the Glen Rose reef trend has been attributed to the lack of structural closure.

  2. Hydrogeological framework of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

    1996-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system underlies about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas, where mostly gently dipping Lower Cretaceous strata comprise three regional aquifers and two regional confining units. The aquifers are the Edwards Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone, the Trinity Aquifer of the Balcones fault zone and Hill County, and the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer of the Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos. The Navarro-Del Rio confining unit confines the downdip part of the Edwards Aquifer, and the Hammett confining unit confines the updip, basal part of the Trinity Aquifer and a small southeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Transmissivity averages less than 10,000 feet squared per day throughout more than 90 percent of the study area as the result of widespread cementation and secondary mineral growth. However, in fractured and leached rocks in the Balcones fault zone, transmissivity averages about 750,000 feet squared per day in the Edwards aquifer, which occupies less than 10 percent of the area.

  3. Clarksville field Red River County, Texas: Production and facies interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The Clarksville field was discovered in December in 1985 while targeting a deeper paleozoic horizon. Since production went on line in 1986, this field has produced over 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) with the appearance of a considerably longer and more lucrative life. The producing horizon is a Jurassic-age lithic conglomerate sitting unconformably on the Paleozoic and Triassic structural front of the buried Ouachita range. Facies correlation out of the basin indicate this unit to be Louark age. Mapping and compositional analysis indicate the depositional environmental of this unit to be an arid climate alluvial fan deposited as a 'Bajada' complex. This fan system was laid down at the updip margin of the actively forming Mesozoic embayment where it meets the Ouachita structural front. The significance of this field is demonstrated by the production yield at a relatively shallow depth (5800 ft). At this time, production similar to Clarksville field has yet to be encountered anywhere along the Mesozoic rim of the East Texas basin but does represent a viable exploration trend, in addition to being a gateway for future paleozoic production in the basin.

  4. The Hydrogeologic Conditions in the Upper Dockum Group at the Waste Control Specialists Site, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, R. M.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Pickens, J. F.; Powers, D. W.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Cook, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site in Andrews County, west Texas has licenses from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous material. Four landfills are constructed on the WCS site, including a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. All landfills are constructed below grade and within the low-permeability Triassic Dockum Group mudrocks (Cooper Canyon Formation). The Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. The Dockum would be generally classified as an aquitard. At the WCS site, the vertical effective hydraulic conductivity of the Dockum is 1.2×10-9 cm/s, and its horizontal effective conductivity is 2.9×10-7 cm/s. Core samples reveal that at least the upper 300+ feet of the Dockum is in the unsaturated zone. The average capillary pressure in Dockum core samples is -2.84 MPa, with an average saturation of 0.87. High saturation values are not surprising, as Dockum air-entry pressures range from 0.016 to 9.8 MPa, with a mean of 1.0 MPa. Heat dissipation sensors, thermocouple psychrometers, and advanced tensiometers installed in Dockum borehole arrays generally show capillary pressures one order of magnitude less than those measured on core samples. These differences with core data are attributed to the presence of a trapped and compressed gas phase within Dockum materials. In the vicinity of an instrumented borehole, the gas phase pressure equilibrates with atmospheric pressure, lowering the capillary pressure. Little fluid has circulated vertically through the Dockum. Measurements of the electrical conductivity of a saturated paste consisting of water and

  5. Ochoan (upper Permian) stratigraphy and age determinations, southeastern New Mexico and west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G. ); Anderson, O.R. )

    1994-03-01

    Upper Permian strata, which are the stratotype of the Ochoan State (Series), have an extensive subsurface distribution and limited outcrop area in southeastern New Mexico and west Texas. The oldest strata are alternating laminae of anhydrite and calcite of the Castile Formation and are as much as 700 m thick. The closely related and overlying Salado Formation is a much as 600 m thick and is mostly halite and argillaceous halite with minor anhydrite. The overlying Rustler Formation is as much as 150 m thick and consists of anhydrite, red silty shale and magnesian limestone. Overlying red beds are the Quartermaster Formation (Dewey Lake Formation is a synonym, as is the term Pierce Canyon red beds), which is as much as 106 m thick and consist of fine sandstones, siltstones, and minor gypsum. The Castile rests disconformably on the Capitanian (middle Permian) Lamar Limestone Member of the Bell Canyon Formation and its equivalent, the Tansill Formation of the Artesia Group. Counting of Castile-Salado laminae and their posited relationship to astronomical cycles suggests that Castile-Salado deposition took only 200,000-300,000 yr. Limited assemblages of brachiopods and conodonts from the Rustler Formation indicate a Late Permian age, but are no more precise age indicators. A small assemblage of bivalves, K-Ar ages and magnetostratigraphy indicate a late Permian age for the Quartermaster Formation. There is no evidence to support a Triassic age assignment for the Quarter-master; it is disconformably overlain by the Upper Triassic (Carnian) Chinle group. Most workers us the Ochoan as a Late Permian Stage-Age, although its typical strata generally lack good age indicators and may represent relatively short and sporadic intervals of the Late Permian. We prefer recognition of the Ochoan as a lithostratigraphic unit (group) without regional or global geochronologial significance.

  6. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas.

    PubMed

    Gong, Gordon; Basom, Janet; Mattevada, Sravan; Onger, Frederick

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2-22µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas.

  7. Computed and estimated pollutant loads, West Fork Trinity River, Fort Worth, Texas, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; McWreath, Harry C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Trinity River Authority, did a study to estimate storm-runoff pollutant loads using two models—a deterministic model and a statistical model; the estimated loads were compared to loads computed from measured data for a large (118,000 acres) basin in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan area. Loads were computed and estimated for 12 properties and constituents in runoff from two 1997 storms at streamflow-gaging station 08048543 West Fork Trinity River at Beach Street in Fort Worth. Each model uses rainfall as a primary variable to estimate pollutant load. In addition to using point rainfall at the Beach Street station to estimate pollutant loads, areal-averaged rainfall for the basin was computed to obtain a more representative estimate of rainfall over the basin. Loads estimated by the models for the two storms, using both point and areal-averaged rainfall, generally did not compare closely to computed loads for the 12 water-quality properties and constituents. Both models overestimated loads more frequently than they underestimated loads. The models tended to yield similar estimates for the same property or constituent. In general, areal-averaged rainfall data yielded better estimates of loads than point rainfall data for both models. Neither the deterministic model nor the statistical model (both using areal-averaged rainfall) was consistently better at estimating loads. Several factors could account for the inability of the models to estimate loads closer to computed loads. Chief among them is the fact that neither model was designed for the specific application of this study.

  8. Clay mineralogy and its controls on production, Pennsylvanian upper Morrow sandstone, Farnsworth field, Ochiltree County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, T.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Farnsworth field in Ochiltree County, Texas, is the most prolific upper Morrow oil field in the Anadarko basin, producing more than 36 million bbl of oil and 27 billion ft{sup 3} of gas since its discovery in 1955. The bulk of the production comes from an upper Morrow-aged sandstone locally referred to as the Buckhaults sandstone. The Buckhaults sandstone is a coarse to very coarse-grained, arkose to arkosic wacke. Grain-size distributions, sedimentary structure analysis, and sand-body geometry indicate that the Buckhaults was deposited in a fluvial-deltaic environment as distributary channel and distributary mouth-bar sands. Depositional strike is northwest to southeast. The source area for the Buckhaults sediments was primarily a plutonic igneous terrane, with a minor contribution from volcanic and reworked sedimentary rocks. The proposed source area is the Amarillo-Wichita uplift to the south. In addition, the Cimarron arch and/or Keyes dome to the west-northwest may also have contributed sediment to the study area. The large (average) grain size, the amount of feldspar present, and the overall immaturity of the Buckhaults sediments indicate a relatively short distance of transport. Detailed scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis of cores from the productive interval coupled with comparisons of varying completion practices across the field indicate a significant correlation between individual well performance, clay mineralogy, and completion technique.

  9. Evaporite replacement within the Permian strata of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and the Delaware Basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The Park City and Goose Egg Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming and the Seven Rivers, Yates and Tansill Formations of west Texas and New Mexico contain numerous examples of silicified and calcitized evaporites. Both areas show significant preserved interstitial evaporite, but on outcrop the discrete crystals and nodular evaporites have been extensively replaced. These replacements appear to be a multistage phenomenon. Field and petrographic evidence (matted fabrics in nodules; evaporite inclusions) indicate that silicification involved direct replacement of evaporites and probably occurred during earlier stages of burial. Calcitization, however, appears to be a much later phenomenon and involved precipitation of coarse crystals within evaporite molds. The calcites are typically free of evaporite inclusions. Isotopic analyses of these calcites give a wide range of values from [minus]6.04 to [minus]25.02 [per thousand] [delta][sup 18]O and +6.40 to [minus]25.26 [per thousand] [delta][sup 13]C, reflecting their complex diagenetic histories. In both localities, silicification of evaporites was completed by the end of hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. The extremely broad isotopic range of the calcites indicates that the calcitization occurred during a long period of progressive uplift and increased groundwater circulation associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting. The very light oxygen values within the Bighorn Basin were produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction during deepest burial of the region. Evaporite diagenesis in both the Bighorn and Delaware Basins is an ongoing process that started prior to hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to do significant porosity change.

  10. Winter ecology and habitat use of lesser prairie-chickens in west Texas, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, Clint W.; Pirius, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range by more than 90 percent since the late 1800s. The lesser prairie-chicken has been listed as a candidate species for protection under the Endangered Species Act and is undergoing review for actual listing. Populations and distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas are thought to be at or near all time lows. These factors have led to substantially increased concern for conservation of the species. It is apparent that sound management and conservation strategies for lesser prairie-chickens are necessary to ensure the long-term persistence of the species. To develop those strategies, basic ecological information is required. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We examined home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the winters of 2008–9, 2009–10, and 2010–11 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in west Texas. We captured and radio-tagged 53 adult lesser prairie-chickens. We obtained sufficient locations to estimate winter home-range size for 23 individuals. Home-range size did not differ between years or by sex. Although female prairie-chickens had slightly larger home ranges (503.5 ± 34.9 ha) compared to males (489.1 ± 34.9 ha), the differences were not significant (t2 = 0.05, P = 0.96). During the nonbreeding season, we found that 97.2 percent of locations of male and female prairie-chickens alike were within 3.2 kilometers (km) of the lek of capture. Most locations (96.8%) were within 1.7 km of a known lek and almost all locations (99.9%) were within 3.2 km of an available water source. Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges, grassland dominated areas with sand shinnery oak were used more than available, and sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) areas dominated with grassland as well as sand sagebrush areas

  11. Geologic and engineering characterization of Geraldine Ford field, Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Topical report -- 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Malik, M.A.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. The study focused on Geraldine Ford field, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon formation (Ramsey sandstone). Petrophysical characterization of the Ford Geraldine unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobile oil saturation, and other reservoir properties. Once the reservoir-characterization study was completed, a demonstration area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in the northern part of the unit was chosen for reservoir modeling/simulation. A quarter of a five-spot injection pattern in the demonstration area was selected for flow simulations, and two cases of permeability distribution were considered, one using stochastic permeability distribution generated by conditional simulation and the other using layered permeabilities. Flow simulations were performed using UTCOMP, an isothermal, three-dimensional, compositional simulator for miscible gas flooding. Results indicate that 10--30% (1 to 3 MMbbl) of remaining oil in place in the demonstration area can be produced by CO{sub 2} injection.

  12. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  13. Topographic stress perturbations in southern Davis Mountains, west Texas 1. Polarity reversal of principal stresses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.Z.; Morin, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    We have applied a previously developed analytical stress model to interpret subsurface stress conditions inferred from acoustic televiewer logs obtained in two municipal water wells located in a valley in the southern Davis Mountains near Alpine, Texas. The appearance of stress-induced breakouts with orientations that shift by 90?? at two different depths in one of the wells is explained by results from exact solutions for the effects of valleys on gravity and tectonically induced subsurface stresses. The theoretical results demonstrate that above a reference depth termed the hinge point, a location that is dependent on Poisson's ratio, valley shape, and magnitude of the maximum horizontal tectonic stress normal to the long axis of the valley, horizontal stresses parallel to the valley axis are greater than those normal to it. At depths below this hinge point the situation reverses and horizontal stresses normal to the valley axis are greater than those parallel to it. Application of the theoretical model at Alpine is accommodated by the fact that nearby earthquake focal mechanisms establish an extensional stress regime with the regional maximum horizontal principal stress aligned perpendicular to the valley axis. We conclude that the localized stress field associated with a valley setting can be highly variable and that breakouts need to be examined in this context when estimating the orientations and magnitudes of regional principal stresses.

  14. Vitrinite reflectance data for the Permian Basin, west Texas and southeast New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark; Barker, Charles E.; McDonald, Sargent

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data based on analyses of samples of drill cuttings collected from 74 boreholes spread throughout the Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico (fig. 1). The resulting data consist of 3 to 24 individual Ro analyses representing progressively deeper stratigraphic units in each of the boreholes (table 1). The samples, Cambrian-Ordovician to Cretaceous in age, were collected at depths ranging from 200 ft to more than 22,100 ft.The R0 data were plotted on maps that depict three different maturation levels for organic matter in the sedimentary rocks of the Permian Basin (figs. 2-4). These maps show depths at the various borehole locations where the R0 values were calculated to be 0.6 (fig. 2), 1.3 (fig. 3), and 2.0 (fig. 4) percent, which correspond, generally, to the onset of oil generation, the onset of oil cracking, and the limit of oil preservation, respectively.The four major geologic structural features within the Permian Basin–Midland Basin, Delaware Basin, Central Basin Platform, and Northwest Shelf (fig. 1) differ in overall depth, thermal history and tectonic style. In the western Delaware Basin, for example, higher maturation is observed at relatively shallow depths, resulting from uplift and eastward basin tilting that began in the Mississippian and ultimately exposed older, thermally mature rocks. Maturity was further enhanced in this basin by the emplacement of early and mid-Tertiary intrusives. Volcanic activity also appears to have been a controlling factor for maturation of organic matter in the southern part of the otherwise tectonically stable Northwest Shelf (Barker and Pawlewicz, 1987). Depths to the three different Ro values are greatest in the eastern Delaware Basin and southern Midland Basin. This appears to be a function of tectonic activity related to the Marathon-Ouachita orogeny, during the Late-Middle Pennsylvanian, whose affects were widespread across the Permian

  15. Associations between two mosquito populations and West Nile virus in Harris County, Texas, 2003-06.

    PubMed

    Dennett, James A; Bala, Adilelkhidir; Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak; Randle, Yvonne; Sargent, Christopher B; Guzman, Hilda; Siirin, Marina; Hassan, Hassan K; Reyna-Nava, Martin; Unnasch, Thomas R; Tesh, Robert B; Parsons, Ray E; Bueno, Rudy

    2007-09-01

    Associations between Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and West Nile virus (WNV) activity, temperature, and rainfall in Harris County, Texas 2003-06 are discussed. Human cases were highly correlated to Cx. quinquefasciatus (r = 0.87) and Ae. albopictus (r = 0.78) pools, blue jays (r = 0.83), and Ae. albopictus collected (r = 0.71), but not Cx. quinquefasciatus collected (r = 0.45). Human cases were associated with temperature (r = 0.71), not rainfall (r = 0.29), whereas temperature correlated with Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively) and Cx. quinqueftsciatus pools (r = 0.75), but not Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.55). Both species (collections and pools) and blue jays were weakly correlated (r 5 0.41) with rainfall, but blue jays were better correlated with Cx. quinquefasciatus pools (r = 0.87), compared with Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.67), Ae. albopictus collections (r = 0.69), and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.46). Peak minimum infection rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus (4.55), and Ae. albopictus (4.41) was in August with highest human cases (17.87), blue jays (55.58), and temperature (29.01 degrees C). Between both species, blood meal analysis indicated 68.18% of Cx. quinquefasciatus mammalian hosts were dog, while 22.72% were human, whereas Ae. albopictus had higher human (44.44%) but fewer dog hosts (22.22%). Ten bird species were identified as hosts for Cx. quinquefasciatus, with northern cardinal and blue jay representing 26.66% and 20.00%, respectively. No bird feeding activity was observed in Ae. albopictus. The earliest and latest human blood meal occurred in May (Ae. albopictus) and November (Cx. quinquefasciatus); 66.66% of human host identifications between both species occurred in October-November, after the seasonal human case peak. Based upon our data, WNV activity in both mosquito species warrants further investigation of their individual roles in WNV ecology within this region.

  16. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1996-04-30

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. One the reservoir-characterization study of both field is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to: (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area; (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments; and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill well will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and producibility problem characterization.

  17. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  18. Geophysical studies at proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R.; Doser, D.I.; Whitelaw, J.; Miller, K.C.; Hua, F.; Baker, M.R.; Meeks, N. )

    1994-03-01

    Although the disposal of high-level nuclear waste is officially a national problem, the federal government has charged each state with the responsibility of disposing of its own low-level nuclear waste. Texas has considered many possible areas for its disposal facility, but has studied two sites in Hudspeth County extensively. Geophysical methods have been used to study the subsurface structure of these sites, evaluate the earthquake hazards, and set up monitoring of possible leakage from the sites. The structural studies employed the same techniques as used in petroleum exploration, but with a ore balanced reliance between seismic and potential field methods. Since the scale of these investigations was relatively small (a few miles in extent), high-resolution methodology was employed. This aspect of the project mainly impacted the seismic reflection work. The depth to the bedrock was a major concern because the near-surface alluvium is generally a good natural barrier to any potential leakage. The location of any faults near the sites was also a major concern, because faults were both an indicator of potential earthquake hazards and a possible pathway for rapid movement of any material that might leak from the site. Analysis of the tectonic stability of the site involved regional geophysical data on a crustal scale and an evaluation of the historical earthquake record. A network of seismograph stations was established in the region to monitor contemporary seismicity. Compared to typical petroleum applications of geophysical data, these studies involved a wide variety of data and an analysis that required the methodical integration of these data.

  19. Irrigation with Treated Urban Wastewater for Bioenergy Crop Production in the Far West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjegunte, G. K.; Clark, J. A.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent years, interest in biobased fuels is increasing and the congressionally mandated goal is to use at least 36 billion gallons of bio-based transportation fuels by 2022. However, in 2009 the U.S. produced about 10.75 billion gallons of ethanol, primarily as corn starch ethanol and 550 million gallons of biodiesel. Thus, there is a huge gap between the current capacity and the mandated goal. USDA estimates that about 27 million acres of land has to be brought under bioenergy crops to produce 36 billion gallons of bio-based fuels. Meeting the challenge of bridging this huge gap requires a comprehensive regional strategy that includes bringing addition area from different regions within the country under bioenergy crops. In the southwest U.S. region such as west Texas or southern New Mexico, bringing vast abandoned crop lands and areas having permeable soils under bioenergy crops can be a part of such a regional strategy. While the region has adequate supply of land, finding reliable source of water to produce bioenergy crops is the main challenge. This challenge can be met by developing marginal quality water sources for bioenergy crops production. Use of marginal quality waters such as treated urban wastewater/saline groundwater to irrigate bioenergy crops may prove beneficial, if the bioenergy crops can grow under elevated salinity and the effects on soil and shallow groundwater can be minimized by appropriate management. The region has enormous potential for marginal quality water irrigation to produce bioenergy crops for a greater farm return. For example, at present, in El Paso alone, the total volume of treated municipal and industrial wastewater is about 65,000 acre-feet/year, of which only 13% is being reused for industrial processes and irrigating urban landscapes. The major concern associated with treated wastewater irrigation is its salinity (electrical conductivity or EC which measures salinity ranges from 1.8 to 2.1 dS m-1) and sodicity

  20. Creating a disease risk map for West Nile virus for surveillance in Central Texas using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the discovery of the West Nile virus (WNv) in Brazos County, TX in 2002, mosquito research personnel at Texas A&M University established a routine WNv mosquito vector surveillance program in the county. In 2004, a map of Brazos County was created depicting areas that had a heightened leve...

  1. Applying broadband spectra to assess biological control of saltcedar in West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Texas, natural resource managers, government officials, and scientists need effective means for monitoring biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) with the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhadba spp.). This study was conducted to evaluate broadband spectra within visible, red-edge, and near-inf...

  2. Employing spatial information technologies to monitor biological control of saltcedar in West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhadha spp.) has shown promise as a biocontrol agent for saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) invasions in the United States. In Texas, natural resource managers need assistance in monitoring biological control of invasive saltcedars. This study describes application of a medium fo...

  3. Precambrian basement geology of the Permian basin region of west Texas and Eastern New Mexico: A geophysical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R.

    1996-03-01

    Because most of the Permian basin region of west Texas and southern New Mexico is covered by Phanerozoic rocks, other means must be found to examine the Precambrian upper crustal geology of the region. We have combined geologic information on the Precambrian from outcrops and wells with geophysical information from gravity and magnetic surveys in an integrated analysis of the history and structure of basement rocks in the region. Geophysical anomalies can be related to six Precambrian events: formation of the Early Proterozoic outer tectonic belt, igneous activity in the southern Granite-Rhyolite province, an episode of pre-Grenville extension, the Grenville orogeny, rifting to form the Delaware aulacogen, and Eocambrian rifting to form the early Paleozoic continental margin. Two geophysical features were studied in detail: the Abilene gravity minimum and the Central Basin platform gravity high. The Abilene gravity minimum is shown to extend from the Delaware basin across north-central Texas and is interpreted to be caused by a granitic batholith similar in size to the Sierra Nevada batholith in California and Nevada. This batholith appears to be related to formation of the southern Granite- Rhyolite province, possibly as a continental margin arc batholith. Because of this interpretation, we have located the Grenville tectonic front southward from its commonly quoted position, closer to the Llano uplift. Middle Proterozoic mafic intrusions are found to core the Central Basin platform and the Roosevelt uplift. These intrusions formed at about 1.1 Ga and are related in time to both the Mid-Continent rift system and the Grenville orogeny in Texas. Precambrian basement structures and changes in lithology have influenced the structure and stratigraphy in the overlying Permian basin, and thus have potential exploration significance.

  4. Middle proterozoic tectonic activity in west Texas and eastern New Mexico and analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The Precambrian history of west Texas and eastern New Mexico is complex, consisting of four events: Early Proterozoic orogenic activity (16309-1800 Ma), formation of the western granite-rhyolite province (WGRP) (1340-1410 Ma), Grenville age tectonics (1116-1232 Ma), and middle Proterozoic extension possibly related to mid-continent rifting (1086-1109 Ma). Pre-Grenville tectonics, Grenville tectonics, and mid-continent rifting are represented in this area by the Abilene gravity minimum (AGM) and bimodal igneous rocks, which are probably younger. We have used gravity modeling and the comparison of gravity and magnetic anomalies with rock types reported from wells penetrating Precambrian basement to study the AGM and middle Proterozoic extension in this area. The AGM is an east-northeast-trending, 600 km long, gravity low, which extends from the Texas-Oklahoma border through the central basin platform (CBP) to the Delaware basin. This feature appears to predate formation of the mafic body in the CBP (1163 Ma) and is most likely related to Pre-Grenville tectonics, possibly representing a continental margin arc batholith. Evidence of middle Proterozoic extension is found in the form of igneous bodies in the CBP, the Van Horn uplift, the Franklin Mountains, and the Sacramento Mountains. Analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies shows that paired gravity and magnetic highs are related to mafic intrusions in the upper crust. Mapping of middle Proterozoic igneous rocks and the paired anomalies outlines a 530 km diameter area of distributed east-west-oriented extension. The Debaca-Swisher terrain of shallow marine and clastic sedimentary rocks is age correlative with middle Proterozoic extension. These rocks may represent the lithology of possible Proterozoic exploration targets. Proterozoic structures were reactivated during the Paleozoic, affecting both the structure and deposition in the Permian basin.

  5. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  6. Application of integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geoenvironmental issues in far west Texas and southern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Adriana Evangelina

    The primary goal of this dissertation was to utilize a geographic information system (GIS) to better understand geological, geophysical, forestry and environmental issues in the west Texas-New Mexico region. Studies such as these are especially important in the border region where economic limitations are usually a factor in studying and solving some of these problems. The availability of satellite imagery through the Pan-American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES), data from the Geospatial Center and the collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Forest entities (Guadalupe and Lincoln Ranger Districts) enhance the value of our investigation. Research was conducted in two distinct areas: Cloudcroft-Ruidoso, New Mexico, and the Salt Flat basin of southwest Texas (Figure 1). The dissertation will be presented as a set of independent chapters. Chapter 1. A GIS and remote sensing investigation of the effects of interactions of terrain, soil, and other physiographic factors on the Pine Community of Lincoln National Park in the Sacramento Mountains of Southwest New Mexico. This study utilized GIS and remote sensing to better understand the dynamics of White Pine Blister Rust (WPBR) infestation in the white pine community of the Sacramento Mountains of southwest New Mexico. Both field spectral sampling of the needles and imagery analysis were incorporated to better understand the infestation, progression and vulnerability of the forest to this and other diseases. A major contribution of this study was to construct a GIS database, which was utilized to analyze USDA, elevation, satellite imagery, geological, and hydrological data to produce a hazard-rating map. The GIS environment also allowed for a 3-D perspective on the data, which was very useful in spatial visualization. Chapter 2. An integrated study of the basin structure of the Salt Flat basin. In this study we utilized, gravity and magnetic data, satellite

  7. Sanaga Sud field - Offshore Cameroon, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pauken, R.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The Sanaga Sud field, offshore Cameroon, is located just northwest of the coastal town of Kribi in the northern part of the Douala basin. The discovery well, Sanaga Sud A-1, was drilled in 1979 to test an apparent horst block that contained a prominent horizontal seismic amplitude. The Douala basin is one of a series of passive margin basins located along the coastline of central and southern Africa, and formed during the rifting of Africa and South America during the Early Cretaceous. Drilling results showed that the amplitude was a gas/water contact. Two appraisal wells, SSA-2 and SSA-3, were drilled in 1981. All three wells tested gas and condensate. Total recoverable hydrocarbons for the field are estimated to be approximately 1 tcf of gas. The trap in this field is composed of tilted and rotated fault blocks composed of interbedded Aptian to Albian sandstones, siltstones, and shales. The fault blocks were truncated by erosion (breakup unconformity) and later buried by a considerable thickness of onlapping Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary shale. The late Albian erosional unconformity forms the top of the trap over most of the field. Geochemical studies indicate a Lower Cretaceous source for the hydrocarbons. The gross pay thickness averages 250 m with an average porosity of 23% and an average permeability of 142 md. Reservoir lithologies range from well-sorted, massive sandstones to poorly sorted fine sandstones and siltstones containing shaly laminations that are carbonaceous and micaceous. The field is located predominantly in Block PH-38, but part of the field is in the Londji concession. Mobil Producing Cameroon, Inc., is the operator of PH-38 and Total Exploration and Production Cameroon is the operator of the Londji concession.

  8. Late Leonardian plants from West Texas: The youngest Paleozoic plant megafossils in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.; Miller, J.M.; Rohr, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Abundant Permian plant megafossils were discovered in the Del Norte Mountains of Brewster County, Trans-Pecos Texas. The flora is dominated by a new and distinctive type of gigantopteroid leaves. Marine invertebrates are closely associated, and this admixture of continental and marine fossils indicates a deltaic depositional setting, probably on the southern margin of the Permian Basin. Conodonts indicate correlation with the uppermost Leonardian Road Canyon Formation in the Glass Mountains. These are the youngest Paleozoic plant megafossils known in North America; they add an important paleontological element to the classic Permian area of this Continent.

  9. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  10. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico - petrophysical characterization of the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    Reservoir performance of the South Cowden Grayburg field suggests that only 21 percent of the original oil in place has been recovered. The purpose of this study is to construct a realistic reservoir model to be used to predict the location of the remaining mobile oil. Construction of reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation of carbonate reservoirs is difficult because they typically have complicated and unpredictable permeability patterns. Much of the difficulty results from the degree to which diagenetic overprinting masks depositional textures and patterns. For example, the task of constructing a reservoir model of a limestone reservoir that has undergone only cementation and compaction is easier than constructing a model of a karsted reservoir that has undergone cavern formation and collapse as well as cementation and compaction. The Permian-age carbonate-ramp reservoirs in the Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico, are typically anhydritic dolomitized limestone. Because the dolomitization occurred soon after deposition, depositional fabrics and patterns are often retained, and a reservoir model can be constructed using depositional concepts. Recent studies of the San Andres outcrop in the Guadalupe Mountains and the Seminole San Andres reservoir in the Permian Basin illustrate how depositional fabrics and patterns can be used to construct a reservoir model when depositional features are retained.

  11. Paleokarst, karst related diagenesis and reservoir development: Examples from Ordovician-Devonian age strata of west Texas and the Mid-continent

    SciTech Connect

    Candelaria, M.P.; Reed, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This publication served as a guidebook for a Permian Basin Section-SEPM field trip to examine exposures of paleokarst in lower Paleozoic platform carbonates of West Texas and New Mexico. Included are road logs for the field trips and a collection of eighteen papers and abstracts that focus on various aspects of paleokarst in shallow-water carbonates including: (1) recognition and classification of karst-related textures in outcrop and the subsurface; (2) sequence stratigraphic analysis of karsted platforms; (3) diagenetic products of karstification; and (4) production characteristics of karst reservoirs. Collectively, these papers provide excellent documentation of sedimentary fabrics and diagenetic products associated with paleokarst development resulting from regional exposure of Cambro-Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian carbonates of the Great American Bank.'' The major value of this volume lies in the integration of a variety of approaches for examining processes and products related to karstification. These include the use of core, outcrop, well logs, and computer modeling to better understand paleokarst development and preservation. Some of the more interesting articles are highlighted below.

  12. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  13. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, West Texas facility among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Buzzi Unicem cement facility in Maryneal, TX, about 60 miles west of Abilene, is among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY ST

  14. An unusual Middle Permian flora from the Blaine Formation (Pease River Group: Leonardian-Guadalupian Series) of King County, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Hook, R.W.; Nelson, W.J.; Chaney, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    A new Middle Permian plant assemblage from South Ash Pasture in King County, Texas, may be the youngest and is certainly the most unusual flora known from the Permian of either West Texas or adjoining north-central Texas. Found serendipitously in the evaporite-rich upper Blaine Formation (Pease River Group, Guadalupian Series), the flora is of very low diversity despite intensive collecting efforts, and the affinities of nearly all taxa are enigmatic. The most common elements are parallel-veined leaves that resemble cordaites but that could be isolated pinnules of a pinnate leaf. Gigantopterid foliage is present but not assignable to any known taxon. A single foliar conifer specimen is too incomplete for assignment. Numerous reproductive organs, however, and an abundance of axes may represent conifers. Conchostracans, palaeoniscoid fish scales, and small heteropolar coprolites also occur in the deposit, which originated as a small, claystone-dominated channel fill in a coastal plain setting.

  15. Investigations of a deep drill hole in the Ouachita tend, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Borrego, P.M.; Moreno, F.; Keller, G.R.; Marsaglia, K.M.; Pingitore, N.E. )

    1994-03-01

    The Exxon 1 Gatlin well was recently drilled to a depth of over 25,000 ft in Terrell County, Texas, just north of the international boundary with Mexico. This well is deepest penetration of the interior zone of the Ouachita system to data. The well is near the apex of the interior zone gravity high, which elsewhere has been shown to approximately mark the Paleozoic continental margin. Gravity models constructed in this region, including one that was tied to this well, confirm that this well is proximal to the Paleozoic margin. The well was spudded in Lower Cretaceous rocks, and drilled through a 23,000-ft section of low-grade metamorphic rocks. Cuttings of this metamorphic section are composed predominantly of phyllite, fine-grained schist, metaquartzite, and impure marble. Based on their mineralogy and texture, the likely precursor for these rocks was a sedimentary sequence of marls and mudstones. However, no relict sedimentary structures or fauna was observed. Phyllite and schist fragments are graphitic and locally crenulated, and large fragments exhibit multiple phases of deformation. Minor coarse carbonate and quartz may represent vein fills. Downhole textural trends include a gradual change from phyllite to schist at approximately 7500 ft. and a gradual increase in schist fragments to 19,600 ft. X-ray diffraction of bulk samples indicates a downhole decrease in total carbonate content. This metamorphic sequence appears similar to Ouachita interior zone rocks encountered in wells in central Texas and in outcrops in Oklahoma and Arkansas. However, the large thickness encountered in the well and the even larger thickness suggested by the gravity modeling is indicative of proximity to the continental margin and is likely the result of thrust faulting.

  16. An evaluation of CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff field tests in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, H.K.; Alston, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Field experience in 28 Texas CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff projects is presented and discussed. These projects were designed and implemented by producing department personnel. In the absence of mechanical problems, CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff can recover oil from 23-30/sup 0/API Texas Gulf Coast Miocene Reservoirs. Shorter soak times (10-17 days) recovered as much or more oil as longer soak times for 2.3 cP crudes. Injection of larger volumes of CO/sub 2/ (8 MMSCF (230,000 m/sup 3/) instead of 4 MMSCF (11,000 m/sup 3/)) resulted in greater incremental oil recovery of a 33 cP (0.033 Pa-s) crude. Oil cut response can guide in the selection of wells to receive multiple cycles of CO/sub 2/. Two simple predictive methods are presented for estimating incremental oil recovery from CO/sub 2/ huff 'n' puff. One is from the literature and the other was developed for the Texas reservoirs, where oil swelling and viscosity reduction are important oil recovery mechanisms. Although predictions from both methods show modest agreement with field production, the method developed specifically for Texas cases was slightly better.

  17. 78 FR 40970 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Six West Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... or surface water contamination (Diamond Y Spring), maintaining the pump within Phantom Lake Spring to..., the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, the Texas Comptroller's Office, the Texas Water Development..., water quantity and quality, the effect of existing regulatory mechanisms and other potential...

  18. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  19. Stratigraphic hierarchy of organic carbon rich siltstones in deep-water facies, Brushy Canyon Formation (Guadalupian), Delaware Basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sageman, Bradley B.; Gardner, Michael H.; Armentrout, John M.; Murphy, Adam E.

    1998-05-01

    The first systematic test for a predictive relationship between organic carbon content and stratigraphic hierarchy in a deep-water slope to basin-floor deposit was performed. The studied section includes the Pipeline Shale, the Brushy Canyon Formation, and the lower part of the Cherry Canyon Formation of the Delaware Mountain Group, West Texas. This interval represents one large-scale, 3rd-order genetic sequence within which 4th- and 5th-order stratigraphic cycles are recognized. Samples of fine-grained facies throughout the section were collected from outcrop and analyzed for organic carbon content and hydrogen index. Degree of pyritization was also determined for a subset of the samples. The results indicate that organic enrichment is closely correlated to the stratigraphic hierarchy at the 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order levels. The data suggest that quantity and quality of preserved organic matter are controlled by changes in bulk sedimentation rate (dilution vs. condensation), which affect organic matter inputs to the sediment, as well as the balance between (1) burial and preservation of organic matter and (2) its degradation on the sea floor during times of sediment starvation.

  20. Use of the routing procedure to study dye and gas transport in the West Fork Trinity River, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Rathbun, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Rhodamine-WT dye, ethylene, and propane were injected at three sites along a 21.6-kilometer reach of the West Fork Trinity River below Fort Worth, Texas. Complete dye concentration versus time curves and peak gas concentrations were measured at three cross sections below each injection. The peak dye concentrations were located and samples were collected at about three-hour intervals for as many as six additional cross sections. These data were analyzed to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficients as well as the gas desorption coefficients using both standard techniques and a numerical routing procedure. The routing procedure, using a Lagrangian transport model to minimize numerical dispersion, provided better estimates of the dispersion coefficient than did the method of moments. At a steady flow of about 0.76 m2/s, the dispersion coefficient varied from about 0.7 m2/s in a reach contained within a single deep pool to about 2.0 m2/s in a reach containing riffles and small pools. The bulk desorption coefficients computed using the routing procedure and the standard peak method were essentially the same. The liquid film coefficient could also be obtained using the routing procedure. Both the bulk desorption coefficient and the liquid film coefficient were much smaller in the pooled reach than in the reaches containing riffles.

  1. Associations between water physicochemistry and Prymnesium parvum presence, abundance, and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Toxic blooms of golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) have caused substantial ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems throughout the world. In North America, toxic blooms have impacted freshwater systems including large reservoirs. Management of water chemistry is one proposed option for golden alga control in these systems. The main objective of this study was to assess physicochemical characteristics of water that influence golden alga presence, abundance, and toxicity in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCR) in Texas. The UCR contains reservoirs that have experienced repeated blooms and other reservoirs where golden alga is present but has not been toxic. We quantified golden alga abundance (hemocytometer counts), ichthyotoxicity (bioassay), and water chemistry (surface grab samples) at three impacted reservoirs on the Colorado River; two reference reservoirs on the Concho River; and three sites at the confluence of these rivers. Sampling occurred monthly from January 2010 to July 2011. Impacted sites were characterized by higher specific conductance, calcium and magnesium hardness, and fluoride than reference and confluence sites. At impacted sites, golden alga abundance and toxicity were positively associated with salinity-related variables and blooms peaked at ~10°C and generally did not occur above 20°C. Overall, these findings suggest management of land and water use to reduce hardness or salinity could produce unfavorable conditions for golden alga.

  2. Structural relations between Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R.; Smith, K.J.

    1985-02-01

    The Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins and related uplifts formed the major structural elements of the southwestern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic. In contrast with the relatively simple relationships where the southern Oklahoma aulacogen intersects the Ouachita orogenic belt, structural relationships in the area of these basins are very complex. Various geologic evidence points to an allochthonous Marathon basin. However, a prominent gravity anomaly is associated with the Ouachita system as it extends from western Arkansas through Oklahoma and Texas into northern Mexico. If this anomaly is the signature of the early Paleozoic continental margin, then the location of the Marathon basin with respect to this anomaly suggests lateral displacements have been only on the scale of tens of kilometers. The Delaware basin seems clearly analogous to the Anadarko basin in that it formed as a result of reactivation of a major crustal flaw (not necessarily a rift). This reactivation was a result of the Ouachita orogeny. The Marfa basin is also flanked by a linear gravity high and basement uplift. The relationship of this anomaly to the gravity high associated with the Ouachita system suggests that the Marfa basin may be more analogous to the Delaware basin that foreland basins such as the Ft. Worth and Arkoma. A prominent gravity high that extends into northern Mexico is associated with the Devil's River uplift, and the relationships between this feature, the Val Verde basin, and adjacent structures suggest major deformation on a crustal scale.

  3. 3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  4. 5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  5. 2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. 6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  7. Characterization of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Mudrocks at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) Site, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuszmaul, J. S.; Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.; Beauheim, R.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Cook, S.

    2011-12-01

    Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At many radioactive waste disposal facilities, the long-term performance of the facility may be influenced by the transport of radionuclides through interconnected fracture networks. WCS developed an integrated geologic mapping and hydraulic testing program to evaluate the hydraulic significance of discontinuities within Dockum rocks. At the WCS site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures

  8. Rainfall and temperature distinguish between Karnal bunt positive and negative years in wheat fields in Texas.

    PubMed

    Workneh, F; Allen, T W; Nash, G H; Narasimhan, B; Srinivasan, R; Rush, C M

    2008-01-01

    Karnal bunt of wheat, caused by the fungus Tilletia indica, is an internationally regulated disease. Since its first detection in central Texas in 1997, regions in which the disease was detected have been under strict federal quarantine regulations resulting in significant economic losses. A study was conducted to determine the effect of weather factors on incidence of the disease since its first detection in Texas. Weather variables (temperature and rainfall amount and frequency) were collected and used as predictors in discriminant analysis for classifying bunt-positive and -negative fields using incidence data for 1997 and 2000 to 2003 in San Saba County. Rainfall amount and frequency were obtained from radar (Doppler radar) measurements. The three weather variables correctly classified 100% of the cases into bunt-positive or -negative fields during the specific period overlapping the stage of wheat susceptibility (boot to soft dough) in the region. A linear discriminant-function model then was developed for use in classification of new weather variables into the bunt occurrence groups (+ or -). The model was evaluated using weather data for 2004 to 2006 for San Saba area (central Texas), and data for 2001 and 2002 for Olney area (north-central Texas). The model correctly predicted bunt occurrence in all cases except for the year 2004. The model was also evaluated for site-specific prediction of the disease using radar rainfall data and in most cases provided similar results as the regional level evaluation. The humid thermal index (HTI) model (widely used for assessing risk of Karnal bunt) agreed with our model in all cases in the regional level evaluation, including the year 2004 for the San Saba area, except for the Olney area where it incorrectly predicted weather conditions in 2001 as unfavorable. The current model has a potential to be used in a spray advisory program in regulated wheat fields.

  9. Pesticide safety training and access to field sanitation among migrant farmworker mothers from Starr County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Shipp, E M; Cooper, S P; Burau, K D; Bolin, J N

    2005-02-01

    Very little published research describes employer compliance with EPA-mandated Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide safety training and the OSHA Field Sanitation Standard among farmworker women in general and mothers specifically. A goal of both standards is limiting farmworkers' exposure to potentially hazardous agricultural pesticides. Data from a NIOSH-supported cohort study ("Injury and Illness Surveillance in Migrant Farmworker Families") allowed for examining these issues. The cohort included 267 migrant farmworker families who usually reside along the Texas-Mexico border (Starr County, Texas). Data were collected in Starr County during in-home interviews. Of 102 mothers who participated in migrant farm work during summer 2001, 57 (55.9%) reported having ever received training/instruction in the safe use of pesticides, while 47 (46.1%) reported having received training within the previous five years, as required by WPS. Of trained mothers, 91.5% to 93.6% reported that their training covered key WPS areas: (1) entry into a recently treated field, (2) pesticide related injuries/illnesses, and (3) where to go and who to contact for emergency care following exposure. Regarding access to field sanitation, 67.5% to 84.2% of 77 mothers who worked outside Texas reported employer-provided decontamination supplies (e.g., soap, wash water, towels, and toilet facilities). However, a strikingly smaller proportion (12% to 28%) of 25 mothers who worked within Texas reported access to the same resources, suggesting discrepancies in compliance across the U.S. Due to the low level of employer compliance with both WPS and OSHA mandated standards, increased enforcement and an alternate delivery of pesticide training is recommended.

  10. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  11. Texas Supernova Search: A Wide Field Search for Nearby SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quimby, R. M.; Castro, F.; Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P.; Kannappan, S. J.; Mondol, P.; Sellers, M.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    ROTSE-IIIb is one four robotic telescopes built by the University of Michigan to observe the prompt optical afterglows associated with gamma-ray bursts. At just 0.45m in diameter, it is the smallest research telescope at McDonald, but its 1.85 x 1.85 deg field of view and autonomous operation make it an excellent survey instrument for rare transient phenomena. We have been using ROTSE-IIIb for the past year to search for supernovae in nearby galaxy clusters such as the Virgo, Coma, and Ursa Major clusters. ROTSE-IIIb's wide field of view allows us to search the thousands of galaxies in these clusters, which cover hundreds of square degrees on the sky, in just a few tens of exposures. We can therefore observe all of these fields in a single night, and repeat the search every night. When we identify a new supernova candidate, we invoke our target of opportunity time on the neighboring 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) the following night to obtain a spectrum. Because of the rolling search and the quick spectral turn-around possible with the HET, we are able to capture spectra of the earliest phases of the explosion. By combining this information with spectra taken at later epochs, we can construct a complete description of the explosion. Through this work we aim to better understand the physical conditions of supernova explosions, identify any systematic effects that may affect how Type Ia supernovae are calibrated as standard candles and used to probe cosmology, and also to better calibrate Type II supernovae as standard candles.

  12. Evaluation of area of review variance opportunities for the East Texas field. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, D.L.; Koederitz, L.F.; Laudon, R.C.; Dunn-Norman, S.

    1995-05-01

    The East Texas oil field, discovered in 1930 and located principally in Gregg and Rusk Counties, is the largest oil field in the conterminous United States. Nearly 33,000 wells are known to have been drilled in the field. The field has been undergoing water injection for pressure maintenance since 1938. As of today, 104 Class II salt-water disposal wells, operated by the East Texas Salt Water Disposal Company, are returning all produced water to the Woodbine producing reservoir. About 69 of the presently existing wells have not been subjected to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Area-of-Review (AOR) requirements. A study has been carried out of opportunities for variance from AORs for these existing wells and for new wells that will be constructed in the future. The study has been based upon a variance methodology developed at the University of Missouri-Rolla under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute and in coordination with the Ground Water Protection Council. The principal technical objective of the study was to determine if reservoir pressure in the Woodbine producing reservoir is sufficiently low so that flow of salt-water from the Woodbine into the Carrizo-Wilcox ground water aquifer is precluded. The study has shown that the Woodbine reservoir is currently underpressured relative to the Carrizo-Wilcox and will remain so over the next 20 years. This information provides a logical basis for a variance for the field from performing AORs.

  13. A theoretical model of subsidence caused by petroleum production: Big Hill Field, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.W.; Sharp, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    In the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, there is a history of oil and gas production extending over 2 to 5 decades. Concurrent with this production history, there has been unprecedented population growth accompanied by vastly increased groundwater demands. Land subsidence on both local and regional bases in this geologic province has been measured and predicted in several studies. The vast majority of these studies have addressed the problem from the standpoint of groundwater usage while only a few have considered the effects of oil and gas production. Based upon field-based computational techniques (Helm, 1984), a model has been developed to predict land subsidence caused by oil and gas production. This method is applied to the Big Hill Field in Jefferson County, Texas. Inputs include production data from a series of wells in this field and lithologic data from electric logs of these same wells. Outputs include predicted amounts of subsidence, the time frame of subsidence, and sensitivity analyses of compressibility and hydraulic conductivity estimates. Depending upon estimated compressibility, subsidence, to date, is predicted to be as high as 20 cm. Similarly, depending upon estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity, the time frame may be decades for this subsidence. These same methods can be applied to other oil/gas fields with established production histories as well as new fields when production scenarios are assumed. Where subsidence has been carefully measured above petroleum reservoir, the model may be used inversely to calculate sediment compressibilities.

  14. West Short Pine Hills field, Harding County, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Strothman, B.

    1988-07-01

    The West Short Pine Hills field is a shallow gas field that produces from the Shannon Sandstone Member, on the Camp Crook anticline in southwestern Harding County, South Dakota. The Alma McCutchin 1-17 Heikkila discovery was drilled in the NW1/4, Sec. 17, T16N, R2E, to a depth of 1600 ft and completed in October 1977 for 600 MCFGD from perforations at 1405-1411 ft. To date, 40 gas wells have been completed with total estimated reserves of more than 20 bcf. The field encompasses 12,000 ac, with a current drill-site spacing unit of 160 ac. The field boundaries are fairly well defined, except on the south edge of the field. The wells range in depth from 1250 to 2200 ft, and cost $60,000-$85,000 to drill and complete. Core and log analyses indicate that the field has 70 ft of net pay, with average porosity of 30% and average permeability of 114 md. Most wells have been completed with nitrogen-sand frac. Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company of Bismarck, North Dakota, operates a compressor station and 2.5 mi of 4-in. line that connects the field to their 160 in. north-south transmission line to the Rapid City area. Currently, producers are netting $1.10-$1.25/million Btu. The late Mathew T. Biggs of Casper, Wyoming, was the geologist responsible for mapping and finding this gas deposit.

  15. A review of noise data collection at the central and south west wind farm in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, E.

    1996-12-31

    Evaluation of data collected over a 1-year period from a 6 MW wind farm is presented in the paper. Noise propagation prediction methods are compared with each other and with field data. Three forms of regulating noise are also compared: minimum separation distance, absolute noise limit, and relative noise limit.Relative noise limits were found to offer the most comprehensive approach to regulating noise and to allow each location to be treated independently. A hemispherical spreading model appears to be a useful planning tool. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Studying Geology of Central Texas through Web-Based Virtual Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C.; Khan, S. D.; Wellner, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Each year over 2500 students, mainly non-science majors, take introductory geology classes at the University of Houston. Optional field trips to Central Texas for these classes provide a unique learning opportunity for students to experience geologic concepts in a real world context. The field trips visit Enchanted Rock, Inks Lake, Bee Cave Road, Lion Mountain, and Slaughter Gap. Unfortunately, only around 10% of our students participate in these field trips. We are developing a web-based virtual field trip for Central Texas to provide an additional effective learning experience for students in these classes. The module for Enchanted Rock is complete and consists of linked geological maps, satellite imagery, digital elevation models, 3-D photography, digital video, and 3-D virtual reality visualizations. The ten virtual stops focus on different geologic process and are accompanied by questions and answers. To test the efficacy of the virtual field trip, we developed a quiz to measure student learning and a survey to evaluate the website. The quiz consists of 10 questions paralleling each stop and information on student attendance on the Central Texas field trip and/or the virtual field trip. From the survey, the average time spent on the website was 26 minutes, and overall the ratings of the virtual field trip were positive. Most noticeably students responded that the information on the website was relevant to their class and that the pictures, figures, and animations were essential to the website. Although high correlation coefficients between responses were expected for some questions (i.e., 0.89 for "The content or text of the website was clear" and "The information on the website was easy to read"), some correlations were less expected: 0.77 for "The number of test questions was appropriate" and "The information on the website was easy to read," and 0.70 for "The test questions reinforced the material presented on the website" and "The information on the

  17. Regional Variation in the Timing of Cessation of Laramide Folding, Uplift, and Post Flat-Slab Ignimbrite Flare Ups in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, M. E.; Casey, J.; Lapen, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Tertiary volcanism in the Trans-Pecos region of West Texas is thought to be related to: 1) a major Farallon buoyant object-related slab flattening period resulting in early arc volcanic activity progressively shifting eastward to New Mexico and West Texas, 2) a subsequent slab-steepening/roll back or slab break away period resulting in renewed and extensive volcanism and ignimbrite flare ups across the region, and 3) final minor volcanism related to Basin and Range extension. Evidence for these tectonic induced volcanic periods can be observed in volcanic compositional variation and the timing and style of volcanism and deformation. This includes highly varied pre-folding mafic alkaline and calc-alkane volcanic and intrusive rocks from ~46Ma (Eocene) to ~32Ma (Oligocene). This is followed by broadly distributed, post-folding calc-alkaline volcanism with subsidiary alkaline mafic volcanism during subsequent regionally varying slab steepening or break away periods (38Ma to 28Ma). Later, smaller-scale, almost exclusively mafic volcanism is associated with Basin and Range extension that occurred between 25 to 2Ma (Barker, 1987). This study attempts to refine regional differences in the cessation of Laramide folding and episodic slab-asthenosphere influenced volcanism in West Texas by utilizing LA-ICP-MS U/Pb zircon geochronology. Ages have been measured for volcanic rock samples that occur both above and below the angular unconformity, including: the Eagle Mountain Lower Rhyolite, an unnamed tuff and trachyte unit from the Garren Group in the Indio Mountains, the Davis Mountains Huelster Fm. and Petan Basalts, the Chinati Mountains Morita Ranch Fm., the Tascotal Fm. From the Alamito Creek and Green Valley area, the Vieja Group from the Rio Grande River area, and the Big Bend National Park South Rim Fm. and Chisos Fm.. In addition, ages for detrital zircons have been obtained in silicilastics below the unconformity within Tertiary Black Peaks, Hannold Hill, and Canoe

  18. Characterization of diagenetically altered carbonate reservoirs, South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Ruppel, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    Much of the difficulty in constructing carbonate reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation results from diagenetic overprinting of depositional permeability patterns. In the South Cowden field, diagenetic effects result in (1) low porosity and permeability in the western and northern areas due to reduction of porosity by means of dolomitization and post-dolomitization compaction, (2) elimination of the petrophysical effects of depositional texture resulting from changes in particle size due to dolomitization, and (3) creation of a touching-vug pore system due to anhydrite dissolution. The extent of anhydrite alteration can be mapped to show three distinct diagenetic areas: those dominated by unaltered, altered, or dissolved anhydrite. Each alteration type has a unique acoustic-porosity transform that can be used to map the diagenetic areas and to calculate porosity when only acoustic logs are available. A single porosity-permeability transform characterizes the areas having unaltered and altered anhydrite, and the depositional stratigraphy is useful in constructing a reservoir model. A more favorable transform characterizes the area of dissolved anhydrite, and depositional stratigraphy is not useful in constructing a reservoir model because of the large effect of the diagenetic overprint.

  19. Field trip guidebook on environmental impact of clays along the upper Texas coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Theron D.; Ming, Douglas W.; Tuck, Lisa Kay

    1991-01-01

    The field trip was prepared to provide an opportunity to see first hand some the environmental hazards associated with clays in the Houston, Texas area. Because of the very high clay content in area soils and underlying Beaumont Formation clay, Houston is a fitting location to host the Clay Mineral Society. Examinations were made of (1) expansive soils, (2) subsidence and surface faulting, and (3) a landfill located southeast of Houston at the Gulf Coast Waste Disposal Authority where clay is part of the liner material.

  20. Far-field acoustic data for the Texas ASE, Inc. Hush-House, supplement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    This report supplements AFAMRL-TR-73-110, which describes the data base (NOISEFILE) used in the computer program (NOISEMAP) to predict the community noise exposure resulting from military aircraft operations. The results of field test measurements to define the single-event noise produced on the ground by military aircraft/engines operating in the Texas ASE Inc. hush-house are presented as a function of angle (0 to 180 from the front of the hush-house) and distance (200 ft to 2500 ft) in various acoustic metrics.

  1. Hands-on Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Instruction at the University of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J. A.; Fernandez, R.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in its ninth year, the course provides instruction in survey design, data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Methods covered include seismic reflection, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling. The emphasis of the course is team-oriented, hands-on, field training in real-world situations. The course begins with classroom instruction covering the field area and field methods, followed by a week of at-sea field work in 4-student teams. The students then return to the classroom where they integrate, interpret, and visualize data using industry-standard software. The teams present results in a series of professional-level final presentations before academic and industry supporters. Our rotating field areas provide ideal locations for students to investigate coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf . In the field, student teams rotate between two research vessels: the smaller vessel, the Jackson School's newly-commissioned R/V Scott Petty (26 feet LOA), is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta (82 feet LOA) is used for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Teams also rotate through a field laboratory performing processing of geophysical data and sediment samples. This past year's course in Freeport, Texas proceeded unabated despite concurrent record-breaking rainfall and flooding, which offered students a unique opportunity to observe and image, in real time, flood-related bedform migration on a time scale of hours. The data also allowed an in-class opportunity to examine natural and anthropogenic processes recorded in the river

  2. Application of integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geological, agricultural, water and environmental issues in far west Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongjie

    This study focuses on applying integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geological, agricultural, water and environmental studies in the far west Texas area. The primary technical topics that have been investigated and employed include radar image processing, speckle removal, destriping, data fusion, seamless image mosaicking technology, mask and ROI techniques, DEM processing and 3D visualization, image classification techniques, gravity and magnetic data processing, algorithm implementation for automatic image registration, ArcView/ArcInfo GIS techniques, and GIS database building. JPL/NASA's AIRSAR/TOPSAR is a multipolarimetric, multiwavelength, and interferometric airborne synthetic aperture radar capable of imaging in C-, L-, and P-bands (5.7, 24.5, and 68 cm). The study mainly focuses on its preprocessing, despeckling, and destriping. Among statistical adaptive speckle removal algorithms, G-MAP (Gamma Maximum A Posteriori) had the best performance. For banding removal, we derived a new method that we call combined principal components analysis (CPCA) that was very effective with our data. Signature differences were studied and compared at different radar wavelengths and between radar and optical (ETM+) images. Some subsurface objects (like water pipelines) were clearly visible in the radar images, especially for the P-band. Data fusion based on the color transform technique was employed to integrate Landsat 7 (30 m ETM+ data fused with the accompanying 15 m panchromatic data) and TOPSAR data after speckle and banding removal. The resulting fused image brought out new features that were not evident in the original images and helped identify many features whose origin was not clear in the original images. AIRSAR/TOPSAR and TM/ETM+ images have been successfully used for mapping the East Franklin Mountains fault scarp and related small faults within the Hueco bolson as well as the Mayfield fault scarp. Remote sensing analysis of nuclear waste disposal

  3. Bird use of agricultural fields under reduced and conventional tillage in the Texas Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    We conducted bird surveys in reduced-tillage and conventional tillage fields in spring, summer, fall, and winter from 1987 to 1991 in the Texas Panhandle. Eastern meadowlarks, longspurs, and savannah sparrows were more common in reduced-tillage (sorghum and wheat stubble) fields than in conventionally tilled (plowed) fields in at least 1 season. Other species also had patterns suggestive of greater abundance in reduced-tillage fields. Hornedlarks, which prefer habitat with sparse vegetation, were more abundant in plowed fields in all seasons except summer. Bird diversity was greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields in summer. Cover density and height were greater in reduced tillage fields in all seasons except spring. Cover density and height rather than cover composition (e.g.,grain stubble or live plants) seemed to be the important factors affecting bird distribution. Patterns of bird abundance between sorghum and wheat stubble fields also were dependent on cover. Herbicide use was not greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields. Reduced-tillage agriculture for sorghum and wheat farming should be encouraged in the southern Great Plains as a means of improving the attractiveness of agricultural land to many bird species.

  4. Quantitative geophysical investigations at the Diamond M field, Scurry County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davogustto Cataldo, Oswaldo Ernesto

    The Diamond M field over the Horseshoe Atoll reservoir of west Texas has produced oil since 1942. Even with some 210 well penetrations, complex reservoir compartmentalization has justified an ongoing drilling program with three wells drilled within the last three years. Accurate reservoir characterization requires accurate description of the geometry, geological facies, and petrophysical property distribution ranging from core, through log to the seismic scale. The operator has conducted a careful logging and coring process including dipole sonic logs in addition to acquiring a modern 3D vertical phone - vertical vibrator "P-wave" seismic data volume and an equivalent size 2-component by 2-componet "S-wave" seismic data volume. I analyze these data at different scales, integrating them into a whole. I begin with core analysis of the petrophysical properties of the Horseshoe Atoll reservoir. Measuring porosity, permeability, NMR T2 relaxation and velocities (Vp and Vs) as a function of pressure and find that porosity measurements are consistent when measured with different techniques. When upscaled, these measurements are in excellent agreement with properties measured at the log scale. Together, these measurements provide a lithology-porosity template against which I correlate my seismic P- and S-impedance measurements. Careful examination of P- and S-impedances as well as density from prestack inversion of the P-wave survey of the original time migrated gathers showed lower vertical resolution for S-impedance and density. These latter two parameters are controlled by the far-offset data, which suffers from migration stretch. I address this shortcoming by applying a recently developed non-stretch NMO technique which not only improved the bandwidth of the data but also resulted in inversions that better match the S-impedance and density well log data. The operator hypothesized that 2C by 2C S-wave data would better delineate lithology than conventional P

  5. Eustatic cycles, shoreline stacking, and stratigraphic traps: Atkinson field, Live Oak and Karnes Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bulling, T.P.; Smith, W.M.; Breyer, J.A. )

    1987-02-01

    Atkinson field in south Texas produces gas from the updip pinch-out of a shoreline sand body deposited during a stillstand or minor regression within the early middle Eocene transgression of the Texas Gulf Coast. The sand body is elongate parallel to depositional strike and pinches out downdip into marine shales of the Reklaw Formation. The sand has a maximum thickness of 60 ft, extends 9 mi along strike, and reaches a width of 2 mi. Electric log patterns indicate interfingering between sand and shale on the updip edge of the sand body and a coarsening-upward sequence from shale to sand on the downdip edge of the sand body. Most logs from wells in the central part of the sand body have blocky patterns, indicating abrupt transitions with the overlying and underlying shales and no systematic variation in grain size. Many ancient shoreline sandstones have similar characteristics. The producing sand in Atkinson field occurs in the regressive phase of a fourth-order cycle of change in relative sea level, within the transgressive phase of the third-order cycle that comprises the early middle Eocene advance and retreat of the sea in the Gulf Coast region. Other shoreline sand bodies occur at the same stratigraphic zone along depositional strike. Models of shoreline stacking patterns within third-order cycles indicate that similar sand bodies and traps should be present in younger fourth-order cycles higher on paleoslope.

  6. Combined geological and surface geochemical methods discover Agaritta and Brady Creek fields, Concho County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, D.F.; Burson, K.R.; Thompson, C.K. ); Brown, J.J. )

    1992-04-01

    From December 1987 to March 1991, 25 prospects in the lower King Sandstone (Upper Pennsylvanian Cisco) play in Concho County, Texas, were tested by several operators. They used combinations of subsurface geology, reconnaissance airborne gas sensing, surface radiometrics, soil magnetic susceptibility, and soil gas hydrocarbon measurements to define prospects. Six new King Sandstone field discoveries or extensions and three deeper pay Goen Limestone field discoveries resulted in a 36% exploratory success rate. The total exploration and development cost was approximately $0.67 per bbl of proven producing oil reserves. As examples, the authors present the discovery of Brady Creek and Agaritta fields. Agaritta field is one of the two largest of the new field discoveries with estimated proven producing recoverable reserves of 6,000,000 BO. Its discovery was based on a combination of (1) airborne hydrocarbon sensing, (2) interstitial soil gas hydrocarbon data, (3) soil magnetic susceptibility measurements, and (4) surface potassium and uranium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Interstitial soil gas hydrocarbon anomalies combined with soil magnetic susceptibility anomalies provided the best detailed surface guidance to Agaritta field. These were supported locally by radiometric anomalies. The Brady Creek field is interpreted to be a possible crevasse splay deposit. The Aggaritta field is interpreted to be a point bar deposit. Both fields are stratigraphic traps.

  7. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivity of Carson County well field, Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, J.

    1996-11-01

    Environmental assessment, ground-water management, and aquifer remediation designs rely on comprehension of the hydraulic parameters of aquifers. Because of the heterogeneity of most aquifers, a number of pumping tests are commonly required to provide a reasonable hydraulic parameter distribution. Data for 11 pumping tests, conducted at the Carson County well field, Amarillo, Texas in the 1950s to 1970s were analyzed by the Theis solution and the Cooper and Jacob solution to provide information for optimal ground-water management. The unconfined aquifer at the well field consists of sands, sandstone, gravels, and clay. A delayed gravity response was observed in the drawdown curves from pumping tests conducted in the unconfined aquifer. Because the Theis solution and the Cooper and Jacob solution do not take this delayed response, or other unsaturated effect into account, these two solutions may overestimate hydraulic conductivity of an unconfined aquifer. Therefore, the Neuman solution which considers the delayed gravity response was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters using the software AQTESOLV. This paper presents the results of a study of the unconfined aquifer at Carson County well field, Amarillo, Texas. The analysis shows that the results obtained by the Neuman method are more reasonable than those obtained by the Theis solution and the Cooper and Jacob solution. According to results from the Neuman solution, the hydraulic conductivity of the unconfined aquifer of Carson County well field varies from 2.55 to 5.97 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} m/s (weighted average hydraulic conductivity is 4.13 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} m/s). The small difference of the estimated hydraulic conductivity between wells shows that the unconfined aquifer under Carson County well field is relatively uniform. The effects of infinitesimal borehole assumption, accuracy of individual parameters, skin effects, and spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity are discussed as well.

  8. Genetic Variability and Geographical Distribution of Mycotoxigenic Fusarium verticillioides Strains Isolated from Maize Fields in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Carlos S.; Richards, Casey; Terry, Ashlee; Parra, Joselyn; Shim, Won-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the dominant cereal crop produced in the US. One of the main fungal pathogens of maize is Fusarium verticillioides, the causative agent of ear and stalk rots. Significantly, the fungus produces a group of mycotoxins - fumonisins - on infested kernels, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Nonetheless, durable resistance against F. verticillioides in maize is not currently available. In Texas, over 2.1 million acres of maize are vulnerable to fumonisin contamination, but understanding of the distribution of toxigenic F. verticillioides in maize-producing areas is currently lacking. Our goal was to investigate the genetic variability of F. verticillioides in Texas with an emphasis on fumonisin trait and geographical distribution. A total of 164 F. verticillioides cultures were isolated from 65 maize-producing counties. DNA from each isolate was extracted and analyzed by PCR for the presence of FUM1- a key fumonisin biosynthesis gene - and mating type genes. Results showed that all isolates are in fact F. verticillioides capable of producing fumonisins with a 1:1 mating-type gene ratio in the population. To further study the genetic diversity of the population, isolates were analyzed using RAPD fingerprinting. Polymorphic markers were identified and the analysis showed no clear correlation between the RAPD profile of the isolates and their corresponding geographical origin. Our data suggest the toxigenic F. verticillioides population in Texas is widely distributed wherever maize is grown. We also hypothesize that the population is fluid, with active movement and genetic recombination occurring in the field. PMID:26361468

  9. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  10. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, April 1,1996 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir- characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Progress to date is summarized for reservoir characterization.

  11. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir- characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sup 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Accomplishments for this past quarter are discussed.

  12. Reservoir zonation in Silurian-Devonian carbonates of Wells field, Dawson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J. )

    1992-04-01

    Wells field in Dawson County, Texas, has produced over 7.5 million bbl since 1955 from Silurian-Devonian carbonates. Although originally classified as a Devonian field, production there actually is out of the Silurian Wristen and Fusselman formations. Wells field is an extremely complex system of structured and stratigraphic reservoirs not easily characterized by traditional subsurface mapping techniques. Detailed lithologic analyses of well cuttings from 29 wells in and around this field were done to evaluate reservoir zonation and potentials for either new field development wells, or recompletions from existing well bores. These analyses have shown that paleotopographic highs on the Fusselman unconformity across the field created optimum sites for Fusselman dolomite reservoir development, and collateral development of Wristen reservoirs. The Wristen reservoirs are in the form of porous carbonate mounds that grew adjacent to the paleotopographically high areas, or simple compactionally fractured cherty carbonates over these highs. The recognition of Fusselman paleotopography in most wells is implied by thickness and facies changes in the overlying Wristen section. A certain amount of structure and facies-induced reservoir separation has been documented. The results of this study have been used to identify several areas of the field where each of the three reservoirs could be exploited for underdeveloped reserves.

  13. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock-fabric flow layers

  14. Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course Offered by The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Allison, M. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year six, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students participate in an initial period of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas and Galveston, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, have provided ideal locations for students to investigate coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques. In the field, students rotate between two research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, and is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibrocoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for

  15. Subsurface evaluation of the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, using two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Jones, Sonya A.

    2002-01-01

    During September 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey made 10 two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profile surveys in the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, to identify subsurface areas of anomalously high or low resistivity that could indicate potential contamination, contaminant pathways, or anthropogenic structures. Six of the 10 surveys (transects) were in the west parking lot. Each of the inverted sections of these transects had anomalously high resistivities in the terrace alluvium/fill (the surficial subsurface layer) that probably were caused by highly resistive fill material. In addition, each of these transects had anomalously low resistivities in the Walnut Formation (a bedrock layer immediately beneath the alluvium/fill) that could have been caused by saturation of fractures within the Walnut Formation. A high-resistivity anomaly in the central part of the study area probably is associated with pea gravel fill used in construction of a French drain. Another high resistivity anomaly in the west parking lot, slightly southeast of the French drain, could be caused by dense nonaqueous-phase liquid in the Walnut Formation. The inverted sections of the four transects in the landfill 3 area tended to have slightly higher resistivities in both the alluvium/fill and the Walnut Formation than the transects in the west parking lot. The higher resistivities in the alluvium/fill could have been caused by drier conditions in grassy areas relative to conditions in the west parking lot. Higher resistivities in parts of the Walnut Formation also could be a function of drier conditions or variations in the lithology of the Walnut Formation. In addition to the 10 vertical sections, four horizontal sections at 2-meteraltitude intervals show generally increasing resistivity with decreasing altitude that most likely results from the increased influence of the Walnut Formation, which has a higher resistivity than the terrace

  16. Far-field acoustic data for the Texas ASE, Inc. hush house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    This report supplements AFAMRL-TR-73-110, which describes the data base (NOISEFILE) used in the computer program (NOISEMAP) to predict the community noise exposure resulting from military aircraft operations. The results of field test measurements to define the single-event noise produced on the ground by military aircraft/engines operating in the Texas ASE Inc. hush-house are presented as a function of angle (0 deg to 180 deg from the front of the hush-house) and distance (200 ft to 2500 ft) in various acoustic metrics. All the data are normalized to standard acoustic reference conditions of 59 F temperature and 70% relative humidity. Refer to Volume I of the AFAMRL-TR-73-110 report for discussion of the scope, limitations, and definitions needed to understand and use the data in this report.

  17. A unique Austin Chalk reservoir, Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Significant shallow oil production from the Austin Chalk was established in the Van field, Van Zandt County, in East Texas in the late 1980s. The Van field structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion. The Woodbine sands, which underlie the Austin Chalk, have been and continue to be the predominant reservoir rocks in the field. Evidence indicates that faults provided vertical conduits for migration of Woodbine oil into the Austin Chalk where it was trapped along the structural crest. The most prolific Austin Chalk production is on the upthrown side of the main field fault, as is the Woodbine. The Austin Chalk is a soft, white to light gray limestone composed mostly of coccoliths with some pelecypods. Unlike the Austin Chalk in the Giddings and Pearsall fields, the chalk at Van was not as deeply buried and therefore did not become brittle and susceptible to tensional or cryptic fracturing. The shallow burial in the Van field was also important in that it allowed the chalk to retain primary microporosity. The production comes entirely from this primary porosity. In addition to the structural position and underlying oil source from the Woodbine, the depositional environment and associated lithofacies are also keys to the reservoir quality in the Van field as demonstrated by cores from the upthrown and downthrown (less productive) sides of the main field fault. It appears that at the time of Austin Chalk deposition, the main field fault was active and caused the upthrown side to be a structural high and a more agreeable environment for benthonic organisms such as pelecypods and worms. The resulting bioturbation enhanced the reservoir's permeability enough to allow migration and entrapment of the oil. Future success in exploration for analogous Austin Chalk reservoirs will require the combination of a favorable environment of deposition, a nearby Woodbine oil source, and a faulted trap that will provide the conduit for migration.

  18. Estimating shorebird populations during spring stopover in rice fields of the Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norling, Wayne; Jeske, Clinton W.; Thigpen, Tyler F.; Chadwick, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Migrating shorebird populations using approximately 2% of Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coastal rice fields were surveyed during spring migration (March–May of 1997 and 1998) using biweekly stratified random surveys conducted at 50 roadside survey points and approximately 30,000 shorebirds were observed. Shorebird counts were extrapolated and almost 1.4 million birds in 1997 and over 1.6 million birds of 31 species in 1998 were estimated to use rice field habitat for stopover sites in Louisiana and Texas. Greater than 50% of the estimated North American populations were estimated to use rice field habitats for five species, including a species of concern, Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis) at 187%. Because of predictability of suitable rice field habitat acreage, timing of field preparation and water availability, coastal rice prairies are identified as critical spring migration stopover sites.

  19. A pilot study comparing the level of sickle cell disease knowledge in a university in southeastern Texas and a university in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2000-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most commonly inheritable blood disorder in man. Sickle cell anemia affects approximately one in 375 Blacks in the United States. There is yet no known cure for this disease. Families of sickle cell patients continue to be financially and emotionally devastated by sickle cell disease complications. A high level of sickle cell disease knowledge will encourage non-directional sickle cell disease counseling that would reduce the incidence of this disease. A pilot study to determine the level of sickle cell disease knowledge in a university in southeastern Texas and a university in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria, West Africa found that there was a need to improve retention of sickle cell disease factual information.

  20. Assessment of the impact of a 100% smoke-free ordinance on restaurant sales--West Lake Hills, Texas, 1992-1994.

    PubMed

    1995-05-19

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which is associated with adverse health effects among nonsmokers (1), is a health hazard of particular concern for patrons and employees in restaurants (2). To protect nonsmokers, many local governments have enacted ordinances requiring restaurants to be smoke-free. However, the potential economic impact of these laws on restaurants is an important concern for restaurant owners. On June 1, 1993, the city of West Lake Hills (a suburb of Austin), Texas (1995 population: 3000), implemented an ordinance requiring a 100% smoke-free environment in all commercial establishments to which the public has access, including all restaurants and restaurants with bar areas. This report summarizes an assessment of sales in restaurants during June 1993-December 1994 compared with January 1992-May 1993.

  1. Water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for West Fork Double Bayou, Cotton Bayou, and Hackberry Gully, Chambers County, Texas, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Dexter W.; Turco, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data from two sites at West Fork Double Bayou, two sites at Cotton Bayou, and one site at Hackberry Gully in Chambers County, Texas, during July 2006-August 2007. Water-quality data-collection surveys consisted of synoptic 24-hour continuous measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen at the five sites and periodically collected samples at four sites analyzed for several properties and constituents of interest. Stream-habitat data were collected at each of four sites three times during the study. At each site, a representative stream reach was selected and within this reach, five evenly spaced stream transects were determined. At each transect, stream attributes (wetted channel width, water depth, bottom material, instream cover) and riparian attributes (bank slope and erosion potential, width of natural vegetation, type of vegetation, percentage tree canopy) were measured. Benthic macroinvertebrate and fish data were collected from the same reaches identified for habitat evaluation. A total of 2,572 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified from the four reaches; insect taxa were more abundant than non-insect taxa at all reaches. A total of 1,082 fish, representing 30 species and 13 families, were collected across all reaches. Stream-habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were assessed at the four sites to evaluate aquatic life use. Habitat quality index scores generally indicated 'intermediate' aquatic life use at most reaches. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics scores indicated generally 'intermediate' aquatic life use for the West Fork Double Bayou reaches and generally 'high' aquatic life use for the Cotton Bayou and Hackberry Gully reaches. Index of biotic integrity scores for fish indicated generally

  2. Evaluation of soil sustainability along the Rio Grande in West Texas: changes in salt loading and organic nutrients due to farming practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, C. L.; Ganjegunte, G.; Borrok, D. M.; Lougheed, V.; Ma, L.; Jin, L.

    2011-12-01

    thus have higher salt loading, and that Cotton has a higher clay content. The EC values continuously increase from irrigation water to soil waters, suggesting that as water travels through the soil profile it increases in salinity. Consistent with this observation, cation concentrations in soil waters increased with depth. Therefore, the salts within the soils are mobilized during irrigation. 5TE sensors at all three depths in the field showed spikes in EC, and soil moisture during each period of flood irrigation. Data also suggests a lower bulk EC between irrigation periods which might result from a lower soil moisture content which doesn't solublize the salts. The carbonate- and gypsum- rich soils and surface water in the Rio Grande Basin change with intensity and amount of irrigation, addition of fertilizers, and other agricultural practices. Results from this project contribute to our understanding of salt loading and nutrient cycling in the vulnerable area of the Rio Grande Valley in West Texas.

  3. Secondary natural gas recovery in mature fluvial sandstone reservoirs, Frio Formation, Agua Dulce Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Levey, R.A. ); Vidal, J.M. ); Sippel, M.A. ); Ballard, J.R. ); Coover, D.M. Jr. ); Bloxsom, W.E. )

    1993-09-01

    An approach that integrates detailed geologic, engineering, and petrophysical analyses combined with improved well-log analytical techniques can be used by independent oil and gas companies of successful infield exploration in mature Gulf Coast fields that larger companies may consider uneconomic. In a secondary gas recovery project conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology and funded by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, a potential incremental natural gas resource of 7.7 bcf, of which 4.0 bcf may be technically recoverable, was identified in a 490-ac lease in Agua Dulce field. Five wells in this lease had previously produced 13.7 bcf from Frio reservoirs at depths of 4600-6200 ft. The pay zones occur in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones offset by faults associated with the Vicksburg fault zone. The compartments may each contain up to 1.0 bcf of gas resources with estimates based on previous completions and the recent infield drilling experience of Pintas Creek Oil Company. Uncontacted gas resources occur in thin (typically less than 10 ft) bypassed zones that can be identified through a computed log evaluation that integrates open-hole logs, wireline pressure tests, fluid samples, and cores. At Agua Dulce field, such analysis identified at 4-ft bypassed zone uphole from previously produced reservoirs. This reservoir contained original reservoir pressure and flowed at rates exceeding 1 mmcf/d. The expected ultimate recovery is 0.4 bcf. Methodologies developed in the evaluation of Agua Dulce field can be successfully applied to other mature gas fields in the south Texas Gulf Coast. For example, Stratton and McFaddin are two fields in which the secondary gas recovery project has demonstrated the existence of thin, potentially bypassed zones that can yield significant incremental gas resources, extending the economic life of these fields.

  4. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, David W.; Shannon, Gary W.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  5. International Trade Seminar (Austin, Texas, December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Selected presentations from a 1988 seminar on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC) are included in this report. Designed to direct west Texas businesses toward diversification and to prepare them for international trade and business opportunities, the seminar featured speakers in the field of international trade, including bank…

  6. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  7. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  8. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  9. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  10. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  11. Combined geological and surface geochemical methods discovered Agaritta and Brady Creek Fields, Concho County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, D.F.; Burson, K.R.; Thompson, C.K. ); Brown, J.J. )

    1993-07-01

    From December 1987 to March 1991, 25 prospects in the lower King sand (Upper Pennsylvanian Cisco) play in Concho County, Texas, were tested by several operators. They used combinations of subsurface geology, reconnaissance airborne gas sensing, surface radiometrics, soil magnetic susceptibility, and soil-gas hydrocarbon measurements to define prospects. Six new King sand discoveries or extensions and three deeper Goen discoveries resulted in a 36% exploratory success rate. The total exploration and development cost was approximately $0.67/bbl of proven producing oil reserves. Final locations for the discovery wells on each of the nine successful prospects were selected primarily on the basis of combined subsurface geology and surface geochemical data. As examples, we present information about the discovery of Brady Creek and Agaritta fields. Agaritta field is one of the two largest of the new-field discoveries, with estimated proven producing recoverable reserves of 6 million bbl of oil. Its discovery was based on a combination of (1) regional subsurface geologic projection, (2) airborne hydrocarbon sensing, (3) interstitial soil-gas hydrocarbon data, (4) soil magnetic-susceptibility measurements, and (5) surface potassium and uranium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry.

  12. Reservoir development in Brahaney northwest and Patricia fields, northern Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J.

    1990-02-01

    Porous pay zones in the Silurian-Devonian section of the northern Midland basin, Texas, vary stratigraphically, as well as structurally, with their locations beneath the pre-Woodford unconformity. These variations are related to at least two major periods of widespread pre-Woodford tectonism and erosion. A major unconformable surface, present at the top of the Lower Silurian Fusselman formation, was later modified by tectonism and erosion immediately preceding deposition of the Woodford Shale. In places where the Fusselman subcrops beneath the Woodford, its capacity for reservoir development is dependent upon the severity of geologic events that affected the formation during the two major tectonic/erosional events. Where the Wristen and Thirtyone formations subcrop, their reservoir capacity depends upon the extent of structuring and subsequent erosion immediately prior to Woodford deposition. Two pre-Woodford oil fields in the northern Midland basin illustrate geologic complexity that bears on the successful application of subsurface mapping in defining potential pay zones. Brahaney Northwest field in Yoakum County is productive from fractured, coarse crystalline Silurian-Devonian dolomites on subtle, fault-bounded structures. These structures, defined seismically on the base of the Woodford, do not reveal the more complex structural and stratigraphic variations within the reservoir itself. Patricia field in Dawson County is productive from Fusselman carbonates where upper Fusselman structural and topographic relief coincides with post-Woodford faulting and low-relief anticlinal closure as defined at the base of the Woodford.

  13. Field evidence of subsidence and faulting induced by hydrocarbon production in coastal southeast Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Purcell, Noreen A.; Peterson, Russell L.

    2001-01-01

    Three large, mature hydrocarbon fields in coastal southeast Texas were examined to evaluate competing hypotheses of wetland losses and to characterize subaerial and submerged surfaces near reactivated faults and zones of subsidence. Detailed topographic and bathymetric profiles and shallow cores at the Port Neches, Clam Lake, and Caplen Fields provide a basis for distinguishing between (1) extensive land-surface subsidence without significant subaqueous erosion, and (2) localized minor subsidence near faults accompanied by extensive subaqueous erosion. Subaqueous erosion results from submergence of wetlands, current and wave excavation of surface sediments and organic detritus, and exportation of the eroded sediments through adjacent water bodies with swift currents such as navigation channels. Responses to induced subsidence and fault reactivation are different at each field site. Detailed stratigraphic correlations of sediment cores show that at Port Neches, subsidence of 35 to 90 cm and minor marsh erosion (20 to 35 cm) created more than 15 million m3 of accommodation space in a nearly circular pattern over the field. At Caplen the marsh surface subsided only about 4 cm, but the surface eroded 30 to 40 cm vertically, creating about 3.5 million m3 of accommodation space. The breakup of wetlands and their conversion to open water appears to be in an initial stage at the Clam Lake Field where marsh plants are being submerged along a fault. The different surficial responses and wetland losses at each field are related to the primary type of hydrocarbon produced and the rates of production. Although the absolute magnitude of induced subsidence may be less than 1 m, even a minor reduction in land elevation is sufficient to cause major wetland losses.

  14. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  15. Evaluation of waterflood operations at Iatan East Howard Field, Mitchell County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.; Mitchell, S.M.

    1988-02-01

    Mobil Exploration and Producing US Inc. completed a reservoir description study on Iatan East Howard field in Mitchell County, Texas, in 1984. The application of study results has improved subsequent development drilling and waterflood operations. Lease production has doubled within two years with the drilling of 40 producers and 13 injection wells. The field produces from thin (2 to 40 ft) porosity stringers in fractured Permian age San Angelo and Clearfork dolomites at 2300 to 3200 ft in depth. Reservoirs are areally discontinuous due to original depositional controls on porosity develoment and distribution. Pay zone reservoir parameters such as porosity and permeability vary from 4 to 17% and 0.1 to 120 md, respectively. The presence of a fracture orientation at N60/degree/E to N85/degree/E has caused producing wells to experience early breakthrough of injection water when in line with injectors and the fracture direction. Waterflows have also occurred in drilling wells when similarly aligned. Recognition of this fracture overprint has dictated the use of a staggered line drive injection pattern parallel to the fracture trend to improve sweep efficiency.

  16. Evaluation of waterflood operations at Iatan East Howard field, Mitchell County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.; Mitchell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc. completed a reservoir description study on Iatan East Howard field in Mitchell County, Texas, in 1984. The application of study results has improved subsequent development drilling and waterflood operations. Lease production has doubled within two years with the drilling of 40 producers and 13 injection wells. The field produces from thin (2 to 40 ft) porosity stringers in fractured Permian age San Angelo and Clearfork dolomites at 2,300 to 3,200 ft in depth. Reservoirs are really discontinuous due to original depositional controls on porosity development and distribution. Pay zone reservoir parameters such as porosity and permeability vary from 4 to 17% and 0.1 to 120 md, respectively. The presence of a fracture orientation at N60/sup 0/E to N85/sup 0/E has caused producing wells to experience early breakthrough of injection water when in line with injectors and the fracture direction. Waterflows have also occurred in drilling wells when similarly aligned. Recognition of this fracture overprint has dictated the use of a staggered line drive injection pattern parallel to the fracture trend to improve sweep efficiency. Reservoir matrix can be swept more uniformly as rows of injectors pressurize those aligned fractures and move oil perpendicular to the fracture trend and toward the rows of producers.

  17. B. C. Canyon field, Howard County, Texas: An ancient analogy to modern tropical tower karst terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Mozynski, D.C.; Reid, A.M. )

    1992-04-01

    Late in the early deposition of sediments in Canyon field, a series of glacio-eustatically controlled sea level lowstands resulted in a carbonate buildup seaward of the Horseshoe Atoll in Howard County, Texas. The resulting satellite reef tract consists of fringing boundstone; high-energy shelf grainstones; lower energy shelf packstones and wackestones; and thin, highstand, black shales and mudstones. The original extent and thickness of deposits were extensively modified during karstification coincident with successive sea level lowstands. The resulting paleotopographic landforms appear to be similar to tower karst features of Puerto Rico. During the beginning of each sea level highstand, the paleoterrain was modified by erosion. The basinal foreshelf conglomerates resulting from initial highstand erosion contain dipping strata that commonly can be detected by the dipmeter tool. The mechanism for the formation of these strata may be depositional or the result of diagenetic alteration of the rock fabric in the burial environment. Using dipmeter data, an uneconomic producer has been offset by one of the better producing wells in the field.

  18. Pre-Leonardian geology of Midland Farms field area, Andrews County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mear, C.E.; Dufurrena, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Midland Farms (Ellenburger) oil field was discovered on September 16, 1952, with the completion of Anderson-Pritchard's 1 Fasken-24 well, drilled on an indicated single-fold seismic structure. The field produces from vuggy, fractured Ellenburger dolomite with up to 310 ft (94 m) of gross and net pay. The Midland Farms (Ellenburger) field is part of a larger structure which incorporates not only Midland Farms field, but Midland Farms, West (Devonian), Inez (Ellenburger), and parts of the Fasken (Penn) and Block 41 (Wolfcamp) fields. The structure is a complex, uplifted block composed of two doubly plunging, asymmetric anticlines bisected by at least one wrench-type fault and several normal faults. Penecontemporaneous leaching produced oomoldic porosity in the limestones. Ellenburger oil production was established in the Midland Farms area in September 1952, and has amounted to 61.6 million bbl oil and 28.5 bcf of gas from 91 wells to January 1983. Major Fusselman and Wolfcamp oil accumulations were discovered during development of the Ellenburger field. Fusselman oil was first produced in June 1953, and has totaled 10.1 million bbl of oil and 5 bcf of gas from 33 wells to January 1983. Wolfcamp production was established in January 1954 and totals 10.7 million bbl of oil and 1 bcf of gas from 39 wells. Total production from all zones including post-Leonard beds in the Midland Farms field area to date has been 210 million bbl of oil and 84 bcf of gas.

  19. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado field, South Texas; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. Within the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity. The purpose of this report is (1) to describe and analyze the sand-body architecture, depositional facies variations, and structure of Prado field, (2) to determine controls on distribution of hydrocarbons pertinent to reexploration for bypassed hydrocarbons, (3) to describe reservoir models at Prado field, and (4) to develop new data affecting the suitability of Jackson oil fields as possible candidates for thermally enhanced recovery of medium to heavy oil.

  20. ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those

  1. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  2. Diabetes prevalence and treatment adherence in residents living in a colonia located on the West Texas, USA/Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Anders, Robert L; Olson, Thomas; Wiebe, John; Bean, Nathaniel H; DiGregorio, Rena; Guillermina, Mina; Ortiz, Melchor

    2008-09-01

    Little is known about how diabetes affects the health status of Hispanic people living in colonias located along the USA/Mexico border. The purpose of this report is to describe the demographic factors, prevalence of diabetes, and the health status of the residents living in a colonia on the border between El Paso, Texas, USA, and Juarez, Mexico, and to report the residents' adherence to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) protocols for the management of type 2 diabetes. This study included 188 participants. The instruments used included a demographic questionnaire, the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics, "Cutting Down, Annoyance by Criticism, Guilty Feelings, and Eye-openers", BRFSS, and the Short Form-36 (v2). The prevalence of diabetes was 15.4% and 41.3% of the residents had a Body Mass Index score > 30. The rate of hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and depression for those reporting diabetes was significant. The SF-36 v2 physical score for the diabetic residents was 42.9 and it was 52.4 for the non-diabetic residents. The average resident of the colonia who reports diabetes has many health disadvantages when compared to those in other parts of Texas and the USA generally.

  3. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; McIntosh, K. D.; Saustrup, S., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. The course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas, and Galveston, TX, and Grand Isle, LA, provide ideal locations for students to investigate coastal processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques in an exploratory mode. At sea, students assist with survey design and instrumentation set up while learning about acquisition parameters, data quality control, trouble-shooting, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of four, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and data processing. During the course's final week, teams return to the classroom where they integrate, interpret, and visualize data in a final project using industry-standard software such as Echos, Landmark, Caris, and Fledermaus. The course concludes with a series of final presentations and discussions in which students examine geologic history and/or sedimentary processes represented by the Gulf Coast continental shelf with academic and industry supporters. Students report a greater understanding of marine geology and geophysics through the course's intensive, hands-on, team approach and low instructor to student ratio (sixteen

  4. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. B.; Gulick, S. P.; Allison, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Duncan, D. D.; Saustrup, S.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year five, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students seek to understand coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of these techniques in an exploratory mode. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. In the field, students rotate between two small research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and initial data processing. During the course's final week, teams

  5. Bioavailability Assessment of a Contaminated Field Sediemtn from Patrick Bayou, Texas: TIE and Equilibrium Partitioning

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are commonly found in urbanized harbors. Remediation is often necessary and diagnosing the cause of sediment toxicity becomes imperative. In the present study, sediments from Patrick Bayou, Texas were subjected to initial toxicity testing. All sediments ...

  6. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  7. Reservoir heterogeneity in middle Frio fluvial sandstones: Case studies in Seeligson field, Jim Wells County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Detailed evaluation of middle Frio (Oligocene) fluvial sandstones reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of gas reserves through recognition of poorly drained reservoir compartments and bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/US Department of Energy/State of Texas-sponsored program, with the cooperation of Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Inc. Four reservoirs, Zones 15, 16D, 16E, and 19C, were studied in a 20 mi{sup 2} area within Seeligson field. Collectively, these reservoirs have produced more than 240 bcf of gas from wells within the study area. Detailed electric log correlation of individual reservoirs enabled subdivision of aggregate producing zones into component genetic units. Cross sections, net-sandstone maps, and log-facies maps were prepared to illustrate depositional style, sand-body geometry, and reservoir heterogeneity. Zones 15 and 19C are examples of laterally stacked fluvial architecture. Individual channel-fill sandstones range from 10 to 50 ft thick, and channel widths are approximately 2,500 ft. Crevasse-splay sandstones may extend a few thousand feet from the main channel system. Multiple, overlapping channel and splay deposits commonly form sand-rich belts that result in leaky reservoir compartments that may be incompletely drained. Zones 16D and 16E are examples of vertically stacked fluvial architecture, with discrete, relatively thin and narrow channel and splay sandstones generally encased within floodplain muds. This architectural style is likely to form more isolated reservoir compartments. Although all of these reservoirs are currently considered nearly depleted, low-pressure producers, recent well completions and bottomhole pressure data indicate that untapped or poorly drained compartments are being encountered.

  8. Impacts of spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin on spider communities in cabbage fields in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T-X; Irungu, R W; Dean, D A; Harris, M K

    2013-04-01

    Spiders are a principal arthropod group that preys on numerous pests of vegetables and other crops. In this study, we determined the effects of the two most commonly used insecticides, spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin, on diversity of spiders on cabbage in south Texas. In two seasons (fall 2008 and spring 2009), we collected a total of 588 spiders belonging to 53 species in 11 families from spinosad and λ-cyhalothrin-treated cabbages and the untreated control plants. A great majority of spiders were collected from the pitfall traps (554) where only a few (34) were collected from the blower/vacuum sampling. In the insecticide-treated plots, there were significantly fewer spider individuals, species and families than in untreated fields. Spinosad had significantly less effect on spiders in total individuals, number of species and families than λ-cyhalothrin. The effects of the two insecticides were further demonstrated by the Shannon-Weiner index (H') and the hierarchical richness index (HRI). Spider diversity in the spinosad-treated plots were not significantly different from that in the untreated fields but were greater than those in λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots in both seasons when measured by H' values. In contrast, the H' values of spider's diversity in the λ-cyhalothrin-treated plots were significantly lower than spinosad-treated and untreated plots. High values of HRI for spider richness in the spinosad-treated plots suggested that spinosad had less effect on spiders than λ-cyhalothrin. We concluded that spinosad was more compatible with spiders on cabbage compared to λ-cyhalothrin and that this information should be used when developing insecticide resistance management strategies.

  9. 3-D seismic delineation and geologic explanation of channelization in the Frio Formation of Javelina/East McCook Field, Hidalgo County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    Sinuous, channel-form features were recognized on seismic amplitude time-slice maps of the shallow Oligocene Frio Formation on several Shell proprietary 3-D seismic surveys in west-central Hidalgo County, Texas. A case study of channel morphologies observed in the Frio Formation within the 50 mi{sup 2} 3-D seismic survey over Javelina/East McCook field was undertaken to better understand the distribution, lithology, origin, and hydrocarbon potential of these features. Ten separate channel-like amplitude features are observed in flattened time slices within a 200 m (approximately 1100 ft) interval on 3-D seismic. The channels have various azimuthal orientations and varying degrees of sinuosity. Several of the features have lengths that span the 3-D survey area (10 mi); apparent channel widths range from 200 to 2000 ft. The channelized seismic events tie to an interval of interbedded mudstones and claystones with siltstones. Two of the channels seen on seismic, and which were penetrated by wells, correlate to siftstone and mudstone intervals that have gross thicknesses of 30 to 60 ft. The lithologies and dimensions of the two channels indicate that they are probably small mudstone/siltstone-filled tributary/distributary channels deposited in a coastal floodplain environment; a comparison of the apparent channel dimensions to the dimensions of small channels/bayous of the modern-day Texas Gulf Coast supports this interpretation. Correlation of wells adjacent to the channels indicates that sandy point-bar facies are not present in association with the channel fill, which discounts the idea that high-quality reservoirs are flanking these particular mud-filled channels.

  10. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  11. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1993-09-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. With the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity.

  12. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G.

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from the more

  13. A retrospective study of septic arthritis in a tertiary hospital in West Texas with high rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sian Yik; Pannikath, Deepa; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Septic arthritis is an important concern for rheumatologists in the evaluation of joint disease. Very few studies have addressed the microbiologic epidemiology and outcomes of septic arthritis in the USA since the year 2000. We performed a retrospective study of septic arthritis in a tertiary hospital in West Texas from the year 2000 to 2013. We recorded data on patient demographics, microbiologic etiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes. The most common causative organisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) caused septic arthritis in 22.6 % of the cases. MRSA septic arthritis was associated with low rates of adequate empiric antimicrobial therapy. The mortality due to sepsis in our study was 5.5 %. Patients with septic arthritis had a mean length of stay of 13.5 ± 12.1 days and required 2.1 ± 1.4 joint operations. Many patients (29.2 %) had readmissions due to complications, and these patients had high rates of home health utilization and transfers to other facilities post hospital discharge. In our logistic regression analysis model, factors associated with poor outcomes in septic arthritis were MRSA, older age, and prosthetic joint infection. Septic arthritis is associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and health care costs, and more studies are needed to improve outcomes, especially considering the increasing rates of MRSA as the pathogen.

  14. Surface gamma-ray logs as a correlation tool between outcrop and subsurface: Application to the Silurian-Devonian of west Texas and southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Colleary, W.M. ); Crafton, J.W. Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL )

    1992-04-01

    Outcrop gamma-ray logs are an excellent tool for correlation between surface measured sections and subsurface well logs. The work presented here illustrates the utility of constructing such profiles and the applicability of this technique to carbonate sequences such as those of the Permian basin. Outcrop sections with gamma-ray profiles have been measured over the Silurian-Devonian section in three separate areas. These sections are located in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico, and the northern Franklin Mountains and Hueco Mountains of west Texas. A hand-held Scintrex Model BGS-4 Digital Scintillometer was used to measure surface gamma radiation while detailed stratigraphic sections were being measured and described. Data were collected at regularly spaced intervals along the section. The scintillometer detects natural radiation emitted by radioactive elements that occur in most clay minerals and generally are more abundant in shales than in sandstones or carbonates. The lithology of poorly exposed or covered units also may be inferred from surface gamma-ray profiles. Organic-rich black shales are particularly radioactive, as are condensed sections. The strength of this method does not lie in the absolute reading of gamma radiation. The value of this tool lies in recognizing patterns within each profile, directly relating these patterns to their associated facies, and correlating them with subsurface profiles.

  15. Burial history of Lockport formation (Middle Silurian), New York, in light of studies of Ellenburger group (Lower Ordovician), west Texas-southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.I.; Ergin, M.; Friedman, G.M.

    1986-05-01

    For studies of burial depth of the Lockport Formation (Middle Silurian) of the Appalachian basin, the authors used as a control data from petrographic, stable isotope, and two-phase fluid-inclusion analyses of carbonate rocks cored from 5000 to 23,000 ft (1.5 to 7 km) burial depth of the Ellenburger Group, west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The coarse to very coarse crystalline nature of the host-rock dolomite, the vug-filling and fracture-filling saddle dolomite containing relatively light oxygen isotope compositions ranging from -6 to -12 per thousand (PDB), and the high mean homogenization temperatures for saddle dolomite formation from 100/sup 0/ to 260/sup 0/C, all suggest diagenetic changes occurred under deep burial conditions. Using Ellenburger carbonates as a control for burial depth diagenesis studies of saddle dolomite of the surface-exposed Lockport Formation, New York, other literature, and the regional conodont color alteration index (CAI) of 2-3, a former burial depth for the Lockport Formation strata of up to 5 km is indicated, much greater than the present estimation of less than 2 km of paleogeographic reconstruction. This depth was confirmed by delta/sup 18/O values ranging from -9 to -11 per thousand, and two-phase fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures ranging from 110/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C with an average of 150/sup 0/C.

  16. Depositional and diagenetic controls on porosity permeability and oil production in McFarland/Magutex (Queen) reservoirs, Andrews County, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The McFarland/Magutex Queen reservoir complex lies along the northeastern edge of the Central basin platform in the west Texas Permian basin and produces oil from the Permian Queen Formation. Current production from this complex totals 42 million stock-tank barrels (MMSTB) of an estimated 219 MMSTB of original oil in place, with an estimated 90 MMSTB of remaining mobile oil (RMO). The gross pay interval contains two parasequences consisting of progradational, 30-ft-thick, upward-shoaling facies packages. Facies include shoreface, mixed tidal channel and intertidal flat, and supratidal. Elongate shoreface facies are characterized by poorly consolidated, massive to thinly laminated sandstones. The supratidal facies, which act as permeability barriers, are characterized by algal-laminated dolostone and nodular, laminated, and massive anhydrite containing halite and gypsum pseudomorphs. Highest production and the largest amount of the 90 MMSTB of RMO is associated with the shoreface and tidal-channel facies. Bulk pore volume storage capacity and permeability are also highest within these two facies. Sandstones are arkosic, containing anhydrite and dolomite cements. Accessory minerals are clays, authigenic feldspar, and dolomite. Three main pore types are recognized: interparticle, moldic and intraconstituent, and micropores. Moldic and intraconstituent porosity is associated with leached feldspars and anhydrite cement dissolution. Microporosity is associated with syndepositional, grain-coating corrensite, dissolution-enhanced feldspar cleavage planes, and authigenic multifaceted dolomite. Microporosity derived from clays and dolomite is formed preferentially in tidal-channel and intertidal flat facies.

  17. Geological control on the reservoir characteristics of Olkaria West Geothermal Field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Omenda, Peter A.

    1994-01-20

    The reservoir of the West Olkaria Geothermal Field is hosted within tuffs and the reservoir fluid is characterized by higher concentrations of reservoir CO{sub 2} (10,000-100,000 mg/kg) but lower chloride concentrations of about 200 mg/kg than the East and North East Fields. The West Field is in the outflow and main recharge area of the Olkaria geothermal system. Permeability is generally low in the West Field and its distribution is strongly controlled by the structures. Fault zones show higher permeability with wells drilled within the structures havin larger total mass outputs. However, N-S and NW-SE faults are mainly channels for cold water downflow into the reservoir. Well feeder zones occur mostly at lava-tuff contacts; within fractured lava flows and at the contacts of intrusives and host rocks.

  18. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  19. Far-Field Acoustic Data for the Texas ASE, Inc. Hush-House. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    various USAF aircraft /engines operating in the Texas ASE, Inc. hush- house . The hush- house is a structure that totally encloses the aircraft /engine...6 F-4 Aircraft in the Hush- House .................................................................. 7-31 F-15... Aircraft in the Hush- House ................................................................ 32-56 F-16 Aircraft in the Hush- House

  20. Spatiotemporal relationships among Late Pennsylvanian plant assemblages: Palynological evidence from the Markley Formation, West Texas, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Looy, Cindy V; Hotton, Carol L

    2014-12-01

    The Pennsylvanian lowlands of western Pangea are best known for their diverse wetland floras of arborescent and herbaceous ferns, and arborescent horsetails and clubmosses. In apparent juxtaposition, a very different kind of flora, dominated by a xerophilous assemblage of conifers, taeniopterids and peltasperms, is occasionally glimpsed. Once believed to represent upland or extrabasinal floras from well-drained portions of the landscape, these dryland floras more recently have been interpreted as lowland assemblages growing during drier phases of glacial/interglacial cycles. Whether Pennsylvanian dryland and wetland floras were separated spatially or temporally remains an unsettled question, due in large part to taphonomic bias toward preservation of wetland plants. Previous paleobotanical and sedimentological analysis of the Markley Formation of latest Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) age, from north central Texas, U.S.A, indicates close correlation between lithofacies and distinct dryland and wetland megaflora assemblages. Here we present a detailed analysis one of those localities, a section unusual in containing abundant palynomorphs, from the lower Markley Formation. Paleobotanical, palynological and lithological data from a section thought to represent a single interglacial/glacial phase are integrated and analyzed to create a complex picture of an evolving landscape. Megafloral data from throughout the Markley Formation show that conifer-dominated dryland floras occur exclusively in highly leached kaolinite beds, likely eroded from underlying soils, whereas a mosaic of wetland floras occupy histosols, ultisols, and fluvial overbank deposits. Palynological data largely conform to this pattern but reveal a more complex picture. An assemblage of mixed wetland and dryland palynofloral taxa is interpolated between a dryland assemblage and an overlying histosol containing wetland taxa. In this section, as well as elsewhere in the Markley Formation, kaolinite and overlying

  1. Spatiotemporal relationships among Late Pennsylvanian plant assemblages: Palynological evidence from the Markley Formation, West Texas, U.S.A

    PubMed Central

    Looy, Cindy V.; Hotton, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    The Pennsylvanian lowlands of western Pangea are best known for their diverse wetland floras of arborescent and herbaceous ferns, and arborescent horsetails and clubmosses. In apparent juxtaposition, a very different kind of flora, dominated by a xerophilous assemblage of conifers, taeniopterids and peltasperms, is occasionally glimpsed. Once believed to represent upland or extrabasinal floras from well-drained portions of the landscape, these dryland floras more recently have been interpreted as lowland assemblages growing during drier phases of glacial/interglacial cycles. Whether Pennsylvanian dryland and wetland floras were separated spatially or temporally remains an unsettled question, due in large part to taphonomic bias toward preservation of wetland plants. Previous paleobotanical and sedimentological analysis of the Markley Formation of latest Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) age, from north central Texas, U.S.A, indicates close correlation between lithofacies and distinct dryland and wetland megaflora assemblages. Here we present a detailed analysis one of those localities, a section unusual in containing abundant palynomorphs, from the lower Markley Formation. Paleobotanical, palynological and lithological data from a section thought to represent a single interglacial/glacial phase are integrated and analyzed to create a complex picture of an evolving landscape. Megafloral data from throughout the Markley Formation show that conifer-dominated dryland floras occur exclusively in highly leached kaolinite beds, likely eroded from underlying soils, whereas a mosaic of wetland floras occupy histosols, ultisols, and fluvial overbank deposits. Palynological data largely conform to this pattern but reveal a more complex picture. An assemblage of mixed wetland and dryland palynofloral taxa is interpolated between a dryland assemblage and an overlying histosol containing wetland taxa. In this section, as well as elsewhere in the Markley Formation, kaolinite and overlying

  2. Multibar sawless lint cleaner: fiber quality analysis after 3rd year of field testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After two years of field testing a prototype spiked-tooth lint cleaner, the Multibar Sawless Lint Cleaner (MBSLC), a final year of field evaluation was conducted at commercial cotton gin in West Texas located approximately 30 miles Southwest of Lubbock, Texas.The cotton lint cleaner was tested in a ...

  3. Field Training Activities for Hydrologic Science in West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustina, C.; Fajri, P. N.; Fathoni, F.; Gusti, T. P.; Harifa, A. C.; Hendra, Y.; Hertanti, D. R.; Lusiana, N.; Rohmat, F. I.; Agouridis, C.; Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Pandjaitan, N.; Santoso, R.; Suharyanto, A.

    2013-12-01

    In hydrologic science and engineering, one challenge is establishing a common framework for discussion among workers from different disciplines. As part of the 'Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology: Helping Hydrologic Outreach (BOOST H2O)' project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of State, nine current or recent graduate students from four Indonesian universities participated in a week of training activities during June 2013. Students had backgrounds in agricultural engineering, civil and environmental engineering, water resources engineering, natural resources management, and soil science. Professors leading the training, which was based at Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) in west Java, included an agricultural engineer, civil engineers, and geologists. Activities in surface-water hydrology included geomorphic assessment of streams (measuring slope, cross-section, and bed-clast size) and gauging stream flow (wading with top-setting rods and a current meter for a large stream, and using a bucket and stopwatch for a small stream). Groundwater-hydrology activities included measuring depth to water in wells, conducting a pumping test with an observation well, and performing vertical electrical soundings to infer hydrostratigraphy. Students also performed relatively simple water-quality measurements (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and alkalinity) in streams, wells, and springs. The group analyzed data with commercially-available software such as AQTESOLV for well hydraulics, freeware such as the U.S. Geological Survey alkalinity calculator, and Excel spreadsheets. Results were discussed in the context of landscape position, lithology, and land use.

  4. Reactive transport modeling of CO2 injection in the Farnsworth, Texas hydrocarbon field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmmed, B.; Appold, M. S.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Grigg, R.; White, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Farnsworth hydrocarbon field in northern Texas has been an experimental site for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery for the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Southwest Partnership (SWP) since April, 2013. CO2 is to be injected into the Pennsylvanian Morrow Sandstone at a rate of 200,000 tonnes per year for at least five years. The Morrow is a quartz-rich sandstone that lies at a depth of about 2400 m. Pore water in the Morrow has a total dissolved solids content of about 3600 mg/L dominated by Na, Cl, bicarbonate, and Ca. A reactive solute transport model was constructed for a 1700 × 1700 × 95 m volume using the TOUGHREACT software and the ECO2N equation of state for aqueous brine and CO2. Simulations were carried out to 100 years. The results showed immiscible CO2 gas to be concentrated in a lateral plume extending radially from the well screen, its ascent impeded by vigorous lateral groundwater flow in the more permeable upper Morrow. CO2 was much more widespread in aqueous solution, lowering pH throughout much of the model volume after 100 years, to a minimum of about 4.7. The low reactivity of the Morrow Sandstone due to its quartz-rich matrix and dilute pore fluid resulted in little mineral precipitation or dissolution, with net volume changes for any mineral no higher than order 10-4. The simulations predicted net dissolution of albite, calcite, and chlorite, and net precipitation of dawsonite, illite, and magnesite. The Morrow matrix was predicted to undergo slight net dissolution overall, resulting in porosity increases of up to 0.01%, suggesting that the Morrow would be resistant to significant changes in hydraulic properties as a result of the proposed amount of CO2 injection. For the 100 year simulation times calculated thus far, only a small fraction of the injected CO2 would be sequestered as carbonate minerals, with most of the injected CO2 dissolved in the aqueous phase.

  5. Fields of Coal: An analysis of industry and sedimentology in Dolores, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaden, A.; Besonen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Research was conducted on a historically significant pond located in the former mining town of Dolores, located north of Laredo, Texas. The intention of this work was, to determine the influence of local mining operations on the environment and determine the extent of coal production from the sedimentary record. The pond is located ~160 m downslope from a former coal mine and waste pile, and was therefore a likely site of coal accumulations, as well as other debris. Additionally, this pond was created only 130 years ago, in 1882, giving a distinct time frame for any sedimentary records. Field work was conducted to obtain sediment core samples from the pond, and corroborating evidence was gathered using historical documents from archives in Laredo, online resources, as well as library records and inter library loan. Sedimentary cores obtained were shorter than desired as a result of the densely packed clay, which reduceding the penetration of coring equipment, leaving the historical extent of the cores limited. The limited sedimentary record also gives little indication as to the extent of production in the nearby mine and how it may have varied over time. The split cores were scanned with a Minolta CM-2600d spectrophotometer, and the results were transformed into first derivative spectrum equivalent data to identify common sedimentary minerals according to their first derivative signatures. The spectral analysis on the cores determined a large amount of clay minerals, and also limonite/goethite according to prominent first derivative peaks centered on ~440 and 540 nm. This agrees with visual observations given the all minerals showing spectra most intense in the 625 -725 nm portion of the visible spectrum, giving the cores their largely yellowish-reddish/brown hue of the cores. Magnetic susceptibility analysis indicated great changes in mineral contentmagnetism, some possibly associated with ash from fires. Bulk density and loss-on-ignition analysis to further

  6. Oil recovery in a low-permeability, wave-dominated, Cretaceous, deltaic reservoir, Big Wells (San Miguel) field, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Gholston, J.C.; Ambrose, W.A.

    1987-10-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Big Wells (San Miguel) reservoir in Dimmit and Zavala Counties, south Texas, produces from a broadly lenticular, wave-dominated deltaic sandstone encased in prodelta and shelf mudstones. An updip porosity pinch-out coincides with a gentle undulation on a uniformly gulfward-dipping monocline and forms a structurally modified stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is relatively tight and has an average porosity of 21% and average permeability of 6 md; wells require fracturing to stimulate production. Ultimate recovery, based on current production trends and technology, is projected to be 57 million bbl, or 29% of the 198 million bbl field. 24 figures, 1 table.

  7. Technical procedures for implementation of acoustics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The purpose and scope of the technical procedure for processing data from the tethered meteorological system are covered. Definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs are also addressed. This technical procedure describes how to control, organize, verify, and archive tethered meteorological system data. These data will be received at the processing location from the field measurement location and are part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas for the salt repository program. These measurements will be made in support of the sound propagation study and are a result of environmental data requirements for acoustics. 6 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Groundwater Modeling of Playa-Focused Recharge at the Southwestern Edge of the High Plains Aquifer in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blainey, J.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.; Sigda, J.; Cook, S.; Hughes, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ongoing hydrogeologic investigations at a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Andrews County, Texas include monitoring of a groundwater system in Ogallala (Neogene), Antlers (Cretaceous), and Gatuna (Neogene/Quaternary) Formation sediments on the southwestern edge of the Southern High Plains physiographic province. The disposal site is underlain by unsaturated sands and gravels of these laterally contiguous sediments, informally termed the OAG. North of the site these sediments develop into the continuously saturated High Plains or Ogallala aquifer. Episodes of focused recharge to the OAG sediments have been observed during the last 9 years of groundwater level monitoring near small playas and topographic depressions that collect water after large precipitation events. During smaller precipitation events water is stored in the unsaturated zone and evapotranspired, predominately by mesquite, creosote and grasses. The climate is semi-arid with average evaporation rates far exceeding the estimated average annual precipitation of 15-16 inches/year. Monitoring at more than 250 wells in the OAG and environmental tracer studies confirm a conceptual model of playa-focused natural recharge to the groundwater system with little or no recharge occurring in inter-playa areas. The thickness of the OAG saturated sediments in the vicinity of the disposal sites ranges from 3 feet to 10 feet, with areas of discontinuous saturation away from areas of focused recharge. Environmental tracer studies show the groundwater in the OAG is poorly mixed and disconnected from regional groundwater flow further to the northeast. The disposal facilities are located over a structural high on the erosional surface of the Dockum Group, which immediately underlies the OAG sediments. This feature, referred to as the red bed ridge, is roughly coincident with the topographic divide between the High Plains and the Pecos Valley physiographic provinces and serves as a divide for

  9. Integrated biostratigraphy of foraminifers, radiolarians and conodonts in shallow and deep water Middle Permian (Capitanian) deposits of the "Rader slide", Guadalupe Mountains, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestell, M.K.; Nestell, G.P.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Sweatt, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A diverse assemblage of microfossils is present in a 6m thick sequence of three debris flow deposits interbedded with thin turbidite limestone beds and fine grained siliciclastics exposed above the megaconglomerate in a section (known as the "Rader Slide" in numerous guidebook stops) of the Rader Limestone Member of the Bell Canyon Formation of Capitanian age (Middle Permian) in the Guadalupe Mountains of West Texas. Each debris flow, derived from nearby Capitan Reef shelf-margin and slope deposits, contains a distinct microfossil assemblage. Small foraminifers and fusulinaceans, conodonts, radiolarians, sponge spicules, fish dermal plates and teeth, and other fragmental fossils are present in this sequence. Conodonts are relatively scarce in the first (or lowest) debris flow, except in its upper part, but they are common to abundant in the other two debris flows, and very abundant in several of the thin turbidite limestone beds. All of the conodonts present appear to be morphotypes of one population of the species Jinogondolella postserrata, except for one new conodont species, and the Jinogondolella postserrata Zone is clearly documented in this sequence. The debris flows contain the fusulinaceans Rauserella, rare Codonofusiella, Polydiexodina, Leella? and various species of the small foraminifers Globivalvulina, Hemigordius, Baisalina, Abadehella, Deckerella, Neoendothyranella, Vachardella, Geinitzina, and Polarisella. Some of the thin turbidite limestone beds contain a foraminiferal assemblage similar to that found in the debris flows, but with lower diversity. Many small foraminiferal species appear to be endemic, although a few are closely related to species known in Permian age strata in Italy, Greenland, the Russian Far East, northeastern part of Russia (Omolon massif), and the Zechstein of Germany and the Baltic area. Two thin limestone beds above the second debris flow contain primarily radiolarian species known from the Follicucullus japonicus Zone of

  10. Prolific Overton field gas reservoirs within large transverse oolite shoals, Upper Jurassic Haynesville, Eastern Margin East Texas basin

    SciTech Connect

    Glynn, W.G.; Covington, T.E.; Lighty, R.G.; Ahr, W.M.

    1985-02-01

    Late Triassic rifting along a northeast-southwest spreading center in east Texas resulted in basement highs along the eastern margin of the East Texas basin that became sites of extensive ooid shoal deposition during Late Jurassic time. Reservoirs within oolite facies at Overton field contain over 1 tcf of natural gas. These large shoals, each approximately 15 mi (24 km) long and 3 mi (4.8 km) wide, trend north-south as a group and northeast-southwest individually. They are oblique to the basin margin but parallel with Jurassic diffracted tidal currents within the East Texas embayment. Modern Bahamian ooid shoals of similar size, trend, and depositional setting occur at the terminus of the deep Tongue-Of-The-Ocean platform reentrant. Overton field reservoirs are in ooid grainstone shoal facies and in transitional shoal margins of skeletal-oolitic-peloidal grainstones and packstones. Adjacent nonreservoir facies are peloidal-skeletal-siliciclastic wackestones and mudstones. Early diagenesis of grainstone reservoir facies included meteoric dissolution and grain stabilization, resulting in abundant chalky intraparticle porosity and equant and bladed calcite cements filling interparticle porosity. Subsequent burial diagenesis resulted in intense solution compaction and coarse equant calcite and saddle crystal dolomite that occluded remaining interparticle porosity. Whole-rock trace element analysis indicates greatest diagenetic flushing (less magnesium, strontium) in porous zones. Stable isotopes for grains and cements show strong overprint of later burial diagenesis, with greater depletion of delta/sup 18/O in reservoir facies. However, hydrocarbons were emplaced prior to late cementation, and unlike other Jurassic Gulf Coast reservoirs, deep burial diagenesis provided no late-stage formation of porosity.

  11. Kitina: A West African intra-Albian field

    SciTech Connect

    Cornaggia, F.; Congo, S.A.; Agostino, M.

    1995-08-01

    Kitina field is located in Marine VII permit, offshore Congo. The field was discovered in 1991 by a joint venture composed of Agip Recherches Congo (operator), Hydrocongo and Chevron International Limited. The field is a structural four-way dip closure trap shaped as turtle-back. Halokinetic movements are responsible for the structuring. The seismic imaging of the reservoir is affected by strong lateral velocity variations caused by different sedimentation across the paleo-shelf edge in the post-Albian sequence. One pass 3D poststack depth migration, performed with a velocity field obtained by means of geostatistical integration of 2D seismic and wellbore velocities, achieved a good compromise between high dip reflector imaging and depths at well location. Three main reservoirs of lower Albian age exist between -2100 and -3100m. They are separated by tight mudstones which act as intraformational seal. Seismic trace inversion improved the resolution of petrophysical variations in some of the field reservoirs, which have the following characteristics (from top to bottom): reservoir 2A is composed of bioclastic and oolitic packstone-grainstone laid down during regional regressive phase in insulated offshore bars on the crest of structural high. Early diagenetic phenomena lead to the development of world class permeability framework. Reservoir 1A-1B are composed of sandstone bodies which were deposited as shoreface to offshore bars during short-term regressive pulse. The 1A-1B reservoir, are embedded in mudstones deposited during long lasting phases of relative high stand in relatively deep offshore setting characterised by high, halokinetic driven subsidence.

  12. Spatial Arrangement of Irrigated Valencia Peanuts to Improve Light Interception and Utilization in - Eastern New Mexico and West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting arrangements can be used to improve resource use efficiency. A field study was conducted on a growers farm South of Clovis, NM in 2006 to compare light interception and radiation use efficiency in a single row, twin row, and diamond planting pattern. The diamond planting pattern places see...

  13. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  14. Childhood Trauma Training in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Field Visit Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobayed, Mamoun

    2004-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder is the psychological reaction to various traumas. It is common among children living in war zones or conflict regions. This paper describes a field visit to train mental health professionals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on how to help traumatised children.

  15. Protection of Paddy Field and Recommendation of Regional Planning in Cianjur Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munibah, Khursatul; Yudarwati, Rani; Dwi Wahyunie, Enni; Wijaya, Hermanu

    2016-11-01

    Cianjur Regency is one of “lumbung” paddies in West Java Province that can contribute to rice sufficiency for West Java 13.5%. However conversion of paddy field into other land use still happen in Indonesia because of land rent of paddy field less than other land use and also the low commitment of Government to protect the paddy field to get food self-sufficiency. Objectives are analysis of paddy field protection and recommendation of regional planning. Paddy field protection was determined based on existing paddy field, land suitability, economic value and Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW). Recommendation of regional planning was determined based on priority level of paddy field protection, Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW) and rice sufficiency status. The results showed that land suitability, economic value and also allocating land for paddy field in the RTRW can support realization of paddy field protection. The paddy field that included into the first and third priority is 30.14% and 38.45%, respectively. The other priorities of paddy field protection are around 15%. This research is recommended that 87.5% of the paddy field existing can be protected to get rice sufficiency with surplus around 48.782 ton.

  16. Simulation of the Transport and Dispersion of Perfluorocarbon Tracers Released in Texas Using multiple Assimilated Meteorological Wind Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schichtel, B.; Barna, M.; Gebhart, K.; Green, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study (BRAVO) was designed to determine the causes of visibility impairment at Big Bend National Park, located in southwestern Texas. As part of BRAVO, an intensive field study was conducted during July-October 1999. Among the features of this study was the release of unique perfluorocarbon tracers from four sites within Texas, representative of industrial/urban locations. These tracers were monitored at 21 sites, throughout Texas. Other measurements collected during the field study included upper-level winds using radar profilers, and speciated fine-particulate mass concentrations. MM5 was used to simulate the regional meteorology during BRAVO, and was run in non-hydrostatic mode using a continental-scale 36km domain with nested 12km and 4km domains. MM5 employed observational nudging by incorporating the available measured wind data from the National Weather Service and data from the radar wind profilers. Meteorological data from the National Weather Service's Eta Data Assimilation System (EDAS), archived at 80km grid spacing, were also available. Several models are being used to evaluate airmass transport to Big Bend, including CMAQ, REMSAD, HYSPLIT and the CAPITA Monte Carlo Model. This combination of tracer data, meteorological data and deployment of four models provides a unique opportunity to assess the ability of the model/wind field combinations to properly simulate the regional scale atmospheric transport and dispersion of trace gases over distances of 100 to 800km. This paper will present the tracer simulations from REMSAD using the 36 and 12 km MM5 wind fields, and results from HYSPLIT and the Monte Carlo model driven by the 36km MM5 and 80km EDAS wind fields. Preliminary results from HYSPLIT and the Monte Carlo model driven by the EDAS wind fields shows that these models are able to account for the primary features of tracer concentrations patterns in the Big Bend area. However, at times the

  17. An evaluation of real-time air quality forecasts and their urban emissions over eastern Texas during the summer of 2006 Second Texas Air Quality Study field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeen, S.; Grell, G.; Peckham, S.; Wilczak, J.; Djalalova, I.; Hsie, E.-Y.; Frost, G.; Peischl, J.; Schwarz, J.; Spackman, R.; Holloway, J.; de Gouw, J.; Warneke, C.; Gong, W.; Bouchet, V.; Gaudreault, S.; Racine, J.; McHenry, J.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; Tang, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Mathur, R.

    2009-04-01

    Forecasts of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) from seven air quality forecast models (AQFMs) are statistically evaluated against observations collected during August and September of 2006 (49 days) through the Aerometric Information Retrieval Now (AIRNow) network throughout eastern Texas and adjoining states. Ensemble O3 and PM2.5 forecasts created by combining the seven separate forecasts with equal weighting, and simple bias-corrected forecasts, are also evaluated in terms of standard statistical measures, threshold statistics, and variance analysis. For O3 the models and ensemble generally show statistical skill relative to persistence for the entire region, but fail to predict high-O3 events in the Houston region. For PM2.5, none of the models, or ensemble, shows statistical skill, and all but one model have significant low bias. Comprehensive comparisons with the full suite of chemical and aerosol measurements collected aboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the summer 2006 Second Texas Air Quality Study and the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS II/GoMACCS) field study are performed to help diagnose sources of model bias at the surface. Aircraft flights specifically designed for sampling of Houston and Dallas urban plumes are used to determine model and observed upwind or background biases, and downwind excess concentrations that are used to infer relative emission rates. Relative emissions from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999 National Emission Inventory (NEI-99) version 3 emissions inventory (used in two of the model forecasts) are evaluated on the basis of comparisons between observed and model concentration difference ratios. Model comparisons demonstrate that concentration difference ratios yield a reasonably accurate measure (within 25%) of relative input emissions. Boundary layer height and wind data are combined with the observed up-wind and downwind concentration

  18. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, DGS, Robert C.; Robinson, M.S., William C.; Wider, Kevin; Weinbrandt, Ph.D.,PE, Richard

    2000-04-14

    A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1998-1999.

  19. Notes from the Field: Health Care-Associated Hepatitis A Outbreak - Texas, 2015.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Rachel; Weil, Lauren M; Lozano, Catalina; Johnson, Thomas J; Jin, Sherry; Moorman, Anne C; Foster, Monique A; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Khudyakov, Yury; Kuhar, David T; Graves, Julie

    2016-04-29

    On August 27-28, 2015, the Texas Department of State Health Services received calls from Fort Bend County and Harris County health departments requesting postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) recommendations for contacts of two nurses (patients A and B) with confirmed hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Both nurses had symptom onset during August 15-19 and worked for the same pediatric home health care agency in another jurisdiction. Because of the proximity of the onset dates, a common source exposure was suspected. The state and local health departments began an investigation to identify potentially exposed patients, their families, and other agency personnel; offer PEP; and identify the source of exposure.

  20. Analysis of Data from a Downhole Oil/Water Separator Field Trial in East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, John A.; Layne, Arthur Langhus

    2001-04-19

    Downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology is available to separate oil from produced water at the bottom of an oil well. Produced water can be injected directly to a disposal formation rather than lifting it to the surface, treating it there, and reinjecting it. Because of a lack of detailed performance data on DOWS systems, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to secure DOWS performance data. A large U.S. oil and gas operator offered to share its data with Argonne National Laboratory. This report summarizes data from the DOWS installation in eastern Texas.

  1. Comparison of LANDSAT-2 and field spectrometer reflectance signatures of south Texas rangeland plant communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Escobar, D. E.; Gausman, H. W.; Everitt, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The accuracy was assessed for an atmospheric correction method that depends on clear water bodies to infer solar and atmospheric parameters for radiative transfer equations by measuring the reflectance signature of four prominent south Texas rangeland plants with the LANDSAT satellite multispectral scanner (MSS) and a ground based spectroradiometer. The rangeland plant reflectances produced by the two sensors were correlated with no significant deviation of the slope from unity or of the intercept from zero. These results indicated that the atmospheric correction produced LANDSAT MSS estimates of rangeland plant reflectances that are as accurate as the ground based spectroradiometer.

  2. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    comprehensive picture of the structures in the study area. These models show that the Uinta uplift is a single sedimentary block with numerous thrust faults on the northern and southern flanks of the uplift. These models also reveal the fact that the thickness of the crust is quite variable in the study area. This is also supported by the crustal thickness map constructed for this study from seismic and receiver function information. Magnetic maps show that the Proterozoic sedimentary package known as Uinta Mountain Group extends into the Basin and Range and indicates its link with the ancient rift margin in the Western United States. Findings of this research are correlated to earlier studies and placed in a broader context. Finally an analogy is made between the Uinta aulacogen, the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Dniepr-Donets aulacogen in Ukraine. This discussion focuses light on the mechanism that led to the Uinta's development from a failed rift to an uplift. Part two of this research examined the effect of saltcedar (Tamarix sp) on water and soil properties in the Rio Grande River valley in West Texas. Tamarix is a woody phreatophyte (water-loving plant) common in riparian habitats. The presence of Tamarix in a river system raises concerns about its effect on water quality because it can increase the salinity of water and surrounding soil and it reduces stream flow. Geophysical electrical techniques were used to track soil salinity and moisture changes caused by Tamarix, as well as to determine how soil salinity and moisture properties are altered when Tamarix is eradicated from the region. These techniques allowed more rapid in-situ assessment of the soil properties than the conventional method of removing soil and water samples for analysis. This study was focused on the influence of Tamarix on soil properties and hydrology at the subsurface at four sites in the Rio Bosque Wetlands Park, El Paso, Texas Two sites had flourishing Tamarix and two others were areas

  3. Calcitization and silicification of evaporites in Guadalupian back-reef carbonates of the Delaware basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Outcrop of the Seven Rivers, Yates, and Tansill formations contain numerous examples of evaporites that have been replaced by both quartz and calcite. The original evaporites consisted of discrete horizons, scattered nodules, enterolithic layers, and individual crystal laths of gypsum and/or anhydrite within a predominantly dolomitic matrix. Based on field and petrographic observations, evaporite replacement proceeded from the exterior to the interior of the nodules. The earliest replacement was by euhedral, black megaquartz containing abundant hydrocarbon inclusions. Calcite replacement followed silicification and consists of coarse, equant, blocky spar. Isotopic analyses of these calcites form two distinct groups: the first group ranges from -10.9 to -20.1{per thousand} (average -16.4{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 13}C and -6.4 to -13.8{per thousand} (average -10.9{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 18}O; the second group ranges from +1.4 to 5.8{per thousand} (average -2.4{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 13}C and -6.2 to 14.1{per thousand} (average -9.2{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 18}O. Evaporite silicification was coeval with hydrocarbon migration as indicated by the inclusion data. Calcitization, however, was associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting that uplifted the area causing deep groundwater circulation. The isotopically very light calcites resulted from the mixing of meteoric fluids and hydrocarbon-rich pore fluids, probably during early uplift while these strata were still at significant depth. The calcites with heavier isotopic values were produced somewhat later by meteoric fluids that had little or no contact with hydrocarbons. Evaporite diagenesis in the Delaware basin is an ongoing process that started during hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to significantly change the porosity of these units.

  4. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

  5. Fluvial architecture and reservoir heterogeneity of middle Frio sandstones, Seeligson field, Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A.; Kerr, D.R.; Zinke, S.G.; Finley, R.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Evaluation of fluvial Frio reservoirs in south Texas reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of incremental gas reserves through recognition of untapped compartments or bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a GRI/DOE/Texas-sponsored program, in cooperation with Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Production U.S., Inc., and is designed to develop technologies and methodologies for increasing gas reserves from conventional reservoirs in mature fields. Seeligson field, discovered in 1937, has produced 2.2 tcf of gas from more than 50 middle Frio reservoirs. Cross sections as well as net sand and log facies maps illustrate depositional style, sandstone geometry, and reservoir heterogeneities. Far-offset vertical seismic profiles show laterally discontinuous reflections corresponding to the reservoirs. Lenticular lateral-bar sandstones dominate channel-fill deposits that together are commonly less than 50 ft thick, forming belts of sandstone approximately 2,500 ft wide. Crevasse-splay deposits commonly extend a few thousand feet beyond the channel system. Sand-rich channel-fill deposits are flanked by levee and overbank mudstones, isolating the reservoirs in narrow, dip-elongate trends. Deposition on an aggrading coastal plain resulted in a pattern of laterally stacked sandstone bodies that are widespread across the study area. Alternating periods of more rapid aggradation resulted in deposition of vertically stacked sandstones with limited areal distribution. Facies architecture of both depositional styles has implications for reservoir compartmentalization. Reservoir compartments within a laterally stacked system may be leaky, resulting from sandstone contact from producing wells along depositional axes. This effect is a major factor controlling incremental recovery. Reservoirs in vertically stacked systems should be better isolated.

  6. Texas Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wind-Whipped Fires in East Texas     View Larger Image ... one-year drought on record and the warmest month in Texas history. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on ...

  7. The persistence of Black males in the STEM fields at Texas State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Beverly Woodson

    For the past five years, enrollment in the College of Science and Engineering by first-time undergraduate students has steadily increased. However, retaining the students through their first-year and their persistence to their second year of college and beyond has been problematic. The purpose of this study is to add to the knowledge of why Black students, specifically Black men, are not persisting at Texas State University in the STEM majors. It will also determine if specific factors like the SAT scores, parent's education, high school rank, college GPA, college science and math courses (physics, math, biology and chemistry), college credits earned and average GPA in all science and math college courses predict college preparation and college performance for all students and for Black male students.

  8. Evaluation of Highly Realistic Training for Navy Corpsmen: Results for Field Medical Training Battalion-West

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-14

    administered about 1 week after the training . Thus, the time interval between the pretests and posttests was approximately 7–8 weeks. Pretests and...given that the time interval between the pretests and posttests was 7–8 weeks. However, it is likely that the training made a contribution to the...Naval Health Research Center Evaluation of Highly Realistic Training for Navy Corpsmen: Results for Field Medical Training Battalion−West

  9. Texas Field Experiment Results: Performance of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Hot-Climate, Low-Income Homes

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, Lance Neil; Goeltz, Rick; Ternes, Mark P; Berry, Linda G

    2008-04-01

    A field test involving 35 houses was performed in Texas between 2000 and 2003 to study the response of low-income homes in hot climates to weatherization performed as part of the U.S Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program and to investigate certain methods to improve weatherization performance. The study found that improved Program designs and the use of advanced energy audits resulted in better weatherization measures being installed (use of blower doors to guide the infiltration work, more frequent installation of attic insulation, and installation of wall insulation) in the study homes, improved space-heating savings performance compared to the Program as implemented in the hot climates in 1989, and more comfortable indoor temperatures. Two key policy dilemmas for Texas and other hot-climate states were highlighted by the study; namely, how to balance expenditures between installing cost-effective weatherization measures and performing health, safety, and repair items, and that health, safety, and repair items can have an adverse impact on energy savings, which further complicates the weatherization decision process. Several occupant and equipment-related behaviors were observed in the field test homes that help explain why audits may over predict energy consumptions and savings and why air-conditioning electricity savings are difficult to measure. Based on this study, it is recommended that states in hot climates be encouraged to select from an expanded list of measures using advanced audits or other techniques, and further studies examining the benefits obtained from air conditioner measures should be performed. In addition, guidelines should be developed for the hot-climate states on how to (a) balance the objectives of saving energy, improving health and safety, and addressing repair issues, and (b) select repair items.

  10. High resolution reservoir architecture of late Jurassic Haynesville ramp carbonates in the Gladewater field, East Texas Salt Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhammer, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    The East Texas Salt Basin contains numerous gas fields within Upper Jurassic Haynesville ramp-complex reservoirs. A sequenced-keyed, high-resolution zonation scheme was developed for the Haynesville Formation in Gladewater field by integrating core description, well-log, seismic, porosity and permeability data. The Haynesville at Gladewater represents a high-energy ramp system, localized on paleotopographic highs induced by diapirism of Callovian Age Salt (Louann). Ramp crest grainstones serve as reservoirs. We have mapped the distribution of reservoir facies within a hierarchy of upward-shallowing parasequences grouped into low-frequency sequences. The vertical stacking patterns of parasequences and sequences reflect the interplay of eustasy, sediment accumulation patterns, and local subsidence (including salt movement and compaction). In this study we draw on regional relations from analogous, Jurassic systems in Mexico to constrain the stratigraphic architecture, age model, and facies model. Additionally, salt-cored Holocene, grain-rich shoals from the Persian Gulf provide excellent facies analogs. The result is a new high-resolution analysis of reservoir architecture at a parasequence scale that links reservoir facies to depositional facies. The new stratigraphy scheme demonstrates that different geographic portions of the field have markedly distinct reservoir intervals, both in terms of total pay and the sequence-stratigraphic interval within which it occurs. Results from this study are used to evaluate infill drill well potential, in well planning, for updating reservoir models, and in refining field reserve estimates.

  11. High resolution reservoir architecture of late Jurassic Haynesville ramp carbonates in the Gladewater field, East Texas Salt Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhammer, R.K. )

    1996-01-01

    The East Texas Salt Basin contains numerous gas fields within Upper Jurassic Haynesville ramp-complex reservoirs. A sequenced-keyed, high-resolution zonation scheme was developed for the Haynesville Formation in Gladewater field by integrating core description, well-log, seismic, porosity and permeability data. The Haynesville at Gladewater represents a high-energy ramp system, localized on paleotopographic highs induced by diapirism of Callovian Age Salt (Louann). Ramp crest grainstones serve as reservoirs. We have mapped the distribution of reservoir facies within a hierarchy of upward-shallowing parasequences grouped into low-frequency sequences. The vertical stacking patterns of parasequences and sequences reflect the interplay of eustasy, sediment accumulation patterns, and local subsidence (including salt movement and compaction). In this study we draw on regional relations from analogous, Jurassic systems in Mexico to constrain the stratigraphic architecture, age model, and facies model. Additionally, salt-cored Holocene, grain-rich shoals from the Persian Gulf provide excellent facies analogs. The result is a new high-resolution analysis of reservoir architecture at a parasequence scale that links reservoir facies to depositional facies. The new stratigraphy scheme demonstrates that different geographic portions of the field have markedly distinct reservoir intervals, both in terms of total pay and the sequence-stratigraphic interval within which it occurs. Results from this study are used to evaluate infill drill well potential, in well planning, for updating reservoir models, and in refining field reserve estimates.

  12. Site study plan for utilities and solid waste, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This site plan describes utilities and solid waste studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. After utilities and solid waste information needs derived from Federal, State, and local statutes and regulations and the project specifications are briefly described, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, and data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs to characterize electrical power, natural gas, communication, water, wastewater sludge, nonradiological solid waste, nonradiological hazardous waste, and low-level radiological waste. These programs include details for the collection of project needs, identification of utilities and solid waste disposal contractor capabilities, and verification of the obtained data. Utilities and solid waste field activities will begin approximately at the time of site access. Utilities and solid waste characterization will be completed within the first year of activity. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Corpus Christi, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This near vertical view of the south Texas coast shows the city of Corpus Christi (28.0N, 97.0W) and Corpus Christi Bay. Mustang Island and the Gulf of Mexico are seen in the Southeast corner of the view. The Nueces River flows into the bay from the west. The light toned squiggly lines in Corpus Christi Bay are mud trails caused by shrimp boats dragging their nets along the shallow bottom of the bay.

  14. Controls on Methane Occurrences in Shallow Aquifers Overlying the Haynesville Shale Gas Field, East Texas.

    PubMed

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Larson, Toti; Darvari, Roxana; Mickler, Patrick; Slotten, Michael; Aldridge, Jordan; Uhlman, Kristine; Costley, Ruth

    2017-01-19

    Understanding the source of dissolved methane in drinking-water aquifers is critical for assessing potential contributions from hydraulic fracturing in shale plays. Shallow groundwater in the Texas portion of the Haynesville Shale area (13,000 km(2) ) was sampled (70 samples) for methane and other dissolved light alkanes. Most samples were derived from the fresh water bearing Wilcox formations and show little methane except in a localized cluster of 12 water wells (17% of total) in a approximately 30 × 30 km(2) area in Southern Panola County with dissolved methane concentrations less than 10 mg/L. This zone of elevated methane is spatially associated with the termination of an active fault system affecting the entire sedimentary section, including the Haynesville Shale at a depth more than 3.5 km, and with shallow lignite seams of Lower Wilcox age at a depth of 100 to 230 m. The lignite spatial extension overlaps with the cluster. Gas wetness and methane isotope compositions suggest a mixed microbial and thermogenic origin with contribution from lignite beds and from deep thermogenic reservoirs that produce condensate in most of the cluster area. The pathway for methane from the lignite and deeper reservoirs is then provided by the fault system.

  15. Immersive, hands-on, team-based geophysical education at the University of Texas Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.; Reece, R.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a unique and intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring/summer semester intersession. Now entering its seventh year, the course transitions students from a classroom environment through real-world, hands-on field acquisition, on to team-oriented data interpretation, culminating in a professional presentation before academic and industry employer representatives. The course is available to graduate students and select upper-division undergraduates, preparing them for direct entry into the geoscience workforce or for further academic study. Geophysical techniques used include high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, sediment coring, grab sampling, data processing, and laboratory analysis of sediments. Industry-standard equipment, methods, software packages, and visualization techniques are used throughout the course, putting students ahead of many of their peers in this respect. The course begins with a 3-day classroom introduction to the field area geology, geophysical methods, and computing resources used. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of hands-on field and lab work aboard two research vessels: UTIG's 22-foot, aluminum hulled Lake Itasca; and NOAA's 82-foot high-speed catamaran R/V Manta. The smaller vessel handles primarily shallow, inshore targets using multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and grab sampling. The larger vessel is used both inshore and offshore for multichannel seismic, CHIRP profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Field areas to date have included Galveston and Port Aransas, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, with further work in Grand Isle scheduled for 2014. In the field, students work in teams of three, participating in survey design, instrument set-up, field deployment

  16. Petroleum system analysis of the Hunton Group in West Edmond field, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Higley, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    West Edmond field, located in central Oklahoma, is one of the largest oil accumulations in the Silurian–Devonian Hunton Group in this part of the Anadarko Basin. Production from all stratigraphic units in the field exceeds 170 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 400 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), of which approximately 60 MMBO and 100 BCFG have been produced from the Hunton Group. Oil and gas are stratigraphically trapped to the east against the Nemaha uplift, to the north by a regional wedge-out of Hunton strata, and by intraformational diagenetic traps. Hunton Group reservoirs are the Bois d'Arc and Frisco Limestones, with lesser production from the Chimneyhill subgroup, Haragan Shale, and Henryhouse Formation. Hunton Group cores from three wells that were examined petrographically indicate that complex diagenetic relations influence permeability and reservoir quality. Greatest porosity and permeability are associated with secondary dissolution in packstones and grainstones, forming hydrocarbon reservoirs. The overlying Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale is the major petroleum source rock for the Hunton Group in the field, based on one-dimensional and four-dimensional petroleum system models that were calibrated to well temperature and Woodford Shale vitrinite reflectance data. The source rock is marginally mature to mature for oil generation in the area of the West Edmond field, and migration of Woodford oil and gas from deeper parts of the basin also contributed to hydrocarbon accumulation.

  17. Technical procedures for utilities and solid waste: Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The evaluation of environmental issues and concerns and the addressing of statutory requirements are fundamental parts in the characterization of the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Utilities and Solid Waste considerations. This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Utilities and Solid Waste Site Study Plan. The purpose and scope of the Utilities and Solid Waste Technical Procedure is to develop and implement a data collection procedure to fulfill the data base needs of the Utilities and Solid Waste SSP. The procedure describes a method of obtaining, assessing and verifying the capabilities of the regional service utilities and disposal contractors. This data base can be used to identify a preferred service source for the engineering contractor. The technical procedure was produced under the guidelines established in Technical Administrative Procedure No. 1.0, Preparation, Review and Approval of Technical Procedures.

  18. Sugmut field: A forced regression deposit within the Neocomian prograding clinoform complex, West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M. ); Oleg, M.; Igirgi, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Volgian-Neocomian interval of the Middle Ob Region of the intracratonic West Siberian Basin consists of between 35 and 45 regional transgressive/regressive cycles infilling a basin which had an average water depth of approximately 200 meters. Within local clinoforms, wells have encountered elongate shelf-edge sandstone bodies ranging from 15 to 100 kilometers in strike-oriented length. In most areas the seismic interval correlative to the reservoir sandstone pinches-out against the foreset of the preceding clinoform. This geometric relationship, and the sharp-based log pattern of sandstones along the more landward margin of the sandstone body, suggests that the sandstone may have been deposited as a consequence of marked downward shift in baselevel as part of a lowstand prograding complex, or possibly as a late highstand forced regression deposit. The Sugmut field, located in the northeast part of the study area, is 12 km wide east-west and 75 km long north-south, and grades laterally into shale to the west, south and east. Relative to the regressive phase isopach, the transgressive phase isopach thick shifts slightly northward and eastward indicating the direction of littoral drift and marginward transgression. In the northern part of the field the shelf-edge sandstone interval may correlate with a thin depositional-dip oriented shelf sandstone mapped within the transgressive interval. This mapped pattern may be interpreted as lowstand incision of a fluvial system supplying sand to a shelf-edge delta followed by infilling of the fluvial valley during transgression. Subsequent down-to-the-north regional tilt resulted in structural closure forming the Sugmut field trap.

  19. Sugmut field: A forced regression deposit within the Neocomian prograding clinoform complex, West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.; Oleg, M.; Igirgi, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Volgian-Neocomian interval of the Middle Ob Region of the intracratonic West Siberian Basin consists of between 35 and 45 regional transgressive/regressive cycles infilling a basin which had an average water depth of approximately 200 meters. Within local clinoforms, wells have encountered elongate shelf-edge sandstone bodies ranging from 15 to 100 kilometers in strike-oriented length. In most areas the seismic interval correlative to the reservoir sandstone pinches-out against the foreset of the preceding clinoform. This geometric relationship, and the sharp-based log pattern of sandstones along the more landward margin of the sandstone body, suggests that the sandstone may have been deposited as a consequence of marked downward shift in baselevel as part of a lowstand prograding complex, or possibly as a late highstand forced regression deposit. The Sugmut field, located in the northeast part of the study area, is 12 km wide east-west and 75 km long north-south, and grades laterally into shale to the west, south and east. Relative to the regressive phase isopach, the transgressive phase isopach thick shifts slightly northward and eastward indicating the direction of littoral drift and marginward transgression. In the northern part of the field the shelf-edge sandstone interval may correlate with a thin depositional-dip oriented shelf sandstone mapped within the transgressive interval. This mapped pattern may be interpreted as lowstand incision of a fluvial system supplying sand to a shelf-edge delta followed by infilling of the fluvial valley during transgression. Subsequent down-to-the-north regional tilt resulted in structural closure forming the Sugmut field trap.

  20. Monitoring of landscape change in paddy fields: Case study of Karawang District - West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franjaya, E. E.; Syartinilia; Setiawan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Paddy field is an important agricultural land in Indonesia, as one of the largest rice producing-country in the world. At least 26 from 33 provinces in Indonesia are characterized by the existence of paddy field landscape. However, due to the increasing of population and development of infrastructure building, a conversion of paddy field rapidly occurs in many sites. This study aimed to examine the dynamics change in paddy field in Karawang District-West Java during the period of 1994-2015. The method used in this study mainly by the remote sensing technique using satellite images data. The result indicated that conversion of paddy fields to built area/infrastructure in Karawang is approximately 10.326,6 ha. It took up 56% from the paddy that were changed. Based on the result, the changes are likely to occur in the middle of karawang district, near the central city. This result showed the change of paddy field in 1994 converted into some built-up areas such as settlement or roads in 2015. However, about 85.597,56 ha paddy field is not changed during these period. The study showed that paddy fields landscape is facing a changes over the last two decades.

  1. Reservoir heterogeneity in the middle Frio Formation: Case studies in Stratton and Agua Dulce fields, Nueces County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Selected middle Frio (Oligocene) reservoirs of Stratton field and the contiguous Agua Dulce field are being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/Department of Energy/State of Texas cosponsored program designed to improve reserve growth in mature gas fields. Over the past four decades, Stratton has produced 2.0 tcf of gas from 113 middle Frio reservoirs, and Agua Dulce has produced 1.6 tcf from 116 reservoirs. Recent drilling and workover activities, however, suggest the presence of additional untapped or bypassed middle Frio reservoirs. Four reservoirs, the E18/6,020-ft, E21/6,050-ft, E31/6,100-ft, and E41/Bertram, were evaluated over a 13,000-acre tract that includes areas adjacent to both fields. The middle Frio is composed of sand-rich channel-fill and splay deposits interstratified with floodplain mudstones, all forming part of the Gueydan fluvial system. Channel-fill deposits are 30 ({plus minus}15) ft thick and 2,500 ({plus minus}500) ft wide. Splay deposits are up to 30 ft thick proximal to channels and extend as much as 2 mi from channels. Channel-fill and associated splay sandstones are reservoir facies (porosity 20%; permeability = 10s to 100s md); floodplain mudstones and levee sandy mudstones are barriers to flow facies separating individual reservoirs vertically and laterally. The E41/Bertram reservoir is an example of a laterally stacked channel system deposited during relatively slow aggradation. This reservoir includes sand-on-sand contacts and is composed of mostly leaky compartments. The E 18/6,020-ft, E21/6,050-ft, and E31/6,100ft reservoirs are examples of vertically stacked channel systems reflecting higher rates of aggradation. Vertically stacked architectures are more favorable for isolated compartments and therefore are better candidates for infield reserve growth.

  2. New Argentine Central-West Line taps rich Neuquen gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.

    1982-02-01

    Argentina's Centro-Oeste (Central-West) Gas Pipeline is now a reality, carrying gas from the extensive Loma de la Lata (Hill of Tin) field in Neuquen State to cities which had been relying on bottled gas. The project is impressive, but hardly seems unique. A pipeline consisting of 697 miles of 30-in. line and 451 miles of smaller diameter gathering and distribution lines is a big project but nothing that has not been done before. Sometimes figures and statistics hide more than they reveal. A discussion is provided of project financing, logistics, pipeline outlets, treatment plants, route, construction, other lines, compressor stations, and suppliers.

  3. New Argentine Central-West line taps rich Neuquen gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.

    1982-02-01

    Argentina's new Central-West gas pipeline consists of 697 miles of 30-in. line and 451 miles of smaller gathering and distribution lines that link the rich Neuquen gas field with cities to the north. A financing package drawn up by 21 banks in the US and Europe allowed Cogasco S.A. to build the line for Gas del Estado across the roadless pampas east of the Andes. Primarily an agricultural country, Argentina had to import all the equipment and materials for the project. Site work began in July, 1980 with 800 workers employed on three spreads; the line was commissioned in November, 1981, 15 months ahead of the contract schedule.

  4. Thermal and mass history of Fairway Field in east Texas: Implication for geothermal energy development in an oil and gas setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweik, Ramsey Sharif

    Fairway Field is an oil field operated by Hunt Oil Company located in East Texas near the town of Poynor, Texas in Henderson County. The field was discovered in 1960 and is still producing today with the field life projected beyond 2015 (Webster et al., 2008). Hunt Oil Company granted access to over 2,900 open-hole well logs and pressure surveys for this research project. This thermal and mass history of production from a major hydrocarbon field is an especially rare opportunity, as oil and gas companies in Texas are generally not required to share pressure survey data with regulatory agencies, and thus these types of data are not typically available to the research community. This data set, coupled with fluid production and injection data, provides an opportunity to analyze temperature variations associated with fluid migration and field development as a function of time. Fairway Field was determined to have an average conductive heat flow value of 69 +/- 6 mW/m2. Using fluid production volumes, heat loss was determined to be -1.7 x 1017 Joules which represents a thermal recovery factor of -6.2% for the James Limestone Formation in Fairway Field. Given the fact that the field has been in development for over 50 years and has not exhibited a decrease but an increase in reservoir temperatures (+20 °F over 54 years), Fairway Field illustrates that sedimentary basins have considerable potential for geothermal development. An increased availability of pressure survey temperature data and fluid data from oil and gas companies provides a better understanding of such dynamic geothermal systems, helps evaluate the working life of a field, and is a tool for assessing development risk associated with future geothermal energy development in such settings.

  5. Optimal field partitioning for center-pivot irrigated cotton in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the yield or profit from a cotton field can be increased by irrigating only a fraction of the field while keeping the rest as dryland when the irrigation water availability is sub-optimal. The cotton growth simulation model Cotton2K was used to si...

  6. Guidelines for collection and field analysis of water-quality samples from streams in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, F.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Dorsey, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are by necessity performed in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature; (2) specific conductance; (3) pH; (4) alkalinity; (5) dissolved oxygen; and (6) bacteria.

  7. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Angevine, W. M.; Bianco, L.; McKeen, S. A.; Senff, C. J.; Trainer, M.; Tucker, S. C.; Zamora, R. J.

    2011-03-01

    The performance of different urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) in simulating urban boundary layer (UBL) was investigated using extensive measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. The extensive field measurements collected on surface (meteorological, wind profiler, energy balance flux) sites, a research aircraft, and a research vessel characterized 3-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structures over the Houston-Galveston Bay area, providing a unique opportunity for the evaluation of the physical parameterizations. The model simulations were performed over the Houston metropolitan area for a summertime period (12-17 August) using a bulk urban parameterization in the Noah land surface model (original LSM), a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM). The UCM simulation compared quite well with the observations over the Houston urban areas, reducing the systematic model biases in the original LSM simulation by 1-2 °C in near-surface air temperature and by 200-400 m in UBL height, on average. A more realistic turbulent (sensible and latent heat) energy partitioning contributed to the improvements in the UCM simulation. The original LSM significantly overestimated the sensible heat flux (~200 W m-2) over the urban areas, resulting in warmer and higher UBL. The modified LSM slightly reduced warm and high biases in near-surface air temperature (0.5-1 °C) and UBL height (~100 m) as a result of the effects of urban vegetation. The relatively strong thermal contrast between the Houston area and the water bodies (Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico) in the LSM simulations enhanced the sea/bay breezes, but the model performance in predicting local wind fields was similar among the simulations in terms of statistical evaluations. These results suggest that a proper surface representation (e.g. urban vegetation, surface morphology) and explicit parameterizations of urban physical

  8. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2004-07-14

    A regenerating biochemical mixture and organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, followed by approximately 140 barrels of a 2% KCl solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area and into the producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris which was immediately produced into the flowlines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. Next steps include larger treatments and tracer tests to better understand the fluid flow dynamics.

  9. Geologic model of San Andres reservoir, Roberts Unit CO sub 2 Phase III area, Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, J.V. Jr. )

    1992-04-01

    Roberts unit is a mature San Andres waterflood project located in Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas. Texaco, as operator, has evaluated the reservoir for CO{sub 2} flooding, and a four-phased CO{sub 2} project has been designed for the unit. A critical aspect of CO{sub 2} flood design is the development of geologic reservoir management, such as flood monitoring and evaluation of infill drilling. The geologic reservoir model established for the southeastern part of the unit (the CO{sub 2} Phase III area) is an example of this design. The reservoir consists of stacked carbonate depositional sequences. The cyclic nature of these depositional sequences is reflected in both core-defined lithofacies and porosity log character. Sequences consist of basal mudstones, restricted-shelf skeletal wackestones, open-shelf skeletal wackestones and packstones, solution and brecciated zones, and peloidal packstone caps. Intertidal mudstones and wackestones occur at the top of the reservoir and in the overlying reservoir seal. Porosity distribution is controlled by diagenetic events, but these events are closely related to depositional facies. Reservoir geometry and reservoir quality are interpreted from study of carbonate lithofacies, porosity and permeability relationships, and injection characteristics. Depositional sequences are subdivided into layers (flow units) for use in reservoir simulation. Log normalization, core description, porosity interpretation, reservoir mapping, three-dimensional modeling, and joint effort between project geologists and engineers contributed to development of the reservoir model.

  10. Seismic estimation of porosity in the Permian San Andres carbonate reservoir, Welch Field, Dawson, County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.P.; Hinterlong, G.D.

    1996-12-31

    OXY and the DOE Are partners in a advanced technology demonstration project at OXY`s West Welch Unit. Production is from a low permeability San Andres reservoir of Permian age similar to many shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin. The project involves the construction of a detailed geological model for numerical simulation to design and then conduct a CO{sub 2} flood of the reservoir. Depositional textures of the reservoir rock are highly variable from diagenesis, mostly anhydritic cementing, creating a highly complex pore system. Identification of the interwell reservoir continuity and flow units present the greatest challenge to the reservoir description. A 1993 vintage 3-D seismic survey with a bin spacing of 110{prime} by 165{prime} has been used to assist with the interwell reservoir description. The structure definition at the top and base of the reservoir have been accurately mapped with respect to the well data. Core and well log measurements of porosity, permeability and water saturation were computed and summed across the seismic reservoir interval. Measurements of amplitude, frequency and phase within the 3-D volume were summed across the reservoir interval. All seismic attributes were sampled to the wells and compared through scatterplots to the well log and core measurements. Excellent correlation between three seismic attributes and porosity has been documented. A deterministic method has been used to estimate porosity values at each seismic bin location. The method uses the seismic measurements to shape the geology between the wells while maintaining agreement with the well data at the well locations.

  11. Seismic estimation of porosity in the Permian San Andres carbonate reservoir, Welch Field, Dawson, County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.P.; Hinterlong, G.D. )

    1996-01-01

    OXY and the DOE Are partners in a advanced technology demonstration project at OXY's West Welch Unit. Production is from a low permeability San Andres reservoir of Permian age similar to many shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin. The project involves the construction of a detailed geological model for numerical simulation to design and then conduct a CO[sub 2] flood of the reservoir. Depositional textures of the reservoir rock are highly variable from diagenesis, mostly anhydritic cementing, creating a highly complex pore system. Identification of the interwell reservoir continuity and flow units present the greatest challenge to the reservoir description. A 1993 vintage 3-D seismic survey with a bin spacing of 110[prime] by 165[prime] has been used to assist with the interwell reservoir description. The structure definition at the top and base of the reservoir have been accurately mapped with respect to the well data. Core and well log measurements of porosity, permeability and water saturation were computed and summed across the seismic reservoir interval. Measurements of amplitude, frequency and phase within the 3-D volume were summed across the reservoir interval. All seismic attributes were sampled to the wells and compared through scatterplots to the well log and core measurements. Excellent correlation between three seismic attributes and porosity has been documented. A deterministic method has been used to estimate porosity values at each seismic bin location. The method uses the seismic measurements to shape the geology between the wells while maintaining agreement with the well data at the well locations.

  12. Slope stability analysis of landslide in Wayang Windu Geothermal Field, Pangalengan, West Java Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhendar, A. H.; Wusqa, U.; Kartiko, R. D.; Raya, N. R.; Misbahudin

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale landslide occurred in Margamukti village, Pangalengan, Bandung Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. The landslide damaged geothermal gas pipeline along 300 m in Wayang Windu Geothermal Field. Based on field observation, landslide occured in rotational sliding movement. Laboratory analysis were conducted to obtain the characteristics of the soil. Based on the condition of the landslide in this area, the Factor of Safety can be simulated by the soil mechanics approach. Factor of safety analysis based on soil cohesion and internal friction angle was conducted using manual sensitivity analysis for back analysis. The analysis resulted soil cohesion in critical condition (FS<1) is 6.01 kPa. This value is smaller than cohesion of undisturbed slope soil sample. Water from rainfall is the most important instability factors in research area. Because it decreases cohesion in soils and increases weight and pore water pressure in granular media.

  13. Water-alternating-steam process improves project economics at West Coalinga field

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, K.C.; Stevens, C.E. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on the water-alternating-steam process (WASP) applied to vertical expansion (VE) sands in the pilot area of Section 13D, West Coalinga field to stop wasteful steam production and to improve vertical conformance of injected steam. Before the WASP application, steam breakthrough in the VE sands caused well sanding, cutting of downhole tubulars, and high-temperature-fluid handling problems. To alleviate these problems, pumps had to be raised in five wells and one well had to be shut in, reducing oil production from the VE sands and the lower waterflooded zones. A WASP field test, based on a numerical simulation study, was implemented in July 1988 with alternating slugs of water and steam, each injected over 4 months. The WASP eliminated steam production, allowing the pumps to be lowered and the one shut-in well to return to production.

  14. Mapping ERS-1 wind fields over north west Atlantic using a variational objective analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefridt, L.; Legler, D. M.; Barnier, B.; Obrien, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    A variational method is implemented to produce five day mean gridded ERS-1 analyzed wind fields in the north west Atlantic with the aim of providing for wind forcing of basin scale ocean models. The method consists of minimizing a cost functional, designed to measure misfits to prescribed weighted constraints which express a smoothed behavior and the proximity to input data vectors and curl. The weights are empirically determined by comparison with independent ship and buoy data over four five day periods. Root mean square differences between analyzed winds and independent data are thus further decreased: they range from 0.8 up to 1.8 m/s. Some problems present in the initial data remain; they are principally due to incomplete data coverage (instrumental problems), and possibly unresolved ambiguities. The resulting curl fields are smoothed and show coherent patterns. A comparison with the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) analysis is encouraging.

  15. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Texas Trilogy on Public Education and Taxes. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCown, F. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. It also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  16. Geology of oil fields and future exploration potential in west African Aptian Salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.D.; Edwards, A.D.

    1987-05-01

    The Aptian Salt basin of west Africa, extends from Equatorial Guinea southward to Angola, contains recoverable reserves estimated at nearly 4 billion BOE, and is current producing 600,000 BOPD. The basin developed as a result of tensional forces between west Africa and South America initiated at the end of the Jurassic. The prospective sedimentary sequences ranged in age from Early Cretaceous (uppermost Jurassic in places) to Holocene and is divided by the Aptian transgressive sand and salt into a pre-salt, nonmarine, syn-rift sequence and a post-salt, marine, post-rift sequence. Both the pre- and post-salt sequences contain several successful exploration plays, the most prolific of which are the Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstone fields in tilted fault blocks of Gabon and Cabinda; Early Cretaceous carbonate buildups on the margins of basement highs in Cabinda; Early Cretaceous transgressive marine sandstone fields in anticlines draped over basement highs in Gabon; Late Cretaceous shallow marine sandstone and carbonate fields in salt-related structures in the Congo, Zaire, Cabinda, and Angola; Late Cretaceous dolomites in structural/stratigraphic traps in Angola; Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary deltaic/estuarine sandstone traps formed by salt movement in Gabon, Cabinda, and angola; and Tertiary marine turbidite fields in Cabinda and Angola. Despite the exploration success in these trends, much of the basin is under or poorly explored. The major problems for exploration are the poor quality of seismic definition beneath the salt, which makes it difficult to predict pre-salt structure and stratigraphy, and the importance of a stratigraphic element in many of the post-salt traps, also difficult to detect on seismic.

  17. Regional Impacts of Woodland Expansion on Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Texas Savannahs: Combining Field, Modeling and Remote Sensing Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Woody encroachment has contributed to documented changes world-wide and locally in the southwestern U.S. Specifically, in North Texas rangelands encroaching mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) a known N-fixing species has caused changes in aboveground biomass. While measurements of aboveground plant production are relatively common, measures of soil N availability are scarce and vary widely. N trace gas emissions (nitric and nitrous oxide) flom soils reflect patterns in current N cycling rates and availability as they are stimulated by inputs of organic and inorganic N. Quantification of N oxide emissions from savanna soils may depend upon the spatial distribution of woody plant canopies, and specifically upon the changes in N availability and cycling and subsequent N trace gas production as influenced by the shift from herbaceous to woody vegetation type. The main goal of this research was to determine whether remotely sensible parameters of vegetation structure and soil type could be used to quantify biogeochemical changes in N at local, landscape and regional scales. To accomplish this goal, field-based measurements of N trace gases were carried out between 2000-2001, encompassing the acquisition of imaging spectrometer data from the NASA Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) on September 29, 2001. Both biotic (vegetation type and soil organic N) and abiotic (soil type, soil pH, temperature, soil moisture, and soil inorganic N) controls were analyzed for their contributions to observed spatial and temporal variation in soil N gas fluxes. These plot level studies were used to develop relationships between spatially extensive, field-based measurements of N oxide fluxes and remotely sensible aboveground vegetation and soil properties, and to evaluate the short-term controls over N oxide emissions through intensive field wetting experiments. The relationship between N oxide emissions, remotely-sensed parameters (vegetation cover, and

  18. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Angevine, W. M.; Bianco, L.; McKeen, S. A.; Senff, C. J.; Trainer, M.; Tucker, S. C.; Zamora, R. J.

    2010-10-01

    The impact of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model on the simulation of local meteorological fields is investigated. The Noah land surface model (LSM), a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM) have been compared, focusing on urban patches. The model simulations were performed for 6 days from 12 August to 17 August during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. Analysis was focused on the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area. The model simulated temperature, wind, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height were compared with observations from surface meteorological stations (Continuous Ambient Monitoring Stations, CAMS), wind profilers, the NOAA Twin Otter aircraft, and the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The UCM simulation showed better results in the comparison of ABL height and surface temperature than the LSM simulations, whereas the original LSM overestimated both the surface temperature and ABL height significantly in urban areas. The modified LSM, which activates hydrological processes associated with urban vegetation mainly through transpiration, slightly reduced warm and high biases in surface temperature and ABL height. A comparison of surface energy balance fluxes in an urban area indicated the UCM reproduces a realistic partitioning of sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, consequently improving the simulation of urban boundary layer. However, the LSMs have a higher Bowen ratio than the observation due to significant suppression of latent heat flux. The comparison results suggest that the subgrid heterogeneity by urban vegetation and urban morphological characteristics should be taken into account along with the associated physical parameterizations for accurate simulation of urban boundary layer if the region of interest has a large fraction of vegetation within the urban patch. Model showed significant discrepancies in the specific meteorological conditions when nocturnal

  19. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. B.; Gulick, S. P.; Allison, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Duncan, D. D.; Saustrup, S.

    2010-12-01

    During the spring-summer intersession, we annually offer an intensive three-week field course designed to provide hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in the acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization of marine geological and geophysical data. Now in year four, the course covers high-resolution air gun and streamer seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students first participate in three days of classroom instruction designed to provide theoretical and technical background on each field method and impart geologic context of the study area. Students then travel to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. In the field, students rotate between two small research vessels: one vessel, the 22’ aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA’s R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, is used for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Students assist with survey design, learn systems setup and acquisition parameters, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval techniques. Students also perform on-shore sedimentology lab work, data quality control, data processing and visualization using industry-standard software such as Focus, Landmark, Caris, and Fledermaus. During the course’s final week, students return to the classroom where, collaborating in teams of three, they integrate and interpret data in a final project which examines the geologic history and/or sedimentary processes as typified by the Gulf Coast continental shelf. The course culminates in a series of professional

  20. Deposition, diagenesis, and porosity relationships in the Glorieta formation, Keystone (Holt) field, Winkler County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, R.C.; Jacka, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Production of hydrocarbons from the Chevron 7C H.E. Lovett well, Keystone (Holt) field, is from the upper part of the Glorieta formation (Leonardian). The field is located near the western margin of the Central Basin platform (Permian basin) on a present-day structural high. The 116-ft (35.4-m) core contains at least 7 cycles of deposition, which consist, upward from the base, of progradational subtidal, intertidal and supratidal deposits. Supratidal deposits predominantly consist of dolostones with fenestral cavities; sabkha deposits are not represented. Scattered nodules of nonevaporitic anhydrite have been emplaced within subtidally deposited carbonates after dolomitization. Intrabiopelgrapestone grainstones, oointrabiopelgrainstones, intrabiopelpackstones and wackestones, and intrapelpackstones and wackestones are the predominant lithofacies. Dolostone is the predominant lithology.

  1. Site Study Plan for Aesthetics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Aesthetic Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of identification of the visually affected area; determination of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual management classes of the site and vicinity; and analysis of the level of visual contrast that would be created by the project. Field ratings of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual contrast will be supplemented by a public perception survey designed to incorporate the views of the public. This plan describes the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule for proposed activities, and quality assurance program. This study will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, SRPO Requirement Document (SRP-RD). 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Natural gas production from Ordovician Queenston Formation in West Auburn field, Cayuga County, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.L.

    1988-08-01

    Gas has been produced from the Upper Ordovician Queenston Formation at West Auburn field, Cayuga County, New York, for over 20 years. This field indicates Queenston production to be long lived, with substantially economic reserves found at depths shallower than 2,000 ft. Locally, The Queenston is comprised of sand and silty shale with the primary reservoirs found in quartzose sandstones. The overall thickness of the Queenston clastic interval is over 700 ft with gas found in the upper 300 ft. Three primary gas sands are continuous across the field area and have high average porosities of as much as 13.0% and average permeabilities of 0.20 md. Extreme examples show peak porosities approaching 20% and permeabilities of over 5.0 md. The reservoir is composed of very fine to medium-grained, moderately sorted, red sandstone. Sand grains are predominantly quartz with minor amounts of feldspar. The main pore-filling constituent is abundant authigenic clay with iron oxides, thus contributing to reduced permeabilities. These sands vary in reservoir quality through the field and, hence, allow for stratigraphic trapping of the gas. Other factors involved include the updip accumulation of gas against the Silurian-Ordovician unconformity at the top of the Queenston. Some of the pay sands are absent due to this unconformity in the area farthest updip and, therefore, decrease the overall reserve potential of the individual well in that part of the field.

  3. Site Study Plan for Acoustics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Acoustics site study plan describes a field program which characterizes existing sound levels, determines the area's sound propagation characteristics, and monitors the project-related sound emissions. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Requirements Document. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-11-19

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change.

  5. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast–southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006–2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957–1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change. PMID:24191019

  6. Lower Cisco Formation (Pennsylvanian-Virgilian) paleokarst, Wolf Flat field Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Lindsay, R.F.; Pack, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    Wolf Flat field produces from karstified Lower Cisco Formation at the rimmed northeast shelf margin. Mounds, peripheral skeletal debris, and oolitic facies form the vertical/lateral succession. Mounds are composed of crinoids, bryozoans, corals and algae. Skeletal packstone/grainstones surround mounds, With back-mound wackestone. Ooid grainstone formed in high-energy passages onto the shelf and cap shallowing-upward cycles. Karstification resulted from two 100+ ft. (30+ m) sea level drops, that dropped in a step-by-step manner to form {approximately}20 porous intervals that extend through all facies and lithologies in the field. Aragonitic mound and skeletal grainstone/wackestones experienced intense dissolution. Calcitic ooid grainstones dissolved less and form cave roofs and floors. Dissolution was in two phases: first, small vertically oriented pipes formed, resembling a {open_quotes}swiss cheese{close_quotes} texture; second, was intense lateral dissolution that created a {open_quotes}sponge{close_quotes} texture, with porosities up to 60-70%. Eventually, collapse breccias formed, with some clasts transported in the karst system. Porosity was reduced by vadose silt, breccia clasts, speleothem cements, transgressive shale infilling, and burial saddle dolomite. Portions of the field nearest the rimmed margin were dolomitized. {delta}{sup 18}O is within the range of early meteoric diagenesis and {delta}{sup 13}C is negative and becomes more negative toward the exposure surface.

  7. Lower Cisco Formation (Pennsylvanian-Virgilian) paleokarst, Wolf Flat field Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C. ); Lindsay, R.F. ); Pack, D.D. )

    1996-01-01

    Wolf Flat field produces from karstified Lower Cisco Formation at the rimmed northeast shelf margin. Mounds, peripheral skeletal debris, and oolitic facies form the vertical/lateral succession. Mounds are composed of crinoids, bryozoans, corals and algae. Skeletal packstone/grainstones surround mounds, With back-mound wackestone. Ooid grainstone formed in high-energy passages onto the shelf and cap shallowing-upward cycles. Karstification resulted from two 100+ ft. (30+ m) sea level drops, that dropped in a step-by-step manner to form [approximately]20 porous intervals that extend through all facies and lithologies in the field. Aragonitic mound and skeletal grainstone/wackestones experienced intense dissolution. Calcitic ooid grainstones dissolved less and form cave roofs and floors. Dissolution was in two phases: first, small vertically oriented pipes formed, resembling a [open quotes]swiss cheese[close quotes] texture; second, was intense lateral dissolution that created a [open quotes]sponge[close quotes] texture, with porosities up to 60-70%. Eventually, collapse breccias formed, with some clasts transported in the karst system. Porosity was reduced by vadose silt, breccia clasts, speleothem cements, transgressive shale infilling, and burial saddle dolomite. Portions of the field nearest the rimmed margin were dolomitized. [delta][sup 18]O is within the range of early meteoric diagenesis and [delta][sup 13]C is negative and becomes more negative toward the exposure surface.

  8. History and geology of the giant Elk-Poca field, West Virginia, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G. ); Bruner, K.R.; Noald, M.T. )

    1991-03-01

    The 165,000 acre Elk-Poca field was discovered in 1933 when a wildcat well tested the Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian) on the Milliken Anticline in Elk District, Kanawha County. Rapid expansion occurred northward, along the anticline, and westward into Poca District on the Sissonville high. Begun as a structural play, it soon became an exploration program for thick, well-developed clean sandstones. Elk-Poca is a combination stratigraphic and structural trap. In Jackson County, salt water is present downdip, and updip production is limited by a loss of highly permeable beds. The reservoir was developed in clean, highly permeable sandstones in the upper part of the Oriskany. The average pay section is 30 ft thick, and characterized by high permeabilities, and consistent, but low porosities. High initial flow rates for both natural wells and wells stimulated by shooting correlate with areas of thick sandstone. Nearly 1200 wells were drilled in the field, and more than 1100 produced gas. Since 1933, nearly 1 tcf of gas have been produced, with the best wells in areas of thick sandstone. Production decline was rapid, due to the high permeability and moderate porosity. This giant field is in the only area in West Virginia where a certain set of geologic factors coincide. The north-south structural strike is paralleled by an east-west decrease in sandstone thickness, and a westeast increase in thickness of the organic-rich Devonian shales. Gas migrated from the shales into the permeable Oriskany before compaction and cementation by carbonate eliminated all porosity and permeability. The presence of gas in open pores may have retarded further cementation.

  9. Evaluation of evaporite facies as a tool for exploration, Yates Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, A.W.; Warren, J.K.

    1987-05-01

    Evaporites have long been recognized as the most efficient reservoir seal; however, the seal can itself serve as an exploration tool to locate subtle stratigraphic traps. By analogy with modern environments, thick massive evaporites form subaqueously in ponds (salinas) in topographic lows while sabkhas form on the subaerially exposed supratidal zone on topographic highs. Recognition of evaporite facies distribution can delineate paleotopography where sabkhas form a seal over local highs and closure is provided by salinas forming a lateral seal in lows. These relationships are illustrated by the giant Yates field (2 billion bbl reserves), situated at the southern tip of the Central basin platform in the Permian basin. The seal over the Yates reservoir (San Andres formation) is formed by the evaporites at the base of the Seven Rivers Formation (Guadalupian). Within the evaporite, two distinct depositional facies are recognized: a massive, salina-anhydrite in the central and western parts of the field; and on the east, stacked sabkha sequences consisting of sandy dolomite overlying a sharp base, grading into nodular anhydrite and capped by an erosional surface. The depositional topography on the underlying San Andres reservoir controlled the facies distribution in the basal Seven Rivers. Carbonate buildups formed on the eastern side of the field, while interbedded shales and dolomites accumulated in the quiet lagoonal waters behind. Due to dewatering and compaction during early burial, the lagoons remained topographically low until early Seven Rivers time when they were finally filled with salina evaporites. The rigid shelf margin buildups remained as topographic highs over which sabkhas developed. Only 10% of the production has come from the lagoonal muds under the salinas, while 90% has been produced from the carbonate buildups under the sabkhas.

  10. San Andres dolomite reservoir, Emma field, Andrews County, Texas: Depositional facies and diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C. )

    1987-02-01

    Although nearly 100% (19 million bbl of oil) of the estimated recoverable oil in the Emma San Andres reservoir has been produced, indications are that as much as 15 million bbl of recoverable, movable oil remains. Detailed study of facies and diagenesis in the reservoir reveals considerable lateral and vertical variability, which has important implications for recovery and injection efficiencies in the field. The upper San Andres Formation in the Emma field comprises a shallowing-upward sequence of pervasively dolomitized, shallow-water subtidal to supratidal carbonates that accumulated on a gently east-sloping ramp. The lowermost part of the reservoir interval is composed of laterally extensive fusulinid packstone deposited in an open-marine ramp setting. Abruptly overlying this facies is a sequence of interbedded fusulinid/algal grainstone, formed in a migrating sand-shoal complex, and burrowed, skeletal mudstone deposited on a restricted inner ramp. The grainstone is restricted to the western and central parts of the field. These deposits are overlain by pisolitic and cryptalgal mudstones and terrigenous siliciclastics of supratidal origin. Anydrite is abundant throughout the section. Porosity and permeability are facies controlled. Highest permeabilities are developed in shoal complex grainstone (100 md) and in fusulinid packstone (925-50 md). Lateral and vertical facies variations resulted in considerable reservoir heterogeneity. Trace-element and isotope data indicate that most of the San Andres dolomite and associated sulfate (anhydrite) precipitated from downward-moving, seawater-derived brines during shallow burial in the late Guadalupian. Subsequent anhydrite dissolution has locally enhanced original porosity.

  11. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Ozonesonde and aircraft measurements in the tropical West Pacific from the CAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Richard; Vaughan, Geraint; Ricketts, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    The Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign comprised of ozonesonde launches and an aircraft campaign in the West Pacific in January-March 2014. Previous field campaigns in this region have highlighted an area to the east of Papua New Guinea and near the Solomon Islands as sources of deep convection and anomalously low ozone in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The CAST campaign provides a unique dataset of ozonesonde launches from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, close to the hypothesized source region. CAST was performed in coordination with two sister campaigns, CONTRAST and ATTREX, bringing the FAAM BAe 146, NCAR Gulfstream V and NASA Global Hawk aircraft respectively to Guam. The aircraft campaign allowed an unprecedented comparison between ozonesondes and aircraft, which was used to verify the ozonesonde measurements and support the choice of background correction; this correction is of paramount importance in the tropics as the background constitutes half of the measured signal. The data obtained from the CAST ozonesondes suggest that the lowest ozone concentrations, at ~15 ppb, found in the tropical tropopause layer were accompanied by easterly winds from an area of deep convection, suggesting the air was lifted quickly from the marine boundary layer. The evidence from the CAST campaign suggests that the anomalously low near-zero ozone measured during previous campaigns in the tropical West Pacific is an artefact of the ozonesonde behaviour at low pressures (high altitude) - the low-ozone measurements can be recreated with the CAST ozonesondes if the background is not properly treated.

  13. Withdrawals from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas, December 1974 through March 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Pavlicek, Dianne J.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the categories, rates, and distribution of withdrawals from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units during December 1974 through March 1977. The report includes withdrawal information from all or parts of the 50 counties in the study area. In those regions where only part of a county is within the study area, the percentage of the total county area was used to calculate the estimates of livestock and domestic withdrawals. The authors wish to thank the Texas Water Development Board for providing withdrawal information for this report.

  14. Potentiometric surface of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas, winter, 1974-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    1990-01-01

    The data used to compile this map were obtained from the Texas Natural Resources Information System on magnetic tape and from Rees and Buckner (1980). The winter of 1974-75 (December 1974 through February 1975) was selected for mapping for two reasons: (1) More water-level data were available throughout the study area for this winter season than for other winter seasons, and (2) during winter there is almost no loss of ground water as a result of evaporation, irrigation withdrawals, and transpiration.

  15. Site Study Plan for soils, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Soils Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of a soil characterization survey, impact monitoring of soils, predisturbance soil salinity survey, and a reclamation suitability study. This information will be used to plan for soil stripping, stockpiling, and replacement; reclamation of soils; determining predisturbance chemical and physical characteristics of the soils; including salinity levels; and monitoring for changes in chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. The SSP describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and the quality assurance program. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 75 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Environment of deposition of downdip Lower Wilcox sandstones, Provident City field, Lavaca County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vest, S.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Lower Wilcox section at Provident City field produces dry gas from thin-bedded, silty sandstones, at depths of 12,500 to 14,100 ft (3,810 to 4,298 m). Cores show that sandstone cosets range 0.1 to 2.7 ft (0.03 to 0.82 m) and average 0.5 8 ft (0. 18 m) in thickness. Sedimentary structures within the cosets range upward from a massive unit (A) to a planar-laminated unit (B) to a ripple-laminated unit (C). The cosets have an average composition of lithic arkose and show textural grading indicative of deposition from turbidity flows. The sandstones lie within the Wilcox fault zone, downdip of the Colorado and Guadalupe deltas of the Rockdale Delta System. Regional stratigraphy and structural trends indicate that the sandstones were deposited in a deep marine environment. A growth fault, having approximately 1000 ft (3048 m) of throw at a depth of 12,300 ft (3750 m), bounds the field to the northwest and largely controls the distribution of lithofacies. Stacked, AB-type, turbidite cosets indicate channel facies. The M Sandstone was deposited as a constructional channel, with abrupt lateral grading to overbank facies, where turbidites of the BC- and C-type are dominant. The S Sandstone was deposited as a series of thin, constructional channels, mostly with turbidites of the AB- and ABC-type that are generally stacked, causing superimposed, dip-trending lobes on an otherwise strike-trending sandstone.

  17. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2005-04-29

    A combination of a regenerating biochemical mixture and an organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, with a 2% KCl carrier solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area adjacent to producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris, which was immediately produced into the flow lines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. In task 3 the permeability restrictions in a cylindrical area of 10 to 20 feet from the wellbore within the reservoir were treated with the biochemical solution. Fluid was forced into the producing horizon using the hydraulic head of the well filled with 2 % KCl solution, allowed to acclimate, and then withdrawn by pumping. The chloride content of the produce water was measured and production of oil and water monitored. The most significant effect in improving permeability and removing scale and high molecular weight hydrocarbons was accomplished in the wellbore perforations and near wellbore treatments of tasks 1 and 2. The effect the deeper insertion of solution in task 3 had minimal impact on production.

  18. Geology and hydrogeology of Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad, Bee and Goliad counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Large vertical hydraulic-head gradients are present between the unconfined Evangeline aquifer and confined Fleming aquifers at Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad. These gradients, together with the results of the aquifer test at Naval Air Station Chase Field and assumed characteristics of the confining units, indicate that downward flow of ground water probably occurs from the water-table aquifer to the underlying aquifers. The rate of downward flow between the two confined Fleming aquifers (from A-sand to B-sand) can be approximated using an estimate of vertical hydraulic conductivity of the intervening confining unit obtained from assumed storage characteristics and data from the aquifer test. Under the relatively high vertical hydraulic-head gradient induced by the aquifer test, ground-water movement from the A-sand aquifer to the B-sand aquifer could require about 490 years; and about 730 years under the natural gradient. Future increases in ground-water withdrawals from the B-sand aquifer might increase downward flow in the aquifer system of the study area.

  19. Origin of late Quaternary dune fields on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Holliday, V.T.

    2001-01-01

    Mostly stabilized late Holocene eolian sands on the Southern High Plains of the United States were studied to determine their origins and to assess whether present dune stability depends more strongly on sediment supply, sediment availability, or transport limitations. Geomorphic, sedimentological, and geochemical trends indicate that late Holocene dunes formed under westerly paleowinds, broadly similar to those of today. Mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that the most likely source for the sands is not the Pecos River valley, but the Pleistocene Blackwater Draw Formation, an older, extensive eolian deposit in the region. These observations suggest that new sand is supplied whenever vegetation cover is diminished to the extent that the Blackwater Draw Formation can be eroded, in agreement with modern observations of wind erosion in the region. We conclude, therefore, that Southern High Plains dunes are stabilized primarily due to a vegetation cover. The dunes are thus sediment-availability limited. This conclusion is consistent with the observation that, in the warmest, driest part of the region (where vegetation cover is minimal), dunes are currently active over a large area. Geochemical data indicate that Southern High Plains dunes are the most mineralogically mature (quartz rich) sands yet studied in the Great Plains, which suggests a long history of eolian activity, either in the dune fields or during deposition of the Blackwater Draw Formation.

  20. Technical procedures for implementation of aesthetics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This chapter introduces the purpose and scope of the visually affected areas determination, as well as definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs. This procedure provides a method for determining the extent of visibility of the project. This area is identified as the visually affected area, and becomes the area within which all visual analysis is conducted. The visually affected area analysis of the Deaf Smith County site will involve identifying and mapping the visibility of all major proposed project features. Baseline analysis will be conducted within the overall visually affected area; impact assessment will be conducted within the visually affected area of each major project feature. This procedure presents the guidelines for determining the visually affected area will be in computer data base construction; viewshed modeling, and site visit and verification of results. Computer data base construction will involve digitizing topographic and project facility data from available data source. The extent of the visible area from each major project feature will then be plotted. Finally, these computer-generated visibility plots will be verified in the field.

  1. Dalhart Texas 1972-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    A water-rich polka dot pattern takes over the traditional rectangular patchwork of fields in this 40 year sequence of Landsat images of the dry Texas panhandle near the town of Dalhart. In this ser...

  2. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semi-annually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 200.7 million gallons to municipalities on May 18, 1981. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal on ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Water levels were lower in May 1981 than in May and September 1980. Annual change of water levels ranged from decreases of 19 feet at Sun City well field to less than 1 foot at Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  3. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, May 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared showing water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well-field areas that supplied 155 million gallons to municipalities on May 12, 1980. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Water levels were lower in May 1980 than in September 1979 and a little higher than the average May levels. Change of water levels ranged from a decrease of 12 feet at Verna well field to an increase of 7 feet at Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  4. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, September 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 141.8 million gallons to municipalities on September 18, 1980. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Potentiometric levels in the Floridan aquifer were higher in September 1980 than in May 1980 and generally lower than in September 1979. Annual change of water levels ranged from a decrease of 6 feet at Morris Bridge well field to an increase of 2 feet at Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  5. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, September 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels, and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 16 well fields which supplied 123.7 million gallons to municipalities on September 18, 1979. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. Water levels were generally higher in September 1979 than in May 1979 and higher than the average September levels. Change of water levels ranged from an increase of 15 feet at Cosme well field to a decrease of 9 feet at Verna well field. (USGS)

  6. Development of a Spatially Targeted Field Sampling Technique for the Southern Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by Mapping Whitetailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Habitat in South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela L.; Welch, John B.; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field. PMID:25368044

  7. Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in South Texas. Two methods for mapping white-tailed deer habitat were used, an object-oriented method to identify closed canopies and waterways for deer movement and two vegetation indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to identify forage for deer. These two data sets of favorable white-tailed deer habitat were combined within a geographic information system to identify locations for sampling ticks. Larvae of R. (B.) microplus, were sampled in Zapata County, Texas, by walking transects with attached flannel panels to jeans. Although the data set and sampling period were limited, data analysis demonstrated that sampling of free-living larvae of R. (B.) microplus can be conducted in South Texas, and larvae were most abundant in areas that harbored O. virginianus. Spatial analysis of satellite imagery to classify white-tailed deer/southern cattle tick habitat proved efficacious and may be useful in directing sampling activities in the field.

  8. Texas Greenup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    June 2007 was one of the wettest Junes on record for the state of Texas. Starting in late May, a string of low-pressure systems settled in over the U.S. Southern Plains and unleashed weeks of heavy to torrential rain. During the final week of June, much of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas received more than 330 percent of their average rainfall, said the National Climatic Data Center. The widespread heavy rain brought deadly floods to the entire region. On July 6, the Associated Press reported that every major river basin in Texas was at flood stage, an event that had not occurred since 1957. In addition to causing floods, the rains stimulated plant growth. The grassy, often arid, plains and plateaus of northern Mexico (bottom left), Texas (center), and New Mexico (top, left of center) burst to life with dense vegetation as this vegetation anomaly image shows. Regions where plants were growing more quickly or fuller than average are green, while areas where growth is below average are brown. Most of Texas is green, with a concentrated deep green, almost black, spot where vegetation growth was greatest. This area of western Texas is where the Pecos River flows out of New Mexico and heads southeast to the Rio Grande. In the darkest areas, vegetation was more than 100 percent above average. The brown spots in northeastern Texas and Oklahoma (top, right of center) may be areas where persistent clouds or water on the ground are hiding the plants from the satellite's view. Plants may also be growing less than average if swamped by too much rain. The image was made with data collected by the SPOT satellite between June 11 and June 20, 2007. NASA imagery created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using SPOT data provided courtesy of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service and processed by Jennifer Small and Assaf Anyamba of the GIMMS Group at NASA GSFC.

  9. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  10. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on potato under laboratory and field conditions in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Hua, Lei; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2010-10-01

    Effective management of potato 'Zebra Chip' (ZC) disease caused by Cadidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (syn. solanacearum) depends on the management of its insect vector insect, potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). To elucidate the age-specific population dynamics of B. cockerelli, the life-table parameters were determined on potato, Solanum tuberosum L., under both laboratory and field conditions in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas. Generally, survival, fecundity, and longevity of B. cockerelli were significantly greater under laboratory than under field conditions. The mortality under laboratory conditions was mainly due to natural intrinsic mortality. However, under field conditions, most (83.2%) B. cockerelli were missing, and of those that were not, they developed slower, and had shorter preoviposition period, shorter oviposition period, shorter longevity, lower fecundity, and higher mortality than those under laboratory conditions. As a result, most of the life-table parameters of B. cockerelli, including the intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and net reproductive rate, were significantly lower in the field under the environmental conditions of the LRGV of Texas than in the laboratory. The information could help increase our understanding of the epidemiology of the ZC diseases associated with the pathogens transmitted by this insect pest.

  11. Enhanced Thermospheric Density: The Roles of East-West and Northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, D. J.; Drake, K. A.; Lei, J.; Crowley, G.

    2009-12-01

    During 2005 solar EUV energy input to the thermosphere waned as Solar Cycle 23 declined. The reduction allowed a clearer delineation of episodic density disturbances caused by geomagnetic storms. We show new views of these disturbances based on Poynting flux calculations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F-series satellites, as well as from 1) accelerometer data from polar orbiting satellites, 2) the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure and 3) the Thermospheric Ionospheric Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIEGCM). The new Poynting flux estimates and TIEGCM results allow us to trace the origins of disturbances that are poorly specified by ground indices. In particular we find that intervals of enhanced northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) combined with strong east-west components of the IMF allow significant electromagnetic energy input into localized dayside regions of the high-latitude thermosphere. In some cases this energy deposition is consistent with IMF-geomagnetic field merging tailward of the Earth’s magnetic cusps. In other cases the energy is deposited in the vicinity of an extremely narrow convection throat. This mode of interaction provides little energy to the magnetotail; and instead concentrates the energy in the dayside thermosphere. We discuss the solar cycle variability of this type of interaction. as well as compare the relative value of Poynting flux and particle energy deposition for such events.

  12. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  13. Quantitative seismic reservoir characterization of tight sands (granite wash) play at Stiles Ranch field in the Anadarko Basin, Texas (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Muhammad Zahid Afzal

    The main objective of this study is to conduct quantitative seismic reservoir characterization study of the Granite Wash (Marmaton-tight sand) play at Stiles Ranch field in the Anadarko Basin, Texas (USA). The proposed methodology incorporates seismic petrophysics, rock physics, Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) analysis and seismic pre-stack simultaneous elastic impedance inversion. In addition, it utilizes geostatistical technique to improve the reservoir property estimation and quantify uncertainty in seismic lithology and fluid prediction. The general objective encompasses several more specific goals to study: well data conditioning and prediction of essential petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, permeability and saturation), and their relationship to the elastic properties. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of seismic petrophysics, only three core aspects are focused on that cover the desired objectives: 1) porosity modeling, 2) shear wave prediction, and (3) fluid substitution. The rock types are characterized by Rock Physics Diagnostic (RPD) approach conducted on well log data calibrated with core data and thin sections. The Granite Wash reservoir elastic properties are upscaled from log to seismic scale using Backus averaging to obtain a more coarsely (upscaled) sampled data set equivalent to the seismic scale. Anisotropy parametric (epsilon, gamma and delta) log curves are estimated consistent with seismic measurements using rock properties, seismic velocity and clay volume (Vsh) as a function of depth. The reservoir elastic properties are related to both the depositional environment and burial history through rock physics depth trends as function of depth. Furthermore, based on the practical aspects two separate inversion approaches; AVO and Elastic Impedance (EI) are evaluated prior to their application to real seismic. Various AVO derived attribute volumes such as intercept (A), gradient (B) and reflection coefficients (scaled Poisson's ratio

  14. Saline-water resources of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Allen George; Kister, Lester Ray

    1956-01-01

    Most of the aquifers in Texas contain saline water in some parts, and a few are capable of producing large quantities of saline water. Of the early Paleozoic formations, the Hickory sandstone member of the Riley formation of Cambrian age and the Ellenburger group of Ordovician age are potential sources of small to moderate supplies of saline water in parts of central and west-central Texas.

  15. Laboratory and field testing of bednet traps for mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Andris, Heri; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Barbara, Kathryn A; Munif, Amrul

    2010-06-01

    Surveillance of medically important mosquitoes is critical to determine the risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. The purpose of this research was to test self-supporting, exposure-free bednet traps to survey mosquitoes. In the laboratory we tested human-baited and unbaited CDC light trap/cot bednet (CDCBN) combinations against three types of traps: the Mbita Trap (MIBITA), a Tent Trap (TENT), and a modified Townes style Malaise trap (TSM). In the laboratory, 16 runs comparing MBITA, TSM, and TENT to the CDCBN were conducted for a total of 48 runs of the experiment using 13,600 mosquitoes. The TENT trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The CDCBN collected significantly more than the MBITA and there was no difference between the TSM and the CDCBN. Two field trials were conducted in Cibuntu, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. The first test compared human-baited and unbaited CDCBN, TENT, and TSM traps during six nights over two consecutive weeks per month from January, 2007 to September, 2007 for a total of 54 trapnights. A total of 8,474 mosquitoes representing 33 species were collected using the six trapping methods. The TENT-baited trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than both the CDCBN and the TSM. The second field trial was a comparison of the baited and unbaited TENT and CDCBN traps and Human Landing Collections (HLCs). The trial was carried out from January, 2008 to May, 2008 for a total of 30 trap nights. A total of 11,923 mosquitoes were collected representing 24 species. Human Landing Collections captured significantly more mosquitoes than either the TENT or the CDCBN. The baited and unbaited TENT collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The TENT trap was found to be an effective, light-weight substitute for the CDC light-trap, bednet combination in the field and should be considered for use in surveys of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, arboviruses, and filariasis.

  16. Gas hydrates in the Messoyakha gas field of the West Siberian Basin - a re-examination of the geologic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Ginsburg, Gabriel D.; ,

    1997-01-01

    The amount of natural gas within the gas hydrate accumulations of the world is believed to greatly exceed the volume of known conventional natural gas reserves. The hydrocarbon production history of the Russian Messoyakha field, located in the West Siberian Basin, has been used as evidence that gas hydrates are an immediate source of natural gas that can be produced by conventional means. Re-examination of available geologic, geochemical, and hydrocarbon production data suggests, however, that gas hydrates may not have contributed to gas production in the Messoyakha field. More field and laboratory studies are needed to assess the historical contribution of gas hydrate production in the Messoyakha field.

  17. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin.

  18. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, May 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,700-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with the seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 181.1 million gallons to municipalities on May 10, 1982. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal on ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. In May 1982, ground-water levels were lower than those of September 1981. Seasonal recharge from above-average rainfall and reduced pumpage aided in the water-level recovery from record to near record levels of May 1981. (USGS)

  19. Ground-water levels in selected well fields and in west-central Florida, September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Barr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are based on water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 14 well fields that supplied 140.3 million gallons to municipalities on September 21, 1981. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal on ground water is shown on the maps as depressions in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. In September 1981, ground-water levels were significantly higher than those of May 1981 and were unchanged or within a few feet of those in September 1980. Seasonal recharge from summer rains and reduced pumpage are factors in the water-level recovery from record and near record low levels of May 1981. (USGS)

  20. Reservoir Characterization around Geothermal Field, West Java, Indonesia Derived from 4-D Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdhora Ry, Rexha; Nugraha, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observation of micro-seismic events induced by intensive geothermal exploitation in a particular geothermal field, located in West Java region, Indonesia was used to detect the fracture and permeability zone. Using local monitoring seismometer network, tomographic inversions were conducted for the three-dimensional Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs structure of the reservoir for January - December 2007, January - December 2008, and January - December 2009. First, hypocenters location was relocated using joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method in purpose to estimate best location. Then, seismic tomographic inversions were conducted using delay time tomography for dataset of every year respectively. The travel times passing through the three-dimensional velocity model were calculated using ray tracing pseudo-bending method. Norm and gradient damping were added to constrain blocks without ray and to produce smooth solution model. The inversion algorithm was developed in Matlab environment. Our tomographic inversion results from 3-years of observations indicate the presence of low Vp, low Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio at depths of about 1 - 3 km below sea level. These features were interpreted may be related to steam-saturated rock in the reservoir area of this geothermal field. The locations of the reservoir area were supported by the data of well- trajectory, where the zones of high Vp/Vs were observed around the injection wells and the zones of low Vp/Vs were observed around the production wells. The extensive low Vp/Vs anomaly that occupies the reservoir is getting stronger during the 3-years study period. This is probably attributed to depletion of pore liquid water in the reservoir and replacement with steam. Continuous monitoring of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective tool for geothermal reservoir characterization and depletion monitoring and can potentially provide information in parts of the reservoir which have not been drilled.

  1. Base Realignment Activities at Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-08

    Amphibians and Reptiles of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Static=. 434 p. Hall. E.R. 1981. The Mamals of North America . John Wiley and Sons...areas such as West Texas and the Gulf of Mexico . Only a small percentage of flight time is involved Vithflight over occupied areas such as Bergstrom AFB...simulator facility - secure aircraft parking area S- central security control facility - EQ/Vcomputer center - alter various facilities - warehouse storage

  2. Proximity of residence to bodies of water and risk for west nile virus infection: a case-control study in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Melissa S; Zangeneh, Ana; Khuwaja, Salma A; Martinez, Diana; Rossmann, Susan N; Cardenas, Victor; Murray, Kristy O

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne virus, has clinically affected hundreds of residents in the Houston metropolitan area since its introduction in 2002. This study aimed to determine if living within close proximity to a water source increases one's odds of infection with WNV. We identified 356 eligible WNV-positive cases and 356 controls using a population proportionate to size model with US Census Bureau data. We found that living near slow moving water sources was statistically associated with increased odds for human infection, while living near moderate moving water systems was associated with decreased odds for human infection. Living near bayous lined with vegetation as opposed to concrete also showed increased risk of infection. The habitats of slow moving and vegetation lined water sources appear to favor the mosquito-human transmission cycle. These methods can be used by resource-limited health entities to identify high-risk areas for arboviral disease surveillance and efficient mosquito management initiatives.

  3. The Texas Public Education Challenge. Policy Brief No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a trilogy of policy briefs discussing public education and taxes. This brief discusses the challenge facing Texas in funding public education. This brief also explains why the Texas Supreme Court's recent decision in "West Orange-Cove II" requires increased state appropriations for public education.

  4. Secondary natural gas recovery: Targeted applications for infield reserve growth in midcontinent reservoirs, Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Topical report, May 1993--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Ballard, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to define undrained or incompletely drained reservoir compartments controlled primarily by depositional heterogeneity in a low-accommodation, cratonic Midcontinent depositional setting, and, afterwards, to develop and transfer to producers strategies for infield reserve growth of natural gas. Integrated geologic, geophysical, reservoir engineering, and petrophysical evaluations are described in complex difficult-to-characterize fluvial and deltaic reservoirs in Boonsville (Bend Conglomerate Gas) field, a large, mature gas field located in the Fort Worth Basin of North Texas. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate approaches to overcoming the reservoir complexity, targeting the gas resource, and doing so using state-of-the-art technologies being applied by a large cross section of Midcontinent operators.

  5. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and it`s application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Annual technical report, January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-02-01

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the most advanced application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. A preliminary analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil of 20% of the original stock tank oil in place will be produced above waterflooding. The cost of the incremental oil will be less than $2.50 per incremental barrel. A statistical analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 200 million barrels. This project (1) evaluates the geological deposition environment of West Kiehl and adjacent Minneluse sand reservoirs; (2) compares the production performance results of the best geologic and reservoir performance analogs and select two fields for future study; (3) compares the two best field analogs to the west Kiehl field using numerical simulation; (4) predict results of applying the enhancement technology on two mature Minneluse waterflood analog units using engineering and numerical simulation; (5) predict waterflood and polymer flood performance of the West Kiehl field using numerical simulation.

  6. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  7. Overview of the structural geology and tectonics of the Central Basin Platform, Delaware Basin, and Midland Basin, West Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.; Ortoleva, P.

    1998-12-31

    The structural geology and tectonics of the Permian Basin were investigated using an integrated approach incorporating satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, gravity, seismic, regional subsurface mapping and published literature. The two primary emphases were on: (1) delineating the temporal and spatial evolution of the regional stress state; and (2) calculating the amount of regional shortening or contraction. Secondary objectives included delineation of basement and shallower fault zones, identification of structural style, characterization of fractured zones, analysis of surficial linear features on satellite imagery and their correlation to deeper structures. Gandu Unit, also known as Andector Field at the Ellenburger level and Goldsmith Field at Permian and younger reservoir horizons, is the primary area of interest and lies in the northern part of Ector county. The field trends northwest across the county line into Andrews County. The field(s) are located along an Ellenburger thrust anticline trap on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of the Rockeskyllerkopf Volcanic Centre, West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, C.; Woodland, A. B.; Hopp, J.; Trenholm, N.

    2009-04-01

    The Rockeskyllerkopf volcanic center in the Quaternary West Eifel volcanic field, Germany was active between 474 ± 39 ka and 360 ± 40 ka during which time phreatomagmatic to magmatic eruptions occurred sequentially at three distinct centers: SE Lammersdorf (SEL), Rockeskyllerkopf (RKK) and Franzosenbuche (FB). Eruptions at the SEL center were predominantly phreatomagmatic which resulted in deposition of lithic-rich pyroclastic flow deposits with minor juvenile-lapilli dominated, magmatic eruptions in the middle of the sequence. These deposits have their source in an elongate crater to the north east of the present outcrop. The N-S trending RKK center is dominated by lithic-poor, magmatic, coarse grained partially welded deposits with a distinct horizon of fine-grained airfall deposits. The RKK deposits fill a small valley and likely form the main mass of the current topographic high at Rockeskyllerkopf. The deposits of the FB center locally overlie a palaeosol and plant fossil rich horizon that indicate a significant hiatus in eruptive activity prior to this last eruptive phase. The FB deposits are magmatic and comprise an elongate scoria cone with a deep crater that has been filled by airfall deposits and later lava flows. The geochemical signatures of the lavas at each center are distinct, indicating that the mantle source region is heterogeneous on the scale of 100's of m to ~ 1 km. All the lavas have incompatible trace element characteristics indicative of derivation from depths corresponding to the garnet - spinel transition zone in the presence of hydrous phases: phlogopite in the source of the SEL magma, amphibole in the FB source and both amphibole and phlogopite in the RKK source region.

  9. Streamflow and water-quality properties in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin and regression models to estimate real-time suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids concentrations and loads in the West Fork San Jacinto River in the vicinity of Conroe, Texas, July 2008-August 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, Lee J.; Oden, Jeannette H.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the hydrology (streamflow and water quality) of the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas, including spatial and temporal variation in suspended-sediment (SS) and total suspended-solids (TSS) concentrations and loads, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, measured streamflow and collected continuous and discrete water-quality data during July 2008-August 2009 in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe. During July 2008-August 2009, discrete samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made over the range of flow conditions at two streamflow-gaging stations on the West Fork San Jacinto River: West Fork San Jacinto River below Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas (station 08067650) and West Fork San Jacinto River near Conroe, Texas (station 08068000). In addition to samples collected at these two main monitoring sites, discrete sediment samples were also collected at five additional monitoring sites to help characterize water quality in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin. Discrete samples were collected semimonthly, regardless of flow conditions, and during periods of high flow resulting from storms or releases from Lake Conroe. Because the period of data collection was relatively short (14 months) and low flow was prevalent during much of the study, relatively few samples collected were representative of the middle and upper ranges of historical daily mean streamflows. The largest streamflows tended to occur in response to large rainfall events and generally were associated with the largest SS and TSS concentrations. The maximum SS and TSS concentrations at station 08067650 (180 and 133 milligrams per liter [mg/L], respectively) were on April 19, 2009, when the instantaneous streamflow was the third largest associated with a discrete sample at the station. SS concentrations

  10. Proximity of Residence to Bodies of Water and Risk for West Nile Virus Infection: A Case-Control Study in Houston, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Melissa S.; Zangeneh, Ana; Khuwaja, Salma A.; Martinez, Diana; Rossmann, Susan N.; Cardenas, Victor; Murray, Kristy O.

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne virus, has clinically affected hundreds of residents in the Houston metropolitan area since its introduction in 2002. This study aimed to determine if living within close proximity to a water source increases one's odds of infection with WNV. We identified 356 eligible WNV-positive cases and 356 controls using a population proportionate to size model with US Census Bureau data. We found that living near slow moving water sources was statistically associated with increased odds for human infection, while living near moderate moving water systems was associated with decreased odds for human infection. Living near bayous lined with vegetation as opposed to concrete also showed increased risk of infection. The habitats of slow moving and vegetation lined water sources appear to favor the mosquito-human transmission cycle. These methods can be used by resource-limited health entities to identify high-risk areas for arboviral disease surveillance and efficient mosquito management initiatives. PMID:22315511

  11. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field Offices AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake...

  12. 76 FR 52229 - Establishment of Area Navigation Route Q-37; Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... route around potentially constrained airspace during convective weather events in west Texas. DATES... around potentially constrained airspace during convective weather events in west Texas. Additionally, the new route is being integrated into the existing severe weather national playbook routes to Houston,...

  13. Seasonal parameter extraction of paddy rice fields in West Java using multi-temporal MODIS imagery datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianturi, Riswan S.; Nieuwenhuis, Willem; Jetten, V. G.

    2015-10-01

    Continuous monitoring on farming practices is urgently needed provided the challenges faced by rice fields. Information of seasonal parameters supplies crucial inputs for monitoring rice fields as well as improving other applications, such as biomass monitoring, yield estimation, integrated pest management, irrigation water management, and precision farming. We extracted the heading stages using multi-temporal MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imageries in rice fields in northern districts of West Java, Indonesia. The spatial distribution of the heading stages in the whole year suggests complex cropping pattern of rice fields in West Java. The monthly average of EVI shows that green waves move northward as the results of stipulated cropping calendar. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the heading stages is 12.77 days. The heading stages periods of most rice fields are from the middle of February to the middle of March and from the middle of June to the middle of July for rendeng and gadu, consecutively. The findings provide timely and cost effective information for monitoring rice fields.

  14. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  15. Texas Heart Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Texas Heart Institute, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, MD Anderson Cancer Center, and The University of Houston. Held most ... for Physicians Fellowships & Residencies School ...

  16. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F. Jerry; Jennings, Jr., James W.

    2001-05-08

    A preliminary reservoir model was constructed for the Lower Clear Fork of the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir. The model was constructed by calibrating high-frequency cycles observed in cores to the porosity log. The rock fabrics mostly fall in petrophysical class 1, and cross plots of porosity and water saturation could not be used to identify rock fabrics. Data from two limestone fields and one dolostone field were presented to support the contention that grain-dominated fabrics have higher porosity than mud-dominated fabrics do and that this difference is retained when the limestone is dolomitized.

  17. Trap types vs productivity of significant Wilcox gas fields in the south Texas, listric growth fault trend, and the divergent origin of its two largest producers

    SciTech Connect

    Stricklin, F.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    Detailed mapping and analysis of 23 Wilcox fields in the subject trend indicates that gas production is related to trap type. Of total cumulative production of 3.4 TCFG, 65% is from upthrown fault blocks implying very effective fault seals due to differential pressure and/or shale smears. NE Thompsonville and Bob West fields have produced 650 and 200 BCFG, respectively, with 400 BCFG remaining reserves in the latter. The field structures are not attributed to listric growth faulting, as is suggested by their trend location. NE Thompsonville is a 9-mile-long turtle structure that originated through depositional loading of an upper slope basin, followed by tilting, and then eventual collapse of a sediment squeeze-up mound due to gravitational instability. These events provide an excellent example of basin evolution through sediment loading accompanied by withdrawal of a salt-shale substrate; the basin flanks are defined by basin-dipping listric faulting that accommodated subsidence and merge beneath its floor. Bob West Field lies along the edge of the Laramide fold belt. The 1-1/2 x 4 mile field anticline adjoins a deep-seated fault that slices over and across a buried structural ridge of probable Cretaceous age. Uplift of the latter, immediately following deposition of 20+ stacked, shelf-bar producing sands, upwarped the fault and resulted in rollover growth of the Wilcox anticline. The fault shows no downward decrease in dip typical of listric faults. NE Thompsonville and Bob West fields both produce upthrown along crestal faults. This analysis indicates that {open_quotes}high-side{close_quotes} closures, irrespective of diverse origins, have achieved head-of-the-class stature as Wilcox gas producers.

  18. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  19. Selenium availability in Texas: possible clinical significance

    SciTech Connect

    Cech, I.; Holguin, A.; Sokolow, H.; Smith, V.

    1984-11-01

    In light of recent reports that have indicated that selenium is an essential micronutrient and possible natural cancer inhibitor, data on the geographic distributions of selenium in Texas were gathered and compared with the distribution of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. We considered concentrations of selenium measured in ground and surface water to be indicators of its presence in rocks, soil, and locally grown crops. Texas water sources were found to be poor in selenium, except for the Panhandle and the West Texas regions, where soil consists of erosion products from the selenium-rich Rocky Mountains. In general, lower cancer mortality was observed for the selenium-rich regions of Texas compared with cancer mortality for the selenium poor regions. Even though the risks from cancer-provoking factors also differed geographically, the observed pattern was sufficiently suggestive to warrant further attention to selenium. 13 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles

    1997-05-29

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.

  1. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles

    1997-05-19

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.

  2. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Ruppel, S.C.

    2001-02-01

    Characterization of cycle and facies architecture on lower Clear Fork and lowermost upper Clear Fork equivalent outcrops in Apache Canyon of Sierra Diablo was complete. The focus of detailed study in Apache Canyon has been the upper Clear Fork section because this interval contains the productive interval in South Wasson field, the preliminary subsurface study area. Parts of three high-frequency sequences (HFS), each 60 to 100 ft thick, are present on the south wall of Apache Canyon. HFS's display an upper-deepening or backstepping pattern associated with longer-term sea level rise. Each HFS is composed of upward-shallowing cycles whose thickness, facies composition, and continuity vary within and between HFS's.

  3. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R. O.

    2003-02-24

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to site a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue.

  4. From the pore scale to reservoir scale: Lithohydraulic flow unit characterization of a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir, North Robertson Unit, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vessell, R.K.; Davies, D.K. )

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of integrated geological-petrophysical reservoir characterization performed as part of the US Department of Energy Class II reservoir program. Petrographic image analysis, using a specially equipped SEM, allowed for the identification of 8 petrophysical rock types at the North Robertson Unit. Detailed log analysis resulted in the development of algorithms for the log-based identification of these rock types in 109 wells. Porosity was related to permeability for each Rock Type: thus permeability is determined from well log data. Evaluation of porosity, permeability, Sw and HPV distribution has allowed for the identification of 12 lithohydraulic flow units. These flow units have been mapped across the unit. The technique allows for the development of log-based reservoir models that are simulator-ready. The results of this study have application to all heterogeneous, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs, they demonstrate that large fields can be successfully characterized using few cores and emphasize the importance of integrated geological-engineering analysis in reservoir characterization.

  5. From the pore scale to reservoir scale: Lithohydraulic flow unit characterization of a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir, North Robertson Unit, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Vessell, R.K.; Davies, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of integrated geological-petrophysical reservoir characterization performed as part of the US Department of Energy Class II reservoir program. Petrographic image analysis, using a specially equipped SEM, allowed for the identification of 8 petrophysical rock types at the North Robertson Unit. Detailed log analysis resulted in the development of algorithms for the log-based identification of these rock types in 109 wells. Porosity was related to permeability for each Rock Type: thus permeability is determined from well log data. Evaluation of porosity, permeability, Sw and HPV distribution has allowed for the identification of 12 lithohydraulic flow units. These flow units have been mapped across the unit. The technique allows for the development of log-based reservoir models that are simulator-ready. The results of this study have application to all heterogeneous, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs, they demonstrate that large fields can be successfully characterized using few cores and emphasize the importance of integrated geological-engineering analysis in reservoir characterization.

  6. Sedimentation architecture of the volcanically-dammed Alf valley in the West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Lange, Thomas; Engelhardt, Jörn; Polom, Ulrich; Pirrung, Michael; Büchel, Georg

    2015-04-01

    In the southeastern part of the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, the Alf valley with its morphologically wide (~ 500 m) and flat valley bottom is visibly outstanding. This flat valley bottom was formed during the Marine Isotope Stage 2 due to fluviolacustrine sediments which deposited upstream of a natural volcanic dam. The dam consisted of lava and scoria breccia from the Wartgesberg Volcano complex (Cipa 1958, Hemfler et al. 1991) that erupted ~ 31 BP (40Ar/ 39Ar dating on glass shards, Mertz, pers. communication 2014). Due to this impoundment, the Alf creek turned into a dendritic lake, trapping the catchment sediments. The overall aim is to create the sedimentation architecture of the Alf valley. In comparison to maar archives like Holzmaar or Meerfelder Maar in the vicinity, the fluviolacustrine sediments of the Alf valley show clay-silt lamination despite the water percolation. This archive covers the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to Early Holocene (Pirrung et al. 2007). Focus of this study is the creation of a 3D model by applying the program ESRI ArcGIS 10.2 to reconstruct the pre-volcanic Alf valley. Moreover, the sedimentation architecture is reconstructed and the sediment fill quantified. Therefore, the digital elevation model with 5 m resolution from the State Survey and Geobasis Information of Rhineland-Palatinate, polreduced magnetic data measured on top of the Strohn lava stream, shear seismic data and core stratigraphies were utilized. Summarizing previous results, Lake Alf had a catchment area of ~ 55 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 1.27 km²) and a surface area of 8.2 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 0.24 km²) considering a maximum lake water level of 410 m a.s.l.. In the deepest parts (~ 50 m) of Lake Alf, lake sediments are laminated, up to 21 m thick and show a very high sedimentation rate ~ 3 mm a-1 (Dehner Maar ~ 1.5 mm a-1, (Sirocko et al. 2013)). The sediments become coarser upstream und stratigraphically above the fine-grained lake sediments

  7. Evaluation of remotely sensed DMP product using multi-year field measurements of biomass in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutini, Francesco; Stroppiana, Daniela; Boschetti, Mirco; Brivio, Pietro A.; Bartholome, Etienne; Beye, Gora

    2011-11-01

    The Sahelian belt of West Africa is a region characterized by wide climate variations, which can in turn affect the survival of local populations especially in rangeland, as happened during the dramatic food crisis in the 70-80s caused by severe drought. This work has been carried out in the framework of the EU FP7 Geoland2 project as a contribution to the ECOWAS component (Economic Community Of West African States) of the AMESD (African Monitoring of the Environment for Sustainable Development) programme with the purpose of establishing the reliability of Dry Matter Productivity (DMP) developed by Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), a spatial estimation of dry matter (DM) obtained from remotely sensed data. DMP can be of great help in monitoring savanna pasturelands in a region characterized by food insecurity and a significant variability of biomass production, linked to climate variations, which can in turn affect the survival of local populations. The evaluation of DMP was carried out thanks to the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE) and Action Contre la Fame (ACF), the partners who provided the field biomass measurements. The paper shows the correlation of DMP with field measurements of herbaceous biomass, and discusses the differences among the different sites where ground data were collected. The analysis of other environmental variables (land cover, rainfall), which can be influential on rangeland biomass production, is presented in order to better explain the variance of field measurements among the different years.

  8. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  9. Operation of agricultural test fields for study of stressed crops by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toler, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A test site for the study of winter wheat development and collection of ERTS data was established in September of 1973. The test site is a 10 mile square area located 12.5 miles west of Amarillo, Texas on Interstate Hwy. 40, in Randall and Potter counties. The center of the area is the Southwestern Great Plains Research Center at Bushland, Texas. Within the test area all wheat fields were identified by ground truth and designated irrigated or dryland. The fields in the test area other than wheat were identified as to pasture or the crop that was grown. A ground truth area of hard red winter wheat was established west of Hale Center, Texas. Maps showing the location of winter wheat fields in excess of 40 acres in size within a 10 mile radius were supplied NASA. Satellite data was collected for this test site (ERTS-1).

  10. Geomagnetic Secular Variation in Texas over the Last 17,000 Years: High-Intensity Geomagnetic Field 'Spike' Observed at ca. 3000 cal BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, M. D.; Feinberg, J. M.; Waters, M. R.; Stafford, T. W., Jr.; Forman, S. L.; Lundelius, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    By observing the fluctuations in direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, we increase our understanding of the fluid motions in the Earth's outer core that sustain the geomagnetic field, the geodynamo. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in the Near East have proposed extremely rapid increases - 'spikes' - in geomagnetic field intensity ca. 3000 years ago that have proved problematic for our current understanding of core-flow. However, until now, these geomagnetic spikes had not been observed outside of the Near East, where they have been found in metallurgical slag and mud brick walls. We present a new fully-oriented, geomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity (RPI) record for the last 17,000 years from Hall's Cave, Texas. Sediment washed into the cave has formed a continuous stratigraphic sequence that is at least 3.5 m thick. Within the stable, cool climate of the cave, pedogenic and bioturbation processes are almost non-existent, thereby limiting post-depositional physical and geochemical alteration of the magnetic record. The sub-aerial and subterranean setting of the sedimentary sequence in Hall's Cave enabled us to collect oriented palaeomagnetic cubes from an excavated section through the sequence. The palaeomagnetic samples yielded high-quality vectors. An age model for the sequence, determined using 57 AMS 14C-dates on individual bones from microvertebrate, was combined with the palaeomagnetic data to construct a secular variation record. The record is in broad agreement with predictions by Holocene field models for the site's location. However, at ca. 3000 years ago, the RPI data indicate an almost four-fold increase in geomagnetic field intensity lasting several hundred years and contemporaneous with the more short-lived, decadal-scale spikes reported from the Near East. Evidence for this extreme intensity event outside of the Near East has major implications for our current understanding of core-dynamics.

  11. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and its application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Annual report for the period January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.; Mundorf, W.R.

    1994-11-01

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the most advanced application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. A preliminary analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil of 20% of the original stock tank oil in place will be produced above waterflooding. The cost of the incremental oil will be less than $2.50 per incremental barrel. A statistical analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 200 million barrels. {open_quotes}Detailed Evaluation of the West Kiehl Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Field Project and Its Application to Mature Minnelusa Waterfloods{close_quotes} objective is to evaluate both the field performance of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer enhanced oil recovery technology as well as its potential application to other Minnelusa oil fields.

  13. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and its application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.

    1995-03-01

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the first application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. The following analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil greater than waterflooding was produced at a cost of less than $2.00 per incremental barrel. A analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the total original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 130 million barrels. The goals of ``Detailed Evaluation of the West Kield Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Field Project and It`s Application to Mature Minnelusa Waterfloods`` are to evaluate both the field performance of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer enhanced oil recovery technology as well as its potential application to other Minnelusa oil fields.

  14. Evidence for the emergence of new rice types of interspecific hybrid origin in West African farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Edwin; van Treuren, Robbert; Struik, Paul C; Mokuwa, Alfred; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Richards, Paul

    2009-10-06

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess genetic diversity in West Africa (including the countries The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Togo) using 315 rice samples morphologically classified prior to analysis. We show evidence for farmer interspecific hybrids of African and Asian rice, resulting in a group of novel genotypes, and identify possible mechanisms for in-field hybridization. Spontaneous back-crossing events play a crucial role, resulting in different groups of genetic diversity in different regions developed by natural and cultural selection, often under adverse conditions. These new groups of genotypes may have potential relevance for exploitation by plant breeders. Future advances in crop development could be achieved through co-operation between scientists and marginalized farmer groups in order to address challenges of rapid adaptation in a world of increasing socio-political and climatic uncertainty.

  15. Texas Educational History: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, James H., Comp.

    The bibliography provides a comprehensive listing of the literature of Texas educational history up to March, 1978. Objectives are to provide access to the sources and to stimulate interest and research in the field. Over 1050 books, journal articles, pamphlets, theses, and doctoral dissertations are arranged in nine subject sections: General…

  16. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  17. Late diagenetic indicators of buried oil and gas: II, Direct detection experiment at Cement and Garza oil fields, Oklahoma and Texas, using enhanced LANDSAT I and II images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Terrence J.; Termain, Patricia A.; Henry, Mitchell E.

    1979-01-01

    The Cement oil field, Oklahoma, was a test site for an experiment designed to evaluate LANDSAT's capability to detect an alteration zone in surface rocks caused by hydrocarbon microseepage. Loss of iron and impregnation of sandstone by carbonate cements and replacement of gypsum by calcite are the major alteration phenomena at Cement. The bedrock alterations are partially masked by unaltered overlying beds, thick soils, and dense natural and cultivated vegetation. Interpreters biased by detailed ground truth were able to map the alteration zone subjectively using a magnified, filtered, and sinusoidally stretched LANDSAT composite image; other interpreters, unbiased by ground truth data, could not duplicate that interpretation. Similar techniques were applied at a secondary test site (Garza oil field, Texas), where similar alterations in surface rocks occur. Enhanced LANDSAT images resolved the alteration zone to a biased interpreter and some individual altered outcrops could be mapped using higher resolution SKYLAB color and conventional black and white aerial photographs suggesting repeat experiments with LANDSAT C and D.

  18. Site study plan for Upper Aquifer Hydrology Clusters, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas, 15 wells at 5 locations will be completed in the Ogallala Formation and Dockum Group. The purposes of the wells, which are called Upper Aquifer (2) establish background hydrologic and water quality conditions, (3) provide analysis, (4) monitor responses of the shallow hydrologic system to site activities and nearby pumpage for irrigation, (5) collect water samples from both saturated and unsaturated materials to help define recharge rates and ground-water flow patterns, (6) monitor variations on water quality, and (7) define ground-water resources near the site. The test wells will be installed during a 14-month period starting about 1-1/2 years after site characterization activities begin. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 44 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Chagas Disease Risk in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Strutz, Stavana E.; Frank, David M.; Rivaldi, Chissa–Louise; Sissel, Blake; Sánchez–Cordero, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. Methods and Findings The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five–stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post–1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc–minute). The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence–based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag–York–Mollié model and post–1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This risk

  20. Stylolites in the Caballos Novaculite, west Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Mark A.; Whitford-Stark, J. L.

    1987-05-01

    Stylolites within the Caballos Novaculite developed by pressure solution in response to lithostatic pressure after the original sediment had been converted to a novaculite. Estimates of minimum stratigraphic thinning of the novaculite are fairly uniform across the Marathon basin; they range from 3.5% to 5.6% on the basis of stylolite column amplitude.

  1. Influence of structural evolution on reservoir development and distribution in the Silurian Fusselman: Vermejo-Moore Hopper field, Loving and Ward Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Colleary, W.M.; Hulme, J.R. ); Crafton, J.W. Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL )

    1992-04-01

    The Vermejo-Moore Hooper field lies in the deep Delaware basin adjacent to the Pecos River in Loving and Ward counties, Texas. Discovered in 1973, the field produces dry gas from the Fusselman and Ellenburger formations. The Fusselman reservoir has produced over 400 bcf of gas from depths between 18,500 and 19,200 ft. The field primarily is a structural trap, but the distribution of reserves in the reservoir suggests a strong stratigraphic component. The reservoir is composed of fractured dolomites and cherts of the Silurian Fusselman and overlying Wristen formations. Unconformities and their accompanying diagenetic processes play a major role in the reservoir. The occurrence of pervasive dolomitization and nodular cherts are interpreted to indicate diagenesis associated with subaerial exposure and karsting. Thick sections also may be absent due to erosion over paleostructures, and preserved in flanking positions. Detailed paleostructural interpretation of the Vermejo-Moore Hooper field reveals a history of recurrent movement of the basement and demonstrates the influence of structural growth on the development and distribution of porosity and permeability in the Fusselman reservoir. Early structural growth can influence the distribution of both depositional facies and erosional processes. Paleostructure maps in the Silurian-Devonian indicate that a series of northwest-southeast-trending, low-relief structures existed during the Silurian. Growth of these structures through the Devonian can be documented and the presence of fault-bounded basement blocks can be inferred. The influence of this structural growth on the development of the reservoir is also demonstrated.

  2. Registration verification of SEA/AR fields. [Oregon, Texas, Montana, Nebraska, Washington, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.; Lautenschlager, L. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A method of field registration verification for 20 SEA/AR sites for the 1979 crop year is evaluated. Field delineations for the sites were entered into the data base, and their registration verified using single channel gray scale computer printout maps of LANDSAT data taken over the site.

  3. Technical procedures for implementation of background environmental radioactivity site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this technical procedure is to describe the method for performing field maintenance on low-volume air samplers and the associated topics of personnel and organization, procedure preparation, documentation, and quality assurance. The scope of this procedure includes the maintenance of low-volume air samplers in the field and does not encompass maintenance performed by the manufacturer.

  4. NDEA FIELD SUMMER LANGUAGE INSTITUTE FOR SECONDARY FRENCH AND SPANISH (2D WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY, JUNE 27 TO AUGUST 19, 1966). FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STILWELL, ROBERT

    PARTICIPANTS IN THE 1966 NDEA LANGUAGE INSTITUTE HELD AT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY WERE THOSE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS WHO HAD PREVIOUSLY ATTENDED AN NDEA INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED TRAINING IN THEIR PRINCIPAL LANGUAGE TEACHING FIELD, BUT WHO FROM CHOICE OR NECESSITY HAD BEEN ASSIGNED FRENCH OR SPANISH AS A SECOND TEACHING FIELD. THE REPORT OF THIS…

  5. Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater Abstract: Sulfate (SO4) is one of the most important anions in soils and groundwater in semiarid regions, including West Texas. Crops’ sulfur (S) requirement is about 10 to 20 % of the nitrogen (N) require...

  6. The Health Insurance Gap After Implementation of the Affordable Care Act in Texas.

    PubMed

    Gong, Gordon; Huey, Cassandra C; Johnson, Coleman; Curti, Debra; Philips, Billy U

    2017-03-01

    Households with incomes between 18% and 99% of the federal poverty level (FPL) are ineligible for Medicaid or enrollment in the health insurance exchange marketplace in Texas, resulting in the health insurance gap. We sought to determine the number of non-elderly adult Texans (NEATs) aged between 18 and 64 years in the insurance gap in rural vs urban areas in East Texas, West Texas, and South Texas. Data were obtained from the US Census Bureau website. In 2014, there were 1,101,000 NEATs in the insurance gap, accounting for 24.5% of all uninsured persons in Texas. The gap was significantly higher in rural vs urban areas in East and South Texas and in Texas as a whole. Large coverage gaps in states like Texas not expanding Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act pose major hurdles to reducing the number of uninsured individuals in these states.

  7. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

    2001-05-03

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

  8. Technical procedures for water resources: Volume 3, Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Water Resources (ONWI, 1987). This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Water Resources Site Study Plan. This procedure provides the general method for the field collection of water and sediment samples from playa lakes using an Alpha horizontal type sampler or equivalent or a peristaltic pump for water and a KB-coring devise or ponar grab for sediments. The samples will be preserved and then shipped to a laboratory for analysis. The water quality and sediment samples will be collected as part of the surface-water quality field study described in the Site Plan for Water Resources. 15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

  10. APPLICATION OF WATER-JET HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY TO DRILL AND ACIDIZE HORIZONTAL DRAIN HOLES, TEDBIT (SAN ANDRES) FIELD, GAINES COUNTY, TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Rose

    2005-09-22

    The San Andres Formation is one of the major hydrocarbon-producing units in the Permian Basin, with multiple reservoirs contained within the dolomitized subtidal portions of upward shoaling carbonate shelf cycles. The test well is located in Tedbit (San Andres) Field in northeastern Gaines County, Texas, in an area of scattered San Andres production associated with local structural highs. Selected on the basis of geological and historical data, the Oil and Gas Properties Wood No. 1 well is considered to be typical of a large number of San Andres stripper wells in the Permian Basin. Thus, successful completion of horizontal drain holes in this well would demonstrate a widely applicable enhanced recovery technology. Water-jet horizontal drilling is an emerging technology with the potential to provide significant economic benefits in marginal wells. Forecast benefits include lower recompletion costs and improved hydrocarbon recoveries. The technology utilizes water under high pressure, conveyed through small-diameter coiled tubing, to jet horizontal drain holes into producing formations. Testing of this technology was conducted with inconclusive results. Paraffin sludge and mechanical problems were encountered in the wellbore, initially preventing the water-jet tool from reaching the kick-off point. After correcting these problems and attempting to cut a casing window with the water-jet milling assembly, lateral jetting was attempted without success.

  11. USING 3D COMPUTER MODELING, BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS, AND HIGH CAPACITY PUMPS TO RESTORE PRODUCTION TO MARGINAL WELLS IN THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Bassett

    2003-06-09

    Methods for extending the productive life of marginal wells in the East Texas Field were investigated using advanced computer imaging technology, geophysical tools, and selective perforation of existing wells. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy, TENECO Energy and Schlumberger Wireline and Testing. Drillers' logs for more than 100 wells in proximity to the project lease were acquired, converted to digital format using a numerical scheme, and the data were used to create a 3 Dimensional geological image of the project site. Using the descriptive drillers' logs in numerical format yielded useful cross sections identifying the Woodbine Austin Chalk contact and continuity of sand zones between wells. The geological data provided information about reservoir continuity, but not the amount of remaining oil, this was obtained using selective modern logs. Schlumberger logged the wells through 2 3/8 inch tubing with a new slimhole Reservoir Saturation Tool (RST) which can measure the oil and water content of the existing porosity, using neutron scattering and a gamma ray spectrometer (GST). The tool provided direct measurements of elemental content yielding interpretations of porosity, lithology, and oil and water content, confirming that significant oil saturation still exists, up to 50% in the upper Woodbine sand. Well testing was then begun and at the end of the project new oil was being produced from zones abandoned or bypassed more than 25 years ago.

  12. Houston, Texas and Gulf Coast area as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The Houston, Texas and Gulf Coast area, looking southeast, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 91st revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 101 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 144 hours and 26 minutes. The morning sun causes a reflection on the water surfaces such as the Gulf of Mexico, Galveston Bay, Buffalo Bayou and the Brazos River and causes a unique reflection in the canals and fields west of Alvin. Some of the landmarks visible in this picture include highways and freeways, the Astrodome, the Intercontinental Airport and the Manned Spacecraft Center.

  13. A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J. T.; Phillips, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    In May and July, 1997, a consortia of operators and service companies conducted a series of hydraulic fracture imaging tests in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of East Texas (Walker, 1997). Microseismic data were collected and processed for six hydraulic fracture treatments in two wells (3 completion intervals per well) (Mayerhofer et al., 2000). One well was completed with gel-proppant treatments in which a viscous crosslink gel was injected to entrain high concentrations of sand proppant into formation. The second well was completed using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs). Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost. Mayerhofer and Meehan (1998) suggest two possible reasons why waterfracs are successful: (1) Induced shear displacement along natural and hydraulic fractures results in self-propping (shear dilation enhanced by fracture branching, proppant and spalled rock fragments), and (2) Fracture extension and cleanup is easier to achieve with low-viscosity fluids. With improved source location precision and focal mechanism determination (fracture plane orientation and sense of slip), we have reexamined the Cotton Valley data, comparing the seismicity induced by water and gel-proppant treatments at common depth intervals. We have improved the location precision and computed focal mechanism of microearthquakes induced during a series of hydraulic fracture completions within the Cotton Valley formation of East Texas. Conventional gel-proppant treatments and treatments using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs) were monitored. Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost (Mayerhofer and Meehan, 1998). Comparison of the seismicity induced by the two treatment types show similar distributions of

  14. First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Nasci, R S; Godsey, M S; Savage, H M; Lutwama, J J; Lanciotti, R S; Peters, C J

    2000-02-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito borne flavivirus endemic over a large geographic area including Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Although the virus generally causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness in humans, it has sporadically caused central nervous system infections during epidemics. An isolate of West Nile virus was obtained from a pool of four male Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes while we were conducting an investigation of Rift Valley fever along the Kenya-Uganda border in February-March 1998. This represents the first field isolation of West Nile virus from male mosquitoes and strongly suggests that vertical transmission of the virus occurs in the primary maintenance mosquito vector in Kenya. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete amino acid sequence of the viral envelope glycoprotein demonstrated a sister relationship with a Culex pipiens mosquito isolate from Romania made in 1996. This unexpected finding probably reflects the role of migratory birds in disseminating West Nile virus between Africa and Europe.

  15. Treasured Texas Theaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Dallas artist Jon Flaming's deep love of Texas is evident in his paintings and sculpture. Although he has created one sculptural Texas theater, his work primarily showcases old Texas barbershops, vacant homes, and gas stations. In this article, the author describes how her students, inspired by Flaming's works, created three-dimensional historical…

  16. East Texas Storytellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brandi, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, "Loblolly Magazine" is published twice a year. Issues are frequently devoted to a distant theme. The theme of this issue, "East Texas Storytellers," attempts to capture some of the local color and regional history of eastern Texas. The first article,…

  17. Produced water treating equipment: Recent field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.R.; Choi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    For several decades, flotation cells have been workhorses for treatment of oilfield produced water for disposal or reinjection. In the last few years several alternative devices which have come on the market for the removal of oil from water have been tested in the oil field. Some of these have distinct advantages over flotation cells in terms of space and weight, better oil-recovery efficiency, and lower operating costs. This paper summarizes the results of field trials of a passive hydrocyclone, in the Arabian Gulf and in the North Sea, a coalescer which uses a specially treated ion-exchange resin as a medium in the Gulf of Mexico, two somewhat similar filter-coalescers which use crushed nut shells as media, onshore in New Mexico, West Texas, and California, and an upflow sand coalescer system in New Mexico and West Texas.

  18. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Utilizing WASP and hot waterflood to maximize the value of a thermally mature steam drive in the West Coalinga field

    SciTech Connect

    DeFrancisco, S.T.; Sanford, S.J.; Hong, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Water-Alternating-Steam-Process (WASP) has been utilized on Section 13D, West Coalinga Field since 1988. Originally implemented to control premature, high-temperature steam breakthrough, the process has improved sales oil recovery in both breakthrough and non-breakthrough patterns. A desktop, semi-conceptual simulation study was initiated in June 1993 to provide a theoretical basis for optimizing and monitoring the WASP project. The simulation study results showed that the existing WASP injection strategy could be further optimized. It also showed that conversion to continuous hot waterflood was the optimum injection strategy for the steamflood sands. The Section 13D WASP project was gradually converted to hot waterflood during 1994. Conversion to hot waterflood has significantly improved project cash flow and increased the value of the Section 13D thermal project.

  20. Microbial Diversity of Acidic Hot Spring (Kawah Hujan B) in Geothermal Field of Kamojang Area, West Java-Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria. PMID:19440252

  1. High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

    2002-02-26

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

  2. Mapping rainfall fields and their ENSO variation in data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basher, Reid E.; Zheng, Xiaogu

    1998-03-01

    Rainfall fields for the data-sparse tropical south-west Pacific Ocean region have been mapped by partial thin-plate smoothing spline surface modelling applied to island rainfall measurements, enhanced by the use of satellite observations of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) as a regression covariate. The aim is to obtain spatially realistic rainfall maps, especially in the data-sparse areas between island groups, through a fully objective and statistically valid method that includes error estimates. The method has been applied to the region 4°N-24°S, 168°E-154°W. The rainfall data set initially comprised 57 stations, most with 40 year records. As a first step, a regression of annual OLR and rainfall for atolls only was formed and used to eliminate outlier rainfall stations, all of which are on mountainous islands and thus are probably influenced orographically.The maps clearly show the spatial patterns and seasonal behaviour of the regions key meteorological features, namely, the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the southern edge of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the wedge shaped region of divergent easterlies lying between them. To identify ENSO variations, maps of 3-month seasonal rainfall were constructed from composites of eight El Niño (negative SOI) episodes and nine La Niña (positive SOI) episodes. These maps are relatively rough in appearance, but nevertheless they show the evolution of the spatial patterns through each composite episode and the strong and symmetrically opposite differences between them. Marked variations in the strength and position of the SPCZ are evident and the isohyets in the equatorial dry zone exhibit east-west shifts of nearly 3000 km relative to the average field. The rainfall variation at a particular location may be understood in terms of competition of influence among the changing features of the pattern, rather than as a simple linear function of the SOI.

  3. An Investigation of the Mass Balance of Oil and Gas Produced Versus Estimated Reserves Remaining within the A.W.P. Field, McMullen County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Scott Murphy

    The A.W.P. Field is located in McMullen County, approximately 4 to 6 miles southeast of the town of Tilden in the Rio Grande Embayment. The study area was believed to be near depletion of all hydrocarbons; however, a recent well drilled (fall 2014) just to the west of the study area has produced significant hydrocarbons. This prompted Milagro Exploration to launch an effort to reevaluate the potential within the field in order to investigate whether the field is, in fact, entirely depleted. My approach to solving this problem began with researching the area to develop an understanding of the geological setting, depositional systems, and productive intervals, then acquiring the proper data, as this data was the foundation of the project. I completed a detailed correlation framework of key formations with the acquired well logs. I interpreted an extensive 3D seismic data set to map my areas of interest and faults. With all relevant information, I completed structure maps, isopach maps, production maps, and calculated volumetrics, concluding with my recommendation, and determined whether the field is ultimately depleted or not. I concluded that there are two relevant intervals within the study area. First, the Wilcox-Wales Formation (Wales; Early Tertiary) was a random stratigraphic accumulation that had sporadic hydrocarbon production, and would be essentially high risk to drill. Second, the Olmos Formation (Olmos; Late Cretaceous) had significant potential for 2 horizontal wells on the western side of the lease area.

  4. Lake-bottom sediment composition for the assessment of ecological state of West Siberian oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoyarova, N. A.; Russkikh, I. V.; Strel'nikova, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents research findings on the oil composition of Fedorovskoe and Nivagal'skoe, Nizhnevartovskoe and Samotlorskoe (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug), Verkhtarskoe (Novosibirsk region) fields and also the organic components of bottom sediments of Vachlor, Dolgoe, and Balman Lakes. A comparison is given for hydrocarbon composition in bituminous components of lake-bottom sediments and nearby oil fields. The contribution of crude oils to the organic composition of bottom sediments of Vachlor and Balman Lakes is studied in this paper.

  5. Statewide summary for Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Gibeaut, Jim; Thatcher, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Seafood landed at Texas ports valued $240 million in 2011, and recreational saltwater fishing alone provided nearly 17,000 jobs (Texas GLO, 2013). Fishes directly dependent upon wetland habitats include multiple shrimp species, blue crab, eastern oyster, black drum, flounder, sheepshead, and snapper. Texas has the highest number of hunters, anglers, and hunting expenditures in the nation (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). Hunting yields $2.3 billion for the state, and recreational fishing yields $3.2 billion. Texas is the top birding destination in the Nation. Tourism in Texas generates $7.5 billion for the state, and wildlife viewing generates $2.9 billion.

  6. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model.

  7. Field-based estimates of avian mortality from West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Beveroth, Tara A; Lampman, Richard; Raim, Arlo; Enstrom, David; Novak, Robert

    2010-11-01

    One of the unique characteristics of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America is the large number of bird species for which the virus can be fatal. WNV mortality has been documented through experimental infections of captive birds and necropsies of free-ranging birds. Investigations of WNV-related mortality in wild birds often focus on species with dramatic population declines (e.g., American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos); however, few studies have addressed WNV-related mortality in species not exhibiting marked population declines since the arrival of WNV. We conducted a mark-recapture study of 204 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) in an area with endemic WNV activity to estimate WNV-related mortality. Previous research has shown that once a bird is infected and recovers from WNV it develops antibodies making it resistant to future infection. Assuming that mortality risks from non-WNV causes were the same for individuals with (had been exposed to WNV) and without antibodies (had not been exposed to WNV), we compared the survival rates of birds with and without WNV antibodies to estimate the impact of WNV on wild birds. An information theoretic approach was used, and the apparent survival was found to be 34.6% lower for individuals without antibodies during the period when WNV was most active (July-September). However, the apparent survival rate was 9.0% higher for individuals without antibodies over the rest of the year. These differences in apparent survival suggest that WNV increases mortality during the WNV season and that chronic effects of WNV infection may also be contributing to mortality. Although WNV appears to have increased mortality rates within the population, population trend data do not indicate declines, suggesting that some cardinal populations can compensate for WNV-related mortality.

  8. Texas floods of 1940

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breeding, Seth D.

    1948-01-01

    Basin between Smithville and La Grange, amounting to 550 square miles, had an average rainfall of 19.3 inches, of which 11.5 inches appeared as runoff. The maximum discharge at La Grange was 182,000 second-feet, with much the greater part coming from below Smithville. This is probably a record-breaking flood for the area between Smithville and La Grange, but stages as much as 16 feet higher have occurred at La Grange. Heavy rainfall over the east half of Texas November 21-26 caused large floods in all streams in Texas east of the Guadalupe River. The maximum recorded rainfall for the 2-day period November 24-25 was 20.46 inches at Hempstead, of which 16.00 inches fell in 24 hours or less. The storm occurred during the period November 20-26, with the greater part of the rain falling November 23-25. During the period November 20-26, rainfall in Texas amounted to more than 15 inches over an area of 3,380 square miles, and 'to more than 10 inches over an area of 17,570 square miles. The average annual rainfall for the area in Texas experiencing more than 10 inches of rain during this storm ranges from 501 inches on the east border of the State to 35 inches near the west edge of the area. The study of this storm for the purposes of this report is limited to the San Jacinto River Basin, which had an average rainfall of 13.6 inches. This basin has an area of 2,791 square miles above the gaging station near Huffman and is typical in topographic and hydrologic features of much of eastern Texas. The stage reached at the gage near Huffman was about 1 foot higher than known before, the maximum discharge was 253,000 second-feet, and the runoff from the storm amounted to 8.8 inches. The November flood came after crops had been harvested, and its damage was mainly the destruction of highways and railways and the drowning of livestock. The storage reservoirs on the Colorado River located well upstream from the storm areas herein studied had very little effect on

  9. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  10. Relationship of Ordovician and Silurian reservoir development to unconformities at Midland farms and Inez fields, Andrews County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mear, C.E.; Becher, J.W.

    1986-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are being produced at Midland Farms and Inez fields from Ellenburger dolomites and Fusselman limestones. Reservoirs developed there during Ordovician and Silurian periods of minor folding and faulting, followed by regional uplift and subaerial exposure of the carbonates. Vuggy, cavernous, and solution-enlarged fracture porosity was developed in the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger dolomites prior to deposition of the overlying Middle Ordovician shales of the Simpson Group. Vuggy and cavernous porosity developed in the Lower Silurian Fusselman crinoid-ostracod-pellet packstones and grainstones before deposition of the overlying Silurian Wristen shales. Montoya siliceous limestones of Late Ordovician age were truncated during a period of pre-Silurian erosion, but porosity development is not indicated in Montoya rock cuttings. Only minor amounts of porosity developed in the Lower to Middle Devonian Thirty-one packstones and wackestones as a result of uplift and erosion in the Middle Devonian. Regional compression during the post-Mississippian enhanced doubly plunging anticlines now having up to 91 m (300 ft) of closure at the Ellenburger through Thirty-one formations at Midland Farms and Inez fields. Fractures may have developed in Paleozoic limestones during this period of folding, but reservoir enhancement appears to have resulted only in the Ellenburger dolomites. Representative porosity measurements of the Ellenburger and Fusselman pay zones cannot be made from wireline log calculations, due to the fractured, vuggy, and cavernous nature of the porosity.

  11. Identification of paddy field using Landsat image in Karawang Regency, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riadi, Bambang; Budiman Suriadi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has a mission to achieve food self-sufficiency in 2017, therefore it is necessary efforts to the stability of food needs. Karawang Regency as a granary states have a vital role in maintaining the national rice self-sufficiency, so indispensable information paddy field area. Paddy field accurate mapping can be done with a fast and efficient method of using remote sensing technology. This study aims to identify the paddy field using remote sensing technology. The data used is Landsat TM 2002 and Landsat-8 2015. The classification method using an approach Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT). This method can be implemented to identify the fields that are still green or in the growing season. TCT produces three images of the six combinations, namely Brightness (BRT), greenness (GRN), and wetness (WET). BRT provides graytone gradation of non vegetation to water. GRN is indicated the gradation of vegetation cover, begin from densely vegetated until the most rare or non-vegetated areas. While wetness (WET) indicates the area associated with the presence of water. The main results of the classification is not a wetland and paddy. Based on existing data paddy land area of research area is ± 57% of the area of Karawang Regency.

  12. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Risien, C.M.; Strub, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    We form a new ‘blended’ data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55–70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993–31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  13. Low-Frequency Response Following the Passage of Hurricane Andrew on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, S. M.; Smith, D. C.; Dimarco, S. F.

    2009-12-01

    During August 24th through 27th in 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed through the Gulf Of Mexico almost directly over several moorings on the easternmost Louisiana shelf portion of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf (LATEX) coastal ocean monitoring program. Examination of the current meter time-series showed the existence of fast moving, long shelf waves over the entire Texas-Louisiana shelf west of the storm passage for up to 12 days after direct forcing ceased. The LATEX program featured 31 moorings each with 3 current meters over the 10, 20, 50, and 200 meter isobaths in 5 cross sectional lines with additional coverage on the 200 meter isobath from the Louisiana-Mississippi River delta, to Corpus Christi, Texas. Additionally, several pressure records from LATEX and several NOAA historical coastal tide gauge data from Sabine Pass to Port Isabella, Texas were incorporated. Raw, 3-hour low pass filtered, and 40-hour low pass filtered versions of the current data were analyzed. The pressure data used were detided using a least squares fit, and the tidal records were detided using the NOAA predicted tides for that location. All data were analyzed using a wavelet analysis to determine the spectra over time. The analyzed data shows that the shelf response was largely dominated in the internal Kelvin wave mode. The wave propagated towards the west on the shelf at approximately 400 km/day. These results are contrasted and compared with wave modes predicted for coastal trapped wave solutions. The output of a coastal ocean model simulation using a forced wind field similar to the storm are also contrasted and compared with the observed data.

  14. Texas site selection and licensing status

    SciTech Connect

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

  15. Occurrence of oil in the Austin Chalk at Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas: A unique geologic setting

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T.; Carrington, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The Austin Chalk is buried to a depth of only 2,100-2,500 ft and has retained primary microporosity unlike the typical deep fractured chalk reservoirs. The Van structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion and is approximately 2,000 ft higher than surrounding structures in the area. A major northwest-dipping fault acts as the primary trapping mechanism. The field has produced 0.5 billion BO from thick Woodbine sands since its discovery in 1929. Occurrence of oil in the Austin Chalk has been known since the field discovery, but prior completions were low rate oil producers. Recent development of a large fracture stimulation technique has resulted in increased production rates of up to 300 BOPD. The Austin Chalk reservoir limits were determined by isopaching feet of minimum productive resistivity having porosity above a cutoff value. The resistivity/porosity isopach showed a direct correlation between Austin Chalk productivity and the Austin Chalk structure and faulting pattern. Structural evidence along with oil typing indicate that the oil in the Austin Chalk has migrated upward along fault planes and through fault juxtaposition from the Woodbine sands 200 ft below the Austin Chalk. Thin-section and scanning electron microscopy work performed on conventional cores showed that the Van Austin Chalk formation is a very fine grained limestone composed primarily of coccoliths. Various amounts of detrital illite clay are present in the coccolith matrix. All effective porosity is micro-intergranular and ranges from 15 to 35%. Based on the core analyses, the main porosity reducing agent and therefore control on reservoir quality is the amount of detrital clay present filling the micropores. Permeability is very low with values ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 md. There is no evidence of significant natural fractures in the core. Artificial fractures are therefore required to create the permeability needed to sustain commercial production rates.

  16. Holocene coastal dune fields used as indicators of net littoral transport: West Coast, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Stock, Errol; Hart, Roger; Percy, David; Hostetler, Steve W.; Knott, Jeffrey R.

    2010-03-01

    Between Point Grenville, Washington, and Point Conception, California (1500 km distance) 21 dune fields record longshore transport in 20 littoral cells during the late Holocene. The direction of predominant littoral transport is established by relative positions of dune fields (north, central, or south) in 17 representative littoral cells. Dune field position is north of cell midpoints in northernmost Oregon and Washington, but is south of cell midpoints in southern Oregon and California. Downdrift sand trapping occurs at significant changes in shoreline angle and/or at bounding headlands that project at least 2.5 km seaward from the general coastal trend. Sand bypassing occurs around small headlands of less than 0.5 km in projection distance. A northward shift of the winter low-pressure center in the northeast Pacific Ocean is modeled from 11 ka to 0 ka. Nearshore current forcing in southern Oregon and northern California switched from northward in earliest Holocene time to southward in late Holocene time. The late Holocene (5-0 ka) is generally characterized by net northward littoral drift in northernmost Oregon and Washington and by net southward littoral drift in southernmost Oregon and California. A regional divergence of net transport direction in central Oregon, i.e. no net drift, is consistent with modeled wind and wave forcing at the present time (0 ka).

  17. Holocene coastal dune fields used as indicators of net littoral transport: West Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, C.D.; Stock, E.; Hart, R.; Percy, D.; Hostetler, S.W.; Knott, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Between Point Grenville, Washington, and Point Conception, California (1500 km distance) 21 dune fields record longshore transport in 20 littoral cells during the late Holocene. The direction of predominant littoral transport is established by relative positions of dune fields (north, central, or south) in 17 representative littoral cells. Dune field position is north of cell midpoints in northernmost Oregon and Washington, but is south of cell midpoints in southern Oregon and California. Downdrift sand trapping occurs at significant changes in shoreline angle and/or at bounding headlands that project at least 2.5 km seaward from the general coastal trend. Sand bypassing occurs around small headlands of less than 0.5 km in projection distance. A northward shift of the winter low-pressure center in the northeast Pacific Ocean is modeled from 11 ka to 0 ka. Nearshore current forcing in southern Oregon and northern California switched from northward in earliest Holocene time to southward in late Holocene time. The late Holocene (5-0 ka) is generally characterized by net northward littoral drift in northernmost Oregon and Washington and by net southward littoral drift in southernmost Oregon and California. A regional divergence of net transport direction in central Oregon, i.e. no net drift, is consistent with modeled wind and wave forcing at the present time (0 ka). ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  18. T for Texas, T for Tennessee: The Origins of American Country Music Notables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, George O.

    1979-01-01

    Origins of performers, composers, publishers, and executives who have made significant contributions to country music since the late nineteenth century are examined. Most music is produced in a crescent from West Virginia to East Texas. (KC)

  19. USGS field activity 08FSH01 on the west Florida shelf, Gulf of Mexico, in August 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Liu, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2009-01-01

    From August 11 to 15, 2008, a cruise led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected air and sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and total alkalinity (TA) data on the west Florida shelf. Approximately 1,600 data points were collected underway over a 650-kilometer (km) trackline using the Multiparameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA). The collection of data extended from Crystal River southward to Marco Island, Florida (~400 km), and westward up to 160 km off the Florida coast. Discrete water samples from approximately 40 locations were also taken at specific localities to corroborate underway data measurements. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 08FSH01 tells us the data were collected in 2008 for the Response of Florida Shelf (FSH) Ecosystems to Climate Change project, and the data were collected during the first field activity for that study in that calendar year.

  20. USGS field activity 09FSH01 on the west Florida shelf, Gulf of Mexico, in February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Liu, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2009-01-01

    From February 24 to 28, 2009, a cruise led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected air and sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and total alkalinity (TA) data on the west Florida shelf. Approximately 1,800 data points were collected underway over a 1,300-kilometer (km) trackline using the Multiparameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA). The collection of data extended from Crystal River to Marco Island, Florida (~400 km), and westward up to 160 km off the Florida coast. Discrete water samples were also taken at specific localities to corroborate underway data measurements. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 09FSH01 tells us that the data were collected in 2009 for the Response of Florida Shelf (FSH) Ecosystems to Climate Change project, and the data were collected during the first field activity for that study in that calendar year.

  1. USGS field activity 09FSH02 on the west Florida shelf, Gulf of Mexico, in August 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Liu, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2009-01-01

    From August 17 to 21, 2009, a cruise led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected air and sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and total alkalinity (TA) data on the west Florida shelf. Approximately 2,000 data points were collected underway over a 1,320-kilometer (km) track line using the Multiparameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA). The collection of data extended from Crystal River to Marco Island, Florida (~400 km), and westward up to 160 km off the Florida coast. Discrete water samples were also taken at specific localities to corroborate underway data measurements. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 09FSH02 tells us that the data were collected in 2009 for the Response of Florida Shelf (FSH) Ecosystems to Climate Change project, and the data were collected during the second field activity for that study in that calendar year.

  2. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Weinbrandt, Richard; Trentham, Robert C; Robinson, William

    1997-10-23

    For a part of the Foster and South Cowden (Grayburg-San Andres) oil fields, improvement in oil production has been accomplished, in part, by using "pipeline fracturing" technology in the most recent completion to improve fluid flow rates, and filtration of waterflood injection water to preserve reservoir permeability. The 3D seismic survey acquired in conjunction with this DOE project has been used to calculate a 3D seismic inversion model, which has been analyzed to provide detailed maps of porosity within the productive upper 250 feet of the Grayburg Formation. Geologic data, particularly from logs and cores, have been combined with the geophysical interpretation and production history information to develop a model of the reservoir that defines estimations of remaining producible oil. The integrated result is greater than the sum of its parts, since no single data form adequately describes the reservoir. Each discipline relies upon computer software that runs on PC-type computers, allowing virtually any size company to affordably access the technology required to achieve similar results.

  3. Arsenic and Associated Trace Metals in Texas Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L.; Herbert, B. E.

    2002-12-01

    The value of groundwater has increased substantially worldwide due to expanding human consumption. Both the quantity and quality of groundwater are important considerations when constructing policies on natural resource conservation. This study is focused on evaluating groundwater quality in the state of Texas. Historical data from the Texas Water Development Board and the National Uranium Resource Evaluation were collected into a GIS database for spatial and temporal analyses. Specific attentions were placed on arsenic and other trace metals in groundwater. Recent studies in the United States have focused on isolated incidences of high arsenic occurrence, ignoring possible connections between arsenic and other trace metals. Descriptive statistics revealed strong correlations in groundwater between arsenic and other oxyanions including vanadium, selenium and molybdenum. Arsenic and associated trace metals were clustered at three physiographic hotspots, the Southern High Plains, the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas, and West Texas. A geologic survey showed that arsenic and other trace metals in Texas groundwater follow local geologic trends. Uranium deposits and associated mineralization were found to occur in the same physiographic locations. Uranium mineralization may be a significant natural source of arsenic and other trace metals in Texas groundwater. Recharge, evaporative concentration, and aquifer characteristics were also contributing factors to the occurrence of trace metals in Texas groundwater. Spatial statistics were used to delineate natural sources from anthropogenic inputs. Similarly, the natural background was estimated from the spatial distribution of trace metal observations in Texas groundwater.

  4. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  5. 4D Surface Velocity Fields of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica, Inferred From Continuous Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchew, B. M.; Simons, M.; Riel, B. V.; Milillo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanics of West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) beds impose fundamental constraints on ice flow and help set the timescale of potential WAIS collapse. Understanding basal mechanics requires a variety of observational and modeling approaches, among them using synoptic-scale observations of surface velocities as constraints on numerical ice flow models. This approach has been developed and employed over the past few decades using available surface velocity data, which often amount to snapshots of ice flow at sporadic times. The next major step in the evolution of geodetic methods for glacier dynamics is capturing synoptic-scale, time-dependent ice-flow characteristics. Here, using spatially and temporally dense synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations, we extend to the time domain existing methods for inferring velocity fields in three spatial dimensions from SAR and optical data. Our approach yields some of the first-ever truly 4D velocity fields. We briefly outline the underlying methodology before detailing the resulting velocity fields, which consist of a mean velocity vector, a user-defined set of temporal functions, and a DEM correction factor. Rutford Ice Stream (RIS), WAIS, provides an ideal proof-of-concept location because of its strong, well-documented, tidal-timescale ice flow variations. Existing GPS observations of RIS ice flow constrain the dominant periods of sinusoidal ice flow variability, which we use to define a set of sinusoidal functions used in the 4D velocity fields. COSMO-SkyMed, a 4-satellite constellation, collected SAR data for approximately 9 months beginning in late summer 2013 at sampling rates sufficient to distinguish the primary periods of tidally induced ice flow variability. The results, obtained using more than 1000 SAR-derived displacement fields, provide a map-view of tidally induced flow variations and tidal-timescale grounding line migration that indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in the response of the ice stream to

  6. Igneous activity and related ore deposits in the western and southern Tushar Mountains, Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1984-01-01

    16 m.y. old may exist near Indian Creek just west of the Mount Belknap caldera. Geophysical evidence confirms the probability of a buried pluton near Indian Creek, and also indicates that another buried pluton probably exists beneath the 9-m.y.-old mineralized area at Sheep Rock. The mineral potential of the different hydrothermal systems, and the types of minerals deposited probably vary considerably from one period of mineralization to another and from one depth environment to another within a given system. PART B: The Big John caldera, on the western flank of the Tushar Mountains in the Marysvale volcanic field in west-central Utah, formed 23-22 m.y. ago in response to ash-flow eruptions of the Delano Peak Tuff Member of the Bullion Canyon Volcanics. These eruptions were near the end of the period of Oligocene-early Miocene calc-alkalic igneous activity that built a broad volcanic plateau in this part of Utah. About 22 m.y. ago, the composition of rocks erupted changed to a bimodal assemblage of mafic and silicic volcanics that was erupted episodically through the remainder of Cenozoic time. The alkali rhyolites are uranium rich in part, and are associated with all the known uranium deposits in the Marysvale volcanic field. The Big John caldera was a broad drained basin whose floor was covered by a layer of stream gravels when ash flows from the western source area of the Mount Belknap Volcanics filled the caldera with the Joe Lott Tuff Member about 19 m.y. ago. Devitrified and zeolitized rocks in the caldera fill have lost one-quarter to one-half of the uranium contained in the original magma. This mobilized uranium probably moved into the hydrologic regime, and some may have been redeposited in stream gravels underlying the Joe Lott within the caldera, or in gravels filling the original drainage channel that extended south from the caldera.

  7. 75 FR 44976 - Notice of Availability of the West Tavaputs Plateau Natural Gas Full Field Development Plan Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for this project, located in Carbon, Duchesne, and Uintah Counties... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The West Tavaputs Plateau (WTP) Project Area is located in Carbon, Duchesne, and... the project would be located in Carbon County. The WTP Project Area is bounded on the west by...

  8. Geomorphic indicators of deeper seated structure on the southern margin, East Texas basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.

    1985-02-01

    Surface geomorphic features are frequently difficult to relate to potential productive structures, but in the East Texas basin there appears to be a significant correlation between surface features and oil fields. The surface topography overlying the East Texas basin gives little indication of subsurface structure. However, conspicuous to southeastern Houston County on the southern margin of the East Texas basin, and to a large part of the entire basin, is a series of northwest- and northeast-trending stream and topographic alignments. These mappable linear geomorphic features (termed lineaments) may indicate fracturing, faulting, and jointing, and thus may be a clue to subsurface structure. The lineaments of southeastern Houston County were mapped and analyzed on a local scale, and those of Houston, Cherokee, Trinity, and Angelina Counties were mapped and analyzed on a more regional scale. Both the local and regional scale lineament analyses indicated preferential orientations of north 30/sup 0/ west and north 30/sup 0/ east. These lineaments are thought to reflect fracturing and faulting although field reconnaissance could not confirm this. It is suggested that gravity slide of the East Texas basin gulfward from the updip edge of the Lousann Salt provided the tensional forces necessary for major lineament formation. However on a more local scale there is a correlation between lineaments and productive fields. Areas of minimum lineament density on the lineament-density contour maps represent subtle subsurface structural highs and, conversely, areas of maximum lineament density on the lineament density contour maps represent subtle subsurface structural lows. Therefore, petroleum potential is generally limited to areas of minimum lineament density.

  9. Reconstructing the Geomagnetic Field in West Africa: First Absolute Intensity Results from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kapper, Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Tema, Evdokia; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Julio Morales, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We present absolute geomagnetic intensities from iron smelting furnaces discovered at the metallurgical site of Korsimoro, Burkina Faso. Up to now, archaeologists recognized four different types of furnaces based on different construction methods, which were related to four subsequent time periods. Additionally, radiocarbon ages obtained from charcoal confine the studied furnaces to ages ranging from 700–1700 AD, in good agreement with the archaeologically determined time periods for each type of furnace. Archaeointensity results reveal three main groups of Arai diagrams. The first two groups contain specimens with either linear Arai diagrams, or slightly curved diagrams or two phases of magnetization. The third group encompasses specimens with strong zigzag or curvature in their Arai diagrams. Specimens of the first two groups were accepted after applying selection criteria to guarantee the high quality of the results. Our data compared to palaeosecular variation curves show a similar decreasing trend between 900–1500 AD. However, they reveal larger amplitudes at around 800 AD and 1650 AD than the reference curves and geomagnetic field models. Furthermore, they agree well with archaeomagnetic data from Mali and Senegal around 800 AD and with volcanic data around 1700 AD. PMID:28350006

  10. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  11. Yombo field exploration model, peoples Republic of the Congo, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Sorgenfrei, M.C.; Rice, D.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Yombo field in the Congo is sourced from the lacustrine shales of the presalt rift stage and produces from the Albian and Cenomanian, postsalt, Sendji carbonate and Tchala Sandstone. The Yombo prospect exploration model included an upper Sendji stratigraphic trap with two components and a structural nose. The buried hill component of the trap is formed by topographic relief on the reservoir below the top Sendji unconformity. The lower Sendji slump blocks provide a high on which the upper Sendji grainstone shoal facies develop. Both depositional relief and erosion during the top Sendji unconformity contribute to the topography. An isochron thick in the overlying Tchala valley-fill sediments defined a drainage pattern on the unconformity around the buried hill of the underlying upper Sendji. The facies change component is formed by the pinch-out of the grainstone shoal reservoir facies into porous, but impermeable lagoonal dolomite interbedded with anhydrite and shale. Capillary pressure measurements on the 16% porosity, 0.1 md permeability lagoonal dolomite, along with pore throat radius and buoyancy calculations, demonstrated this facies could trap a significant column of low-gravity oil at shallow depth. The Tchala Sandstone contains several separate hydrocarbon accumulations. A stratigraphic trap in the lower Tchala is formed by marine and tidal channel sandstones pinching out into lagoonal shales. The nearshore marine sandstones of the upper Tchala contain additional hydrocarbons in structural and stratigraphic traps. The stratigraphic pinch-out that cross the Yombo nose trap a significant hydrocarbon accumulation, even though the four-way structural closure is relatively small.

  12. Sequence stratigraphic setting of the Priob Field within the Neocomian prograding complex of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, O.M.; Armentrout, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Neocomian strata of the West Siberian Basin are a prograding complex unique in its aerial extent, structure and hydrocarbon reserves, such as Priob Field in the Ob River area. Interpretation of the basin history is based on well data and seismic reflection profile. As many as 45 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences, called cyclites, prograde into the deep-water basin formed during Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Each transgressive-regressive sequence is defined by a coarsening-upward cycle of shale, siltstone and sandstone, and is considered a chronostratigraphic subdivision of the prograding complex. Each sequence boundary is regionally correlatable on seismic reflection profiles, and is identified on well logs by sharp contacts between regressive sandstones below and thin transgressive shales above. Subordinate progradational wedges are locally developed within these sequences and contain major hydrocarbon reserves. These depositional wedges map as lens-shaped packages downlapping the outermost shelf (Priob zone) or as narrow progradational wedges downlapping the foreset reflections of the slope clinoforms immediately beyond the shelf break (Sugmut zone). Regressive facies of the shelf consist of thin but wide spread sandstones that also contain major hydrocarbon reserves. Pervasive sediment starvation during the Late Neocomian resulted in deposition of thin regionally extensive shales that provide top-seal to the Neocomian hydrocarbon system. At the Priob field, a deep erosional incision has been mapped at the AS11 shelf-edge. Sands transported through this incised valley were deposited as a prograding wedge along the shoreline, forming the reservoir facies for the Priob hydrocarbon accumulation. Stratigraphic aspects of the Priob trap include top and lateral shale seals and subtle regional structural tilt. Types of stratigraphic traps are discussed and the possibility of predicting additional such traps are analyzed.

  13. East Meets West on "Double Star", a Joint Mission to Explore Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Cluster instruments has a number of advantages for both European and Chinese scientists. "By flying experiments identical to those on Cluster, we can reduce costs and development time," explained Alberto Gianolio, ESA Project Manager for Double Star. "This will minimise risk and help us to ensure that we are able to meet the spacecraft development schedule." ESA has agreed to contribute 8 million euros to the Double Star programme. This funding will be used for refurbishment and pre-integration of the European instruments, acquisition of data for 4 hours per day and coordination of scientific operations. Notes for Editors: Double Star will be the first mission launched by China to explore the Earth's magnetosphere - the magnetic bubble that surrounds our planet. As its name suggests, Double Star will involve two satellites - each designed, developed, launched and operated by the CNSA - flying in complementary orbits around the Earth. This orbital configuration will enable scientists to obtain simultaneous data on the changing magnetic field and population of electrified particles in different regions of the magnetosphere. The duo is expected to be launched by Chinese Long March 2C rockets in December 2002 and March 2003. This schedule may enable them to operate alongside ESA's Cluster mission - a mini-flotilla of four identical spacecraft launched into elliptical orbits around the Earth last summer. The "equatorial" spacecraft (DSP-1) will be launched into an elliptical orbit of 550 x 60,000 km, inclined at 28.5 degrees to the equator. This will enable it to investigate the Earth's huge magnetic tail, the region where particles are accelerated towards the planet's magnetic poles by a process known as reconnection. The "polar" satellite (DSP-2) will concentrate on physical processes taking place over the magnetic poles and the development of aurorae. It will have a 350 x 25,000 km orbit taking it round the Earth once every 7.3 hours.

  14. Rift processes and crustal structure of the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica, from 3D potential field modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalberg, Thomas; Gohl, Karsten; Eagles, Graeme; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2015-12-01

    The Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica is of particular interest as it provides critical geological boundary conditions in better understanding the dynamic behavior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which is undergoing rapid ice loss in the Amundsen Sea sector. One of the highly debated hypothesis is whether this region has been affected by the West Antarctic Rift System, which is one of the largest in the world and the dominating tectonic feature in West Antarctica. Previous geophysical studies suggested an eastward continuation of this rift system into the Amundsen Sea Embayment. This geophysical study of the Amundsen Sea Embayment presents a compilation of data collected during two RV Polarstern expeditions in the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica in 2006 and 2010. Bathymetry and satellite-derived gravity data of the Amundsen Sea Embayment complete the dataset. Our 3-D gravity and magnetic models of the lithospheric architecture and development of this Pacific margin improve previous interpretations from 2-D models of the region. The crust-mantle boundary beneath the continental rise and shelf is between 14 and 29 km deep. The imaged basement structure can be related to rift basins within the Amundsen Sea Embayment, some of which can be interpreted as products of the Cretaceous rift and break-up phase and some as products of later propagation of the West Antarctic Rift System into the region. An estimate of the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere reveals a thin elastic thickness in the eastern embayment which increases towards the west. The results are comparable to estimates in other rift systems such as the Basin and Range province or the East African Rift. Based on these results, we infer an arm of the West Antarctic Rift System is superposed on a distributed Cretaceous rift province in the Amundsen Sea Embayment. Finally, the embayment was affected by magmatism from discrete sources along the Pacific margin of West Antarctica in the Cenozoic.

  15. Relation of water chemistry of the Edwards aquifer to hydrogeology and land use, San Antonio Region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    In general, the quality of ground water in the freshwater parts of the aquifer (north of the "bad-water" line) is suitable for all uses including human consumption. Two areas that are exceptions are: (1) Northeast of Garner Field in Uvalde, Texas, where PCE (tetrachloroethylene) has been detected in groundwater samples, and (2) north-central Bexar County near the former West Avenue landfill where PCE and benzene have been detected in ground-water samples. Concentrations of these organic compounds in water from many wells in the two areas exceed the maximum contaminant level for human consumption set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  16. Field collection and genetic classification of tick-borne Rickettsiae and Rickettsiae-like pathogens from South Texas: Coxiella burnetii isolated from field-collected Amblyomma cajennense.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David M; Parker, Jill E; Walker, Wes W; Buchholz, Matt W; Blount, Keith; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2008-12-01

    We are reporting the first known isolation of the Q-fever agent Coxiella burnetii from field-collected cayenne ticks Amblyomma cajennense in North America. Q-fever affects a number of domestic ungulates where it can lead to abortion in sheep and goats. There is far less known about the disease's effects on wild species, primarily because of the tendency of the disease to self resolve and to provide long-term immunity to subsequent infections. The first recovery of C. burnetii in North America was from the tick species Dermacentor andersoni. Since the original isolation C. burnetii has been recovered from five other North American tick species. The currently accepted mode for the majority of human infections is inhalation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch asserts the Q-fever agent as requiring as few as one organism to cause disease via inhalation in susceptible humans. However, with more and more isolations from ticks, evidence linking C. burnetii and ticks is mounting. The true role of tick species as competent vectors is still unconfirmed. Preemptive field collections of possible vector arthropods, hosts, and reservoirs can provide invaluable baseline environmental data that will prove supportive in follow-up studies and abatement efforts.

  17. Migrant Programs in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasco, Frank, Ed.

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide information on migrant programs and services in the state of Texas. Data are gathered from 92 of the 254 counties in Texas. There is a profile for each county selected and for all migrant programs identified in each county. Descriptions of Title III-B migrant programs, the High School Equivalency program,…

  18. Earthquake history of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen earthquakes, intensity V or greater, have centered in Texas since 1882, when the first shock was reported. The strongest earthquake, a maximum intensity VIII, was in western Texas in 1931 and was felt over 1 165 000 km 2. Three shocks in the Panhandle region in 1925, 1936, and 1943 were widely felt. 

  19. Fireball Over Texas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video of the fireball seen over Texas this morning (12/7/12); it was taken by a NASA camera located near Mayhill, New Mexico. It is very unusual for us to see a meteor all the way across Texas. The...

  20. An Analysis of Incident/Accident Reports from the Texas Secondary School Science Safety Survey, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Amanda L.; West, Sandra S.; Westerlund, Julie F.; Nelson, Nancy C.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated safety in Texas secondary school science laboratory, classroom, and field settings. The Texas Education Agency (TEA) drew a random representative sample consisting of 199 secondary public schools in Texas. Eighty-one teachers completed Incident/Accident Reports. The reports were optional, anonymous, and open-ended; thus,…

  1. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  2. Subsurface occurrence and potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes identified using concentrations and concentration ratios, Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, conducted a study during 2003-05 to characterize the subsurface occurrence and identify potential source areas of the volatile organic compounds classified as chlorinated ethenes at U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Texas. The solubilized chlorinated ethenes detected in the alluvial aquifer originated as either released solvents (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], and trans-1,2-dichloroethene [trans-DCE]) or degradation products of the released solvents (TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and trans-DCE). The combined influences of topographic- and bedrock-surface configurations result in a water table that generally slopes away from a ground-water divide approximately coincident with bedrock highs and the 1-mile-long aircraft assembly building at AFP4. Highest TCE concentrations (10,000 to 920,000 micrograms per liter) occur near Building 181, west of Building 12, and at landfill 3. Highest PCE concentrations (500 to 920 micrograms per liter) occur near Buildings 4 and 5. Highest cis-DCE concentrations (5,000 to 710,000 micrograms per liter) occur at landfill 3. Highest trans-DCE concentrations (1,000 to 1,700 micrograms per liter) occur just south of Building 181 and at landfill 3. Ratios of parent-compound to daughter-product concentrations that increase in relatively short distances (tens to 100s of feet) along downgradient ground-water flow paths can indicate a contributing source in the vicinity of the increase. Largest increases in ratio of PCE to TCE concentrations are three orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 2.7 and 7.1 between nearby wells in the northeastern part of NAS-JRB. In the northern part of NAS-JRB, the largest increases in TCE to total DCE concentration ratios relative to ratios at upgradient wells are from 17 to

  3. Water quality of groundwater and stream base flow in the Marcellus Shale Gas Field of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; Messinger, Terence; Mulder, Michon L.; Pelak, Adam J.; White, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a baseline of water-quality conditions in the Monongahela River Basin in West Virginia during the early phases of development of the Marcellus Shale gas field. Although not all inclusive, the results of this study provide a set of reliable water-quality data against which future data sets can be compared and the effects of shale-gas development may be determined.

  4. Modeling of time-lapse seismic reflection data from CO2 sequestration at West Pearl Queen Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, L. C.; Haney, M. M.; Aldridge, D. F.; Symons, N. P.; Elbring, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs, saline aquifers, or unminable coal sequences may prove to be an economical and environmentally safe means for long-term removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Requirements for storage of CO2 in subsurface geologic repositories (e.g., less than 0.1% per year leakage) pose significant challenges for geophysical remote sensing techniques. The many issues relevant to successful CO2 sequestration (volume in place, migration, leakage rate) require improved understanding of the advantages and pitfalls of potential monitoring methods. Advanced numerical modeling of time-lapse seismic reflection responses offers a controlled environment for testing hypotheses and exploring alternatives. The U.S. Department of Energy has conducted CO2 sequestration and monitoring tests at West Pearl Queen (WPQ) field in southeastern New Mexico. High-quality 9C/3D seismic reflection data were acquired before and after injection of ~2 kt of CO2 into a depleted sandstone unit at ~4200 ft depth. Images developed from time- lapse seismic data appear to reveal strong reflectivity changes attributed to displacement of brine by CO2. We are pursuing seismic numerical modeling studies with the goal of understanding and assessing the reliability and robustness of the time-lapse reflection responses. A 3D time-domain finite-difference isotropic elastic wave propagation algorithm generates realistic synthetic data. With this capability, we examine how various types of errors and noise in the 4D data degrade the ability to image a deep CO2 plume. Source/receiver sampling, subsurface illumination, correlated geologic heterogeneity, and static shifts are considered. As a result, we are able to make quantitative estimates of the tolerable errors for monitoring CO2 injection at WPQ field. Future plans include incorporating 3D poroelastic wave propagation modeling into the analysis. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram science and engineering facility

  5. An Interdisciplinary Project and the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    This project began with a list of the kinds of topics that would be of most interest in a study of the old west. Some of the topics that were mentioned for the project included Lewis and Clark, Native American tribes and nations, early pioneers, the fur trade, Texas independence, the Pony Express, homesteaders, gunfighters, the Indian wars, and…

  6. Rising Above the Storm: DIG TEXAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.; Miller, K. C.; Bednarz, S. W.; Mosher, S.

    2011-12-01

    initial assistance of the American Geophysical Union, the alliance comprises earth scientists and educators at higher education institutions across the state, and science teachers, united to improve earth science literacy (geoscience-earth, ocean, atmospheric, planetary, and geography) among Texas science teachers in order to attract individuals from groups underrepresented in STEM fields to pursue earth science as a career. Members of the alliance are affiliated with one of eight regional DIG TEXAS hub institutions. With an NSF planning grant, DIG TEXAS leaders created the DIG TEXAS brand, developed a project website, organized and held the first community meeting in March, 2011 at Exxon Mobil's Training Center in Houston. DIG TEXAS members have also delivered testimony to the State Board for Educator Certification in support of a new earth science teacher certification and collaborated on proposals that seek funding to support recommendations formulated at the community meeting.

  7. A feasibility study for an emergency medical services system to serve the Permian basin in the state of Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of an Emergency Medical Services System grant application for the Permian Basin Region of West Texas is described along with the application of NASA-developed technology. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  8. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  9. More CBE in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Ellis

    1977-01-01

    New accreditation regulations in Texas require competency-based education programs for all districts. All districts must be accredited to receive state aid, which makes up 85 cents of every dollar spent locally. (Author/IRT)

  10. Horizontal and vertical deformation field in New Caledonia, South West Pacific, derived from more than 20 years of GNSS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Calmant, S.; Valty, P.; Gravelle, M.; Sakic, P.; Aucan, J.; Pelletier, B.

    2015-12-01

    New Caledonia is located in the South West Pacific Ocean, on the Australian Plate just before its subduction under the North Fiji Basin. Because it is on the subducting side of the plate interface, New Caledonia is considered to be stable to first order and not to undergo rapid deformation. However, moderate seismicity is recorded close to the plate interface, in the southern part of the main land and along the Loyalty ridge. In addition, the main island and Loyalty ridge are subjected to long-term vertical deformation due to the flexure of the plate entering subduction. A geodetic network was installed since the early days of GPS (~1990) and has been further developed and occasionally measured since. Due to the low number of global GNSS recording stations in the early 1990s, the positioning accuracy that can be achieved with these data is poor compared to present-day standards, and expected movements are slow (possibly less than 1 mm/yr). However, the >20 year length of the time series may allow us to determine the current deformation field in New Caledonia and Loyalty Ridge. We pay special care in using older GNSS data for characterizing ground motions, reprocessing all available data using a range of different processing strategies and products. We calculated daily positions from double-differenced ionosphere-free carrier phase data in a global network using the GAMIT software and combined and aligned the results on the ITRF2008 using the CATREF software, according to the processing strategy developed as part of the current ULR6 (www.sonel.org) reprocessing campaign for IGS. We compare the double difference results with those obtained in PPP mode using JPL GIPSY software as well as CNES GINS software and different products (MIT, JPL and GRG orbits and clocks provided in the framework of the IGS2 reprocessing campaign). We present both the results for New Caledonia and an analysis of the applicability of these different processing strategies to older GNSS

  11. Process interpretation of laminated lacustrine sediments from the valley of the river Alf, Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Pirrung, Michael; Zolitschka, Bernd; Büchel, Georg

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution annually laminated sediment archives from lakes Holzmaar and Meerfelder Maar located in the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field are in the focus of many investigations (e.g. Brauer et al. 2001, Zolitschka 1991). These publications are related to predominantly biogenic varves covering the last ca. 14 ka years, i.e. the Lateglacial and the Holocene. In our study, laminated sediments consisting of clay-silt couplets are presented from paleolake Alf. This paleolake formed in a valley dammed by volcanic products, and covers the Pleniglacial between 31 and 24 ka BP (Pirrung et al. 2007). The focus of our study is the characterization of the structure of clay-silt couplets and the determination of their origin. The applied granulometry revealed mean grain sizes of 10 μm for the light laminae (colors refer to core scan photo) and 14 μm for the dark laminae (both middle silt). X-ray diffraction confirms identical mineral phases for light and dark laminae, with light laminae being clay-enriched containing a higher amount of sericite and chlorite while dark laminae are enriched in quartz. X-ray fluorescence and detrital microfacies analysis on thin sections indicate that calcite dominates in the dark laminae. Microscopically, three different types of silt layers are present. Type I are laminae with homogeneous sublayers, Type II are graded laminae and Type III are laminae with graded sublayers. Processes causing the formation of these silt lamination types can be attributed to repeatedly occurring snow melting, permafrost thawing or rain events linked with sediment delivery from the catchment into the lake. The amount of precipitation and melt water, sediment discharge and density stratification lead to gravity suspension fall out, partial erosion of previously deposited unconsolidated sediments and resuspension in the lake. Brauer, A., et al. (2001). Lateglacial varve chronology and biostratigraphy of lakes Holzmaar and Meerfelder Maar, Germany. Boreas 30

  12. Green house emissions, inventories and evaluation of marine environment visa vis offshore oil field development activities Bombay high (west coast) upstream petroleum sector, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, J.S.; Ahmed, S.; Negi, C.V.S.; Nainwal, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Wide use of petroleum products contributes significant amount of emission to the global environment and hence maintaining emission inventories are of great importance while assessing the global green house emissions. The present paper describes a brief account of green house emission and inventories for CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, HC particulate and SO{sub 2} emissions generated due to upstream petroleum sector activities viz. discharges of gaseous emission, combustion of Natural Gas anti HSD from production and drilling facilities of Bombay offshore area located in Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) west coast of India. Besides, authors have also given an account on west coast marine base line status including impact of oil field activities on marine ecosystem.

  13. Texas' lightly drilled Dalhart basin getting more oil exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-06-24

    The Dalhart basin of the northwestern Texas Panhandle, the state's least drilled prospective area, is showing signs of another round of exploratory drilling. Horizon Oil and Gas Co., Dallas, opened ERT (Granite Wash) field in Potter County at 102 Bivins Ranch 9 miles north of Amarillo in early June. The discovery well pumped 105 b/d of 37.7{degrees} gravity oil and 48 b/d of water with gas too small to measure from perforations at 5,820-5,913 ft. Total depth is 7,516 ft in granite. In Hartley County, McKinney Operating Co., Amarillo, is pumped testing a second well in a field it discovered in 1990 that opened the first commercial Permian oil production in the Dalhart basin. The discovery well, McKinney's 1 Proctor, in section 63, block 22, CSL Survey, 19 miles west of Channing, pumped 12 b/d of oil and 15 b/d of water from Wolfcamp perforations at 4,038-50 ft. The well, which opened Proctor Ranch field, is producing about 35 b/d of oil.

  14. TEXAS REPORT ON EDUCATION FOR BILINGUAL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLANCO, GEORGE

    IN AN EFFORT TO DOCUMENT TEXAS' PROGRESS IN THE FIELD OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION, THIS REPORT DISCUSSES LOCAL AND STATE PROGRAMS ESTABLISHED PRIMARILY FOR NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING STUDENTS. NINE LOCAL PROGRAMS (MAINLY ELEMENTARY) ARE DESCRIBED WHICH RANGE IN METHODOLOGY FROM ALL-ENGLISH TO ALL-SPANISH INSTRUCTION. CONTRIBUTIONS AT THE STATE LEVEL INCLUDE…

  15. Texas Migrant Labor. Annual Report 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Texas farm labor pool is made up almost entirely of Mexican Americans; many of these are naturalized but the majority are native-born American citizens whose families and ethnic ties remain in and around the border. All of these field workers have, at some time, migrated to a job or in search of a job either interstate or within the boundaries…

  16. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  17. Spatial Relationships of Soil Texture and Crop Rotation to Aspergillus flavus Community Structure in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Garcia, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus flavus, the causal agent of aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed, is a natural inhabitant of soils. A. flavus can be divided into the S and L strains, of which the S-strain isolates, on average, produce greater quantities of aflatoxins than the L-strain isolates. Aflatoxin contamination can be severe in several crops in South Texas. The structure of A. flavus communities residing in soils of South Texas was determined from 326 soil samples collected from 152 fields located from the Rio Grande Valley in the south to Fort Bend County in the north from 2001 through 2003. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences in the incidence of A. flavus isolates belonging to the S strain (percent S) among regions. The Coastal Bend (30.7%) and Upper Coast (25.5%) regions had significantly higher percent S incidence than the Rio Grande Valley (4.8%). No significant differences in percent S among years were detected. The CFU per gram of soil were not significantly different among regions. Strain S incidence was positively correlated with clay content and negatively correlated with sand content. Fields cropped to cotton the previous year had a higher S-strain incidence, whereas fields cropped to corn had greater total quantities of A. flavus propagules. Maps of S-strain patterns show that the S strain constitutes >30% of the overall A. flavus community in the area extending from the central Coastal Bend region to the central Upper Coast region. The west Rio Grande Valley had the lowest S-strain incidence (<10%). Geographic variation in S-strain incidence may influence the distribution of aflatoxin contamination in South Texas.

  18. Comparing the performance of coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere models at two contrasting field sites in South-West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayler, S.; Wöhling, T.; Priesack, E.; Wizemann, H.-D.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2012-04-01

    of their structural complexity on two winter wheat research fields under different climate in South-West Germany. We investigate the ability of the models to simultaneously fit measured soil water contents, leaf area development and actual evapotranspiration rates from eddy-covariance measurements. The calibration of the models is performed in a multi-criteria context using three objective functions, which describe the discrepancy between measurements and simulations of the three data types. We use the AMALGAM evolutionary search algorithm to simultaneously estimate the most important plant and soil hydraulic parameters. The results show that the trade-off in fitting soil moisture, leaf area development and evapotranspiration can be quite large for those models that represent plant processes by simple concepts. However, these trade-offs are smaller for the more mechanistic plant growth models, so that it can be expected that these optimized mechanistic models will provide the basis for improved simulations of land-surface-atmosphere feedback processes.

  19. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    The water table is the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared showing water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels, and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 16 well fields which supplied 128 million gallons to municipalities on May 15, 1979. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. Water levels were significantly higher in May 1979 than in May 1978. Heavy rains on May 7 and 8th deluged the well-field areas with 2 to 18 inches of rain. The maximum increase in water levels from May 1978 to May 1979 was more than 8 feet at the Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  20. Texas State Technical College Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aumack, Bruce; Blake, Larry J.

    Texas educational legislation for 1991 required the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) to review the operations of, and the continuing need for, each of the four main campuses and five extension centers of the Texas State Technical College System (TSTCS), and to make recommendations concerning the facilities' continuation and/or…

  1. Evidence of Autochthonous Chagas Disease in Southeastern Texas

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Melissa N.; Aguilar, David; Gorchakov, Rodion; Rossmann, Susan N.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Rivera, Hilda; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Hotez, Peter J.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2015-01-01

    Autochthonous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the United States is rarely reported. Here, we describe five newly identified patients with autochthonously acquired infections from a small pilot study of positive blood donors in southeast Texas. Case-patients 1–4 were possibly infected near their residences, which were all in the same region ∼100 miles west of Houston. Case-patient 5 was a young male with considerable exposure from routine outdoor and camping activities associated with a youth civic organization. Only one of the five autochthonous case-patients received anti-parasitic treatment. Our findings suggest an unrecognized risk of human vector-borne transmission in southeast Texas. Education of physicians and public health officials is crucial for identifying the true disease burden and source of infection in Texas. PMID:25371187

  2. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  3. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, May 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.; Mills, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer (sand) and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer (limestone) in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared each May and September to coincide with seasonal low and high ground-water levels. The mapped area contains nine producing well fields which supplied 92.8 million gallons on May 12, 1976 to municipalities along the Gulf Coast. This pumpage came from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in the State of Florida. The effect of well-field withdrawals is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. The May 1976 maps indicate that water levels have declined below sea level in some areas. The decline results from reduced recharge during the dry spring combined with an increase in pumpage for lawn irrigation.

  4. Strategies for reservoir characterization and identification of incremental recovery opportunities in mature reservoirs in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic sandstones, south Texas: An example from Rincon Field, Starr County. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.; Holtz, M.; Hentz, T.

    1995-11-01

    Fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the United States are being abandoned at high rates, yet they still contain more than 34 billion barrels of unrecovered oil. The mature Oligocene-age fluvial-deltaic reservoirs of the Frio Formation along the Vicksburg Fault Zone in South Texas are typical of this class in that, after more than three decades of production, they still contain 61 percent of the original mobile oil in place, or 1.6 billion barrels. This resource represents a tremendous target for advanced reservoir characterization studies that integrate geological and engineering analysis to locate untapped and incompletely drained reservoir compartments isolated by stratigraphic heterogeneities. The D and E reservoir intervals of Rincon field, Starr County, South Texas, were selected for detailed study to demonstrate the ability of advanced characterization techniques to identify reservoir compartmentalization and locate specific infield reserve-growth opportunities. Reservoir architecture, determined through high-frequency genetic stratigraphy and facies analysis, was integrated with production history and facies-based petrophysical analysis of individual flow units to identify recompletion and geologically targeted infill drilling opportunities. Estimates of original oil in place versus cumulative production in D and E reservoirs suggest that potential reserve growth exceeds 4.5 million barrels. Comparison of reservoir architecture and the distribution of completions in each flow unit indicates a large number of reserve-growth opportunities. Potential reserves can be assigned to each opportunity by constructing an Sooh map of remaining mobile oil, which is the difference between original oil in place and the volumes drained by past completions.

  5. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  6. Texas Hunter Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Steve

    This handbook serves as a reference for the mandatory hunter education course in Texas. The "Introduction" explains hunter education's goal to produce safe, knowledgeable, responsible, and informed hunters. It also gives information related to hunting opportunities, administration, and management. Chapter 2, "Our Hunting…

  7. The Woodlands, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Larry J.; Bernhardt, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the "central project" concept for implementing technology education while addressing education reform. The central project is a topic around which students, teachers, administrators, and the community focus their energies as a team. At McCullough High School (Texas), the central project involved design and…

  8. Texas Migrant Council, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Oscar L.

    Operating various programs, the Texas Migrant Council, a multi-service agency, administers assistance to migrants during their stay in their home base state, as well as on their migrant trek. Its Head Start program serves mobile migrant children from the ages of 0 to 5 and gives continuity of services by following them to the northern states…

  9. Library Laws of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenberg, Ed, Ed.

    Compiled to provide a central reference point for all legislative information pertaining to libraries in the state of Texas, this publication includes all pertinent legislation as amended through the 66th Legislature, Regular Session, 1979. It contains articles dealing specifically with archives, buildings and property, city libraries, non-profit…

  10. Library Laws of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Richard E., Comp.

    Compiled to provide a central reference point for all legislative information pertaining to libraries in the State of Texas, this publication includes all pertinent legislation as amended through the 71st Legislature, 1989, Regular Session. This update of the 1980 edition has been expanded to include statutes pertaining to the school and academic…

  11. Texas-Oklahoma

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... major geographic features. The south bank of the Red River marks the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. Traversing brush-covered ... flow eastward, their waters eventually discharging into the Mississippi River. A smoke plume to the north of the Ouachita Mountains and ...

  12. East Texas Quilts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Karen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Patchwork quilting is an original folk art in the United States. Pilgrims first used worn out scraps of cloth to make bed covers in an age of scarcity. Featured here are stories on East Texas Quilts, their origins, the love and hard work which goes into the making of a quilt (Ira Barr and others). The techniques needed to construct a quilt are…

  13. Texas Irrigation Situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The irrigation situation in Texas is an interaction between hydrology and water policies. In 2012, according to National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) four High Plains counties, Gainesville, Yoakum, Terry and Cochran, accounted for approximately 60% of the 150,000 acres of peanut productio...

  14. Texas and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Texas and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

  15. Tornado from Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Santa Fe School Superintendent Yvonne Gonzales, the "Texas Tornado," was hired to fix a 40% student-dropout rate and a white/Hispanic gap in achievement test scores. Gonzales is an avid integrationist; relies on humor, appeasement, and persuasion tactics; and has alienated some school employees by increasing central office…

  16. State Agency Applications of EOS Data in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G. L.

    2001-05-01

    monitored using 5-day, cloud-free NDVI composites of AVHRR data collected by the receiving station operated by the University of Texas Center for Space Research. A late-summer outbreak of red tide in the Gulf of Mexico was observed on a daily basis using SeaWiFS data collected by the same receiving station. The distribution of invasive salt cedar was determined along river and stream courses in West Texas using Landsat 7 ETM+ data, as was the extent of irrigated cropland in several areas of the southern High Plains. One of the most important services provided by the Texas Synergy project is remote sensing and GIS support for the Governor's Division of Emergency Management in response to natural and man-made disasters. A prime example of this function occurred during the May 2000 outbreak of wildfires in the West, when a 47,000-acre blaze erupted in the Glass Mountains of the Trans-Pecos region. Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery was used to determine surface water availability and to construct 3D terrain views of areas for potential firebreak construction. A Landsat image collected immediately after the fire permitted accurate assessment of the acreage and fuels consumed. Future work by the Texas Synergy team will focus on ArcIMS map service development to deliver operational data applications to meet specific state agency needs. A major goal is the implementation of a data delivery system sufficiently robust to ensure rapid access to large geospatial datasets over the Internet.

  17. Archaeological Survey of the Lewisville Lake Shoreline, Denton County, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    within an abandoned park that has a boat ramp, sandy ridges paralleling the Elm Fork proximal to the outhouse, concrete grills, and picnic tables...County in 1851 and settled at New Al---. This town boats sporadically serviced early settlements on the was located a short distance down Hickory...Missouri, Kansas, and Texas railroad tracks. It Is Lewisville Lake Park. A boat ramp occurs 2 m west of situated at the head of a steep draw at a point

  18. Catalogue of Texas spiders

    PubMed Central

    Dean, David Allen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This catalogue lists 1,084 species of spiders (three identified to genus only) in 311 genera from 53 families currently recorded from Texas and is based on the “Bibliography of Texas Spiders” published by Bea Vogel in 1970. The online list of species can be found at http://pecanspiders.tamu.edu/spidersoftexas.htm. Many taxonomic revisions have since been published, particularly in the families Araneidae, Gnaphosidae and Leptonetidae. Many genera in other families have been revised. The Anyphaenidae, Ctenidae, Hahniidae, Nesticidae, Sicariidae and Tetragnathidae were also revised. Several families have been added and others split up. Several genera of Corinnidae were transferred to Phrurolithidae and Trachelidae. Two genera from Miturgidae were transferred to Eutichuridae. Zoridae was synonymized under Miturgidae. A single species formerly in Amaurobiidae is now in the Family Amphinectidae. Some trapdoor spiders in the family Ctenizidae have been transferred to Euctenizidae. Gertsch and Mulaik started a list of Texas spiders in 1940. In a letter from Willis J. Gertsch dated October 20, 1982, he stated “Years ago a first listing of the Texas fauna was published by me based largely on Stanley Mulaik material, but it had to be abandoned because of other tasks.” This paper is a compendium of the spiders of Texas with distribution, habitat, collecting method and other data available from revisions and collections. This includes many records and unpublished data (including data from three unpublished studies). One of these studies included 16,000 adult spiders belonging to 177 species in 29 families. All specimens in that study were measured and results are in the appendix. Hidalgo County has 340 species recorded with Brazos County at 323 and Travis County at 314 species. These reflect the amount of collecting in the area. PMID:27103878

  19. Study of fractures in Precambrian crystalline rocks using field technique in and around Balarampur, Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Monalisa; Acharya, Tapas

    2015-12-01

    Location of recharge zone in Precambrian crystalline rock is still unclear. The present study attempts to perform a detailed analysis of the joints/fractures developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in and around Balarampur in Purulia district of West Bengal, India using bedrock data. The analysis shows that the orientations of major fracture trends are variable along with varying lithological units and structural affinities. The application of lithology-based analysis technique identifies highly predominant fracture frequency and fracture aperture in mica schist and phyllite in the area. This property is not evident in the granite gneiss and epidiorite. The moderate to high fracture permeability value is also associated with the fractures occurring in the shear zone. Mica schist and phyllite associated with the shear zone may represent a permeable recharge zone in the region.

  20. A STUDY OF ADULT EDUCATION WITH SPECIFIC EMPHASIS ON VOCATIONAL HOMEMAKING PROGRAMS FOR ADULTS IN TEXAS PUBLIC SCHOOLS (M.ED. THESIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLISON, LA RUE D.

    FROM A REVIEW OF ADULT EDUCATION LITERATURE, AN ANALYSIS OF THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF VOCATIONAL HOMEMAKING COURSES FOR ADULTS IN TEXAS PUBLIC SCHOOLS DURING 1949-1959, AND INTERVIEWS WITH SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AND HOMEMAKING TEACHERS IN 75 SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN WEST CENTRAL TEXAS, TRENDS AND METHODOLOGY IN ADULT EDUCATION, PARTICULARLY HOMEMAKING…

  1. Los Elefantes Rosas en las Cupulas en la Legislatura: An Empirical Analysis of the Texas Education Finance Mechanism with Special Emphasis on Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolle, Anthony; Torres, Mario; Eason, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    The State of Texas' education finance mechanism--known as the Foundation School Program (FSP)--was challenged in a series of litigation known as "Edgewood v. Kirby I-IV" and "West Orange Cove I-II". Though the state Supreme Court's holding ultimately moved the Texas Assembly to make changes in the funding mechanism, not since…

  2. Larval habitat segregation between the molecular forms of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae in a rice field area of Burkina Faso, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Pombi, Marco; Choisy, Marc; Morand, Serge; Dabiré, Roch K.; Simard, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    In West Africa, lineage splitting between the M and S molecular forms of the major Afro-tropical malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae is thought to be driven by ecological divergence, occurring mainly at the larval stage. Here, we present evidences for habitat segregation between the two molecular forms in and around irrigated rice-fields located within the humid savannahs background of western Burkina Faso. Longitudinal sampling of adult mosquitoes emerging from a range of breeding sites distributed along a transect extending from the heart of the rice-fields area into the surrounding savannahs was conducted from June to November 2009. Analysis revealed that the two molecular forms and their sibling species An. arabiensis are not randomly distributed in the area. A major ecological gradient was extracted, in relation to the rice-fields perimeter. The M form was associated with larger breeding sites, which were mainly represented by rice field paddies whereas the S form and An. arabiensis were found to depend upon temporary, rain-filled breeding sites. These results support hypotheses about larval habitat segregation and confirm that both forms have different larval habitat requirement. Segregation appears clearly linked to anthropogenic permanent habitats and the community structure they support. PMID:21501199

  3. 29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No date. (The field welding was by the Teleweld Corporation of Chicago, with four Lincoln welders from Tuesday, April 19 to Monday, May 16, 1949. 528 man hours of welders' time) - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  4. Field Efficacy of Vectobac GR as a Mosquito Larvicide for the Control of Anopheline and Culicine Mosquitoes in Natural Habitats in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Djènontin, Armel; Pennetier, Cédric; Zogo, Barnabas; Soukou, Koffi Bhonna; Ole-Sangba, Marina; Akogbéto, Martin; Chandre, Fabrice; Yadav, Rajpal; Corbel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of Vectobac GR (potency 200 ITU/mg), a new formulation of bacterial larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Strain AM65-52, was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in simulated field and natural habitats in Benin. Methods In simulated field conditions, Vectobac GR formulation was tested at 3 dosages (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g granules/m2 against An. gambiae and 1, 1.5, 2 g granules/m2 against Cx. quinquefasciatus) according to manufacturer’s product label recommendations. The dosage giving optimum efficacy under simulated field conditions were evaluated in the field. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in terms of emergence inhibition in simulated field conditions and of reduction of larval and pupal densities in rice fields and urban cesspits was measured following WHO guidelines for testing and evaluation of mosquito larvicides. Results Vectobac GR caused emergence inhibition of ≥80% until 21 [20]–[22] days for An. gambiae at 1.2 g/m2 dose and 28 [27–29] days for Cx. quinquefasciatus at 2 g/m2 in simulated field habitats. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in natural habitats was for 2 to 3 days against larvae and up to 10 days against pupae. Conclusions Treatment with Vectobac GR caused complete control of immature mosquito within 2–3 days but did not show prolonged residual action. Larviciding can be an option for malaria and filariasis vector control particularly in managing pyrethroid-resistance in African malaria vectors. Since use of larvicides among several African countries is being emphasized through Economic Community of West Africa States, their epidemiological impact should be carefully investigated. PMID:24505334

  5. 3D velocity field time series using synthetic aperture radar: application to tidal-timescale ice-flow variability in Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Pietro; Minchew, Brent; Agram, Piyush; Riel, Bryan; Simons, Mark

    2016-10-01

    We present a general method for retrieving time-series of three component surface velocity field vector given a set of continuous synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquisitions collected from multiple geometries. Our algorithm extends the single-line-of-sight mathematical framework developed for time-series analysis using interferometric SAR (InSAR) to three spatial dimensions. The inversion is driven by a design matrix corresponding to a dictionary of displacement functions parameterized in time. The resulting model minimizes a cost function using a non-regularized least-squares method. We applied our method to Rutford ice stream (RIS), West Antarctica, using a set of 101 multi-track multi-angle COSMO-SkyMed displacement maps generating azimuth and range pixel offsets.

  6. Archive of digital boomer seismic reflection data collected during USGS field activity 04SGI01 in the Withlacoochee River of West-Central Florida, March 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Yobbi, Dann K.; McBride, W. Scott; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2006-01-01

    In March of 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a geophysical survey in the Withlacoochee River of west-central Florida. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, observer's logbook, and FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of all acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  7. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.; Mills, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in a 1200 square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U. S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared on the basis of water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels, and in September, when levels are high. The mapped area contains nine producing well fields which supplied 67.2 million gallons on September 8, 1976, to municipalities along the Gulf Coast. The water is from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. The September 1976 maps show the seasonal rise in water levels from the low levels of the previous May.

  8. Monitoring PAH contamination in the field (South west Iberian Peninsula): biomonitoring using fluorescence spectrophotometry and physiological assessments in the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Bamber, Shaw D

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants of the marine environment, arising predominantly from petrochemical contamination and pyrogenic sources. A biomarker of PAH exposure was employed in a field study (South West, Spain) in both captured (indigenous) and deployed (caged) shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) in the chronic PAH-exposed Bays of Algeciras and Gibraltar (from associated harbour and boating activity) compared to a relatively 'clean' site (Cadiz). Metabolite fluorescence was attributed to the following key priority PAH groups; naphthalenes (NAPs), pyrenes (PYRs) and benzo[a]pyrenes (BAPs). Temporal variability was assessed using deployed populations over an eight week period. Petrogenic and pyrogenic PAH contamination (as an indicator of the PAH type) was demonstrated using a ratio between FF(BAP + PYR)/FF(NAP). Physiological assessments from deployed crabs demonstrated both physiological and cellular alterations as shown by reduced heart rates (at rest) and increased cellular stress in crabs from the PAH contaminated sites.

  9. Impact of rest breaks on musculoskeletal discomfort of Chikan embroiderers of West Bengal, India: a follow up field study

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Sabarni; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Dev, Samrat; Das, Tamal; Mitra, Kalpita; Sahu, Subhashis; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine risk factors that predict musculoskeletal discomfort in Chikan embroiderers of West Bengal, India, and to compare the effect of two rest break schedules to reduce these symptoms. Methods: The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was performed on 400 Chikan embroiderers at baseline containing questions on job autonomy, working behavior, and work stress factors. Relative risk was calculated to identify prognostic factors for musculoskeletal discomfort in different body regions. Two groups of workers received two rest break schedules for 4 months and compared in a between-subject design. Outcome variables were scores of Body Part Discomfort (BPD) scale. Results: Chikan embroiderers are afflicted with musculoskeletal discomfort mainly in the lower back, neck/shoulder and wrist/forearm region, which is attributed to their prolonged working timeinvolving hands and wrists, being in a static seating posture. Rigidity in working methods, prolonged working time, inadequate rest break during the working day, dissatisfaction regarding earning, monotonous work, static sitting posture, and repetitive movement of wrist and forearm were the significant predictors of these symptom developments. Rest break schedule 1 with more frequent and shorter breaks had more significant improvement on the severity of these musculoskeletal discomforts. Conclusions: Chikan embroiderers perform a highly dreary occupation and various ergonomics conditions work as predictors for developing musculoskeletal discomforts among them. Design of proper rest break schedule involving shorter and frequent breaks was competent for reducing these discomforts to a certain extent. PMID:27265529

  10. Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas. Fiscal Year 1990: The Northeastern Perimeter Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Fort Hood. Texas. Fields, Ross C. (editor) 1988 Cultural Resources Investigat•ons Along Whiteoak Bayou, Harris County, Texas. Reports of...H. Blame Ensor, and Harold Drollinger 1989 Llthic Analysis. In Alaosn Road. Adattion to the Inland Coastal Pratrie Zone, Harris Count, Southeast... Harris County, Texas, by H.B. Ensor, J.E. Dockall, and F. Winchell. Archaeological Research Laboratory, Reports of Investigations No. 12. Ensor. H

  11. Exploring for subtle traps with high-resolution paleogeographic maps: Reklaw 1 interval (Eocene), south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bulling, T.P.; Breyer, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution paleogeographic maps depicting the depositional history of the Reklaw 1 interval provide a basis for prospecting for subtle traps in the updip Reklaw trend in south Texas. The Reklaw 1 interval began with sand being carried southwestward by longshore currents to form the barrier bar that became Atkinson field. The hydrocarbons were trapped by the updip pinch-out of barrier-bar sand into lagoonal mud. Stratigraphic traps similar to Atkinson field could be present along depositional strike if the sand in the field were part of an extensive barrier-bar system. After the barrier bar formed, distributary mouth bars prograded seaward, depositing the bar-finger sands that became the Hysaw and Flax fields. Subtle structural traps could be present today where small up-to-the-coast faults associated with the sample fault system cut the bar-finger sands downdip from established production. Farther down paleoslope, the distributary channels began to bifurcate and the distributary mouth bars coalesced to form a broad delta-front sheet sand. Burnell, Hondo Creek, and Runge West fields produce from this sheet sand at the unstable shelf margin. A rapid rise in relative sea level terminated the Reklaw 1 interval. Many of the oil and gas fields still to be discovered in the US are in mature petroleum provinces where much of the remaining oil and gas probably resides in subtle traps. High-resolution paleogeographic maps are the key to finding these subtle traps. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Multiple Brunhes Chron excursions recorded in the West Eifel (Germany) volcanics: Support for long-held mantle control over the non-axial dipole field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brad S.; Hoffman, Kenneth A.; Schnepp, Elisabeth; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-08-01

    Volcanic records of excursional geomagnetic field behavior, in particular paleointensity estimates, are fragmentary for the Pleistocene. The West Eifel volcanic field is unique in that 12 of 66 measured lava flow sites record Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) clustered between 34-45°N latitude and 30-50°E longitude over the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Paleointensity determinations reveal that 13 of 37 lavas erupted during times when the ambient field was weak. Specifically, results on nine transitionally magnetized and four normally magnetized lavas indicate paleofield intensities less than 30 μT associated with virtual dipole moments (VDMs) <4 × 10 22 Am 2 [Schnepp, E., Hradetzky, H., 1994. Combined paleointensity and 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectrum data from volcanic rocks of the West Eifel field (Germany): evidence for an early Brunhes geomagnetic excursion. J. Geophys. Res 99, 9061-9076]. Until now, the age of these lava flows has been known only from imprecise 40Ar/ 39Ar dating that implied acquisition of magnetic remanence between about 570 and 450 ka. Thus, they have been interpreted to record a single, but poorly defined, excursion in the lower Brunhes Chron. To incorporate these paleofield data into the global high-resolution Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS), we have determined precise ages of groundmass from 12 excursional and 7 normally magnetized lava flows using the 40Ar/ 39Ar incremental heating method. Unspiked K-Ar age determinations from two excursional samples are indistinguishable from their 40Ar/ 39Ar results. Ages of the excursional lava flows fall into five groups at 722 ± 38, 626 ± 24, 578 ± 8, 555 ± 4, and 528 ± 16 ka (±2 σ analytical uncertainties, relative to 1.194 Ma Alder Creek sanidine). The group of three excursional flows with an age of 578 ± 8 ka correspond temporally with lava flow sequences on Tahiti and La Palma that record the Big Lost excursion at 579 ± 6 ka. Eight other excursional lavas erupted from 722 to 528

  13. Some data on the characteristics of the geomagnetic field at the Gauss-Matuyama magnetic chron boundary from the Pirnuar section, West Turkmenistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarii, G. Z.

    2015-09-01

    Extremely scarce data have been published on the structure of the geomagnetic field during the Gauss and early Matuyama chrons until recently. Only a few papers contain information about the characteristics of the field during the Gauss-Matuyama reversal, derived by studying the terrestrial sediments. This motivated us to revisit the paleomagnetism of the sedimentary rocks of Akchagyl age in the section of the Pirnuar Valley in West Kopet Dag, for the first time studied by us in the late 1960s-early 1970s. These rocks are the analog of the top Piacenzian-bottom Gelasian and span the mentioned time interval. The reanalysis was conducted with the use of the state-of-the-art paleomagnetic techniques and modern magnetostratigraphic timescale. We have studied a number of the characteristics which enabled us to distinguish the rocks whose remanence is most likely to have a depositional origin. Based on the paleomagnetic characteristics of these rocks, we reconstructed the structure of the paleomagnetic field for the studied interval (~270 ka) of the initial stage of the Gauss-Matuyama reversal and revealed the excursions at the final and initial stages of the Gauss and Matuyama chrons. This analysis has significantly updated the time constraints of the rock sedimentation in the studied section and supported the locations of the virtual geomagnetic pole during the reversal, obtained previously.

  14. Heterogeneity of fluvial-deltaic reservoirs in the Appalachian basin: A case study from a Lower Mississippian oil field in central West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Matchen, D.L.

    1997-06-01

    Since discovery in 1924, Granny Creek field in central West Virginia has experienced several periods of renewed drilling for oil in a fluvial-deltaic sandstone in the Lower Mississippian Price Formation. Depositional and diagenetic features leading to reservoir heterogeneity include highly variable grain size, thin shale and siltstone beds, and zones containing large quantities of calcite, siderite, or quartz cement. Electrofacies defined through cluster analysis of wireline log responses corresponded approximately to facies observed in core. Three-dimensional models of porosity computed from density logs showed that zones of relatively high porosity were discontinuous across the field. The regression of core permeability on core porosity is statistically significant, and differs for each electrofacies. Zones of high permeability estimated from porosity and electrofacies tend to be discontinuous and aligned roughly north-south. Cumulative oil production varies considerably between adjacent wells, and corresponds very poorly with trends in porosity and permeability. Original oil in place, estimated for each well from reservoir thickness, porosity, water saturation, and an assumed value for drainage radius, is highly variable in the southern part of the field, which is characterized by relatively complex interfingering of electrofacies and similar variability in porosity and permeability.

  15. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.; Mills, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200 square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared on the basis of water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels; and in September, when levels are high. The mapped area for this report contains nine producing wells fields which supplied 76.2 million gallons on September 21, 1977, to municipalities in the Tampa Bay area. The effect of localized withdrawal of groundwater from the Floridan aquifer is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric surface and water table. In September, water levels in observation wells in the Floridan aquifer were above those measured in May. These increases ranged from about 1 foot at the Eldridge-Wilde well field to about 25 feet at the Sun City well field. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Texas LPG fuel cell development and demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-07-26

    The State Energy Conservation Office has executed its first Fuel Cell Project which was awarded under a Department of Energy competitive grant process. The Texas LPG Fuel Processor Development and Fuel Cell Demonstration Program is a broad-based public/private partnership led by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO). Partners include the Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division (AFRED) of the Railroad Commission of Texas; Plug Power, Inc., Latham, NY, UOP/HyRadix, Des Plaines, IL; Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), San Antonio, TX; the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). The team proposes to mount a development and demonstration program to field-test and evaluate markets for HyRadix's LPG fuel processor system integrated into Plug Power's residential-scale GenSys(TM) 5C (5 kW) PEM fuel cell system in a variety of building types and conditions of service. The program's primary goal is to develop, test, and install a prototype propane-fueled residential fuel cell power system supplied by Plug Power and HyRadix in Texas. The propane industry is currently funding development of an optimized propane fuel processor by project partner UOP/HyRadix through its national checkoff program, the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC). Following integration and independent verification of performance by Southwest Research Institute, Plug Power and HyRadix will produce a production-ready prototype unit for use in a field demonstration. The demonstration unit produced during this task will be delivered and installed at the Texas Department of Transportation's TransGuide headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. Simultaneously, the team will undertake a market study aimed at identifying and quantifying early-entry customers, technical and regulatory requirements, and other challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed in planning commercialization of the units. For further

  17. Paint Rock and southwest Paint Rock fields, Concho County, Texas: Strawn analogs of modern island carbonate facies of Ambergris Cay, Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, A.M.; Mazzullo, S.J.

    1987-02-01

    Lower Strawn (Desmoinesian Goen Limestone) reservoirs at Paint Rock and Southwest Paint Rock fields are a complex of carbonate and associated facies interpreted as having been deposited in various environments on and around large, emergent islands on shallow carbonate shelves. The origin and geometries of the component lithofacies in these fields, and their reservoir diagenetic histories, are similar to those presently accumulating on Ambergris Cay, a linear island complex on the northern shelf of Belize. Paint Rock field originated as a narrow, elongate Chaetetes reef trend that formed the foundation on which the overlying island facies were deposited. As on Ambergris Cay, these reef limestones developed extensive porosity during postdepositional subaerial exposure due to meteoric leaching. In contrast, Southwest Paint Rock field is cored by older island deposits rather than reef limestones. With ensuing stillstand or subsequent sea level rise, beach grainstones were deposited along the windward and leeward margins of the foundation highs in these fields. Tight lagoonal micrites and coals (peat-swamp facies) comprise the inner island facies, and are locally associated with porous supratidal dolomites. These island complexes are transected locally by tidal channels that are filled with nonporous micrites. Repeated sea level fluctuations during the history of these fields resulted in a characteristic cyclic stratigraphy of stacked island facies and reservoirs. The reservoirs in the field are developed in the bedrock or older island cores, as well as in the overlying beach facies and supratidal dolomites. These fields are mappable as linear stratigraphic traps with low-relief closure, and are readily identified by subsurface geologic and facies analyses. Similar shelf island-type fields analogous to these strawn and Holocene Belizean examples are found throughout the Midland basin and Eastern shelf.

  18. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    PubMed

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators.

  19. Geology and ground-water resources of Duval County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, Albert Nelson

    1937-01-01

    Duval County is situated in southern Texas, 100 to 150 miles south of San Antonio and about midway between Corpus Christi, on the Gulf of Mexico, and Laredo, on the Rio Grande. The county lies on the Coastal Plain, which for the most part is low and relatively featureless. Between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande in this part of Texas the plain is interrupted by an erosion remnant, the Reynosa Plateau, which reaches a maximum altitude of nearly 1,000 feet above sea level and stands well above the areas to the east and west. The Reynosa Plateau includes most of Duval County and parts of Webb, Zapata, Starr, Jim Hogg, Jim Wells, McMullen, and Live Oak Counties. In Duval County the plateau is bounded on the west by the westward-facing Bordas escarpment, 75 to 150 feet high, which crosses the county with a southwesterly trend from about the middle of the north boundary to about the middle of the west boundary. On the east the plateau is bounded by a low seaward-facing escarpment, which passes through San Diego, trending a little west of south.

  20. Lawyers for Texas. A study of Legal Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    In response to requests from Texas institutions of higher education to establish additional legal education programs, the Coordinating Board, Texas College and University System in October 1972, appointed two groups to undertake a cooperative study to assist in determining whether or not additional opportunities for legal education were needed in…

  1. Solar Hot Water for Motor Inn--Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Final report describes solar domestic-hot-water heater installation at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas which furnished 63% of total hot-water load of new 98-unit inn. Report presents a description of system, drawings and photographs of collectors, operations and maintenance instructions, manufacturers' specifications for pumps, and an engineer's report on performance.

  2. Changing rainfall and humidity within Southeast Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Texas houses a precipitation transition zone between drier conditions to the North and West and some of the wettest parts of the continental U.S. to the East. The Region has seen an increase in its reported normal annual precipitation totals in recent decades. In order to determine if the additional rainfall has been influenced by warming temperatures or is within the variability of the State's long-term drought cycles, several analyses were performed on historical climate data. The analyses answered several questions: Have global and regional climate change models predicted precipitation increases in Southeast Texas and are future increases expected? Do historical monthly precipitation totals at various sites in the region provide clear trends of wetter conditions that can be discerned from long-term drought cycles? Are rainfall patterns changing with less frequent, heavier rain events? Do the reported increases in annual rainfall actually lead to wetter conditions in the region? Climate models have not predicted larger annual average precipitation totals nor do they forecast increases for Southeast Texas. While recent decades may have seen more rain relative to earlier periods, a combined analysis of observation stations across different parts of the Region shows that long-term trends are dependent on when the data is selected relative to a drought cycle. While some stations show larger amounts of rain falling during fewer days, these trends do not hold across all periods. An examination of hourly data does not show an increase in extreme rainfall events or a decrease in the number of hours during which rain has fallen. Even though rainfall has not decreased, average relative humidity has fallen. This suggests that the area is drying even with steady or increasing amounts of rain.

  3. Field data observed during the geological excursion in the west-central region of the Sul-Riogrande Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Ohara, T.

    1984-01-01

    Outcrops are studied in the Copper Project test area of the Rio Grande do Sul State of Brazil. The accuracy of LANDSAT-MSS data is checked against field data. A preliminary geological map is included on a scale of 1:500,000 that describes 820 outcrop over an area of 1,700 kilometers.

  4. Analyses and estimates of hydraulic conductivity from slug tests in alluvial aquifer underlying Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Natalie A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the collection, analyses, and distribution of hydraulic-conductivity data obtained from slug tests completed in the alluvial aquifer underlying Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, during October 2002 and August 2003 and summarizes previously available hydraulic-conductivity data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, completed 30 slug tests in October 2002 and August 2003 to obtain estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity to use as initial values in a ground-water-flow model for the site. The tests were done by placing a polyvinyl-chloride slug of known volume beneath the water level in selected wells, removing the slug, and measuring the resulting water-level recovery over time. The water levels were measured with a pressure transducer and recorded with a data logger. Hydraulic-conductivity values were estimated from an analytical relation between the instantaneous displacement of water in a well bore and the resulting rate of head change. Although nearly two-thirds of the tested wells recovered 90 percent of their slug-induced head change in less than 2 minutes, 90-percent recovery times ranged from 3 seconds to 35 minutes. The estimates of hydraulic conductivity range from 0.2 to 200 feet per day. Eighty-three percent of the estimates are between 1 and 100 feet per day.

  5. Logging system adds value to field rejuvenation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, D.; Bartenhagen, K.; Santolamazza, A.

    1997-11-01

    As with any rejuvenation scheme, the first step is always identification and evaluation of potential producible reserves. But economic and physical factors made evaluation using traditional logging techniques problematic. The constraints that inhibited earlier logging tools have been addressed by a new, compact integrated system called Platform Express (PEX). Oil companies operating in two of the most mature producing regions of the US, the Hugoton-Panhandle Field and the Southwest Nena Lucia Field in West Texas, discuss the physical and economic advantages they are reaping using PEX technologies. Hugoton-Panhandle Field, discovered around 1920, sprawls across parts of three south-central states and has been one of the world`s largest gas producers. Despite continuing pressure declines in this aging gas giant, the entire region has undergone restoration in the last few years. In its Kansas portions, a modest oil production has almost doubled since 1990 and a steep gas decline has been completely turned around. These production gains have come from an active program of recompletions, the deepening of old holes and new drilling. The story in the southwest Nena Lucia Field is much the same. Operator Oryx Energy has been active in the field, located west of Abilene, Texas, since its discovery in the 1950s. The goal with this field is to use advanced technologies to reverse the production declines that began years ago. Such a reversal began in mid-1996 and has been sustained thus far.

  6. Plate Tectonics at 3.8-3.7 Ga: Field Evidence from the Isua Accretionary Complex, Southern West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Komiya; Maruyama; Masuda; Nohda; Hayashi; Okamoto

    1999-09-01

    A 1&rcolon;5000 scale mapping was performed in the Isukasia area of the ca. 3.8-Ga Isua supracrustal belt, southern West Greenland. The mapped area is divided into three units bounded by low-angle thrusts: the Northern, Middle, and Southern Units. The Southern Unit, the best exposed, is composed of 14 subunits (horses) with similar lithostratigraphy, bound by layer-parallel thrusts. Duplex structures are widespread in the Isua belt and vary in scale from a few meters to kilometers. Duplexing proceeded from south to north and is well documented in the relationship between link- and roof-thrusts. The reconstructed lithostratigraphy of each horse reveals a simple pattern, in ascending order, of greenstone with low-K tholeiitic composition with or without pillow lava structures, chert/banded iron-formation, and turbidites. The cherts and underlying low-K tholeiites do not contain continent- or arc-derived material. The lithostratigraphy is quite similar to Phanerozoic "oceanic plate stratigraphy," except for the abundance of mafic material in the turbidites. The evidence of duplex structures and oceanic plate stratigraphy indicates that the Isua supracrustal belt is the oldest accretionary complex in the world. The dominantly mafic turbidite composition suggests that the accretionary complex was formed in an intraoceanic environment comparable to the present-day western Pacific Ocean. The duplex polarity suggests that an older accretionary complex should occur to the south of the Isua complex. Moreover, the presence of seawater (documented by a thick, pillow, lava unit at the bottom of oceanic plate stratigraphy) indicates that the surface temperature was less than ca. 100 degrees C in the Early Archean. The oceanic geotherm for the Early Archean lithosphere as a function of age was calculated based on a model of transient half-space cooling at given parameters of surface and mantle temperatures of 100 degrees and 1450 degrees C, respectively, suggesting that the

  7. Anthropometric characteristics and evaluation of nutritional status amongst female brick field workers of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sett, M; Sahu, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the body composition and hand grip strength as indirect measures of nutritional status of 162 female workers and the status of the serum oxidative stress enzymes of 35 female workers engaged in the manual brick making units of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India. Results show that the waist-hip ratio values (mean 0.79 vs. 0.83; p=0.0034) are significantly greater amongst the brick carriers than the moulders. The body density (mean 1067.0 vs. 1056.0kg/m(3); p<0.0001) is lower and the body fat % (mean 10.63% vs. 13.09%; p<0.0001) of the brick carriers is significantly higher. The hand grip strength (HGS) (horizontal) of the brick workers in right (mean 379.52 vs. 267.72N; p<0.0001) and left (mean 268.78 vs. 162.79N; p<0.0001) hands are significantly greater than the control group. The serum malondialdehyde level is significantly higher (mean 99.97 vs. 160.21nmol/mg of protein; p<0.0001) but the superoxide dismutase level (mean 6.71 vs. 3.34unit/mg of protein; p<0.0001), glutathione level (GSH) (mean 3.93 vs. 2.11μg/mg of protein; p<0.0001) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activity (mean 5.4 vs. 2.73nmole/min/mg of protein; p<0.0001) are significantly lower than that of the control group. The indirect nutritional assessments have shown that the women are poorly nourished. The hand grip strength is quite high in both groups of workers but consecutively decreases with the passage of time. Reduced levels of GSH and GST indicate that there is a higher level of reactive oxygen species inducing oxidative stress in the body. The probable causes of this state might be the intake of less nutritious food, polluted environment, excess ambient temperature and improper workstation.

  8. CalWater Field Studies Designed to Quantify the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D.; Spackman, J. R.; DeMott, P.; Dettinger, M.; Fairall, C.; Leung, R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S.; Waliser, D.; White, A. B.; Cordeira, J.; Martin, A.; Helly, J.; Intrieri, J.

    2016-07-01

    The variability of precipitation and water supply along the U.S. West Coast creates major challenges to the region’s economy and environment, as evidenced by the recent California drought. This variability is strongly influenced by atmospheric rivers (AR), which deliver much of the precipitation along the U.S. West Coast and can cause flooding, and by aerosols (from local sources and transported from remote continents and oceans) that modulate clouds and precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods, both now and under changing climate conditions.To address these gaps a group of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers have created an interdisciplinary research effort, with support from multiple agencies. From 2009-2011 a series of field campaigns (CalWater 1) collected atmospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements in California and associated modeling and diagnostic studies were carried out. Based on remaining gaps, a vision was developed to extend these studies offshore over the Eastern North Pacific and to enhance land based measurements from 2014-2018 (CalWater 2). The data set and selected results from CalWater 1 are summarized here. The goals of CalWater-2, and measurements to date, are then described. CalWater is producing new findings and exploring new technologies to evaluate and improve global climate models and their regional performance and to develop tools supporting water and hydropower management. These advances also have potential to enhance hazard mitigation by improving near-term weather prediction and subseasonal and seasonal outlooks.

  9. Joint development and tectonic stress field evolution in the southeastern Mesozoic Ordos Basin, west part of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lin; Qiu, Zhen; Wang, Qingchen; Guo, Yusen; Wu, Chaofan; Wu, Zhijie; Xue, Zhenhua

    2016-09-01

    Major joint sets trending E-W (J1), ENE-WSW (J2), NE-SW (J3), N-S (J4), NNW-SSE (J5), NNE-SSW (J6), NW-SE (J7), and WNW-ESE (J8) respectively are recognized in Mesozoic strata within the southeast of Ordos Basin. Among them, the J1, J2 and J3 joint sets are systematic joints, while the other five joint sets (J4, J5, J6, J7, J8) are nonsystematic joints. There are three groups of orthogonal joint systems (i.e. J1 and J4 sets, J2 and J5 sets, and J6 and J8 sets) and two groups of conjugate shear fractures (ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW) in the study area. Joint spacing analysis indicates that: (1) layer thickness has an effect on the joint spacing, but the correlation of joint spacing and layer thickness is low; (2) joint density of systematic joints is greater than nonsystematic joints, and the joint density of a thin layer is also greater than that of a thick layer; and (3) the joints of Mesozoic strata in the basin are the result of tectonic events affected by multiple stress fields. All these joints in the Mesozoic strata are formed in the two main tectonic events since Late Mesozoic times. One is the westward subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasia Plate, which formed the approximately E-W-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J1 joint set (E-W) and the bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (E-W). The other stress field is related to the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates, which formed the NE-SW-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J3 joint set and bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (NE-SW). Finally, we conclude that the J1 and J4 sets are formed in the E-W-trending compressive stress field, and the J2, J3, J5, J6, J7 and J8 sets are formed in the NE

  10. Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald E.; Gates, Joseph S.; Smith, James T.; Fry, Bonnie J.

    1980-01-01

    From October 1971 through October 1974. the U.S. Geological Survey collected ground-water data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. These data, which were collected in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources (formerly Texas Water Development Board), will provide information for a continuing assessment of water availability within the State.

  11. Guidelines for Fitness for Health Programs in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin.

    This publication presents approved guidelines for Texas institutions of higher and postsecondary education in the academic preparation of practitioners in the field of fitness for health. Developed in response to the rapid growth of this field, the guidelines identify and recommend the knowledge and expertise required in career preparation, and…

  12. Commercial Space Port Planning in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, L.; Looke, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Texas Legislature is providing funding to support research and planning activities aimed at creating a commercial spaceport in the state. These monies have been allocated to regional Spaceport Development Corporations that have been established in three countries containing candidate site locations: Willacy County (in South Texas); Brazoria County (East Texas); and Pecos County (West Texas). This program is being sponsored and coordinated by the Texas Aerospace Commission (TAC). The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) at the University of Houston is providing research, planning and design support to TAC and is a member of each of the three regional development teams. Planning must carefully consider special support requirements and operational characteristics of all prospective launch systems along with geographic, infrastructure and environmental factors at each site. Two of the candidate sites are in coastal areas; a priority for certain launch service providers; whereas the third inland site is more attractive to others. Candidate launch systems include winged horizontal takeoff air-launch vehicles, vertical multi-stage reusable launch vehicles, and expendable sub-orbital surrounding rockets. Important research and planning activities include environmental impact assessments, analyses of overflight hazards, investigations of economic impacts and business plan development. The results of these activities will guide master plan development for each site, including: a physical plan (site layout, infrastructure improvements and facility construction); and a strategic plan (user agreements, licenses, finance sources and participants). Commercial spaceport development demands compliance with stringent FAA regulations established by the Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST) which exceed minimum standards allowed for U.S. Government spaceport facilities. Key among these requirements are 15,000 ft. radius on-site clear zones

  13. Testing an Energy Balance Model for Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Data. [Hannover, West Germany barley and wheat fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, R. J.; Camillo, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An energy-balance model is used to estimate daily evapotranspiration for 3 days for a barley field and a wheat field near Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany. The model was calibrated using once-daily estimates of surface temperatures, which may be remotely sensed. The evaporation estimates were within the 95% error bounds of independent eddy correlation estimates for the daytime periods for all three days for both sites, but the energy-balance estimates are generally higher; it is unclear which estimate is biassed. Soil moisture in the top 2 cm of soil, which may be remotely sensed, may be used to improve these evaporation estimates under partial ground cover. Sensitivity studies indicate the amount of ground data required is not excessive.

  14. Field Efficacy of New Larvicide Products for Control of Multi-Resistant Aedes aegypti Populations in Martinique (French West Indies)

    PubMed Central

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Darriet, Frédéric; Agnew, Philip; Etienne, Manuel; Yp-Tcha, Marie-Michelle; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    World-wide dengue vector control is hampered by the spread of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. We report the resistance status of a wild Ae. aegypti population from Martinique (Vauclin) to conventional larvicides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis [Bti] and temephos) and potential alternatives (spinosad, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen). The efficacy and residual activity of these insecticides were evaluated under simulated and field conditions. The Vauclin strain exhibited a high level of resistance to temephos, a tolerance to insect growth regulators, and full susceptibility to spinosad and Bti. In simulated trials, pyriproxyfen and Bti showed long residual activities in permanent breeding containers (28 and 37 weeks), whereas under field conditions they failed to curtail Ae. aegypti populations after four weeks. Conversely, diflubenzuron and spinosad showed a residual efficacy of 16 weeks, suggesting that these chemicals may be promising alternatives to Bti and temephos for controlling insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations. PMID:21212213

  15. Field efficacy of new larvicide products for control of multi-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Martinique (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Darriet, Frédéric; Agnew, Philip; Etienne, Manuel; Yp-Tcha, Marie-Michelle; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    World-wide dengue vector control is hampered by the spread of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. We report the resistance status of a wild Ae. aegypti population from Martinique (Vauclin) to conventional larvicides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis [Bti] and temephos) and potential alternatives (spinosad, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen). The efficacy and residual activity of these insecticides were evaluated under simulated and field conditions. The Vauclin strain exhibited a high level of resistance to temephos, a tolerance to insect growth regulators, and full susceptibility to spinosad and Bti. In simulated trials, pyriproxyfen and Bti showed long residual activities in permanent breeding containers (28 and 37 weeks), whereas under field conditions they failed to curtail Ae. aegypti populations after four weeks. Conversely, diflubenzuron and spinosad showed a residual efficacy of 16 weeks, suggesting that these chemicals may be promising alternatives to Bti and temephos for controlling insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations.

  16. Huntsman and West Engelland Fields, Cheyenne County, Nebraska: A case history of technical lessons from a legal conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Tek, M.R.; Coleman, D.D.; Parker, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    During the years 1982-85, a lengthy litigation took place between KN Energy and Marathon Oil Corp. The case involved performance of two fields on structures adjacent to a common saddle and suspected migration of storage gas into the gas cap of a producing oil field. After some 3 years of extensive study, discovery proceedings and preparations, the case came to trial in U.S. District Court in Lincoln, Nebraska, 8 July 1985. After nearly a month in court, agreement was reached between the parties to settle the case on 6 August 1985. The purpose of this paper is not to redress and reargue the legal controversy. Rather, it is to share in the technical forum of gas technology, the lessons learned from the synergistic study leading to a forensic conclusion. The case history is unique and significant because it relates to extensive data from 2 fields and provides insight helpful to understanding major geological and operational factors affecting migration, exchange and mixing of mobile fluids underground.

  17. The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields: Pleistocene hot spot volcanism in the Anahim Volcanic Belt, west-central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Christian; Guest, Bernard; Russell, James K.; Benowitz, Jeff A.

    2015-03-01

    The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields (SMVF, BMVF) comprise more than three dozen small volcanic centers and erosional remnants thereof. These fields are located in the Chilcotin Highland of west-central British Columbia, Canada, and are spatially associated with the Anahim Volcanic Belt (AVB), a linear feature of alkaline to peralkaline plutonic and volcanic centers of Miocene to Holocene ages. The AVB has been postulated to be the track of a hot spot passing beneath the westward moving Cordilleran lithosphere. We test the AVB hot spot model by applying whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar geochronology ( n = 24) and geochemistry. Whole-rock chemical compositions of volcanic rock samples ( n = 59) from these two fields suggest a strong geochemical affinity with the nearby Itcha Range shield volcano; however, SMVF and BMVF centers are mostly small in volume (<1 km3) and differ in composition from one another, even where they are in close spatial proximity. Trace element and REE patterns of mafic AVB lavas are similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), suggesting a mantle source for these lavas. The age ranges for the SMVF ( n = 11; ~2.21 to ~1.43 Ma) and BMVF ( n = 7; ~3.91 to ~0.91 Ma) are largely coeval with the Itcha Range. The distribution of volcanoes in these two volcanic fields is potentially consistent with the postulated AVB hot spot track. Eruption rates in the SMVF were high enough to build an elongated ridge that deviates from the E-W trend of the AVB by almost 90°. This deviation might reflect the mechanisms and processes facilitating magma generation and ascent through the lithosphere in this tectonically complex region and may also indicate interaction of the potential hot spot with (pre)existing fracture systems in vicinity of the Itcha Range.

  18. Bioaccumulation and translocation of metals in the natural vegetation growing on fly ash lagoons: a field study from Santaldih thermal power plant, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Jaiswal, Shishir

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the fly ash lagoons of Santandih Thermal Power Plant located in West Bengal (India) to find out total, EDTA and DTPA extractable metals in fly ash and their bioaccumulation in root and shoot portion of the naturally growing vegetation. Fly ash sample has alkaline pH and low conductivity. The concentration of total Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni were found higher than weathered fly ash and natural soil, where as Co, Cd and Cr were found traces. Five dominant vegetation namely, Typha latifolia, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Amaranthus defluxes, Saccharum spontaenum and Cynodon dactylon were collected in the winter months (November-December). Bioaccumulation of metals in root and shoot portions were found varied significantly among the species, but all concentration were found within toxic limits. Correlation between total, DTPA and EDTA extractable metals viz. root and shoot metals concentration were studied. Translocation factor (TF) for Cu, Zn and Ni were found less than unity, indicates that these metals are immobilized in the root part of the plants. Metals like Mn have TF greater than unity. The study infers that natural vegetation removed Mn by phytoextraction mechanisms (TF > 1), while other metals like Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni were removed by rhizofiltration mechanisms (TF < 1). The field study revealed that T. latifolia and S. spontaenum plants could be used for bioremediation of fly ash lagoon.

  19. Texas Education Miracle No Mirage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.

    2000-01-01

    Defends the significant increases seen in Texas student achievement during the 1990s, addressing attacks on the validity of these improvements. Supports the governor's emphasis on accountability testing because of its positive results, concluding that the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills holds students and schools accountable and provides…

  20. Overview: Research Funding in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining more federal funds is the expressed research goal in "Closing the Gaps by 2015." It states: By 2015, increase the level of federal science and engineering research and development obligations to Texas institutions to 6.5 percent of obligations to higher education institutions across the nation. In 2006, Texas institutions of…

  1. Texas Coastal Cleanup Report, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Kathryn; And Others

    During the 1986 Coastweek, a national event dedicated to improvement of the marine environment, a large beach cleanup was organized on the Texas coast. The goals of the cleanup were to create public awareness of the problems caused by marine debris, and to collect data on the types and quantities of debris found on the Texas coastline. The…

  2. Alternative Teacher Certification in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This publication describes alternative teacher certification programs in Texas that train interns who are generally mature, mid-career individuals. The document is organized into seven sections: (1) "Alternative Certification in Texas" discusses the history and background of the programs including legislation, the first alternative…

  3. Effects of stratal architecture and diagenesis on reservoir development in the Grayburg formation: SSouth Cowden field, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, 1 October 1994--30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.; Bebout, D.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the results of geological characterization studies in a typical Grayburg reservior in the Permian Basin. The work applies geological models developed in outcrop studies to better constrain the geological reservoir framework and heterogeneity in a typical Grayburg reservoir, The South Cowden Grayburg reservoir. This framework provides a strong basis for defining petrophysical and flow unit properties in the reservior and serves as a prototype model for other Grayburg reservoir characterization studies. The Grayburg Formation in the South Cowden field of eastern Ector County displays an internal stratal architecture that typifies Grayburg shallow-water platform successions throughout the Permian Basin. Study of core and wireline logs in South Cowden field documents three orders of cyclicity in the Grayburg. The entire Grayburg constitutes a single long-duration accommodation cycle that commenced with a major sea-level rise. Two major diagenetic events strongly affect reservoir character in some parts of the field. Recrystallized dolomite is developed along vertical burrows in highly cyclic mud-dominated packstones and wackestones of the HFS 4 Grayburg highstand succussion. Later alteration and removal of anhydrite are focused in structurally low sections along the eastern and southern margins of the field.

  4. Community Development in Rural Texas: A Case Study of Balmorhea Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Sarah; Velazquez, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    In a West Texas community that is 70% Hispanic, school-based community services build solidarity and contribute to well-being. The school provides social services, a community clinic, and service learning opportunities for students. This model is successful because it is self-initiated and self-organized. (Contains 43 references.) (SK)

  5. Effect of subsurface drip irrigation system uniformity on cotton production in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planned reductions in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system uniformity in the semi-arid environment of West Texas could reduce installation costs. A SDI system was installed and cotton production experiment conducted from 2001 to 2006 to evaluate irrigation system water distribution uniformities h...

  6. Producing physicians for south Texas.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W A; Denk, J P; Ferry, P G; Martinez-Wedig, C; Michael, L H

    1999-01-01

    South Texas, one of the fastest growing regions in the country, remains among the most medically underserved, in part, because few students from South Texas enter medical school. To address this issue and to increase the diversity of the matriculant pool, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) and The University of Texas-Pan American (UT-PA) established in 1994 the Premedical Honors College (PHC), a rigorous undergraduate program at UT-PA for students from South Texas high schools. Students who complete all PHC requirements and BCM prerequisites are accepted into BCM upon graduation from UT-PA. Those in good standing receive counseling, enrichment experiences, and tuition and fee waivers from UT-PA and BCM. The program is increasing the number of students from South Texas universities matriculating into medical school, and is expanding the involvement of local physicians in undergraduate education, heightening visibility for partner institutions, and becoming an effective, replicable bachelor of science/doctor of medicine model.

  7. Assessment of Wind/Solar Co-located Generation in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, Steven M

    2009-07-20

    This paper evaluates the opportunity to load co-located wind and solar generation capacity onto a constrained transmission system while engendering only minimal losses. It quantifies the economic and energy opportunities and costs associated with pursuing this strategy in two Texas locations one in west Texas and the other in south Texas. The study builds upon previous work published by the American Solar Energy Society (ASES) which illuminated the potential benefits of negative correlation of wind and solar generation in some locations by quantifying the economic and energy losses which would arise from deployment of solar generation in areas with existing wind generation and constrained transmission capacity. Clean Energy Associates (CEA) obtained and incorporated wind and solar resource data and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT)) load and price data into a model which evaluates varying levels of solar thermal, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind capacity against an assumed transmission capacity limit at each of the two locations.

  8. Understanding the Lived Experiences of Novice Teachers in an Urban Texas School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepisto-Wood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    In an urban Texas Independent School District (TXISD), novice teachers leave the field of education for different careers within the first 3 years of employment at a rate that is nearly twice the Texas average and near the top of the national novice teacher attrition rate range. This study examined the lived experiences of 23 TXISD novice teachers…

  9. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  10. The Texas We Create: State of Texas Children 2012--Texas KIDS COUNT Annual Data Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deviney, Frances; Hattemer, Kori

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 data book explores how our kids have fared during the last decade--some outcomes are positive, some negative. But positive or negative outcomes for kids don't just happen. They are the inevitable results of effective or failed policy choices. The State of Texas Children 2012 combines data and policy to tell the story of Texas kids. It's…

  11. Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program: A Collaboration between the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, South Texas College, and Texas A&M University-Commerce. CBE Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Glancey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This case study is part of a series on newer competency-based degree programs that have been emerging in recent years. In January 2014, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), South Texas College (STC), and Texas A&M University-Commerce (A&M Commerce) launched the Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program, the state's first…

  12. Population Change and the Future of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, F. Ray; Bouvier, Leon F.

    The future is filled with demographic change for the State of Texas. As the population becomes more ethnically diverse, the Texas demographic, economic, and sociocultural profiles also will change. This volume presents a wide range of demographic information on the State of Texas. The 10 chapters look at: (1) the population of Texas: past,…

  13. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1964 MIGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF MEXICAN EXTRACTION. MOST OF THE OTHER FIVE PERCENT ARE EAST TEXAS NEGROES. THE MECHANIZATION OF COTTON HARVESTING AND THE EXPIRATION OF THE "BRACERO PROGRAM" IN 1964 HAVE CAUSED MORE TEXAS MIGRANTS TO SEEK EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE OF THE STATE. DURING 1964,…

  14. Charter Schools in Texas: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Francisco; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we analyzed the literature regarding charter schools in the State of Texas. We specifically examined the evolution of the charter school movement in Texas. Moreover, data regarding the effectiveness/ineffectiveness of charter schools in Texas were discussed. Our overview of Texas charter schools, given their widespread presence in…

  15. 78 FR 11579 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... and updating of data into the Applicant Violator System. Additionally, Texas is adding new language... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 943 Texas Regulatory Program AGENCY... the Texas regulatory program (Texas program) under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act...

  16. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  17. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, April 1--June 31, 1996. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robertson, W.

    1996-10-17

    The principal objective of this research is to demonstrate in the field that 3D seismic data can be used to aid in identifying porosity zones, permeability barriers and thief zones and thereby improve waterflood design. Geologic and engineering data will be integrated with the geophysical data to result in a detailed reservoir characterization. Reservoir simulation will then be used to determine infill drilling potential and the optimum waterflood design for the project area. This design will be implemented and the success of the waterflood evaluated.

  18. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, April 1--June 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robertson, W.

    1996-10-17

    The principal objective of this research is to demonstrate in the field that 3D seismic data can be used to aid in identifying porosity zones, permeability barriers and thief zones and thereby improve waterflood design. Geologic and engineering data will be integrated with the geophysical data to result in a detailed reservoir characterization. Reservoir simulation will then be used to determine infill drilling potential and the optimum waterflood design for the project area. This design will be implemented and the success of the waterflood evaluated.

  19. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, J.J.; Rowland, D.A.; Trentham, R.C.

    1995-10-01

    The principal objective of this research is to demonstrate in the field that 3D seismic data can be used to aid in identifying porosity zones, permeability barriers and thief zones and thereby improve waterflood design. Geologic and engineering data will be integrated with the geophysical data to result in a detailed reservoir characterization. Reservoir simulation will then be used to determine infill drilling potential and the optimum waterflood design for the project area. This design will be implemented and the success of the waterflood evaluated.

  20. Demonstration-site development and phytoremediation processes associated with trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale phytoremediation demonstration study was initiated in 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, at a site on Naval Air StationJoint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) adjacent to Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) in Fort Worth, Tex. (fig. 1). Trichloroethene (TCE) has been used at AFP4 in aircraft manufacturing processes for decades; spills and leaks from tanks in the manufacturing building have resulted in shallow ground-water contamination on-site and downgradient from the facility (Eberts and others, 2003). The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of eastern cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in decreasing the mass of dissolved TCE in ground water through phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a process by which plants decrease the mass of a contaminant through a variety of chemical, physical, and biological means. Before development of the phytoremediation demonstration site, natural attenuation of TCE at the site occurred by sorption, dispersion, dilution, and possibly volatilization (Eberts and others, 2003).Long-term, field-scale monitoring and evaluation of this site contribute to the understanding of the processes associated with phytoremediation and provide practical information about field-scale applications of the method. This fact sheet briefly summarizes the development of the phytoremediation demonstration site at NAS–JRB and describes some of the physical and chemical processes associated with phytoremediation. The phytoremediation demonstration site is on the southern edge of the central lobe of a TCE plume in the surficial (alluvial) aquifer. The plume originates at AFP4 about 0.9 mile upgradient from the site (fig. 1). The 9.5-acre site is in the northwestern corner of the golf course on NAS–JRB. The saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer, which is composed of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, ranges from about 1.5 to 5 feet at the site. The total thickness of the alluvial